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Sample records for national family planning

  1. Navajo Nation expands family planning services.

    PubMed

    Haws, J; Crawford, G

    1996-01-01

    An AVSC training program, conducted in cooperation with the Navajo Nation Family Planning Corporation (NNFPC), has the potential to profoundly affect sterilization provision and acceptability on the Navajo Nation reservation. AVSC trained a family physician from the Northern Navajo Medical Center (New Mexico) in the no-scalpel vasectomy technique. This physician expects to provide 30 such sterilizations in the one-year period following the training and is preparing to teach reservation physicians from other health centers to perform the procedure. In addition, a joint AVSC-NNFPC course on sterilization counseling was presented to 30 nursing staff from the New Mexico Center. Central to this training was consideration of the obstacles to sterilization acceptance posed by Navajo cultural beliefs. Sensitivity to some women's desire to keep the procedure private, due to concerns their husbands will abandon them if they can no longer bear children, and to the potential need to include mothers and grandmothers in counseling sessions, is required. Also salient for female counselors and nurses are cultural taboos against a woman discussing sexual matters with a man with whom she is not intimate. In late 1996, AVSC will provide a sterilization counseling update for all NNFPC counselors working at centers throughout the four-state reservation. PMID:12347635

  2. Dr. Haryono Suyono, National Family Planning Coordinating Board, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    1986-11-01

    The goal of the Indonesian family planning program has been to institutionalize both the concept and the norm of a small, happy and prosperous family in a manner that is acceptable to all. To this end, a larger role for the private sector in family planning (FP) has been promoted. While the government program has been very effective in the villages, it was not as effective in the urban areas where there are more diverse populations. Several meetings were held to develop a strategy for FP programs in the urban areas involving both the nongovernment organizations (NGOs) and commercial enterprises. It was agreed that several model programs would be developed through the NGOs with funds coming from both international health organizations and the National Family Planning Coordinating Board. It was hoped that the NGOs would develop into self-sufficient organizations. 1 urban activity that has just started is a specially designed social marketing project aimed at increasing the involvement and commitment of males through a condom distribution scheme. Another promising development is the shifting of the management and implementation of FP programs from the government to the community itself. A primary emphasis is to activate the private sector to expand its role in providing FP information and services. The overall strategy is to create a climate that will make it easier for people to increase their role in family planning service delivery and acceptance through mobilization of resources, funds, facilities and infrastructure so that acceptors will gradually pay for family planning services by themselves according to their needs. PMID:12314467

  3. Family planning in developing nations: a global concern, our concern.

    PubMed

    Harriman, L

    1984-01-01

    Rapid population growth is a serious problem in many developing countries and family planning policies developed in response to the problem raise many ethical issues; home economists can help the citizens in their respective countries increase their knowledge of population dynamics and help them assess the ethical implications of population and family planning policies. Most developing countries have high population growth rates. The annual population growth rates for 1975-79 were 2.8% for Africa, 2.6% for Latin America, and 2.1% for Asia. Population grows exponentially: a population growing at an annual rate of 3% increases. 1900% in a century. If current population trends continue the world's population will stablize toward the end of the 21st century at about 10 billion persons, compared to the world's present population of 4.3 billion. Rapid population growth not only threatens the future welfare of society as a whole, but currently impedes the economic development of the world's poorest nations. Consequently, the governments in many developing countries have adopted vigorous family planning programs. It is difficult to reduce population growth in developing countries because these countries have a high proportion of young people in their populations, i.e., a high number of persons of reproductive age. Barriers to family planning acceptance include 1) high illiteracy rates 2) high infant mortality rates 3) the high economic and socialvalue placed on children in developing countries and 4)religious beliefs. Methods used by governments to alter population growth include 1) manipulating access to contraceptives, 2)developing programs to alter social determinants of fertility, 3) using propaganda to encourage or discourage birth control and repressing information contrary to the government's policies, 4) offering incentives to those who further government policies and imposing disincentives on those who do not comply with government policies, and 5) exerting

  4. [The National Conference of Propaganda Work on Family Planning held Beijing].

    PubMed

    Ma, B

    1983-01-29

    The National Conference on Propaganda Work in Family Planning, held in Beijing from November 1-6, 1982, was sponsored by the the Propaganda Department of the Chinese Communist Party Central Committee and the National Family Planning Committee. Among the 136 participants were representatives from various provincial, city, and autonomous region propaganda and family planning units, the General Political Department of the People's Liberation Army, general trade unions, All China Women's Federation, Communist Youth League, and propaganda reporters. The purpose of the conference was to discuss how to organize family planning propaganda in meeting China's goal of limiting the population to 1,200,000,000 by 2000, and how to arrange a Family Planning Propaganda Month for early 1983. The Chairman of the National Family Planning Committee made 3 points: family planning is a basic national policy, greater propaganda efforts must be made towards peasant family planning, and everyone must work hard to create a new situation in family planning work. The Vice Minister of the Propaganda Department remarked that family planning propaganda was foremost among the 12 national propaganda topics; these sentiments were supported totally by the representatives of the women and youth groups. The Vice Chairman of the Advisory Committee of the Central Committee said that family planning work was longterm, and that its success lay in the countryside. Finally, the Vice Chairman of the National Family Planning Committee encouraged all delegates to take the spirit of the conference back to their home. During the conference delegates also met to discuss important points in planning the Family Planning Propaganda Month. PMID:12312938

  5. Profile: the National Documentation Centre for Family Planning of India's National Institute of Health and Family Welfare.

    PubMed

    1991-12-01

    In 1974, the National Documentation Centre for Family Planning was founded at India's National Institute of Health and Family Welfare with funds from the government and the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) to provide reliable population information to policy makers, planners, administrators for program development as well as to academics, researchers, students, and social workers engaged in population issues. Data collected from states and districts by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare are disseminated through publications. The Centre receives documents from other Indian research entities and from foreign bodies. The existing collection consists of 40,000 books and monographs, 10,000 periodicals and journals, 450 current journals, 2000 institutional publications, 1000 annual reports, and 5000 fugitive material items. A data base containing this collected material has the purpose of generating various publications, and full copies of originals are provided at request. WHO designated the Centre a resource center for primary health care information. It is a linchpin of the Asia-Pacific POPIN network. Requests are frequent for information on family welfare program management. Dissemination includes information packages, annotated bibliographies, synthesized information, case studies, and field experience reports. The staff includes subject specialists, communication experts, and software and management specialists. 54 health and family welfare training centers have been involved in information activities since 1985. Exchange of information with population research centers has started by means of computer networking. Local area networks are developed with science libraries of major cities. DELNET (Delhi Library Network) launched a resource-sharing effort of health and family planning libraries. The creation of a National Population Information Database is also planned by the establishment of POPIN-India. PMID:12286547

  6. National Needs of Family Planning Among US Men Aged 15 to 44 Years

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Susannah E.; Choiriyyah, Ifta; Sonenstein, Freya L.; Astone, Nan M.; Pleck, Joseph H.; Dariotis, Jacinda K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To estimate national need for family planning services among men in the United States according to background characteristics, access to care, receipt of services, and contraception use. Methods. We used weighted data from the 2006–2010 National Survey of Family Growth to estimate the percentage of men aged 15 to 44 years (n = 10 395) in need of family planning, based on sexual behavior, fecundity, and not trying to get pregnant with his partner. Results. Overall, 60% of men were in need of family planning, defined as those who ever had vaginal sex, were fecund, and had fecund partner(s) who were not trying to get pregnant with partner or partner(s) were not currently pregnant. The greatest need was among young and unmarried men. Most men in need of family planning had access to care, but few reported receiving family planning services (< 19%), consistently using condoms (26%), or having partners consistently using contraception (41%). Conclusions. The need for engaging men aged 15 to 44 years in family planning education and care is substantial and largely unmet despite national public health priorities to include men in reducing unintended pregnancies. PMID:26890180

  7. [To raise the family planning work to a new level--a comprehensive introduction to the National Family Planning Working Conference].

    PubMed

    Peng, Z L

    1982-11-29

    The National Family Planning Working Conference convened on August 10-16, 1982 in Beijing, China. Among the 250 conferees were family planning representatives from various provinces, cities, autonomous regions, the People's Liberation Armt, representatives of partial progressive areas, counties, communes, the Central Committee, State Council, All China Women's Federation, All China Federation of Trade Unions, journalists and population theorists. Topics of discussion included the current situation of family planning work, how to implement the Central Committee's directive on improving family planning work, and the relationship between population law and population development by the year 2000. On August 18 Premier Zhao Ziyang told various representatives at a meeting that population control was a longterm national policy and emphasized its importance in long-range economic and social planning. The Vice-premier of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, Wang Shoudao, implored the representatives to understand the directive's contents and said family planning would serve later generations. The Chairman of the National Family Planning Commission, Quian Xinzhong, reviewed the current population situation, noting the encouraging fact that the birth rate for the first 6 months of 1982 was higher than the first 6 months in 1981 by only 1/1000. In order to raise birth control work to a new level, he suggested the following steps: strengthen family planning propaganda; strenuously follow the policy of 1 child per family; obtain permission to have a 2nd child; oppose unplanned births; establish various birth control responsibility systems; and improve contraceptive research and techniques. PMID:12159365

  8. Measurement and evaluation of national family planning programs.

    PubMed

    Mauldin, W P

    1967-03-01

    ) segura de traducir las estadísticas de servicio en práticas y tal vez aún datos sobre suministro comercial en datos sabre tasas de natalidad. Esto incluye, par ejemplo, los esfuerzos para consolidar observaciones coma "cinco años-mujer de usa de IUD, a 400 condones equivalen a la prevención de un nacimiento," y esfuerzos como los de Pakistán de calcular tasas coma "años de protección de una pareja contra el embarazo."In the belief that a decrease in the rate of population growth will increase economic development, more than ten countries have inaugurated family planning programs in the past fifteen years. To provide a model for measuring the immediate, intermediate, and long-term effects of any such program, the authors use the Taiwan evaluation.The model suggests that a good system of evaluation should include monthly statistics on (1) participants, who are grouped by characteristics; (2) the distribution of supplies, reported at first by the characteristics of recipients, but after by gross volume only; (3) family planning activities of private physicians to measure the catalytic effect on the private sector; (4) new contacts and amount of advertising in mass media; (5) costs broken down by areas and by cost categories; and (6) distribution of commercial supplies. In addition, the program should conduct 300-400 interviews every 6-12 months to learn the rates of continuation and the rates and reasons for discontinuation. Finally, a KAP survey should be conducted every two years.The administration of the evaluation should be close to the director for policy decisions and for the ultimate work of evaluation-the finding of new ways to measure the main goal of change in fertility by the translation of statistics on Services provided and commercial supplies into birth rate data. PMID:21279762

  9. Aiming for quality in Iran's national family planning program - two decades of sustained efforts.

    PubMed

    Eslami, Mohammad; d'Arcangues, Catherine

    2016-03-01

    The Iranian family planning program was relaunched in 1989 to improve maternal and child health. As coverage was extended throughout the country, it had the challenge to achieve harmonization and improve and maintain quality of care. Five strategies were put in place: (1) expand the method mix, (2) standardize provider training through the adoption of national norms and guidelines, (3) facilitate and harmonize service provision, (4) improve integration of family planning in family health services and (5) address myths and misconceptions surrounding contraception in the general population. This was supported by regular monitoring and evaluation. To date, this program is regarded as one of the most successful programs worldwide. While the direct impact of these quality improvements is difficult to evaluate, it is believed to have built the trust that family planning clients place in the program. Challenges remain, particularly facing a total fertility rate below replacement level nationally and providing quality services to an ever-growing peri-urban population. PMID:26593406

  10. Use of Services for Family Planning and Infertility, United States, 1982. (Data from the National Survey of Family Growth, Series 23, No. 13).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Marjorie C.; Mosher, William D.

    1986-01-01

    The National Survey of Family Growth is a periodic survey conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics, and designed to produce national estimates of statistics on fertility, family planning, and aspects of maternal and child health that are closely related to childbearing. This report presents statistics based on data collected in the…

  11. Family planning in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Kanagaratnam, K

    1968-01-01

    Since the initial voluntary efforts of the Singapore Family Planning Association in 1949, family planning in Singapore has made important progress. This effort extended over the years until the end of 1965 when the government accepted full responsibility for family planning on a national scale. In September 1965, the government announced a 5-year National Family Planning Program with the goal of reducing the birthrate from 32/1000 in 1964 to below 20/1000 by 1970. This would result in a growth rate of not more than 1.5%. The government program aims at reaching 60% of married women in the reproductive age range of 15-45. It is estimated that out of 450,000 in this age range, some 300,000 are married. The target is 180,000 in 5 years. The Singapore Family Planning & Population Board was established by an Act of Parliament and charged with responsibility for the implementation of the 5-year plan. The national program offers a menu card of all family planning methods except abortion. Initial focus was on the IUD as the method of choice for 80%. Oral contraception (OC) was the preferred alternative for the remaining 20%. Other conventonal methods also were available. A few months after the plan began in 1966, the IUD became unacceptable to Singapore women. Its side effects of bleeding, cramps, perforation, and pregnancy were exaggerated by rumors. By the middle of 1966, attendance and acceptors in the national program had declined. Emphasis in the national program was changed to OCs, which now are the mainstay of family planning. Currently, nearly 65% of the acceptors use OCs. The program also demonstrates the importance, especially in urban areas, of the tremendous impact of a postpartum family planning service. Over 70% of the births in Singapore take place at the Kandang Kerbau Maternity Hospitals. Government midwives deliver another 5%. All these women are contacted by a team of family planning workers in the postpartum period and are offered family planning. Nearly

  12. National health insurance proposals: their effect on family planning and other preventive health services.

    PubMed

    Fisher, D

    1974-01-01

    The Nixon Administration Comprehensive Health Insurance Act of 1974 (H.R.12684, S.2970), Kennedy-Griffiths Health Security Act of 1973, (H.R.22, S.3), the Long-Ribicoff-Waggonner Catastrophic Health Insurance and Medical Reform Act (H.R. 14079, S.2513) and the Mills-Kennedy Comprehensive National Health Insurance Act of 1974 (H.R. 13870, 3286) are compared with respect to general concept, coverage of population, benefit structure, financing, cost sharing, administration, provider standards and the effect on existing programs. Family planning services and well-child care are not included in the group of services which are regarded as essential under the Mills-Kennedy or administration proposals. Both bills exempt these services from a general provision which limits coverage to curative care and services. The Long-Ribicoff bill mandates the provision of family planning counseling, services and supplies for the low income population as defined in the bill but limits coverage to other persons to catastrophe-related care. The "model policy" of the bill does not mention family planning or well-child services. PMID:4618208

  13. Effective family planning programs.

    PubMed

    Rosenfield, A G

    1973-01-01

    Organizational and content features of various national family planning programs are reviewed. The Thai program is cited as an example of a family planning program organized on a massive unipurpose compaign basis. The Korean and Taiwan programs have utilized special field workers while upgrading the general health care network. 3 major problems with family planning programs are: 1) the lack of experience with such programs; 2) lack of commitment at the highest political levels; and 3) medical conservatism. Utilization of all available contraceptive methods instead of reliance on 1 method would improve most programs. Nursing and auxiliary personnel could be trained to take over the work of physicians in family planning programs. This is already being done with IUD insertion and pill prescription in several programs. The postpartum tubal ligation approach has proven effective and should be extended. There is a place in all national programs for both the private and the commercial sectors. Incentives for clinics, personnel, and acceptors might spread family planning more rapidly. PMID:12309877

  14. Family planning in China.

    PubMed

    Wadia, A B

    1976-10-01

    The family planning program in China is integrated into the general political situation and the overall development program. The organization covers workers, peasants, and soldiers. The program is based on the following 3 aspects of Chinese society: 1) the equality of women, 3) late marriage, and 3) free and accessible contraceptive services. No incentives are offered since family planning is considered a national duty. Participation is said to be voluntary but peer opinion exerts its own social pressure. All contraceptive devices used in China are domestically produced. Barefoot doctors have a large role in their distribution. Examples from several localities indicate that the acceptance rate for contraception is high. An official with the Health Ministry is quoted regarding the family planning program. PMID:12277575

  15. [Family planning in China].

    PubMed

    Suyin, H

    1972-01-01

    Family planning in People's Republic of China between 1956 to 1970 has been marked by rapid change and total interrelation with the political and social developments. Since 1949, the Communist government has taken several measures to protect the mother and child. The campaign for family planning was started in 1956 by public meetings, posters, lectures with films, and an extensive distribution of contraceptive means. However, in 1965 there were still 2 trends among women: 1, based on tradition, supported the idea that a large number of children was a source of honor, prosperity and security; the other taking hold among younger women was in favor of family planning. The rural population was the latest to start practicing family planning. In 1963 a movement of socialist education was launched together with the formation of mobile medical teams to inform and educate people all over the country and to make known the various forms available for family planning. The contraceptive methods used included: male and female sterilisation (vasectomy for men and tube ligation for women), IUD, and condom; abortion, legal for women who already had children or if it was necessary for the mother's health; and oral contraceptives, which were produced in China. Medical services were reorganized and teams of "bare-foot doctors" were sent all over China. They lectured on health measures and fertility regulation. Intellectuals were sent to live in villages and exchange their knowledge with that of the peasants and workers. The tendency has been to limit the number of children to 2 or 3. The young people are recommended to postpone their marriage, women till they are 25, men till later. Nationally produced contraceptive means are being experimented with such as herbs, or a new intrauterine plastic device called "flower". The regions with national minorities like Tibet, the Inner Mongolia and Sinkiang had been under underpopulated and therefore population growth has been encouraged mainly

  16. Family Health and Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This document is made up of a selection of some of the papers distributed to participants in courses on "Family Health and Family Planning" which have been organized each year since 1973 by the International Children's Center and the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. Six courses, held between 1973 and 1978, brought together a…

  17. National program for family planning and primary health care Pakistan: a SWOT analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The National Program for Family Planning and Primary Healthcare was launched in 1994. It is one of the largest community based programs in the world, providing primary healthcare services to about 80 million people, most of which is rural poor. The program has been instrumental in improving health related indicators of maternal and child health in the last two decades. Methods SWOT analysis was used by making recourse to the structure and dynamics of the program as well as searching the literature. SWOT analysis Strengths of the program include: comprehensive design of planning, implementation and supervision mechanisms aided by an MIS, selection and recruitments processes and evidence created through improving health impact indicators. Weaknesses identified are slow progress, poor integration of the program with health services at local levels including MIS, and de-motivational factors such as job insecurity and non-payment of salaries in time. Opportunities include further widening the coverage of services, its potential contribution to health system research, and its use in areas other than health like women empowerment and poverty alleviation. Threats the program may face are: political interference, lack of funds, social threats and implications for professional malpractices. Conclusion Strengthening of the program will necessitate a strong political commitment, sustained funding and a just remuneration to this bare foot doctor of Pakistan, the Lady Health Worker. PMID:24268037

  18. The Progress of Nations: The Nations of the World Ranked Acording to Their Achievements in Health, Nutrition, Education, Family Planning, and Progress for Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Peter, Ed.

    This report documents the progress made in developing and developed nations to improve health, nutrition, education, family planning, and the condition of women over the last 40 years. It presents tables that rank the world's nations and regions on: (1) the mortality rate of children under 5 years of age; (2) the percent of children under 5 years…

  19. [Paper on sterilization in the family planning programs of Colombia: a national debate].

    PubMed

    Rizo, A; Roper, L

    1986-01-01

    During 1984, family planning became the object of heated public debate in Colombia. In particular, considerable controversy surrounded the practice of sterilization. In Colombia in 1980, 49% of married women were practicing family planning. The main protagonist has been Profamilia, an IPPF affliate, which runs clinics and advisory services throughout Colombia. Sterilization is performed quite extensively on men of at least 28 years and women of 25 with 3 living children. Further activities of Profamilia include community distribution and social marketing programs. Many of the health facilities used are those of the Ministry of Public Health. The Minister of Health responded to criticism levelled by the Catholic church and others by instituting an investigation into alleged practices of mass sterilization. Profamilia declared publicy that sterilization was performed only under certain conditions, after waiting periods, and under no circumstances with coersion. Various groups including medical associations publicy supported Profamilia. Although recognizing the need for families to be limited in size, religious and other commentators suggested that sterilization was often presented as a solution to family ills, and that it represented foreign involvement in Colombian social policy. The opposing opinions were that church-supported natural family planning was not an effective enough strategy. The ministry has resolved to invoke more stringent screening of women desiring sterilization to include natural family planning in its programs, and to deal with international organizations only on the ministry level. The number of sterilizations has diminished. The controversy helped to expose political weaknesses of Profamilia's programs (e.g. the use of monetary incentives; lack of supervision). PMID:12267932

  20. India's misconceived family plan.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, J L

    1991-01-01

    India's goal of reducing the national birth rate by 50% by the year 2000 is destined to failure in the absence of attention to poverty, social inequality, and women's subordination--the factors that serve to perpetuate high fertility. There is a need to shift the emphasis of the population control effort from the obligation of individual women to curtail childbearing to the provision of the resources required for poor women to meet their basic needs. Female children are less likely to be educated or taken for medical care than their male counterparts and receive a lower proportion of the family's food supply. This discrimination stems, in large part, from parents' view that daughters will not be able to remunerate their families in later life for such investments. The myth of female nonproductivity that leads to the biased allocation of family resources overlooks the contribution of adult women's unpaid domestic labor and household production. Although government statistics state that women comprise 46% of India's agricultural labor force (and up to 90% of rural women participate in this sector on some basis), women have been excluded systematically from agricultural development schemes such as irrigation projects, credit, and mechanization. In the field of family planning, the Government's virtually exclusive focus on sterilization has excluded younger women who are not ready to terminate childbearing but would like methods such as condoms, diaphragms, IUDs, and oral contraceptives to space births. More general maternal-child health services are out of reach of the majority of poor rural women due to long distances that must be travelled to clinics India's birth rate could be reduced by 25% by 2000 just by filling the demand for quality voluntary family planning services. Without a sustained political commitment to improve the status of women in India, however, such gains will not be sustainable. PMID:12284385

  1. The Progress of Nations, 1996: The Nations of the World Ranked According to Their Achievements in Child Health, Nutrition, Education, Family Planning, and Progress for Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Peter, Ed.

    This report brings together the latest available statistics to record national achievements in child survival, health, nutrition, education, family planning, and progress for women. Each section contains a commentary and a presentation of related statistics. Following an introduction by UNICEF executive director Carol Bellamy, the commentaries…

  2. The Progress of Nations: The Nations of the World Ranked According to Their Achievements in Child Health, Nutrition, Education, Family Planning, and Progress for Women, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Peter, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This report brings together the latest available statistics to record national achievements in child survival, health, nutrition, education, family planning, and progress for women. Each section contains a commentary and a presentation of related statistics. The commentaries of the report are: (1) Introduction, "One Small Step for a Summit" (Peter…

  3. Estimating family planning coverage from contraceptive prevalence using national household surveys

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Aluisio J. D.; Boerma, Ties; Hosseinpoor, Ahmad R.; Restrepo-Méndez, María C.; Wong, Kerry L. M.; Victora, Cesar G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Contraception is one of the most important health interventions currently available and yet, many women and couples still do not have reliable access to modern contraceptives. The best indicator for monitoring family planning is the proportion of women using contraception among those who need it. This indicator is frequently called demand for family planning satisfied and we argue that it should be called family planning coverage (FPC). This indicator is complex to calculate and requires a considerable number of questions to be included in a household survey. Objectives We propose a model that can predict FPC from a much simpler indicator – contraceptive use prevalence – for situations where it cannot be derived directly. Design Using 197 Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and Demographic and Health Surveys from 82 countries, we explored least-squares regression models that could be used to predict FPC. Non-linearity was expected in this situation and we used a fractional polynomial approach to find the best fitting model. We also explored the effect of calendar time and of wealth on the models explored. Results Given the high correlation between the variables involved in FPC, we managed to derive a relatively simple model that depends only on contraceptive use prevalence but explains 95% of the variability of the outcome, with high precision for the estimated regression line. We also show that the relationship between the two variables has not changed with time. A concordance analysis showed agreement between observed and fitted results within a range of ±9 percentage points. Conclusions We show that it is possible to obtain fairly good estimates of FPC using only contraceptive prevalence as a predictor, a strategy that is useful in situations where it is not possible to estimate FPC directly. PMID:26562141

  4. [Birth control and family planning].

    PubMed

    1977-01-01

    Several studies on demography define birth control as the intervention of the State into the private life of the couple with the purpose to influence attitudes toward family planning, and to obtain, as a final goal, a decrease in national fertility rate. In fact this intervention means protection of the family to promote its welfare, the formation and education of children, the betterment of living conditions, and to foster more job opportunities, and economic development. PMID:12309625

  5. Field Experiments of Family Planning Incentives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Everett M.

    A review of four quasi-experiments on family planning incentives in three Asian nations is presented, and a multi-national comparative field experiment on family planning incentives is proposed. Experiments include: (1) The Ernakulam vasectomy campaigns, (2) Indian Tea Estates retirement bond incentive program, (3) Taiwan educational bond…

  6. AIDS and family planning.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    In 1991, an HIV prevention program advisor and a research/evaluation specialist for family planning programs discussed problems that affected HIV prevention and family planning services in Haiti before and after the coup of the Aristide government. Population activities began aimlessly in 1974 and HIV prevention efforts only began in 1988. After the coup, Haitians lost their newly found hope for meaningful development. All foreign assistance ended and they did not trust the army. In fact, other than essential child survival activities, no health and family planning services operated for several weeks. The situation grew worse after the economic embargo. 3 months after the coup, the US considered adding family planning assistance. Still little movement of condom, family planning, and health supplies left Port-au-Prince for the provinces which adversely affected all health related efforts. Condoms could no longer be distributed easily either in the socially marketed or US supplied condom distribution programs. Before the coup, HIV prevention and family planning programs depended on peer educators to educate the public (this approach made these programs quite successful), but the 2 experts feared that they would not return to those roles and that these programs would need to completely rebuild. Another concern was the large scale urban-rural migration making it difficult for them to continue care. Early in the AIDS epidemic, the Haitian government was on the defensive because the US considered Haitians as a high risk group so it did little to prevent HIV transmission. After 1988, HIV prevention activities in Haiti centered on raising awareness and personalizing the epidemic. The AIDS specialist noted, however, that a major obstacle to increasing knowledge is that AIDS is just 1 of many fatal diseases in Haiti. Moreover few health professionals in Haiti have ever had public health training. PMID:12159262

  7. [Family planning in America].

    PubMed

    1977-01-01

    The IPPF published in 1976 its first Annual report on the activities of the sector Region del Hemisferio Occidental. The report describes the efforts employed in Latin America toward family planning, and the several programs organized. From it it is possible to appreciate the positive impact of the different services to promote a more adequate family structure. Inside the report a special position is occupied by the activities of the Paraguayan Centre for Studies on Population. PMID:12309621

  8. Family planning costs and benefits.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    Government sponsored family planning programs have had major success in declining birth rates in Barbados, China, Cuba, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Korea, Mexico, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, and Thailand. Non- government programs have had similar success in Brazil and Colombia. These programs have been estimated as preventing over 100 million births in China and 80 million in India. Research indicates that family planning programs can produce a 30-50% drop in fertility. Family planning information and some contraceptives can be best distributed through community organizations. Research also indicates male opposition has been a major factor in wider acceptance of family planning. Surveys indicate that 50% of the woman who want no additional children are not using any birth control. Many governments do not have the resource and money to implement programs. In the developing countries if those who were able to prevent the unwanted births had birth control, the population increases in those countries would have been 1.3% versus 2.2%. In earlier family planning programs foreign assistance paid over 80% of the cost, and national governments 20%; today this is reversed. The World Bank estimates that for major improvements in population growth and women's health, $7 billion will be needed yearly by the year 2000. The countries that have had the similar goals in development of human resources, social services, health, and education. They have attended to the status of women, female employment, and maternal and child health. Estimates are that 1.3 billion couples and individuals will need family planning services by the year 2000, and this will be a formidable task. This key elements of successful family planning programs are community participation, decentralization, and training. PMID:12316737

  9. The influence of contraception, abortion, and natural family planning on divorce rates as found in the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth.

