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1

The development of national economy and family planning in China.  

PubMed

China has made great strides in family planning and in developing her national economy during the period of the 6th 5-year plan. In 1980, China's tasks were to develop the national economy and to provide her people with enough to eat and wear. By 1986, these needs had been met. The average annual growth rate for the national gross output value of industry and agriculture may reach 10% during the 6th 5-year plan and should be approximately 7% in the 7th 5-year plan. China's future goal is for all her people to be well off at the turn of the century. Controlling population growth is one of the most important steps in reaching this goal China's population growth rates were 23.33 per 1000 in 1971 and dropped to 10.81 per 1000 in 1984. Although China's family planning program advocates one child per couple, 70% of the total married women of childbearing age have 2 or 3 children. Continued publicity and education and improved medical care should gradually decrease the birth rate even more. The author cites Engels in arguing that it is one of the superiorities of the socialist system to make population growth consciously fit for the development of material production. He refutes an American view that China's population would automatically decrease with the development of a free economy and offers the US's 12 million unemployed in 1982 and 2 million homeless in 1985 as evidence that a free economy also results in overpopulation. He concludes that further demographic research should be conducted and should implement China's family planning program with different measures suited to local conditions at different stages. PMID:12268821

Xu, D

1986-07-01

2

The Impact of the National Family Planning Programme on the Quality of Care in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past 10 years studies conducted on the quality of family planning services have examined the strengths and weaknesses of family planning in many developing countries. China's national family planning programme in the past two decades has achieved extremely successful benchmarks, and accelerated the pace of fertility transi tion. It is one of the world's most closely watched family

Xiaoming Sun

2000-01-01

3

The benefits and barriers associated with a national natural family planning service: the New Zealand experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a case study of a model for expanding natural family planning (NFP) from a small local program to the national level through the creation of a national association and the development of a public-private partnership. The experience of the New Zealand Association of Natural Family Planning (NZANFP) is analyzed in terms of both the benefits and barriers

1997-01-01

4

National Health Insurance Proposals: Their Effect on Family Planning and Other Preventive Health Services.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four national health insurance proposals are compared, with emphasis on their potential for covering family planning and related preventive health services. Summaries of provisions are presented for: The Comprehensive Health Insurance Act of 1974 (H.R. 12...

D. Fisher

1974-01-01

5

Family size, fertility preferences, and sex ratio in China in the era of the one child family policy: results from national family planning and reproductive health survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To examine the impact of the one child family policy in China on fertility, preferred family size, and sex ratio. Design Secondary analysis of data from the Chinese cross sectional national family planning and reproductive health survey, 2001. Interviews of representative sample of women aged 15-49. Results Data were obtained from 39 585 women, with a total of 73

Qu Jian Ding; Therese Hesketh

2006-01-01

6

Fertility and family planning in the United States: insights from the National Survey of Family Growth.  

PubMed

A review of about 50 studies based on the 1982 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) illustrates the ways in which the survey sheds new light on trends and differentials in such areas as fertility, contraceptive use, infertility and the use of family planning services in the United States. The total fertility rate declined by nearly 50 percent between 1960 and 1973, from 3.6 to 1.9 births per woman, and changed little from then until 1982. It would appear that growing use of the pill, the IUD and sterilization--but principally the pill--is the prime factor in the dramatic decline in unwanted and mistimed births among married couples. Their increasing reliance on sterilization between 1973 and 1982 reduced the proportion of unwanted births at ages 35 or older by half, but had little impact on overall birthrates because only about five percent of all births occurred at those ages in 1981. Although overall fertility has declined, the rate of premarital pregnancy has risen since the early 1960s. Research based on the NSFG suggests that this is a result both of the rapid increase in the percentage of women who have premarital intercourse and of the increasing length of exposure to premarital pregnancy. The latter trend is probably related both to earlier intercourse and to delayed marriage. Despite the increasing levels of premarital exposure, however, there was actually a decline in teenage birthrates in the 1970s, which was due in part to the rising abortion rates among teenagers. Finally, although racial differences in fertility have narrowed, black women still have higher fertility than whites. The 1982 NSFG data suggest that four factors are principally responsible for the higher birthrates of black women: Blacks begin having intercourse earlier than whites; black women are one-third less likely to use contraceptives at first intercourse; they are more likely to be currently exposed to the risk of unplanned pregnancy and not using a method; and they have higher pregnancy rates when they are using no contraceptives or less-effective methods, such as the condom, rhythm and withdrawal. PMID:3068068

Mosher, W D

7

TFR dropped to 3.1. The national population and family planning program has strong impact.  

PubMed

The first nationwide demographic survey was conducted in Vietnam in 1988. The first demographic survey conducted by the National Committee for Population and Family Planning identified fertility rates for 1983-1987. Recent demographic data come from the National Population Dynamics and Family Planning Survey of April 1993 and the Population Multiround Survey and the Intercensal Demographic Survey of 1994. These surveys and censuses have provided valuable data on fertility trends over the years. It is estimated that the total fertility rate (TFR) during 1955-59 was 5.73. However, TFR had dropped to 3.98 by the end of the 1980s and 3.1 by 1994. The Population and Family Planning Program of Vietnam launched in 1963 with the strong support of government and party leaders contributed greatly to this decline in fertility over the last two decades. Local government budgets for the population and family planning program have increased dramatically in recent years, surpassing the contributions of the UN Population Fund, the main international donor to Vietnam. PMID:12320324

Vu Quy Nhan

1995-01-01

8

Hurricane Preparedness: Family Disaster Plan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

National Hurricane Center's site for hurricane preparedness. Includes sample family disaster plan, checklist for supply kit, and links to background knowledge about storm surges, flooding, and high winds.

Center, National H.

2010-04-16

9

Asian Family Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid population growth in the Third World has been accompanied by the creation of national family planning programs, which attempt to slow growth rates through programs aimed at the prevention of births. These programs represent large scale, modern bureaucratic health delivery systems that are transplanted from the industrialized world. They raise the problem of whether such modern organizations can have

Gayl D. Ness; Karl R. Landis

1987-01-01

10

Family Planning & Literacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is an International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) annotated bibliography of books and articles concerned with family planning and literacy. The subject is divided into four major listings: (1) Literacy; (2) Education; (3) Literacy and Family Planning; and (4) Functional Literacy/Family Planning Projects and Programs.…

International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

11

[Impressions of the 1977 National Conference on Maternal and Child Welfare and Family Planning].  

PubMed

The 1977 National Conference on Maternal and Child Welfare and Family Planning was held on July 19th and 20th, with a theme on "A worth-while life for mothers, who have dreams for their children", in Tokushima, Japan. 3 basic maternal and child welfare policies were concluded in the first day's discussion: 1) a prevention from the occurrence of the mental and physical disorder in children; 2) a protection of the motherhood; and 3) a promotion of maternal and child health care in cities, townships and villages. An active participation of men is also expected. In professor Baba's lecture, the perinatal medical care was explained under the theme of "The progress of new-born medicine and the prevention from the occurrence of mental and physical disorder in children". The second day's discussion was held byT. Kobayashi, with a theme of "The women's life and health". A necessity of premarital sex education, the women's life circles, health guidance for working women, a mother's group in farmers, were the main topics. PMID:21979

Fujiwara, M

1977-09-01

12

The Progress of Nations, 1996: The Nations of the World Ranked According to Their Achievements in Child Health, Nutrition, Education, Family Planning, and Progress for Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report brings together the latest available statistics to record national achievements in child survival, health, nutrition, education, family planning, and progress for women. Each section contains a commentary and a presentation of related statistics. Following an introduction by UNICEF executive director Carol Bellamy, the commentaries…

Adamson, Peter, Ed.

13

Ecuador officially adopts family planning.  

PubMed

The Ecuadorian government has officially announced its plan to extend family planning services to all citizens via its public health service. This September 21 announcement by Raul Maldonado Mejia, Minister of Public Health, indicated that family planning will be integrated into health services on the basis of the following principles: 1) Ecuadorian family planning programs are a medical action aimed at improving the health of mothers and children; 2) family planning must be established as part of a total health service for in this way it can be available to all people; 3) the government, through the Ministry of Health, will control and supervise all family planning services that are provided by private and public organizations; 4) information and education is recognized as an important requisite that allows women to freely and responsibly seek out these services; 5) family planning programs will include in their efforts the early detection of gynecological cancer and the study and treatment of the infertile couple; and 6) the national government can conduct family planning programs with the criterion of responsible parenthood through its own technical facilities or through qualified institutions and organizations. PMID:12276787

1974-02-01

14

Singing about family planning.  

PubMed

The Nigerian Family Health services project teamed up with the Johns Hopkins University's Population Communication Services to produce songs called "Choices" and "Wait for Me." The songs, which were about sexual responsibility, were performed by popular music stars King Sunny Ade and Onyeka Onwenu and appeared under King Sonny Ade's long playing albums in 1989. Teaching sexual responsibility through song was suggested in focus group discussions. Findings indicated that young people were responsive to messages about sexual responsibility, postponing sex or saying "no," male sexual responsibility, and children by informed choice and not chance among married couples. An impact assessment of the songs was conducted in February, 1991. Survey findings revealed that 64% of urban and 22% of rural respondents recalled having heard the songs and seen the videos. 48% of urban youth discussed the songs with friends, and 27% discussed the songs with sexual partners. 90% of respondents reported agreement with the message that couples should have only the number of children that they can care for, and that couples should practice family planning. The target population that was affected most by the songs was aged less than 35 years. The strategy of using songs to teach youth responsible parenting appears to be a reliable strategy for mass education and mobilization. There is mass support from among members of the National Council for Women's Societies, the Planned Parenthood Federation of Nigeria, and Coca Cola Corporation, as well as the public at large. PMID:12318626

Emah, E

15

Zimbabwe: a family planning profile.  

PubMed

This brief article focuses on the history of family planning in Zimbabwe, available services, community-based distribution, contraceptive use, and program problems. Family planning services were first available in Zimbabwe in 1953. The Rhodesian Family Planning Association (RFPA) was established formally in 1965. RFPA distributed contraceptives in 1966 and trained for the first time "field educators" in 1967. The first community-based distributors were trained in 1972. The Ministry of Health integrated the RFPA into its department in 1981. In 1985, the family planning association became a parastatal and was renamed the Zimbabwe National Family Planning Council (ZNFPC). Services today are provided through 37 family planning clinics. The distribution of contraceptives includes IUDs, condoms, pills, and injectables. Harare and Bulawayo centers receive referrals and perform tubal ligation, vasectomy, and infertility counseling. 700 community-based distributors (CBDs) received a 6-week training course in order to educate about oral contraceptives, encourage their use, and screen clients for high blood pressure and side effects for oral contraceptives. CBDs use bicycles to make home visits and also have access to motorcycles. Each CBD averages 135 clients/month. Most visits are revisits. CBDs provided 25.3% of family planning in 1988. Local clinics provided 19.1% of family planning. Ministry of Health facilities provided 14.8% of services. ZNFPC clinics provided 13.7% of services. Private doctors or pharmacies provided 2.3% of services. 38% of women currently in a union used family planning in 1984, and 43% used it in 1988. 36% in 1988 used modern methods. The pill was the most common method, followed by withdrawal. Logistics of supplies and equipment remain problematic. PMID:12290319

Manjanja, S

1993-03-01

16

Origins and Evolution of Family Planning Programs in Developing Countries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Family planning programs exist in virtually every nation. As of 1998, 179 countries with 99 percent of the world's population had some form of family planning program. Despite their pervasiveness, family planning programs have caused controversy and drawn...

J. R. Seltzer

2002-01-01

17

Natural family planning.  

PubMed

Natural family planning methods provide a unique option for committed couples. Advantages include the lack of medical adverse effects and the opportunity for participants to learn about reproduction. Modern methods of natural family planning involve observation of biologic markers to identify fertile days in a woman's reproductive cycle. The timing of intercourse can be planned to achieve or avoid pregnancy based on the identified fertile period. The current evidence for effectiveness of natural family planning methods is limited to lower-quality clinical trials without control groups. Nevertheless, perfect use of these methods is reported to be at least 95 percent effective in preventing pregnancy. The effectiveness of typical use is 76 percent, which demonstrates that motivation and commitment to the method are essential for success. Depending on the method, couples can learn about natural family planning methods in a single office visit, through online instruction, or from certified instructors. PMID:23157145

Smoley, Brian A; Robinson, Christa M

2012-11-15

18

Natural Family Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Natural Family Planning (NFP) is one of the oldest practiced methods of birth control. Also known by the names Periodic Abstinence,\\u000a Rhythm Method, and Fertility Awareness Method, it can be used either for pregnancy prevention or planning and is acceptable\\u000a to all major religious groups. Although it is not a popular method of birth control, there are couples who still

Dawn Brink-Cymerman

19

Balance in family planning.  

PubMed

Family planning has been so effective in Singapore that a risk exists of there being too few young people to sustain the country's economy in the twenty-first century. Relaxation of birth control policies and immigration laws offers hope that this problem will be averted. PMID:2637705

Singh, K; Viegas, O A; Ratnam, S S

1989-01-01

20

Research in family planning: 1.  

PubMed

This article illustrates the main trends of the activities of the World Health Organization's Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction during the years 1980-81. In 1981, 80 countries, including 54 developing countries, were involved in the program. The Special Programme explores how to involve the community in family planning. 2 factors which clearly emerged from some of the studies were the conflict between the high esteem in which fertility is held, and the realization of the economic constraint of a large family; another factor is the widespread acceptance in many developing countries of extramarital or relatives' children within a family. Obviously, the community, rather than the family or the individual, should be the target for education and information. Protocols for studies, training manuals, mechanics for supervision and evaluation were prepared by the program. The very good results of 2 pilot studies, in Thailand and in Turkey, training midwives and nurses to provide medical services, have prompted the extension of these services at a national level with highly satisfactory results. Projects to integrate fertility regulation services into the primary health care system of a country have been developed in several countries; the most advanced of these projects, tested in Sri Lanka, was so successful that its inclusion on a national scale was recommended. Studies on the cost of illegally induced abortion on national health services have prompted changes in family planning legislation in many countries. Other studies have shown the effects on maternal and child health of the timing, spacing, and number of pregnancies. Shortage of trained manpower is still a great constraint on the development of services and research in family planning. PMID:7147930

1982-01-01

21

National Action Plan to Improve Health Literacy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This National Action Plan to Improve Health Literacy seeks to engage organizations, professionals, policymakers, communities, individuals, and families in a linked, multisector effort to improve health literacy. The plan is based on the principles that (1...

2010-01-01

22

Disparities in Family Planning  

PubMed Central

Prominent racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in rates of unintended pregnancy, abortion, and unintended births exist in the United States. These disparities can contribute to the cycle of disadvantage experienced by specific demographic groups when women are unable to control their fertility as desired. In this review we consider three factors which contribute to disparities in family planning outcomes: patient preferences and behaviors, health care system factors, and provider related factors. Through addressing barriers to access to family planning services, including abortion and contraception, and working to ensure that all women receive patient-centered reproductive health care, health care providers and policy makers can substantially improve the ability of women from all racial/ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds to make informed decisions about their fertility.

Dehlendorf, Christine; Rodriguez, Maria Isabel; Levy, Kira; Borrero, Sonya; Steinauer, Jody

2009-01-01

23

A family planning miracle.  

PubMed

1991 data indicate that Tamil Nadu has achieved zero population growth. This feat has been accomplished not through the efforts of a concerned and committed family planning program, but as a side effect of a statewide elementary school lunch program launched by the new Chief Minister in 1977. Anyone attending school was guaranteed at least one nutritious meal per day. Children attended schools, schools proliferated, teachers were hired, and students were educated. Many students ate only part of their meals, and offered the rest to younger siblings at home. The positive nutritional effects of the program therefore filtered to children both in and out of school. In addition to teachers, local women were hired to cook the meals. They were compensated for their work in both monetary terms and by taking some of the excess school food back to their homes for later consumption. Maternal and child nutrition benefitted from this program, while children, especially female children, stayed in school for more years than they may have otherwise. a healthier, better educated cohort of girls matured into young women capable of reading and following the prescriptions of widespread family planning messages disseminated by the Chief Secretary of the state who was obsessed about family planning. A functioning system of elementary education remains in Tamil Nadu which continues to influence fertility. The author believes that the success in reducing population growth in Tamil Nadu can and must be replicated in all states of India. PMID:12288800

Aiyer, M S

1993-10-01

24

Program planning for family planning services.  

PubMed

This exchange of opinions was occasioned by an article which appeared in the October 1969 Perspectives under the title Family Planning Services in the U.S.: a National Overview, 1968. Mr. Sieverts criticizes the article as follows. The ratio of unmet need claimed to available facilities is considered not properly stated in that all indigent girls and women from their midteens through their midforties do not need such services every year and that clinic services do not represent the total of such services available. Many have no such need. The private physician and hospital clinic provide much service. Development of new services should also consider demands, resources, and alternative solutions. Other health services must also be coordinated. Mr. Jaffe's defense follows. The stated need is an approximation by applying the Dryfoos-Pulgar-Varky (DPV) formula to the 1966 census figures. The need figure which results is about 5 million out of a total of over 8 million poor and near-poor women in the age group 15-44. This estimate is considered reasonably accurate. The number included but not in need is partially offset by some below the age of 18 who are also in need. Poor families have relatively less access to private physicians than others. This is shown by the number of women who deliver their babies on the ward service of hospitals without the presence of a private physician. Also, private physicians tend to give less attention to contraception for low income patients than do clinics. Many women depend on nonmedical and unreliable birth control measures. Family planning is not a one-time educational process. Revisits, continuing supervision, and check-up examinations are advocated particularly for IUD users and those taking pills. With current contraceptive technology adequate family planning services contemplates care extending for most of the patient's reproductive years. Resources require allocation. The study rests on the findings that the poor have a higher incidence of unwanted fertility than the nonpoor with significant adverse health and social consequences for both the individual and society. The study was a systematic attempt to achieve a national goal of providing modern family planning services to all who need and want them but cannot afford private care. PMID:5520626

Sieverts, S

1970-03-01

25

The impact of family planning on primary school enrolment in sub-national areas within 25 African countries.  

PubMed

We study how the availability and use of family planning services in African countries influences the family planning situation of households and through this the educational participation of young children. A district panel dataset is used for 441 urban and rural areas within 233 districts of 25 countries. Path analysis shows that a decrease in the number of births is associated with an increase in educational participation in the area. The number of births is negatively associated with acceptance, knowledge and actual use of contraceptives in the area. As reversed causality and selection bias seem unlikely, the identified relationship probably is at least partially causal. Hence, investments in family planning services in poor areas are not only important because they allow women to plan their births better, but also because they may lead to higher primary enrolment rates and thus contribute to the region's future economic growth. PMID:24069749

Longwe, Abiba; Smits, Jeroen

2013-06-01

26

Family planning in the United Arab Republic.  

PubMed

Discussion of the family planning program in the United Arab Republic (UAR) is presented. The Supreme Council for Family Planning was set up in 1965 with the aim of organizing programs of family planning in the UAR as well as setting up time schedules for execution, supervision, follow-up, and evaluation. In 1966, The National Planning Program started to operate 1,991 centers in urban and rural areas for women requesting oral contraceptives. By July of 1969, the number of centers reached 2700. However only villages with government health units have family planning centers. Each center is fully equipped and has a doctor, nurse or midwife, 1 or 2 assistant midwives, a social worker a clerk, and a worker. Centers now also offer IUD services. Propaganda and motivation in connection with family planning is discussed, as is training of personnel involved in the program. PMID:12254667

El-nomrossey, M M

1970-01-01

27

The need for family planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to examine the evidence on the need for family planning. The available evidence on current levels\\u000a of unmet need for contraceptives, fertility preferences, and the non-contraceptive benefits of family planning is reviewed.\\u000a I argue that expansion of family planning programs is still needed. These programs provide couples with tools to reach their\\u000a desired family

Ndola Prata

2007-01-01

28

Family Planning Handbook for Doctors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) believes that all people have the right to family planning information, including premarital and marital counseling, contraception information, and sex education. This physician's handbook is designed to provide all doctors with the necessary instructions on the latest family planning methods…

Kleinman, Ronald L., Ed.

29

Law and family planning.  

PubMed

This discussion of law and family planning reviews some recent reports of the Australain Law Reform Commission (ALRC), the law as it affects family planning and the sexuality of young people with reference to the Irish dilemma, the law's approach in Ingland, Canada, and the US. The ALRC works only on references recived by it from the Federal Attorney General. No reference so far received has been specific to the issues of family planning, but some past and present projects are partly relevant. The most recent report of the ALRC, tabled in Federal Parliament in December 1983 related to privacy protection. An issue that arose in this inquiry related to the subject of the rights to privacy of young people. In a discussion paper the ALRC had suggestd that young persons between the ages of 12-16 should have certain defined legal protection of privacy, even against their parents. Specifically, the ALRC was thinking of medical advice and school counseling. Obviously the issue of contraceptive advice was raised in this context, and never has a tenative proposal of the ALRC engendered so much bitter criticism. The Commission modified its proposal on this topic and the details of the revised proposals are disclosed in its report. Clearly, the rights of young people in regard to sexual advice, education, and treatment are matters of great controversy and strongly divided community opinion. In Australia there are some who are totally opposed to family planning for themselves, their children, and even for others. Such opposition exists in the medical profession. Presumably, such people base their views on strongly held moral principles. They generally believe that contraception interferes in the ways of nature. Far from being promoted by open discussion and instruction in the schools, such matters are intimate concerns of a small circle, principally the family. In dealing with those aspects that concern the rights of parents in thes matters, attention turns to England's Gillick case. Because the Australian legal system is so similar to England's the resulting decision can offer instruction. Judge Woolf of Londons High Court of Justice dismissed Mrs. gillick's case. According to the report, children under the age of 16 years are entitled, in England, to receive contraceptive advice without the knowledge or consent of their parents, at least where the alternatives sought to be prevented were unwanted pregnancies, abortions, and veneral diseases. Woolf reportedly viewed the prescription of the contraceptive pill as not so much "an instrument for a crime or anything essential to its commission, "but a palliative against the consequences of the crime, that is, unlawful sexual relations. In Canada the debate has been vigorous and, except in Quebec (where there is a statutory oligation to inform parents), it also proceeds against the background of the English common law. In 1976 the US Supreme Court held that a state law could not constitutionally impose a blanket requirement of parental consent on a minor having an abortion during the 1st trimester of her pregnancy. In Australia there is law reform and social reform to be carried out. PMID:6700494

Kirby, M D

1984-03-17

30

Family planning not against any religion.  

PubMed

The 3-day siminar "Hum Do, Hamare Do," sponsored by Amrita Bazar Patrika and Jugantar, was addressed by President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed and other top-ranking national and state leaders. The purpose of the seminar was to spread the message of family planning and counteract propaganda against it. The President congratulated the Indian press for sponsoring the seminar and proclaimed the duty of the mass media to involve the people in the struggle against poverty. He noted that although agricultural production has doubled and life expectancy has increased 50%, the rising population has negated any national progress. The common people must be convinced that family planning is vital to eradicate poverty and unemployment. It is false propaganda that family planning is not permitted by Islam and that Muslims have not adapted family planning. Nowhere in the Koran, the Hadis, or Jima is there prohibition of family planning. The family planning program, as part of an integrated health service, must be accepted by the people through the creation of an atmosphere where the norm of small families is acceptable to a very large section of the population. PMID:12277577

1976-10-01

31

Population Growth: Family Planning Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|These proceedings of the second annual symposium on population growth bring together speeches and panel discussions on family planning programs. Titles of speeches delivered are: Communicating Family Planning (Mrs. Jean Hutchinson); Effects of New York's Abortion Law Change (Dr. Walter Rogers); The Law and Birth Control, Sterilization and…

Doberenz, Alexander R., Ed.; Taylor, N. Burwell G., Ed.

32

Family planning saves lives.  

PubMed

Family planning (FP) saves lives through planned management of pregnancy. Healthy mothers produce healthy infants. Maternal mortality in developing countries was estimated in 1990 at 500,000 and infant and child mortality at 14 million. Empirical evidence shows that spacing births 2 years apart reduces the risk of infant mortality. FP also gives women the option of avoiding unwanted pregnancy, dangerous illegal abortions, and unhealthy childbearing conditions. The issues of infant and child survival maternal survival, the interaction between maternal and child health (MCH), program costs, and suggested actions are each discussed separately. Child deaths are mainly attributed to respiratory and diarrheal diseases, which are complicated by malnutrition: 23,000 child deaths/day in developing countries. Prevention is possible through breast feeding, immunization, adequate nutrition and hygiene, oral rehydration therapy, and birth spacing. Birth spacing is possible through prolonged breast feeding and/or use of oral contraceptives, injectables and implants, the IUD, condoms, and sterilization. The primary causes of maternal mortality are induced abortion (19%), toxemia (17%), hemorrhage (28%), infection (11%), obstructed labor (11%), and other 15%). The risks are related to a woman's health status and prior pregnancies and the quality and availability of prenatal and delivery care. The relationship between repeated childbearing and breast feeding and women's nutritional status is still being researched. Mortality in developing countries is due to more pregnancies and less access to medical care; advances in technology permit women to plan healthy reproductive lives. The Safe Motherhood Initiative is at work to remedy this situation. Childbearing is safer when women are aged 18-35 years, have fewer than 5 births, space births every 3 years, and do not have existing health problems. FP is cost-effective. The World Bank estimates that an increase in funding to US$10.50/capita would reduce maternal mortality by 50% and reduce infant mortality. Effective programs are characterized by 1) integrated MCH and FP programs, 2) expanded, quality services, 3) community-based distribution, 4) availability from all sectors, public and private, 5) IEC, 6) cultural sensitivity, 7) promotion of full breast feeding, and 8) AIDS education, information, and testing. PMID:12317826

1992-12-01

33

National Family Caregiver Support Program  

MedlinePLUS

... issue shortly. Unable to Share This Page National Family Caregiver Support Program (OAA Title IIIE) Authorizing Legislation: ... the Program and How it Works The National Family Caregiver Support Program (NFCSP), established in 2000, provides ...

34

Long-term use of copper intrauterine devices. A statement from the Medical Advisory Committee of the Family Planning Association and the National Association of Family Planning Doctors.  

PubMed

The lifespan of newer copper IUDs is set by national licensing agencies, but practically is probably much longer. The main reason for this prolonged life is the thicker copper wire, sleeves or silver cored-wire. The lifespan of the so-called 2nd generation IUDs, Multiload Cu 250 and Nova-T are known to be in excess of manufacturers' recommendations of 3 and 5 years. That of the 3rd generation IUDs TCU 380A and Multiload Cu 375 is listed as 4-5 years, varying in different countries. The life of the copper T slimline is theoretically up to 10 years. The contraceptive efficacy of the 2nd and 3rd generation IUDs is higher than that of the older copper IUDs, 1-3 pregnancies per 100 woman years for the 2nd generation IUDs, and 1 for the 3rd generation devices. There may be a slight increase in failure rate after expiration, but this is probably balanced by women's natural decline in fertility with age. Under British law, physicians are free to use a drug or device in ways other than those specified by the product license. The advantages of not changing an IUD every 3 or 4 years when it is apparently working and not causing problems, are lower cost, inconvenience, pain, and risk of pelvic inflammatory disease, uterine perforation, expulsion and other complications that typically occur after insertion. For many women an IUD can be retained right up to menopause. After menopause IUDs should be removed because difficulties have been seen with removal. PMID:1971387

Newton, J; Tacchi, D

1990-06-01

35

Approaching 4 Decades of Legislation in the National Family Planning Program: An Analysis of Title X's History From 1970 to 2008  

PubMed Central

Family planning is an important public health activity. Title X (Pub L No. 91-572), enacted in 1970, remains the only national family planning program in the United States dedicated to providing voluntary and confidential services to all individuals. We conducted a thematic analysis of Title X's legislative history. Of 293 federal bills included in the legislative history, only 20 (6.8%) were enacted into law. Regardless of the proposed challenges, limited changes have been adopted. Except for technical amendments, bills involving restrictions accounted for the highest percentage of enacted bills, demonstrating efforts to undermine reproductive health rights. Title X requires political will and bipartisan support if it is to continue to protect individuals' reproductive rights.

Daley, Ellen M.; Perrin, Kay M.; Mahan, Charles S.; Buhi, Eric R.

2011-01-01

36

[National Seminar on Family Health and Population].  

PubMed

A national seminar was held at Gisenyi, Rwanda, in early 1988 to consider collaboration between the government and Rwanda's nongovernmental organizations in the area of family health and population. The participants were charged with developing coherent programs of population and family health that would assure optimal use of local resources. Participating organizations were to exchange experiences, identify priority sectors in which they could effectively intervene, and determine the level of their resource needs. Representatives of government organizations gave talks on population policy, directives for family planning services, national family health and family planning policies, and social mobilization and information, education, and communication programs in the areas of population and family planning. The nongovernmental organizations were unanimous in recognizing the urgency of the population problem. The Rwanda Association for Family Welfare, Family Action, the Central Syndicate of Rwandan Workers, the Association for Promotion of Urban Families, and the Rwandan Red Cross all identified areas in which they could intensify or geographically extend existing programs or undertake new programs of population education or service delivery. Most of the nongovernmental organizations represented had no concrete plans, either because they had not yet prepared them or because they felt their organizations lacked the resources to undertake them. A survey of funds available in the areas of population and family planning was undertaken before the end of the seminar. Organizations were encouraged to make their plans more concrete, and a follow-up meeting was arranged to take place within a few months. Recommendations of the seminar were that the positions of the Catholic Church and the government concerning population and family planning be brought into greater agreement and that the Catholic Church be urged to adapt its teachings to the Rwandan context; that a program of family life education be undertaken within the context of traditional Rwandan education to encourage responsible parenthood; and that male partners be encouraged to participate in family planning and contraceptive use. The Catholic Church should be encouraged to extend its program of natural family planning, but should discontinue its counterprogram against modern methods of family planning. Health workers who are unable for reasons of conscience to prescribe certain methods should not try to prevent others from doing so. Young people should be included in family planning programs. PMID:12315402

Semana, E

1988-04-01

37

Strategies for Family Planning Promotion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The information, education, and communication (IEC) component of family planning programs can create awareness, increase knowledge, build approval, and influence behavior. Some important lessons from the past two decades, especially the 1980s, on designin...

P. T. Piotrow K. A. Treiman J. G. Rimon S. H. Yun B. V. Lozare

1994-01-01

38

Iran's revolutionary approach to family planning.  

PubMed

This article presents Iran's revolutionary approach to family planning. In 1967, the "Tehran Declaration" acknowledged family planning as a human right promoting the social and economic welfare of families and society; however, this program was dismantled after the Revolution. After the war with Iraq in 1988, the government realized that rapid population growth was a hindrance to development and subsequently called for the establishment of a national family planning program. In December 1989, the revived family planning program was inaugurated with three major goals: 1) encourage spacing of 3-4 years between pregnancies; 2) discourage pregnancies among women aged under 18 and over 35 years; and 3) limit family size to 3 children. In May 1993, a law was passed that included disincentive penalties for couples who had more than 3 children. According to the Ministry of Health and Medical Education (1989-97), there was an increased use of contraceptives among married women, and the total fertility rate (TFR) dropped from 5.2 to 2.6 children. Moreover, Iran's 1996 census showed a total population of 60.6 million with an average annual growth rate of 1.5% over the previous 5-year period. Iran's success in bringing about a decline in its TFR has been helped by the integration of family planning and primary health care and the involvement of various segments of society. PMID:12322212

Roudi, F

39

The human right to family planning.  

PubMed

The right to decide the number and spacing of one's children is a guideline for state policy deriving its force from the depth of conviction it can arouse. Where family planning is viewed as necessary to the exercise of the more basic and enforceable rights, it has a legally enforceable character. Family planning is necessary for the equal protection of law as well as essential for the enjoyment of some classic civil and political rights. Equally important, the right to family planning is inherent in the right of human dignity. This is enunciated in the UN Charter and reiterated in all international and regional human rights agreements. The constitutions of many nations now grant women legal equality with men, but true equality cannot be realized until full access to family planning is attained. Where family planning services are denied or restricted, women, but not men, are denied the right to medically protect their lives and health against danger. This is particularly the case in developing countries where as many as 1/4 of all deaths among adult women are the result of pregnancy and childbirth. Restrictive family planning laws, with their accompanying detrimental health effects, violate many human rights conventions which guarantee equal access to health care. Similarly equal protection of the law applies to racial discrimination, and prohibitions of racial discrimination might be invoked where family planning is denied to, or imposed on, certain racial groups. The right to family planning can be derived from the right to human dignity. The right to due process of law requires that individuals be treated in a fundamentally fair way. It may be argued that it is fundamentally unfair to provide contraceptive services to married but not unmarried persons. Appeals to fundamental or inherent human rights will move neither individuals nor governments unless they are followed by well designed action. PMID:12338976

Cook, R J

1983-08-01

40

Poverty, Fertility Preferences and Family Planning Practice in the Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper looks at the interaction of poverty, fertility preferences and family planning practice in the Philippines using the series of nationally representative Family Planning Surveys conducted annually since 1999 augmented by census and other survey data. Its contribution lies on providing recent and nationally representative empirical evidence on the long running but largely unresolved debate in the country on

Aniceto C. Orbeta Jr.

2005-01-01

41

Iran rebuilds family planning services.  

PubMed

After the revolution, the Islamic Republic of Iran instituted pronatalist policies which included lowering the minimum marriage age for girls to 9 years, abolishing some laws securing women's rights, and limiting availability of family planning (FP) services. By 1983, Iran's population growth rate was 3.9% which was among the highest worldwide. Before the revolution, Iran had 37 million people. About 2 million more people were added each year, resulting in a population size of 60 million by 1992. By the mid-1980s, economic development stood idle, there were not enough houses, children attended schools on 3 shifts, and malnutrition was spreading. In 1989, the government formed a population council and reestablished FP services. It also increased the minimum age of marriage for girls to 13 years, slightly improved women status, and eliminated fertility incentives for couples with at least 4 children. It also significantly increased funding for FP (from 560 million to 13 billion rials between 1990 and 1992). Government spending for FP will likely increase 2% annually until 2011. The government initiated a promotion of FP mass media campaign, emphasizing a 2-child family. Some posters showed a family with 2 girls. The mass media campaign promoted specific contraceptive methods (even tubal occlusion and vasectomy), a practice other Middle Eastern countries not do. 80% of sterilization acceptors claimed to learn about sterilization from the radio or newspapers. The Ministry of Health has invited the Association for Voluntary Surgical Contraception (AVSC) to help with its campaign to update sterilization techniques, including the non scalpel vasectomy technique. AVSC hopes to become even more involved in helping Iran update its national FP program. PMID:12318289

Butta, P

1993-07-01

42

Family planning, abortion, and HIV in Ghanaian print media: a 15-month content analysis of a national Ghanaian newspaper.  

PubMed

This study assessed coverage of reproductive health (RH) issues--family planning (FP), abortion, and HIV--in the Ghanaian Daily Graphic newspaper. Using the composite week sampling technique, the researcher analyzed the contents of 62 editions of the paper. Prominence was measured using various attributes, and differences in mean coverage over time were assessed using analysis of variance. This review shows that coverage of RH issues was extraordinarily poor, less than 1 percent each for FP, abortion, and HIV. RH news that was covered was given little prominence. These findings support the popular impression that the Daily Graphic does not give priority to reproductive health issues in its coverage. RH advocates need to develop innovative means of integrating RH content into existing media outlets. PMID:21812201

Laar, Amos K

2010-12-01

43

Family planning among the Maranaos.  

PubMed

An effort has been made to introduce population education concepts and family planning practice to the Maranaos of Lanao del Sur province in the southern Philippines. A survey conducted in 1969 revealed that an overwhelming majority were opposed to family planning, because of the belief that it ran counter to the teachings of the Koran. In 1969, Dansalan College 1st opened a maternity clinic and, subsequently, established a family planning clinic on campus, the only one of its kind in the province. Since the clinic began operations, a total of about 1370 acceptors have been recruited. The oral contraceptive is the most preferred method among the acceptors, accounting for 60%, followed by the injectable. Additionally, the college has integrated family planning and population education into its Community Service Program. Despite several years of effort by Dansalan College, however, Maranaos have failed to respond significantly to practicing family planning. College officials continue to be optimistic, recognizing that the effort will take years of motivating and education. PMID:12259638

Guerrero, A M

1976-01-01

44

Planning Styles in Single-Parent Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although family management scholars have identified family life cycle stages and educational and occupational status as factors that may influence planning in families, the influence of the family's life cycle stage and socioeconomic status on the planning process has not been empirically tested. Planning styles, family characteristics, and…

Buehler, Cheryl; Hogan, M. Janice

45

USA aborts international family planning.  

PubMed

The US Agency for International Development (USAID) has been a leader in international family planning for almost 30 years, accounting for 46% of all funds in international family planning provided by OECD countries during 1991. Moreover, relative to other donor countries, the US supplies worldwide a disproportionate amount of contraceptives. While international family planning activities received $546 million in 1995, the budget was slashed in 1996 to $72 million. This unprecedented cut will have a profound effect upon the reproductive health and family planning choices of tens of millions of people in developing countries. Millions of additional unintended pregnancies and maternal and child deaths may result. 1996 began with the White House and Congress in political gridlock, with negotiations on foreign aid stalled on the issue of abortion. The Republican-led House of Representatives wanted to bar support of any nongovernmental organization (NGO) which also provided information on abortion, while Democratic President Bill Clinton affirmed that he would veto such legislation. At the end of January, the House passed the Balanced Budget and Down Payment Act (HR 2880) containing clauses which cut the aid budget by 35% and barring new money in the area of family planning until July 1. Spending was limited to the allocation of 6.5% of the total budget each month. Some social marketing programmers who distribute condoms and oral contraceptives are already feeling the pinch, and some programs will simply run out of contraceptives. This cut in funding also bodes ill for achieving the goals of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. There is, however, hope that the cuts will be reversed for the next fiscal year. The author notes survey findings which indicate that US citizens support higher budgets for family planning. PMID:8596311

Potts, M

1996-03-01

46

Family planning and the future.  

PubMed

The adoption of Title X in 1971 provided for public funding for family planning in the United States but funding from this program has not kept pace with demand for contraceptives. In 1997, The California Department of Public Health established the Family Planning, Access, Care, and Treatment (PACT) Program, a public-private partnership to meet the needs of Californians, including about a half-million adolescents, who did not have access to contraceptive services. The program has saved the state billions of dollars in maternity and abortion costs, dramatically reduced teen pregnancy rates, and serves as a good example for other states. PMID:21961822

Darney, Philip D

2011-04-29

47

Incentives to promote family planning  

PubMed Central

Objective Over the past 60 years, population control has become an increasingly urgent issue worldwide as a growing population strains already limited resources. The use of financial incentives to promote family planning is an innovative approach that has potential to make a contribution to efforts to better manage population growth. This report reviews eight studies that examined the effect of incentives on family planning. Method Published studies that tested the impact of incentives to promote some aspect of family planning and included an appropriate control or comparison condition were reviewed. Results Incentives have been used to promote attendance at contraceptive education sessions, adoption and continuation of contraceptive methods, sterilization, and to limit family size. All but one of the eight studies reviewed reported positive outcomes, but weaknesses in study design and execution limit the strength of the conclusions that can be drawn. Conclusion Review of this literature suggests that family planning behaviors, like other behaviors, are sensitive to incentives. Given the tremendous need for efficacious interventions in global efforts to manage population growth, further research on this topic using more rigorous experimental methods is warranted.

Heil, Sarah H.; Gaalema, Diann E.; Herrmann, Evan S.

2012-01-01

48

[Family planning among gipsy women].  

PubMed

Family is the major social unit of gipsy society. The basic value in ethno-culture of gypsies is children. As in almost all aspects of health, regarding the reproduction health and access to health care gipsy population do not have good enough indexes. The purpose of this research is to determine the information gipsy women have about family planning. The inquiry is conducted through 100 gipsy women in different ages in the village Bukovlak, Pleven municipality. PMID:20380105

Dilova, P; Popova, T; Atanassova, K; Samuilova, E

2009-01-01

49

National Survey of America's Families  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Urban Institute in 1997 conducted a survey of Americans in thirteen states nationwide that "provides a comprehensive look at the well-being of adults and children." The survey emphasizes the differences among children in low- and high-income families. The first results from the 1997 round of the National Survey of America's Families are available in Snapshots of America's Families.

1997-01-01

50

A Family Planning Library Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This manual provides a concise and comprehensive 'how to' guide to starting and maintaining a family planning/population library. In addition to the step-by-step procedures necessary for acquiring and organizing book and non-book material, a classificatio...

B. Horowitz

1975-01-01

51

Family planning needs of adolescents.  

PubMed

Nurse practitioners working with teenagers need to take into consideration their level of psychosocial development. Examples of how nurse practitioners can provide family planning care to teenage clients based on their development are given. Two services, one center for young adolescents and one for college-age adolescents, are described. PMID:6562265

Lane, C; Kemp, J

52

Colombia's national plan for sexual education.  

PubMed

The brief summary of Colombia's government's plan for sex education emphasized the active involvement of all sectors of society and targeted individuals, families, and society. The National Plan for Sex Education (PNES) was established by the Colombian presidential program for youth, women, and the family (PROMOVER). The plan is an evolution of rights and duties laid out in the National Constitution of 1991 on sexuality. The plan has the support of the First Lady of Colombia. The Foundation of Human and Social Development will provide technical support, and activities will be coordinated between the Ministry of Health, Ministry of Education, and the Colombian Institute of Family Welfare. The objectives of PNES are to promote the development of attitudes that value sexuality, value social gender equality, value autonomy, value responsibility, value harmony of interactions and solidarity, and value sexual health. PNES will begin with planning, coordinating between ministries and sectors, and implementing the decentralized and participatory action plan. The plan involves training, research, communication, services, and institutionalization. Training will be the first priority and will be directed to sensitizing officials and officials administering the plan about sexuality and sex education, to case workers involved with therapeutic interventions, and to youth, parents, and sexually active adolescents. The plan includes criteria for selecting legal advisors and staff from nongovernmental organizations, who will administer the training and evaluations. PMID:12290480

53

Compulsion in family planning: the fundamental considerations.  

PubMed

Focus is on some of the basic issues and considerations involved in the question of compulsion in family planning, which in terms of current contraceptive technology, only means compulsory sterilization. Pressures have been increasing to implement more stringent measures to control population growth in most of the developing countries throughout the world. During the Emergency in India (1975-1977) the government at that time, along with some individuals and groups, deemed it necessary to adopt the drastic measure of compulsory sterilization. The six sections of the discussion deal with the following: 1) compulsory family planning as rational or ethical choice basic issues; 2) neo-Malthusian thesis on compulsion - fallacies, dangers and inadequacies; 3) ethical and philosophical problems - premise of irresponsible procreation; 4) individual rights versus societal interests; 5) elitism in social policy and cost benefit considerations; and 6) international consensus against compulsion. All forums, under the auspices of the United Nations, of which India is a member, have rejected coercion and reiterated repeatedly that every individual has a basic human right to decide how many children to have and at what intervals. The most recent forum to endorse the human right to family size was the World Population Conference held at Bucharest in 1974. The 14 conditions spelled out by the United Nations Fund for Population Activity for effecting a free and responsible choice in family size may form a sound basis for a comprehensive policy concerning family planning in India. The coercive measures adopted during the Emergency are responsible for a backlash in India and retarding the progress of the family planning movement. PMID:12261230

Pethe, V P

1979-03-01

54

National Highway Plan 1969 - 1974.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report concerns the development of a National Highway Plan for the Republic of Guatemala through 1974, and the formulation of criteria for a long-term plan through 1984. A detailed analysis is made of the national and departmental economies by major s...

R. Leclair J. R. Snitzler

1968-01-01

55

Key Indicators for Family Planning Projects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper lists numerous indicators that could be used to monitor and evaluate family planning and suggests ten potentially useful for most projects. These ten cover all aspects of a family planning program: program inputs, program capacity and process, p...

R. A. Bulatao

1995-01-01

56

Genetic counselling in family planning.  

PubMed

The family planning program is not restricted to population control; it also aims at the wider aspect of family welfare and human health. A large number of human diseases are due to genetic abnormalities. Examples are mongolism (Down's syndrome), ovarian dysgenesis (Turner's syndrome), nonfunctional testes (Klinefelter's syndrome), chronic myeloid leukemia, anemia, thalassemia, congenital malformations, and schizophrenia. Mental defects include imbeciles and the feebleminded. Constitutional diseases include diabetes, idiopathic epilepsy, pernicious anemia, and some thyroid abnormalities. Some chronic diseases also have a significant genetic component in their etiology, such as asthma and other allergies. About half of the stillbirths and embryonic wastage are suspected of being due to genetic malformations. Consanguinity has an important bearing on malformations and developmental anomalies. In India, where consanguinity is more frequent, malformations per 1000 births were 8.6 and 3.1 in 2 centers studied. Neural tube defects, harelip, cleft palate, and malformations of the gut and of limbs were prevalent. The population that needs genetic counseling is not large. Persons suffering from hereditary dise ases having a high risk of transmission should be advised to refrain fro m having children. A correct diagnosis, complete family history, and kn owledge of the literature on inherited disease is needed by the counselo rs. Family planning programs should include genetic counseling. PMID:12254320

Kumar, P

1968-11-01

57

Men and Family Planning. Worldwatch Paper 41.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph focuses on men's potentially positive role in family planning. In addition, it identifies reasons why so few organized family planning programs have targeted men as clients and why men have so often played a peripheral or negative role in family planning. The document is presented in seven chapters. Chapter I introduces the topic…

Stokes, Bruce

58

Natural Family Planning in Mauritius, Indian Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discontinuation from family planning programs remains a major service delivery problem, despite rapid advances in family planning methods technology, packaging, and advertising. This study explored factors associated with discontinuance from an island-wide natural family planning progmm in Mauritius, Indian Ocean. Two stratified random samples of 350 (1980) and 300 (1976) acceptors were examined. Data were gathered from three sources: records,

Geraldine L. Conner; Nancy W. Veeder

1985-01-01

59

Helping the news media cover family planning.  

PubMed

To make informed choices about family planning, women and men need accurate information in the media as well as in the clinic. The media are looking for news important to the millions of people they reach each day. Thus helping the news media cover family planning fully and accurately merits the efforts of every family planning program. PMID:8706967

Robey, B; Stauffer, P

1995-11-01

60

National Military Family Association  

MedlinePLUS

... for parents created by the Department of Defense. Shutdown is Over - What's Next for Military Families Just hours after Congress passed the measure with broad bipartisan support, President Obama signed a bill to reopen the government & extend the debt ceiling. Find out what's next ...

61

Spousal veto over family planning services.  

PubMed Central

In many countries a spouse, usually the husband, can veto a partner's use of family planning services. Where spousal veto acts as a barrier to family planning services it represents a serious threat to the lives and health of women and children. Removal of spousal authorization requirements has been shown to increase the use of family planning services. The Family Guidance Association of Ethiopia, for example, removed their requirement in 1982 and clinic utilization increased by 26 per cent within a few months. Courts of several countries have held that spousal veto practices violate principles of personal privacy and autonomy and the right to health care. The effect of such judgements has been to reinforce rights to sexual nondiscrimination found, for example, in national constitutions and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. This article discusses the nature and application of spousal veto practices, explains how such requirements can violate certain human rights, and explores possible remedies to this problem, including ministerial, legislative, and judicial initiatives.

Cook, R J; Maine, D

1987-01-01

62

76 FR 72601 - National Family Week, 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proclamation 8756--National Family Week, 2011 Proclamation 8757--National Farm-City Week, 2011 Proclamation 8758--National Child's...8756 of November 18, 2011 National Family Week, 2011 By the President of the United...

2011-11-23

63

NHTSA National Communications Plan, 2010.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In support of all of these important efforts, this 2010 National Communications Plans aim is not merely to communicate broad messages to the public, but to proactively support strong policies and sound programmatic efforts that encourage, create and achie...

2010-01-01

64

FHWA National Strategic Plan, 1998.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Strategic Plan provides a 'blueprint' for the agency to establish the priorities and direction for its contributions to the Nation's highways and intermodal transportation system. The FHWA's vision is to 'create the best transportation system in the w...

1998-01-01

65

National Invasive Species Management Plan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In February 1999, an Executive Order by President Clinton established the National Invasive Species Council (NISC) to take a leadership role in dealing with invasive species issues. As part of that order, NISC has prepared a plan "to minimize the economic and ecological impacts and the harm to animal and human health associated with invasive species." This document, "National Management Plan: Meeting the Invasive Species Challenge," is posted on the NISC Webpage, with public commentary invited through November 18, 2000.

2000-01-01

66

National Library Planning in Britain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Britian, national library planning does not attempt to provide a detailed central plan for all library development; rather it focuses on a limited range of crucial issues: the provision of appropriate legislative, institutional, and financial structures for broad library service. The Public Libraries and Museums Act of 1964 charged both…

Hookway, H. T.

67

Evaluating the national energy plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the long-term effectiveness of the National Energy Plan introduced by President Carter on April 20, 1977, this report summarizes results focusing on three specific questions: Can the Plan achieve its 1985 goals; how effective is the Plan after 1985; and could additional policies secure U.S. independence by 2000. To evaluate its effectiveness, a business-as-usual projection (government policies remain

R. F. Naill; G. A. Backus

1977-01-01

68

The integrated approach: important reforms in China's family planning work.  

PubMed

A review of the integrated approach to family planning, which was initiated in 1994 by the Chinese State Family Planning Commission, found that cadres and the people viewed the approach as effective for linking family planning with socioeconomic development. The recent world population conferences offered some enlightened plans of action. The Chinese leadership was made aware of the broader, more comprehensive approach to developing the economy, ending poverty, protecting the environment, promoting family planning, and expanding social development. The integrated program in China is taken by Chinese state authorities to be a follow-up to the UN plan of action. Chinese program effort in integration of family planning with poverty alleviation began during the 1970s and 1980s in some areas, such as Jinzhai County of Anhui Province, Yingshan County of Hubei Province, Wangcang County of Sichuan Province, and Nanzheng County of Shaanxi Province. Other integrated planning did not occur until the 1990s in places such as Jilin, Jiangsu, and Shaanxi provinces. A prominent characteristic of the Chinese integrated approach is the active involvement of governments. The program in Sichuan province illustrates this involvement. Rural households, who practice family planning, are granted by the provincial government help with funding or skills in the proper techniques of production. As income increases, acceptance of family planning is enthusiastic. Integrated programs also improve educational opportunities for women and children in poor areas. In underdeveloped areas, programming aims to quickly increase income and reduce fertility, to promote IEC, and to popularize contraceptive knowledge. More developed areas use quality improvements and "scientific management" as effective program efforts. The integrated approach is designated by different language in each province (New Family Plan, the Three Integrations, or Double Three Golden Bridge Program). The exposure to integrated family planning experiences nationwide occurred during the national family planning conference in Chengdu on October 22-26, 1995. This conference was the first of its kind in China. PMID:12346901

Xiao, Z

1995-12-01

69

42 CFR 441.20 - Family planning services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Family planning services. 441.20 Section...General Provisions § 441.20 Family planning services. For recipients eligible under the plan for family planning services, the plan must...

2009-10-01

70

42 CFR 441.20 - Family planning services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Family planning services. 441.20 Section...General Provisions § 441.20 Family planning services. For recipients eligible under the plan for family planning services, the plan must...

2010-10-01

71

Posing a hidden political threat. Pakistan. No attempt has been made at the national level to evolve a religious consensus on the subject of family planning.  

PubMed

Pakistan was the first developing country to be concerned about the population problem. The first family planning/population related efforts in Pakistan spawned from the nongovernmental sector in the form of the establishment of the Family Planning Association of Pakistan in 1953. The efforts of the association were then later acknowledged in the First Five-Year Public Sector Development Plan which made a lump sum provision of Rs. 5 million for population activities. The First Five-Year Plan (1955-60) recognized that measures should be taken to limit the size of the Pakistani family in order to reduce the incidence of malnutrition and overcrowding. There has never been an organized and consistent religious opposition to family planning in Pakistan. Islamic provisions in the constitution and diverse views of different groups of religious leaders do, however, pose an ongoing hidden political threat to the government which could be exploited through their street power in urban areas. The author notes that the governments in Pakistan will always be reluctant to aggressively promote family planning. Under these circumstances, the government must seek the cooperation of credible nongovernmental organizations which tend to operate through community-based volunteers who generally have more influence in persuading communities to accept a given point of view. Greater involvement of local community groups in a planned and meaningful way will broaden the base of program promoters and supporters across the country and will create a climate conducive to large-scale adoption of the small family norm as a way of life. PMID:12347306

Khan, L A

1996-01-01

72

National Energy Plan II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is one of a series of reports on the Nation's energy policies and programs required by a variety of legislative mandates. Initially, 7 chapters are given: Crisis and Uncertainty in the World Energy Future; The US Energy Future: The Implications for P...

1979-01-01

73

Research needs in family planning program promotion.  

PubMed

Areas of family planning promotion which need to be further researched are identified. The effectiveness of diverse information, education, and communication approaches needs to be evaluated, feasible ways to increase contraceptive continuation rates must be identified, the relative merits of providing fieldworkers with salaries or incentives should be assessed, different styles of interactions between providers and clients should be identified and evaluated and research directed toward improving training programs, field supervision, and supply logistics should be undertaken. A number of more detailed research suggestions with special reference to Taiwan and other Asian and Pacific countries are also provided. Little is known, for example, about provider and user interaction patterns in Asia, and the impact of these patterns on contraceptive acceptance and continuance. These patterns could be analyzed using diverse research techniques ranging from observation to experimental manipulation. Despite the fact that approximately 50% of all acceptors discontinue use within 2 years, researchers tend to focus on identifying acceptor characteristics while ignoring the discontinuation process. Researcher should 1) identify the best time for providing postacceptance followup services, 2) identify training strategies which provide fieldworkers with the highest level of confidence in specific contraceptive methods, 3) experiment with the use of newspaper columns and telephone advisory services to provide users with information about side effects, 4) assess the merits of involving both partners in the contraceptive counseling process, 5) develop and evaluate postacceptance educational materials, and 6) assess the impact of various supply systems on contraceptive continuance. Another neglected area of research is the public's attitude toward different contraceptive knowledge sources. For example, receptivity to family planning messages may vary depending on wether the message is delivered by a physician or by a local trained worker. Research is also needed to assess the feasibility of using advertising approaches to encourage acceptors to switch to more effective methods of contraception. The psychosocial needs of acceptors and cultural differences in response to family planning promotional activities should also be explored. Research barriers include a lack of field-trained researchers, limited interest in family planning among scholars, inadequate government and donor support and funding, a failure to provide funds for longterm research, and inadequate communication between researchers. In Taiwan there is a need to 1) conduct more operations research; 2) make more use of previous research findings; 3) focus attention on research aimed at increasing contraceptive use among young people, improving fieldworker and client communication, and expanding the role of nongovernment agencies in family planning; and 4) develop a national population research institute. PMID:12266922

Cernada, G P

1984-09-01

74

Why some family planning program fail.  

PubMed

40 experts representing Nepal, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, Korea, and the Philippines participated in a 3-day workshop in Manila in March 1976 for the purpose of discussing and proposing ways of dealing with the financial problems confronting the population programs of the individual countries. The Inter-Governmental Coordinating Committee for Southeast Asia Family/Population Planning sponsored the workshop. The recommendations made at the meeting were: 1) standardization of financing reporting procedures by the region's country programs on family planning; 2) closer coordination between donor agencies and policy-making bodies of country programs in the disbursement of funds; 3) frequent exchanges of experiences, ideas, technicaL knowledge, and other matters pertaining to the financial management of such programs; and 4) inclusion of applicable financial management topics in the training of clinical staffs and those involved in follow-up operations. Additionally, a proposal was made that national population organizations or committees develop research and evaluation units. Workshop discussion sessions focused on financial planning and management, accounting and disbursement of funds, use and control of foreign aid, cost of effectiveness and benefit analysis, and financial reporting. PMID:12309355

1976-04-01

75

Family planning: a basic development need.  

PubMed

The 1994 Human Development Report from the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) proposes a 20-20 Human Development Compact based on shared responsibilities between poor and rich nations, whereby poor and rich nations would help unmet basic human development needs such as primary education, primary health care, safe drinking water, and family planning over the next 10 years. This would require an additional US $30 to US $40 billion annually. Developing countries would commit 20% of their budgets to human priority concerns instead of the current 10% by reducing military expenditure, selling off unprofitable public enterprises and abandoning wasteful prestige projects. Donor countries would increase foreign aid from the current average of 7% to 20%. The report will propose a new concept of human security at the World Summit for Social Development to be held in March 1995, calling widespread human insecurity a universal problem. On average, poor nations have 19 soldiers for every one doctor. Global military spending has been declining since 1987 at the rate of 3.6% a year, resulting in a cumulative peace dividend of US $935 billion from 1987 to 1994. But this money has not been expended on unmet human needs. India ordered fighter planes at a cost that could have provided basic education to the 15 million Indian girls now out of school. Nigeria bought tanks from the UK at a cost that could have immunized all 2 million unimmunized children while also providing family planning to nearly 17 million couples. UNDP proposes a phasing out of all military assistance, military bases, and subsidies to arms exporters over a 3-year period. It also recommends the major restructuring of existing aid funds, and proposes a serious study on new institutions for global governance in the next century. PMID:12345955

1994-06-01

76

Synchronizing Federal Operational Planning for National Catastrophes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis proposes the establishment of a Center for National Catastrophe Planning to address systemic problems in the planning for national catastrophes. The state of the art planning capabilities of the federal government do not include a structure to...

J. P. Ithier

2010-01-01

77

Approaches to family planning in Muslim communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Addressing the cultural and religious beliefs around the issue of family planning has been a big challenge for the international development community. The concept of family planning has raised some concerns regarding its acceptability within Muslim populations. While some Muslim states and organisations have adopted a rather cautious approach to the issue, others have gone to the extent of inviting

Najat El Hamri

2010-01-01

78

Family-Directed Transition Planning Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide to family-directed transition planning is intended to help parents and students with disabilities take leading roles in the process of transition from school to post-school activities. First, a letter to families examines the challenge of change and the transition process. Section 2 examines regulations that affect transition planning,…

Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver. Div. of Special Education Services.

79

Men's approval of family planning in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

This article attempts to evaluate men's approval of family planning in Bangladesh using the couple data set from the recent Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS), 1999-2000. Family planning approval is addressed both from individual and couple perspectives. Analysis of BDHS data shows that about 85% of the wives report that their husbands approve of family planning, which is lower than the wives' own approval rate (95%). Using the couple data set, husbands' characteristics were matched to the wives' responses on family planning approval. Regression analyses show that age, education, access to TV, inter-spousal communication, current use of family planning and the number of living children significantly determine family planning approval among both men as well as couples. Family planning approval was found to be much lower in Sylhet than in the other administrative divisions. Multilevel modelling analysis suggests almost negligible variation at the community level. The findings indicate the need for careful evaluation of the DHS questions in order to measure appropriately men's family planning attitudes. PMID:16490157

Islam, Mohammad Amirul; Padmadas, Sabu S; Smith, Peter W F

2006-03-01

80

Family Planning: Bosnian, Russian, Spanish, Nuer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide provides information in English, Bosnian, Russian, Spanish, and Nuer on family planning. Topics covered include a variety of birth control methods: abstinence, condoms, contraceptive foam, birth control pills, the Depo-Provera shot, the Norplant implant, diaphragms, intrauterine devices, natural family planning, sterilization, and the…

Anoka County Community Health and Environmental Services, Coon Rapids, MN.

81

[Family planning methods based on fertility awareness].  

PubMed

The desire to limit fertility is recognized both by individuals and by nations. The concept of family planning is based on the right of individuals and couples to regulate their fertility and is based in the area of health, human rights and population. Despite the changes in policies and family planning programs worldwide, there are large geographic areas that have not yet met the minimum requirements in this regard, the reasons are multiple, including economic reasons but also ideological or religious. Knowledge on the physiology of the menstrual cycle, specifically ovulation process has been further enhanced due to the advances in reproductive medicine research. The series of events around ovulation are used to detect the "fertile window", this way women will look for the possibility of postponing their pregnancy or actually start looking for it. The aim of this article is to review the current methods of family planning based on fertility awareness, from the historical methods like the core temperature determination and rhythm, to the most popular ones like the Billings ovulation method, the Sympto-thermal method and current methods like the two days, and the standard days method. There are also mentioned methods that require electronic devices or specifically computer designed ones to detect this "window of fertility". The spread and popularity of these methods is low and their knowledge among physicians, including gynecologists, is also quite scarce. The effectiveness of these methods has been difficult to quantify due to the lack of well designed, randomized studies which are affected by small populations of patients using these methods. The publications mention high effectiveness with their proper use, but not with typical use, what indicates the need for increased awareness among medical practitioners and trainers, obtaining a better use and understanding of methods and reducing these discrepancies. PMID:22808858

Haghenbeck-Altamirano, Francisco Javier; Ayala-Yáñez, Rodrigo; Herrera-Meillón, Héctor

2012-04-01

82

National Environmental Manpower Planning Conference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The national planning conference was held to acquaint State and local environmental agencies with available resources and Federal/State activities related to the development and utilization of an environmental workforce. The 200 participants and 48 speakers represented Federal, State, local, and private agencies as well as professional…

Environmental Career Center, Inc., Washington, DC.