    PubMed

    Fehring, Richard J

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of contraception, abortion, and natural family planning (NFP) on divorce rates of US women of reproductive age. The variables of importance of religion and frequency of church attendance were also included in the analysis. The study involved 5,530 reproductive age women in the (2006-2010) National Survey of Family Growth who indicate that they were ever married. Among the women who ever used NFP only 9.6 percent were currently divorced compared with the 14.4 percent who were currently divorced among the women who never used NFP (x (2) = 5.34, P < 0.21). Odds ratio analysis indicated that ever having an abortion, sterilization, and/or methods of contraception increased the likelihood of divorce - up to two times. Frequency of church attendance decreased the risk of divorce. Although there is less divorce among NFP users the reason might be due to their religiosity. Lay summary: Providers of natural family planning (NFP) frequently mention that couples who practice NFP have fewer divorces compared to couples who use contraception. Evidence for this comment is weak. This study utilized a large data set of 5,530 reproductive age women to determine the influence that contraception, sterilization, abortion, and NFP has on divorce rates. Among the women participants who ever used NFP only 9.6 percent were currently divorced compared with the 14.4 percent who used methods of contraception, sterilization or abortion as a family planning method. Frequency of church attendance also reduced the likelihood of divorce. PMID:26912935

  10. Natural family planning revisited.

    PubMed

    Al-Ateeg, Fahad A

    2004-03-01

    The article focuses on the role of natural family planning NFP as a component of reproductive health. It distinguishes NFP from the concept of fertility awareness method. Furthermore, the effectiveness of NFP as determined by previous studies is presented and the advantages and disadvantages of NFP are highlighted. Additionally, factors that influence the use of NFP methods are examined. Finally, delivery strategies and options for mainstreaming NFP into reproductive health services are identified and discussed. PMID:15048163

  11. Nonclinical family planning programs.

    PubMed

    Bair, W D

    1978-01-01

    Reasons commonly advanced for providing family planning are the need for it as a health measure, as part of the basic human right of parents to plan their families, and as a measure to slow demographic growth. Provision of access to all couples desiring birth control, not just to the wealthy and educated, is a less frequently discussed reason. All these reasons require broad coverage in order to be effective. The author argues, using data on the relative health risks of contraceptive usage vs. pregnancy, that nonclinic distribution of contraceptives is consistent with responsible health considerations. The argument is buttressed by ethical considerations. The demand for family planning services is next considered, with the author arguing that availability of contraceptives is an important factor in increasing demand for them. The characteristics and users of nonclinic delivery systems are then discussed. Commercial distribution systems may provide services for up to 5% of women of fertile age, thus providing a useful supplement to organized and more highly subsidized programs. Noncommercial distribution -- household or community based systems -- has allowed contraceptive use to expand to levels of 20 or 25% and sometimes as high as 50%, in periods as short as a year and a half, at low cost. Community leaders have often proven to be more effective than clinic personnel in providing instruction and support to contraceptive users. PMID:12309775

  12. Family planning week in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Antarsh, L

    1997-01-01

    More than 600 events, including disco dances, seminars, and training courses for health professionals, took place during National Family Planning Week, held throughout Ukraine this year from May 26 to June 1. The events were announced on the radio, television, and in newspapers in every region of the country. The following are among the events which took place during the week: physicians gave presents and contraceptives to mothers of newborn infants in maternity hospitals in Dnipropetrovsk; loudspeakers blared messages about family planning in the most crowded streets of Sevastopol, Crimea; family planning rooms and centers opened in 8 districts of Rivninska; and every region of the country held an official opening ceremony. Many of the events had a special focus upon youth, with more than 200 events for adolescents. For more than 6 months, a special multi-ministry coordinating committee worked closely with AVSC to make this first-time event a reality. Public awareness of family planning increased as a result of the Week. Ukraine's Ministry of Health is looking forward to holding the event again next year with or without the support of outside agencies. PMID:12349011

  13. A family quarrel? "Developmentalism" or family planning.

    PubMed

    Carder, M

    1974-01-01

    The switch in emphasis in population policies from family planning to the development of socioeconomic policies that would encourage smaller families--summed up in the word "developmentalism"--is charted from a 1967 paper by Kinsley Davis to its culmination at the 1974 World Population Conference, when even as staunch a supporter of family planning as John D. Rockefeller came out in support of placing population policy in the context of economic and social development. The real question is, however: To what extent does developmentalism represent a true shift in policy and how much is simply a more sophisticated rhetoric designed to deflect the growing opposition to population control? On the one hand, the endorsement by a man of Rockefeller's stature indicates a significant change. On the other, the changes which the implementation of developmentalism would entail seem irreconcilable with the present political and economic structures of underdeveloped nations and of relations between them and the more developed countries. Further, developmentalism is neither as progressive as its advocates suggest, nor as threatening as its opponents cry. It is, in fact, a prescription for enhancing the effectiveness of family planning through a form of social engineering from the top; its details--more aid, investment, and trade--would involve an expanded Western role in the Third World. It is even suggested that developmentalism might be a cover for the creation of a more stratified society, where marginal members are restricted to their own quarters in an effort to secure political stability and economic growth. In the end, developmentalism might be shortlived, as pressure to step up birth control programs is felt from many quarters. PMID:12307032

  14. Traditional midwives and family planning in Asia.

    PubMed

    Rogers, E M; Solomon, D S

    1975-05-01

    The objectives of this article are (1) review the contribution of traditional midwives to family planning communication in several Asian countries; (2) organize knowledge gathered from various studies into general guidelines for the most effective use of traditional midwives in family planning programs; and (3) present hypotheses for future research. In certain countries where pilot projects have tested the potential performance of traditional midwives in family planning programs, results have been encouraging. In other nations, more research is needed to determine the contribution traditional midwives can make to the family planning program. PMID:1145693

  15. Family planning: Muslim style.

    PubMed

    Virina, I

    1979-01-01

    Early birth control methods practiced by Muslims included a version of rhythm called takwim. Instead of using a thermometer to determine the safe period, the woman pressed her navel hard. If she felt magnetic sensations she was not in the safe period. Withdrawal, called piil, was also used. Old folks prepared juices extracted from roots like safran, pitawali, and when drunk they contracted the uterus and prevented pregnancy. New methods and programs have not gained popularity because of traditional medicines. Some early methods are still used today. To some Muslims sex is sacred and should not be talked about in polite conversation. If a Muslim discusses sex in front of others he has no delicadeza. Muslims must voluntarily accept family planning. If they are forced they reject the idea entirely. Extensive radio drama series have been broadcast since the establishment of the Provincial Population Office in Jolo in 1977. Muslims still believe in having many children as security in cases of tribal or interfamily feuds. Family planning workers in Stanvac, Zamboanga use the economic approach for motivating people. The financial burden of raising a big family is emphasized. PMID:12261886

  16. [Family planning in Bangladesh].

    PubMed

    Saito, S

    1981-03-01

    The author participated in the family planning project in Bangladesh from August 1, 1977 to December 31, 1979. The population of Bangladesh was 81 million in 1977 with annual increase of 3%, and the government was aiming at zero population growth. The government guidelines emphasized family planning as an effort integrated with other community programs. The use of adult education classes, mass media, and agricultural field workers and the training of paramedical personnel were proposed. The project members' activities involved motivating the public to delay marriages, to space births and to limit the family size to two children (average family size 6.5 children) as well as distributing contraceptives, promoting IUD and sterilization. Sterilization campaign for women in DNN district, 30 km south of Dacca, was carried out as follows. The women who had signed up in advance arrived at the elementary school classroom, where 2 medical teams performed operations using the teachers' desks and the equipment rented from a hospital in Dacca. The general procedure involved a physical examination by a female doctor, checking blood pressure, changing into a brand new native gown, premedication by injection, total anesthesia and operation itself. The equipment was sterilized by boiling. The patients were carried on the stretchers to the other classroom where they recuperated, staying overnight on the straw mats on the mud floor. They went home on foot the next day. The shortage of food and resources, high unemployment rate and low standard of living are some of the social problems Bangladesh faces along with overpopulation. PMID:6909327

  17. Law and family planning.

    PubMed

    Gerber, P

    1984-03-17

    The decision in the Gillick case confirms that oral contraceptives (OCS) may be prescribed for adolescents under age 16 without their parent's knowlege or consent. And it is probable that to convey the information to parents will render the doctor guilty of professional miscnduct. This is true incases where the adolescent has reached the age of 16 and thus attained the age of consent, notwithstanding the decision in the Browne case. In that case, an elderly Birmingham general practitioner, Dr. Robert Browne, was chaged, on the information of a local family planning clinc, with serious professional misconduct when he told the father of a girl who had been his patient since birth that she was taking OCS. The girl had consulted a local family planning clinic, which had put her on OCS and conveyed the information to Dr. Browne in a confidential letter. Dr Browne had decided that her parents were the best people to counsel her, and since the information had been supplied by the clinic, "I could not accept from a third party a unilateral imposition of confidential information." The latter proposition is specious; the former is not a good defense at law. The decision of the General Medical Council's Disciplinary Committee in favor of Dr. Browne rests on tenuous reasoning. It was most likely wrong when it was handed down in 1971 and would almost certainly not be followed today. There is something in the Gillick case to infuriate every family doctor. At 1 level, the decision points the finger at as sensitive area of family medicine most often ignored by medical practitioners -- the provision of timely counseling, particularly in the area of sexual relations. The point has been reached where a family planning clinic's judgment can be lawfully substituted for that of parents on issues involving the moral and emotional development of their children. A doctor's obligation to maintain confidentiality does not come about by default, nor can it gan moral reinforcement as a result

  18. Family planning is reducing abortions.

    PubMed

    Clinton, H R

    1997-01-01

    This news brief presents the US President's wife's statement on the association between use of family planning and a decline in abortions worldwide. Hillary Rodham Clinton attended the Sixth Conference of Wives of Heads of State and Government of the Americas held in La Paz, Bolivia. The conference was suitably located in Bolivia, a country with the highest rates of maternal mortality in South America. Bolivia has responded by launching a national family planning campaign coordinated between government, nongovernmental, and medical organizations. Half of Bolivian women experience pregnancy and childbirth without the support of trained medical staff. Mortality from abortion complications account for about half of all maternal deaths in Bolivia. Voluntary family planning workers teach women about the benefits of child spacing, breast feeding, nutrition, prenatal and postpartum care, and safe deliveries. Bolivia has succeeded in increasing its contraceptive use rates and decreasing the number of safe and unsafe abortions. Bolivia's program effort was supported by USAID. USAID provided technical assistance and funds for the establishment of a network of primary health care clinics. Mrs. Clinton visited one such clinic in a poor neighborhood in La Paz, which in its first six months of operation provided 2200 consultations, delivered 200 babies, registered 700 new family planning users, and immunized 2500 children. Clinics such as this one will be affected by the US Congress's harsh cuts in aid, which reduce funding by 35% and delay program funding by 9 months. These US government cuts in foreign aid are expected to result in an additional 1.6 million abortions, over 8000 maternal deaths, and 134,000 infant deaths in developing countries. An investment in population assistance represents a sensible, cost-effective, and long-term strategy for improving women's health, strengthening families, and reducing abortion. PMID:12293000

  19. FAmily planning in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Trewinnard, K

    1998-07-01

    At the turn of the century, Taiwan's population was increasing slowly, then later grew during a period of high fertility after the end of World War II and the accordance of independence in 1946. This growth in fertility came together with increasing life expectancy and a general desire by couples to have families comprised of 5-6 children. Taiwan was therefore poised to experience a major population explosion. In this context, a family planning program was established in the country which has since evolved into one of the world's most successful such programs. By 1990, the preferred family size was 2-3 children and of couples which already had 2 children, 70% of those without any sons were nonetheless practicing contraception. While in 1965, no married women used contraception until they had some children, by 1990, 27% of married women without children used contraception. Increasing age at marriage has been an important factor in Taiwan's declining fertility, with the average age at marriage increasing from 20 years in the 1950s to approximately 27 in the 1970s. Few mothers, however, want only one child. The fertility trends observed in Taiwan have been made possible through the provision of contraception, which used to be universally free, but which is now provided free to only people of low income or the disabled. Oral contraception, condoms, and IUDs are used, although 30% of couples depend upon sterilization. PMID:9741982

  20. The impact of family planning on primary school enrolment in sub-national areas within 25 African countries.

    PubMed

    Longwe, Abiba; Smits, Jeroen

    2013-06-01

    We study how the availability and use of family planning services in African countries influences the family planning situation of households and through this the educational participation of young children. A district panel dataset is used for 441 urban and rural areas within 233 districts of 25 countries. Path analysis shows that a decrease in the number of births is associated with an increase in educational participation in the area. The number of births is negatively associated with acceptance, knowledge and actual use of contraceptives in the area. As reversed causality and selection bias seem unlikely, the identified relationship probably is at least partially causal. Hence, investments in family planning services in poor areas are not only important because they allow women to plan their births better, but also because they may lead to higher primary enrolment rates and thus contribute to the region's future economic growth. PMID:24069749

  1. Family Planning Handbook for Doctors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinman, Ronald L., Ed.

    The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) believes that all people have the right to family planning information, including premarital and marital counseling, contraception information, and sex education. This physician's handbook is designed to provide all doctors with the necessary instructions on the latest family planning methods…

  2. Obstetrician-gynecologists’ views on contraception and natural family planning: a national survey

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Ryan E; Rasinski, Kenneth A; Yoon, John D; Curlin, Farr A

    2010-01-01

    Objective To characterize beliefs about contraception among obstetrician-gynecologists (Ob/Gyns). Study design National mailed survey of 1800 U.S. Ob/Gyns. Criterion variables were whether physicians have a moral or ethical objection to - and whether they would offer – six common contraceptive methods. Covariates included physician demographic and religious characteristics. Results 1154 of 1760 eligible Ob/Gyns responded (66%). Some Ob/Gyns object to intrauterine devices (4.4% object, 3.6% would not offer), progesterone implants and/or injections (1.7% object, 2.1% would not offer), tubal ligations (1.5% object, 1.5% would not offer), oral contraceptive pills (1.3% object, 1.1% would not offer), condoms (1.3% object, 1.8% would not offer), and the diaphragm or cervical cap with spermicide (1.3% object, 3.3% would not offer). Religious physicians were more likely to object (OR 7.4) and to refuse to provide a contraceptive (OR 1.9). Conclusion Controversies about contraception are ongoing, but among Ob/Gyns objections and refusals to provide contraceptives are infrequent. PMID:21074134

  3. [On family planning and socialist cultural civilization].

    PubMed

    Yin, G; Cao, J; Yin, W

    1984-03-29

    Family planning is a very important part of the Socialist cultural civilization, and it has a great impact on the ideology, ethics, and change of moral concepts. The old concept of having a large family and favoring boys over girls has been changed because of the popularization of family planning, and the overall quality of China's population can thus be improved. In the practical work of family planning, construction of the Socialist cultural civilization should be handled well. Science should be developed and taught to the general public, and the traditional ideology concerning birth and population should be gradually changed and eliminated. In this way, people will become more conscious of the need for family planning. In the meantime, efforts should be made to promote social welfare, such as the establishment of more and better daycare centers and nursing homes so that the common worries about family planning can be removed. The people should gradually learn about their rights and responsibilities as citizens and understand that family planning is in the best interest of the whole country as well as for the good fortune of later generations. With close cooperation between the people and the government and with reasonable management of family planning, China will be built into a strong nation with an adavnced Socialist cultural civilization. PMID:12159381

  4. Population Growth: Family Planning Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doberenz, Alexander R., Ed.; Taylor, N. Burwell G., Ed.

    These proceedings of the second annual symposium on population growth bring together speeches and panel discussions on family planning programs. Titles of speeches delivered are: Communicating Family Planning (Mrs. Jean Hutchinson); Effects of New York's Abortion Law Change (Dr. Walter Rogers); The Law and Birth Control, Sterilization and Abortion…

  5. [Private enterprise and family planning].

    PubMed

    1977-01-01

    In the city of Tebicuary, Paraguay, the main local private industry, a sugar refinery, has organized for its workers and their families a consultory for family planning and for materno-infant services. The consultory not only offers advice and services on prenatal diagnosis, medical assistance to infants and children and maternal health, but it sponsors lectures and distributes literature related to family planning problems. PMID:12309620

  6. Putting 'family' back in family planning.

    PubMed

    Seifer, David B; Minkoff, Howard; Merhi, Zaher

    2015-01-01

    Family planning visits are designed to help women build families in a manner most compatible with their life goals. Women's knowledge regarding age-related fertility is suboptimal, and first wanted pregnancies are now occurring at older ages. Here we review the issue of diminishing chances of a pregnancy occurring in women over 30 years of age. A debate arises over whether to perform a standard fertility assessment at an age when, for example, oocyte freezing is still practical and feasible, knowing that the proven predictors in subfertile couples may be less informative, or even inappropriate, in women without complaints about fertility. Studies have demonstrated that if women knew that their fertility was diminishing, they might alter life plans, including having children sooner or considering oocyte preservation. Therefore, we argue that physicians need to make an effort to evaluate a woman's childbearing priorities, though not necessarily their fertility, during the initial family planning visit. PMID:25406182

  7. National Planning for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Rexford G., Jr.

    This report presents the findings of a study on the current status of planning in American higher education and the feasibility of establishing a "national planning congress" for higher education. The study team gathered the views of key people concerned with higher education planning through extensive interviews and seminars throughout the…

  8. Family planning: the unfinished agenda.

    PubMed

    Cleland, John; Bernstein, Stan; Ezeh, Alex; Faundes, Anibal; Glasier, Anna; Innis, Jolene

    2006-11-18

    Promotion of family planning in countries with high birth rates has the potential to reduce poverty and hunger and avert 32% of all maternal deaths and nearly 10% of childhood deaths. It would also contribute substantially to women's empowerment, achievement of universal primary schooling, and long-term environmental sustainability. In the past 40 years, family-planning programmes have played a major part in raising the prevalence of contraceptive practice from less than 10% to 60% and reducing fertility in developing countries from six to about three births per woman. However, in half the 75 larger low-income and lower-middle income countries (mainly in Africa), contraceptive practice remains low and fertility, population growth, and unmet need for family planning are high. The cross-cutting contribution to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals makes greater investment in family planning in these countries compelling. Despite the size of this unfinished agenda, international funding and promotion of family planning has waned in the past decade. A revitalisation of the agenda is urgently needed. Historically, the USA has taken the lead but other governments or agencies are now needed as champions. Based on the sizeable experience of past decades, the key features of effective programmes are clearly established. Most governments of poor countries already have appropriate population and family-planning policies but are receiving too little international encouragement and funding to implement them with vigour. What is currently missing is political willingness to incorporate family planning into the development arena. PMID:17113431

  9. [Natural family planning].

    PubMed

    Odeblad, E

    1992-06-01

    Natural family planning (NFP) is based on the knowledge *largely nonexistent) of a women as to whether she is in her fertile period or not. In contrast to the calendar method, the Billings method consists of observing bodily functions, whereby women learn about the fertile and infertile period during the menstrual cycle. This method is very safe as long as the woman has been instructed thoroughly. The Pearl index (the number of pregnancies/100 woman years) can be 1. In a Swedish province, 7/1000 population used this method and had an abortion rate of .5/1000, a fact contradicting the allegation of mass abortion as a result of the method. Only well-trained NFP instructors can teach women, and at the University of Umea such training has been available for some years. The biological basis of the Billings method rests on the fact that every release of an egg is preceded by a ripening process of a follicle in the ovary. This follicle secretes increasing amounts of estrogen which stimulates the cervix to produce secretions for the sperm. Right before ovulation, the follicle reduces estrogen production and noradrenaline takes over, stimulating the peak-day secretion (P-secretion) for further selection of sperm. Ovulation usually occurs on the peak day, which is the day of maximum fertility and the last day of mucous symptoms. For 3 days after peak day until menstruation, the risk of becoming pregnant diminishes successively until it is as low as after sterilization. The instructor is trained to recognize and overcome certain factors that make it more difficult to identify the mucous symptoms, such as the previous use of oral contraceptives, certain illnesses, drugs, and life styles. NFP can also be used for attaining pregnancy by identifying the peak day; women with premenstrual syndrome can calculate when their symptoms start, and sportswomen can predict the time of their menstruation. NFP is fascinating when it is compared to other methods because of its human dimension

  10. [The press and family planning].

    PubMed

    Abraham De D'ornellas, R

    1987-01-01

    The treatment in the press of family planning hinges on two fundamental factors: the taboo of the leftist groups and the taboo of the Catholic Church, whose head is against abortion under any circumstances. Leftist views insinuate that family planning is the genocidal plan of North American imperialists against the Third World and, in particular, against Latin America. This genocidal plan is supposed to subject poor populations to international schemes. In the press family planning is often treated in a sanctimonious fashion, lumping it together with topics like pornography, sex, and violence. In 1983 the daily newspaper Expreso published a supplement running every week for almost three months about the issue of population, which dealt fairly extensively with such topics as population and housing, education, employment, and urban proliferation, as well as responsible parenthood and child survival. In addition, there was a detailed description of contraceptive methods. In October 1986 another surprising thing happened: the President of Peru talked about the topic of family planning, which at the time was an act of courage. Since then much has changed; the whole world is interested in family planning and certain aspects of population. Since October 1986 more has been published in this domain than during the preceding 20 years. In contrast, the Church reacted differently to this issue: after some initial caution, the conference of Peruvian bishops attacked all methods of modern contraceptives and private institutions of family planning. The information boom in family planning will certainly continue. At the moment this flood of articles and editorials about the issue is an expression of the anxiety of families related to uncontrolled reproduction and the fear of overpopulation in large cities devoid of minimal services. PMID:12281466

  11. National Military Family Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clinton and Trump Stand Behind the Uniform? Military families have some questions... More Suicide Prevention Awareness Month ... quick fact sheet about this program. Operation Purple Family Retreats Operation Purple Family Retreats provide military families ...

  12. Birth control and family planning

    MedlinePlus

    ... to have children in the future. They include vasectomy and tubal ligation. These procedures can sometimes be reversed if a ... 26. Jensen JT, Mishell DR. Family planning: contraception, sterilization, and pregnancy termination. In: Lentz GM, Lobo RA, ...

  13. Population and family planning in Tibet.

    PubMed

    1996-04-01

    This article summarizes findings from a summary report produced by a six-member team sent by the China Population Information and Research Center to Tibet Autonomous Region. The study project aimed to develop a five-year population plan for 1996-2000. Project members toured eight counties and cities in Shannan, Lhasa, Hyingchi, and Xigaze prefectures in 1995. Tibet's total population was an estimated 2.43 million in 1995. 1990 Census findings indicate that 95.5% were Tibetans, 3.7% were Han, and 0.8% were other ethnic groups. The total fertility rate (TFR) in 1989 was 4.2 children/woman. TFR is expected to decline to 3.0 in the year 2000. It is generally accepted that Tibet should maintain a growth rate of around 16.7/1000. Tibet's family planning program began in 1980 with the promotion of the one-child family norm among officials, workers, and urban residents of Han nationality living in Tibet. Urban Tibetans were allowed to have two children with a birth interval of 3 years and a third birth with government approval. Family planning was also promoted among farmers and herdsmen (88% of the total population). Family planning, at present, is practiced predominantly by urban residents (12% of the total population). A study of family planning in Dixin Township revealed that 44% of married reproductive-age women practice family planning. Family planning is under the authority of the Regional Family Planning Office and is affiliated with the Bureau of Public Health. There are 43 full-time family planning officials in all 7 prefectures and 74 counties. Most family planning services are handled by part-time medical and health staff in the public health system. The family planning program has resulted in 150,000 averted births. TFR declined from 5.8 children/woman in 1980 to 3.5 at present. This decline is attributed to women's desire for family planning and the fertility policy. The preferred methods include the IUD and Norplant. Unmet need is great. PMID:12347499

  14. Family planning methods: new guidance.

    PubMed

    1996-10-01

    Presented in this report are the recommendations of two expert groups, the Technical Guidance/Competence Working Group of the US Agency for International Development's Maximizing Access and Quality Initiative and the World Health Organization's Family Planning and Population Unit, regarding currently available family planning methods. The former group addressed key biomedical questions and formulated recommendations about 11 groups of family planning methods: combined oral contraceptives, progestin-only pills during breast feeding, progestin-only injectables, combined injectable contraceptives, Norplant implants, copper-bearing IUDs, tubal occlusion, vasectomy, lactational amenorrhea method, natural family planning, and barrier methods. A table presents the relative importance, by method, of procedures such as pelvic exam, blood pressure reading, breast exam, and screening for sexually transmitted diseases and cervical cancer. The medical eligibility recommendations for each method are also presented in tabular form, with four categories for temporary methods: 1) no restrictions on use, 2) advantages generally outweigh theoretical or proven risks, 3) theoretical or proven risks usually outweigh the advantages, and 4) unacceptable health risks. Included among the 41 conditions for which eligibility criteria are specified are age, smoking, thromboembolic disorder, headaches, irregular vaginal bleeding, family history of breast cancer, obesity, drug interactions, parity, breast feeding, postpartum, and postabortion. The new guidance presented in this report enables providers to give family planning clients expanded contraceptive choices while ensuring method safety and effectiveness. PMID:9342775

  15. Iran rebuilds family planning services.

    PubMed

    Butta, P

    1993-07-01

    After the revolution, the Islamic Republic of Iran instituted pronatalist policies which included lowering the minimum marriage age for girls to 9 years, abolishing some laws securing women's rights, and limiting availability of family planning (FP) services. By 1983, Iran's population growth rate was 3.9% which was among the highest worldwide. Before the revolution, Iran had 37 million people. About 2 million more people were added each year, resulting in a population size of 60 million by 1992. By the mid-1980s, economic development stood idle, there were not enough houses, children attended schools on 3 shifts, and malnutrition was spreading. In 1989, the government formed a population council and reestablished FP services. It also increased the minimum age of marriage for girls to 13 years, slightly improved women status, and eliminated fertility incentives for couples with at least 4 children. It also significantly increased funding for FP (from 560 million to 13 billion rials between 1990 and 1992). Government spending for FP will likely increase 2% annually until 2011. The government initiated a promotion of FP mass media campaign, emphasizing a 2-child family. Some posters showed a family with 2 girls. The mass media campaign promoted specific contraceptive methods (even tubal occlusion and vasectomy), a practice other Middle Eastern countries not do. 80% of sterilization acceptors claimed to learn about sterilization from the radio or newspapers. The Ministry of Health has invited the Association for Voluntary Surgical Contraception (AVSC) to help with its campaign to update sterilization techniques, including the non scalpel vasectomy technique. AVSC hopes to become even more involved in helping Iran update its national FP program. PMID:12318289

  16. Approaching 4 Decades of Legislation in the National Family Planning Program: An Analysis of Title X's History From 1970 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Daley, Ellen M.; Perrin, Kay M.; Mahan, Charles S.; Buhi, Eric R.