83

Family planning and fertility in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

This study examines the trends in contraceptive use and fertility levels in Bangladesh using national-level data from 1975-97. It also considers the major factors affecting contraceptive use and fertility. Data from the 1993/94 and 1996/97 Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey were also used for the multivariate analysis of the determinants of contraceptive use and fertility. It was found that between 1975 and 1996/97 the use of family planning methods increased 5-fold, rising from 13.6% to 69.2%. Also, contraceptive prevalence rate increased by over 6 times during the same period, rising from 7.7% to 49.2%. The sharp increase in contraceptive prevalence led to an appreciable decline in fertility, with total fertility rate dropping from 6.3 during the period 1971-75 to 3.3 during the period 1994-96. Except for the 15-19 year age group, fertility declined substantially in all other age groups, especially among women aged 35 years and older. Results of the analysis indicate that six factors account for the reproductive change in Bangladesh. These include interspousal communication on family planning, desire for children, women's education and employment status, access to mass media, and program efforts. The policy and programmatic implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:12295995

Barkat-e-khuda; Roy, N C; Rahman, D M

2000-03-01

84

Planning Styles in Single-Parent Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Planning styles, family characteristics, and sociodemographic factors were examined in a purposive sample of 203 single parents. Three planning styles emerged: goal-centered, resource-centered, and constrained. Both single-parent mothers and fathers most frequently used a goal-centered planning style. Mothers who used a constrained style were…

Buehler, Cheryl; Hogan, M. Janice

1986-01-01

85

Family planning legislation and policy in China.  

PubMed

This article summarizes China's general state of family planning (FP) legislation and FP policy. Article 25 of the Chinese Constitution and Article 12 of the Marriage Law require that F¿ must be promoted by the State. There was only one national law on FP: "Measures for Management of FP of the Floating Population," which was established on December 26, 1991. The text of this law was reported in "China Population Today," Number 1, February, 1992. This law authorized provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities under central government control to establish their own FP regulations according to the conditions of their regions. The first province with regulations was Guangdong in 1980, followed by Qinghai, Shaanxi, and Ningxia in 1986. Sichuan regulations were published in 1987, followed by Guizhou, Hubei, Liaoning, Fujian, Shandong, Jilin, and Anhui in 1988. In 1989, the following states published regulations: Guangxi, Tianjin, Hebei, Hainan, and Zhejiang. The remaining 11 provinces and autonomous regions passed regulations in 1990 and 1991 to complete the total 28 administrative units for provinces with FP regulations. Only Tibet and Xianjiang do not have regulations. Regulations promote deferred marriage and deferred childbearing, fewer and healthier births, the practice of one couple and one child, and birth spacing for those suffering with only one child; genetic defects were to be prevented. Minorities, in general, ascribed to the following conditions: 1) one-child family, unless difficulties would arise as a result. This provision applied to Beijing, Tianjin, and Shanghai municipalities and Jiangsu and Sichuan provinces. Allowing a second birth for families with only daughters was allowed in 18 provinces and regions. 2) Two-child families were allowed in Ningxia, Yunnan, Qinghai, guangdong, and Hainan provinces. 3) Ethnic populations (8% or 90 million in 1990) have special policies, which are more lenient than policies governing the Han majority. The exception was Zhuang nationality, which has the same policy as the Han. FP policy in China is not unified as a "one-child policy." PMID:12286963

1992-10-01

86

Family planning patterns in Sierra Leone.  

PubMed

Data gathered from 5952 currently married women and single women with children, 15-49 years of age, living in rural, urban, and Freetown (the largest metropolitan area), Sierra Leone has indicated that residence (urban or rural) is a greater influence on patterns of fertility and family planning than any other social or demographic factor. 10 detailed tables present an analysis of some of the social, cultural, and economic factors which have influenced existing family planning norms. Younger women seemed more influenced by social change, leading to a more positive position on family planning, although significant indications of this trend were apparent only in rural areas and their fertility was higher than that of their urban counterparts. Women in urban areas generally approved of family planning more than rural women, but data on those approving of but not practicing family planning indicates that efforts to increase approval may not necessarily increase practice. (Those approving but not practicing planning were: Freetown, 48.5%; towns, 56.0%; rural, 7.6%.) These figures may represent a transitional phase in the family planning process. However, most women are in economic or domestic roles that are unlikely to lead to change in their attitudes, which suggests that this transition will be difficult and slow. The high infant mortality rate, which tends to deny women their preferred number of children regardless of residence, intensifies the situation. PMID:5164356

Dow, T E

1971-10-01

87

AIDS: family planning workers join the battle.  

PubMed

Family planning workers all over the world are expanding their agenda to include AIDS education, counseling, and even blood tests, as they have always done for other sexually transmitted diseases. The Mexican Social Security Institute has produced a guide for family planning workers to educate them about AIDS. In Nigeria, clinics now have posters and other educational materials on HIV. In Haiti, a program to distribute condoms is being planned, and 2 trained social workers visit family planning clinics to educate and counsel people. In the U.S., Planned Parenthood has advised their clinics to counsel clients about AIDS based on risk assessments, and to provide voluntary HIV testing and referral. 350 people have been tested for HIV in the Planned Parenthood clinic in Walnut Creek, CA. The threat of an AIDS epidemic is no excuse for ceasing family planning in developing countries, because no one knows what the effect of AIDS will be on the population, but family planning is still an individual right and decision. WHO advises providers to advise that clients use 2 methods, barrier methods to protect against AIDS, and a modern effective method for contraception. PMID:12315657

1988-01-01

88

75 FR 17203 - National Rail Plan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. FRA-2010-0020] National Rail Plan AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...development of the long-range National Rail Plan (NRP) through an open docket. In...INFORMATION: Background: The Passenger Rail Investment and Improvement Act of...

2010-04-05

89

On the efficiency of multiple media family planning promotion campaigns.  

PubMed

This article presents the result of a study conducted by Miriam N. Jato on the impact of multimedia family planning communication campaigns on contraceptive use. The study was conducted in Tanzania, where a government program integrated family planning into maternal and child health care services in 1988, while in 1992 a private-sector condom-marketing program begun and a national population policy for wider distribution of family planning information was adopted by the government. In less than 3 years, contraceptive use was found to have doubled to a level of 11.3% and the total fertility rate declined from an average of 6.3 to 5.8 live births. The result of the study indicates that exposure to media sources of family planning messages was directly associated with increased contraceptive use. Moreover, the use of modern methods increased among women who were exposed to a greater number of media sources, as did discussion of family planning with spouses and attendance of health facilities. The programmatic implications of the results confirm that utilization of multiple media channels in the promotion of family planning and other reproductive issues must be continued, with emphasis on media sources that reach large audiences. PMID:12349449

90

Cambodian refugees' family planning knowledge and use.  

PubMed

An ethnographic study was conducted within a Cambodian refugee community to discover information about Cambodian women's and men's knowledge and use of family planning methods. This 18-month study included participant observation at community and calendrical events, and within families' homes. Open-ended interviews were conducted with 53 informants from a variety of educational and socio-economic backgrounds. Both women and men were interviewed through a female bilingual interpreter when the informant lacked proficiency in speaking English. Major findings include a lack of knowledge among the sample about how the family planning methods work in the woman's body, and concerns about side-effects. Implications include the need to include Cambodian women and men in the planning and implementation of family planning programmes. PMID:7560523

Kulig, J C

1995-07-01

91

Natural family planning effectiveness: evaluating published reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To equip the reader with the tools necessary to evaluate studies of natural family planning (NFP) effectiveness found in the literature and to make recommendations for future NFP effectiveness studies.

V. Lamprecht; J. Trussell

1997-01-01

92

Family planning via the postpartum approach.  

PubMed

Since motivation for family planning is extremely high after delivery or abortion, women should be consulted about the use of contraception within 3 months postpartum. The International Postpartum Family Planning Program began in 1966 and now provides family planning information and services in 26 urban hospitals in 15 countries for women of low socioeconomic status. In the first 2 years, 236,000 acceptors were enrolled in the program out of an estimated target in developing countries of 1,870,000 women. Home visit follow up surveys found that 82% were continuing some method of contraception 18 months after initial acceptance. The cost has been $3.20 per acceptor. The rates of postpartum return visits have increased since the initiation of the postpartum family planning program. The Population Council is now extending the program to other countries of the developing world to work in rural as well as in urban areas. PMID:12177898

Zatuchni, G I

1969-10-01

93

Annotated Bibliography on Family Planning Communication.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report deals with a selected bibliography for family planning communications research under the sponsorship of the Ministry of Health, Government of India. It presents the materials collected during the latter part of 1962 for the purpose of preparin...

U. Chowdhury

1970-01-01

94

Regional Impacts of the Family Assistance Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper presents estimates of the impact of the Family Assistance Plan (FAP) and similar income maintenance schemes based on any analysis of data from a 1967 Survey of Economic Opportunity. Regional economic development, regional poverty, and net migrat...

J. F. Kain R. Schafer

1971-01-01

95

National Severe Local Storms Operations Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the seventeenth of an annual series of National Severe Local Storms Operations Plans. This plan is one of several operations plans produced under the auspices of the Federal Coordinator. It outlines the responsibilities of the various United State...

1984-01-01

96

[Medical social care in family planning].  

PubMed

Basic pattern of medical social work, including its main directions and objects, methods and forms are considered. Necessity of adoption of medical social work in functioning of institutions of family planning is validated. Groups of clients as objects of medical social work are considered. Content, forms and methods of medical social work in family planning institutions differentiated depending on particular client group is analyzed. PMID:17004383

Vorobtsova, E S; Martynenko, A V

97

[Grasping economic reform and family planning simultaneously].  

PubMed

This report aims at proposing ways the Chinese government can raise productivity levels and living standards while promoting the objectives of family planning. During the 1970's, family planning was heavily emphasized. Every factory, commune, and government agency had a specialized group of personnel responsible for family planning. Since the time of economic reform, this group has been vastly minimized because of the central government's demands for reduction of "unproductive" personnel. Thus, with economic reform came a sizeable obstacle to the family planning campaign. The report takes Hong Lai County as an example of recent undertakings to balance the new reforms and the family planning objectives. Hong Lai County, one of the poorest counties in the Sichuan Province, located in western central Chna, has seen a growth in GNP of 100% since the economic reform of 1979. At the same time, the government of the county has had to work extremely hard to promote family planning, especially in rural areas where these objectives are more difficult to reinforce. The county government, in an effort to encourage these objectives, has set up programs of compensation in the form of special allowances and bonuses. Moreover, eucational programs have proven effective in this area. The report indicates that much success has been achieved in the areas of education through promotional campaigns and vocational training which have, in turn, increased productivity levels and living standards. PMID:12159346

Hou, W

1985-07-29

98

Filling the Family Planning Gap. Worldwatch Paper 12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author provides a global review of family planning techniques and their impact on national birth rates. Sterilization, the pill, and intrauterine devices are the most popular methods of contraception worldwide. Abortion, where it is legal, is also extremely popular. In countries such as the United States where population control is not an…

Stokes, Bruce

99

Pregnancy complications in natural family planning users  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multicenter cohort study was designed to assess pregnancy outcome among natural family planning (NFP) users, and provide the opportunity to address complications in NFP users by planning status and by timing of conception with respect to day of ovulation. There were 877 singleton births in this sample. Complications evaluated were abnormal vaginal bleeding, urinary tract infection, vaginal infection, hypertension

P. Mena; A. Bitto; M. Barbato; A. Perez; R. H. Gray; J. L. Simpson; J. T. Queenan; R. T. Kambic; F. Pardo; W. Stevenson; G. Tagliabue; V. Jennings; C. Li

1997-01-01

100

A Small Library in Family Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This annotated listing of books is intended as a reference for anyone seeking an authoritative introduction to population and family planning information, as a world, family, or individual concern. For each entry, the International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is provided if available. The number preceding each reference represents the…

Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc., New York, NY.

101

Readability Levels of Individualized Family Service Plans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This descriptive study examined the readability levels of Individualized Family Service Plans (IFSPs). The readability of 85 de-identified IFSP documents developed by seven agencies that serve families and children enrolled in a county early intervention program was analyzed using Flesch Kincaid grade levels and Flesch reading ease scores. The…

Pizur-Barnekow, Kris; Patrick, Timothy; Rhyner, Paula M.; Folk, Lillian; Anderson, Kara

2010-01-01

102

Special Report: Banjul Islam Conference endorses family planning.  

PubMed

44 participants from 12 West African nations met in Banjul, the Gambia, from October 22-26, 1979 and unanimously agreed that family planning is in conformity with Islam. They called for greater involvement of local Muslim leaders in African countries to encourage family planning for the promotion of maternal and child health. The Conference was sponsored by IPPF Africa Region and attended by representatives of Muslim associations, health and family planning workers, teachers, government officials, and experts on Muslim law from Cameroon, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Mali, Morocco, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Upper Volta, and Zaire. The Conference members acknowledged that while the Koran, the Sunna, and the concensus of most Islam scholars is that family planning is acceptable within marriage, most traditional religious leaders are ignorant of the fact. Muslim women should be encouraged to take an interest in family planning. Other recommendations were educating Muslims on nutrition, sanitation, and health; to collect views of African Muslim leaders and publicize them; and, to persuade Ministries of Education to include family relations and parenthood in school curricula. PMID:12178318

1979-11-01

103

Financing family planning services: is categorical legislation still needed?  

PubMed

Federal and state funds have provided for family planning services in American since the 1960s. Since 1976, services have been funded principally through federal statutes Title X of the Public Health Service Act and Titles V, XIX, and XX of the Social Security Act as well as various state appropriations. While these statutes aim to ensure that women of lower socioeconomic status enjoy access to reproductive health care services, levels of public expenditure in this area vary widely among states. In 1987, public family planning expenditures/woman at risk ranged from $60.16 in Wisconsin to $9.41 in Florida. Within this range of expenditures, the relative importance of each funding source per state varies widely. States with the most robust Title XIX programs, Medicaid, however, have highest per woman family planning expenditures. Upon reviewing the complement of public funding sources and how they are spent at the state level, the authors argue that categorical legislation is still needed to protect access to contraceptive services in America. In particular, of funds from supporting statues, Medicaid is distributed most equitable across the country. These funds paid for 36% of all public outlays for family planning in 1987. Without categorical legislation, however, Medicaid is insufficient to maintain the national family planning effort; the 1987 contribution of $10.49/woman at risk of unwanted pregnancy was insufficient to provide minimum services. Title X requires grantees to follow regulations which ensure state uniformity of quality and service distribution; submission of annual 5-year plans to Congress on how family planning goals will be achieved; and also authorizes monies for training and research. Despite political attacks, family planning funding must remain separate from maternal and child health programs. Such independence will keep these services politically visible; allow use of the more extensive family planning delivery system; catalyze states to spend other monies on family planning; and fuel innovations in service delivery, client education, and new contraceptive technologies. Title X should even be reauthorized under more precise mandates and include a national data collection system, consideration of the shortage of clinicians, and codification of 1981 guidelines reversed by the gag rule. PMID:12344741

Mcfarlane, D R; Meier, K J

104

Islamic logics, reproductive rationalities: family planning in northern Pakistan.  

PubMed

This paper explores the use of Islamic doctrine and jurisprudence by family planning organizations in the Gilgit-Baltistan region of northern Pakistan. It examines how particular interpretations of Islam are promoted in order to encourage fertility reductions, and the ways Muslim clerics, women and their families react to this process. The paper first discusses how Pakistan's demographic crisis, as the world's sixth most populous nation, has been widely blamed on under-funding for reproductive health services and wavering political commitment to family planning. Critics have called for innovative policy and programming to counter 'excessive reproduction' by also addressing socio-cultural and religious barriers to contraceptive uptake. Drawing on two years of ethnographic research, the paper examines how family planning organizations in Gilgit-Baltistan respond to this shift by employing moderate interpretations of Islam that qualify contraceptive use as a 'rational' reproductive strategy and larger families as 'irrational'. However, the use of Islamic rhetoric to enhance women's health-seeking agency and enable fertility reductions is challenged by conservative Sunni ulema (clergy), who seek to reassert collective control over women's bodies and fertility by deploying Islamic doctrine that honors frequent childbearing. Sunnis' minority status and the losses incurred by regional Shia-Sunni conflicts have further strengthened clerics' pronatalist campaigns. The paper then analyses how Sunni women navigate the multiple reproductive rationalities espoused by 'Islamized' family planning and conservative ulema. Although Islamized family planning legitimizes contraceptive use and facilitates many women's stated desire for smaller families, it frequently positions women against the interests of family, community and conservative Islam. PMID:22889427

Varley, Emma

2012-01-01

105

Family planning in Rwanda: status and prospects.  

PubMed

This article analyzes the status and future prospects of family planning in Rwanda. The use of traditional contraceptive methods is examined and major constraints to modern contraceptive use are discussed, both for potential users (low demand) and family planning delivery systems (poor supply). Current contraceptive prevalence, as well as evidence of potentially higher demand, are analyzed. Contraceptive prevalence for modern methods is estimated at 3-4 percent, for 1988, of women of reproductive age who are at risk of exposure to conception. An attempt is also made to target future contraceptive prevalence rates needed to attain specific levels of fertility. Finally, the prospects for family planning as well as recommendations to increase contraceptive use are reviewed. PMID:2315965

May, J F; Mukamanzi, M; Vekemans, M

106

Population and family planning in China.  

PubMed

As the most populous country of the world, China pursues an integrated programme for socio-economic development with family planning as a vital part of it. The aim is to ensure that population growth does not outpace the economic development, the availability of natural resources and environmental protection efforts. Current policy on family planning includes: the promotion of late marriage and deferred child bearing, advocating the practice of "one couple, one child", to encourage birth spacing for those who want a second child. Technical guidelines are: contraception as the priority; comprehensive use of various contraceptive methods in men and women; induced abortion allowed on request if no contraindications; state provided contraceptives, barrier devices and technical services. The birth rate of 33.34/1000, death rate of 7.6/1000 and natural increase rate of 25.83/1000 in 1970 was brought down to 21.04/1000, 6.7/1000 and 14.26/1000 respectively in 1985. A total fertility for 1950 of 5.87 was gradually brought down to 2.31 in 1990. 260 million births were averted between 1970-1991; the world's "5-billion population day" was postponed for 2 years and Asian "3-billion population day" was postponed for 3 years. The State Family Planning Commission under the State Council was set up in 1981. The China Family Planning Association, the China Population Association and non-governmental organisations promote family planning work in a coordinated way. The current family planning policy is now well accepted in the urban area, and gaining increasing momentum in the rural area. Persistant education is still important to break the millennia old tradition of having more children and more boys. PMID:7892742

Wu, J

1994-01-01

107

Family planning and protection of human rights.  

PubMed

The discussion of human rights in China is based on the White Paper issued by the Information Office under the State Council on November 1, 1991. China is the most populous country in the world at 1.14 billion in 1990. Annual increases of 17 million are expected even with family planning (FP). The area of cultivated land/capita has dropped to 1.3 mu (16.5% of an acre)/capita, or 25% of the world average. Fresh water resources have also dropped similarly. The amount of grain.person is 22% of that in the US. 25% of additional income to the national income is consumed by newborns annually. Savings have been cut and reinvestment in economic development has been slowed. There are pressures on all social and economic systems. There is acknowledged success in FP. The birth rate has dropped to 21.06.1000 in 1990, the rate of natural increase to 14.39%/1000, and the fertility rate to 2.31. These figures are lower than the averages for other developing countries. The FP policy is to promote deferred marriage and childbearing, fewer but healthier births, and 1 child/couple. Rural families who are having difficulties may after an interval of several years have a 2nd child. Minority nationalities are being encouraged to adopt FP voluntarily. Han requirements are different. The policy has been understood and supported by the masses and has contributed to the drop in 3rd and higher parity births to 19.32% in 1989 from 62.21% in 1970. The government role is one of guidance and persuasion within the law, and cannot be accomplished by administrative decrees alone. The government has given priority to enlightening the masses through publicity and education that birth control has a direct impact on the nation's prosperity and people's happy family life. The China FP Association has set up 600,000 grass roots branches with 32 million members to assist in aiding the masses in self-education, self-management, and self-service. Ideological education has been combined with helping the masses solve practical problems. FP identifies contraception as protection of maternal and child health. 75% of couples of childbearing age practice contraception. Coercive abortions are resolutely opposed. Induced abortion in cases of contraceptive failure are voluntary and safe. The abortion ratio is comparable to world rates, but lower rates are targeted. Policy objectives are to control population growth and improve the quality of human resources. Maternal and child health care is provided. Law forbids infanticide. Policy conforms to item 9 of the UN Mexico City Declaration on Population and Development, 1984, and the UN World Population Plan of Action. PMID:12317280

1991-12-01

108

Learning from Families: National Report, Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the Irish national report which forms part of a Trans-national Exchange Programme funded by the European Commission Community Action Programme to Combat Social Exclusion 2002 - 2006. The overall aim of Learning from Families is to address government policies and programmes from the point of view of families of young children themselves, in order to build social environments

Geraldine M French

2005-01-01

109

77 FR 69733 - National Family Week, 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...8906 of November 16, 2012 National Family Week, 2012 By the President of the United States...strength of character in their children. This week, we celebrate the unity and compassion...hard to get ahead. During National Family Week, let us recommit to keeping...

2012-11-21

110

NATIONAL SURVEY OF FAMILY GROWTH (NSFG)  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) provides information on childbearing, contraception, and closely related aspects of maternal and child health from a sample of women in the United States (including Alaska and Hawaii). The National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) was con...

111

National Severe Local Storms Operations Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the fourteenth in a series of annual National Severe Local Storms Operations Plans developed in response to a 1967 request by the Federal Coordinator for Meteorological Services and Supporting Research. This plan outlines the responsibilities of t...

1981-01-01

112

Methodology and Criteria for National Airport Planning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purposes of this research were to (1) analyze the federal interest and responsibilities in airport planning, (2) determine the objectives that FAA should serve in formulating the National Airport Plan, (3) develop a generally applicable methodology fo...

J. E. Gorham

1964-01-01

113

Can Better National Policy End Family Homelessness?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An understanding of the close link between federal policy and family homelessness is critical for ensuring that one day no child in the United States is homeless. This article discusses the nature of family homelessness, the national policy framework that exists to help vulnerable families, the homeless assistance system that federal policy has…

Roman, Nan

2010-01-01

114

National Security Technology Incubator Operations Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents the operations plan for developing the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) program for southern New Mexico. The NSTI program will focus on serving businesses with national security technology applications by nurturing them ...

2008-01-01

115

Billings natural family planning in Shanghai, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

With cervical mucus, or Billings, method of family planning, a woman learns to recognize the characteristics of her cervical mucus that identify the fertile phase in her menstrual cycle. She and her partner abstain from sexual activity during a period from the first indication of mucus until four days after the mucus peak day, which includes ovulation. They also abstain

J.-X. Xu; J.-H. Yan; D.-Z. Fan; D. W. Zhang

1994-01-01

116

Natural family planning effectiveness in Belgium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study is to check, in a European environment, the practical efficiency and the acceptability of a recent natural family planning (NFP) method. This method includes a double check to detect the beginning as well as the end of the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle.

A. De Leizaola-Cordonnier

1995-01-01

117

Family planning practice in Central Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community and hospital based studies were conducted to assess the major factors related to the practice of family planning during 1989 and 1990 in Central Sudan. The mothers of 1592 births in the community and 1357 births in the hospital were interviewed by trained study workers. Prevalence of contraceptive use prior to current pregnancy was 13.0% and knowledge of a

Taha El Tahir Taha

1993-01-01

118

Improving Family Planning Services for Teenagers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the findings of a study evaluating family planning services for teenagers in eight metropolitan and five rural areas in the U.S. The purpose of the study was to identify ways in which present services should be improved to attract and...

N. Day L. Brady

1976-01-01

119

National Security Technology Incubator Action Plan. National Security Preparedness Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents the action plan for developing the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) program for southern New Mexico. The NSTI program is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by Department ...

2008-01-01

120

Private sector joins family planning effort.  

PubMed

Projects supported by the Directorate for Population (S&T/POP) of the U.S. Agency for International Development and aimed at increasing for-profit private sector involvement in providing family planning services and products are described. Making products commercially available through social-marketing partnerships with the commercial sector, USAID has saved $1.1 million in commodity costs from Brazil, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Indonesia, and Peru. Active private sector involvement benefits companies, consumers, and donors through increased corporate profits, healthier employees, improved consumer access at lower cost, and the possibility of sustained family planning programs. Moreover, private, for-profit companies will be able to meet service demands over the next 20 years where traditional government and donor agency sources would fail. Using employee surveys and cost-benefit analyses to demonstrate expected financial and health benefits for businesses and work forces, S&T/POP's Technical Information on Population for the Private Sector (TIPPS) project encourages private companies in developing countries to invest in family planning and maternal/child health care for their employees. 36 companies in 9 countries have responded thus far, which examples provided from Peru and Zimbabwe. The Enterprise program's objectives are also to increase the involvement of for-profit companies in delivering family planning services, and to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of private volunteer organizations in providing services. Projects have been started with mines, factories, banks, insurance companies, and parastatals in 27 countries, with examples cited from Ghana and Indonesia. Finally, the Social Marketing for Change project (SOMARC) builds demand and distributes low-cost contraceptives through commercial channels especially to low-income audiences. Partnerships have been initiated with the private sector in 17 developing countries, with examples provided from the Dominican Republic, Liberia and Ecuador. These projects have increased private sector involvement in family planning, thereby promoting service expansion at lower public sector cost. PMID:12343476

1989-12-01

121

Behavior of Young People Regarding Family Planning  

PubMed Central

Conflict of interest: none declared. Family planning is a conscious activity of reproductive age that inclines, not only to regulate the number and timing of birth, but also to have a healthy child and to fulfill all of its role throughout the life cycle. The survey included 1804 students of various generations, which is approximately 9.3% of all students of the University of Montenegro. Instrument of survey was questionnaire with 25 closed type questions. Methods used for statistical data analyses were methods of descriptive statistics and nonparametric methods to analyze significance of differences at the significance p>0.05. The study comprised 53.9% of students aged up to 20 years and 46.1% of students aged from 21 to 26 years. There is statistically significant difference among students regarding sources of knowledge on family planning by age (Chi 2 = 14.54, p<0.05). The students have got information on family planning mostly from parents (46.7%). Out of total number of interviewed students, who stated that abortion is good method of contraception, 12.8% claimed doctors as the source of information, then books, mass media and parents. The most of interviewed students find condom as the best contraceptive method. Students used to get information on family planning mostly often from their parents, and most of them consider that they are well informed. One third of students do not protect themselves from undesired pregnancy, but most of them consider abortion as non adequate method of family planning.

Ljaljevic, Agima; Terzic, Natasa; Palibrk, Marija; Mugosa, Boban

2013-01-01

122

Worker-Client Relations and Related Policy Issues in the Bangladesh Family Planning Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|At the request of the government of Bangladesh the International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh established the Maternal and Child Health-Family Planning (MCH-FP) Extension Project in 1982. This paper discusses: (1) the design of the MCH-FP; (2) the major characteristics of the national health and family planning program under…

Hossain, Mian Bazle

123

Fertility and family planning behavior linked to residence in Egypt.  

PubMed

The 1992 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), implemented by the National Population Council and including a national sample of 9864 ever-married women aged 15-49 and 2466 husbands, yields data indicative of major changes in fertility and family planning behavior in the country, albeit with marked differentials by place of residence. The rate of total fertility has declined to 3.9 births per woman from more than 5 births in 1980, corresponding with an increase in the proportion of couples currently using family planning over the period from 24% in 1980 to 47% in 1992. Almost all couples know about family planning, about 66% have used a method of contraception at some time, and almost all users of family planning employ modern methods, mainly the IUD at 28% and the pill at 13%. There is, however, large variation in levels of fertility and family planning use by residence. A rural woman currently will have an average of 4.9 children, two more than the typical urban woman, while almost 60% of urban women use contraception compared to less than 40% of rural women. Regional differences are also great, with total fertility at 6 births per woman in Upper Egypt and only 2.7 in the Urban Governorates. The use of family planning varies from only 31% in Upper Egypt to 59% in the Urban Governorates. At current levels, despite declines in fertility, the average Egyptian woman has 1.2 births more than she wants; overall, 20% of married women are thought to be in need of family planning. With regard to maternal and child health, estimates suggest that infant mortality was cut in half over the period 1972-92 and tetanus toxoid coverage among mothers increased from 11% in 1988 to 57% in 1992. Many Egyptian women are not, however, receiving adequate maternity care, with approximately 50% of mothers not receiving any antenatal care during pregnancy and only 40% of births assisted by a doctor or nurse. Only two-thirds of children aged 12-23 months are fully immunized. Finally, 24% of children under age five are stunted, indicating the existence of chronic undernutrition. PMID:12319375

1995-01-01

124

China's first family planning publicity month.  

PubMed

China conducted its 1st nationwide Family Planning Publicity Month in 1983, from New Year's Day to Spring Festival (February 13). The campaign emphasized the rural areas and focused on explaining why family planning is a state policy. The most noticeable achievements of this campaign were that every household became familiar with the fact that family planning is a basic state policy. The majority of the population take this policy seriously, realizing that strict control of population growth is both a good and imperative policy. More than 1,830,000 propaganda columns and photo exhibitions were displayed, 5,900,000 radio and television programs broadcast, 2,010,000 theatrical performances, movie and slide showings presented, and 97,000,000 copies of materials published for public dissemination. The activities were varied and interesting, vivid and lively, and purposeful and persuasive. 1 of the most effective methods of publicizing population control has been the presentation of comparative statistics. This aspect of the campaign was a specific and lively form of education in population theory and practice. The presentation of statistics that show the relationship among population, land use, grain produce, and income enabled the population to reason out why population growth needs to match economic and social development. Another important accomplishment of the publicity month was that a large number of couples of reproductive age became convinced of the need to use contraception. According to the incomplete statistics, 8,860,000 people had surgical operations for birth control. The universal promotion of ligations by either partner of a reproductive couple who already had given birth to a 2nd child was an important development of family planning technique promoted simultaneously with the promotion of IUDs. The increase in the number of people doing family planning work was another achievement of the publicity month. More than 15,240,000 publicity personnel and 760,000 medical personnel were trained. The enthusiasm of the Party and the people contributed to the success of the publicity month. The success of the publicity month is inseparable from the achievements and experience gained through China's longterm pursuit of family planning. PMID:12312452

Shen, G

1983-05-01

125

[Sensible family planning: pitfalls and dilemmas].  

PubMed

In a recent article in this journal it was stated that Dutch women were sensible in having their first child between the ages of 25 and 35 years. One of the conclusions was that associated health risks increase after the age of 35 but are still acceptable even at the age of 40. We demonstrate that these conclusions were based on flawed assumptions. Postponing pregnancy until after the age of 30 increases the risks of infertility and breast cancer. Motherhood at a later age is associated with an increase in obstetrical complications, miscarriage and other adverse effects on the child. Therefore, for couples planning a family with 2 children or more, it would be sensible to have the first pregnancy not long after the mother reaches the age of 30 years, or even earlier. Couples should be informed on the risks of late parenthood in order to be able to take the right decisions concerning family planning. PMID:19102431

te Velde, E R; Merkus, J M W M; van Leeuwen, F E; Verloove-Vanhorick, S P; Braat, D D M

2008-11-29

126

Guns or butter, family planning or widgets?  