    2011-01-01

    Family planning is an important public health activity. Title X (Pub L No. 91-572), enacted in 1970, remains the only national family planning program in the United States dedicated to providing voluntary and confidential services to all individuals. We conducted a thematic analysis of Title X's legislative history. Of 293 federal bills included in the legislative history, only 20 (6.8%) were enacted into law. Regardless of the proposed challenges, limited changes have been adopted. Except for technical amendments, bills involving restrictions accounted for the highest percentage of enacted bills, demonstrating efforts to undermine reproductive health rights. Title X requires political will and bipartisan support if it is to continue to protect individuals' reproductive rights. PMID:21940931

  17. Has family planning a future?

    PubMed

    Diczfalusy, E

    1987-01-01

    Population is a subject that touches issues central to the human condition, including personal freedom and the very definition of economic and social progress. Hence it is understandable that people and their governments may have a wide range of views on this and related subjects. Some researchers admit that rapid population growth is more likely to impede progress than to promote it and conclude that, even if the economic grounds for family planning are not as compelling as some maintain, it is amply justified on the basis of individual family health and welfare. It would be naive to think that family planning alone can solve the problems of developing countries. But it would seem to be equally naive to believe that these problems can be solved without some family planning. It cannot be overemphasized that the impact of family planning goes far beyond the issues of population growth and economic development; it is an important tool to improve the health status of populations, especially in developing countries. The logical conclusion seems to be that there is a need for a much wider variety of safe and effective methods of fertility regulation that will suit the individual situation, the socioeconomic condition and the cultural and religious values of different couples. To develop new and safe methods and to provide answers to the questions posed, research is needed. There are 7 cardinal elements negatively affecting greatly needed research and development efforts at present: insufficient funding, hostile philosophies, liability issues, the drug regulatory climate, shortage in manpower, relative paucity of new ideas, and gaps in communication. What is needed now is that mankind shows a little more generosity towards itself and invests a bit more into research in family planning. Experience and history also indicate that research is a cost-effective investment in many areas. To invest in research in family planning means to invest in a brighter future. PMID:3568655

  18. Farmers' paintings promote family planning.

    PubMed

    1996-06-01

    Longyan Prefecture in West Fujian has a long and noble tradition of folk painting. The local authorities have made use of all forms of art, including folk painting, to promote the implementation of the family planning program. Folk painters in Longyan Prefecture have fully displayed their talent in producing numerous paintings to increase the population awareness of the public, depict people's keenness to respond to calls by the government for practicing family planning, and show the progress they have made in integrating family planning with economic development in rural areas. Most painters are farmers, while some are grassroots government officials working in towns and townships. They applied this ancient form of art to serving the great cause of controlling population growth and improving the quality of life in the country. Selected paintings were exhibited first in Fujian Province and then in Beijing, and have won several awards. Some of them were shown in Britain, America, Denmark, and the Philippines. PMID:12291692

  19. Planning Styles in Single-Parent Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buehler, Cheryl; Hogan, M. Janice

    Although family management scholars have identified family life cycle stages and educational and occupational status as factors that may influence planning in families, the influence of the family's life cycle stage and socioeconomic status on the planning process has not been empirically tested. Planning styles, family characteristics, and…

  20. India: New family planning program direction outlined.

    PubMed

    1977-01-01

    The focus of the current Family Welfare Program in India is education and active community involvement rather than coercion and compulsion. The government is totally committed to the program and has indicated that it will spare no efforts to motivate people to voluntarily accept family planning. However, there is a need for family planning efforts to include all aspects of family welfare, particularly those designed to promote the health of mothers and children. All family planning methods will be made available, and the family will be free to choose the method they prefer. As part of the program, employees of the Union government, State governments, autonomous and local bodies are expected to set an example and adopt the small family norm. The policy statement made by Mr. Raj Narain, Minister of Health and Family Welfare, revealed the government's decision not to legislate, either at the national or the State level, for compulsory sterilization. Sterilization services will be available free of charge to those who voluntarily choose this method. A plan for training indigenous midwives will be implemented as part of the program in order that maternity services may be available to all expectant mothers. Additionally, in recognition of the direct correlation between illiteracy and fertility and between infant/maternal mortality and age at marriage, the government will introduce legislation to raise the minimum age at marriage to 18 years for girls and to 21 years for boys. The plan is for trade unions, Chambers of Commerce, cooperative societies, women's organizations, teachers' federation, district councils, and other voluntary institutions to be associated intimately with the educational campaign launching the Family Welfare Program. PMID:12260383

  1. Incentives to promote family planning

    PubMed Central

    Heil, Sarah H.; Gaalema, Diann E.; Herrmann, Evan S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Over the past 60 years, population control has become an increasingly urgent issue worldwide as a growing population strains already limited resources. The use of financial incentives to promote family planning is an innovative approach that has potential to make a contribution to efforts to better manage population growth. This report reviews eight studies that examined the effect of incentives on family planning. Method Published studies that tested the impact of incentives to promote some aspect of family planning and included an appropriate control or comparison condition were reviewed. Results Incentives have been used to promote attendance at contraceptive education sessions, adoption and continuation of contraceptive methods, sterilization, and to limit family size. All but one of the eight studies reviewed reported positive outcomes, but weaknesses in study design and execution limit the strength of the conclusions that can be drawn. Conclusion Review of this literature suggests that family planning behaviors, like other behaviors, are sensitive to incentives. Given the tremendous need for efficacious interventions in global efforts to manage population growth, further research on this topic using more rigorous experimental methods is warranted. PMID:22743293

  2. Adult Education for Family Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labour Education Special Issue, 1971

    1971-01-01

    The article presents the open-end discussion method as the best means for teaching family planning. People do not want an outsider lecturing them on questions of morality and religion, but an outsider, by skillfully formulating questions can direct group discussions toward a pre-determined conclusion. (AS)

  3. Family Planning Programmes in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pradervand, Pierre

    The countries discussed in this paper are the francophone countries of West Africa and the Republic of Congo, with comparative references made to North Africa (mainly Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia). Obstacles to the adoption of family planning in the countries of tropical Africa are a very high mortality rate among children; a socioeconomic…

  4. Economic aspects of family planning.

    PubMed

    Singarimbun, M

    1970-11-01

    The report of the mission sponsored by UNDP, IBRD and WHO in 1970 to develop a comprehensive family planning program for Indonesia omits the important role that commercial distribution of contraceptives can and must play if the desired effect is to be achieved. The government should provide contraceptives to interested traders at low wholesale prices. Every encouragement should be extended to heighten competition in the commercial sector. These initiatives would serve 2 purposes: 1) bring down the current erratic and unreasonable cost of commercially distributed contraceptives and 2) have the benefit of spreading the family planning message by means of traders' competitive promotion. Until this plan can be implemented, import duties on commercial importation of contraceptives should be lifted. In addition, free distribution of contraceptives in government clinics should be introduce d. PMID:12255554

  5. Planning National Radiotherapy Services

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblatt, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Countries, states, and island nations often need forward planning of their radiotherapy services driven by different motives. Countries without radiotherapy services sponsor patients to receive radiotherapy abroad. They often engage professionals for a feasibility study in order to establish whether it would be more cost-beneficial to establish a radiotherapy facility. Countries where radiotherapy services have developed without any central planning, find themselves in situations where many of the available centers are private and thus inaccessible for a majority of patients with limited resources. Government may decide to plan ahead when a significant exodus of cancer patients travel to another country for treatment, thus exposing the failure of the country to provide this medical service for its citizens. In developed countries, the trigger has been the existence of highly visible waiting lists for radiotherapy revealing a shortage of radiotherapy equipment. This paper suggests that there should be a systematic and comprehensive process of long-term planning of radiotherapy services at the national level, taking into account the regulatory infrastructure for radiation protection, planning of centers, equipment, staff, education programs, quality assurance, and sustainability aspects. Realistic budgetary and cost considerations must also be part of the project proposal or business plan. PMID:25505730

  6. [Sexuality, discussion and family planning].

    PubMed

    Launaz, E

    1994-01-01

    Choosing a contraceptive forces clients to reflect on their way of viewing sexual relations and to confront norms and taboos they have internalized. This situation is charged with emotion which largely goes beyond technical and medical aspects. The Interregional Center of Family Planning in Monthey in the Chablais region of Switzerland has developed a framework to manage implicit demands from family planning clients. This framework permits counselors to hear the here-and-now of the client and her request and to link the request with the before-and-after. After learning the most pressing reason for visiting the clinic, the counselor begins prevention work: to expose the wishes of the client and to encourage self-confidence to dare to say no. The framework to use in a session with an adolescent guides the counselor to consider the following: the relationship with her parents; loyalty towards the original culture of her parents; success or failure at school or at her apprenticeship; her relationship with the person with whom she had sex; body image; experience of the first in-love emotions or first sexual intercourse; sense of control at the gynecologist office; and, for older teens (18-20 years), her professional life plan and becoming self-reliant. The framework to use in a session with a postpartum woman guides the counselor to consider the following: childbirth experience; relationship with the baby and evolution of the mother-baby bond; capacity of the couple to adapt to changes; return to home; role of the family and family-in-law; and how everyone envisions his/her role and place. The framework to use in a session with a woman who has undergone induced abortion guides the counselor to consider the following: eventual prejudices linked to the contraceptive (e.g., fear of cancer); her feelings about failure of that contraceptive; self-image as a woman; relationship with her partner; desire for children; and couple's plan. PMID:7847923

  7. [The challenges of the family planning program].

    PubMed

    Alarcon, F; Mojarro, O

    1991-01-01

    Mexican family planning officials used date from the 1990 population census to revise population growth estimates and determine program needs for different family planning institutions during 1990-94. Total fertility rates were used to estimate fertility, using information from sociodemographic surveys taken over the past 10 years. Total fertility rates were estimated at 3.29 in 1987, 2.8 in 1990, and projected at 2.5 in 1994. These rates correspond to a crude birth rate of 24-25/1000 in 1990 and 22-23 in 1994 and natural increase rates of 1.87% and 1.67%. In obtaining these estimates, the structure of fertility of the 1987 National Survey of Fertility and Health and the program projections of women by ages of the National Population Council and the National Institute of Statistics, Geography, and were considered. The TARGET model was used to estimate the numbers of women in union using different modern methods who would need to be served by family planning programs in order to meet the proposed total fertility rates. The prevalence of sterilization, IUDS, and oral contraceptives (OCs) in women in union would be 59% in 1990 and 62% in 1994, or in absolute terms 7.8 million women in 1990 and 9.3 million in 1994. The public sector has replaced the private as the major source of family planning services. The Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) share is expected to increase from 48.3% of users in 1990 to 56.5% in 1994. The other 3 public sector institutions will maintain their current level of coverage. The private sector has played a smaller role in family planning in Mexico than in many other countries, and the state will thus have the major responsibility for service provision, including family planning education, promotion, and counseling of prospective clients. Existing services should be made more accessible as far as physical access and hours of operation, and the methods available should be increased beyond OCs and condoms. Traditional midwives in rural

  8. Hilots make the family planning scene.

    PubMed

    1974-10-01

    A hilot (birth attendant), Aling Melchora, of Roxas, Oriental Mindora, who does motivation work in family planning is typical of hilots who are found in every barrio throughout the Philippines. She is 58 years old and has been a hilot for more than 30 years. She learned birth attendance in a training course at the Pandacan Puericulture Center in 1940. She averages 3 deliveries a month and 8 IUD acceptances a month. The hilots are a possible strong force in family planning motivation because of their influence and the respect with which people in the community regard them. They are older, experienced, always available, and charge very reasonable rates for services highly trained clinic staff would balk at doing. The Institute of Maternal and Child Health (IMCH) has trained 400 such hilots to do motivation work in family planning. It is noted that in the Philippines, the hilot may yet provide the key to reach the people in the barrios, which is the most important and challenging task for the national program on family planning. PMID:12306912

  9. Studies in Family Planning. Volume 2, Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worth, George; And Others

    This year's annual review of family planning in Korea and Taiwan is represented in three articles. The first, "Korea/Taiwan 1970: Report on the National Family Planning Programs," separately views the program administration, budget, personnel, and evaluation, as well as the various methods employed in controlling the number of births, and…

  10. National Highway Planning Network

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-02-02

    NHPN, the National Highway Planning Network, is a database of major highways in the continental United States that is used for national-level analyses of highway transportation issues that require use of a network, such as studies of highway performance, network design, social and environmental impacts of transportation, vehicle routing and scheduling, and mapping. The network is based on a set of roadways digitized by the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) from the 1980 National Atlasmore » and has been enhanced with additional roads, attribute detail, and topological error corrections to produce a true analytic network. All data have been derived from or checked against information obtained from state and Federal governmental agencies. Two files comprise this network: one describing links and the other nodes. This release, NHPN1.0, contains 44,960 links and 28,512 nodes representing approximately 380,000 miles of roadway.« less

  11. Men and Family Planning. Worldwatch Paper 41.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Bruce

    This monograph focuses on men's potentially positive role in family planning. In addition, it identifies reasons why so few organized family planning programs have targeted men as clients and why men have so often played a peripheral or negative role in family planning. The document is presented in seven chapters. Chapter I introduces the topic…

  12. NATIONAL SURVEY OF FAMILY GROWTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) provides information on childbearing, contraception, and related aspects of maternal and child health. The NSFG is the principal national source of data on trends and group differences in contraceptive use and effectiveness, use of fami...

  13. Spousal veto over family planning services.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, R J; Maine, D

    1987-01-01

    In many countries a spouse, usually the husband, can veto a partner's use of family planning services. Where spousal veto acts as a barrier to family planning services it represents a serious threat to the lives and health of women and children. Removal of spousal authorization requirements has been shown to increase the use of family planning services. The Family Guidance Association of Ethiopia, for example, removed their requirement in 1982 and clinic utilization increased by 26 per cent within a few months. Courts of several countries have held that spousal veto practices violate principles of personal privacy and autonomy and the right to health care. The effect of such judgements has been to reinforce rights to sexual nondiscrimination found, for example, in national constitutions and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. This article discusses the nature and application of spousal veto practices, explains how such requirements can violate certain human rights, and explores possible remedies to this problem, including ministerial, legislative, and judicial initiatives. PMID:3812842

  14. Family Planning: Improving Opportunities for Women. Report Number 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Victor-Bostrom Fund Committee, Washington, DC.

    This report contains eight articles on the importance of the role of women in family planning. An Assistant Secretary General for Social Development and Humanitarian Affairs, United Nations, calls for increased female participation in national development. The Secretary General of The International Planned Parenthood Federation observes that women…

  15. Four perspectives of family planning.

    PubMed

    1994-03-01

    Four participants of the second Regional Technical Committee Meeting on Sustainable Community-Based FP/MCH Project with Special Focus on Women comment on the situation of health and women in their countries. Daisy Faller, Provincial Family Planning Coordinator in Batangas Province, Philippines, mentioned the existence of a pre-implementation phase project to enlighten women in her country of 85% Roman Catholics. Shamina Hasan, Deputy Director of the Family Planning Association of Bangladesh heralded an integrated approach to healthcare in which steering committees of fifteen volunteer women each involve communities and use local resources, people, and facilities to disseminate information. Dr. Do Trong Hien, Director of the Department of MCH/FP, Ministry of Health, Vietnam, notes an acute problem of lower reproductive tract infections in rural areas, widespread female unmet demand for contraception, and a desire among females to delay marriage. Research and follow-up monitoring and supervision are needed to complement family planning program efforts targeted mainly to women, but funds are limited. Dr. Phonethep Pholsena, Director of the Birth Spacing Project and Director of the Institute of Mother and Child Health in Laos describes a 123/1000 live birth rate of infant mortality, maternal mortality rate at 653/100,000 live births, and TFR at 6.9. The birth spacing project focusing upon one municipality of Vientiane seeks to reduce TFR to 4.0, space pregnancies by at least two years, promote later marriage up to 18 years for women, and discourage pregnancy after age 35. The project is in an area where 86% of married women of reproductive age have unmet needs and poor knowledge of contraceptives and female genital function. PMID:12287757

  16. Physician attitudes and family planning in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Covington, D L; Otolorin, E O; Janowitz, B; Gates, D S; Lamptey, P; Ladipo, O A

    1986-01-01

    This study examines family planning attitudes and practices of 681 Nigerian physicians selected from cities in which large university teaching hospitals are located. About half of the physicians were practicing family planning; the method of choice was the IUD. Obstetrician/gynecologists and general practitioners were more likely to provide methods to their patients than were other types of physicians. The physicians were concerned about population growth and favored family planning, yet a substantial minority believed that family planning is foreign to the culture and that it promotes promiscuity. Physicians were reluctant to promote family planning on a wide scale; many disapproved of non-physicians providing oral contraceptives or IUDs. PMID:3750358

  17. Studies in family planning. 6. Singapore.

    PubMed

    Kee, W F; Lee, A S

    1973-05-01

    Family planning progress in Singapore during 1972 is reviewed. The Singapore Family Planning and Population Board launched its most intensive family planning campaign in July 1972. A primary objective of the campaign was to promote both male and female sterilizations. Stronger social disincentives to discourage large family size (higher delivery fees, reduction of income tax deductions, reduction of allowable maternity leaves, and housing priority for small families) have been read in Parliament and will take effect August 1, 1973. The 1972 crude birth rate was estimated at 22.6 per 1000, compared with 22.3 in 1971. The crude death rate remains constant at an estimated 5.4 per 1000. The rate of natural increase has risen to an estimated 17.2 per 1000, compared with 16.9 in 1971. The Second Five-Year Plan (1971-1975) sets a target of 80,000 new acceptors to be recruited evenly throughout the period. In 1972, the Board recruited 17,666 new acceptors. The main method used continued to be the pill, but the number of new pill users dropped from 19,000 in 1968 to 10,000 in 1971 and 1972. The number of condom acceptors dropped from 10,076 in 1968 to 7343 in 1972. IUD insertions were 3703 in 1968, and in 1972 there were only 177 IUDs inserted. Female sterilizations rose from 477 in 1966 to 3848 in 1971 to over 5700 in 1972. Abortions rose from 2929 in 1969 to 5943 in 1972. The Board approved the establishment of a Research and Evaluation Committee at the close of 1972. An Information, Education, and Communication Unit and a Training Center financed by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) were established in 1972. The Family Planning Campaign is being evaluated by pre- and postcampaign KAP-type surveys. During 1972, clinical trials were initiated on the Dalkon Shield and the Copper 7 with encouraging preliminary results. The average desired family size among Singapore families is 3.6, and there are problems in trying to reduce this figure. The

  18. Family planning and voluntary workers.

    PubMed

    Bhende, A

    1968-01-01

    The Family Planning Communication Action Research Projects at the Demographic Training and Research Centre, DTRC, Bombay, and the Planning Research and Action Institute (PRAI) Lucknow, provide guidelines for implementation of a program in which voluntary workers play an important role. DTRC has concentrated on urban areas and PRAI on rural areas. In selecting the volunteers, emphasis is on involving those who are already active in community affairs, or those who wield some degree of influence. In rural areas, the literacy level of the leaders is an important factor, as well as those who have a wide circle of acquaintances. The training programs conducted by the DTRC are for 3-5 days, covering 6-10 hours, and the involvement of some local association is always sought. It is found that an informal, permissive atmosphere, the use of visual aids, the distribution of reference material, and the lecture and group discussion methods are effective in orienting the participants to family planning educational activities. The PRAI trains the workers 1st through individual visits, and then when a good number have participated for 3 or 4 months, a training camp is organized. When high officials attend and address these camps, and when certificates and badges are distributed, it serves to keep up the enthusiasm. The main problem in both urban and rural area are sustaining the interest of the volunteer and involving men as volunteers. Where cash incentives are not feasible, newspaper and radio publicity is effective, and words of recognition and appreciation also help. Where male volunteers are involved, it is found that they can work well in their places of employment rather than in residential communities. In highly cosmopolitan areas, various linquestic groups live side by side, and it is necessary to enroll voluntary workers from the individual groups. PMID:12338667

  19. The medical profession and family planning.

    PubMed

    Karkal, M

    1968-11-01

    The medical profession has played an important role in family planning. The program includes education for family life, marriage-guidance, marriage counseling, treatment of sterility, and control of fertility. A happy family needs children, but an excess of them causes many problems and collectively becomes a national problem. In socialist countries, where abortions have been permitted more liberally, a large number of women have sought aid from doctors who have actively participated in the programs. These doctors have developed better techniques. In developed countries, churches and governments have been forced to fall in line with the prevailing trend of thought even against the Papal edict in Catholic countries and among Catholic people elsewhere. In the still underdeveloped countries, only methods that do not require repetitive and sustained motivation can achieve the desired result in fertility reduction. The Government of India was the 1st to launch a nationwide family planning program. A major handicap to the central Government has been its inability to utilize general practitioners for this purpose. However, they need to be trained in the techniques. The government should enlist their services and keep them informed of developments in this field. The whole medical profession must be included. PMID:12254323

  20. Taking family planning to the people.

    PubMed

    Fincancioglu, N

    1984-06-01

    A diversified pattern of family planning service delivery currently exists, one that is considerably extended through the development of a wide range of supply and distribution channels. In most areas, nongovernmental organizations have played a crucial role in the development of innovative approaches to making contraceptives widely available. In many nations the provision of contraceptives through the national health system continues to be the backbone of the family planning program. Changes in the approach to health care have helped increase the acccessibility and acceptability of family planning services. 2 factors necessitate a close link between contraceptive and health services: the need for medical skills and facilities in the provision of surgical contraceptive methods, and the importance of medical supervision in the continuing use of other methods. A widely used approach integrates contraceptive delivery with other development programs, community-based distribution (CBD) of contraceptives, and commercial retail sales. The cornerstone of CBD is extensive use of community networks and of trained community residents. An effective project requires efficient resupply and distribution mechanisms, carefully designed supervision systems, and medical back-up facilities. CBD has spread to over 40 countries, most of them in Asia and Latin America. Wider use of existing commercial retail outlets is being followed in more than 30 countries. Self-sufficiency of these projects has not been realized, and considerable subsidization continues to be required to maintain their efficiency. Efforts to increase the availability of contraceptives have been facilitated by the widening range of service providers. Nurses, midwives, traditional birth attendants, and members of the community are being trained to perform many family planning tasks in clinical and nonclinical settings. Many of these advances have been made possible by the liberalization of laws and regulations

  1. National transuranic program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-11

    As a result of various program initiatives, the U.S. generated and will continue to generate waste contaminated with radioactive materials. Because of increased awareness of the risks and special requirements to safely manage long-lived alpha-emitting radionuclides, a new category of radioactive waste, transuranic (TRU) waste, was adopted in 1970. Heads of Field Elements can determine that other alpha-contaminated wastes, peculiar to a specific site, must be managed as transuranic waste{close_quotes}. TRU waste is generated and stored at various DOE sites around the country. In December 1993, the National Transuranic Program Office (NTPO) was established as part of the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) to integrate and coordinate the diverse organizational elements that contribute to the complex-wide management of TRU waste. Numerous sites with small TRU waste inventories are also part of the national TRU waste system. The majority of TRU waste is also contaminated with hazardous materials and is thus considered mixed waste. Mixed waste must be managed in compliance with all federal, state, and local regulations that are applicable to the radioactive and/or hazardous component of the waste. Each generator site is responsible for the management of its respective waste. Sites must plan and implement programs to minimize, characterize, package, treat, store, ship, and dispose of all TRU waste; construct required waste management facilities and equipment; obtain permits; perform site-specific National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) analyses; conduct environmental studies; perform laboratory analyses; and certify that waste meets appropriate disposal facility criteria. Due to the toxicity and long half-lives of TRU radionuclides, TRU waste must be disposed in a manner that offers greater confinement than shallow land burial.

  2. Who attends family planning clinics?

    PubMed

    Chick, P; Nixon, J

    1984-08-01

    Data were obtained from 1,810 consecutive women who attended a central metropolitan (Brisbane) Family Planning Clinic during a 5 week period in 1982. Young women in particular formed the major client group with 32% being under 20 years of age. The client population was skewed towards women of upper socioeconomic status (SES). There was no SES disproportion in the use of oral contraceptives or IUD's. However, diaphragm use occurred disproportionately in women of upper SES groups; postcoital contraception was sought by and limited to, women of SES classes A and B only. The clinic satisfied a need for women with a history of failed or absent contraception and 15% had already had a termination of pregnancy by the time they first presented at the clinic. PMID:6596088

  3. [Family planning in Benin: what future?].

    PubMed

    Danlodji, R

    1993-01-01

    In Benin, family planning began in the late 1960s, but its activities were not clear or specific. It made small strides in private clinics until a family planning association was formed, later named the Beninese Association to Promote the Family (ABPF). Family planning promoters maintain that reduction in births per couple is necessary for economic development in Africa. Family planning detractors think that a child is a fruit of God and that family planning impedes his or her coming to the world. ABPF has worked much to promote Beninese families, but it is still not well known. Despite the associations efforts and those of many other institutions, contraceptive prevalence is low and the abortion rate and its risks remain high, namely, death, infertility, and contraction of various diseases. Thus, it is important to rethink family planning strategies. All intervening parties should coordinate activities to better reach urban and rural populations. Many rural inhabitants go to cities to escape poverty and the misery evoked by their family size and meager earnings only to find unemployment in the cities. In order for family planning to have an effect in Benin, it is important to begin working with youth. Any family planning strategy must consider their aspirations. The youth are inclined to be more receptive to family planning than the adults who do not want to give up old habits. Yet, contraceptive use in 14-20 year olds is low even though sexual activity is high. Since the youth want a small family size, a small plot of land, a care, and a successful life, it is important to give priority to jobs. We need to educate the youth so they can freely decide their family size. Socioeconomic reasons are the primary factor pushing people to accept family planning, followed by health reasons. Research is needed to learn why contraceptive prevalence is still low. PMID:12318558

  4. Drawing attention to family planning.

    PubMed

    1990-03-01

    In February 1990, the Mexican award winning director and animator, Carlos Carrera, went to Tokyo to oversee the photographing of the color frames (brought from Mexico) of the sex education animated film "Music for Two". The film begins with a warning that it should be shown as part of a sex education program. Further, a trained advisor guides the audience during the recommended discussion following the film. "Music for Two" is set in a large city and features a young female teen who daydreams about imaginary lovers. She soon discovers that her young male next door neighbor is interested in her. The moral of the story is that, once a woman is an adolescent, she must consider her future and have lifelong goals. In order for her to do so, however, she must know her mind and body, appreciate them, and not renounce them. This animated short feature includes both English and Spanish versions targeted to adolescents in their mid to late teens, especially females, in Latin America and the Caribbean. Mr. Carrera predicted that conservative older individuals will most likely not approve of "Music for Two". The Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning (JOICFP) and the UNFPA sponsored this animated film and the Mexican Family Planning Foundation (MEXFAM) participated in its production. The Sakura Motion Picture Company in Japan and Kinam SCL International in Mexico coproduced it. The Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs underwrote the English version and the UNFPA and IPPF underwrote the Spanish version. Further, in 1989, Mr. Carrera played a major role in a successful sex education animated feature titled "Blue Pigeon". This film was geared to youth in their early to mid teens, however. PMID:12283080

  5. The natural way. Family planning.

    PubMed

    Castel, A

    1998-01-01

    The Philippine Federation for Natural Family Planning (PFNFP) teaches men and women about their fertility, emphasizing the notion that women can control their own fertility. Women should know the normal physiological processes of their reproductive system such as the appearance of cervical mucus or other fertility indicators, the menstrual cycle, and others. To that end, PFNFP provides NFP services through its 50 "people's organizations" throughout the Philippines. PFNFP's approach is pragmatic, family-centered, and community-based, allowing local culture and tradition to integrate themselves into the organizational system. PFNFP is also networking with interested nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and has recently received a partnership contract with the Department of Health (DOH) to train the local service providers and barangay health workers of 18 local government units in the delivery of NFP services. The contract also covers the installation and testing of the DOH NFP training design and self-instruction manuals. The author describes the contents of the PFNFP's Fertility Orientation Session, an initial fertility awareness approach. Most NFP acceptors are using the ovulation or sympto-thermal methods, methods which can also help women screen themselves for reproductive tract infections and sexually transmitted diseases. PFNFP's future goals are described. PMID:12294066

  6. Attitudes toward family planning, marriage, and family size among unmarried women in Korea.

    PubMed

    Song, K Y

    1975-10-01

    Data from the 1973 National Fertility and Family Planning Survey show that young unmarried women aged 18-27 desire small families and support family planning. These women express a lower son preference than did young currently married women surveved in 1973 and earlier. A majority of the respondents approve of the "stop at two" slogen of the family planning association, and they want to obtain more information about contraception before marrying. Unfortunately, survey results show that present sources of contraceptive information, including the schools, have not proved adequate. PMID:1209695

  7. Why some family planning program fail.

    PubMed

    1976-04-01

    40 experts representing Nepal, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, Korea, and the Philippines participated in a 3-day workshop in Manila in March 1976 for the purpose of discussing and proposing ways of dealing with the financial problems confronting the population programs of the individual countries. The Inter-Governmental Coordinating Committee for Southeast Asia Family/Population Planning sponsored the workshop. The recommendations made at the meeting were: 1) standardization of financing reporting procedures by the region's country programs on family planning; 2) closer coordination between donor agencies and policy-making bodies of country programs in the disbursement of funds; 3) frequent exchanges of experiences, ideas, technicaL knowledge, and other matters pertaining to the financial management of such programs; and 4) inclusion of applicable financial management topics in the training of clinical staffs and those involved in follow-up operations. Additionally, a proposal was made that national population organizations or committees develop research and evaluation units. Workshop discussion sessions focused on financial planning and management, accounting and disbursement of funds, use and control of foreign aid, cost of effectiveness and benefit analysis, and financial reporting. PMID:12309355

  8. Natural family planning: point, counterpoint.

    PubMed

    Hume, M

    1991-01-01

    The Humanae Vitae posits that periodic abstinence from sexual intercourse enriches one with spiritual values. The discipline required in natural family planning brings peace and serenity to the family, helps solve other problems, helps both spouses to be less selfish, and deepens one's sense of responsibility. Parents acquire the capacity to have a deeper influence in the education of their children, and the children grow up with a sound appraisal of human values. The case study of a married couple, however, suggests that only frustration and resentment will result from periodic abstinence. The couple was advised by their physician to use the basal temperature method combined with the calendar method. Repeated pregnancies and births ensued. The couple eventually had to resort to three-week periods of abstinence from sexual intercourse. While pregnancy has been avoided for three years, the practice of periodic abstinence from sexual intercourse for such long periods is very difficult for both the husband and wife. The relationship has become tense and mutually damaging. The husband argues that the rhythm method transforms sexual intercourse from a spontaneous expression of spiritual and physical love into a simple release of bodily energy. He is obsessed with sex throughout the long period of abstinence, his marital fidelity is at risk, his disposition toward his wife and children is adversely affected, and he must avoid all affection toward his wife for three weeks at a time. The husband sees periodic abstinence as a diabolical, immoral, and deeply unnatural method of fertility control. The wife is sullen and resentful toward her husband when the time for sexual relations finally arrives. She finds it difficult to respond to her husband's advances after the three-week periods during which he reserves his affection. The wife's dreams and unguarded thoughts are invariably sexual. Periodic abstinence and the Roman Catholic Church are discussed. PMID:12178862

  9. Circular on family planning, 1988.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    This Hubei, China, Circular, issued near the end of 1988, provides the following: "The population growth situation in our country is grim. Since 1986, the natural population growth rate has risen continuously. To draw the prompt attention of the whole party and the entire people to the issue of our population, all localities must seriously unfold the activities of publicizing family planning (FP) this winter and next spring, in coordination with education in current affairs. It is necessary to publicize FP in an all-around way and with accuracy, and the activities of publicizing must be carried out effectively in a solid and deep-going way. In the rural areas, stress must be placed on areas where FP work is not carried out well and where there is a prevailing tendency toward early marriage, early child-bearing, and extra-budgetary births. In cities, publicity and education must be conducted especially among the transient population, individual households, and jobless households. During the period of publicity, large-scale street-corner publicity activities must be carried out in cities and towns so as to create strong public opinion and to combine the endeavor to publicize current affairs and policies with the effort to popularize knowledge about contraception and birth-control, to execute measures of contraception and birth control, and to establish FP associations in the countryside." PMID:12289626

  10. Indonesia's family planning story: success and challenge.

    PubMed

    Hull, T H; Hull, V J; Singarimbun, M

    1977-11-01

    A historical overview and descriptions of family planning programs in Indonesia are presented. 85 million of the 135 million inhabitants of the Indonesian archipelago are concentrated on the island of Java, which comprises about 7% of the Indonesian land mass. The Dutch colonial government preferred a policy ("transmigration") which advocated the redistribution of population from Java to the other islands to relieve overpopulation. This policy was also advocated by President Sukarno after the Indonesian Revolution of 1940. The need for family planning was recognized by small groups, and official policy supported national family planning programs to replace transmigration programs only after Sukarno became president in 1966. The focus of the program was on Java and Bali, the 2 most populous islands. Local clinics became the locus for birth control efforts. Fieldworkers affiliated with the clinics were given the job of advocating birth control use door-to-door. Fieldworkers "incentive programs," area "target" (quota) programs, and "special drives" were organized to create new contraceptive "acceptors." A data reporting system and a research program increase the effectiveness of the family planning drive by ascertaining trends in contraceptive use which can determine where and how money and effort can best be applied. "Village Contraception Distribution Centers" bring the contraceptive means closer to the people than do the clinics. Figures from the years 1969-1977 show the great increase in acceptance of contraceptives by the inhabitants of the Java-Bali area. Steps are now being taken to alleviate the large monthly variations in the number of (often temporary) acceptors caused by the "target programs" and "special drives." The average acceptor is 27-years-old, has 2.6 children, has not finished primary school, and has a husband of low social status. Bali has shown the greatest success in family planning. It is a small island with a highly developed system of local

  11. Family Planning: Bosnian, Russian, Spanish, Nuer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anoka County Community Health and Environmental Services, Coon Rapids, MN.

    This guide provides information in English, Bosnian, Russian, Spanish, and Nuer on family planning. Topics covered include a variety of birth control methods: abstinence, condoms, contraceptive foam, birth control pills, the Depo-Provera shot, the Norplant implant, diaphragms, intrauterine devices, natural family planning, sterilization, and the…

  12. Combined Edition of Family Planning Library Manual and Family Planning Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.

    This edition combines two previous publications of the Katharine Dexter McCormick Library into one volume: the Family Planning Library Manual, a guide for starting a family planning and population library or information center, and the Family Planning Classification, a coding system for organizing book and non-book materials so that they can be…

  13. Family planning program: world review 1974. Introduction.

    PubMed

    Watson, W B; Lapham, R J

    1975-08-01

    The 1974 Population Conference at Bucharest was marked with controversy between developed and developing countries, with the latter strongly critical of aid for population control but less for social and economic development. The Plan of Action which was finally approved emphasized the importance of social and economic factors in relation to population growth while recommending that couples in all nations should have access to family planning information. Different regions of the world, however, have widely divergent population policies and goals. The Asia-Pacific region of the developing world, which has 3/4 of the population of the developing world, has articulated a strong stance in favor of reducing birth rates at Post-Bucharest Consultation. Government-supported family planning programs are seen as a high priority item to reduce rapid population growth. Rapid population growth is not seen as a high-priority problem in most African, Arab, and Latin American countries. Population problems will be solved with economic and social advancement. There is more concern in Latin America for family planning as a "human right" issue than to promote demographic goals. Latin America was also concerned with migration/urbanization issues. All of the Regional Consultations after Bucharest favored a greater emphasis on population in development planning, concern for the problems caused by migration and urbanization, improvement in the status of women, and support for the reduction of mortality levels. Some 74 countries containing 93% of the population of the developing world, supported family planning, with only 4 populous countries -- Burma, Ethiopia, Peru, and North Korea not in support. More than 98% of the population of Asia lives in countries which support family planning; the figures are 94% for Latin America, 90% for the Middle East and North Africa and 64% for Sub-Saharan Africa. The governments of 39 countries with a combined population of 2.3 billion have stated that

  14. Decision on family planning, 7 January 1987.

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    On 1 January 1987 the Gansu provincial party committee and government issued a Decision on family planning: "The Decision demands that the party committees and government at all levels assign family planning work an important place on their agenda and get a good and tight grasp of it. They must step up family planning propaganda. Beginning this year, the planning commissions and finance departments at all levels must list the task of capital construction for the family planning departments, and assign it a certain amount of investment. It is necessary to establish family planning committee organs, put them on a sound basis, and assign them good leadership groups, to ensure that all family planning work is carried out well. The decision demands that the public health, civil affair, pharmaceutical, and industry and commerce departments regard making a success of family planning work as their own important task and grasp it for a long time to come to ensure that Gansu's population will register proportional and planned growth." PMID:12346592

  15. The Indonesian family planning program: its strategy for the future.

    PubMed

    Suyono, H; Parsons, J S; Teachman, J D

    1978-01-01

    This paper discusses the strategy of the Indonesian national family planning program for the coming 5-10 years, in which communities will be given greater responsibility for their own fertility limitation programs and a stronger alliance with other government programs will be sought in order to assure the long-term success of both family planning and development activities. The article explains why more vigorous fertility limitation efforts will be required in the future despite encouraging results so far, and describes the structure of the Indonesian national family planning program. The rationale behind the move away from clinics as depensers of family planning services is examined, and the community family planning approach in Bali is described and compared to that in Java. The differing approach to service delivery in the Outer Islands is then discussed. The relationship between development and the small family norm is discussed, and efforts underway to maximize cooperation between the family planning and development sector projects are described. PMID:12309781

  16. [Family planning methods based on fertility awareness].

    PubMed

    Haghenbeck-Altamirano, Francisco Javier; Ayala-Yáñez, Rodrigo; Herrera-Meillón, Héctor

    2012-04-01

    The desire to limit fertility is recognized both by individuals and by nations. The concept of family planning is based on the right of individuals and couples to regulate their fertility and is based in the area of health, human rights and population. Despite the changes in policies and family planning programs worldwide, there are large geographic areas that have not yet met the minimum requirements in this regard, the reasons are multiple, including economic reasons but also ideological or religious. Knowledge on the physiology of the menstrual cycle, specifically ovulation process has been further enhanced due to the advances in reproductive medicine research. The series of events around ovulation are used to detect the "fertile window", this way women will look for the possibility of postponing their pregnancy or actually start looking for it. The aim of this article is to review the current methods of family planning based on fertility awareness, from the historical methods like the core temperature determination and rhythm, to the most popular ones like the Billings ovulation method, the Sympto-thermal method and current methods like the two days, and the standard days method. There are also mentioned methods that require electronic devices or specifically computer designed ones to detect this "window of fertility". The spread and popularity of these methods is low and their knowledge among physicians, including gynecologists, is also quite scarce. The effectiveness of these methods has been difficult to quantify due to the lack of well designed, randomized studies which are affected by small populations of patients using these methods. The publications mention high effectiveness with their proper use, but not with typical use, what indicates the need for increased awareness among medical practitioners and trainers, obtaining a better use and understanding of methods and reducing these discrepancies. PMID:22808858

  17. Priority strategies for India's family planning programme

    PubMed Central

    Pachauri, Saroj

    2014-01-01

    Strategies to accelerate progress of India's family planning programme are discussed and the importance of improving the quality and reach of services to address unmet contraceptive need by providing method choice is emphasized. Although there is a growing demand for both limiting and spacing births, female sterilisation, is the dominant method in the national programme and use of spacing methods remains very limited. Fertility decline has been slower in the empowered action group (EAG) States which contribute about 40 per cent of population growth to the country and also depict gloomy statistics for other socio-development indicators. It is, therefore, important to intensify efforts to reduce both fertility and mortality in these States. A rationale has been provided for implementing integrated programmes using a gender lens because the lack of women's autonomy in reproductive decision-making, compounded by poor male involvement in sexual and reproductive health matters, is a fundamental issue yet to be addressed. The need for collaboration between scientists developing contraceptive technologies and those implementing family planning services is underscored. If contraceptive technologies are developed with an understanding of the contexts in which they will be delivered and an appreciation of end-users’ needs and perspectives, they are more likely to be accepted by service providers and used by clients. PMID:25673535

  18. Family planning reaches Mongolia's spacious steppes.

    PubMed

    Davaasuren, L; Naranchimeg, J

    1997-01-01

    In 1995, Mr. Bolooj organized a branch of the Mongolian Family Welfare Association (MFWA), an affiliate of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), in the smallest administrative district in western Mongolia. Most of the people are nomadic shepherds, and there are 10 times as many domestic animals as humans in the sparsely population country. In rural areas, the idea of family planning is alien, and Mongolia's mass media also has a difficult time understanding population concerns. Mr. Bolooj began by using the media to explain the goals of the IPPF and the MFWA. He then recruited and trained volunteer medical workers to provide reproductive health services. In its first six months of operation, the MFWA branch created 38 hours of reproductive health lessons for use in local schools. These lessons included information on the importance of good hygiene despite the scarcity of water for bathing. The population is so scattered, however, that it is very expensive to reach individual households. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, maternal health services have deteriorated, and maternal mortality has increased. The new National Reproductive Health Program seeks to provide delivery rooms in remote areas. The MFWA branch is also working to help women who are heading households. A course on contraceptive choices organized for 50 women of childbearing age resulted in 12 acceptors of the IUD, 15 of oral contraceptives, and six of injectables. PMID:12293466

  19. Family planning services and programmes in countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

    PubMed

    Chichakli, L O; Atrash, H K; Musani, A S; Johnson, J T; Mahaini, R; Arnaoute, S

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents the findings of a 1999 survey of 19 countries of the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region on the family planning services and programmes in the Region. Data were collected using a questionnaire which explored the following areas: the presence of population or family planning policies and family planning activities, the family planning services available, promotional and educational activities on family planning, quality assurance, family planning data collection, analysis and dissemination, and the use of such information. The results indicate that 13 of the countries have national policies on population and family planning but even in those that do not, family planning services are widely available. The scope of the services provided varied. There is still a need to implement or strengthen family planning programmes in the Region, a need which is recognized by the countries themselves. PMID:11794067

  20. Planning for Impact: A Guide to Planning Effective Family Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, James M.

    A document intended to provide program planning guidelines for Young Men's Christian Associations (YMCAs) desirous of working with families, recommends adherence to eight principles and following of five steps. The principles involve planning before action, fact finding and analysis, clear delineation of operational objectives, planning at all…

  1. Objective necessity of socialist family planning: a trial discussion.

    PubMed

    Li, R

    1985-07-01

    On the basis of Marx and Engels' prediction and thesis of scientific socialism, socialist China, the most populous nation in the world, is the 1st to have realized the planned management of population reproductive in the history of mankind, thus giving an answer to the problem in practice. This paper makes a tentative exploration of such a necessity in socialist family planning. Engels points out that 1) under private ownership, population reproduction takes class antagonism as the basis, while public ownership of the means of production eradicates it; 2) in capitalist society, the reproduction of the labor force is commodity reproduction--public ownership of the means of production can be divorced from the domain of commodity; and 3) under private ownership, population reproduction is purely the private business of an individual or a family whose economic benefit forms the motive force of population reproduction--public ownership liberates it from one's personal gains making it a public affair. The great significance of family planning to economic development can be recognized as production, consumption, and accumulation. Taking family planning as the basis for the reproduction plan of the labor force is the guarantee of realizing the material production plan. Family planning reflects the trend of the structure and change of consumer requirements and provides the direct and indirect objectives of various items of material production planning; it provides the objective basis for social accumulation and the arrangement of expanding reproduction. 3 conclusions are derived: 1) the building up of the public ownership of the means of production affords man the possibility to regulate the production of matter as well as man, 2) the characteristics of the planned development of a socialist national economy demands the planned production of man, and 3) family planning and the development of a socialist economy demand their mutual congruence. PMID:12314263

  2. President puts renewed emphases on family planning.

    PubMed

    2000-02-01

    President Jiang Zemin called for major improvements in the country's family planning, resources management and environmental protection at a work conference held in Beijing on March 12 this year on population control, natural resources and environmental protection. In his address, the president noted that the country will strive to control its population within 1.4 billion by the year 2010, halt the deterioration of the environment and noticeably improve it, and enhance resources management. ¿It is an arduous and important task for the Party and the whole nation,¿ the president said. As the world's most populous developing nation, China has limited per capita natural resources. ¿We must always see population control, preservation of resources and environmental protection from a strategic point of view,¿ Jiang said. In the 21st century, China must continue to make great efforts to stabilize the fertility level, maintain rational use and strict management of resources, and protect and improve the environment. ¿Our success or failure will have a direct bearing on the country's economic and social security, the quality of people's lives and the long-term development of China,¿ the president said. In the new century, it is imperative that we earnestly carry out the decisions of the Party and central government on family planning and the stabilization of a low fertility. On environmental protection, the president stressed that continued efforts should be devoted to both pollution prevention and control and ecological protection. The country should implement the strictest rules and regulations, and continue to uphold the principle of ¿developing while protecting: protecting while developing,¿ he said. In developing China's vast western region, it is also necessary to handle well the relationship between economic development and population control. PMID:12295908

  3. Sources of population and family planning assistance.

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    This document assesses the current status of population and family planning assistance throughout the world and provides brief sketches of the available sources including national governments, intergovernmental agencies such as the UNFPA and other UN entities, and nongovernmental funding, technical assistance, or funding and technical assistance organizations. The descriptions of aid-granting organizations describe their purposes, sources of funding, and activities, and give addresses where further information may be sought. At present about $100 million of the US $1 billion spent for family planning in developing countries each year comes from individuals paying for their own supplies and services, over $400 million is spent by national governments on their own programs, and about $450 million comes from developed country governments and private agencies. Over half of external assistance appears to be channeled through international agencies, and only a few countries provide a substantial proportion of aid bilaterally. In the past decade several governments, particularly in Asia, significantly increased the share of program costs they assumed themselves, and the most populous developing countries, China, India, and Indonesia, now contribute most of the funding for their own programs. Although at least 130 countries have provided population aid at some time, most is given by 12 industrialized countries. The US Agency for International Development (USAID) is the largest single donor, but the US share of population assistance has declined to 50% of all assistance in 1981 from 60% in the early 1970s. Governments of Communist bloc countries have made only small contributions to international population assistance. Most governmental asistance is in cash grant form, but loans, grants in kind, and technical assistance are also provided. Private organizations give assistance primarily to other private organizations in developing countries, and have been major innovators in

  4. Massive drive to reenergize the family planning programme.

    PubMed

    Kakar, V N

    1979-01-01

    A massive drive has been launched throughout India in an effort to reenergize the family planning program. The Prime Minister has made a special appeal to the nation from radio and television networks and through the press to adopt the small family norm as a way of life. The Chief Ministers and the Health Ministers in the States have made similar appeals to the people and the doctors. The current drive was preceded by 18 months of concentrated efforts to vitalize the family planning program. The change in nomenclature from "family planning" to "family welfare" created some misunderstanding regarding the government's own commitment to the program, but it is now widely understood that while family welfare aims at the total welfare of the family, family planning is an essential part of it. The government has tried to involve all sectors of society in program efforts. The mass media is now focusing attention on "family welfare" almost continuously. In villages, a large-scale program of organizing education camps of opinion leaders is now underway. The rural health scheme, initiated in October 1977, promises to bring about increased participation of the people in village programs. 54,000 community health workers have already started serving the rural population in their areas. In 2-3 years there will be 1 trained community health worker in every Indian village. PMID:12309490

  5. Cambodian refugees' family planning knowledge and use.

    PubMed

    Kulig, J C

    1995-07-01

    An ethnographic study was conducted within a Cambodian refugee community to discover information about Cambodian women's and men's knowledge and use of family planning methods. This 18-month study included participant observation at community and calendrical events, and within families' homes. Open-ended interviews were conducted with 53 informants from a variety of educational and socio-economic backgrounds. Both women and men were interviewed through a female bilingual interpreter when the informant lacked proficiency in speaking English. Major findings include a lack of knowledge among the sample about how the family planning methods work in the woman's body, and concerns about side-effects. Implications include the need to include Cambodian women and men in the planning and implementation of family planning programmes. PMID:7560523

  6. A dynamic family planning and health campaign.

    PubMed

    1986-11-01

    Any successful development program that combines family planning, nutrition, and parasite control such as the integrated project, must include effective information, education, and communication (IEC) components. The Population an Community Development Association (PDA), the largest nonprofit organization in Thailand provides a network of family planning service delivery composed of volunteer distributors including midwives, school techers and shopkeepers. Reliability and accessibility are the 2 important elements. A concerted media campaign which exposes people to condoms and other contraceptives helps desensitize an otherwise "too personal" issue. The problem which confronts family planning communication is how to counteract the sensuous messages form advetisers while focusing on mundane topics such as maternal and child health, responsible parenthood, and family budgets. The PDA has tried to use the same attractions to promote family planning. It distributes promotional items such as T-shirts, pens towels and cigarette lighters bearing family planning messages. In addition to the use of television and radio, PDA also utilizes every possible channel of communication. Approaches include: the Youth-to-Youth Program; informational exhibits; video-mobile vans which visit schools and factories; and the holding of PDA's vasectomy festivals. Informational exhibits on family planning and health care use a variety of audio-visual methods. Video is an effective communication medium. The PDA video material ordinarily consists of family dramas illustrating good and bad family planning practices. By holding vasectomy festivals, PDA provides a media-attracting forum to educate the public and promote vasectomey as the most effective birth control method. Mass media campaigns must be linked with fieldwork outreach. PMID:12314464

  7. Should family planning include STD services?

    PubMed

    Finger, W R

    1994-05-01

    Recent reviews suggest that the addition of programs aimed at preventing and controlling sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), specifically human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), to existing family planning programs does not necessarily dilute overall program effectiveness. In Colombia, Mexico, and Jamaica, where condom distribution and/or information to prevent HIV transmission was integrated into the activities of family planning field workers, no negative effect on the image of condoms as a pregnancy prevention method was observed and there was a great demand on the part of family planning clients for information about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In Brazil, family planning staff are receiving training in HIV risk assessment and the counseling of women in partner negotiation skills. However, steps must be taken to reach men since it is their high-risk behavior that puts most women at risk of HIV. Both separate STD clinics for men and condom social marketing projects have yielded promising results. Obstacles to the addition of STD services to family planning programs include the need to treat male partners as well as female clients, a shortage of diagnostic tools and antibiotics for treatment, and the fact that the majority of women with STDs are asymptomatic. Indicative of the increased attention being given this approach, however, is the recent release of guidelines by the US Agency for International Development Office of Population on how family planning programs should approach integration. Suggested activities include condom promotion, behavior change, counseling, information, contraceptive development, and selected efforts at STD treatment. PMID:12287744

  8. 1993--Twenty-Fifth Annual National Council on Family Relations Videotape Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Deborah; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Lists and annotates winning entries in 1993 National Council on Family Relations Videotape Competition in categories of substance abuse, aging, social issues, divorce/remarriage, families with special needs, family violence, human development, reproduction and family planning, marital/family issues, mental health, nontraditional families,…

  9. National Center for Family Literacy, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NCFL Newsletter, 1994

    1994-01-01

    These four newsletter issues provide information on family literacy and literacy education programs. Each 16-page issue includes several feature articles; descriptions of literacy conferences and seminars; updates on the National Family Literacy Project; descriptions of successful family literacy programs; coming events; a list of National Center…

  10. A Small Library in Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc., New York, NY.

    This annotated listing of books is intended as a reference for anyone seeking an authoritative introduction to population and family planning information, as a world, family, or individual concern. For each entry, the International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is provided if available. The number preceding each reference represents the…

  11. On the efficiency of multiple media family planning promotion campaigns.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    This article presents the result of a study conducted by Miriam N. Jato on the impact of multimedia family planning communication campaigns on contraceptive use. The study was conducted in Tanzania, where a government program integrated family planning into maternal and child health care services in 1988, while in 1992 a private-sector condom-marketing program begun and a national population policy for wider distribution of family planning information was adopted by the government. In less than 3 years, contraceptive use was found to have doubled to a level of 11.3% and the total fertility rate declined from an average of 6.3 to 5.8 live births. The result of the study indicates that exposure to media sources of family planning messages was directly associated with increased contraceptive use. Moreover, the use of modern methods increased among women who were exposed to a greater number of media sources, as did discussion of family planning with spouses and attendance of health facilities. The programmatic implications of the results confirm that utilization of multiple media channels in the promotion of family planning and other reproductive issues must be continued, with emphasis on media sources that reach large audiences. PMID:12349449

  12. Effectiveness of publications in family planning program.

    PubMed

    Noor Laily Abu Bakar; Tan, B A; Tey, N P; Yusuf, Y

    1983-12-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the degree of exposure to to Information, Education, and Communication (I.E.C.) publications such as pamphlets and booklets on contraceptive methods among those who have attended the dialog sessions; and to investigate the effects of such exposure on contraceptive use as well as the ppropensity to talk about family planning. The survey, conducted by the National Family Planning Board and assisted by the Sciences University of Malaysia in 1978/79, covers 6 states. A total of 1190 respondents were selected from those who attended dialog sessions during that period. Of the total sample, 723 respondents (60.8%) were contacted and interviewed. The I.E.C. publications evaluated in this survey include booklets on methods of contraception; pamphlets on the pill, IUD, condom, rhythm method, tubal ligation, vasectomy; booklets on responsible parenthood, flip charts and posters. 61% of the respondents have been exposed to at least 1 form of the I.E.C. materials. About 17 to 18% of currently married respondents have been exposed to pamphlets on tubal ligation, rhythm methods, IUD and condom; 22% have been exposed to pamphlets on the pill and 43% to booklets on contraceptive methods. In gerneral, those who have been exposed to pamphlets on a particular method were more likely to use that method. Among those who have been exposed to pamphlets on the pill 26.4% were using the pill compared to 16.2% who have not been exposed. The proportion of condom users were 3 times more after exposure to pamphlets on the condom: 16% vs. 4.7%. About 50% of currently married respondents were using a contraceptive method at the time of the survey. Of those who have not been exposed to I.E.C. materials, only 34.4% were using a method, compared to 53-60% of those who had been exposed. Exposure to I.E.C. materials and its interaction with ethnicity act as the most important factor in accounting for the differntials in contraceptive use, both in the

  13. The Italian Dementia National Plan. Commentary.

    PubMed

    Di Fiandra, Teresa; Canevelli, Marco; Di Pucchio, Alessandra; Vanacore, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    The Italian Dementia National Plan was formulated in October 2014 by the Italian Ministry of Health in close cooperation with the regions, the National Institute of Health and the three major national associations of patients and carers. The main purpose of this strategy was to provide directive indications for promoting and improving interventions in the dementia field, not limiting to specialist and therapeutic actions, but particularly focusing on the support of patients and families throughout the pathways of care. Four main objectives are indicated: 1) promote health- and social-care interventions and policies; 2) create/strengthen the integrated network of services for dementia based on an integrated approach; 3) implement strategies for promoting appropriateness and quality of care; and 4) improve the quality of life of persons with dementia and their families by supporting empowerment and stigma reduction. These objectives and the pertaining actions are described in the present paper. PMID:26783209

  14. Filling the Family Planning Gap. Worldwatch Paper 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Bruce

    The author provides a global review of family planning techniques and their impact on national birth rates. Sterilization, the pill, and intrauterine devices are the most popular methods of contraception worldwide. Abortion, where it is legal, is also extremely popular. In countries such as the United States where population control is not an…

  15. A new approach to family planning acceptance.

    PubMed

    Shukla, M

    1979-01-01

    The integrated approach to MCH/FP service delivery in the India Population Project is based on the assumption that positive results on family planning acceptance depend upon better health of children already born and a decline in the mortality rate. The Auxiliary Nurse and Midwife (ANM) performs all the family planning activities, distributes a nutritional supplement ("Balahar") to pregnant women, lactating mothers, and children between 6 months and 2 years, and keeps a record of births and deaths in order to convince the village population of the advantages of family planning. In 1975 a house to house inquiry was conducted in one of the affected villages to gather demographic and nutritional information. Analysis revealed that 77 of 82 eligible children were receiving "Balahar". The village birth rate was calculated at 50.3 per thousand and the death rate at 18.5 per thousand. Only 4 out of 233 family planning target couples were current users, and only 11 target couples were favorably disposed to family planning, while 94 were neutral and 128 were hostile. None of the 3 eligible women were receiving prenatal care, and only 1 of the 20 eligible women was receiving postnatal care. PMID:12261422

  16. [Diversification is the financial alternative for family planning].