PubMed

In January 1992 Congress returned from its Christmas recess to begin wrestling with the upcoming year's federal budget. The Budget Enforcement Act places absolute limits on the amounts Congress can appropriate for domestic programs, international assistance, and defense spending. Unless the president declares an emergency, Congress has no flexibility to adjust the $293 billion defense allocation in favor of domestic or international assistance. For the next few years, spending for the military would account for about 55% of all discretionary spending. The Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education Appropriations subcommittee has a predetermined slice of the $222 billion domestic allocation. The subcommittee must then decide how to subdivide its slice among employment programs, education assistance, and health care, which includes domestic family planning programs. Similarly, the foreign operations subcommittee slices up a small $20 billion for international assistance. Some will go for economic aid, some for development assistance, including international family planning programs. And, about 30% of the international aid budget will go to military assistance to foreign governments. The massive shifts on the international scene and an uncertain domestic economy are forcing a reconsideration of this iron-clad budget agreement. Consequently, efforts to nullify the budget agreement are underway. Over 100 organizations and church groups have formed a coalition calling on Congress and the administration to reorder fiscal priorities so that resources can be redirected toward worthwhile domestic and international programs. Worldwide, the demand for contraceptive services is increasing, yet the US spends only about $300 million for population assistance per year, about the same as it was 20 years ago. But policy makers are finally beginning to understand that the costs of Title X, international family planning, and providing quality family planning services are far less than the long-term costs of caring for ill infants, abused children, or women suffering from the health effects of multiple pregnancies. PMID:12284784

Hirshbein, N

1992-02-01

127

Developing family planning nurse practitioner protocols.  

PubMed

This article focuses on the process of development of protocols for family planning nurse practitioners. A rationale for the use of protocols, a definition of the types and examples, and the pros and cons of practice with protocols are presented. A how-to description for the development process follows, including methods and a suggested tool for critique and evaluation. The aim of the article is to assist nurse practitioners in developing protocols for their practice. PMID:6563201

Hawkins, J W; Roberto, D

128

Evaluating client autonomy in natural family planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

A critical element for evaluation fo natural family planning (NFP) methods is client autonomy. Autonomy in NFP refers to clients who can identify their fertile days and apply this method without teacher assistance. The results of this study show that clients who are autonomous have a 12-month continuation rate of 96.7% and a pregnancy rate of 1.7% after beginning charting.

R. T. Kambic; M. C. Martin

1988-01-01

129

Population Assistance and Family Planning Programs: Issues for Congress.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Congressional Research Service (CRS) report analyzes population assistance and family planning programs. For FY2004 the Administration seeks $425 million in bilateral family planning funds and sets asides $25 million in a reserve account for the Unit...

L. Nowels

2003-01-01

130

Natural family planning: A comparison of continuers and discontinuers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little research has been done on social-psychological variables related to the use of natural family planning. The objective of this study was to analyze variables that differentiated between continuers and discontinuers of natural family planning (NFP). Questionnaires were obtained from couples who had received instruction in the sympto-thermal method of natural family planning at a large urban hospital. Subjects who

Kerry J. Daly; Edward S. Herold

1983-01-01

131

National Nanotechnology Initiative. Strategic Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 2007 NNI Strategic Plan describes the vision, goals, and priorities of the NNI. Through the approach described in this new Strategic Plan, the NNI will ensure that the United States derives growing economic benefits and improved quality of life for it...

2007-01-01

132

National Nanotechnology Initiative Strategic Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document is the strategic plan for the NNI. It describes the NNI vision and goals and the strategies by which these goals are to be achieved. The plan includes a description of the NNI investment strategy and the program component areas called for by...

2011-01-01

133

Bibliography of Family Planning and Population, Volume 1 Number 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compiled from the world's research literature, this bi-monthly classified list of references on population and family planning emphasizes recently published material, primarily journal literature. Topics covered include: population and fertility; reproductive behaviour; the family; education in population, family planning, and sex; family

Linzell, Dinah, Comp.

134

Tay Sachs and Related Storage Diseases: Family Planning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on interviews with 24 families, the article discusses family planning and the choices available to those families in which a child has previously died from Tay-Sachs or related lipid storage diseases. (IM)

Schneiderman, Gerald; And Others

1978-01-01

135

Tay Sachs and Related Storage Diseases: Family Planning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Based on interviews with 24 families, the article discusses family planning and the choices available to those families in which a child has previously died from Tay-Sachs or related lipid storage diseases. (IM)|

Schneiderman, Gerald; And Others

1978-01-01

136

National Security Technology Incubation Project Continuation Plan  

SciTech Connect

This document contains a project continuation plan for the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI). The plan was developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP) funded by a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This continuation plan describes the current status of NSTI (staffing and clients), long-term goals, strategies, and long-term financial solvency goals.The Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University (NMSU) is the operator and manager of the NSTI. To realize the NSTI, Arrowhead Center must meet several performance objectives related to planning, development, execution, evaluation, and sustainability. This continuation plan is critical to the success of NSTI in its mission of incubating businesses with security technology products and services.

None

2008-09-30

137

National Security Technology Incubator Action Plan  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the action plan for developing the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) program for southern New Mexico. The NSTI program is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). This action plan serves as a tool in measuring progress in the development process and delivery of services for the NSTI program. Continuous review and evaluation of the action plan is necessary in the development process of the NSTI. The action plan includes detailed steps in developing the NSTI program based on recommended best practices in incubator development by the National Business Incubation Association (NBIA). Included are tasks required to implement the NSTI, developed within a work breakdown structure. In addition, a timeline is identified for each task.

None

2008-02-28

138

BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT PLAN.  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Wildlife Management Plan (WMP) is to promote stewardship of the natural resources found at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), and to integrate their protection with pursuit of the Laboratory's mission.

NAIDU,J.R.

2002-10-22

139

National Severe Local Storms Operations Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the fifteenth of an annual series of National Severe Local Storms Operations Plans developed after a 1967 request by the Federal Coordinator for Meteorological Services and Supporting Research. It outlines the responsibilities of the various Unite...

1982-01-01

140

An Evaluation of the National Energy Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report, developed at the request of the Chairman, Subcommittee on Energy and Power, House Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, presents an analysis and comment on the President's National Energy Plan. The report is intended to assist the Con...

1977-01-01

141

National Energy Planning for Developing Countries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper is a summary of what has been learned from the experience with national energy planning in developing countries. It considers lessons learned about the roles of data, analysis, and modeling in this enterprise, because of the connections between...

T. J. Wilbanks

1986-01-01

142

Master Plan, Guadalupe Mountains National Park.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The master plan for Guadalupe Mountains National Park, Culberson and Hudspeth Counties, Texas, provides the broad guidelines for the orderly development, management and operation of the area in such a manner as to provide maximum visitor enjoyment, preser...

1971-01-01

143

National Security Technology Incubator Operations Plan  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the operations plan for developing the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) program for southern New Mexico. The NSTI program will focus on serving businesses with national security technology applications by nurturing them through critical stages of early development. The NSTI program is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The operation plan includes detailed descriptions of the structure and organization, policies and procedures, scope, tactics, and logistics involved in sustainable functioning of the NSTI program. Additionally, the operations plan will provide detailed descriptions of continuous quality assurance measures based on recommended best practices in incubator development by the National Business Incubation Association (NBIA). Forms that assist in operations of NSTI have been drafted and can be found as an attachment to the document.

None

2008-04-30

144

Family Planning and the religious issue.  

PubMed

The question of whether family planning is compatible with Islam is not a new issue. An eminent 11th century teacher declared that the earliest followers of the prophet practiced contraception with the knowledge of the prophet, who did not forbid it. The issue has always been controversial, but the usual attitude has been 1 of tolerance. The question has become more pressing in the past few decades with the increased urgency of controlling population growth. The success or failure of the birth control program will depend partly on the active support of the Islamic leadership. A 1982 survey showed that 19.5% of Egyptian men and women believed that family planning was somewhat or completely against their religious beliefs, and another 10.1% said they did not know. 38% of these people answered affirmatively to a question on whether anything in the religious books forbids birth control. In the mid-1930s, Egypt's Grand Mufti, the country's most authoritative interpretor of Islamic law, issued a religious decree permitting contraception, thus allowing establishment of birth control clinics in Egyptian citites. In 1964, Sheikh Hasan Ma'mun encouraged the use of contraception based on the changing needs of the Muslim people. Since 1980, religious leaders have played a major role in public education efforts of the State Information Service (SIS) by speaking out on the acceptability of birth control in the eyes of Islam. However, about 45,000 of Egypt's approximately 50,000 mosques are private and almost entirely immune from government control, and they have traditionally been a haven for critics of the Egyptian government. As the government has become more committed to family planning, their opposition has increased. The argument of some Sheikhs that birth control is a Western effort designed to weaken Egypt is countered by the SIS which points to the use of contraception in other countries: 87% in Belgium, 78% in England, 70% in the US, 6% in Bangladesh, and 2% in Nepal. PMID:12339620

Kats, G

1983-01-01

145

Family planning for women with bipolar disorder.  

PubMed

Women with bipolar disorder often ask their treating clinician for information about family planning, as they are concerned about the impact of their illness on offspring. Three areas that should be included in discussions with patients and their partners are heritability of the disorder, risks during pregnancy, and risks during the postpartum period. The author summarizes information about genetic transmission of bipolar disorder, effects on bipolar patients of stress associated with pregnancy and childrearing, and effects of medication on the fetus and newborn. Discussion of these issues is most relevant for a women patient who is planning a pregnancy, but may also be useful for couples before marriage, for a women patient who finds that she is pregnant, and for men with bipolar disorder who want to become fathers. PMID:1587511

Packer, S

1992-05-01

146

Linking population, fertility, and family planning with adaptation to climate change: perspectives from Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Global climate change is felt disproportionately in the world's most economically disadvantaged countries. As adaption to an evolving climate becomes increasingly salient on national and global scales, it is important to assess how people at the local-level are already coping with changes. Understanding local responses to climate change is essential for helping countries to construct strategies to bolster resilience to current and future effects. This qualitative research investigated responses to climate change in Ethiopia; specifically, how communities react to and cope with climate variation, which groups are most vulnerable, and the role of family planning in increasing resilience. Participants were highly aware of changing climate effects, impacts of rapid population growth, and the need for increased access to voluntary family planning. Identification of family planning as an important adaptation strategy supports the inclusion of rights-based voluntary family planning and reproductive health into local and national climate change adaptation plans. PMID:24069764

Rovin, Kimberly; Hardee, Karen; Kidanu, Aklilu

2013-09-01

147

Petersburg National Battlefield Lesson Plans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This collection of eight lesson plans deals with the Petersburg (Virginia) U.S. Civil War battlefield. The lessons tell about slave life and plantation life in the U.S. south, and how the Civil War forever changed this structure. To do the lessons, students read primary source documents that tell the stories of three different soldiers who…

National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

148

National Ignition Facility Configuration Management Plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Configuration Management Plan (CMP) describes the technical and administrative management process for controlling the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Project configuration. The complexity of the NIF Project (i.e., participation by multiple national laboratories and subcontractors involved in the development, fabrication, installation, and testing of NIF hardware and software, as well as construction and testing of Project facilities) requires implementation of

S G Cabral; T L Moore

2002-01-01

149

A brief introduction to China's family planning programme.  

PubMed

China's family planning program is described in reference to its goals, approaches, and achievements. Between 1949-83, China's population increased from 541 million to 1,024,950,000. The population has a young age structure, and the median age is 22.9 years. 80% of the population is rural, and 90% of the population lives in the southeastern region of the country. In view of this demographic situation, the government recognizes the need to control population growth. China's goals for the year 2000 are to increase industrial and agricultural input by 400% and to keep population size below 1.2 billion in order to ensure that per capita income increases. In accordance with these goals, the government, in 1979, began advocating a 1-child policy. To ensure the survival of single children, the government also launched a program to upgrade maternal and child health (MCH). In some rural areas and among certain minority groups, the 1-child restriction is not applied. Family size goals will vary with time. These variations will reflect the need to maintain a balance between economic growth and population growth. A variety of incentives are used to promote the 1-child family. For example, single children receive medical and educational benefits, and in some rural areas, the parents of single children can obtain additional land contracts. Economic disincentives are also used. The government seeks to obtain compliance with the policy primarily through educating the public about the consequences of uncontrolled population growth. All channels of the mass media are used to deliver the messages, and the publicity campaign is especially intensive in rural areas. A comprehensive plan to provided family planning and population education for middle school students is currently being implemented. Each local area develops its own fertility control plan. This plan is then incorporated into the nation's overall plan and the overall plan is implemented from above. Family planning workers bring free contraceptives directly to the people, and family planning motivators are found in almost all villages, neighborhood committees, factories, and military units. As a result of these efforts, China made great strides in controlling population growth and improving MCH during the last decade. The birth rate declined from 27.93 to 18.62, and the total fertility rate declined from 4.01 to 2.48. 124 million couples were practicing contraception by the end of 1983. 41% used IUDs, 37.4% relied on tubal ligation, 12.9% relied on vasectomy, 5.1% on oral contraceptives, and 1% on other methods. The quality of maternal and child care also improved. 92.7% of all deliveries are now performed by trained midwifes. Infant and maternal mortality rates declined considerablely in recent years. Currently the respective rates are 35.68/1000 live births and 0.5/1000 live births. In 1983 alone, the gross national agricultural and industrial output increased by 46.1%. Since 1979 per capita income increased annually by 18.3% among rural residents and by 10.7% among urban workers. China controls and operates its own population program, but in recent years, it increased its cooperation with UN Fund for Population Activities, other UN agencies, and nongovernment agencies. China recently completed its 3rd national census, and demographic research institutes have been established in 10 universities. PMID:12266994

Shen, G

1984-08-01

150

Family planning and the labor sector: soft-sell approach.  

PubMed

Dr. Cesar T. San Pedro, the director of the company clinic at Dole Philippines plantation in South Cotabato in Region 11, has been pressing the management to initiate a comprehensive family planning programs for their 10,000 workers. Pedro wants the Ministry of Labor and Employment (MOLE) to enforce its population program. The situation at Dole is one that requires an arbiter. Since 1977, there has not been a Population/Family Planning Officer (PFPO) for the area, and it is not possible to monitor closely if the qualified firms are following the labor code and providing family planning services to their employees. Susan B. Dedel, executive director of the PFPO, has reported that the office has sought to endear its program to the private sector by showing that family planning is also profitable for the firm. This "soft-sell" approach has been the hallmark of the MOLE-PFPO since it began in 1975 as a joint project of the Commission on Population (POPCOM), United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA), and International Labor Organization (ILO). Some critics have argued that this liberal style of implementation is short-selling the program. They point out that the Labor Code of 1973 enforces all establishments with at least 200 employees to have a free in-plant family planning program which includes clinic care, paid motivators, and volunteer population workers. The critics seem, at 1st glance, to have the statistics on their side. In its 5 years of operation, the PFPO has convinced only 137,000 workers to accept family planning. This is quite low, since of the 1.2 million employed by the covered firms, 800,000 are eligible for the MOLE program. Much of the weakness of the implementation is said to be due to the slow activation of the Labor-Management Coordinating Committees (LMCC). The critics maintain that because of the liberal enforcement of Department Order No. 9, the recalcitrant firms see no reason to comply. Dedel claims that the program is on the right track. Hamlish Richards, chief of ILO's population and labor policies branch, has high praise for the program. Over the years the ILO has awarded fellowships to 19 labor ministry officials from Asia and Africa to learn from Dedel and her staff. What is most impressive is PFPO's training component. The country's bigger establishments have already implemented the PFPO concepts, and the programs of these companies are reviewed. Last year PFPO entered into an agreement with the Population Center Foundation and POPCOM Region 11 to test the viability of the use of incentives. 6 companies agreed to try out this approach. PMID:12338155

Teston, R C

1981-01-01

151

Family planning counseling: an international conference.  

PubMed

An international conference on family planning counseling held in Istanbul in April 1992 was attended by 60 health care professionals from 25 countries. The conference was co-sponsored by the Association for Voluntary Surgical Contraception (AVSC) and the World Federation for Voluntary Surgical contraception. Participants conceptualized counseling as a two-way communication between client and health provider aimed at enabling the client to make a voluntary, informed choice consistent with her/his needs and values. Counseling was further envisioned as occurring whenever clients come into contact with health care staff--a view that suggests a need to train a range of personnel, including administrative staff, physicians, and community health workers, in counseling skills. Participants further recommended that family planning counseling be expanded to include sex education and information about sexually transmitted diseases such as AIDS. Given indications that thorough counseling can increase contraceptive acceptance, client satisfaction, and contraception continuation, funding agencies and government officials are urged to intensify support for counseling activities and training. PMID:12285567

Bakamjian, L; Harper, P B

1992-07-01

152

National Mirror Fusion Program Plan  

SciTech Connect

This Plan is current as of August 1982. The major milestones listed herein represent an aggressive, success-oriented program paced primarily by technical results. Consistent with applicable government policies and the overall program planning of the Department's Office of Fusion Energy, this Plan assumes approval of the Mirror Program's next major step beyond MFTF-B - a deuterium-tritium (D-T) burning engineering reactor called the Fusion Power Demonstration (FPD) facility (formerly the Tandem Mirror Next Step). The near-term goal of the tandem mirror program is to lay the scientific and technical groundwork for an economically attractive, D-T fusion reactor design before the end of the 1980s. Construction of the FPD facility based on the tandem mirror could be initited around 1988. A second phase, complete with a nuclear power blanket demonstration, could be initiated in the mid-1990s, based on nuclear engineering data from a facility such as the Technology Demonstration Facility (TDF) described below. The outline of an acceptable tandem mirror reactor (TMR) design was first published in 1981, and will be further developed and described in the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) during FY 1982-1983.

Gerich, C.A. (ed.)

1982-08-01

153

[Promoting family planning work in Xiaqidu township by establishing a family planning association in each village].  

PubMed

A family planning association was established in each village of Xiaqidu Township in Hunan Province, China in October 1986. The positive functions of each such association were so fully developed that family planning work reached new levels. For example, most villages are no longer experiencing early marriages or unplanned births. Some of the villages have established associations for individual work groups. The traditional method was for both township and village associations to rely upon the positive attitudes of officials to instill into fertile women Party policy, and to arouse their patriotism and initiative. By establishing family planning associations at the village level, however, the people can conduct their own affairs and educate themselves. Emphasis has been placed on attracting into the associations those who are of childbearing age, as well as older villagers of experience. The associations' raison d'etre was to serve the people. They did so through: propaganda (disseminating population theory, birth control and family planning information); helping the people overcome poverty, traditional thinking, and ignorance; assisting women with any problems and anxieties relating to child-bearing; delivering contraceptives to households; and providing the elderly with care and the young with education. PMID:12159303

Li, C

1987-07-01

154

Reports on Population/Family Planning, Number Ten. Mobile Units in Family Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Use and effectiveness of mobile units in family planning programs of several foreign countries are surveyed in this demographic report. Services and education provided by mobile unit programs in Tunisia, the United Arab Republic, Honduras, South Korea, Turkey, and Pakistan are examined. Assessed are the various roles mobile units play, their…

Munroe, Gretel S.; Jones, Gavin W.

155

National Nanotechnology Initiative Strategic Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The vision of the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) is a future in which the ability to understand and control matter on the nanoscale leads to a revolution in technology and industry. Toward this vision, the NNI will expedite the discovery, develo...

2004-01-01

156

Couple Communication and Sexual Attitudes in Natural Family Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Natural family planning (NFP) refers to techniques for planning or preventing pregnancy by observation of natural signs of fertility. In using natural family planning to avoid pregnancy, there is abstinence from sexual intercourse during the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle. Social values which are incorporated into the method include couples…

Shivanandan, Mary; Borkman, Thomasina

157

[Journalism and family planning in Guinea-Bissau. Putting the accent on birth spacing].  

PubMed

A conference on awareness in the mass media of the problems of family planning was held in March 1989 at Bissau by the Guinean Association for Education and Promotion of Family Health (AGEPSF). Representatives of radio, a daily newspaper, and the national press agency discussed the objectives of AGEPSF and the benefits of family planning with specialists in different sectors of national life. The secretary general of AGEPSF affirmed the interest of the government in creating a health organization to coordinate national policy in family planning and to diffuse information on family planning. The family planning objective of the AGEPSF is not limitation of births but rather spacing to promote maternal and child health. AGEPSF is a member of the International Planned Parenthood Federation and maintains relations with similar organizations throughout the world. According to the director of the national maternity hospital, family planning is a sensitive topic but it has become accepted in numerous countries as marriage in rural areas and abortions in urban areas are widespread practices in Africa with potentially grave consequences. The general director of the National Institute for Studies and Research placed the theme of family planning in the context of Guinea-Bissau by citing the low level of education, the almost insignificant number of literate women, and the lack of health services in rural areas as the principal causes of increasing infant mortality in the country. African countries should create favorable conditions, elevate the level of living of their populations, and develop concrete health actions to reduce infant and maternal mortality. PMID:12282452

Vaz, C

1989-05-01

158

Japan's national waste recovery plan  

SciTech Connect

The national program in Japan for waste recovery is reviewed. Japan's particular needs (relatively small area, large population, virtually no native energy or raw material sources) are discussed and the urgency of the program is stressed. Specific programs are described as well as government, citizen, and industrial contributions. Initiated in the early 1960's, primarily from environmental factors, the program has expanded to produce energy, fertilizers, pulp, rubber, cements, and other products. Research activities are summarized with emphasis on the Stardust Project (a national demonstration project to show that municipal wastes can be separated into garbage, paper, and plastics and each group can be processed to produce materials or energy). Clean Japan Center, an incorporated foundation, has functions of public education, surveys, demonstration plants and waste collection activities. An integrated system to process both urban and rural wastes in Toyohashi City is described. (MJJ)

Baller, J.

1982-08-01

159

Status of women, maternal child health and family planning in Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kenya, a developing Third World nation, has made a commitment to slow her population growth rate by actively promoting Maternal Child Health (MCH) and Family Planning (FP) programs. Present day programs are designed to promote the concept of smaller families, spacing of pregnancies, and reduce the rates of maternal and infant mortality. This paper explores the relationship between the status

Heidi Weintraub

1997-01-01

160

Experimental plan for the Single-Family Study  

SciTech Connect

The national evaluation of the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) consists of five separate studies. The Single-Family Study is one of three studies that will estimate program energy savings and cost effectiveness in principal WAP submarkets. This report presents the experimental plan for the Single-Family Study, which will be implemented over the next three years (1991--1993). The Single-Family Study will directly estimate energy savings for a nationally representative sample of single-family and small multifamily homes weatherized in the 1989 program year. Savings will be estimated from gas and electric utility billing records using the Princeton Scorekeeping Method (PRISM). The study will also assess nonenergy impacts (e.g., health, comfort, safety, and housing affordability), estimate cost effectiveness, and analyze factors influencing these outcomes. For homes using fuels such as wood, coal, fuel oil, kerosene, and propane as the primary source of space conditioning, energy savings will be studied indirectly. The study will assemble a large nationally representative data base. A cluster sampling approach will be used, in which about 400 subgrantees are selected in a first stage and weatherized homes are selected in a second range. To ensure that the Single-Family Study is able to identify promising opportunities for future program development, two purposively selected groups of subgrantees will be included: (1) subgrantees that install cooling measures (such as more efficient air conditioning equipment or radiant barriers), and (2) exemplary subgrantees that use state-of-the-art technologies and service delivery procedures (such as advanced audit techniques, blower door tests, infrared scanners, extensive client education, etc.). These two groups of subgrantees will be analyzed to identify the most effective program elements in specific circumstances. 14 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Berry, L.G.; Brown, M.A.; Wright, T.; White, D.L.

1991-09-01

161

National Special Security Events: Transportation Planning for Planned Special Events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unique among planned special event activities are those events that carry the National Special Security Event (NSSE) designation. NSSEs occur with some frequency, with 35 of these events held between September 1998 and February 2010. These events include, but are not limited to, presidential inaugurations, presidential nominating conventions, major sports events such as the Super Bowl, and major international meetings

Nancy Houston; Craig Baldwin; Andrea Vann Easton; Jeff Sangillo

2011-01-01

162

Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan is to compile and to consolidate information annually on how the ORNL Waste Management Program is conducted, which waste management facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, what activities are planned for the forthcoming fiscal year (FY), and how all of the activities are documented.

Not Available

1992-12-01

163

National energy planning for developing countries  

SciTech Connect

This paper is a summary of what has been learned from the experience with national energy planning in developing countries. It considers lessons learned about the roles of data, analysis, and modeling in this enterprise, because of the connections between these components and our common interest in research to advance the state of the art; but it concludes that the most important needs at this time are institutional rather than analytical, which suggests a somewhat different set of priorities for scholarship related to national energy planning in the developing world.

Wilbanks, T.J.

1986-01-01

164

Jamaica Integrated National Energy Planning Model  

SciTech Connect

The Jamaica Integrated National Energy Planning (JINEP) Model was developed by Argonne National Laboratory under contract to the Jamaica Ministry of Mining, Energy, and Tourism. JINEP is a comprehensive model of the energy-producing sector and the major energy consuming sectors of Jamaica. The JINEP Model is an application of a modelling system, the Integrated Demand and Energy Supply (IDES) Model, that was previously developed at Argonne for the purpose of analyzing energy systems of developing countries. IDES is based on several years of experience in analyzing energy planning issues characteristic of developing countries.

Macal, C.M.

1987-01-01

165

National Ignition Facility project acquisition plan  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this National Ignition Facility Acquisition Plan is to describe the overall procurement strategy planned for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Project. The scope of the plan describes the procurement activities and acquisition strategy for the following phases of the NIF Project, each of which receives either plant and capital equipment (PACE) or other project cost (OPC) funds: Title 1 and 2 design and Title 3 engineering (PACE); Optics manufacturing facilitization and pilot production (OPC); Convention facility construction (PACE); Procurement, installation, and acceptance testing of equipment (PACE); and Start-up (OPC). Activities that are part of the base Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program are not included in this plan. The University of California (UC), operating Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Lockheed-Martin, which operates Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR-LLE), will conduct the acquisition of needed products and services in support of their assigned responsibilities within the NIF Project structure in accordance with their prime contracts with the Department of Energy (DOE). LLNL, designated as the lead Laboratory, will have responsibility for all procurements required for construction, installation, activation, and startup of the NIF.

Callaghan, R.W.

1996-04-01

166

Work-Family Planning Attitudes among Emerging Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using social learning theory as a framework, we explore two sets of antecedents to work and family role planning attitudes among emerging adults: their work-family balance self-efficacy and their perceptions of their parents' work-to-family conflict. A total of 187 college students completed a questionnaire concerning their work-family balance…

Basuil, Dynah A.; Casper, Wendy J.

2012-01-01

167

Work-Family Planning Attitudes among Emerging Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using social learning theory as a framework, we explore two sets of antecedents to work and family role planning attitudes among emerging adults: their work-family balance self-efficacy and their perceptions of their parents' work-to-family conflict. A total of 187 college students completed a questionnaire concerning their work-family balance…

Basuil, Dynah A.; Casper, Wendy J.

2012-01-01

168

National Convention on Family Life Education.  

PubMed

This secretarial report gives brief comments on some discussion of topics at the National Convention on Family Life Education. Discussion included: 1) legalized prostitution as a means to reduce venereal disease; 2) family life education promotion by government and civic groups; 3) more authority for the Population Council; 4) more liberal abortion legislation than previously; 5) statutory notification of veneral disease by medical practitioners; 6) compensatory measures for working women with young children, and 7) the need for modernization of legislation pertaining to child health, adoption, paternity, the Persons Act, infant life preservation, drugs, age of consent, and the age of minority. PMID:12276773

1973-12-01

169

National Ignition Facility Title II Design Plan  

SciTech Connect

This National Ignition Facility (NIF) Title II Design Plan defines the work to be performed by the NIF Project Team between November 1996, when the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) reviewed Title I design and authorized the initiation of Title H design and specific long-lead procurements, and September 1998, when Title 11 design will be completed.

Kumpan, S

1997-03-01

170

National Security Technology Incubator Business Plan  

SciTech Connect

This document contains a business plan for the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI), developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP) and performed under a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This business plan describes key features of the NSTI, including the vision and mission, organizational structure and staffing, services, evaluation criteria, marketing strategies, client processes, a budget, incubator evaluation criteria, and a development schedule. The purpose of the NSPP is to promote national security technologies through business incubation, technology demonstration and validation, and workforce development. The NSTI will focus on serving businesses with national security technology applications by nurturing them through critical stages of early development. The vision of the NSTI is to be a successful incubator of technologies and private enterprise that assist the NNSA in meeting new challenges in national safety, security, and protection of the homeland. The NSTI is operated and managed by the Arrowhead Center, responsible for leading the economic development mission of New Mexico State University (NMSU). The Arrowhead Center will recruit business with applications for national security technologies recruited for the NSTI program. The Arrowhead Center and its strategic partners will provide business incubation services, including hands-on mentoring in general business matters, marketing, proposal writing, management, accounting, and finance. Additionally, networking opportunities and technology development assistance will be provided.

None

2007-12-31

171

Idaho National Laboratory Site Environmental Monitoring Plan  

SciTech Connect

This plan describes environmental monitoring as required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, “Environmental Protection Program,” and additional environmental monitoring currently performed by other organizations in and around the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The objective of DOE Order 450.1 is to implement sound stewardship practices that protect the air, water, land, and other natural and cultural resources that may be impacted by DOE operations. This plan describes the organizations responsible for conducting environmental monitoring across the INL, the rationale for monitoring, the types of media being monitored, where the monitoring is conducted, and where monitoring results can be obtained. This plan presents a summary of the overall environmental monitoring performed in and around the INL without duplicating detailed information in the various monitoring procedures and program plans currently used to conduct monitoring.

Joanne L. Knight

2010-10-01

172

Idaho National Laboratory Site Environmental Monitoring Plan  

SciTech Connect

This plan describes environmental monitoring as required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, “Environmental Protection Program,” and additional environmental monitoring currently performed by other organizations in and around the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The objective of DOE Order 450.1 is to implement sound stewardship practices that protect the air, water, land, and other natural and cultural resources that may be impacted by DOE operations. This plan describes the organizations responsible for conducting environmental monitoring across the INL, the rationale for monitoring, the types of media being monitored, where the monitoring is conducted, and where monitoring results can be obtained. This plan presents a summary of the overall environmental monitoring performed in and around the INL without duplicating detailed information in the various monitoring procedures and program plans currently used to conduct monitoring.

Joanne L. Knight

2012-08-01

173

Idaho National Laboratory Environmental Monitoring Plan  

SciTech Connect

This plan describes environmental monitoring as required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, “Environmental Protection Program,” and additional environmental monitoring currently performed by other organizations in and around the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The objective of DOE Order 450.1 is to implement sound stewardship practices that protect the air, water, land, and other natural and cultural resources that may be impacted by DOE operations. This plan describes the organizations responsible for conducting environmental monitoring across the INL, the rationale for monitoring, the types of media being monitored, where the monitoring is conducted, and where monitoring results can be obtained. This plan presents a summary of the overall environmental monitoring performed in and around the INL without duplicating detailed information in the various monitoring procedures and program plans currently used to conduct monitoring.