    PubMed

    Castro Villamil, R

    1991-12-01

    donations accounted for 47.3% of PROFAMILIA income and PROFAMILIA contributed the rest. 18.1% came from family planning activities, 20.2% from surgical procedures, consultations, sales of medications, and laboratory services, and 20.2% from service contracts, national donations, interest, and other sources. In the same year, family planning programs accounted for 68.9% of expenditures, diversification programs for 11.5%, technical assistance for 8.6%, and administration for 11%. The income and expenditure data indicate that the diversification programs make a significant financial contribution to the family planning program, at the same time reducing dependency on international donor agencies. PMID:12284748

  17. Erap position on family planning cited.

    PubMed

    The anti-family planning stance of the president of the Philippines has received support from conservative Roman Catholic church-backed groups, but the Secretary of the Department of Health (DOH) has reiterated the obligation of the DOH to make all methods of contraception available and has noted that people can freely decide whether or not to use contraception. A newspaper columnist editorialized that the president's views were not as important as the family planning decisions made by men and women of reproductive age and that a 1998 survey indicated that 81% of married women want to space their next birth or limit childbearing. The columnist also stressed that family planning programs are important because they also deliver other forms of reproductive health care and allow people to exercise their reproductive rights. PMID:12348872

  18. 42 CFR 441.20 - Family planning services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Family planning services. 441.20 Section 441.20... General Provisions § 441.20 Family planning services. For beneficiaries eligible under the plan for family... free to choose the method of family planning to be used....

  19. 42 CFR 441.20 - Family planning services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Family planning services. 441.20 Section 441.20... General Provisions § 441.20 Family planning services. For recipients eligible under the plan for family... free to choose the method of family planning to be used....

  20. 42 CFR 441.20 - Family planning services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Family planning services. 441.20 Section 441.20... General Provisions § 441.20 Family planning services. For beneficiaries eligible under the plan for family... free to choose the method of family planning to be used....

  1. 42 CFR 441.20 - Family planning services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Family planning services. 441.20 Section 441.20... General Provisions § 441.20 Family planning services. For recipients eligible under the plan for family... free to choose the method of family planning to be used....

  2. 42 CFR 441.20 - Family planning services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Family planning services. 441.20 Section 441.20... General Provisions § 441.20 Family planning services. For beneficiaries eligible under the plan for family... free to choose the method of family planning to be used....

  3. Family planning program sustainability: threat or opportunity?

    PubMed

    Ashford, L S; Haws, J M

    1992-01-01

    This argument in favor of moving toward self-sufficiency in family planning suggests that programs can achieve by improving efficiency, generating income, and providing quality services. Philip Harvey in a 1991 article, offered persuasive arguments against moving toward self-sufficiency in family planning. He contends that self-sufficiency emphasizes income generation to the detriment of social objectives and reverses priorities to first serve those consumers within easy reach. Harvey's contention is countered by the following: 1) already favoring the well-off, policies of most developing countries rarely provide services to the poor. A self-sufficient program can cross-subsidize services for the poor. 2) studies have shown that even the poorest citizens are willing to pay for services they value. And 3) cost-benefit analysis has shown that family planning can have substantial economic benefits, and institutions that come to recognize these benefits will find it in their interest to pay for services. 2 issues involved in the move toward self-sufficiency are discussed: supply of funds and demand for services. As foreign assistance declines, family planning organizations will need to look to other sources for money. Money-raising strategies include persuading government and private institutions to pay for family planning services, and providing services such as sexually transmitted disease and infertility treatment for which clients are willing to pay. Grant reduction will make family planning organizations more conscious of cost-effectiveness and will increase efficiency. The importance of quality services is stressed: improved quality will attract more paying clients. PMID:1557796

  4. China's family planning policies: recent reforms and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Basten, Stuart; Jiang, Quanbao

    2014-12-01

    In November 2013, China announced reforms to its family planning policies whereby couples would be allowed to have a second child if either parent is an only child. The announcement garnered worldwide media coverage, and stimulated academic and popular discussion. We explore the context of the 2013 reforms, including the economic, demographic, and political motivations behind them, and speculate on their likely effect. Noting that the impact of the reforms on China's long-term demographic future is likely to be relatively slight, we consider why more radical reform may have been difficult to implement. We offer observations about possible future directions for Chinese family planning policies and explore the notion of "local pronatalism within nationally prescribed antinatalist limits" and how this suggests that an ideological shift within China's family planning apparatus may be plausible. PMID:25469931

  5. Can Better National Policy End Family Homelessness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Nan

    2010-01-01

    An understanding of the close link between federal policy and family homelessness is critical for ensuring that one day no child in the United States is homeless. This article discusses the nature of family homelessness, the national policy framework that exists to help vulnerable families, the homeless assistance system that federal policy has…

  6. Motivational aspects of family planning in India.

    PubMed

    Talpallikar, M B

    1975-09-01

    The apathy of Indians regarding family planning acceptance is compared with that displayed with respect to other programs designed to induce changes in behavior to achieve socioeconomic development. It is felt that understanding motivation would provide the key to making any such venture a success. Motivation is defined and discussed in detail, including its relationship to the success of educational activities. In that context, learning theories and their relationship to family planning behavior are discussed. The need for a high degree of insight into human behavior and a high level of skill in interpreting it on the part of the effective educator or agent of change is noted. PMID:12259435

  7. NATIONAL SURVEY OF FAMILY GROWTH (NSFG)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) provides information on childbearing, contraception, and closely related aspects of maternal and child health from a sample of women in the United States (including Alaska and Hawaii). The National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) was con...

  8. 78 FR 71431 - National Family Week, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ....) [FR Doc. 2013-28734 Filed 11-26-13; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F4 ... November 27, 2013 Part V The President Proclamation 9061--National Family Week, 2013 #0; #0; #0... National Family Week, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Whether...

  9. Fertility awareness-based methods: another option for family planning.

    PubMed

    Pallone, Stephen R; Bergus, George R

    2009-01-01

    Modern fertility awareness-based methods (FABMs) of family planning have been offered as alternative methods of family planning. Billings Ovulation Method, the Creighton Model, and the Symptothermal Method are the more widely used FABMs and can be more narrowly defined as natural family planning. The first 2 methods are based on the examination of cervical secretions to assess fertility. The Symptothermal Method combines characteristics of cervical secretions, basal body temperature, and historical cycle data to determine fertility. FABMs also include the more recently developed Standard Days Method and TwoDays Method. All are distinct from the more traditional rhythm and basal body temperature methods alone. Although these older methods are not highly effective, modern FABMs have typical-use unintended pregnancy rates of 1% to 3% in both industrialized and nonindustrialized nations. Studies suggest that in the United States physician knowledge of FABMs is frequently incomplete. We review the available evidence about the effectiveness for preventing unintended pregnancy, prognostic social demographics of users of the methods, and social outcomes related to FABMs, all of which suggest that family physicians can offer modern FABMs as effective means of family planning. We also provide suggestions about useful educational and instructional resources for family physicians and their patients. PMID:19264938

  10. Family planning perspective for Haryana State.

    PubMed

    Sondhi, P R

    1975-01-01

    The basic, subsistence level, needs for an average Indian are Rs. 100 per month. Normally an Indian spends 57 percent of his income on food. From 1961-71 the per capita income rose by only Rs. 90, from Rs. 337 to Rs. 427. 40 percent of the Indian population lives below the poverty line. The population rises in geometric progression, but the economy develops arithmetically. The goal of family planning officials is to stabilize the population as quickly as possible. If the basic minimum is Rs. 100 per month by 1998 then the population must be stabilized by 1984 to zero population growth. The birth rate must be reduced from 20 in 1978-79 to 13 by 1984. The Gross National Product should be raised by a rate of 6 percent per year. If zero population growth is achieved, 4,160,838 births will have been avoided. 1 birth avoided saves approximately Rs. 690 to Rs. 1360. To achieve zero population growth requires massive sterilizations, IUD insertions, and constant motivational efforts through workers in a small community of 3500-5000. The hospital for the State of Haryana needs facilities and personnel to be able to perform 75,000 tubectomies. PMID:10308707

  11. [Is family planning effective and profitable in Rwanda?].

    PubMed

    Tallon, F

    1990-08-01

    Although the demographic explosion in Rwanda will have catastrophic consequences if it is left unchecked, the family planning program has been received with hostility within the country. The National Population Office has conducted 2 studies to provide information on the costs and use of family planning services from 1981-88 and to project the findings into the future in demographic and financial terms. The population of Rwanda increased from 2 million in 1950 to 7 million in 1990 and will exceed 10 million in 2000. The projection is based on various hypotheses about demographic behavior from 1981, when the family planning program began, to 2011. The model measures the impact of family planning on population size and then assesses the repercussions of family planning on health, education, and agriculture expenditures. According to the projection, in the year 2011 with and without family planning respectively, the total population will be 17.7 or 13.2 million, the rate of increase will be 4.5% or 2.7% per year, and the number of children per woman will be 10.6 or 4.7. The rate of contraceptive prevalence is projected to increase from 8.0% in 1990 to 34.8% in 2000 and 46.8% in 2011. Expenditures for health care increase as a function of population size and therefore grow more rapidly without family planning. The government would save 29.2% of health expenditures and about 1/3 in education expenditures in 2010 if fertility declined according to the projection. Lower fertility would facilitate improvements in both health and education services. But it is in the agricultural sector that family planning would have the greatest impact in Rwanda. 93% of the economically active population is employed in agriculture, but available land has disappeared and productivity has declined due to soil exhaustion. The food supply is no longer adequate and famine threatens certain regions. Because population is increasing more rapidly than food production, the per capita food supply

  12. Family planning in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Osborn, M

    1986-11-01

    The general situation of family planning in Papua New Guinea, several of the relevant traditional beliefs, and a pilot project of community based distribution and family planning education in a rural market town. There is no government policy on population, although community based distribution programs have been active in some areas for 10 years. Papua New Guinea has a crude birth rate of 44/1000, an average of 6 children per family, but has only begun to introduce primary health care. Consequently, the population is expected to double by 2015. The pilot program, in a market town called Maprik in East Sepik Province, targets 44,378 women from surrounding villages, of whom about 800 may be using contraception. A family planning nurse is training 20 members of a Women's Council. In a 4-day course, held in the Council House, community distribution workers discussed family planning, responsible parenthood, sex education, nutrition, environmental and population issues. Ancient taboos and social controls that used to space births are breaking down under the pressure of missionization and westernization. Intercourse is still prohibited during menstruation and breastfeeding. There are specific magic spells and rituals used to insure fertility or abortion: these examples were used to help women understand the concepts of modern family planning methods. The nurse encouraged feedback from the women, and only held one formal teaching session, on record-keeping. For the success of the program, field workers should work from within, and supervise adequately. This will be done with quarterly refresher courses and monthly follow-up in each village. PMID:3467242

  13. National Ignition Facility: Experimental plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    As part of the Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE), and EG&G formed an NIF Target Diagnostics Working Group. The purpose of the Target Diagnostics Working Group is to prepare conceptual designs of target diagnostics for inclusion in the facility CDR and to determine how these specifications impact the CDR. To accomplish this, a subgroup has directed its efforts at constructing an approximate experimental plan for the ignition campaign of the NIF CDR. The results of this effort are contained in this document, the Experimental Plan for achieving fusion ignition in the NIF. This group initially concentrated on the flow-down requirements of the experimental campaign leading to ignition, which will dominate the initial efforts of the NIF. It is envisaged, however, that before ignition, there will be parallel campaigns supporting weapons physics, weapons effects, and other research. This plan was developed by analyzing the sequence of activities required to finally fire the laser at the level of power and precision necessary to achieve the conditions of an ignition hohlraum target, and to then use our experience in activating and running Nova experiments to estimate the rate of completing these activities.

  14. Fourth National Development Plan 1989-1993.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    This document contains major provisions of chapters 6 and 20 of Zambia's Fourth National Development Plan (1989-93). Chapter 6 deals with the interrelationship between population and development. The high rate of population growth has placed enormous pressure on the country's educational system, health sector, and employment and has led to increased rural-urban migration and urbanization. The rate of population growth has outstripped the ability of the country to produce enough food for self-sufficiency. Thus, population dynamics are being considered as part of the national development process for the first time in this development plan, and a national population policy has been adopted. The objectives of the population policy are to slow population growth, to improve maternal-child health, to integrate population into the development planning process, to strengthen institutions involved in population activities, to establish a National Population Council, to strengthen the population data base, to extend family planning (FP) coverage to all adults, to reduce total fertility from 7.2 to 4, and to reduce infant mortality from 97/1000 to 75/1000. The strategies to implement the policy include population education measures, upgrading and expanding FP programs, expanding primary health care and maternal-child health (MCH) programs, and providing human resource training in appropriate fields. The institutional framework to implement these goals and strategies exists in Zambia, and various programs will be coordinated by a newly created National Population Council. Chapter 20 of the development plan covers health issues and specifies measures to improve MCH care, and FP services. Specific FP targets include increasing the number of FP acceptors from 15 to 50% by the end of 1993. PMID:12344448

  15. A call for a family planning surge.

    PubMed

    Temmerman, M; Van Braeckel, D; Degomme, O

    2012-01-01

    In 1994, the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo, Egypt, laid out in its Programme of Action an impressive and ambitious set of goals for improving sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) all over the world, by the target date of 2015 (International Conference on Population and Development 1994). One of these goals was the provision of universal access to a full range of safe and reliable family-planning methods. However, notwithstanding increases in budgets for family planning during the years following the ICPD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development), there has been an alarming neglect from the international community for the topic since the year 2000. As a result, the progress made during the second half of the nineties slowed down considerably between 2000 and 2010; in a sense, one could say that ten years were almost wasted! This is astonishing, the more since meeting the need for family planning would have beneficial impacts on public health, environmental sustainability and social and economic development. In this paper, we explore these impacts and urge for a strong renewed commitment of the global community in the form of a global family planning decade. PMID:24753885

  16. Nursing 572: Principles of Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Marsha

    A description is provided of "Principles of Family Planning," a course designed for graduate nursing students or practicing nurses seeking continuing education credit. The first sections of the course description provide a rationale for the course, information on its curricular placement, scheduling information, and statements of long-range and…

  17. A call for a family planning surge

    PubMed Central

    Temmerman, M.; Van Braeckel, D.; Degomme, O.

    2012-01-01

    In 1994, the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo, Egypt, laid out in its Programme of Action an impressive and ambitious set of goals for improving sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) all over the world, by the target date of 2015 (International Conference on Population and Development 1994). One of these goals was the provision of universal access to a full range of safe and reliable family-planning methods. However, notwithstanding increases in budgets for family planning during the years following the ICPD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development), there has been an alarming neglect from the international community for the topic since the year 2000. As a result, the progress made during the second half of the nineties slowed down considerably between 2000 and 2010; in a sense, one could say that ten years were almost wasted! This is astonishing, the more since meeting the need for family planning would have beneficial impacts on public health, environmental sustainability and social and economic development. In this paper, we explore these impacts and urge for a strong renewed commitment of the global community in the form of a global family planning decade. PMID:24753885

  18. Current Literature in Family Planning, Number 54.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.

    As a monthly classified review of literature, this annotated bibliography offers a selection of books and articles recently received by the Katharine Dexter McCormick Library relative to family planning in the United States. Divided into two parts, the first contains book reviews from a variety of sources. They cover the subjects fund raising,…

  19. Career and Family Plans of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goff, Susan B.

    Factors which mediate the life decisions of college men and women were examined. Undergraduates (N=107) completed questionnaires about career and family plans, notions of success and failure, integration of two potentially conflicting roles, and the relationship between personal values, life goals, and choices. Results indicated that: (1) women…

  20. Private sector joins family planning effort.

    PubMed

    1989-12-01

    Projects supported by the Directorate for Population (S&T/POP) of the U.S. Agency for International Development and aimed at increasing for-profit private sector involvement in providing family planning services and products are described. Making products commercially available through social-marketing partnerships with the commercial sector, USAID has saved $1.1 million in commodity costs from Brazil, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Indonesia, and Peru. Active private sector involvement benefits companies, consumers, and donors through increased corporate profits, healthier employees, improved consumer access at lower cost, and the possibility of sustained family planning programs. Moreover, private, for-profit companies will be able to meet service demands over the next 20 years where traditional government and donor agency sources would fail. Using employee surveys and cost-benefit analyses to demonstrate expected financial and health benefits for businesses and work forces, S&T/POP's Technical Information on Population for the Private Sector (TIPPS) project encourages private companies in developing countries to invest in family planning and maternal/child health care for their employees. 36 companies in 9 countries have responded thus far, which examples provided from Peru and Zimbabwe. The Enterprise program's objectives are also to increase the involvement of for-profit companies in delivering family planning services, and to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of private volunteer organizations in providing services. Projects have been started with mines, factories, banks, insurance companies, and parastatals in 27 countries, with examples cited from Ghana and Indonesia. Finally, the Social Marketing for Change project (SOMARC) builds demand and distributes low-cost contraceptives through commercial channels especially to low-income audiences. Partnerships have been initiated with the private sector in 17 developing countries, with examples provided from

  1. Remediation plans in family medicine residency

    PubMed Central

    Audétat, Marie-Claude; Voirol, Christian; Béland, Normand; Fernandez, Nicolas; Sanche, Gilbert

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess use of the remediation instrument that has been implemented in training sites at the University of Montreal in Quebec to support faculty in diagnosing and remediating resident academic difficulties, to examine whether and how this particular remediation instrument improves the remediation process, and to determine its effects on the residents’ subsequent rotation assessments. Design A multimethods approach in which data were collected from different sources: remediation plans developed by faculty, program statistics for the corresponding academic years, and students’ academic records and rotation assessment results. Setting Family medicine residency program at the University of Montreal. Participants Family medicine residents in academic difficulty. Main outcome measures Assessment of the content, process, and quality of remediation plans, and students’ academic and rotation assessment results (successful, below expectations, or failure) both before and after the remediation period. Results The framework that was developed for assessing remediation plans was used to analyze 23 plans produced by 10 teaching sites for 21 residents. All plans documented cognitive problems and implemented numerous remediation measures. Although only 48% of the plans were of good quality, implementation of a remediation plan was positively associated with the resident’s success in rotations following the remediation period. Conclusion The use of remediation plans is well embedded in training sites at the University of Montreal. The residents’ difficulties were mainly cognitive in nature, but this generally related to deficits in clinical reasoning rather than knowledge gaps. The reflection and analysis required to produce a remediation plan helps to correct many academic difficulties and normalize the academic career of most residents in difficulty. Further effort is still needed to improve the quality of plans and to support teachers.

  2. 76 FR 72601 - National Family Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... two hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-30454 Filed 11-22-11; 11:15 am... November 23, 2011 Part IV The President Proclamation 8756--National Family Week, 2011 Proclamation 8757--National Farm-City Week, 2011 Proclamation 8758--National Child's Day, 2011 Executive Order...

  3. Maximizing citizen participation in family planning programme.

    PubMed

    Apte, J S

    1968-01-01

    The article begins with a brief history of family planning in India and points out that from 1951 to 1963, the program was clinic centered. This approach could reach only a small fraction of the population. The 1962-63 Report recommended extension education with the objectives of group acceptance of the small family norm, knowledge about family planning, and easy availability of contraceptives and adequate service facilities. The Family Planning Program is being implemented at 3 levels, governmental, voluntary agencies, and local self-government bodies. Creating an awareness of the urgency of the program, disseminating knowledge and information about methods, and motivating and educating local leaders and lay workers or volunteers for accepting some responsibility in the implementation of the program are all phases of citizen participation if the program. The author provides a list of agencies and organizations from which voluntary services may be drawn, and also enumerates the personal qualities desired in volunteers. There are recommendations as to the training of volunteers, and the specific tasks which they may be assigned. PMID:12338668

  4. 34 CFR 303.20 - Individualized family service plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Individualized family service plan. 303.20 Section 303... TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.20 Individualized family service plan. Individualized family service plan or IFSP means a written plan for providing early...

  5. 34 CFR 303.20 - Individualized family service plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Individualized family service plan. 303.20 Section 303... TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.20 Individualized family service plan. Individualized family service plan or IFSP means a written plan for providing early...

  6. 34 CFR 303.20 - Individualized family service plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Individualized family service plan. 303.20 Section 303... TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.20 Individualized family service plan. Individualized family service plan or IFSP means a written plan for providing early...

  7. Uphold "three stresses" to improve family planning implementation.

    PubMed

    1994-02-01

    Shandong Peninsula, China, includes 24 towns, 4 townships, and 1006 villages with a total 1992 population of 754,000. Due to the family planning program (instituted in the mid 1950s), and its emphasis on the "three stresses" since 1983, the rate of natural increase was maintained for the past decade at 6.59/1000. Marriage and childbirth has been deferred and the annual rate of planned births is 99%. Neonatal mortality is below 10/1000 and life expectancy is 76 years. There have been 260,000 births averted. In 1966, national commendation was given for the achievements in family planning. The city now ranks 12th among the top 100 counties that are the most economically developed. Success was linked with an effective IEC programs. Changing public opinion was accomplished by placing family planning slogans and cards in windows of public places and commercial centers. Contests were held, and performances publicized family planning. There are 1162 population schools in the county which have trained 10,000 family planning publicity workers and about 400,000 others since 1987. Radio and television stations have broadcast regular programs on family planning and population twice a week since 1987. Everyone has radio sets and 90% have televisions. IEC promotion has also been concerned with social security and alleviating poverty. Contraceptive prevalence among reproductive age women is now 91%. After 25 years of family planning operation, the "three stresses" were introduced and popularized in 1983. The goal was no early marriages, no early births, no induced abortions, and no unwanted births. The program strengthened family planning agencies, promoted women's services, oversaw birth quotas, and distributed contraceptives at the grassroots level. By 1991, the city began promoting control of population growth and improvement in human resources. The "four priorities" were formulated by the city for acceptors; housing sites, business licenses, recruitment of only-child parents

  8. Nutrition and national development planning.

    PubMed

    Joy, J L; Payne, P R

    1975-01-01

    We have argued that development strategies aimed at the reduction of all forms of deprivation, according to an explict statement of values and priorities, are necessary for the integration of nutrition planning into overall national development planning. We do not regard this as likely to lead to the neglect of the key issues of investment and production. Instead, we argue that consideration of investment and production strategies should be explicitly directed to their purpose, the reduction of deprivation, rather than, as in the past, treated as the necessary means to that purpose. Thus investment and production strategies would be aimed directly at relieving deprivation including, especially, nutritional deprivation, and their impact in this respect will need to be explicitly predicted and evaluated. We have argued that problems and potentials differ greatly at the area level and that planning must be an iterative process in which national and area-level strategies and programmes are brought to consistency through successive cycles of adjustment and reappraisal. A major role in planning, especially in detailed design and implementation, is assigned to area level. Planning must proceed from an identification of the deprivations under attack to the identification of intervention measures. Elsewhere we have argued the case for the 'functional classification" of malnutrition and the use of "typical profiles" in the understanding of "the ecology and etiology of malnutition". Where planning accepts the need for an integrated approach to the attack on all forms of deprivation, these analyses of nutritional deprivation would from part of a more comprehensive analysis of general deprivation. The existence of "functional classification" and "typical profiles" analysis with respect to malnutrition would provide an excellent base from which a more comprehensive view might be developed. The factors affecting the evolution of nutritional - and other - deprivation problems need

  9. Family Planning in the Hospital Setting

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Keith P.; Meier, Gitta

    1969-01-01

    Although the availability of oral contraceptives and the development of improved intrauterine contraceptive devices have greatly increased the general utilization of family planning services, there are still great segments of our population which are not yet reached, especially in the economically deprived areas. Since over 98 percent of all obstetrical deliveries now occur in hospitals, it seems logical that it is on hospital maternity services that these deficiencies might often be best overcome. Although this is primarily a medical problem, the use of paramedical personnel can greatly augment the physician's practice in these areas. Family planning services should be an integral part of comprehensive maternity care, not alone in the physician's office but also in the hospital setting. PMID:5784113

  10. Fertility and family planning in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Allman, J; Vu, Q N; Nguyen, M T; Pham, B S; Vu, D M

    1991-01-01

    This report provides the first reliable statistical data on fertility patterns and the family planning program in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Findings are from the 1988 Demographic and Health Survey of Vietnam and the 1989 census survey. The data show that the total fertility rate has declined from over 6 children per woman in the early 1970s to under 4 in the later 1980s. Contraceptive prevalence for modern methods is estimated at 37 percent among married women of reproductive age in 1988. The average duration of breastfeeding is over 14 months; marriage is relatively late. The IUD is the most common contraceptive method and abortion is widespread. The major factors likely to influence fertility and family planning in the future are the government's population policy, improved access to modern methods of contraception, and the institution of new economic policies that are currently under way in Vietnam. PMID:1759276

  11. The Indonesian Family Planning Programme: a success story for women?

    PubMed

    Smyth, I

    1992-01-01

    Many family planning specialists worldwide are praising the success of the family program of Indonesia because fertility rates have fallen considerably in many parts of the country. Yet, others question the reliability of the data collected and distributed by the National Family Co-ordinating Board (BKKBN), whether the publicized fertility rates are real, and whether the program or socioeconomic changes are responsible for the decline. Further, no one has assessed whether the program is sensitive to women's needs and desires. Overall, the program does not meet women's needs or consider women's health. Specifically, it deems population control more important than family planning, uses provider-dependent, long-acting hormonal contraceptives, and delivers poor quality service. The BKKBN is a prestigious group and accountable to Indonesia's president because its primary objective is to reduce population growth so socioeconomic development can occur. Even though the program originally stressed maternal and child health as a means for women to accept family planning methods, it no longer promotes maternal and child health as evidenced by the continuously high maternal mortality rates (lowest rate, 450/100,000 lives births). In fact, the maternal mortality rate for 15-19 year old women (1100) is so very high that it is second only to Ethiopia. The Indonesian Planned Parenthood Association agrees that the family planning program of Indonesia does not provide means for women to autonomously control their fertility and has taken as assembly line approach. Moreover, the administrative officials coerce subordinates to meet the ambitious targets who then coerce eligible couples and individuals to accept contraceptives. This violates their basic rights. The program has realized the significant role women play in demographic dynamics, but not as leader of socioeconomic development but as tools to rapidly and effectively implement population policies. PMID:12285429

  12. Similarity between agriculture and family planning.

    PubMed

    Nguyen Thi Hue

    1995-01-01

    The Vietnam Peasant Union encourages peasants to comply with the following criteria for the modern family: not having too many children, not being poor and starving, not having malnourished children and diseased women due to the bearing of too many children, being literate, not being superstitious, and not violating the law and State policy. 30% of the union's 7.5 million members have registered to abide by these rules. Peasants comprise almost 80% of Vietnam's total population. Although poor, peasant family incomes are increasing along with living conditions. Fertility remains too high. The Peasant Union has therefore been carrying out information, education, and communication and motivational activities among peasants so that peasants in general, and middle-aged heads of households in particular, will accept and practice family planning. For each province, the union produces teaching materials such as training packages for officers at provincial, district, and community levels, as well as a manual for field workers. The manual has two columns for respective topics: one explains a population and family planning item, while the other depicts a related agricultural activity. PMID:12320325

  13. Family Planning: Its Impact on the Health of Women and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine, Deborah

    This document explores risks to the health and lives of women and children that can be avoided or reduced by family planning. Emphasis throughout is on case studies and statistics from developing nations. Data are presented in expository and chart form. Information is presented in four chapters. Chapter I, Child Health and Family Planning,…

  14. Tay Sachs and Related Storage Diseases: Family Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneiderman, Gerald; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Based on interviews with 24 families, the article discusses family planning and the choices available to those families in which a child has previously died from Tay-Sachs or related lipid storage diseases. (IM)

  15. 34 CFR 300.24 - Individualized family service plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Individualized family service plan. 300.24 Section 300... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.24 Individualized family service plan. Individualized family service plan or IFSP has the meaning given the term in section 636 of...

  16. 34 CFR 300.24 - Individualized family service plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Individualized family service plan. 300.24 Section 300... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.24 Individualized family service plan. Individualized family service plan or IFSP has the meaning given the term in section 636 of...

  17. 34 CFR 300.24 - Individualized family service plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individualized family service plan. 300.24 Section 300... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.24 Individualized family service plan. Individualized family service plan or IFSP has the meaning given the term in section 636 of...

  18. 34 CFR 300.24 - Individualized family service plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Individualized family service plan. 300.24 Section 300... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.24 Individualized family service plan. Individualized family service plan or IFSP has the meaning given the term in section 636 of...

  19. 34 CFR 300.24 - Individualized family service plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Individualized family service plan. 300.24 Section 300... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.24 Individualized family service plan. Individualized family service plan or IFSP has the meaning given the term in section 636 of...

  20. Family Perceptions of Student Centered Planning and IEP Meetings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childre, Amy; Chambers, Cynthia R.

    2005-01-01

    Given the documented benefits of family involvement in educational planning, engaging families throughout the school years is strongly advocated. However, barriers continue to impede families from collaborative partnering in educational planning. In this qualitative study the perceptions of six families were examined prior to and after the…

  1. National Foreign Language Planning: Practices and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajavaara, Kari, Ed.; And Others

    A selection of essays on foreign language planning at the national level contains articles on the language planning process, language choice, teacher education, testing and assessment, and transnational planning. Essays include the following: "Foreign Language Teaching Policy: Some Planning Issues" (Theo J. M. van Els); "Foreign Language Planning…

  2. World population growth, family planning, and American foreign policy.

    PubMed

    Sharpless, J

    1995-01-01

    The US decision since the 1960s to link foreign policy with family planning and population control is noteworthy for its intention to change the demographic structure of foreign countries and the magnitude of the initiative. The current population ideologies are part of the legacy of 19th century views on science, morality, and political economy. Strong constraints were placed on US foreign policy since World War II, particularly due to presumptions about the role of developing countries in Cold War ideology. Domestic debates revolved around issues of feminism, birth control, abortion, and family political issues. Since the 1960s, environmental degradation and resource depletion were an added global dimension of US population issues. Between 1935 and 1958 birth control movements evolved from the ideologies of utopian socialists, Malthusians, women's rights activists, civil libertarians, and advocates of sexual freedom. There was a shift from acceptance of birth control to questions about the role of national government in supporting distribution of birth control. Immediately postwar the debates over birth control were outside political circles. The concept of family planning as a middle class family issue shifted the focus from freeing women from the burdens of housework to making women more efficient housewives. Family planning could not be taken as a national policy concern without justification as a major issue, a link to national security, belief in the success of intervention, and a justifiable means of inclusion in public policy. US government involvement began with agricultural education, technological assistance, and economic development that would satisfy the world's growing population. Cold War politics forced population growth as an issue to be considered within the realm of foreign policy and diplomacy. US government sponsored family planning was enthusiastic during 1967-74 but restrained during the 1980s. The 1990s has been an era of redefinition of

  3. Malaysia family-planning centers strive to maintain gains won in 15-year period.

    PubMed

    Roemer, R

    1968-09-12

    Family planning in Malaysia is discussed. Family planning began in Malaysia about 15 years ago through the efforts of voluntary family Planning Associations in the various Malay states. In 1966 the Malaysian Parliament passed the National Family Planning Act setting up the National FAmily Planning Board to formulate policies and methods for the promotion and spread of family planning knowledge and practice on the grounds of health of mothers and children and welfare of the family. In 1967, the board set a target of 40,000 new acceptors of family planning and 90% of the target was reached. This represents 3% of the child-bearing married women aged 15-49. The target for 1968 of 65,000 new acceptors is being achieved. A survey of acceptors is to be carried out from December 1968 to April 1969 to ascertain how many women who accepted family planning continue to practice it. Malaysia's crude birth rate declined from 46.2 in 1957 to 37.3 in 1966 before the government program was instituted. Abortion attempts have been frequent. The main method of contraception used is oral contraceptives. According to a 1957 survey, 31% of the married women in the metropolitan areas and 2% of rural women were using contraception. Presently, in Malaysia there is a need to: 1) train personnel to provide services, 2) inform and motivate families to accept family planning, 3) continue a broad educational program, 4) reform Malaysia's antiquated abortion law, and 5) integrate family planning services more fully into the general health services of the country. PMID:12229348

  4. The transition to sustainable family planning programs.

    PubMed

    1993-05-01

    USAID, through the matching grant project, provided International Planned Parenthood Federation's Western Hemisphere Region (IPPF/WHR) funds to increase and strengthen family planning (FP) services in Latin America. Family planning associations (FPAs) were to match any USAID-awarded funds with other funds, supporting efforts to promote sustainability of service delivery. The matching grant was an extremely effective and efficient means to expand access to good quality, voluntary FP services to low income, underserved people. Local income funded about 33% of Matching Grant FPA budgets. USAID and IPPF or other donors shared the other 66%. The Matching Grant FPAs reached the original target of 2.8 million new acceptors. The project was so successful that USAID awarded IPPF/WHR a new 5-year (1992-97) Transition Project. In Latin America and the Caribbean, its goals are to increase people's freedom to choose the number and spacing of their children and to promote a population growth rate appropriate to each country's socioeconomic development goals by helping some FPAs to become sustainable without USAID funding. Strengthening the institutional capacity of FP programs and evaluation of their performance and impact are 2 ways to achieve these goals. BEMFAM/Brazil, PROFAMILIA/Colombia, MEXFAM/Mexico, INPPARES/Peru, APROFA/Chile, CEPEP/Paraguay, AUPFIRH/Uruguay, FPATT/Trinidad and Tobago, PLAFAM/Venezuela, and BFLA/Belize have received matching subcontracts for FP service delivery and sustainability. IPPF/WHR considers Brazil, Colombia, Peru, and Mexico to be high-priority countries, largely because they have more than 60% of the population of Latin America. About 81% of Transition Project funds will go to in-country sub-grants and on regional activities, matched on a 1-to-1 basis. 86% of subcontracts will go to Colombia, Mexico, and Peru. Technical assistance and funding are also targeted to HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted disease prevention. PMID:12179841

  5. Marketing family planning services in New Orleans.

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, J T; Proffitt, B J; Bartlett, T L

    1987-01-01

    The health care profession is witnessing a shift in focus from the interests and needs of the service provider to those of the potential consumer in an effort to attract and maintain clients. This study illustrates the role that marketing research can play in the development of program strategies, even for relatively small organizations. The study was conducted for Planned Parenthood of Louisiana, a recently organized affiliate that began offering clinical services in May 1984, to provide information on the four Ps of marketing: product, price, place, and promotion. Data from telephone interviews among a random sample of 1,000 women 15-35 years old in New Orleans before the clinic opened confirmed that the need for family planning services was not entirely satisfied by existing service providers. Moreover, it indicated that clinic hours and the cost of services were in line with client interests. The most useful findings for developing the promotional strategy were the relatively low name recognition of Planned Parenthood and a higher-than-expected level of interest that young, low income blacks expressed in using the service. PMID:3112854

  6. 75 FR 57820 - National Credit Union Administration Restoration Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... ADMINISTRATION National Credit Union Administration Restoration Plan AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA). ACTION: Approval of National Credit Union Administration restoration plan. On September 16, 2010, the National Credit Union Administration (NCUA) implemented a Restoration Plan for the National...

  7. Barriers and Facilitators to Family Planning Access in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Sheila; Guilbert, Edith; Soon, Judith; Norman, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Background: Contraceptives are underutilized in Canada, and nearly one in three Canadian women will have an abortion in her lifetime. To help delineate a national family planning research agenda, the authors interviewed healthcare providers and organizational stakeholders to explore their perspective on barriers to contraception across regions of Canada. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted based on validated frameworks for assessing family planning access and quality. The authors purposefully selected 14 key stakeholders from government agencies, professional organizations and non-governmental organizations for in-person interviews. Fifty-eight healthcare providers and representatives of stakeholder organizations in reproductive health who self-selected through an online survey were also interviewed. Transcripts were analyzed for repeated and saturated themes. Results: Cost was the most important barrier to contraception. Sexual health education was reported as inconsistent, even within provinces. Regional differences were highlighted, including limited access to family physicians in rural Canada and throughout Quebec. Physician bias and outdated practices were cited as significant barriers to quality. New immigrants, youth, young adults and women in small rural, Northern and Aboriginal communities were all identified as particularly vulnerable. Informants identified multiple opportunities for health policy and system restructuring, including subsidized contraception, and enhancing public and healthcare provider education. Sexual health clinics were viewed as a highly successful model. Task-sharing and expanded scope of practice of nurses, nurse practitioners and pharmacists, alongside telephone and virtual healthcare consultations, were suggested to create multiple points of entry into the system. Conclusion: Results underscore the need for a national strategic approach to family planning health policy and health services delivery in Canada. PMID

  8. Publicity and education are fundamental to China's family planning programme.

    PubMed

    Zou, P

    1987-04-01

    This article summarizes and discusses the documents concerning family planning promulgated by the Communist Party, National People's Congress and the Government of China since the start of China's family planning program. In 1955 a document was issued entitled the Directive Concerning Population Control pointing out that the public should be made aware of birth control. In 1965 the summary of the 2nd Conference on Urban Work discussed ways of explaining the significance of family planning, to make it a voluntary action of the people. In 1980 the necessity of 1 child per couple was pointed out and policies were formulated regarding ideological and political education. During the 80's several documents were issued which stressed the voluntariness and initiative of the people in practicing birth control, and that any type of coercion was prohibited. For 30 years the fundamental practice of strengthening publicity and education and opposing coercion has remained unchanged no matter how birth policies have been scored in population control since 1979. PMID:12341203

  9. A brief introduction to China's family planning programme.

    PubMed

    Shen, G

    1984-08-01

    China's family planning program is described in reference to its goals, approaches, and achievements. Between 1949-83, China's population increased from 541 million to 1,024,950,000. The population has a young age structure, and the median age is 22.9 years. 80% of the population is rural, and 90% of the population lives in the southeastern region of the country. In view of this demographic situation, the government recognizes the need to control population growth. China's goals for the year 2000 are to increase industrial and agricultural input by 400% and to keep population size below 1.2 billion in order to ensure that per capita income increases. In accordance with these goals, the government, in 1979, began advocating a 1-child policy. To ensure the survival of single children, the government also launched a program to upgrade maternal and child health (MCH). In some rural areas and among certain minority groups, the 1-child restriction is not applied. Family size goals will vary with time. These variations will reflect the need to maintain a balance between economic growth and population growth. A variety of incentives are used to promote the 1-child family. For example, single children receive medical and educational benefits, and in some rural areas, the parents of single children can obtain additional land contracts. Economic disincentives are also used. The government seeks to obtain compliance with the policy primarily through educating the public about the consequences of uncontrolled population growth. All channels of the mass media are used to deliver the messages, and the publicity campaign is especially intensive in rural areas. A comprehensive plan to provided family planning and population education for middle school students is currently being implemented. Each local area develops its own fertility control plan. This plan is then incorporated into the nation's overall plan and the overall plan is implemented from above. Family planning workers

  10. Bibliography of Family Planning and Population, Volume 1 Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linzell, Dinah, Comp.

    Compiled from the world's research literature, this bi-monthly classified list of references on population and family planning emphasizes recently published material, primarily journal literature. Topics covered include: population and fertility; reproductive behaviour; the family; education in population, family planning, and sex; family…

  11. 34 CFR 303.114 - Individualized family service plan (IFSP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Individualized family service plan (IFSP). 303.114... System Minimum Components of A Statewide System § 303.114 Individualized family service plan (IFSP). Each system must ensure, for each infant or toddler with a disability and his or her family in the State,...

  12. 34 CFR 303.114 - Individualized family service plan (IFSP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Individualized family service plan (IFSP). 303.114... System Minimum Components of A Statewide System § 303.114 Individualized family service plan (IFSP). Each system must ensure, for each infant or toddler with a disability and his or her family in the State,...

  13. 34 CFR 303.167 - Individualized family service plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Individualized family service plans. 303.167 Section 303... Requirements § 303.167 Individualized family service plans. Each application must include— (a) An assurance that a current IFSP is in effect and implemented for each eligible child and the child's family;...

  14. 34 CFR 303.114 - Individualized family service plan (IFSP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Individualized family service plan (IFSP). 303.114... System Minimum Components of A Statewide System § 303.114 Individualized family service plan (IFSP). Each system must ensure, for each infant or toddler with a disability and his or her family in the State,...

  15. Attitudes towards family size and family planning among women at an antenatal clinic in Maiduguri, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ampofo, K

    1987-12-01

    "This report describes a family planning survey [involving 172 women] conducted at an antenatal clinic in Maiduguri, Nigeria between June and August 1984. The level of education of respondents is generally low and appears to have a negative effect on knowledge, approval, and use of family planning. Breast feeding is widespread but not many respondents practiced it as a method of family planning. While there is limited knowledge and some approval of family planning, a desire for large families continues and there is relatively little practice of family limitation. The prospects for a decrease in fertility in the near future is not encouraging." PMID:12315201

  16. Couple Communication and Sexual Attitudes in Natural Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shivanandan, Mary; Borkman, Thomasina

    Natural family planning (NFP) refers to techniques for planning or preventing pregnancy by observation of natural signs of fertility. In using natural family planning to avoid pregnancy, there is abstinence from sexual intercourse during the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle. Social values which are incorporated into the method include couples…

  17. Family planning and AIDS on Yokohama agenda.

    PubMed

    1994-10-01

    The 10th International Conference on AIDS/International Conference on STD in Yokohama August 7-12, 1994, attracted 12,000 people from 130 countries to consider the expanding AIDS pandemic. A satellite symposium was held the day before the opening of the conference, August 6, also in Yokohama, to bring participants together to focus upon the importance of providing access to oral contraceptives and the necessity of condoms. This symposium was organized by the Japan Family Planning Association. Speakers called for the authorization of the low-dose oral contraceptive pill for Japanese women; greater condom use against HIV and other STDs; expanding the concept of reproductive health to include maternal and child health, the prevention of STDs, and infertility; clinical approaches and care for HIV-infected individuals during pregnancy and labor; and counseling to pregnant HIV-infected women. PMID:12318906

  18. Linking men to family planning services.

    PubMed

    1999-02-01

    The US Office of Family Planning (FP) has issued 10 research grants ranging from $100,000 to $250,000 to organizations seeking to develop, implement, and test ways to involve young men in FP and reproductive health services. While only 2% of federal dollars are currently earmarked for reproductive health services for young men, a survey revealed that only 32% of sexually active men and 17% of sexually inexperienced men reported receiving contraceptive information from health care providers. One grant recipient is a cooperative venture of the University of North Carolina, the Guilford County health department, and "Wise Guys," a male responsibility/adolescent pregnancy prevention program developed by the local Family Life Council in 1989 that focuses on seventh-grade boys. The grant allowed Wise Guys to add a peer education component and hire the first male health educator in the county health department. This educator notes that the biggest misconceptions held by young men about the health department are that test results are shared with parents, that the agency serves only impoverished people, and that every client must be tested for pregnancy or sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The health educator addresses these misconceptions in classes and individual counseling sessions, and he accompanies young men to STD tests. PMID:12294592

  19. Women need skills, income and family planning.

    PubMed

    Mumtaz, K

    1990-01-01

    The myth in Pakistan is that women do not work outside the home but they do even though they tend not to be paid for it. They handle wheat and plant vegetables. They tend to and milk cattle. They handle manure used for fuel and fertilizer. They receive some money albeit small amounts for picking pesticide-laden cotton which puts them at risk. These work activities link them more closely with nature and natural resources than men. Yet modern harvest methods prevent women from gleaning fields for grain to sell to raise money for their family or for wheat stalks to use as fuel. This forces them to take wood from forests or shrubbery, thereby straining these limited resources. Other problems include population growth, male migration, landlessness, and insufficient health services. Society prefers sons. It considers women as childbearers and transitory persons. Females tend not to be educated, thus society does not value women. Social norms and infant mortality are associated with family size--the poorest women tend to have the highest fertility. More children serve as an economic safety valve. Many studies shatter the myth that women do not work. Policymakers and planners need to learn the results of these studies. The number of female-headed households rises. An increasing number of women must work to supplement their husband's income. To empower women, they need education and to acquire skills. Since they tend to be anemic, have an average of 9 births, and a life expectancy at birth for women of 55 years, they must also have access to health and family planning services. Nongovernmental organizations should help women to be more economically productive which allows them some economic independence. For example, in Gilgit, such an organization has trained women in tree planting, nursery rearing, vegetable growing, and caring for chickens. PMID:12285666

  20. Work-Family Planning Attitudes among Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basuil, Dynah A.; Casper, Wendy J.

    2012-01-01

    Using social learning theory as a framework, we explore two sets of antecedents to work and family role planning attitudes among emerging adults: their work-family balance self-efficacy and their perceptions of their parents' work-to-family conflict. A total of 187 college students completed a questionnaire concerning their work-family balance…

  1. Experimental plan for the Single-Family Study

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, L.G.; Brown, M.A.; Wright, T.; White, D.L.

    1991-09-01

    The national evaluation of the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) consists of five separate studies. The Single-Family Study is one of three studies that will estimate program energy savings and cost effectiveness in principal WAP submarkets. This report presents the experimental plan for the Single-Family Study, which will be implemented over the next three years (1991--1993). The Single-Family Study will directly estimate energy savings for a nationally representative sample of single-family and small multifamily homes weatherized in the 1989 program year. Savings will be estimated from gas and electric utility billing records using the Princeton Scorekeeping Method (PRISM). The study will also assess nonenergy impacts (e.g., health, comfort, safety, and housing affordability), estimate cost effectiveness, and analyze factors influencing these outcomes. For homes using fuels such as wood, coal, fuel oil, kerosene, and propane as the primary source of space conditioning, energy savings will be studied indirectly. The study will assemble a large nationally representative data base. A cluster sampling approach will be used, in which about 400 subgrantees are selected in a first stage and weatherized homes are selected in a second range. To ensure that the Single-Family Study is able to identify promising opportunities for future program development, two purposively selected groups of subgrantees will be included: (1) subgrantees that install cooling measures (such as more efficient air conditioning equipment or radiant barriers), and (2) exemplary subgrantees that use state-of-the-art technologies and service delivery procedures (such as advanced audit techniques, blower door tests, infrared scanners, extensive client education, etc.). These two groups of subgrantees will be analyzed to identify the most effective program elements in specific circumstances. 14 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Family planning in Georgia: a continuing struggle.

    PubMed

    Khomassuridze, A

    1994-03-01

    In the former Soviet Union, abortion has been the main method of family planning (FP) since its initial legalization in 1922. When legal access to abortion was restricted in 1936 because the government wanted to encourage population growth, women had to resort to traditional methods of FP or illegal procedures. In 1955, abortion was legalized again, but contraception was an illegal subject (abortionists were organized "like the Mafia" and did not want to lose their monopoly). In 1985, the advent of Perestroika paved the way for efforts to replace abortion with modern methods of contraception. In the Republic of Georgia, a Planned Parenthood Federation was established in 1993, and a new strategy was adopted to promote contraception. The provision of contraceptives through 20 branches of the Zhordania Institute of Human Reproduction has managed to respond to the FP needs of the different regions of the country. Activities of the Institute include performing voluntary sterilization and improving methods of abortion to include the use of RU-486 and vacuum aspiration procedures. These activities have combined to reduce the abortion rate, although the level of illegal abortion is reported to have increased. This gradual shift from a reliance on abortion to use of contraceptives has taken more than a decade and may be doomed to failure by a reduction in the contraceptive imports upon which Georgia entirely depends. PMID:12288983

  3. Family planning: cultural and religious perspectives.

    PubMed

    Schenker, J G; Rabenou, V

    1993-06-01

    The world population explosion has caused political leaders to look upon national and regional birth control projects as vital. Support for regulation of individual fertility has been evident in all cultures, and at all times, even in those societies in which social and religious rules have favoured the abundant production of children. As the secularization of Western society and scientific enquiry gained momentum during the modern period, knowledge of reproduction increased and was applied to control human population growth. The various methods of contraception and their development through the years from the ancient ideas to the modern era are presented. Each approach to fertility control has its advantages and disadvantages. No one method is perfect for everyone, for every clinical setting, and in every culture. Higher levels of fertility have been associated with 'traditional', religious prohibitions on some forms of birth control, 'traditional' values about the importance of children and the priority of family, and 'traditional' family and gender roles reinforced by religion. The attitude of the main religious groups to contraceptive practice is discussed. PMID:8345093

  4. [Journalism and family planning in Guinea-Bissau. Putting the accent on birth spacing].

    PubMed

    Vaz, C

    1989-05-01

    A conference on awareness in the mass media of the problems of family planning was held in March 1989 at Bissau by the Guinean Association for Education and Promotion of Family Health (AGEPSF). Representatives of radio, a daily newspaper, and the national press agency discussed the objectives of AGEPSF and the benefits of family planning with specialists in different sectors of national life. The secretary general of AGEPSF affirmed the interest of the government in creating a health organization to coordinate national policy in family planning and to diffuse information on family planning. The family planning objective of the AGEPSF is not limitation of births but rather spacing to promote maternal and child health. AGEPSF is a member of the International Planned Parenthood Federation and maintains relations with similar organizations throughout the world. According to the director of the national maternity hospital, family planning is a sensitive topic but it has become accepted in numerous countries as marriage in rural areas and abortions in urban areas are widespread practices in Africa with potentially grave consequences. The general director of the National Institute for Studies and Research placed the theme of family planning in the context of Guinea-Bissau by citing the low level of education, the almost insignificant number of literate women, and the lack of health services in rural areas as the principal causes of increasing infant mortality in the country. African countries should create favorable conditions, elevate the level of living of their populations, and develop concrete health actions to reduce infant and maternal mortality. PMID:12282452

  5. A family planning study in Kuala Pilah, Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Vimala Thambypillai

    1982-12-01

    Realizing that family planning is not making a sufficient impact on the rural people as it is on the urban population, it was decided that the authors would study the attitude and knowledge of a rural community towards family planning. The study sample consisted of 200 Malay married women--100 acceptors and 100 nonacceptors from the Kuala Pilah District. The study went from December 4-22, 1978. A healthy climate of knowledge and attitude exist among rural Malay women. Only 2% of the nonacceptors had not heard of any family planning method; 99% of acceptors and 85% of nonacceptors had discussed family planning with their husbands. There was also evidence to show that the birthrate does decrease as literacy increases. On the other hand, however, only 19% of the respondents approved of family planning practices prior to the birth of the 1st child. Also, there is a dearth of information on family planning in the rural areas and not much has been done in utilizing the 2 popular forms of mass media--radio and television as a means of disseminating information on family planning. The study concludes with a recommendation that there is a need for a sustained effort at improving knowledge and disseminating information as well as for developing the proper attitude towards family planning. It is suggested that community leaders, women's clubs, and private organizations be mobilized to participate more fully in the promotion of family planning. PMID:7167084

  6. The current family planning debate in Soviet Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Watters, K

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the debate that occurred in the press of the Soviet Central Asian republics during 1988 and 1989 on the issue of family planning. The author identifies three basic opinion groups, those in favor of family planning, those in favor of family planning with certain reservations, and those opposed to family planning. The role this debate has played in bringing into the open a number of political, cultural, economic, and social issues, together with data to support the positions taken that are now possible with glasnost, is noted. PMID:12343037

  7. Families of nations and public policy.

    PubMed

    Obinger, H; Wagschal, U

    2001-01-01

    Employing cluster analysis, this article reconsiders a concept formulated by Francis G. Castles that stresses the existence of four families of nations, which markedly differ in respect of public policy-making. For two policy fields - social and economic policy - the hypothesised families of nations can be shown to exist, and they are quite robust and stable over time. Cluster analysis also reveals different paths towards modernity. On the one hand, there are more state-oriented versus more market-oriented models of public policy-making; on the other, there is a cleavage in public policy-making between rich countries located at the centre and somewhat poorer countries located at the periphery. PMID:17933077

  8. National Strategic Research Plan 1991, 1992, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Deafness and Other Communications Disorders, Bethesda, MD.