Joanne L. Knight

2008-04-01

174

Readability levels of individualized family service plans.  

PubMed

This descriptive study examined the readability levels of Individualized Family Service Plans (IFSPs). The readability of 85 de-identified IFSP documents developed by seven agencies that serve families and children enrolled in a county early intervention program was analyzed using Flesch Kincaid grade levels and Flesch reading ease scores. The average Flesch Kincaid grade level of the entire IFSP documents was 8.0, indicating that the text was written at the 8th grade reading level. The Flesch reading ease mean score for all of the IFSP documents was 58.6, indicating that the text was written at a moderate level of ease to read. The highest Flesch Kincaid grade level scores and lowest reading ease scores were found in sections that require descriptive documentation of IFSP activities and ideas, justification for services provided outside of the natural environment, the way in which outcomes would be met, and a description of the activities provided in the natural environment. The lowest Flesch Kincaid grade level and the highest reading ease level were found in the section involving gross motor development. There were no agencies that prepared IFSP documents at or below the recommended 5th grade reading level. The findings from this study indicated that on average the entire IFSP documents and most sections of the documents were written above a 5th grade reading level. Overall there were no agencies that wrote the IFSP documents at or below the recommended 5th grade reading level. Analysis of readability levels when preparing IFSP documents is recommended to optimize accessibility and usability. PMID:20608861

Pizur-Barnekow, Kris; Patrick, Timothy; Rhyner, Paula M; Folk, Lillian; Anderson, Kara

2010-08-01

175

Extraconjugal Determinants of Spousal Communication About Family Planning in Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior researchers have examined the influence of spousal communication on fertility behavior without looking at what causes spouses to start talking about family planning. This study bridges this gap in the literature by examining the extraconjugal (social networks) factors that influence spouses to start talking to each other about family planning. Data from a study conducted in Kenya between 1997

John M. Musalia

2003-01-01

176

Field trial of Billings Ovulation Method of natural family planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are couples with unmet family planning needs and couples who do not use any modern method, yet they desire to space or avoid pregnancies. Many of them look for safe and effective options like the natural family planning methods. The Billings Ovulation Method based on single index cervical mucus parameter is one such option. The present multicentre trial conducted

1996-01-01

177

Differences in Counseling Men and Women: Family Planning in Kenya.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Comparisions of family planning sessions in Kenya found distinct gender differences in reasons for visiting the clinics and communication styles of both the clients and the counselors. These communication patterns may be a result of Kenyan gender roles and men's and women's different reasons for seeking family planning services. Implications of…

Kim, Young Mi; Kols, Adrienne; Mwarogo, Peter; Awasum, David

2000-01-01

178

Use of family planning methods in Kassala, Eastern Sudan  

PubMed Central

Background Investigating use and determinants of family planning methods may be instructive in the design of interventions to improve reproductive health services. Findings Across sectional community-based study was conducted during the period February-April 2010 to investigate the use of family planning in Kassala, eastern Sudan. Structured questionnaires were used to gather socio-demographic data and use of family planning. The mean ± SD of the age and parity of 613 enrolled women was 31.1 ± 7 years and 3.4 ± 1.9, respectively. Only 44.0% of these women had previously or currently used one or more of the family planning methods. Combined pills (46.7%) and progesterone injection (17.8%) were the predominant method used by the investigated women. While age, residence were not associated with the use of family planning, parity (> five), couple education (? secondary level) were significantly associated with the use of family planning. Husband objection and religious beliefs were the main reasons of non-use of family planning. Conclusion Education, encouragement of health education programs and involvement of the religious persons might promote family planning in eastern Sudan.

2011-01-01

179

Language, videos and family planning in the South Pacific.  

PubMed

In 1984, women in Fiji, Kiribati, the Solomon Islands, and Tonga wanted culture-specific, educational resources on sexuality, family planning, contraception, reproduction, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Family Planning Australia [FPA] found video to be the most appropriate means to present information on these topics, since video continues the story-telling tradition of the Pacific. Women worked with FPA to produce videos addressing these topics. They were filmed in Fiji, which has a broad cross-section of South Pacific people. FPA took into account women's concerns and cultural and religious sensitivities. The English language videos were Better Safe, a story about STDs, condom use, and male sexual responsibility; Taboo Talk, a documentary about women's attitudes on menstruation, sex education, and family planning; AIDS and the South Pacific, about AIDS transmission and prevention; a d Down There, an animated documentary on reproduction and contraceptive methods. A project evaluation revealed that the videos would have received wider acceptance had they been in local languages. Local men and women debated each work of a translation of the list of reproductive health terms, eventually resulting in 20 culturally and linguistically appropriate video translations. A cross section of national language speakers modified and improved the draft translation of the 4 scripts. This whole process resulted in incorporation of the 88 reproductive health terms into the Booklet of South Pacific Reproductive Health Words and Phrases. The project showed that Pacific women were able to compile a booklet of culturally and linguistically acceptable terms and to successfully translate the scripts of health videos. In conclusions, people tend to be more willing to accept sexuality information and frank and explicit material than is usually believed if they are allowed to determine the context in which they receive it. PMID:12318840

Winn, M; Lucas, D

1993-12-01

180

China's nationwide fertility and family planning sample survey ends successfully.  

PubMed

The Chinese government recently conducted a national fertility and family planning survey of 21.6 million people in over 1,300 sample areas, and the findings have been released. The survey covers a wide range of items, including the population situation, natural population increase, movement of population, marriage, and family planning practices with special emphasis on married women between the ages of 15-57. The findings revealed that 28% of the population is made up of those aged 0-14; 66.6% of those aged 15-64; and 5.3% of the elderly aged 65 and over. Women of childbearing age make up 26.8% of the total population. The mean age of the sample group was 28.6 years. In 1987, the birth rate was 23.3/1000, the death rate was 7.2/1000, and the rate of natural increase was 16.1/1000. The mean age for first marriages of women was 22.2 and women who married under 20 years of age made up 19.9% of the total married population. The average total fertility rate nationwide was 2.5: 1.33 in urban areas, 2.43 in townships, and 2.48 in rural areas. It is estimated that 147 million couples use contraceptives out of 206 million married women of reproductive age. 11% of China's males have have been sterilized and 2.7% use condoms. 38% of females have been sterilized, 41.5% use IUDs, and 4.9% use oral contraceptives. An estimated 28 million couples have accepted the "single-child certificate," 13.8% of the total population. The family planning practice rate of the whole country has gradually risen from 51.1% in 1980 to 58.2% in 1988. PMID:12315911

1989-06-01

181

House battles over UN family planning funds.  

PubMed

The House International Relations Subcommittee on Operations and Human Rights approved HR 1253 by voice vote on April 10, 1997. HR 1253 is a reauthorization of State Department programs for fiscal years 1998 and 1999. Republican anti-choice subcommittee chair Chris Smith inserted language which prohibits the State Department from funding the UNFPA, the UN family planning program. The restriction would only be lifted if President Clinton certifies that the UNFPA has ended all activities in China or that no government-coerced abortions have taken place in China during the previous 12 months. Since neither change is likely, the Smith provision would effectively bar the US from funding the UNFPA, even though the agency does not support abortion services. The State Department authorization was then taken up by the full House International Relations Committee as part of HR 1486, a bill which would reorganize foreign policy operations. By a 23-16 vote on May 6, the committee approved an amendment which deleted the Smith provision and instead stipulated that US funds cannot be used for UNFPA programs in China. Pro-choice representative Tom Campbell sponsored the amendment which deleted the Smith provision. President Clinton's proposed budget for fiscal year 1998 also includes the Campbell provision. PMID:12292412

1997-05-01

182

[Family planning as a basic tool for development].  

PubMed

The family planning (FP) concept has traditionally been, and is closely related to, sexual and reproductive health. At the International Conference on Population and Development held in Cairo in 1994, FP is recognized as a health strategy that, properly applied, can contribute to the development of nations. Over the past years we have found that the benefits are not only aimed at preventing unwanted pregnancies, there by preventing induced abortions and maternal death, but it also improves child health, facilitating access to education for children in the world, it promotes the empowerment of women not only in the workplace but also in other areas such as politics and thus, the concept of gender; it helps to reduce poverty by stimulating economic development and increasing the standard of living of people . This means that it not only contributes to one but to the eight Millennium Development Goals by 2015. Despite the evidence of its benefits, there are still social, cultural, political or religious barriers that cause an unmet need in Family Planning, which does not respect the right of individuals to choose and decide the number of children they want, and prevent the experience of a healthy sexuality. PMID:24100824

Gutiérrez, Miguel

2013-09-01

183

Family planning management in state-owned enterprises: the case of No. 1 Automobile Group Corporation. Urban family planning programme.  

PubMed

This brief report indicates the accomplishments in family planning of the Automobile Group Corporation in northeastern Changchun, China. This industry has 130,000 staff and workers. The State Family Planning Commission of the Jilin Provincial Government and the Changchun City Government gave an award to this company for having the most advanced unit in family planning provision. This corporation was successful in creating population awareness and strong leadership among its executives for practicing family planning. Administrative workers signed contracts for human reproduction and production of automobiles. The family planning policy was strictly followed on a day-to-day basis. The company offered IEC, contraceptives, and benefits to acceptors. The company provides about 3.5 million yuan per year for family planning activities and strives to improve its services. Women workers now receive reproductive health services. The facility includes a hospital, a family planning clinic, and a maternal and child health clinic and is fully equipped with modern medical instruments for diagnosing gynecological conditions. The quality control management system for producing automobiles is applied to family planning management and applied research on marriage and childbirth. There is 100% acceptance of the one-child certificate. Over 90% of workers delayed marriage and childbirth. During the 1970s and 1980s, about 30,000 births were averted. PMID:12320695

1997-02-01

184

AIDS and family planning: Thailand conference breaks new ground.  

PubMed

The July 1990 2-day meeting in Pattaya, Thailand, attended by over 220 family planning practitioners was the first nationwide conference in the developing world to address integration of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) prevention and education into the family planning service delivery system. The conference was co-sponsored by the Thailand Ministry of Public Health, the Thailand Fertility Research Association, and Family Health International, with funding from the US Agency for International Development and the Hewlett Foundation. As of September 1990, 22,075 cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection--including 53 AIDS cases--has been documented in Thailand. There is general consensus that the actual number of HIV-infected persons is 50,000-100,000, with commercial sex workers, their clients, the clients' spouses, and newborns at highest risk. Conference organizers hope to boost AIDS prevention and control effectiveness by building on the already established cooperation between governmental and nongovernmental organizations in a nationwide network for family planning service delivery. A priority need is the development of counseling materials aimed at various target populations. A Women and AIDS Week is planned to involve women's groups. Another projected program centers on counseling men who visit commercial sex workers. In addition to AIDS education to family planning clients, family planning centers plan to provide counseling to contacts of HIV-infected persons and condoms to infected couples. At present, condoms are available at 18,000 family planning clinics and 10,000 pharmacies in Thailand. PMID:12283719

Finger, W R

1990-12-01

185

Army Family Research Program. Second Annual Work Plan  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Army Family Research Program (AFRP) is a 5-year integrated research program that supports the Chief of Staff of the Army (CSA) White Paper 1983: The Army Family and the Army Family Action Plans (1984-1990) by developing databases, models, program eval...

A. M. Cruze

1990-01-01

186

The National Broadband Plan: Connecting America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has been working on a National Broadband Plan for the United States since early 2010, and this website provides information about their ongoing work. The hope for this plan is that it will open up economic opportunities to a wide range of locales that are not currently served by broadband Internet access. On this site, visitors can look over sections that include "About Broadband", "Events", "Initiatives", and "The Plan". First-time visitors may want to click on the "About Broadband" to get some basic details about the importance of broadband access. Moving on, visitors can click on "The Plan" to watch an overview of the plan from the chairman of the FCC, and they may also view an executive summary and the entire plan. After that, visitors should look at the thematic areas of the site (such as "Health Care" and "Civic Engagement") to learn more about how increased broadband will transform these sectors of life in America.

187

Attitude of women towards family planning methods and its use - Study from a slum of Delhi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: To predict the need of family planning methods, family planning managers often rely on unmet need derived from measure of contraceptive demand. However women's intention and her background knowledge of family planning methods not received as much attention as a measure of family planning methods demand. Objective: To know the attitude of women regarding use of family planning methods

Kumar S; Priyadarshni A; Kant S; Anand K; Yadav BK

188

National conference on integrated resource planning: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

Until recently, state regulators have focused most of their attention on the development of least-cost or integrated resource planning (IRP) processes for electric utilities. A number of commissions are beginning to scrutinize the planning processes of local gas distribution companies (LDCs) because of the increased control that LDCs have over their purchased gas costs (as well as the associated risks) and because of questions surrounding the role and potential of gas end-use efficiency options. Traditionally, resource planning (LDCs) has concentrated on options for purchasing and storing gas. Integrated resource planning involves the creation of a process in which supply-side and demand-side options are integrated to create a resource mix that reliably satisfies customers' short-term and long-term energy service needs at the lowest cost. As applied to gas utilities, an integrated resource plan seeks to balance cost and reliability, and should not be interpreted simply as the search for lowest commodity costs. The National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners' (NARUC) Energy Conservation committee asked Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) to survey state PUCs to determine the extent to which they have undertaken least cost planning for gas utilities. The survey included the following topics: status of state PUC least-cost planning regulations and practices for gas utilities; type and scope of natural gas DSM programs in effect, including fuel substitution; economic tests and analysis methods used to evaluate DSM programs; relationship between prudency reviews of gas utility purchasing practices and integrated resource planning; key regulatory issued facing gas utilities during the next five years.

Not Available

1991-01-01

189

National conference on integrated resource planning: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

Until recently, state regulators have focused most of their attention on the development of least-cost or integrated resource planning (IRP) processes for electric utilities. A number of commissions are beginning to scrutinize the planning processes of local gas distribution companies (LDCs) because of the increased control that LDCs have over their purchased gas costs (as well as the associated risks) and because of questions surrounding the role and potential of gas end-use efficiency options. Traditionally, resource planning (LDCs) has concentrated on options for purchasing and storing gas. Integrated resource planning involves the creation of a process in which supply-side and demand-side options are integrated to create a resource mix that reliably satisfies customers` short-term and long-term energy service needs at the lowest cost. As applied to gas utilities, an integrated resource plan seeks to balance cost and reliability, and should not be interpreted simply as the search for lowest commodity costs. The National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners` (NARUC) Energy Conservation committee asked Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) to survey state PUCs to determine the extent to which they have undertaken least cost planning for gas utilities. The survey included the following topics: status of state PUC least-cost planning regulations and practices for gas utilities; type and scope of natural gas DSM programs in effect, including fuel substitution; economic tests and analysis methods used to evaluate DSM programs; relationship between prudency reviews of gas utility purchasing practices and integrated resource planning; key regulatory issued facing gas utilities during the next five years.

Not Available

1991-12-31

190

National Conference on Integrated Resource Planning: Proceedings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until recently, state regulators have focused most of their attention on the development of least-cost or integrated resource planning (IRP) processes for electric utilities. A number of commissions are beginning to scrutinize the planning processes of local gas distribution companies (LDCs) because of the increased control that LDCs have over their purchased gas costs (as well as the associated risks) and because of questions surrounding the role and potential of gas end-use efficiency options. Traditionally, resource planning (LDCs) has concentrated on options for purchasing and storing gas. Integrated resource planning involves the creation of a process in which supply-side and demand-side options are integrated to create a resource mix that reliably satisfies customers' short-term and long-term energy service needs at the lowest cost. As applied to gas utilities, an integrated resource plan seeks to balance cost and reliability, and should not be interpreted simply as the search for lowest commodity costs. The National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners' (NARUC) Energy Conservation committee asked Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) to survey state PUCs to determine the extent to which they have undertaken least cost planning for gas utilities. The survey included the following topics: status of state PUC least-cost planning regulations and practices for gas utilities; type and scope of natural gas DSM programs in effect, including fuel substitution; economic tests and analysis methods used to evaluate DSM programs; relationship between prudency reviews of gas utility purchasing practices and integrated resource planning; and key regulatory issues facing gas utilities during the next five years.

191

National solid waste management plan for Iraq.  

PubMed

After decades of turmoil and international sanctions much of the key civil infrastructure within Iraq has fallen into disrepair, leading to a considerable decline in the provision of basic and essential municipal services. This is particularly true of waste and resource management services that have seen years of underdevelopment and deterioration. This has resulted in a lack of provision of basic public services in the waste sector which have been replaced by a burgeoning unregulated informal market in waste collection, disposal and recycling. In response, a National Solid Waste Management Plan (NSWMP) for Iraq was developed in 2007, to plan for the strategic development of all aspects of waste management in the country over the coming 20 years. In particular, the NSWMP focuses on policy development and integrated planning regarding regulatory framework, economic aspects, institutional capacity, citizen and technical education, and technical and operational development. This paper summarizes the key objectives, challenges and subsequent recommendations contained in the NSWMP for Iraq. PMID:19470543

Knowles, James A

2009-05-26

192

Family planning and maternal health care in Egypt.  

PubMed

The Government of Egypt is introducing policies to reduce the mortality of women of reproductive age. However, family planning and maternal-child health care programs are unlikely to have the desired impact without corresponding improvements in the status of Egyptian women. Women's status in the areas of education, health, poverty, employment, the family, government, and the community is a crucial determinant of their willingness and ability to accept a smaller family size ideal and become contraceptive users. At present, only 6% of Egyptian women are a part of the work force and 60% are illiterate. In a society in which women are valued on the basis of the number of children they produce for their husbands, those practice birth control risk abandonment and isolation. The powerlessness and insecurity that lead Egyptian women to have an average of at least 5 children impeded national development and thus delay creation of the socioeconomic conditions that could liberate women from their domestic role. Equal opportunities in education and employment would represent a first step toward improving women's status by giving them a source of income and increased independence. Also needed are modifications in archaic marriage, divorce, and custody laws. PMID:12317075

El-mouelhy, M T

1990-01-01

193

Complexity of Family Caregiving and Discharge Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Older adults and their family caregivers face numerous decisions about hospital discharge, including where they will go and how they will receive care. Older adults who account for nearly 37% of all hospital discharges often need care and support of family members at the time of hospital discharge. This study examines decisions made by hospitalized older adults, families, and health

Lori L. Popejoy

2011-01-01

194

Emerging challenges in family planning programme in Nepal.  

PubMed

Family planning is a priority program of the Government of Nepal. Despite political instability in the last two decades, Nepal has achieved remarkable progress in the overall status of reproductive health, including family planning. Married women of reproductive age have been increasingly using contraceptive from 1980s to 2006. However, Nepal Demographic Health Survey 2011 has shown unexpected results on contraceptive prevalence rate. There had been a notable decline in the prevalence rate between 2006 and 2011, creating concerns among various stakeholders working in family planning programs. This paper analyzes this situation and identifies possible reasons for the stagnated contraceptive prevalence rate in Nepal. High proportion of spousal separation, an increased use of traditional methods, abortion, emergency contraception, and a lack of innovative approaches to cater services to difficult-to-reach or special sub-groups are possible reasons. To improve the contraceptive prevalence, the family planning program should be implemented more strategically. Further data analysis, initiation of best practices to fulfill family planning needs of special groups, functional integration of family planning services into general health services, effective counseling and behavior change communication to prevent unwanted pregnancies, and increased access to modern family planning methods could be the stepping stones to improve contraceptive prevalence rate and the overall FP program in Nepal. PMID:23034371

Shrestha, D R; Shrestha, A; Ghimire, J

2012-05-01

195

National Ignition Facility project acquisition plan revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this National Ignition Facility Acquisition Plan is to describe the overall procurement strategy planned for the National Ignition Facility M Project. It was prepared for the NIP Prood Office by the NIF Procurement Manager.

Clobes, A.R.

1996-10-01

196

78 FR 60809 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRL-9901-59-Region 2] National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities...amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). EPA and...

2013-10-02

197

77 FR 2911 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...EPA-R04-SFUND-2011-0749; FRl-9620-1] National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities...amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA...

2012-01-20

198

76 FR 76336 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...EPA-HQ-SFUND-2000-0003; FRL-9501-1] National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities...amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA...

2011-12-07

199

76 FR 50164 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...EPA-HQ-SFUND-1986-0005; FRL-9451-2] National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List...amended, is an Appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). EPA and...

2011-08-12

200

Natural Resource Management Plan for Brookhaven National Laboratory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This comprehensive Natural Resource Management Plan (NRMP) for Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) was built on the successful foundation of the Wildlife Management Plan for BNL, which it replaces. The plan establishes the basis for managing the varied n...

2003-01-01

201

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory institutional plan: FY 1996--2001.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains the operation and direction plan for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory of the US Department of Energy. The topics of the plan include the laboratory mission and core competencies, the laboratory strategic plan; the laboratory ...

1996-01-01

202

FHWA (Federal Highway Administration) National Strategic Plan, 1995.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Federal Highway Administration's National Strategic Plan (NSP) for FY 1995 represents a significant departure from previous years' plans. The changes made to this year's plan are a reflection of the constantly changing environment in which we operate ...

1994-01-01

203

Civic Formation and a New Vocabulary for National Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interest in spatial planning and territorial cohesion has prompted new scales of land-use planning interventions. This paper considers the experimentation and learning around the National Planning Framework in Scotland. This political instrument is predicated on active public participation to craft and legitimate a national planning agenda to re-position a devolved Scotland in a global context. The process involves a

Deborah Peel; Greg Lloyd

2007-01-01

204

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan FY 2004-2008  

SciTech Connect

This Institutional Plan for FY 2004-2008 is the principal annual planning document submitted to the Department of Energy's Office of Science by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Washington. This plan describes the Laboratory's mission, roles, and technical capabilities in support of Department of Energy priorities, missions, and plans. It also describes the Laboratory strategic plan, key planning assumptions, major research initiatives, and program strategy for fundamental science, energy resources, environmental quality, and national security.

Quadrel, Marilyn J.

2004-04-15

205

Family planning in conflict: results of cross-sectional baseline surveys in three African countries  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the serious consequences of conflict for reproductive health, populations affected by conflict and its aftermath face tremendous barriers to accessing reproductive health services, due to insecurity, inadequate numbers of trained personnel and lack of supplies. Family planning is often particularly neglected. Methods In six conflict-affected areas in Sudan, northern Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo, household surveys of married or in-union women of reproductive age were conducted to determine baseline measures of family planning knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding contraception. Health facility assessments were carried out to assess baseline measures of family planning services availability. Data were double-entered into CSPro 3.2 and exported to SAS 9.2, which was used to calculate descriptive statistics. The studies' purposes were to guide program activities and to serve as a baseline against which program accomplishments could be measured. Results Knowledge of modern contraceptive methods was low relative to other sub-Saharan African countries, and use of modern methods was under 4% in four sites; in two sites with prior family planning services it was 12% and 16.2%. From 30% to 40% of women reported they did not want a child within two years, however, and an additional 12% to 35% wanted no additional children, suggesting a clear need for family planning services. The health facilities assessment showed that at most only one-third of the facilities mandated to provide family planning had the necessary staff, equipment and supplies to do so adequately; in some areas, none of the facilities were prepared to offer such services. Conclusions Family planning services are desired by women living in crisis situations when offered in a manner appropriate to their needs, yet services are rarely adequate to meet these needs. Refugee and internally displaced women must be included in national and donors' plans to improve family planning in Africa.

2011-01-01

206

47 CFR 90.16 - Public Safety National Plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Docket No. 87-112. The principal spectrum resource for the National Plan is the...In the border regions, the principal spectrum for the National Plan may be different...No assignments will be made in the spectrum designated for the National Plan...

2011-10-01

207

National Ignition Facility Configuration Management Plan  

SciTech Connect

This Configuration Management Plan (CMP) describes the technical and administrative management process for controlling the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Project configuration. The complexity of the NIF Project (i.e., participation by multiple national laboratories and subcontractors involved in the development, fabrication, installation, and testing of NIF hardware and software, as well as construction and testing of Project facilities) requires implementation of the comprehensive configuration management program defined in this plan. A logical schematic illustrating how the plan functions is provided in Figure 1. A summary of the process is provided in Section 4.0, Configuration Change Control. Detailed procedures that make up the overall process are referenced. This CMP is consistent with guidance for managing a project's configuration provided in Department of Energy (DOE) Order 430.1, Guide PMG 10, ''Project Execution and Engineering Management Planning''. Configuration management is a formal discipline comprised of the following four elements: (1) Identification--defines the functional and physical characteristics of a Project and uniquely identifies the defining requirements. This includes selection of components of the end product(s) subject to control and selection of the documents that define the project and components. (2) Change management--provides a systematic method for managing changes to the project and its physical and functional configuration to ensure that all changes are properly identified, assessed, reviewed, approved, implemented, tested, and documented. (3) Data management--ensures that necessary information on the project and its end product(s) is systematically recorded and disseminated for decision-making and other uses. Identifies, stores and controls, tracks status, retrieves, and distributes documents. (4) Assessments and validation--ensures that the planned configuration requirements match actual physical configurations and approved changes are implemented according to the change requirements documents.

Cabral, S G; Moore, T L

2002-10-01

208

Some characteristics of rural acceptors of family planning measures.  

PubMed

In order to identify socioeconomic and demographic factors involved in the acceptance of family planning among rural people in Bangladesh, researcher conducted a survey of village households in the Mymensingh district. With an annual growth rate of 2.32, the population of Bangladesh, currently at 89.9 million, will double over the next 30 years. Although the government has shown great commitment to family planning, a large segment of the population does not practice family planning. Since 85% of the population lives in rural areas, this study of the differences among users and nonusers focused on rural people. It investigated the following characteristics: age, income, education, farm size, family size, wife's age, wife's age at marriage, wife's education, newspaper reading, and radio listening. The study examined data from 166 randomly selected households in 5 villages. 93% of the respondents indicated some knowledge concerning family planning methods, 58% expressed support for the family planning program, and 23% reported practicing some family planning method at the time of the study. Out of a total of 129 nonusers, 46 chose to explain their reasons for nonacceptance. 505 cited religious reasons, 11% mentioned health concerns, and 39% cited old age. Of the 10 characteristics examined, 5 were found to differ significantly between users and nonusers, including age, farm size, education, newspaper reading, and radio listening. Young, educated people with smaller farms were found to more receptive to family planning. The report recommends promoting education in rural areas to improve the success of family planning. Also, it stresses the need to popularize contraceptive use among newly married couples and to motivate them towards continued use. PMID:12343243

Ahmed, A R; Debnath, S C; Modak, P C; Hossain, M I; Mondal, A G

1988-01-01

209

34 CFR 303.340 - Individualized family service plan-general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Individualized family service plan-general. 303.340 Section...Evaluations and Assessments, and Individualized Family Service Plans Individualized Family Service Plan (ifsp) § 303.340...

2013-07-01

210

42 CFR 59.3 - Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant? 59.3 Section 59...AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.3 Who is...

2009-10-01

211

42 CFR 59.3 - Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant? 59.3 Section 59...AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.3 Who is...

2010-10-01

212

Metropolitan Cleveland Family Planning Program. January, 1973 through December, 1974.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The activities of the Metropolitan Cleveland Family Planning Program (MCFPP) are described. The relationship of MCFPP components is illustrated in a diagram, and MCFPP clinic sites are shown on a map. The percentage of patients served by MCFPP providers i...

1975-01-01

213

Strategic and Tactical Planning for Managing National Park Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each National Park Service unit in the United States produces a resource management plan (RMP) every four years or less. These plans constitute a strategic agenda for a park. Later, tactical plans commit budgets and personnel to specific projects over the planning horizon. Yet, neither planning stage incorporates much quantitative and analytical rigor and is devoid of formal decision-making tools.

Daniel L. Schmoldt; David L. Peterson

214

African American Women and Family Planning Services: Perceptions of Discrimination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine perceived race-based discrimination in obtaining family planning or contraceptive services among African American women in the U.S.Methods: We conducted a 30-minute telephone survey with a random sample of 500 African Americans (aged 15–44), which included questions about race-based discrimination when obtaining family planning services. The present analyses were limited to the

Sheryl Thorburn; Laura M. Bogart

2005-01-01

215

Perception of and attitudes toward the Nigerian federal population policy, family planning program and family planning in Kaduna State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

This paper discusses the perceptions of the Nigerian population policy, family planning program and family planning using data obtained from a 1995 survey of 600 Atyap women aged 15-49 years, in Nigeria. Additional qualitative data were obtained from married and unmarried women and men, clergymen, government officials, and respected community elders. The predominantly Christian and rural Atyap community generally accepts modern contraception and the need for family size reduction but considers the "four-is-enough" policy to be unacceptable. Religion may be important in determining the success of the federal government to reduce family size to four children by the year 2000. PMID:11000710

Avong, H N

2000-04-01

216

Minister Peng on population situation and major experiences of family planning implementation.  

PubMed

Minister Peng Peiyen of the State Family Planning Commission delivered a speech at the 6th National Symposium on Population Science and the Conference of the Population Association of China. Population programs should be an integral part of economic and social development and a priority for the Communist Party and at all levels of government. Full responsibility for implementation should be taken by top Party organizations and government. Achievement in family planning should be based on the target responsibility system. Family planning policy should be evenly implemented throughout the country. Family planning quotas are preferred as strict and effective controls on births. Traditional ideas about childbearing should be challenged through information, education, and communication [IEC]. Grassroots level networks should be strengthened for effective program management. Family planning should better serve and be integrated with the socialist agenda of economic development. Large numbers of family planning workers need to be trained in a systematic way. Self-management, self-education, and self-service should be encouraged among the population. The family planning program is still unevenly developed in the country, and there are still a large number of annual births, which puts pressure on socioeconomic development, natural resources, and ecology. The most important task for China is the control of population growth, which also involves improving the quality of human resources and readjusting the population structure. The practice of family planning is a policy decision, which is required for attainment of the 2nd and 3rd strategic goals for economic development. There is a need for demographic research to guide program implementation. Research should focus on controlling population growth, improving the quality of human resources, and expanding the scope of inquiry. PMID:12318708

Peng, P

1994-02-01

217

The construction of community participation: village family planning groups and the Indonesian state.  

PubMed

Indonesia's family planning program has been one of the most effective in the developing world in promoting contraceptive use and contributing to fertility transition. In evaluating why the program has worked, analysts have given much credit to a network of village family planning groups that developed from the 1970s to the 1990s and that blanketed the archipelago. These groups, composed primarily of female volunteers, made contraception available to women in even the most remote parts of the country, and acted as agents of family planning motivation. They have been labeled by the Indonesian state family planning agency as an example of effective community participation on a national scale. In this paper, I investigate this claim and find it to be simplistic. I provide extensive evidence that the creation of this network was orchestrated by the Indonesian state. On the other hand, I show that these groups are not fully state entities, as they have several characteristics that mark them as socially embedded institutions. They are best labeled as unusual state-society hybrids. In my investigation I draw on one of the newest paradigms in the discipline of political science--the state-society approach--to uncover the odd nature of this family planning network. More deeply, I argue that the state-society approach ought to be adopted in family planning analysis on a comprehensive basis. The traditional organizational and social-demographic approaches that have dominated the field offer only limited understanding of the nature of family planning programs in developing countries. The state-society approach is ideally suited to identifying how family planning programs are institutions of a political nature, embedded in states and societies, and transformed by and transformative of each. PMID:11989957

Shiffman, Jeremy

2002-04-01

218

Adolescent fertility and family planning in East Asia and the Pacific: a review of DHS reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Adolescent pregnancy has significant health and socio-economic consequences for women, their families and communities. Efforts\\u000a to prevent too-early pregnancy rely on accurate information about adolescents' knowledge, behaviours and access to family\\u000a planning, however available data are limited in some settings. Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) reports are recognised\\u000a as providing nationally representative data that are accessible to policymakers and programmers.

Elissa Kennedy; Natalie Gray; Peter Azzopardi; Mick Creati

2011-01-01

219

The "anatomy" of Thailand's successful family planning program.  

PubMed

Begun in the early 1970s, Thailand's Population Program has been and unqualified success. The program has been able to reduce population growth from 3.2% in 1970s to 1.2% as of 1989. From the early 1970s to 1987, contraceptive prevalence increased from 14.8 to 70.6%. Several factors account for the success. In contrast to the Philippines, whose population program has not been as successful, Thailand has not experienced religious opposition to family planning, since BUddhists favor limiting children. The Thai program has also stated a clear delineation of roles for nongovernment organizations. In order to avoid duplication of programs and competition among field workers, the Ministry of Health coordinates all programs. Success is also due to the program's demographic-economic approach, which stresses the economic implications of population growth. Finally, the availability and accessibility of to family planning services has greatly contributed to the success of the program. All government hospitals have a family planning clinic, and midwives, nurses, and doctors all receive family planning training. Unless clients can demonstrate that they are unable to pay, all family planning services carry a standard fee. The Thai Population Program has evolved from a purely family planning contraceptive service to a community development program designed to improve the productivity of individuals. The government has implemented the Thailand Business Initiative in Rural Development, which involves the participation of civic-minded business groups in assisting community development. PMID:12317181

Nepomuceno, T

220

News Framing of Population and Family Planning Issues via Syntactic Network Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contentious political debates regarding the issues on population and family planning have been perennial over the past four decades especially in developing countries. While its prominence in the public agenda varies depending on other national issues vying for public attention, its presence in policy and political agendas is constant. Here, a computational approach to framing analysis is developed that examines

Erika Legara; Christopher Monterola; Clarissa David; Jenna Mae Atun

2010-01-01

221

Knowledge into Action: The Use of Research in Taiwan's Family Planning Program. Paper No. 10.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Focusing on the effects that research on the Taiwan family planning program has had on social change, both in the intergration of research findings into national action programs and in the dissemination of these ideas to other Asian countries, this report discusses five individual case studies and presents a summary and analysis of the research…

Cernada, George; Sun, T. H.

222

Forward Plan for BCHS Family Planning Program, 1976-1980.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document outlines the section of the Forward Plan dealing with the following objectives: public education to all persons of reproductive capability; professional education to all health care practitioners and institutions, keeping them informed of ade...

R. Steele

1974-01-01

223

[Family planning and diverse declarations of human rights].  

PubMed

Human beings have always desired to claim their rights, even in times when only a small proportion of the population was considered fully human and the rest were slaves, servants, uncivilized, colonized, underdeveloped, or, in the recent euphemism, "developing". The French Declaration of the Rights of Man of 1789 marked the 1st time in history that rights for all people were publicly affirmed. The rights in question were essentially constitutional and political, but the idea of claiming rights had been born. In 1948, the international community approved the Universal Declaration of Human Rights which encompassed all types of rights. Other international acts on civil and political rights and the rights of women and children have complemented and interpreted the 1948 document. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights affirmed that all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights and that all persons have a right to satisfaction of economic, social, and cultural needs. The convention on elimination of all forms of discrimination against women referred in its preamble to the particular disadvantages of women living in poverty and affirmed the right of all women to education in health and family welfare, including family planning, as well as to medical and family planning services. Women were affirmed to have the same rights as men to decide freely and in an informed manner on the number and spacing of their children and to have access to the information, education, and means to exercise these rights. The United Nations has demonstrated its interest in Population Commission in 1946 and of the UN Fund for Population Activities in 1969, and through decennial worldwide population conferences in 1954, 1965, 1974, and 1984. UN demographic goals include reduced fertility on a worldwide basis, a reduced proportion of women not using reliable contraception, a substantial reduction of early marriage and adolescent pregnancy, reduction in infant and maternal mortality, a life expectancy of at least 62 years in all countries, and a better geographic distribution of population within national territories permitting rational use of resources. Governments which subscribed to the declaration and conventions on human rights should respect their promises. Population growth which outpaces increases in production will make it increasingly difficult to satisfy the rights and needs of all population sectors. A government confronted with this problem is obliged to explore every possible means of increasing production but must also seek to control population growth. Contraception is a legitimate means of achieving this end. PMID:12316572

Gakwaya, D

1990-08-01

224

A Family of Models for Manipulation Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manipulation tasks are those that cannot be accom- plished without making and breaking contacts. If manip- ulation tasks are to be performed by autonomous robots, they must have access to planning algorithms that \\

Peng Song; Vijay Kumar; J. C. Trinkle; Jong-Shi Pang

225

Population and Family Planning in Latin America. Report Number 17.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Analysis of Latin America's demographic situation has led many to believe that the present rapid rates of population growth, the highest anywhere in the world, must be reduced in order to prevent catastrophe. Family planning associations, affiliated with the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), have been organized in 29 Latin…

Piotrow, Phyllis T., Ed.

226

Current status of natural family planning in Granada (Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Spain the use of natural family planning (NFP) is limited. In Barcelona, CODIPLAN, an NFP planning center, has offered natural methods to potential users for a number of years. In Granada and Jaén, information provided by health professionals on fertility awareness is now gaining importance. In 1989, a seminar introduced NFP in Granada; the program has been very active

E. Barranco; M. J. Sanchez; I. Garcia; F. Soler; M. D. Chica

1994-01-01

227

Current Literature in Family Planning, November 1972, No. 51.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Abstracts of current publications in the fields of population and family planning are contained in this monthly acquisitions list of the Katherine Dexter McCormick Library, Planned Parenthood, New York. Organized in two parts, Part 1 contains an annotated list of the books most recently acquired by the Library, marked with its Library call number,…

Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.

228

A Selection of Films for Family Planning Programmes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This catalog gives an annotated listing of selected films available for use in family planning programs. Films are listed alphabetically, geographically by particular country, and by subject. In most cases information is given concerning length, producer, distributor, cost, and rental conditions from the International Planned Parenthood…

International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

229

Population and Family Planning in Latin America. Report Number 17.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of Latin America's demographic situation has led many to believe that the present rapid rates of population growth, the highest anywhere in the world, must be reduced in order to prevent catastrophe. Family planning associations, affiliated with the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), have been organized in 29 Latin…

Piotrow, Phyllis T., Ed.

230

The needs of adolescent women utilizing family planning services  

Microsoft Academic Search

To provide comprehensive family planning services to adolescents requires going beyond the provision of birth control methods. To determine other needs, all women 18 years old and under attending Planned Parenthood of New York City clinics for the first time during a six week sample period were interviewed. Data were collected from 476 adolescents. Results indicated that: (a) there were

Jerry Cahn

1977-01-01

231

West Indian gender relations, family planning programs and fertility decline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nearly all West Indian islands initiated marked fertility declines sometime between 1960 and 1970. Family planning programs have not played an important role in these declines. Neither have other variables that conventional social theory tells us should promote reduced family sizes, like education and rising standards of living. The historical experience of Barbados and Antigua, which reached replacement- level fertility

W. Penn Handwerker

1992-01-01

232

Opinion: Natural family planning and the management of infertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproductive behaviour in modern western society has changed dramatically in the last two decades. Parenthood is now well\\u000a planned. If planned pregnancies do not occur as expected, early infertility care is often demanded with the risk of over-treatment.\\u000a Live birth rates in untreated subfertile couples reach nearly 55% in 36 months. During this period, self-monitoring with natural\\u000a family planning (NFP)

Christian Gnoth; Petra Frank-Herrmann; Günter Freundl

2002-01-01

233

[Effect of development of rural commodity economy on family planning].  

PubMed

The paper discusses the effects of the changes of rural income level on family planning practice based a survey of 200 rural families in a affluent vegetable producing area of suburban Beijing. In 1984, 99.7% of child birth followed the local birth planning, and 99.1% of families with one child received One Child Certificates. The annual per capita income of the 200 families was 1,092 yuan (1 US$ = 3.7 yuan) in 1984 even higher than the community average. The number of children was negatively associated with the per capita income and per capita consumption except families with 4 children, most of whom have grown up. The rural mechanization in the community has greatly increased the need for skills and technology rather than strong laborers. The provision of community welfare programs and the increased living standard changed the value of children and also changed people's perception in favor of gender equality. Among families with 1 or 2 children, most preferred to have girls. And among families with more children, the preferred family size is smaller than the actual size, which shows a tendency towards favoring a small family. Among 1 child families, 58.7% considered 1 boy and 1 girl to be ideal, and 37.7% was happy with the only child. As the community becomes richer, both the community and individual families increased their investment in education. The spending on education per child was over 2 times as high in 1 child families than the families with more children. The educational status of parents is positively associated with the exception of children's future education and current spending on education. The concern of parents over children's education is an important factor in improving the quality of labor force. Women of higher education status are more acceptable to contraception and family planning policy. The relatively high level of education of the community has been conducive to it fertility decline. PMID:12280626

Chen, X

1986-05-01

234

Vital aspects of nursing: the family planning component.  

PubMed

3 basic conditions are needed to accelerate the adoption of India's family planning program: social approval for the program; knowledge about family planning; and availability of services. The program is likely to succeed if an intensive drive is made to establish effective communication with people in order to create in them a recognition of the value of a small family. Nursing personnel form a vital component of the health team that has to shoulder major responsibilities in creating the above basic conditions in the country. Their knowledge, skills and devotion bring them close to the patients and communities under circumstances where most of their advice is welcomed. This, along with the nature of their tasks, can help nurses to help the families in accepting the family planning program. As educators nurses will need to integrate an educational component in their daily activities and to utilize various interactional situations to inform couples about the advantages of planned parenthood, available methods for spacing and limitation, motivate them to accept a contraceptive method, to remove doubts and fears about family planning methods, and to make people aware of the maternal and child health (MCH) component of the program. It is essential for a nurse to judge the effectiveness of her instruction. She can accomplish this by observing and studying the reactions and actions of her audience. Nurses also have a role in planning special aspects of the family planning program. As program planners, nurses must draw inferences from the collected data and apply these in developing a feasible and effective program for their respective areas. Nurses can play an important role in determining training needs of volunteers and in developing and imparting training. Every nurse functions to some degree in a supervisory capacity. In the family planning program the role of a nurse includes the supervision of auxiliary nurse midwives, traditional birth attendants, family planning depot holders, and others who are involved in the program in both clinic and community situations. In clinical settings nurses can assist in arranging clinics to follow procedures for prescribing clinical methods, in the maintenance of equipment, distribution of medicine, and preparation of case cards. In the rural areas nurses can aid in the development of an efficient supply line in the community. Nurses can also play an important role in the maintenance of family planning records. PMID:6923319

Bhandari, U; Bhandari, V

1982-05-01

235

Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Waste Management Program is the protection of workers, the public, and the environment. A vital aspect of this goal is to comply with all applicable state, federal, and DOE requirements. Waste management requirements for DOE radioactive wastes are detailed in DOE Order 5820.2A, and the ORNL Waste Management Program encompasses all elements of this order. The requirements of this DOE order and other appropriate DOE orders, along with applicable Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) rules and regulations, provide the principal source of regulatory guidance for waste management operations at ORNL. The objective of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan is to compile and to consolidate information annually on how the ORNL Waste Management is to compile and to consolidate information annually on how the ORNL Waste Management Program is conducted, which waste management facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, what activities are planned for the forthcoming fiscal year (FY), and how all of the activities are documented.

Not Available

1991-12-01

236

Pakistan: family planning expands in non-governmental organizations.  

PubMed

The Family Planning Association of Pakistan has begun a program of integration of family planning activities with other voluntary welfare agencies. 1 of the more successful projects has been in cooperation with the Family Welfare Cooperative Society of Lahore. Volunteers have provided facilities to very low-income women to help supplement income. At 1st it was knitting, embroidery, and cloth manufacture, but over several years it developed into a complex of several buildings with a comprehensive vocational training center, a showroom, schools for the children of mothers in training, a secretarial school, and a hostel for homeless women there. There is a medical unit, a full-time doctor, and family planning services. PMID:12260386

1977-01-01

237

Watch out for the blue circle: a breakthrough in family planning promotional strategy.  

PubMed

Realizing the potential of commercial marketing in changing the attitude and behavior of the target audience in the early years of the 4th 5-year development plan, the National Family Planning Program tried to develop new ventures in communicating the concept of the small family norm to the people. The condom was chosen as the 1st product to be sold through the social marketing project because male awareness about family planning was still low. Based on audience research, the pricing, packaging, and branding of the product was developed. The most accepted brand name was Dua Lima because it has a neutral meaning, is easily remembered, and can be described in sign language. The last reason is very important because most consumers have difficulty communicating about condoms in the sales outlet. Social marketing has proved effective because of strong public relations activities and the involvement of formal and informal leaders. This experiment has convinced family planning management that social marketing is workable for promoting the small family norm. In 1987, under the new program of self-sufficiency in family planning, the private sector is invited to participate by providing family planning services for target audiences, using the principles of self-sufficiency and self-support. There are 2 principal activities; 1) the IEC campaign, and 2) product (contraceptive) selling. IEC activities include a media campaign public relations work. Product selling is done through commercial channels such as pharmaceutical firms, drug stores, private doctors, and midwives. It was decided that the campaign would be aided by a name and logo. The blue circle was chosen because it is unique, communicative, and simple. The social marketing of contraceptives in Indonesia can be considered a breakthrough in communication strategy for a national development program. PMID:12282138

Sumarsono

1989-07-01

238

Family planning in Russia: experience and attitudes of gynecologists.  

PubMed

A survey was made of 375 Russian gynecologists. The questionnaire on family planning and contraceptives was distributed at the beginning of three local educational symposia. Almost all participants filled in the questionnaire on attitudes, knowledge and experience with family planning. The sample consisted of departmental specialists and heads of departments/clinics, working mainly at in- or out-patient women's health clinics. The mean age was 37 years; 83% were women, living in medium-sized or large cities (80%). Half of them had been working as a gynecologist for more than 10 years. Only 55% had been trained in family planning. The main reasons mentioned for the high abortion rate in Russia were the lack of education, non-involvement of male partner, and lack of modern contraceptives. Most of the gynecologists were in favor of special family planning clinics with special attention to services for the users. About half of the physicians knew how the pill works and estimated that 41% of women know that the pill contains estrogens. Sixty-two percent found that patients are badly informed about available contraception. Main sources of information on contraception were journals/books, colleagues and mass media. The majority reported having a directive style of patient counseling, and stated that parents should be informed of their teenagers' sexual experiences. The more experienced physicians with a training in family planning were better informed on contraception and showed a more patient-concerned attitude. It is concluded that health care providers should be the main target group of training and education in family planning, and need the support of Western European family planning organizations. PMID:8237572

Visser, A P; Bruyniks, N; Remennick, L

1993-06-01

239

[Family planning at the turn of the 21st century].  

PubMed

This work constitutes a plea for the widest possible acceptance and encouragement of family planning throughout the world in order to avoid the irreversible environmental damage that will inevitably come with excessive numbers. Limitation of reproduction, preferably voluntarily, is possible by means of the effective and generally safe contraceptive methods now available. Preservation of the environment will require effective antipollution policies and an unwelcome control of the rampant consumerism of contemporary culture. Alarm among demographers in developed countries concerning exponential population increase developed about a half-century ago, only shortly after the feminist-led struggle for reproductive freedom provided a moral and juridical foundation for family planning. The demographic focus was not used to promote family planning among Third World countries, as that would have been viewed as heavy handed intrusion into the most intimate realm of domestic life. Instead, the nondemographic benefits such as improved maternal and child health and family well-being were stressed. It may be time to modify the focus. Ecologists must strive for a radical transformation of consumerist culture but must not ignore the pressure of numbers. Satisfying the needs of the world's most impoverished will greatly increase pressure on resources. Family planning has been accepted by the majority of the world's couples, but the unsatisfied demand has been estimated to amount to 100 million couples throughout the world. Providing information and services for such couples is the greatest challenge facing family planning programs. Many enemies of family planning have lost influence, but some critics from within family planning programs have deflected attention from the tasks of service delivery and may have postponed progress in some areas. Feminists who object to the concentration on female methods, developmentalists who believe that contraception will be accepted eventually as living standards improve, and integrationists who emphasize maternal-child health services to the detriment of family planning are examples. In view of the environmental threat as the twenty-first century dawns, the time may have come to view family planning not only as a right, but as a duty. PMID:12288162

Trias, M

1994-06-01

240

Planning for Affordable Single-Family Housing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The manual highlights some of the steps that communities have taken to cut housing costs. The focus is on affordable single-family detached housing and the local land development regulations that communities are enacting to promote such housing. The manua...

1986-01-01

241

Assateague Island National Seashore Annual Performance Plan, Fiscal Year 2004.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the Annual Performance Plan for Assateague Island National Seashore, a unit of the National Park System, administered by the National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. Our Plan includes our mission statement, derived from the legislat...

2004-01-01

242

National Strategy for Environmental Education: A Planning and Management Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents possible strategies which all countries can use to develop a national environmental education plan. Provides information on background factors to consider and a general planning and management process for developing such a plan. Proposes a plan for the United States. (DC)|

Puntenney, Pamela J.; Stapp, William B.

1981-01-01

243

Natural Resource Management Plan for Brookhaven National Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This comprehensive Natural Resource Management Plan (NRMP) for Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) was built on the successful foundation of the Wildlife Management Plan for BNL, which it replaces. This update to the 2003 plan continues to build on successes and efforts to better understand the ecosystems and natural resources found on the BNL site. The plan establishes the basis for

2011-01-01

244

Male attitudes towards family planning in Khartoum, Sudan.  

PubMed

Knowledge of, attitudes toward, and use of contraception were investigated in a 1982 survey of 250 men living in Khartoum, Sudan. Interviews were conducted at mosques, marketplaces, a government office building, and a textile factory. 75% of respondents were ages 21-40. 92% of respondents expressed the belief that Khartoum is overcrowded, although this was attributed by 57% to rural-urban migration. Despite the fact that 85-95% linked overpopulation with social problems such as inflation, food shortages, and unemployment, 72% expressed a desire for 5 or more children. Only 30% of the men interviewed supported the concept of family size limitation, largely for economic reasons. The majority of those opposing family size limitation cited religious reasons. Attitudes toward child spacing were more favorable, with 80% indicating approval 59% of the men with wives at risk of pregnancy reported that they were using some form of contraception, but only 21% were using an effective method. Two-thirds of respondents reported that they do not discuss contraception with their spouse. 60% identified either the mass media or friends and relatives as their source of family planning information. Although 64% indicated an awarencess of where to obtain family planning services, only 2.8% had ever received services from a family planning clinic. 79% voiced an interest in more information on family planning, and 59% with wives of reproductive age wanted to use family planning services. Most respondents desired more information on sexual sterilization and, although surgical contraception is not available in Sudan, 10% said they would consider this method when they attained their desired family size. The belief that family size should be limited increased dramatically with education, from 9% among those with no formal schooling to 45% among men with 13 or more years of school. Men under 40 years of age had more favorable attitudes toward family planning than older men. Surprisingly, men interviewed at mosques had the most favorable attitudes whereas government employees were the most conservative. Overall, these fndings suggest that the present family planning clinic system in Sudan may be falling short of meeting the demand for information services. PMID:6490682

Mustafa, M A; Mumford, S D

1984-10-01

245

National Computer Policy Management in Singapore: Planning an Intelligent Island.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Analyzes Singapore's information technology master plan in relation to its earlier national computer policy plans. Topics include global activities, economic development, implementation and use of information technology and services, and partnerships with industry and the public sector. (Author/LRW)|

Choo, Chun Wei

1995-01-01

246

Water Resources Management Plan. Curecanti National Recreation Area.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Water Resources Management Plan describes the water resources of Curecanti National Recreation Area (Curecanti NRA) and the issues affecting them. This plan is a compilation of management actions in the form of project statements, summaries of comple...

L. Cudlip M. Malick M. Wondzell W. Jackson

1996-01-01

247

National Science Foundation Human Capital Strategic Plan, 2011-2014.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Human Capital Strategic Plan constitutes the framework for managing the National Science Foundations (NSFs) human capital system through 2015 and builds upon the strength and commitment of NSFs workforce to fulfill the Foundations mission. This Plan,...

2013-01-01

248

Family planning knowledge and practice among Nigerian women attending an antenatal clinic  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates family planning activity in 308 Nigerian women attending an antenatal clinic. Family planning awareness was present in 234 women (76%) and practice occurred in 168 (54.5%). Proposal to practice family planning occurred in 66 of 137 women who had never used contraception while 69 (22.4%) had no intention to practice family planning.

J. I. B. Adinma; B. O. Nwosu

1995-01-01

249

National Program Plan Fuel Cells in Transportation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fuel cells are being developed for application in the transportation sector because they will convert hydrogen to electric power at high efficiencies with virtually no detrimental environmental impact. To realize these energy, environmental, and economic benefits, developers of FCV's need to (1) reduce the size and weight of current designs, (2) develop fuel cell propulsion systems with rapid start-up and greater load-following capability, (3) reduce system cost and/or improve performance, and (4) utilize alternative fuels to a large extent. This Plan addresses the FCV-related requirements of the Energy Act, describing a development program for light- and heavy-duty propulsion systems, a basic R&D program on fuel cell technology that is separate from, but feeds into, the system development activities, and supporting analyses. Implementation of the Program Plan by means of industry/government alliances will accelerate the commercialization of FCV's. In the long term, the successful deployment of large numbers of FCV's promises to eliminate the transportation sector as a major contributor to the nation's environmental problems.

1993-02-01

250

The National Federation of Families for Children's Mental Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article outlines the mission and vision of the National Federation of Families for Children's Mental Health and its history and accomplishments in the family movement. It gives examples of how the National Federation is leading the way for positive, collaborative, and engaging training; as well as research and advocacy. Five core principles…

Brown, Corey

2011-01-01

251

National Sleep Disorders Research Plan, 2003.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 2003 Revision summarizes the specific sleep research achievements since the 1996 Plan, identifies present gaps in our knowledge and understanding, and concludes with prioritized recommendations for future research. As with the 1996 Plan, the 2003 Plan...

2003-01-01

252

Site Plan & Transverse Section Chickamauga National Military Park ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Site Plan & Transverse Section - Chickamauga National Military Park Tour Roads, Alexander's Bridge, At the confluence of West Chickamauga Creek and Gordon's Slough, Fort Oglethorpe, Catoosa County, GA

253

Idaho National Laboratory Cultural Resource Management Plan  

SciTech Connect

As a federal agency, the U.S. Department of Energy has been directed by Congress, the U.S. president, and the American public to provide leadership in the preservation of prehistoric, historic, and other cultural resources on the lands it administers. This mandate to preserve cultural resources in a spirit of stewardship for the future is outlined in various federal preservation laws, regulations, and guidelines such as the National Historic Preservation Act, the Archaeological Resources Protection Act, and the National Environmental Policy Act. The purpose of this Cultural Resource Management Plan is to describe how the Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office will meet these responsibilities at the Idaho National Laboratory. This Laboratory, which is located in southeastern Idaho, is home to a wide variety of important cultural resources representing at least 13,500 years of human occupation in the southeastern Idaho area. These resources are nonrenewable; bear valuable physical and intangible legacies; and yield important information about the past, present, and perhaps the future. There are special challenges associated with balancing the preservation of these sites with the management and ongoing operation of an active scientific laboratory. The Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office is committed to a cultural resource management program that accepts these challenges in a manner reflecting both the spirit and intent of the legislative mandates. This document is designed for multiple uses and is intended to be flexible and responsive to future changes in law or mission. Document flexibility and responsiveness will be assured through annual reviews and as-needed updates. Document content includes summaries of Laboratory cultural resource philosophy and overall Department of Energy policy; brief contextual overviews of Laboratory missions, environment, and cultural history; and an overview of cultural resource management practices. A series of appendices provides important details that support the main text.

Lowrey, Diana Lee

2011-02-01

254

45 CFR 1357.15 - Comprehensive child and family services plan requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...programs of services for children and families (including family preservation and support services...persons, as community service aides; and a plan for the use of nonpaid...involved. (d) The child and family services plan (CFSP):...

2010-10-01

255

45 CFR 1357.15 - Comprehensive child and family services plan requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...programs of services for children and families (including family preservation and support services...persons, as community service aides; and a plan for the use of nonpaid...involved. (d) The child and family services plan (CFSP):...

2009-10-01

256

[Family intervention according to Roy. Planning, execution and evaluation].  

PubMed

Last month, the author presented the first two steps necessary in the development of a nursing care plan. This care plan utilized Sister Callista Roy's conceptual model and was designed to evaluate the family system. The readers became familiar with the Joly family, whose family system was evaluated (this included Diane and Jessie). Analysis of the collected data identified two nursing diagnoses and the author explained the way that nursing diagnosis is derived. The first identified nursing diagnosis revealed a threat to the beneficiary, the second diagnosis revealed a threat to the family system. This second article is devoted to the three other steps involved in the development of a nursing care plan that will assist the nurse in developing a systematic strategy in caring for this type of family. The planning step consists of the identification of objectives for care. These objectives must be specific, measurable and realistic as well as able to answer the question: "What changes are intended for this family?" Suggestions are offered for objective development. Once the objectives are finalized, the nurse chooses pertinent and realistic interventions that permit her/him, as well as Diane, to attain the identified objectives. The nurse's interventions are centred around stimuli that are increased, decreased or maintained by the goal of modifying or reinforcing observed behaviors. In the care plan example developed for the Joly family, the identified interventions are not all inclusive and serve as suggestions. During the course of the interventions the nurse must constantly readjust and adapt the interventions to fit with changing needs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1477843

de Montigny, F

1992-10-01

257

Factors determining family planning in Catalonia. Sources of inequity  

PubMed Central

Introduction In recent decades, the foreign population in Spain has increased significantly, particularly for Catalonia, an autonomous region of Spain (2.90% in 2000 and 15.95% in 2010) and in particular Girona province (6.18% in 2000 and 21.55% in 2010). Several studies have shown a lower use of family planning methods by immigrants. This same trend is observed in Spain. The objective of this paper is to determine the existence of differences and possible sources of inequity in the use of family planning methods among health service users in Catalonia (Spain) by sex, health status, place of birth and socioeconomic conditions. Methods Data were taken from an ad-hoc questionnaire which was compiled following a qualitative stage of individual interviews. Said questionnaire was administered to 1094 Catalan public health service users during 2007. A complete descriptive analysis was carried out for variables related to public health service users’ sociodemographic characteristics and variables indicating knowledge and use of family planning methods, and bivariate relationships were analysed by means of chi-square contrasts. Considering the use (or non-use) of family planning methods as a dependent variable and a set of demographic, socioeconomic and health status variables as explanatory factors, the relationship was modelled using mixed models. Results The analysed sample is comprised of 54.3% women and 45.7% men, with 74.3% natives (or from the EU) and 25.7% economic immigrants. 54.8% use some method of family planning, the condom (46.7%) and the pill (28.0%) being the two most frequently used methods. Statistical modelling indicates that those factors which most influence the use of family planning methods are level of education (30.59% and 39.29% more likelihood) and having children over 14 (35.35% more likelihood). With regard to the origin of the user, we observe that patients from North Africa,sub. Saharan Africa and Asia are less likely to use family planning methods (36.68%, 38.59% and 70.51%, respectively). Conclusions The use of family planning methods is positively related to a higher level of education and having children over 14. Factors such as sex, age, income and self-perceived health do not appear to influence their use. Furthermore, being a native of this country, the European Union or Central/South America represents a greater likelihood of use than being African or Asian. Although no general differences in use were found between sexes, the difference found in the case of Asian women stands out, with a higher likelihood of use.

2012-01-01

258

Santa Fe National Historic Trail Final Strategic Plan, November 2003.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Santa Fe Trail Association (SFTA), in partnership with the National Trails System-Intermountain Region of the National Park Service (NPS), developed this Strategic Plan to chart a course for future protection and interpretation of the Santa Fe Nationa...

2003-01-01

259

[Chen Muhua gives radio talk on family planning].  

PubMed

Planned parenthood is a major event concerning the vital interests of each family and individual and the prosperity and development of China. An excessive population growth rate has limited an improvement of the people's living standards and has adversely affected economic growth. Planned parenthood should be encouraged in accordance with China's Constitution and the provisions of the new marriage law. Late marriage and childbirth is a way of showing one's responsiblity toward the next generation. Eugenics is an important aspect of planned parenthood. Giving birth to physically unhealthy or mentally retarded children will place additional burdens on the family and society. In promoting planned parenthood it is necessary to do ideological and educational work in a patient and meticulous way. Planned parenthood must be widely propagated. Late marriage, late birth, and eugenics must be encouraged, and the advantages and significance of the 1 child family must be publicized. It is necessary to make early and realistic efforts to ensure the success of ideological work in planned parenthood, contraceptive measures, and birth programs. This will prevent unwanted conceptions and help achieve the goal of bringing the population under control. It is also necessary to strengthen work regarding maternity and child care and to popularize scientific knowledge concerning nursing babies. PMID:12264021

1981-02-01

260

Individualized Transition Plans (ITP): A National Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information concerning implementation of Individualized Transition Plans (ITP) was collected from 46 states and analyzed to determine documentation used in transition planning, relationship between the ITP and Individualized Education Programs, age for beginning transition planning, individuals involved in transition planning, and issues addressed…

Repetto, Jeanne B.; And Others

1990-01-01

261

[Some reflections on the introduction of family planning into businesses in Cameroon].  