    This report updates the National Strategic Research Plan of the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD) and reports progress made from 1991 through 1993 as required by the National Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Act of 1988 (Public Law 100-553) which established the Institute. An executive summary…

  9. The new politics of natural family planning.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J H; Reich, J

    1986-01-01

    There has been an increase in interest in natural family planning (NFP) in recent years. The Roman Catholic Church and other groups sympathetic to NFP philosophy have pressured the US Agency for International Development (AID) to increase emphasis on NFP, and AID has responded by increasing funding devoted to NFP from US$0.8 to US$7.8 million from 1981-85. In 1985, AID exempted NFP providers from the requirement of providing direct or referral services for other methods, but repealed the exemption in 1986. Several methods fall under the NFP umbrella: rhythm, the estimation of ovulation time by the counting of days elapsed in relation to menstruation; and the more precise cervical musus; basal body temperature; and sympto-thermal methods. Because NFP requires considerable training, recording, and willingness to abstain, recruitment is difficult and dropout rates high. A 5-country World Health Organization study found that 17% of women dropped out during training, and 36% discontinued during the following year. At the 4th International Congress of the International Federation for Family Life Promotion (IFFLP), it was stressed that data on NFP prevalence classed by type of NFP are lacking. Questions raised included whether populations of countries that have achieved or hope to achieve a low birth rate will be interested in NFP; whether NFP can increase the risks of birth defects through fertilization by "aged gametes;" and whether NFP is capable of helping couples to select the sex of the child. The implications of the contraceptive effects of breastfeeding were reviewed. Some problems arise concerning evaluation of effectiveness: NFP advocates often do not consider couples who "break the rules" as acceptors, and when these couples are excluded from data the method appears much more effective. Traditionalists emphasize the increased quality that NFP brings to a marital relationship. Some participants maintained that rigid moral advocacy would deter many couples. PMID

  10. My university. What I learned from the Productive Cooperative Movement to Promotion of Humanistic Family Planning.

    PubMed

    Kunii, C

    1990-07-01

    Based on experiences with the Productive Cooperative Movement and the Parasite Control Movement in Japan, the Japanese Family Planning Movement began in April 1954. The resultant private and nonprofit Japan Family Planning Association (JFPA) followed and it served to help Japan achieve its goal of reducing fertility by promoting family planning. It did so by publishing a monthly newsletter on family planning, hosting meetings and national conventions, spreading information via the mass media, and selling contraceptives and educational materials. JFPA earned funding from these sales with no support from the government thereby establishing self dependence and freedom to speak candidly to the government. The JFPA learned that families wanted to improve their standard of living and were willing to limit family size to 2 children. After the birth rate peaked in 1955, the birth rate and the number of illegal abortions decreased. In the 1950s, JFPA joined the International Planned Parenthood Federation and subsequently learned of the problems faced by developing countries. Based on the successful reduction of fertility in Japan and a strong economic base, JFPA and the government were in a position to organize an international cooperation program for family planning. Therefore, the leader of JFPA resigned to found the Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning which promotes family planning in developing countries via its integrated family planning, nutrition, and parasite control program. A steering committee composed of leaders from government, universities, and private organizations sets the policies for the program in each country. It is to the Japanese government's advantage to work with private organizations instead of providing all social services because they are flexible and provide administrative stability and national expenses are minimized. PMID:12316428

  11. [Survey and analysis of family planning work at Xindian Brigade].

    PubMed

    Feng, L

    1985-03-29

    Through personal interviews, it was found that the success of family planning at Xindan Brigade can be attributed in part to the Brigade party's contribution to family planning education, with the party members acting as family planning models. Moreover, economic objectives are used to secure the results desired. Devoted members are recruited to promote family planning, while economic rewards and restrictions reinforce planning goals. Family planning work in the village of Sung Chuang was reasserted in late 1983 with party leaders acting as family planning models. The results were significant and in 1984, 18 out of 24 brigades fulfilled projected goals by 100% with the average for the entire Sung Chung village being 98.5%. A single-child family rate was obtained in 12 brigades with the average rate in the village for single-child families being 95.9% overall. It is thought that the role of agricultural production must be correctly analyzed and family planning modified to adjust to the "new" type of farming village. Furthermore, a long-lasting contradiction must be forseen between the viewpoints of these 2 sectors of society (i.e., agricultural and political). The policy of the party will be to implement the program and to correctly handle any objections or problems that may arise. Finally, collective management methods must be adopted by the authorities in order to effectively control population growth, especially that seen in the farming village. PMID:12341114

  12. Family planning in Latin America's barriadas.

    PubMed

    1993-05-01

    In Latin America, many rural people build dwellings in settlements on the cities' fringes without permission from the authorities. The authorities make several unsuccessful attempts to drive them away, but eventually ignore them. In the 1960s, family planning (FP) associations were concerned about how they can serve the shantytowns, which needed their services but had no social services at all, e.g., water supply and sanitation. In the early 1970s, PROFAMILIA Colombia began a new form of FP service delivery in rural areas by training someone from the community who believed in FP to distribution (CBD) programs provided more FP than all of PROFAMILIA's 60 clinics. In 1973, PROFAMILIA started its URBAN CBD program in the slums of Bogota and learned that the people wanted FP. The CBD movement spread throughout urban and rural Latin America. Brazil's BEMFAM developed the world's largest CBD program. By 1985, 10,365 distribution posts operated in Latin America and, by 1991, there were 26,423. In urban slums in the 1980s, Mexico's MEXFAM began using community doctors, who tend to be new medical graduates. Often the community and the doctors respect each other so much that many doctors remain in the shantytowns beyond their required time. The residents' acceptance of FP provided by people who understand the community shows how they want to plan their lives and better themselves. In addition, they have taken the chance to seek a better life by leaving hopeless situations in rural areas and by building dwellings for themselves, even though they had no money, land, or even basic necessities. In Peru, shantytown residents were moved to the desert and supplied with basic construction materials. They built a community, Villa El Salvador, now complete with tree-lined streets, shops, schools, and movies. Shantytown dwellers may have the solution to Latin America's problems. PMID:12179848

  13. Search is on for most outstanding family planning workers and clinics.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    The JSI Research and Training Institute, Inc, sponsored a national wide search in the Philippines commencing March 15, 1994, and ending July 7, 1994, for commendable family planning workers. The winners of the competition were selected from five categories: the best family planning volunteer worker, government family planning service worker, nongovernment family planning service worker, a government family planning clinic or center, and a nongovernment family planning clinic or center. Winners in each category were selected at the provincial or chartered city level, regional level, and national level. Nomination forms were made available in Provincial Health Offices or City Health Offices. Nomination criteria involved a worker who must have worked for at least 18 months for a family planning service agency and a volunteer who must have worked at least a year a family planning service agency in referring cases. Clinics or centers must have been in operation for at least 18 months and preferably accredited by the government. Winner selection criteria was based on the number of clients served, the commitment to family planning, and the quality of their work. Nominations were disqualified if workers were involved with performing abortions, coercing clients to practice family planning, or discriminating against any legally acceptable methods of contraception. Provincial selection of the winner occurred on July 15, 1994, and these winners were entered in the regional competition, which was set for August 1 and September 15, 1994. Regional winners competed in the national competition in November 1994. The award for each provincial winner will be a certificate, an aneroid sphygmomanometer, and a stethoscope. Provincial clinics will receive a certificate and a wall clock. Regional winners will receive a certificate and wrist watches. Regional clinics will receive a certificate and an examining table or karaoke sound system. The five national winners will receive a plaque of

  14. Differences in Counseling Men and Women: Family Planning in Kenya.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young Mi; Kols, Adrienne; Mwarogo, Peter; Awasum, David

    2000-01-01

    Comparisions of family planning sessions in Kenya found distinct gender differences in reasons for visiting the clinics and communication styles of both the clients and the counselors. These communication patterns may be a result of Kenyan gender roles and men's and women's different reasons for seeking family planning services. Implications of…

  15. Reports on Population/Family Planning, Number 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Council, New York, NY.

    This report presents a comprehensive review of empirical findings from postpartum research undertaken to date, particularly in respect to the International Postpartum Family Planning Program established by the Population Council in 1966. It is related to a forthcoming report summarizing findings in the field of family planning evaluation. The…

  16. Studies in Family Planning, Volume 2 Number 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Council, New York, NY.

    A typology of incentives and the general effects of incentives for family planning are discussed in "Incentives in the Diffusion of Family Planning Innovations," the first of three studies in this monthly publication of The Population Council. A brief review of the history of incentives and their present status in the fields is given, together…

  17. Studies in Family Planning, Volume 2 Number 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Council, New York, NY.

    This paper summarizes family planning activities and accomplishments during 1969 and 1970 in Morocco and Tunisia, and then sets forth 12 criteria that are utilized to evaluate the overall progress of the family planning programs in the two countries. These criteria serve to measure the readiness and prospects for the development of viable family…

  18. 34 CFR 303.167 - Individualized family service plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individualized family service plans. 303.167 Section...-Application Requirements § 303.167 Individualized family service plans. Each application must include— (a) An assurance that a current IFSP is in effect and implemented for each eligible child and the child's...

  19. Studies in Family Planning, Volume 3 Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Council, New York, NY.

    A new design for government family planning programs is proposed in "Family Planning Programs: An Economic Approach," the principal article in this monthly publication of The Population Council. The design is intended primarily for low-income countries that seek large and rapid reductions in fertility. Thirteen elements of the proposed system of…

  20. National Security Technology Incubation Project Continuation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    2008-09-30

    This document contains a project continuation plan for the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI). The plan was developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP) funded by a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This continuation plan describes the current status of NSTI (staffing and clients), long-term goals, strategies, and long-term financial solvency goals.The Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University (NMSU) is the operator and manager of the NSTI. To realize the NSTI, Arrowhead Center must meet several performance objectives related to planning, development, execution, evaluation, and sustainability. This continuation plan is critical to the success of NSTI in its mission of incubating businesses with security technology products and services.

  1. Population Growth and Family Planning. IN Visitors' Information Special Report. SO 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heisse, Thomas

    The rapid and still-accelerating increase in the world's population, especially in developing nations, will have a number of serious economic, social, and ecological consequences for the whole world. Germany is attempting to help solve these problems by providing family planning and poverty alleviation assistance to developing nations. German…

  2. Achievements of the Iranian family planning programmes 1956-2006.

    PubMed

    Simbar, M

    2012-03-01

    Family planning programmes initiated in the Islamic Republic of Iran from 1966 met with limited success. Following the 1986 census family planning was considered a priority and was supported by the country's leaders. Appropriate strategies based on the principles of health promotion led to an increase in the contraceptive prevalence rate among married women from 49.0% in 1989 to 73.8% in 2006. This paper reviews the family planning programmes in the Islamic Republic of Iran and their achievements during the last 4 decades and discusses the principles of health promotion and theories of behaviour change which may explain these achievements. Successful strategies included: creation of a supportive environment, reorientation of family planning services, expanding of coverage of family planning services, training skilled personnel, providing free contraceptives as well as vasectomy and tubectomy services, involvement of volunteers and nongovernmental organizations and promotion of male participation. PMID:22574484

  3. New awareness campaign increases appeal of family planning.

    PubMed

    1999-06-01

    This article examines the impact of the campaign known as "Bringing New Marital and Reproductive Styles into Tens of Thousands of Households" on family planning in China. The awareness campaign, which started in October 1998, was established to increase the effectiveness of family planning and introduce progressive lifestyles among the population through an interactive and service-oriented approach focusing on the needs of human beings. The program emphasizes the following elements: 1) late marriage; 2) late childbirth; 3) fewer childbirth; 4) gender equality; 5) male participation in family planning; 6) dissemination of family planning and reproductive health knowledge; 7) healthier births and quality of education; 8) enhanced self-care capabilities; 9) higher quality of life; and 10) healthier lifestyles. A face-to-face approach was used to encourage public participation and increase the appeal of family planning programs to ordinary people. Efforts are also being made to expose rural residents to new ideas and lifestyles. PMID:12319745

  4. The agricultural approach to rural family planning in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Flavier, J M

    1990-12-01

    Overly technical terminology and excessive use of lectures impede effective communication and teaching of family planning in the philippines. To achieve better results in information dissemination, especially in rural areas, the author provides a simple, effective, and interactive approach. The clearly-defined objective of identifying what family planning is and how it works is achieved through the use of analogies between farming and human sexual development. These analogies are jointly-developed in the field by groups of family planning workers and 8-10 men and women from the community. The farmers begin the group process by educating the family planning workers about their local farming practices. The workers then develop parallels between farming and the desired family planning messages. Once initiated, farmers are encouraged to develop and share their own parallels, by they with plants, farm animals, beliefs, or household articles. Better understanding, acceptance, and continuation rates will result from this voluntary, interactive approach. PMID:12283886

  5. BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT PLAN.

    SciTech Connect

    NAIDU,J.R.

    2002-10-22

    The purpose of the Wildlife Management Plan (WMP) is to promote stewardship of the natural resources found at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), and to integrate their protection with pursuit of the Laboratory's mission.

  6. National Security Technology Incubator Action Plan

    SciTech Connect

    2008-02-28

    This report documents the action plan for developing the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) program for southern New Mexico. The NSTI program is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). This action plan serves as a tool in measuring progress in the development process and delivery of services for the NSTI program. Continuous review and evaluation of the action plan is necessary in the development process of the NSTI. The action plan includes detailed steps in developing the NSTI program based on recommended best practices in incubator development by the National Business Incubation Association (NBIA). Included are tasks required to implement the NSTI, developed within a work breakdown structure. In addition, a timeline is identified for each task.

  7. Language, videos and family planning in the South Pacific.

    PubMed

    Winn, M; Lucas, D

    1993-12-01

    In 1984, women in Fiji, Kiribati, the Solomon Islands, and Tonga wanted culture-specific, educational resources on sexuality, family planning, contraception, reproduction, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Family Planning Australia [FPA] found video to be the most appropriate means to present information on these topics, since video continues the story-telling tradition of the Pacific. Women worked with FPA to produce videos addressing these topics. They were filmed in Fiji, which has a broad cross-section of South Pacific people. FPA took into account women's concerns and cultural and religious sensitivities. The English language videos were Better Safe, a story about STDs, condom use, and male sexual responsibility; Taboo Talk, a documentary about women's attitudes on menstruation, sex education, and family planning; AIDS and the South Pacific, about AIDS transmission and prevention; a d Down There, an animated documentary on reproduction and contraceptive methods. A project evaluation revealed that the videos would have received wider acceptance had they been in local languages. Local men and women debated each work of a translation of the list of reproductive health terms, eventually resulting in 20 culturally and linguistically appropriate video translations. A cross section of national language speakers modified and improved the draft translation of the 4 scripts. This whole process resulted in incorporation of the 88 reproductive health terms into the Booklet of South Pacific Reproductive Health Words and Phrases. The project showed that Pacific women were able to compile a booklet of culturally and linguistically acceptable terms and to successfully translate the scripts of health videos. In conclusions, people tend to be more willing to accept sexuality information and frank and explicit material than is usually believed if they are allowed to determine the context in which they receive it. PMID:12318840

  8. Barriers to Effective Intercultural Communication in Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcalay, Rina; Caldiz, Laura

    The document addresses communication problems between Anglo-American family planning counselors and Latin-American clients. Cultural differences in attitudes toward family, work, and sexuality are examined. The extended family provides the Latin-American woman with positive self-identity and serves as a source of social relations; it also favors…

  9. Petersburg National Battlefield Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    This collection of eight lesson plans deals with the Petersburg (Virginia) U.S. Civil War battlefield. The lessons tell about slave life and plantation life in the U.S. south, and how the Civil War forever changed this structure. To do the lessons, students read primary source documents that tell the stories of three different soldiers who…

  10. Maintaining technical excellence requires a national plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, T. F.

    1991-01-01

    To meet the challenge of technical excellence, AIA established a rocket propulsion committee to develop the National Rocket Propulsion Strategic Plan. Developing such a plan required a broad spectrum of experience and disciplines. The Strategic Plan team needed the participation of industry, government, and academia. The plan provides, if followed, a means for the U.S. to maintain technical excellence and world leadership in rocket propulsion. To implement the National Rocket Propulsion Strategic Plan is to invest in the social, economic, and technological futures of America. The plan lays the basis for upgrading existing propulsion systems and a firm base for future full scale development, production, and operation of rocket propulsion systems for space, defense, and commercial applications.

  11. National Security Technology Incubator Operations Plan

    SciTech Connect

    2008-04-30

    This report documents the operations plan for developing the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) program for southern New Mexico. The NSTI program will focus on serving businesses with national security technology applications by nurturing them through critical stages of early development. The NSTI program is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The operation plan includes detailed descriptions of the structure and organization, policies and procedures, scope, tactics, and logistics involved in sustainable functioning of the NSTI program. Additionally, the operations plan will provide detailed descriptions of continuous quality assurance measures based on recommended best practices in incubator development by the National Business Incubation Association (NBIA). Forms that assist in operations of NSTI have been drafted and can be found as an attachment to the document.

  12. Connecting America: The National Broadband Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In early 2009, Congress directed the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to develop a National Broadband Plan to ensure every American has "access to broadband capability." Congress also required that this plan include a detailed strategy for achieving affordability and maximizing use of broadband to advance "consumer welfare, civic…

  13. Family planning management in state-owned enterprises: the case of No. 1 Automobile Group Corporation. Urban family planning programme.

    PubMed

    1997-02-01

    This brief report indicates the accomplishments in family planning of the Automobile Group Corporation in northeastern Changchun, China. This industry has 130,000 staff and workers. The State Family Planning Commission of the Jilin Provincial Government and the Changchun City Government gave an award to this company for having the most advanced unit in family planning provision. This corporation was successful in creating population awareness and strong leadership among its executives for practicing family planning. Administrative workers signed contracts for human reproduction and production of automobiles. The family planning policy was strictly followed on a day-to-day basis. The company offered IEC, contraceptives, and benefits to acceptors. The company provides about 3.5 million yuan per year for family planning activities and strives to improve its services. Women workers now receive reproductive health services. The facility includes a hospital, a family planning clinic, and a maternal and child health clinic and is fully equipped with modern medical instruments for diagnosing gynecological conditions. The quality control management system for producing automobiles is applied to family planning management and applied research on marriage and childbirth. There is 100% acceptance of the one-child certificate. Over 90% of workers delayed marriage and childbirth. During the 1970s and 1980s, about 30,000 births were averted. PMID:12320695

  14. PROFAM expands Mexican family planning clinics.

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    Mexico's private, nonprofit social marketing company, known as PROFAM, intends to expand its family planning clinics to marginal urban areas. The clinics are part of PROFAM's push to diversify social marketing outlets for contraceptive products and other birth control methods. PROFAM expects to establish 3 new clinics, possibly including a pregnancy test laboratory, a small 1-doctor clinic, and a large clinic housing an operating room. 1 clinic will be located outside the Mexico City area, the program's traditional boundaries. The company currently runs 2 small clinics and a pregnancy testing laboratory in Ciudad Netzahualcoyti, a community of 3.5 million on Mexico City's outskirts. PROFAM recently obtaine d government approval to sell condoms in food stores, which should increase distribtuion and sales. Currently, the company sells over 1 million high quality, lubricated condoms each month, accounting for over half of the Mexican market. Distribution covers 85% of the country's drugstore. Program setbacks occurred in 1981, when the Mexican government cancelled PROFAM's sales permits for all contraceptive products except condoms. Cancelled products included an oral contraceptive and 3 vaginal spermicides. These 4 products had provided nearly 100,000 couple years of protection in 1979 and an estimated 120,000 CYP 1980. During 1979 and 1980, condoms provided about 27,000 and 60,000 CYP, respectively. PROFAM had relied heavily on the pill and spermicides because its early studies showed condoms had a negative image in Mexico, due largely to the product's association with extramarital affairs. To counter this, PROFAM launched a widespread, free product sampling program in 1979, along with a continuing educational and advertising drive. Subsequent consumer surveys revealed a marked increase in product acceptance, with PROFAM's condom becoming the most widely known brand available in Mexico. PMID:12267250

  15. The strategies, experiences and future challenges of the information component in the Indonesian Family Planning Programme.

    PubMed

    Suyono, H

    1988-12-01

    In 1957, the Indonesian Planned Parenthood Federation was established. In 1970, the National Family Planning Board (BKKBN) was created. The current contraceptive prevalence rate is 45-50%. The family planning program began with a health-oriented approach. To promote acceptance, religious leaders were asked to provide legitimacy to the program. Through their efforts, it became possible to include all the means and medication used for family planning services within the program. In developing an IEC strategy to encourage couples to accept family planning, 3 main factors were studied: 1) the types of innovations that were to be introduced, 2) the characteristics of the Indonesian community, and 3) the need for an IEC strategy to convey the programs messages the community and make the community itself the agent of the innovation being introduced. The elements of the strategy were introduced stage by stage to avoid unnecessary debate. Another strategic step was the introduction of family planning using a community approach. A 3rd strategic step was a shift from couples as family planning acceptors to the introduction of the norm of a small, happy, and prosperous family. The 1st stage, expansion of program coverage, 1) promoted the need for and desirability of family planning to make the small and happy family the norm and 2) supplied contraceptives and information about contraceptives throughout Indonesia. The 2nd stage, the program maintenance approach, included 1) an increase in the frequency of visits to villages by mobile family planning teams, 2) the integration of family planning activities with other health-related activities, and 3) giving people a wider choice of methods and helping them to choose the most suitable method for them. The 3rd stage made family planning a community activity, integrated within the economic and social fabric of community life. The general strategy of the IEC program is to make the various target groups full family planning

  16. National Mirror Fusion Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Gerich, C.A.

    1982-08-01

    This Plan is current as of August 1982. The major milestones listed herein represent an aggressive, success-oriented program paced primarily by technical results. Consistent with applicable government policies and the overall program planning of the Department's Office of Fusion Energy, this Plan assumes approval of the Mirror Program's next major step beyond MFTF-B - a deuterium-tritium (D-T) burning engineering reactor called the Fusion Power Demonstration (FPD) facility (formerly the Tandem Mirror Next Step). The near-term goal of the tandem mirror program is to lay the scientific and technical groundwork for an economically attractive, D-T fusion reactor design before the end of the 1980s. Construction of the FPD facility based on the tandem mirror could be initited around 1988. A second phase, complete with a nuclear power blanket demonstration, could be initiated in the mid-1990s, based on nuclear engineering data from a facility such as the Technology Demonstration Facility (TDF) described below. The outline of an acceptable tandem mirror reactor (TMR) design was first published in 1981, and will be further developed and described in the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) during FY 1982-1983.

  17. Economic woes mean cuts to family planning services.

    PubMed

    1991-07-01

    Due to budget cuts at the federal, state, and local levels, family planning clinics that rely in public funding are facing financial hardship. In 1980, the federal government provided $162 million for family planning under Title 10. But for 1991, the allocation was down to $140 million. Compared to 1980, there are 100 fewer government-funded clinics providing family planning. Many health clinics have simply ceased providing such services. The Community Family Planning Council in New York City is one of those organizations that has suffered severely from the cutbacks. Previously operating 12 family planning clinics, the council had no choice but to close 3 clinics that served about 10,000 low-income women, after the city's Human Resource Administration (HRA) cut $1 million from the council's budget. For 1992, HRA plans increase the cut to $2.3 million. The majority of the women affected are part of the "working poor," women who work for minimum wage. Family planners say that, in the long run, the consequences of the cutbacks will be more expensive for the city. Many women will have unwanted pregnancies, and many will be forced to quit their jobs to care for the baby, relying on public assistance and Medicaid. As the council has argued to city officials, family planning programs are cost effective. The council estimates that their programs prevent about 4500 pregnancies and 2000 abortions each year, which saves the city $15 million a year social services. Massive cutbacks also threaten family planning services in New Hampshire, where legislators where proposing to cut all funding. After pleas from family planners, the state is not looking at 45% reduction. A bright note has been California, where evidence to the cost-effectiveness of family planning convinced the governor to propose a $10 million increase for 1992. PMID:12284064

  18. Family planning and maternal health care in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-mouelhy, M T

    1990-01-01

    The Government of Egypt is introducing policies to reduce the mortality of women of reproductive age. However, family planning and maternal-child health care programs are unlikely to have the desired impact without corresponding improvements in the status of Egyptian women. Women's status in the areas of education, health, poverty, employment, the family, government, and the community is a crucial determinant of their willingness and ability to accept a smaller family size ideal and become contraceptive users. At present, only 6% of Egyptian women are a part of the work force and 60% are illiterate. In a society in which women are valued on the basis of the number of children they produce for their husbands, those practice birth control risk abandonment and isolation. The powerlessness and insecurity that lead Egyptian women to have an average of at least 5 children impeded national development and thus delay creation of the socioeconomic conditions that could liberate women from their domestic role. Equal opportunities in education and employment would represent a first step toward improving women's status by giving them a source of income and increased independence. Also needed are modifications in archaic marriage, divorce, and custody laws. PMID:12317075

  19. Understanding Personal and Family Financial Planning Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council of Life Insurance, Washington, DC. Education and Community Services.

    This publication for teachers focuses on one specific content area of consumer education--financial planning. The first major section begins by identifying eight competencies in financial planning education. It describes the financial planning process used to anticipate changes in moving from one stage of life to another, choosing the options, and…

  20. The Filipino male as a target audience in family planning.

    PubMed

    Vitug, W

    1986-01-01

    Since the official launching of the Philippine Population Program in 1970, family planning campaigns have substantially addressed themselves to women. The suggestion to devote equal, if not more, attention to men as family planning targets had been raised by Dr. Mercado as early as 1971. It was not until 1978, that the deliberate inclusion of males as a target audience in family planning became a matter of policy. The Population Center Foundation (PCF), from 1979 to 1982, carried out research projects to determine the most suitable approaches and strategies to reach Filipino men. The objectives of the PCF's Male Specific Program are: 1) to test alternative schemes in promoting male family planning methods through pilot-testing of family planning clinics for men, 2) to develop teaching materials geared toward specific segments of the male population, 3) to undertake skills training in male-specific motivational approaches for program professionals, and 4) to assess the extent of the husband's role in family planning. An important finding of 1 study was that most outreach workers were female stood in the way of the motivation process, thus hampering the campaign. While the consultative motivational skills training improved knowledge, attitudes, and skills of outreach workers with regard to vasectomy and the motivation process, there were certain predispositions that were hindering the fieldworkers' effectiveness in motivating target clients. Overall, in-depth, 1-to-1 motivation in dealing with men is needed to strengthen internalization of family planning values. PMID:12280740

  1. [Knowledge, attitudes and practices among religious students concerning family planning].

    PubMed

    Karout, N; Altuwaijri, S

    2012-07-01

    To determine the knowledge, attitude and practices concerning family planning of students attending religious schools in Lebanon, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 450 male and female students. A validated structured questionnaire was completed by the students. The majority of the students (65%) had a moderate level of knowledge, males more than females, but females had more positive beliefs and attitudes. More females agreed with family planning programmes and methods than males, but 35% had a negative attitude to family planning; a significant percentage had negative attitudes to contraceptive methods based on their view that they are not allowed (haram) in Islam. Among the married students, less than 40% used a family planning method; of those, the majority used a female method. Religion plays an important role in the health behaviour of religious students. Religious leaders can therefore inhibit or promote family planning, which will affect the success of family planning programmes. Thus, they should be included in the development and promotion of family planning programmes. PMID:22891526

  2. Family planning in the reorganized N.H.S. (e) Community family planning services.

    PubMed

    Macqueen, I A

    1974-06-01

    Recommendations on community family planning services are made by an Aberdeen Medical Health Officer. It is noted that: 1) both GPs and clinics have their value in contraceptive treatment; 2) clinics should be conveniently located and might be set up in buildings which are used for other health purposes at other times; 3) most women work so there should be evening sessions; 4) arrangements should be made which include both an appointments system and emergency visits; 5) reception at the clinic should be courteous and without moral judgements; 6) domiciliary services should be used only as a last resort; and 7) payment of prescription charges is now required, but there might be advantages in changing this to a free service. The ideal person for motivating people to use the service is the health visitor. More health visitors are needed, salaries and promotions must be raised, and enrolled nurses should be recruited to act as assistants to health visitors. Benefits of the Aberdeen community family planning services are described. Such services increase the happiness of the community and save the community a considerable amount of money. PMID:4428028

  3. Contraceptive Use, United States, 1982. Vital & Health Statistics. Data from the National Survey of Family Growth, Series 23, No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosher, William D.; Bachrach, Christine A.

    The National Survey of Family Growth is a periodic survey administered to women between the ages of 15 and 44 years and designed to produce national estimates of statistics on fertility, family planning, and aspects of maternal and child health that are closely related to childbearing. This report describes findings from the 1982 National Survey…

  4. Measuring Access to Family Planning: Conceptual Frameworks and DHS Data.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoonjoung; Fabic, Madeleine Short; Adetunji, Jacob

    2016-06-01

    Expanding access to family planning (FP) is a driving aim of global and national FP efforts. The definition and measurement of access, however, remain nebulous, largely due to complexity. This article aims to bring clarity to the measurement of FP access. First, we synthesize key access elements for measurement by reviewing three well-known frameworks. We then assess the extent to which the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS)-a widely used data source for FP programs and research-has information to measure these elements. We finally examine barriers to access by element, using the latest DHS data from four countries in sub-Saharan Africa. We discuss opportunities and limitations in the measurement of access, the importance of careful interpretation of data from population-based surveys, and recommendations for collecting and using data to better measure access. PMID:27285425

  5. Reducing discontinuation in family planning programs.

    PubMed

    Roberts, D; Panitchpakdi, P; Loevinsohn, B

    1993-01-01

    Management strategies for reducing discontinuation in family planning programs are summarized; the strategies are practical and show how to analyze data for women who stop using contraception. Common factors that are associated with high levels of discontinuation are identified. Recommendations are made for how program managers can change service delivery in order to improve client continuation. Understanding the size and nature of discontinuation is an important precursor to a solution. Data collection on discontinuation could be combined with a system for tracking and follow-up of individual clients. The reasons that women stop using contraception are identified as those which clinics can or cannot control. A clinic discontinues is one who is a "no show" within a reasonable period of time. Decisions need to be made about the type of discontinues to be tracked, e.g. all new acceptors or pill users only. How to identify no shows, how to use the daily register tracking system, and how to calculate discontinuation rates are described. A special daily record tracking system can be used to track clients over years and does not replace the client medical and reproductive history record. The advantages are that client forms to not have to be redesigned and staff training is simple. The disadvantages apply to large clinics and the need for ample filing areas and proper management. An example is given of a working solution in Kenya for a community-based distribution program. Discontinuation rates may be calculated in various ways; a more exact measure tends to be the most useful. Recalculating discontinuation rates at regular intervals can provide an effective way to check standards of care. A tally sheet can be used to track characteristics of discontinues; a sample is given and analyzed to show interpretations which point the way to program changes. Comparisons may be made by age, method type, length of use. An example is given of the Rwanda service delivery system and

  6. Attitudes of 110 married men towards family planning.

    PubMed

    Arokiasamy, J T

    1980-09-01

    A study was conducted at the Army Garrison Hospital at Port Dickson in Peninsular Malaysia to determine the attitudes of 110 married men towards family planning. The sample included 80 Malays and 30 Indians who are army personnel attending the hospital either for medical treatment or a check-up. The study instrument was a pre-tested questionnarie administered by 2 male nurses during the November-December 1975 period. 76 of the respondents were between the ages of 20-34 years. 81 of the respondents had been married for a duration of up to 11 years. A breakdown by religion showed that 80 were Muslims, 25 were Hindus, and 5 were Christians, the latter being all Roman Catholics. All of the respondents were able to read and write in at least 1 language, 36 had had schooling varying from standard 1-6, 40 had had schooling varying between Form 1-Form 3, and 34 had had schooling varying from Form 4-to either Malaysian Certificate of Education Level or Higher School Certificate Level. 103 of the respondents approved of family planning, and of these 63 had always felt this way in the past. 6 respondents indicated that they had not thought about family planning in the past. 87 respondents did not approve of the practice of family planning before having the 1st child. Only 7 of 80 Malays in contrast to 16 of 30 Indian respondents -- a significant difference -- approved of family planning before the 1st child. 89 of the 110 respondents had discussed family planning with their wives; 21 respondents had not. 93 respondents disapproved of induced abortion; 17 approved of it. Only 3 of 80 Malay respondents approved induced abortion, but 14 of 30 Indian respondents indicated approval. 98 of the respondents indicated that they were interested in learning more about family planning, and 96 approved of their wife practicing family planning. 56 respondents were practicing family planning, and 20 indicated that they would do so in the future. 6 said they would not practice family

  7. [Role of the "Marriage and Family" Section in the field of family planning in the German Democratic Republic].

    PubMed

    Dolberg, G; Krause, S; Wegner, B

    1976-07-01

    Founded in 1963, the marriage and family planning department under the leadership of its chairman, K.H. Mehlan has grown in its number of members (220) and in its sphere of activities. With the help of the Health Department it has increasingly taken on the responsibility of implementing family planning programs in the German Democratic Republic. Laws concerning abortion and sterilization were liberalized to women's advantage and a serious attempt was made to provide new, effective mechanical, chemical, and hormonal contraceptives. Marriage and Sexual Counseling centers were set up throughout the country. From 1965 on development conferences were held annually in Rostock. A major propaganda compaign for family planning was initiated with national and local press specials, television and radio programs, and lectures and conferences throughout the republic. In 1967 the department was accepted in the IPPF. In 1968 the department was given status as a separate and independent one. In 1971 demography and fertility were included in the curricula of the medical schools. Specialized organizations concentrated on training and further education of family planning workers and specialists. In 1971 an international seminar was held to discuss family planning in socialist countries, and in 1972 abortion was legalized and an attempt was made to instruct youth in the most effective methods of contraceptives. PMID:960845

  8. Towards healthy family planning attitude: a self persuasion approach.

    PubMed

    Balogun, S K

    1990-07-01

    The potential usefulness of improvisational techniques in changing deeply embedded pronatalist attitudes was assessed in an exercise involving University of Ibadan students. The students were instructed to write an essay in support of family planning. To assist them, 4 statements were provided to the students as guidelines: 1) birth control is the best way to create a happy family; 2) family planning can reduce the burden created by overly large family size; 3) family planning has the potential to raise the standard of living of African families; and 4) overpopulation is at a critical point in Nigeria. It was hypothesized that these arguments, which are counter to those prevalent in Nigeria, would force students to critically examine their thinking and lead to some attitudinal conversion. In addition, some students were given a pretest before and/or after writing the essay that asked their opinion on 5 items: 1) family planning is alien to African culture; 2) excessive childbearing is unhealthy for families and the society; 3) the government should enact antinatalist legislation; 4) there is no present need for large families; and 5) family planning is essential to provide children with a good education. Although students who wrote the essays developed stronger support for all items except number 3, the change in attitudes was not statistically significant. The attitude changes were greatest among the subset of students who took the test before writing the essay and thus were sensitized to the issues. Males, Christians, and older students were more likely to be supportive of family planning than their counterparts. Although this technique was not very effective in this study, its evaluation in other populations is suggested. PMID:12343207

  9. China: women benefit from the family planning programme.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Z

    1995-08-01

    This statement was made by the director of CPIRC in China. Opening remarks focused on the admirable achievement in the reduction of births over 20 years by about 300 million, which is more than the combined populations of Canada and the USA. Family planning programs are considered as providing the means for couples to have fewer children and as promoting social progress and the advancement of women. IEC programming for family planning is extensive and country wide. Home visitation for family planning is part of programming within the All China Women's Federation and the China Family Planning Association. IEC programs include information about population, reproductive health, and family planning for millions of families. The opportunity is available for Chinese women to acquire knowledge and make decisions that balance individual needs with social responsibility and to have access to information on modern methods, on healthy childrearing patterns, and on maternal health. Chinese women are considered able to have an equal say with their husbands in determining the size and spacing of children. The maternal and child health (MCH) and family planning network is described as including 374 MCH hospitals, over 2800 MCH clinics and stations, 2300 county family planning service stations, and millions of medical professionals in mobile medical teams. Jiangsu is identified as a particularly successful province in achievement of health and family planning. State family planning policy and related regulations are understood within the context of integrated programs combining family planning with economic development, poverty alleviation, popularization of modern scientific knowledge, and betterment of social security systems. The example is given of Henan province where girls are enthusiastic about learning and bring productive skills as a form of dowry to the marriage. Rural women are encouraged to participate in training, and urban women are encouraged to serve as public role

  10. National Development Plan 1988-1990.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    This document contains eight provisions from the fourth chapter (on population issues) of the 1988-90 Development Plan of Mauritius. Because the goals of previous population policies have been attained in Mauritius (with fertility at below replacement levels), social and family welfare goals can be predominant in the development plan, including improvements in health, education, access to employment opportunities, and raising the status of women. Also, despite its success, the family planning program contains some weaknesses which should be addressed, including a high dropout rate and an over-reliance on oral contraceptives. Additionally, the IEC (information, education, and communication) component of the program should be refined to reach hard-core nonacceptors. Breast feeding must be encouraged, especially among working mothers, and the efficiency of the family planning program must be improved to reduce the high reliance on abortion. Because of the mortality and morbidity associated with illegal abortions, the government must develop a consensus on the issue of legalizing this procedure. PMID:12289391

  11. Later life care planning conversations for older adults and families.

    PubMed

    Stolee, Paul; Zaza, Christine; Sharratt, Michael T

    2014-09-01

    While most older adults have thought about their future care needs, few have discussed their preferences with family members. We interviewed older persons (24), adult children (24), health professionals (23), and representatives of stakeholder associations (3) to understand their views and experiences on later life care (LLC) planning conversations, in terms of (a) their respective roles, and (b) barriers and facilitators that should be taken into account when having these conversations. Roles described included that of information user (older persons), information seeker (family members), and information provider (health care providers). The study identified practical and emotional considerations relevant to LLC planning conversations. This study found strong support for planning for LLC before the need arises, as well as important potential benefits for older adults, family members, and health professionals. There is interest in, and need for, resources to guide families in LLC planning. PMID:24652903

  12. Culture and the management of family planning programs.

    PubMed

    Warwick, D P

    1988-01-01

    Integrating family planning programs with local cultures can increase or undermine their effectiveness. Program design and organization will be influenced by kinship and reproductive decision-making, which varies across regions, racial and communal divisions, and religions. Program implementation depends on four aspects of culture: (1) the understanding, acceptance, and continued practice of family planning by clients; (2) the climate in the organizations responsible for fieldwork, which affects the disposition to work and the tasks to be done; (3) the ability and willingness of field implementers to do their work; and (4) the communities in which clients live, including collective attitudes toward family planning and local pressures put on clients to participate. The Indonesian family planning program is a case in which these elements of culture are often positive. Other programs, such as that in Kenya, have a more negative environment for action. PMID:3284022

  13. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The objective of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan is to compile and to consolidate information annually on how the ORNL Waste Management Program is conducted, which waste management facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, what activities are planned for the forthcoming fiscal year (FY), and how all of the activities are documented.

  14. Farmers knew prosperity lies in family planning: Prof. Gao Yuanxiang.

    PubMed

    1997-09-01

    This brief article summarizes a speech given by the Director of Population Studies in Hebei, China, on family planning and sustainable development. Concurrent with the implementation of the family planning policy over the past 20 years was the implementation of development policies in rural areas. Agricultural policy shifted from support of the commune system to a land-leasing system. The land-leasing system is an improvement that inspires farmers to become wealthy and modernized. The new rural administration encourages modernization that releases manpower, and thus, frees farmers to concentrate on improving production and farming techniques rather than on increasing reproduction. Farmers decide on working time allocation and investment. Surplus agricultural laborers are migrating to cities in search of better work opportunities. Legal measures are needed to help migrants adapt to development. Urban living requires a one-child policy, while a two-child policy is acceptable in poor and mountainous rural areas. "The education of family planning must be mandatory." Under the new policies, people must become committed to family planning. Farmers are beginning to discover the benefits of family planning. Farmer's enlightenment occurred as a result of the family planning and poverty alleviation efforts during the late 1980s and 1990s. Farmers appreciate the government assistance and now believe that family planning benefits individuals and enhances their honor and responsibility. The benefits of the policy will continue into the future. "Sustainable population development is an important part of economic development." China is entering the new century with a new type of demographic structure, a new cultural system of family planning, and practical efforts. PMID:12292780

  15. Family planning in conflict: results of cross-sectional baseline surveys in three African countries

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite the serious consequences of conflict for reproductive health, populations affected by conflict and its aftermath face tremendous barriers to accessing reproductive health services, due to insecurity, inadequate numbers of trained personnel and lack of supplies. Family planning is often particularly neglected. Methods In six conflict-affected areas in Sudan, northern Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo, household surveys of married or in-union women of reproductive age were conducted to determine baseline measures of family planning knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding contraception. Health facility assessments were carried out to assess baseline measures of family planning services availability. Data were double-entered into CSPro 3.2 and exported to SAS 9.2, which was used to calculate descriptive statistics. The studies' purposes were to guide program activities and to serve as a baseline against which program accomplishments could be measured. Results Knowledge of modern contraceptive methods was low relative to other sub-Saharan African countries, and use of modern methods was under 4% in four sites; in two sites with prior family planning services it was 12% and 16.2%. From 30% to 40% of women reported they did not want a child within two years, however, and an additional 12% to 35% wanted no additional children, suggesting a clear need for family planning services. The health facilities assessment showed that at most only one-third of the facilities mandated to provide family planning had the necessary staff, equipment and supplies to do so adequately; in some areas, none of the facilities were prepared to offer such services. Conclusions Family planning services are desired by women living in crisis situations when offered in a manner appropriate to their needs, yet services are rarely adequate to meet these needs. Refugee and internally displaced women must be included in national and donors' plans to improve family

  16. Jamaica Integrated National Energy Planning Model

    SciTech Connect

    Macal, C.M.

    1987-01-01

    The Jamaica Integrated National Energy Planning (JINEP) Model was developed by Argonne National Laboratory under contract to the Jamaica Ministry of Mining, Energy, and Tourism. JINEP is a comprehensive model of the energy-producing sector and the major energy consuming sectors of Jamaica. The JINEP Model is an application of a modelling system, the Integrated Demand and Energy Supply (IDES) Model, that was previously developed at Argonne for the purpose of analyzing energy systems of developing countries. IDES is based on several years of experience in analyzing energy planning issues characteristic of developing countries.

  17. National energy planning for developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Wilbanks, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper is a summary of what has been learned from the experience with national energy planning in developing countries. It considers lessons learned about the roles of data, analysis, and modeling in this enterprise, because of the connections between these components and our common interest in research to advance the state of the art; but it concludes that the most important needs at this time are institutional rather than analytical, which suggests a somewhat different set of priorities for scholarship related to national energy planning in the developing world.

  18. National Ignition Facility project acquisition plan

    SciTech Connect

    Callaghan, R.W.

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this National Ignition Facility Acquisition Plan is to describe the overall procurement strategy planned for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Project. The scope of the plan describes the procurement activities and acquisition strategy for the following phases of the NIF Project, each of which receives either plant and capital equipment (PACE) or other project cost (OPC) funds: Title 1 and 2 design and Title 3 engineering (PACE); Optics manufacturing facilitization and pilot production (OPC); Convention facility construction (PACE); Procurement, installation, and acceptance testing of equipment (PACE); and Start-up (OPC). Activities that are part of the base Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program are not included in this plan. The University of California (UC), operating Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Lockheed-Martin, which operates Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR-LLE), will conduct the acquisition of needed products and services in support of their assigned responsibilities within the NIF Project structure in accordance with their prime contracts with the Department of Energy (DOE). LLNL, designated as the lead Laboratory, will have responsibility for all procurements required for construction, installation, activation, and startup of the NIF.

  19. [Effect of development of rural commodity economy on family planning].

    PubMed

    Chen, X

    1986-05-01

    The paper discusses the effects of the changes of rural income level on family planning practice based a survey of 200 rural families in a affluent vegetable producing area of suburban Beijing. In 1984, 99.7% of child birth followed the local birth planning, and 99.1% of families with one child received One Child Certificates. The annual per capita income of the 200 families was 1,092 yuan (1 US$ = 3.7 yuan) in 1984 even higher than the community average. The number of children was negatively associated with the per capita income and per capita consumption except families with 4 children, most of whom have grown up. The rural mechanization in the community has greatly increased the need for skills and technology rather than strong laborers. The provision of community welfare programs and the increased living standard changed the value of children and also changed people's perception in favor of gender equality. Among families with 1 or 2 children, most preferred to have girls. And among families with more children, the preferred family size is smaller than the actual size, which shows a tendency towards favoring a small family. Among 1 child families, 58.7% considered 1 boy and 1 girl to be ideal, and 37.7% was happy with the only child. As the community becomes richer, both the community and individual families increased their investment in education. The spending on education per child was over 2 times as high in 1 child families than the families with more children. The educational status of parents is positively associated with the exception of children's future education and current spending on education. The concern of parents over children's education is an important factor in improving the quality of labor force. Women of higher education status are more acceptable to contraception and family planning policy. The relatively high level of education of the community has been conducive to it fertility decline. PMID:12280626

  20. The agenda for family planning in the USSR.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, H

    1991-09-01

    Concerned over a high rate of abortions that could be undermining the health Soviet women, the USSR has begun developing a family planning agenda designed to improve maternal and child health. Compared to industrialized countries, the USSR's infant mortality is high. This fact may be explained by the extremely high rate of abortions -- an annual 12 million induced abortions in a country with 70 million women of fertile age. The average Soviet woman of fertile age has had between 4 and 6 abortions (some have had as many as 20 abortions performed in their lifetime). About 1/2 of all the country's gynecologists do nothing but perform abortions. The heavy reliance on abortion is due to shortages in any other birth control methods. When abortion was legalized in 1955, the government did not promote family planning. Many Soviet people, however, had become concerned over the dangers of abortion. With the changes brought on by Glasnost and Perestroika, a movement to develop a family planning agenda began growing. As a result, the Soviet government has begun promoting family planning programs in an effort to improve maternal health and reduce the number of abortions. And in 1989, the Soviet Family Health Association (SFHA), a self-financing nongovernmental organization dedicated to family planning, started operating. Furthermore, in 1990, an appeal by President Mikhail Gorbachev led the Supreme Soviet to create the Committee on Problems of Women, Family and Maternal and Child Health Care. PMID:12284285

  1. Minister Peng reports on the population status and family planning programme in 1993.

    PubMed

    Peng, P

    1994-04-01

    Madame Peng Peiyun as Minister of the State Family Planning Commission addressed the National Family Planning Conference in March 1994. The topics of discussion were program activities in 1993, justification of the program, and aims for 1994. Future activities of the family planning programs will be devoted to program improvement and to promotion of awareness of the importance of family planning. Improvements will also be made in the responsibility system for target management. Population plans have been successful in reducing fertility. The level of socioeconomic development should determine the quotas set in the population plan. Competitiveness between areas and impractically high targets should be avoided. Fulfillment of targets is expected as well as the enforcement of guidelines. Family planning implementation should be evaluated in terms of the methods used to achieve targets and the relationship between Party organizations and the public and between cadres and the people. This form of evaluation was recommended by General-Secretary Jiang Zemin at the National Forum on Family Planning Work in March 1993. The "three stresses" should be implemented with the highest priority at all levels: IEC, contraception, and regular management and services. An emphasis on these "stresses" can improve the economic and social status of women and can contribute to a "rational socialist civilization." An integrated approach combining production, living standards, and human reproduction should also be forthcoming. The ultimate goal is to develop production, establish happy, more civilized families, and have fewer, but healthier babies. Grassroots implementation must be strengthened. Funding must be increased. The major goals of the Development of Children Program in the 1990s must be fulfilled. The unbalanced sex ratio should be given attention at all levels. PMID:12346841

  2. Population and family planning in developing countries: the employer's role.

    PubMed

    Tata, N H

    1974-01-01

    The overall population problem of the world is discussed briefly. The author asserts that rapid population growth has serious social and political implications and imposes serious restraints on economic progress. It is also linked to problems of urbanization. Family planning is a way out. The state alone is not enough to make family planning successful, it must be supported by the different segments of society. Employers have a major social responsibility in this respect. After this general introduction, and the assertion of the basic role of the employer in family planning programs, the author deals with the specific situation in India in terms of 1) its population problem, 2) progress and impact of the Indian family planning program, and 3) the role of employers in the promotion of family planning in India; a detailed section is devoted to the family planning centers of the Tata group of companies (Tata textile units, chemicals, iron and steel, engineering and locomotive, etc.). The author enumerates the measures to promote effective participation by employers, which include 1) an organized framework, 2) assistance to employers, and 3) removal of disincentives. The author concludes by saying that the efforts of employers to limit population growth need to be supplemented by international cooperation and action. PMID:12257448

  3. Need for integration of gender equity in family planning services

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Suneela; Singh, Ritesh

    2014-01-01

    The family planning programme of India has shown many significant changes since its inception five decades back. The programme has made the contraceptives easily accessible and affordable to the people. Devices with very low failure rate are provided free of cost to those who need it. Despite these significant improvements in service delivery related to family planning the programme cannot be said to achieve success at all levels. There are many issues with the family planning services available through the public health facilities in India. Failure to adopt the latest technology is one of these. But the most serious drawback of the programme is that it has never been able to bridge the gap between the two genders related to contraceptives. The programme gave emphasis to women-centric contraceptive and thus women were seen as their clients. The choice to adopt a contraceptive though is ‘cafeteria approach’ in family planning lexicon; it is the choice of the husband that is ultimately practiced. There is not enough dialogue between husband and wife and husband and health worker to discuss the use of one contraceptive over another. The male gender needs to be taken in confidence while promoting the family planning practice. The integration of gender equity is to be done carefully so as not to make dominant gender more powerful. Only when there is equity between genders while using family planning services the programme will achieve success. PMID:25673536

  4. Personal and Family Financial Planning: The Need and the Promise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elfenbein, Iris M.; And Others

    The first of a series on personal and family financial planning (PFFP) education, this publication presents five papers examining the need for educational programs that emphasize the use of financial resources in ways that contribute to family stability. C. Raymond Anderson discusses the inability of many individuals to realistically manage…

  5. National Ignition Facility wet weather construction plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kugler, A N

    1998-01-01

    This report presents a wet weather construction plan for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) construction project. Construction of the NIF commenced in mid- 1997, and excavation of the site was completed in the fall. Preparations for placing concrete foundations began in the fall, and above normal rainfall is expected over the tinter. Heavy rainfall in late November impacted foundation construction, and a wet weather construction plan was determined to be needed. This wet weather constiction plan recommends a strategy, techniques and management practices to prepare and protect the site corn wet weather effects and allow construction work to proceed. It is intended that information in this plan be incorporated in the Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) as warranted.

  6. Idaho National Laboratory Site Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Jenifer Nordstrom

    2014-02-01

    This plan provides a high-level summary of environmental monitoring performed by various organizations within and around the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site as required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and DOE Order 458.1, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, Guide DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance, and in accordance with 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. The purpose of these orders is to 1) implement sound stewardship practices that protect the air, water, land, and other natural and cultural resources that may be impacted by DOE operations, and 2) to establish standards and requirements for the operations of DOE and DOE contractors with respect to protection of the environment and members of the public against undue risk from radiation. This plan describes the organizations responsible for conducting environmental monitoring across the INL Site, the rationale for monitoring, the types of media being monitored, where the monitoring is conducted, and where monitoring results can be obtained. Detailed monitoring procedures, program plans, or other governing documents used by contractors or agencies to implement requirements are referenced in this plan. This plan covers all planned monitoring and environmental surveillance. Nonroutine activities such as special research studies and characterization of individual sites for environmental restoration are outside the scope of this plan.

  7. National Biofuels Action Plan, October 2008

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2008-10-01

    To help industry achieve the aggressive national goals, Federal agencies will need to continue to enhance their collaboration. The Biomass Research and Development (R&D) Board was created by Congress in the Biomass Research and Development Act of 2000. The National Biofuels Action Plan outlines areas where interagency cooperation will help to evolve bio-based fuel production technologies from promising ideas to competitive solutions.

  8. [Family planning and diverse declarations of human rights].

    PubMed

    Gakwaya, D

    1990-08-01

    Human beings have always desired to claim their rights, even in times when only a small proportion of the population was considered fully human and the rest were slaves, servants, uncivilized, colonized, underdeveloped, or, in the recent euphemism, "developing". The French Declaration of the Rights of Man of 1789 marked the 1st time in history that rights for all people were publicly affirmed. The rights in question were essentially constitutional and political, but the idea of claiming rights had been born. In 1948, the international community approved the Universal Declaration of Human Rights which encompassed all types of rights. Other international acts on civil and political rights and the rights of women and children have complemented and interpreted the 1948 document. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights affirmed that all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights and that all persons have a right to satisfaction of economic, social, and cultural needs. The convention on elimination of all forms of discrimination against women referred in its preamble to the particular disadvantages of women living in poverty and affirmed the right of all women to education in health and family welfare, including family planning, as well as to medical and family planning services. Women were affirmed to have the same rights as men to decide freely and in an informed manner on the number and spacing of their children and to have access to the information, education, and means to exercise these rights. The United Nations has demonstrated its interest in Population Commission in 1946 and of the UN Fund for Population Activities in 1969, and through decennial worldwide population conferences in 1954, 1965, 1974, and 1984. UN demographic goals include reduced fertility on a worldwide basis, a reduced proportion of women not using reliable contraception, a substantial reduction of early marriage and adolescent pregnancy, reduction in infant and maternal

  9. Family planning and family vision in mothers after diagnosis of a child with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Navot, Noa; Jorgenson, Alicia Grattan; Vander Stoep, Ann; Toth, Karen; Webb, Sara Jane

    2016-07-01

    The diagnosis of a child with autism has short- and long-term impacts on family functioning. With early diagnosis, the diagnostic process is likely to co-occur with family planning decisions, yet little is known about how parents navigate this process. This study explores family planning decision making process among mothers of young children with autism spectrum disorder in the United States, by understanding the transformation in family vision before and after the diagnosis. A total of 22 mothers of first born children, diagnosed with autism between 2 and 4 years of age, were interviewed about family vision prior to and after their child's diagnosis. Grounded Theory method was used for data analysis. Findings indicated that coherence of early family vision, maternal cognitive flexibility, and maternal responses to diagnosis were highly influential in future family planning decisions. The decision to have additional children reflected a high level of adaptability built upon a solid internalized family model and a flexible approach to life. Decision to stop childrearing reflected a relatively less coherent family model and more rigid cognitive style followed by ongoing hardship managing life after the diagnosis. This report may be useful for health-care providers in enhancing therapeutic alliance and guiding family planning counseling. PMID:26395237

  10. Family planning: personal and political perspectives from Choiseul Province, Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Rowling, D; Hartley, D; Owen, J; Strachan, J

    1995-12-01

    Rapid population growth has put family planning on personal and political agendas in the Solomon Islands. With the release of a population policy in 1988, national leaders sanctioned the concept of family planning as a key strategy in reducing the rate of population growth. On a personal level, Solomon Islanders share their government's concern about population problems. There is a shortage of arable land, health services are stretched, and there are limited places in school for children. A study in Choiseul Province, a rural area in Solomon Islands, suggests that people want smaller families but have limited means to control their fertility. Meagre resources and infrastructure, compounded by geography, climate, culture and religion, constrain the development of family planning services. PMID:8616203