PubMed

Cameroon has announced that it favors family planning as a means of improving family welfare. In the local context, family planning would refer to spacing and to a lesser extent limiting births, as well as combatting infertility. This work argues that, at a time of deep economic and financial crisis for Cameroon and of growing need and demand for family planning services, the introduction of employment-based family planning services could reinforce the family planning activities of the government and private agencies. The work broadly outlines national family planning policy, identifies weaknesses of proposed family planning strategies, and points out the advantages of employment-based services. Cameroon's infant mortality rate of 90/1000 live births and maternal mortality of 420/100,000 are partly related to its very high fertility rate, closely spaced births, and early pregnancy. The national family planning program goal is to promote health and wellbeing by preventing early and unwanted pregnancies and illnesses in high-risk groups. A decline in unwanted births would be achieved through voluntary use of contraception. The main strategy would be an ambitious IEC program to inform the population of the advantages of family planning using mass media, print materials, and interpersonal communication. The general objectives of the IEC program would be to reduce maternal mortality to 300/100,000 and infant mortality from 90 to 70/1000 and increase contraceptive prevalence from 3 to 20% by 1994. Family planning services and commercial distribution centers would be created, taking advantage of existing health facilities wherever possible as well as community based systems of service delivery for the population not yet served by the traditional distribution system. Experience with the IEC strategy in other countries demonstrates that there is a great disproportion between the population touched by IEC and contraceptive prevalence. The strategy would probably be more effective if it were oriented toward a more limited population group. Interpersonal communication is often a more effective medium for IEC than is communication based on the mass media, and the place of work constitutes an ideal arena for interpersonal communication. An IEC strategy would have more impact in difficult-to-reach rural population if it were reinforced by an employment-based program. Workers as a group are more disposed to conscious decision making about family sizes than are other categories of persons. Employment-based services could benefit workers, their spouses, and perhaps the neighboring population. Employers would benefit from the improved health of the workers, from the greater continuity of employment of female workers not requiring maternity leaves, and from lessened expenditures related to the family size of the workforce, such as health care costs. A cost-benefit analysis of an employment-based family planning would demonstrate the savings to be realized by the program, especially over time. PMID:12178537

Ngambi Kunga

262

Family Planning for Inner-City Adolescent Males: Pilot Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a pilot family planning program in an inner-city pediatric practice. Male adolescents were more likely to accept contraceptives if the provider first raised the topic of birth control to them. Identified a desire for anonymity/confidentiality and embarrassment or discomfort as the key reasons for not seeking contraceptives. Emphasizes…

Reis, Janet; And Others

1987-01-01

263

A Holistic Approach to Family Planning Counseling and Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A family planning clinic which was part of a large public maternity hospital in Salvador Bahia, Brazil received a grant to expand its services and to evaluate a service model focusing on client counseling and education. The counseling, education, and service provision process included individual pre-consultation with a nurse, group education and…

Chaves, Lushanhya Coutinho; And Others

264

Visits to Family Planning Service Sites: United States 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Of the family planning visits made by females, an estimated 77.6 percent resulted in the adoption or continuation of an oral contraceptive pill, an intrauterine device (IUD), or sterilization, each of which is a highly effective contraceptive method requi...

B. L. Hudson

1983-01-01

265

Puerto Rico Fertility and Family Planning Assessment, 1982.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Puerto Rico Fertility and Family Planning Assessment (PRFFPA) was a multi-purpose island-wide social, demographic, and maternal/child health study of women 15-49 years of age living in Puerto Rico in 1982. The PRFFPA is a data set designed for both so...

V. S. Cain

1982-01-01

266

Attitude of Religious Leaders (Imam Masjid) Towards Family Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Family planning is an important health and development issue as well as a human rights issue. Muslim countries and societies are not distinguished from the rest of the world; they aspire to reach their development goals by improving the health of their women and children. Islam should not be considered a barrier in this endeavor. Governments and non-governmental organizations in

FAROOQ AHMAD; MUHAMMAD HANIF; M. IQBAL ZAFAR

267

Family Planning as a Priority for Maternal and Child Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maternal, perinatal, Infant and child mortality rates in the developing world are significantly higher than in Industrialized countries. Much of this mortality is attributable to pregnancies “too young, too old, too many and too close.” It Is therefore obvious that the potential impact of family planning on maternal and child health can be immense. Such measures successfully implemented will improve

OAC Viegas; K Singh; SS Ratnam

1988-01-01

268

Achieving success with family planning in rural Afghanistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem Afghan women have one of the world's highest lifetime risks of maternal death. Years of conflict have devastated the country's health infrastructure. Total fertility was one of the world's highest, contraceptive use was low and there were no Afghan models of success for family planning. Approach We worked closely with communities, providing information about the safety and non-harmful side-effects

Douglas Huber; Nika Saeedi; Abdul Khalil Samadi

269

Evaluation of the Impact of Family Planning Programs on  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article evaluates the fertility impact of family planning program by using prevalence model in Iran. Prevalence model, which introduced by John Bongaarts, estimates potential fertility and the number of births averted by program and non-program sources by using population and acceptor based data. The difference between potential fertility and observed fertility is related to contraception. The greater the differences

Hassan Eini-Zinab

2005-01-01

270

Family Planning Attitudes of Traditional and Acculturated Navajo Indians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To determine whether various indices of "acculturation" would predict attitudes towards family planning was the major purpose of a survey conducted among a highly educated group of Navajo people at Navajo Community College (NCC). Owned and operated by the Navajo Tribe, NCC served as a target survey model due to its 90% population of Navajo…

Ackerman, Alan; And Others

271

Family Planning and the Young Minority Male: A Pilot Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the Young Inner-City Males Project, a pilot project to provide culturally relevant family life planning services to young minority males in Los Angeles. The project offered goal-directed support to promote sexual responsibility and reduce unwanted pregnancies. (FMW)|

Johnson, Leanor Boulin; Staples, Robert E.

1989-01-01

272

Family Planning and the Young Minority Male: A Pilot Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reports on a program aimed at young Black, Spanish-speaking, Asian, and American Indian males in relation to family life education, planning, and parental concerns. The project develops an approach to the promotion of sexual responsibility and reduction of unwanted pregnancy through support and assistance to potential unwed fathers. (Author)|

Johnson, Leanor Boulin; Staples, Robert E.

1979-01-01

273

Factors influencing the choice to use modern natural family planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

A discrepancy exists between the interest in modern methods of natural family planning (NFP) and their actual use in developed countries. To explore reasons for this discrepancy, we analyzed data from a questionnaire administered to postpartum women in Berlin (n = 223) and Cracow (n = 233). Knowledge of NFP, past use of NFP and expected effects of abstinence on

Rafael T Mikolajczyk; Joseph B Stanford; Martina Rauchfuss

2003-01-01

274

Slowing the stork : better health for women through family planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each year 500,000 women die from causes related to pregnancy - 99 percent of them in developing countries. While many of those pregnancies are unwanted and could have been prevented by family planning, only a minority of developing country couples use effective contraceptive methods. For some women, pregnancy represents a major health risk. Others, of lower risk, do not want

Anthony R. Measham; Roger W. Rochat

1988-01-01

275

Differences in counseling men and women: family planning in Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison of family planning sessions with male and female clients in Kenya found distinct gender differences. Most men came for information, while women wanted to adopt, continue, or change contraceptive methods. Consultations with men and couples were more than twice as long as consultations with women. Men communicated actively (for example, by volunteering extra information, asking questions, and expressing

Young Mi Kim; Adrienne Kols; Peter Mwarogo; David Awasum

2000-01-01

276

Family Planning and the Burden of Unintended Pregnancies  

PubMed Central

Family planning is hailed as one of the great public health achievements of the last century, and worldwide acceptance has risen to three-fifths of exposed couples. In many countries, however, uptake of modern contraception is constrained by limited access and weak service delivery, and the burden of unintended pregnancy is still large. This review focuses on family planning's efficacy in preventing unintended pregnancies and their health burden. The authors first describe an epidemiologic framework for reproductive behavior and pregnancy intendedness and use it to guide the review of 21 recent, individual-level studies of pregnancy intentions, health outcomes, and contraception. They then review population-level studies of family planning's relation to reproductive, maternal, and newborn health benefits. Family planning is documented to prevent mother-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, contribute to birth spacing, lower infant mortality risk, and reduce the number of abortions, especially unsafe ones. It is also shown to significantly lower maternal mortality and maternal morbidity associated with unintended pregnancy. Still, a new generation of research is needed to investigate the modest correlation between unintended pregnancy and contraceptive use rates to derive the full health benefits of a proven and cost-effective reproductive technology.

Tsui, Amy O.; McDonald-Mosley, Raegan; Burke, Anne E.

2010-01-01

277

Family Planning in a Chinese-American Population.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Little is known about the practice of family planning in a Chinese-American population. This retrospective study compared the usage and pattern of contraceptive use among the three following groups of new Chinese-American mothers in San Francisco, Califor...

C. Chang

1975-01-01

278

Sexuality, Reproduction, and Family Planning in Women With Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews data about how schizophrenia affects sexuality, pregnancy, the puerperium, parenting, and family planning. Women with schizophrenia have high rates of coerced sex, sexual risk behavior, and unwanted pregnancies. High rates of obstetric complications and custody loss increase morbidity for women and their offspring. Since untreated psychosis increases these problems, the risks of withholding pharmacotherapy must be weighed

Laura J. Miller

1997-01-01

279

Women's Literacy: The Connection to Health and Family Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Nepal, the Health Education and Adult Literacy Project for women dealt with four mechanisms: time in school and work, school-acquired dispositions, literacy skills, and health and family planning knowledge. Beginning with a small program enabled the building of leadership essential for a larger-scale program. (SK)

Comings, John P.; And Others

1994-01-01

280

Literacy and Family Planning Behaviour of Rural Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of women in a rural Indian state revealed that literate women (numbering 100) as compared to their illiterate counterparts (numbering 100) had more knowledge of the concepts and methods of family planning and had more favorable attitudes towards and a higher use rate of such methods. (MS)

Mulay, Sumati

1976-01-01

281

Diffusion of Innovations: Family Planning in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the best examples of the validity of the theory of “diffusion of innovations” is the case of family planning in developing countries. The desire of health, development and environment advocates in rich countries to make modern contraceptive use and lower fertility a norm in developing countries was translated into organized efforts to reach top-level leaders in these countries.

ELAINE MURPHY

2004-01-01

282

Personal and Family Financial Planning and the Teacher Education Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which personal and family financial planning (PFFP) is taught and/or included in the teacher education programs of institutions affiliated with the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education. Information was sought on the reasons for offering PFFP, where it was located in the…

Murphy, Patricia D.

283

NATIONAL METAL FINISHING ENVIRONMENTAL R&D PLAN - AN UPDATE  

EPA Science Inventory

This document is an update to the National Metal Finishing Environmental R&D Plan (EPA/600/R-97/095), dated September 1997. The 1997 Plan and Update are available on the National Metal Finishing Resource Center's web site, www.nmfrc.org. The primary purpose in preparing an up...

284

National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Emergency Planning in Athletics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a position statement by the National Athletic Trainers' Association on emergency planning in athletics, examining the professional and legal importance of emergency plans and looking at components of emergency plans, which include implementation, personnel, equipment, communication, transportation, venue location, emergency care…

Andersen, J. C.; Courson, Ronald W.; Kleiner, Douglas M.; McLoda, Todd A.

2002-01-01

285

76 FR 79708 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement/General Management Plan, Golden Gate National Recreation...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...General Management Plan, Golden...National Recreation Area, CA...National Park Service...General Management Plan, Golden...National Recreation Area...National Park Service has...Draft General Management Plan...

2011-12-22

286

Ideally suited. Looking at the prospects of natural family planning in the Philippines today.  

PubMed

The Government of the Philippines and the Catholic Church have debated for years about family planning, specifically, artificial contraception. The Catholic Church considers natural family planning (NFP) to be the only moral way to plan families. This debate should end, now that the new government under President Ramos has included NFP in its official policy. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) promoting NFP praise this move, especially since it is the best way to reach the majority of the population which is catholic. Nevertheless, most NFP acceptors do not report the Church being their reason for choosing NFP. Medical, cultural, and intellectual reasons predominate. The Secretary of Health has hosted a conference on NFP addressing advocacy, training, service delivery, research, program coordination/management, and funding to show these NGOs that the government does indeed intend to support NGO involvement in the national family planning program. He dismisses criticism of including NFP in the program, because population growth is considerable and exclusion of any scientifically approved method is unwise. He intends for the government not to be a regulator but a facilitator of family planning programs. The government is going to accord equal weight to artificial and natural family planning methods and to provide a menu of options. Acceptors, not government, will determine the most used methods. Case studies show that well trained, qualified teachers who follow acceptors for the first few months are key to NFP effectiveness and acceptance. Projections indicate that acceptance of NFP will grow more than common artificial methods between 1992 and 1994 (increase of 1% vs. .1% for condoms and .4% for pills). NFP methods include the cervical mucus method, basal body temperature method, sympto-thermal method, and the lactational amenorrhea method. PMID:12286381

Sheniak, D; Feleo, A

1993-03-01

287

[Health education in sexuality and family planning. A experience].  

PubMed

We present an educational health experience in Sexuality and Family Planning, carried out jointly by health care professionals in a Health Care Center and by teachers at a Job Training School within its area, with three groups of students, mostly adolescents. Four sessions were conducted: Sexual education: sexuality and health. Sexual relations. Family relations. Family planning. Evaluation of the previous sessions. In each session, there was a presentation made by the teacher/expert, after which working groups of 4-5 students were formed. Finally, everyone came together again to discuss their work. In each session, several group techniques were used to motivate a higher degree participation, lower inhibition, and deepen mutual contacts. Results have been positive, both for students and teachers, with an increase in knowledge, a variation in attitudes towards the subject, and because it was something different from everyday studies. PMID:2131622

Chamizo Vega, C; Lara Calles, C; Arias Lada, C; Lanza Lastra, D; Martínez de Albeniz, C; Muñiz Montes, J R

288

Career\\/family conflict in adolescent girls' future plans—An interactive simulation approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key role of family plans has always been an undisputed assumption underlying research in the area of adolescent girls' career development. However, the exact manner in which family plans affect girls and the specific theoretical implications of this effect have been understood differently during the last 30 years. The depressing effect of family plans on adolescent girls' career plans

Tsilia Romm

1987-01-01

289

Planning Inequality: Social and Economic Spaces in National Spatial Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

While traces and techniques of power and contestation around the understanding and production of spaces are clearly recognized in the sociological and planning research literature, there has been little rigorous attention to how socio-spatial inequality is put at stake in strategic mobilization around particular spatial imaginaries. In an analysis of the German Spatial Planning Report, the paper examines how inequalities

Katharina Manderscheid; Tim Richardson

2011-01-01

290

Source of service and visit rate for family planning services: United States, 1982.  

PubMed Central

The factors that affect how women choose their source of family planning care and how often they go for such care were investigated in the National Survey of Family Growth. The survey is based on a national sample of women 15-44 years of age interviewed in 1982, 4,318 of whom had family planning visits in the last 3 years. In contrast, previous research has been based on small, nonrepresentative samples, usually in one or a few locations or limited to visits to either private doctors or clinics, but not both; been limited to teenagers; or had no multivariate analysis. This study overcomes those limitations. When other variables were controlled, race, income, and insurance coverage had important effects on provider choice; marital status was important for white women, but not for black women. Contraceptive method, insurance coverage, and race were important determinants of the frequency of family planning visits, independent of other variables. It is suggested that relative costs or ability to pay, confidentiality, knowledge of alternative sources, and convenience of location affect choice of provider and visit rates.

Mosher, W D; Horn, M C

1986-01-01

291

Family planning associations vital to supervision of programme implementation.  

PubMed

The Family Planning Association (FPA) of China's Shuilianyu Township (Feixian County, Shadong Province) has made a major contribution to both contraceptive acceptance and poverty alleviation. Before the FPA was established in 1988, interviews were conducted in over 700 households in 18 villages in the township. The interviews suggested that adoption of China's one-child policy was being jeopardized by the failure of Communist Party and township officials to themselves adhere to this standard. As a result of this survey, disciplinary actions were taken against 18 officials who had violated the policy or shown bias in granting others permission to have extra children. The township government expressed willingness to have the Family Planning Association assume supervision over family planning implementation and developed "Regulations Governing Democratic Participation and Democratic Supervision by the FPA." Complaint desks and special boxes were established to collect information from the public about corrupt officials. In one case, the FPA was able to advocate on behalf of a man who had two daughters but no sons and was concerned about old age support. The village association was persuaded to give the man a piece of land on which to build a three-room dwelling so his future son-in-law could live with the family. According to custom, only sons have the right to access to land for housing. PMID:12291694

Zhu, H

1996-06-01

292

Evolution of China's family planning policy and fertility transition.  

PubMed

This article points out the important role of family planning (FP) in controlling population growth in China. The impact of development on fertility decline is much slower. China's current FP policy promotes deferred marriage and deferred childbearing and fewer, but healthier, births. The policy promotes one child per couple. Rural couples in certain circumstances, such as if the first birth is a girl, are allowed to have a second child that is properly spaced. FP should be promoted in ethnic inhabited areas. Under this policy, fertility declined from 2.59 to 2 children/woman during the period 1987-92. In more developed areas, fertility has declined below replacement level to 1.6. FP was first promoted in the National Program for Agricultural Development in the 1950s. Birth control was promoted in densely populated areas without high minority concentrations. Fertility hovered around 6.1 during 1950-57. The Cultural Revolution halted fertility decline. The 1974 FP policy emphasized deferred marriage and deferred childbearing, and spaced (by 4-5 years) but fewer births. Fertility declined from 4.2 to 2.3 during 1974-80, in response to the government directive. Rural population declined from 4.6 to 2.5, and urban population declined from 2.0 to 1.15. The one-child policy was promoted in 1980 and became official state policy. FP became an obligation to the state. Rural areas were less compliant with the one-child policy, which led to the 1984 allowances for a second child. PMID:12293912

Lin, F

1998-06-01

293

Achieving success with family planning in rural Afghanistan  

PubMed Central

Abstract Problem Afghan women have one of the world’s highest lifetime risks of maternal death. Years of conflict have devastated the country’s health infrastructure. Total fertility was one of the world’s highest, contraceptive use was low and there were no Afghan models of success for family planning. Approach We worked closely with communities, providing information about the safety and non-harmful side-effects of contraceptives and improving access to injectable contraceptives, pills and condoms. Regular interaction with community leaders, mullahs (religious leaders), clinicians, community health workers and couples led to culturally acceptable innovations. A positive view of birth spacing was created by the messages that contraceptive use is 300 times safer than pregnancy in Afghanistan and that the Quran (the holy book of Islam) promotes two years of breastfeeding. Community health workers initiated the use of injectable contraceptives for the first time. Local setting The non-for-profit organization, Management Sciences for Health, Afghan nongovernmental organizations and the Ministry of Public Health implemented the Accelerating Contraceptive Use project in three rural areas with different ethnic populations. Relevant changes The contraceptive prevalence rate increased by 24–27% in 8 months in the project areas. Men supported modern contraceptives once they understood contraceptive safety, effectiveness and non-harmful side-effects. Injectable contraceptives contributed most to increases in contraceptive use. Lessons learnt Community health workers can rapidly increase contraceptive use in rural areas when given responsibility and guidance. Project innovations were adopted as best practices for national scale-up.

Saeedi, Nika; Samadi, Abdul Khalil

2010-01-01

294

A National Portrait of Family Structure and Adolescent Drug Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the distribution of drug use among adolescents 12 to 17 years in data from the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. Results indicate that the risk of drug use is highest in father-custody families even after controlling for socio-demographic variables. Risk is lowest in mother-father families. (Author/EMK)

Hoffmann, John P.; Johnson, Robert A.

1998-01-01

295

Family joint activities in a cross-national perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Parents and children joint activities are considered to be an important factor on healthy lifestyle development throughout adolescence. This study is a part of the Cross-National Survey on Health Behaviour in School-aged Children – World Health Organization Collaborative Study (HBSC). It aims to describe family time in joint activities and to clarify the role of social and structural family

Apolinaras Zaborskis; Nida Zemaitiene; Ina Borup; Emmanuel Kuntsche; Carmen Moreno

2007-01-01

296

A National Portrait of Family Structure and Adolescent Drug Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines the distribution of drug use among adolescents 12 to 17 years in data from the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. Results indicate that the risk of drug use is highest in father-custody families even after controlling for socio-demographic variables. Risk is lowest in mother-father families. (Author/EMK)|

Hoffmann, John P.; Johnson, Robert A.

1998-01-01

297

Year 6 Planning Exemplification. National Literacy Strategy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

First in a series, this booklet contains suggestions for planning literacy in Year 6. This Year 6 plan for 2001-2002 and the short-term unit plan for narrative writing are a distillation of the work of a representative group of Year 6 teachers. It contains the Year 6 Term 1 Units 2 and 5 on Narrative Writing. It begins with an outline of the basic…

Department for Education and Skills, London (England).

298

Year 6 Planning Exemplification. National Literacy Strategy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|First in a series, this booklet contains suggestions for planning literacy in Year 6. This Year 6 plan for 2001-2002 and the short-term unit plan for narrative writing are a distillation of the work of a representative group of Year 6 teachers. It contains the Year 6 Term 1 Units 2 and 5 on Narrative Writing. It begins with an outline of the…

Department for Education and Skills, London (England).

299

National Action Plan for the Prevention of Playground Injuries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recognizing the need for a nationally coordinated effort to reduce playground injuries, the National Program for Playground Safety was created in 1995. This booklet describes the national action plan for prevention of playground injuries. Designed for use by parents, teachers, recreation and park personnel, and caregivers involved in providing…

Thompson, Donna; Hudson, Susan

300

Integration of poverty alleviation with family planning: an interview with SFPC Vice Minister Yang Kuifu.  

PubMed

The Chinese Government, through its 1994-2000 National Program for Poverty Alleviation, plans to eradicate poverty for its 65 million impoverished citizens by 2000. Program strategies include providing tangible financial incentives to couples who accept the use of family planning. For example, family planning acceptors with per capita annual incomes of less than 530 yuan are given priority to obtain low-interest loans from local banks or credit cooperatives to launch and manage income-generating schemes. They also have priority over nonacceptors in being recruited to work in township and village enterprises, in purchasing farm supplies, and in obtaining land from village and township authorities upon which to build housing. Farm families need to be made to understand that family planning is in their own best interest. Providing children and adolescents in impoverished areas with more education is also important. The author notes how leaders in some impoverished areas do not understand the difference between poverty alleviation and poverty relief. PMID:12320583

Zhu, H Z

1996-08-01

301

Family Planning in the 1980's: Challenges and Opportunities. Report of the International Conference on Family Planning in the 1980's (Jakarta, Indonesia, April 26-30, 1981).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Strategic and operational issues throughout the world formed the focus of the International Conference on Family Planning. The objectives of the conference were to review the accomplishments of family planning over the past decade, assess the challenges and opportunities for the 1980's, and identify means to strengthen commitment to family

Population Council, New York, NY.

302

North Cascades National Park Service Complex. Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve. Museum Management Planning Team.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Museum Management Plan for North Cascades National Park Service Complex (NOCA) and Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve (EBLA) identifies the museum management issues facing the parks, and presents recommendations to address them. A team of muse...

2009-01-01

303

Sexuality, reproduction, and family planning in women with schizophrenia.  

PubMed

This article reviews data about how schizophrenia affects sexuality, pregnancy, the puerperium, parenting, and family planning. Women with schizophrenia have high rates of coerced sex, sexual risk behavior, and unwanted pregnancies. High rates of obstetric complications and custody loss increase morbidity for women and their offspring. Since untreated psychosis increases these problems, the risks of withholding pharmacotherapy must be weighed against the risks of prescribing medications during pregnancy. The puerperium is a time when women are especially vulnerable to exacerbations of schizophrenia. Mothers with schizophrenia may have a reduced ability to read children's cues, and they often have weak social support networks. Their children may be more difficult to raise than other children. Parenting rehabilitation can address some of these problems. Often, women with schizophrenia who are sexually active and do not wish to become pregnant do not use contraception. Incorporating family planning measures into mental health care delivery systems may reduce unwanted pregnancies. PMID:9365999

Miller, L J

1997-01-01

304

The economic consequences of reproductive health and family planning.  

PubMed

We consider the evidence for the effect of access to reproductive health services on the achievement of Millennium Development Goals 1, 2, and 3, which aim to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, achieve universal primary education, and promote gender equality and empower women. At the household level, controlled trials in Matlab, Bangladesh, and Navrongo, Ghana, have shown that increasing access to family planning services reduces fertility and improves birth spacing. In the Matlab study, findings from long-term follow-up showed that women's earnings, assets, and body-mass indexes, and children's schooling and body-mass indexes, substantially improved in areas with improved access to family planning services compared with outcomes in control areas. At the macroeconomic level, reductions in fertility enhance economic growth as a result of reduced youth dependency and an increased number of women participating in paid labour. PMID:22784535

Canning, David; Schultz, T Paul

2012-07-10

305

Adverse outcomes of planned and unplanned pregnancies among users of natural family planning: a prospective study.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine prospectively whether unplanned pregnancies are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes among users of natural family planning. METHODS: Women who became pregnant while using natural family planning were identified in five centers worldwide: there were 373 unplanned and 367 planned pregnancies in this cohort. The subjects were followed up at 16 and 32 weeks' gestation and after delivery. The risks of spontaneous abortion, low birth-weight, and preterm birth were estimated after adjustment by logistic regression. RESULTS: The women with unplanned pregnancies were more likely to be at the extremes of age, to report more medical problems before and during the index pregnancy, and to seek antenatal care later in gestation than the women with planned pregnancies. However, women with planned pregnancies reported a higher rate of spontaneous abortion in previous pregnancies (28.8%) than did women with unplanned pregnancies (12.9%). There were no significant differences in the rates of spontaneous abortion, low birthweight, or preterm birth between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: No increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes was observed among women who experienced an unplanned pregnancy while using natural family planning.

Bitto, A; Gray, R H; Simpson, J L; Queenan, J T; Kambic, R T; Perez, A; Mena, P; Barbato, M; Li, C; Jennings, V

1997-01-01

306

[Family planning: what role for African female communicators?].  

PubMed

In April 1990, 60 members of the Association of African Communication Professionals (APAC) from 17 African countries attended a seminar-workshop in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, entitled "Family Planning: What Role for African Female Communicators?" The countries included Algeria, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Ivory Coast, Congo, Gabon, Guinea, Kenya, Mali, Morocco, Niger, Senegal, Tunisia, Togo, and Zaire. The participants considered population growth to be the major challenge that Africa faces today. Population growth brings problems of urbanization, housing, health, education, and food security. Family planning appears to be a remedy for these ills. Family planning oriented-IEC (information, education, and communication) can help overcome the resistance of the cultural, social, and religious order and foster new behavior. The goal of the seminar-workshop was precisely to give participants conceptual and methodological tools that will allow them to effectively use IEC in the area of family planning. The Minister of Information and Culture for Burkina Faso, who is also APAC's president, emphasized the APAC seminar-workshop goal during the opening ceremonies. Other notables at the opening ceremonies were the Minister of Health and Social Work, APAC's Executive Secretary, the wife of the Chief of State, and various government officials. The participants' recommendations cross-supported APAC's concern and turned toward the need for the training of professional female communicators, for international organizations to put at their disposal relevant documents, and for re-expansion of APAC branches. This requires governments to make flexible judicial and administrative resolutions in order to favor the creation of new APAC branches. The Center of Population for Development Studies and Research addressed the seminar-workshop. In 1988, it created a network of journalists to assure extensive information for decision-makers, researchers, and the general public on population and development questions. PMID:12346460

Sow, E B

1990-08-01

307

Misinformation and fear of side-effects of family planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fears about the side-effects from family planning are well-documented barriers to use. Many fears are misinformation, while others reflect real experience, and understanding of these is not complete. Using qualitative interviews with women in three countries, this study examines what women feared, how they acquired this knowledge, and how it impacted on decision-making. We aimed to understand whether women would

Nadia Diamond-Smith; Martha Campbell; Seema Madan

2012-01-01

308

The impact of family planning clinic programs on adolescent pregnancy.  

PubMed

During the 1970s, there was a decline in adolescent childbearing in the United States and, among teenagers who were sexually active, there was a decline in pregnancy rates as well. To what extent was increased enrollment by teenagers in federally funded family planning clinics responsible for these declines? Areal multivariate analysis reveals that adolescent birthrates were reduced between 1970 and 1975 as the result of enrollment by teenagers in family planning clinics, independent of the effects of other factors also affecting fertility, such as poverty status, education and urbanization. Using a model which controls for differences in adolescent sexual activity in different areas in 1970 and 1975, the analysis found that for every 10 teenage patients enrolled in family planning clinics in 1975, about one birth was averted in 1976. Other multivariate models, which did not control for differences in sexual activity, showed changes in the same direction, though of smaller dimension. Since the family planning program averts not only births but also pregnancies that result in abortions and miscarriages, an estimate was made of the total number of pregnancies averted by the program. Based on the proportion of unintended pregnancies among adolescents that resulted in live births in 1976 (36 percent), it was estimated that for every 10 teen patients enrolled in 1975, almost three pregnancies were averted in the following year. Over the 1970s, an estimated 2.6 million unintended adolescent pregnancies were averted by the program--944,000 births, 1,376,000 abortions and 326,000 miscarriages. In 1979 alone, an estimated 417,000 unintended pregnancies were prevented by the program. PMID:7250347

Forrest, J D; Hermalin, A I; Henshaw, S K

309

Taking family planning services to hard-to-reach populations.  

PubMed

Interviews were conducted in 1995 among 100 US family planning program personnel who serve hard-to-reach populations, such as drug abusers, prisoners, the disabled, homeless persons, and non-English speaking minorities. Findings indicate that a range of services is available for hard-to-reach groups. Most family planning agencies focus on drug abusers because of the severity of HIV infections and the availability of funding. This article describes the activities of various agencies in Michigan, Pennsylvania, and Massachusetts that serve substance abuse centers with family planning services. One recommendation for a service provider is to present services in an environment where it is safe to talk about a person's needs. One other program offered personal greetings upon arrival and the continuity of having a familiar face to oversee all reproductive and health needs. Programs for prisoners ranged from basic sex education classes to comprehensive reproductive health care. Some prisons offered individual counseling. Some programs were presented in juvenile offender facilities. Outreach to the homeless involved services at homeless shelters, outreach workers who recruited women into traditional family planning clinics, and establishment of nontraditional sites for the homeless and other hard-to-reach persons. One provider's suggestion was to offer services where high-risk women already go for other services. Most services to the disabled target the developmentally disabled rather than the physically disabled. Experience has shown that many professionals working with the disabled do not recognize their clients' sexual needs. Other hard-to-reach groups include women in housing projects and shelters for battered women, welfare applicants, and sex workers. Key to service provision is creating trust, overcoming language and cultural differences, and subsidizing the cost of care. PMID:8827149

Donovan, P

310

Family Planning Programs, Socioeconomic Characteristics, and Contraceptive Use in Malawi  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, micro-level data from a survey of 4,849 women in Malawi are linked to information from a service availability questionnaire to assess the relative importance of socioeconomic background and various aspects of family planning provision on contraceptive use in one country in sub-Saharan Africa. Maximum-likelihood probit is used to assess the independent influence of four distinct dimensions of

Barney Cohen

2000-01-01

311

Prevalence of Bacterial Vaginosis in Women Attending Family Planning Clinics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in 242 women attending family planning clinics in Concepción, Chile was studied using the Nugent criteria. The syndrome was present in 33.1% of women. No statistical difference was found between the occurrence of bacterial vaginosis and the of oral contraceptives (31.9%) or intrauterine devices (33.1%). The sensitivity and specificity of the Nugent criteria compared with the

Erica Castro; Mariana Dominguez; Paola Navarrete; Gioconda Boggiano; Raúl Zemelman

1999-01-01

312

Planning for Rural Housing in the Republic of Ireland: From National Spatial Strategies to Development Plans  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the role of spatial planning as a policy framework for managing rural housing within an integrated territorial development strategy. The paper focuses on the Republic of Ireland, which provides a useful case for analysing spatial planning and rural housing relationships, due to the State's recent shift towards spatial planning (formalized with the publication of the Irish National

Menelaos Gkartzios; Mark Scott

2009-01-01

313

Nutrition and Family Planning: Concepts and Approaches for Home Economics Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article's three focal points are: the role nutrition can play in enhancing family planning goals; nutrition, family planning, and the adolescent; and potential approaches for home economics educators. (Author)

Rand, Catherine

1976-01-01

314

Career Planning in Harmony with Family Values and Needs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Balancing career and family! Balancing what you love and who you love!! It is such an attention getting topic. And yet, if you really think about it, people have been doing it for ages. What makes it challenging in today's world is the dual income families that throw off-balance of traditional style of balancing family and profession. Balancing family and career is not as difficult. The question is more meaningful when you ask how do you find the right balance, and in fact, what is the right balance? How do you know you are there? Happiness at home and self esteem due to work is genderless issue however, it is essentially talked more in the context of women. Some of the things that could be helpful in achieving the right balance, are time management, proper prioritization, asking for help, a caring family, friends, and most importantly colleagues. In the portfolio of professional passions, it is important to identify the areas that are conducive to possibilities of changing family needs, international families, spouse's career and job relocation, etc. So, the bottom line question is whether it is possible to find a right balance between family and career? I would submit to you that with passion, courage, open- mindedness, and proper career planning, it is definitely possible. We just need to utilize the same techniques in choosing and sustaining the right balance that we use in identifying research topics and executing it. This discussion will look into further details of the challenges of balancing family and career from the perspective of also an immigrant, and possible ways of overcoming them.

Dubey, Archana

2008-03-01

315

75 FR 71519 - National Family Week, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...they turn 26 or have coverage through...coverage because of a pre-existing...spend on care. I also signed the...kinds can provide a supportive and...Americans reach their dreams. As we confront our challenges as a Nation, let...THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA...WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto...

2010-11-24

316

Post abortion family planning counseling as a tool to increase contraception use  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To describe the impact of the post-abortion family planning counseling in bringing about the contraceptive usage in women who had induced abortion in a family planning clinic. METHOD: The Diyarbakir Office of Turkish Family Planning Association (DTFPA) is a nonprofit and nongovernmental organization which runs a family planning clinic to serve the lower socio-economic populations, in Diyarbakir-Turkey. Post abortion

Ali Ceylan; Meliksah Ertem; Gunay Saka; Nurten Akdeniz

2009-01-01

317

Samish Indian Nation Long-Term Strategic Energy Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Tribes strategic energy planning effort is divided into three phases: (1) Completing an Energy Resource Assessment; (2) Developing a Long-Term Strategic Energy Plan; and (3) Preparing a Strategic Energy Implementation Plan for the Samish Homelands. The Samish Indian Nation developed a comprehensive Strategic Energy plan to set policy for future development on tribal land that consists of a long-term, integrated, systems approach to providing a framework under which the Samish Community can use resources efficiently, create energy-efficient infrastructures, and protect and enhance quality of life. Development of the Strategic Energy plan will help the Samish Nation create a healthy community that will sustain current and future generations by addressing economic, environmental, and social issues while respecting the Samish Indian Nation culture and traditions.

Christine Woodward; B. Beckley; K. Hagen

2005-06-30

318

77 FR 46374 - National Poultry Improvement Plan; General Conference Committee Meeting and 41st Biennial Conference  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. APHIS-2012-0044] National Poultry Improvement Plan; General Conference...General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan (NPIP) and the NPIP's...Roney, Senior Coordinator, National Poultry Improvement Plan, VS, APHIS, 1506...

2012-08-03

319

77 FR 1051 - General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan; Meeting AGENCY: Animal...General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan. DATES: The meeting...Roney, Senior Coordinator, National Poultry Improvement Plan, VS, APHIS, 1506...

2012-01-09

320

77 FR 59888 - General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan AGENCY: Animal and Plant...General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan (Committee) for a 2year...Roney, Senior Coordinator, National Poultry Improvement Plan, VS, APHIS,...

2012-10-01

321

78 FR 33799 - National Poultry Improvement Plan; General Conference Committee Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. APHIS-2013-0032] National Poultry Improvement Plan; General Conference...General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan. DATES: The General...Acting Senior Coordinator, National Poultry Improvement Plan, VS, APHIS, 1506...

2013-06-05

322

76 FR 1592 - National Poultry Improvement Plan; General Conference Committee Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. APHIS-2010-0039] National Poultry Improvement Plan; General Conference...General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan. DATES: The General...Rhorer, Senior Coordinator, National Poultry Improvement Plan, VS, APHIS, 1498...

2011-01-11

323

75 FR 70712 - General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan; Reestablishment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan; Reestablishment AGENCY...General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan (Committee) for a 2-year...Rhorer, Senior Coordinator, National Poultry Improvement Plan, VS, APHIS,...

2010-11-18

324

77 FR 42257 - General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan; Solicitation for Membership  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan; Solicitation for Membership...General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan. DATES: Consideration...Roney, Senior Coordinator, National Poultry Improvement Plan, VS, APHIS, 1506...

2012-07-18

325

77 FR 3435 - General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan; Cancellation of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan; Cancellation of Meeting...General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan scheduled for January...Roney, Senior Coordinator, National Poultry Improvement Plan, VS, APHIS, 1506...

2012-01-24

326

75 FR 23222 - National Poultry Improvement Plan; General Conference Committee Meeting and 40th Biennial Conference  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. APHIS-2010-0026] National Poultry Improvement Plan; General Conference...General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan (NPIP) and the NPIP's...Rhorer, Senior Coordinator, National Poultry Improvement Plan, VS, APHIS, 1498...

2010-05-03

327

National Rail Safety Action Plan Progress Report, 2005-2007.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On May 16, 2005, the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) launched an aggressive and proactive National Rail Safety Action Plan to address important safety issues by: Targeting the most frequent, highest ri...

2007-01-01

328

National Health Planning Information Center Subject Classification Schedule and Index.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The classification tools used by the National Health Planning Information Center (NHPIC) as aids in retrieving abstracts and other document surrogates from the computerized data base are presented. The subject classification schedule includes approximatel...

1976-01-01

329

East Elevation, Bridge Plan & Truss Details Chickamauga National ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

East Elevation, Bridge Plan & Truss Details - Chickamauga National Military Park Tour Roads, Alexander's Bridge, At the confluence of West Chickamauga Creek and Gordon's Slough, Fort Oglethorpe, Catoosa County, GA

330

Bauou Teche National Wildlife Refuge. Comprehensive Conservation Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) has prepared this Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) to guide the management of Bayou Teche National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in St. Mary Parish, Louisiana. The CCP outlines programs and corresponding resource needs...

2009-01-01

331

National Ignition Facility Cryogenic Target Systems Interim Management Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Restricted availability of funding has had an adverse impact, unforeseen at the time of the original decision to projectize the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Cryogenic Target Handling Systems (NCTS) Program, on the planning and initiation of these effo...

B. Warner

2002-01-01

332

76 FR 22114 - National Emergency Communications Plan (NECP) Tribal Report  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plan (NECP) Tribal Report AGENCY: National...request for comments; New Information Collection...comments concerning New Information Collection Request, NECP Tribal Report. DATES: Comments...Title: NECP Tribal Report. From: Not Applicable...OMB Number: 1670-NEW. Frequency:...

2011-04-20

333

National Poultry Improvement Plan and Auxiliary Provisions. April 2007.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The hatcheries, dealers, and independent flocks listed in this publication are participating in the National Poultry Improvement Plan, according to reports submitted by the Official State Agencies. This list of participants is published for the purpose of...

2007-01-01

334

"Wait a while, my love" -- an Indonesian popular song with a family planning message.  

PubMed

"Wait a While, My Love," recorded by pop singer Irianti Emingpraja, was the first Indonesian rock sock to contain a family planning message. The album including the song has sold over 100,000 copies. The song has also been packaged as a 60-second video that can be used as an opening theme for radio and television programs. The song, aimed at encouraging Indonesian youth to postpone marriage, has the following lyrics: "Flying free like a seagull/I'll cover many places 'round the world/Give me time for study and reflection, to grow as a mature wise woman/Oh, wait a while, my love/Don't buy me a ring, reflection of your inner love/I'll climb my way up to the top of the world/And reaching our rainbow of hope." The song was produced with support from the United Nations Fund for Population Activities and the Indonesian National Family Planning Coordinating Board. Key factors to be examined in producing a popular song with a family planning message include the specific message desired, the target audience, type of music, the singer, the producer, marketing, a multimedia campaign strategy, and distribution outlets. PMID:12315970

Pekerti, R; Musa, R

1989-10-01

335

Changing fortunes: analysis of fluctuating policy space for family planning in Kenya  

PubMed Central

Policies relating to contraceptive services (population, family planning and reproductive health policies) often receive weak or fluctuating levels of commitment from national policy elites in Southern countries, leading to slow policy evolution and undermining implementation. This is true of Kenya, despite the government's early progress in committing to population and reproductive health policies, and its success in implementing them during the 1980s. This key informant study on family planning policy in Kenya found that policy space contracted, and then began to expand, because of shifts in contextual factors, and because of the actions of different actors. Policy space contracted during the mid-1990s in the context of weakening prioritization of reproductive health in national and international policy agendas, undermining access to contraceptive services and contributing to the stalling of the country's fertility rates. However, during the mid-2000s, champions of family planning within the Kenyan Government bureaucracy played an important role in expanding the policy space through both public and hidden advocacy activities. The case study demonstrates that policy space analysis can provide useful insights into the dynamics of routine policy and programme evolution and the challenge of sustaining support for issues even after they have reached the policy agenda.

Crichton, Joanna

2008-01-01

336

Screening family planning needs: an operations research project in Guatemala.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Public sector health care providers in rural Guatemala have infrequently offered family planning information and services in routine visits. This operations research project tested a strategy to modify certain practices that prevent health workers from proactively screening clients' needs and meeting them. METHODS: The research design was quasi-experimental with a pretest-posttest-follow-up comparison group design. Health districts, which comprise health centers and posts, were purposively assigned to intervention or comparison groups to assure comparability of the two groups. The strategy was based on a job-aid designed to guide health workers in screening clients' reproductive intentions and family planning needs, help them to offer contraceptive methods if the woman expressed interest, and facilitate the provision of the method chosen at the time of the visit. The strategy was implemented at intervention sites during a period of six months. Upon completion of post-intervention measurements, the strategy was scaled up to the comparison sites, and a follow-up assessment was conducted nine months later. Results were evaluated by conducting three rounds of exit interviews with women exposed to the risk of unwanted pregnancy. RESULTS: Study results showed a two to five-fold increase in providers' screening of clients' reproductive intentions. The proportion of clients who received information about contraceptives increased from 8% at the baseline to 42% immediately post-intervention, and 36% at the follow-up survey. The intervention also proved successful in improving the role service providers play in offering women a chance to ask questions and assisting women in making a selection. The proportion of women who received a method, referral or appointment increased and remained high in the intervention group, although no change was seen in the comparison group after their participation in the strategy. CONCLUSION: The easy-to-use job aid developed for this project proved useful for screening clients' needs and reducing providers' reluctance to discuss family planning with clients and offer contraceptive services. Such family planning screening devices can be useful in traditional settings where both providers and clients shy away from discussing family planning issues. PMID:15132752

Mendez, Francisco; Lopez, Felipe; Brambila, Carlos; Burkhart, Marianne

2004-05-01

337

Factors affecting unmet need for family planning in Eastern Sudan  

PubMed Central

Background In the developing countries millions of women in the reproductive age who don’t use contraceptives prefer to postpone or limit their birth. This indicates their failure to take necessary decision to prevent and avoid unwanted pregnancy. Methods A community-based cross sectional household survey was conducted to investigate unmet need for family planning and associated factors and total demand for family planning in Kassala, Eastern Sudan between 1st May and 31st July 2012. Results A total of 812 married women were enrolled in this study. Their mean age and parity was 31.8 (7.3) and 3.4 (1.8) respectively. Ever use of contraception was 25.4% (206/812) and 26.2% (213/812) were currently using contraception. Unmet need for spacing was 15.1% while unmet need for limiting was 0.7%. The pregnant and amenorrheic women whose the pregnancy or birth was unwanted and mistimed were 105 (13%) and 130 (16%) respectively. Using Westoff model the total unmet need was estimated as 44.8%. The total demand for family planning was 71%. In logistic regression model, while age, age at marriage, parity, residence and experience of child death were not associated with total unmet need for family planning, women education < secondary level (OR=7.8; CI=5.6-10.9; P=0.00), husband education < secondary level (OR=1.9; CI=1.3-2.6, P = 0.00) and woman’s occupation; housewife (OR=4.3; CI=2.5-7.2; P=0.00) were associated with the total unmet need. Conclusions Unmet need for family planning in Eastern Sudan was significantly higher among women with less than secondary education. Also; it is influenced by couple’s educational status and woman’s occupation. The results of this study necessitate the need for the programme managers to take into account the concept of reproductive health education.

2013-01-01

338

Men and family planning: toward a policy of male involvement.  

PubMed

The stated aim of this discussion is to examine the extent of male use of family planning and the nature of men's role in family planning in developing countries. Case studies are presented which are successful examples of strategies for involving men in family planning. Policies that aim to increase male involvement must be sensitive to cultural values, apply to a decentralized government approach toward information and supplies, include adequate political will, and consider the costs and benefits of changing values. A male family planning policy would not always be compatible with all fertility values in developing countries or traditional values of the older population. A policy should stress the value of male individuals contributing as much as possible for their own and others' welfare. Community participation is considered important in order to create a feeling of mutual support. A sizeable investment will be required for mass distribution of contraceptive information. Schools are viewed as an ideal place for educating youth about the problems of high fertility and about use of family planning methods, such as the condom. Religious organizations should be used to educate people about responsible parenthood and to minimize barriers to use of modern contraception. Comic books on how to use condoms are suggested as a good source. Local authorities who are trusted are useful in influencing acceptance among local populations. Local personnel may be trained as information disseminators. Adequate contraceptive information needs to be supplied to a wide audience. Lack of supply and inadequate information are given as two key reasons for insufficient use of male contraception. Condoms should be priced to be affordable to the average person and free to those with no income. Program strategies that proved successful are cited for Thailand's Mechai Viravaidya program and Bali's grass-roots program. The vasectomy program in Bangladesh is also noted for its success. Low levels of condom use are attributed to factors such as price, education, availability, accessibility, culture, religion, and economic conditions. Male sterilization levels can be enhanced with wider availability of clinics and provision of correct information for challenging beliefs that vasectomy is a form of castration. PMID:12290097

Pillai, V K; Kelley, A C

1994-01-01

339

42 CFR 59.5 - What requirements must be met by a family planning project?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirements must be met by a family planning project? 59.5 Section 59.5...requirements must be met by a family planning project? (a) Each project supported...abortion as a method of family planning. A project must: (i) Offer...

2010-10-01

340

42 CFR 59.5 - What requirements must be met by a family planning project?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirements must be met by a family planning project? 59.5 Section 59.5...requirements must be met by a family planning project? (a) Each project supported...abortion as a method of family planning. A project must: (i) Offer...

2009-10-01

341

AIDS and family planning counseling of psychiatrically ill women in community mental health clinics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighty-two of 83 mental health professionals, including psychiatrists, were surveyed to determine their attitudes and behaviors toward AIDS prevention and family planning counseling with psychiatrically ill female outpatients. Nearly all reported that information should be provided on AIDS and family planning. However, they reported that they had raised topics of AIDS with only 19% of patients and family planning with

John H. Coverdale; John F. Aruffo

1992-01-01

342

42 CFR 59.4 - How does one apply for a family planning services grant?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false How does one apply for a family planning services grant? 59.4 Section 59...AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.4 How does one...

2009-10-01

343

42 CFR 59.4 - How does one apply for a family planning services grant?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false How does one apply for a family planning services grant? 59.4 Section 59...AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.4 How does one...

2010-10-01

344

National Center for Combating Terrorism Strategic Plan, September 2003  

SciTech Connect

National Center for Combating Terrorism Strategic Plan is to document the mission, vision, and goals for success; define the build plan; and describe initiatives that support the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Department of Defense, U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Department of Justice, intelligence community, National Governors Association, and other organizations or departments with combating terrorism training, testing, and technology responsibilities.

Bechtel Nevada

2003-09-01

345

Family planning in the 21st century: perspective of the International Planned Parenthood Federation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many women still die as a result of pregnancy or childbirth and yet there are an increasing number of women who wish to regulate their fertility and space or limit their child-bearing. This paper, outlining some success stories, elucidates the family planning challenges and identifies key messages to indicate the role that IPPF can play in the 21st century. Issues

I. Brueggemann

1997-01-01

346

Workshop Planning Manual for Teacher Inservice Education in Personal and Family Financial Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The inservice training of secondary teachers in the consumer economics areas of personal and family financial planning has been identified as a prime need. Responsibility for providing inservice programs in both content and methods of teaching consumer education rests, in part, on colleges of education. This manual was developed to be a guide for…

Lloyd, Janice Holm; Gunther, Marilyn

347

National Review of Health Systems Planning for the Elderly.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A national project was completed in 1979 to evaluate health service delivery to and health planning for the elderly population. The original goal of the project was to assess how planning agencies were addressing needs of the elderly in first-iteration he...

S. Spivack J. Ryan

1979-01-01

348

National Energy Information System: Implementation plan. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

An implementation plan to develop and operate the initial increment (module 1) of the National Energy Information System (NEIS) is described. Module 1 implementation must satisfy two partially contradictory objectives. First, it must be carried out as rapidly as possible. Second, Module 1 development should preclude a minimum of the long-term NEIS design options. This implementation plan balances these requirements

M. Fiorello; J. Farquhar; M. Lutz; M. Shaw

1978-01-01

349

National Ignition Facility Cryogenic Target Systems Interim Management Plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restricted availability of funding has had an adverse impact, unforeseen at the time of the original decision to projectize the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Cryogenic Target Handling Systems (NCTS) Program, on the planning and initiation of these efforts. The purpose of this document is to provide an interim project management plan describing the organizational structure and management processes currently in

2002-01-01

350

Family Structure and Children's Health and Behavior: Data from the 1999 National Survey of America's Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using data from the 1999 National Survey of America's Families, this research investigates the association and pathways between family structure and child well-being among children age 6 to 17. Three indicators of child well-being are examined: parent-rated health, limiting health conditions, and child behavior. Results show that both…

Wen, Ming

2008-01-01

351

Peripheral Visions: First Nations' Program Planning as Experienced by Non-First Nations Educators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines program planning from the peripheral perspective of non-First Nations adult educators who work for\\/with First Nations' organizations and communities. Their experience and awareness was captured through a narrative research process. How the program planning and development process evolves within these settings and how culture and traditional knowledge influence the emergence of new programs were the primary focus.

Joan Sanderson

352

Strategic Planning in Family Business: A Powerful Developmental Tool for the Next Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses the issue of training next-generation family members once they have joined the management team in their family firm. The qualitative analysis of strategic planning processes of 18 Italian family firms shows that involving next-generation family members in the planning process benefits their developmental process. The findings indicate that this involvement provides the next generation with crucial tacit

Pietro Mazzola; Gaia Marchisio; Joseph H. Astrachan

2008-01-01

353

Hawaii Volcanoes National Park: Collection Management Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The collections of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park are comprised of historical, ethnographic, archeological, and fine arts objects as well as an extensive and active natural history collection. In a recent appraisal the cultural objects were valued at more...

D. R. Pardue D. Nicholson D. Cumberland M. Tanaka-Sanders

1989-01-01

354

Mammoth Cave National Park Business Plan, 2003.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mammoth Cave became a national park in 1941, and is one of the oldest tourist attractions in the United States. The park was designated to protect and preserve the extensive limestone caverns and associated karst topography, scenic riverways, original for...

2003-01-01

355

National Airspace System Interface Management Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document is intended to implement Interface Management for interfacing subsystems of the National Airspace System (NAS) and for external NAS interfaces by establishing a process which assures that: Interface requirements are agreed to by interfacing ...

1986-01-01

356

[Coverage of family planning services in five health regions].  

PubMed

In 1984, a team of specialists from the National Population Council and the Ministry of Health evaluated the availability of family planning services in 5 health regions of Peru: a sector of Lima, Arequipa, San Martin, Cuzco, and Cajamarca. The numbers of women aged 15-49 years in the health regions, the numbers subject to Ministry of Health programming, the numbers of acceptors, and the percentage of coverage respectively were 1,357,298, 906,675, 83,542, and 9.21% in Lima; 183,168, 122,356, 4789, and 3.91% in Arequipa; 77,427, 51,721, 1610, and 3.11% in San Martin; 283,088, 189,103, 7695, and 4.07% in Cuzco; and 120,375, 80,411, 1181, and 1.47% in Cajamarca. There were 98,817 acceptors in the 5 regions, and the coverage was 7.32%. The differences in coverage achieved in the 5 regions were due to different financial and professional resources in the different regions as well as to differences in sociodemographic characteristics and especially degree of urbanism. A better distribution and more rational utilization of budgetary and professional resources would permit a levelling of the regional rates of coverage and an increase of the total coverage. The number of acceptors of condoms and other methods, pills, and IUDs respectively were 17,034, 30,117, and 36,391 in Lima; 2176, 1830, and 783 in Arequipa; 352, 751, and 507 in San Martin; 2879, 3507, and 1309 in Cuzco, 250, 445, and 486 in Cajamarca, and 22,691, 36,650, and 39,476 in all 5 regions. Of the 98,817 acceptors, 23.0% chose condoms and others, 37.1% pills, and 39.9% chose IUDs. Regional variations in methods selected depended primarily on the professional resources available. In areas where more physicians were available there were higher rates of IUD use. PMID:12267241

Herrera Miranda, J L

1985-04-01

357

Yugoslavia: Death of a Nation. [Lesson Plan].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on "Zlata's Diary: A Child's Life in Sarajevo" by Zlata Filipovic, this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that historical drama, like other historical fiction, is rooted in history but contains imaginary elements as well; and that the author describes in her diary what it was like to be a teenager in…

Lemberger, Beth

358

National Security Personnel System Evaluation Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Evaluation Plan is the Department of Defense implementation of 5 CFR, Chapter XCIX, Part 9901, Section 9901.108, Program Evaluation. It describes the approach, types of data, and general timeframes that the Program Executive Office (PEO) for the Nati...

2007-01-01

359

Pecos National Monument: Collection Management Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The most recent Scope of Collection Statement for Pecos was approved by the Regional Director on July 18, 1985. A Scope of Collection Statement is the basic curatorial planning document that is required by policy for all parks. It must be prepared as an i...

D. Pardue E. Bauer S. Buchel D. Brugge B. Sullivan

1989-01-01

360

National Nutrition Planning in Developing Countries via Gaming-Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nutrition game designed for the Food Policy and Nutrition Division of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations to aid in planning national nutrition education programs in Third World countries is described The Simulated Nutrition System Game allows high-level ministerial staff in developing countries to discuss, via a common language created by SNUS I, the issues, problems,

Richard D. Duke; Robert Cary

1977-01-01

361

Proposed Master Plan, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Park Service proposes a plan to conserve and protect the unique resources of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park for expanded public use and for continued volcanic research by the U.S. Geological Survey. This includes acquisition of new lands, con...

1973-01-01

362

Securing America's energy future: The national energy policy plan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy policy guidelines within the context of the overall economic recovery program were reformulated. The new national energy policy continues to develop and to be refined; it will not be tied to a static and unresponsive plan. The approach for reformulation of policy energy is defined, and the current energy outlook of the Nation is presented.

1981-07-01

363

The family planning attitudes, practices, and motivations of mental patients.  

PubMed

The family planning attitudes, practices and motivations were studied by interview in 21 patients of the Massachusetts Mental Health Center, 18-45 years of age, with varying racial, religious and socioeconomic backgrounds and a broad range of mental illness. Without investigating the relationships of mental illness to marital discord, an impressive frequency of divorce, unhappy marriages and lack of communication between the spouses was noted. Frequency patterns of sexual intercourse and orgasm in these patients reflected normal patterns as determined by sexual research. The patients also closely resembled normal women in responses on desired family size and the right of women to control the number of children they have. Behavior was found to differ strongly from attitudes in that contraceptive knowledge and approval, though low, was comparable to normal women, but actual contraceptive use was infrequent with a total of 26 unwanted pregnancies reported in 13 of the women. 9 of the unwanted pregnancies were aborted and 8 of the 13 women felt that raising the unwanted child contributed to their mental illness. Though all the patients thought hospitals should provide the postnatal family planning counseling, contraceptive motivation was determined to be poor in these women due to excessive dependency needs, passive-aggressive ambivalence towards men, and excessive use of the mechanism of denial. Greater communication between doctor and patient is needed on sexual attitudes and practices. PMID:5147729

Grunebaum, H U; Abernethy, V D; Rofman, E S; Weiss, J L

1971-12-01

364

Looking at the formulation of national biosecurity education action plans.  

PubMed

In order for states to be assured of their compliance with the requirements of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, it is necessary that all those science and policy stakeholders working within that state should be aware of their responsibilities under the Convention. This can only be achieved through a comprehensive national biosecurity education programme. We propose that each state should produce a national biosecurity action plan, with accompanying resources and materials to achieve this. A number of resources are already available online to support states in this challenge. We present a model for a national biosecurity action plan and propose a number of ways in which this may be achieved. PMID:22606763

Sture, J; Minehata, M; Shinomiya, N

365

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan FY 2000-2004  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan for FY 2000-2004 sets forth the laboratory's mission, roles, technical capabilities, and laboratory strategic plan. In the plan, major initiatives also are proposed and the transitioning initiatives are discussed. The Programmatic Strategy section details our strategic intent, roles, and research thrusts in each of the U.S. Department of Energy's mission areas. The Operations/Infrastructure Strategic Plan section includes information on the laboratory's human resources; environment, safety, and health management; safeguards and security; site and facilities management; information resources management; management practices and standards; and communications and trust.

Pearson, Erik W.

2000-03-01

366

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan FY 2001-2005  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan for FY 2001-2005 sets forth the laboratory's mission, roles, technical capabilities, and laboratory strategic plan. In the plan, major initiatives also are proposed and the transitioning initiatives are discussed. The Programmatic Strategy section details our strategic intent, roles, and research thrusts in each of the U.S. Department of Energy's mission areas. The Operations/Infrastructure Strategic Plan section includes information on the laboratory's human resources; environment, safety, and health management; safeguards and security; site and facilities management; information resources management; managaement procatices and standards; and communications and trust.

Fisher, Darrell R.; Pearson, Erik W.

2000-12-29

367

Adolescent fertility and family planning in East Asia and the Pacific: a review of DHS reports  

PubMed Central

Background Adolescent pregnancy has significant health and socio-economic consequences for women, their families and communities. Efforts to prevent too-early pregnancy rely on accurate information about adolescents' knowledge, behaviours and access to family planning, however available data are limited in some settings. Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) reports are recognised as providing nationally representative data that are accessible to policymakers and programmers. This paper reviews DHS reports for low and lower middle income countries in East Asia and the Pacific to determine what information regarding adolescent fertility and family planning is available, and summarises key findings. Methods The most recent DHS reports were sought for the 33 low and lower middle income countries in the East Asia and Pacific region as defined by UNICEF and World Bank. Age-disaggregated data for all indicators relevant to fertility and current use, knowledge and access to family planning information and services were sought to identify accessible information. Reported data were analysed using an Excel database to determine outcomes for adolescents and compare with adult women. Results DHS reports were available for eleven countries: Cambodia, Indonesia, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Timor-Leste, Tuvalu and Vietnam. Twenty seven of 40 relevant DHS indicators reported outcomes for adolescent women aged 15-19 years. There were limited data for unmarried adolescents. A significant proportion of women commence sexual activity and childbearing during adolescence in the context of low contraceptive prevalence and high unmet need for contraception. Adolescent women have lower use of contraception, poorer knowledge of family planning and less access to information and services than adult women. Conclusion DHS reports provide useful and accessible data, however, they are limited by the failure to report data for unmarried adolescents and report age-disaggregated data for some indicators. Further research is required to better understand the barriers that both married and unmarried adolescents face accessing reproductive health information and services, and their information and service delivery preferences.

2011-01-01

368

Minister Zhang Weiqing on the goals of China's family planning programme.  

PubMed

This article presents an excerpt from a speech given by the Minister of the State Family Planning Commission at the Annual National Conference on Family Planning in Beijing, China, on March 16, 1998. Minister Zhang indicated that the Political Bureau, Communist Party-Central Committee called a meeting in February 1998. The aim was to hear a progress report by the State Family Planning Commission. The Bureau approved a series of goals set by the year 2000 and by mid-century. 1) China's population should be under 1.3 billion by 2000. Programs must emphasize the reduction of birth defects and improve reproductive health services. 2) Total population should be under 1.4 billion by 2010. Greater efforts should be made to improve the quality of life and to address problems of population aging and the rising sex ratio. 3) Population should continue to be controlled by 2021, and have an improved quality of life and access to reproductive health services. 4) Population should decline after 2050. Mid-1997 population was 1.236 billion, or 1.243 if Hong Kong population is included. The birth rate in 1997, declined in 20 of 31 provinces, municipalities, and autonomous regions. Rapid declines occurred in Gansu, Guangdong, and Hubei provinces. The 1998 goals for family planning are to strengthen leadership at all levels and performance at local levels, upgrade the qualifications of family planners at all levels, and to create positive public images and practices. The "Three Stresses" on IEC, contraception, and regular management/services will be implemented in 1998. This will require effective management, technical service, and mass participation networks. PMID:12293916

Zhang, W

1998-06-01

369

National Ignition Facility Risk Management Plan  

SciTech Connect

The NIF Risk Management Plan has been prepared in accordance with the DOE Life Cycle Asset Management Good Practice Guide to support Critical Decision 3 of the NIF Project. The objectives of the plan are to: 1) identify the risks to the completion of the Project in terms of meeting technical and regulatory requirements, cost, and schedule, 2) assess the risks in terms of likelihood of occurrence and their impact potential relative to technical performance, ES&H (environment, safety and health), costs, and schedule, and 3) address each identified risk in terms of suitable risk mitigation measures. The documents that form the basis for this risk assessment are as follows: 1. Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Stockpile Stewardship and Management (DOE, 1996a) and Record of Decision (DOE, 1996b), 2. Preliminary Hazards Analysis (Brereton, 1993), 3. Fire Hazards Analysis (Jensen, 1997), 4. Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (LLNL, 1996a), 5. Reliability, Availability and Maintainability Report, 6. Radiation Protection Evaluation, 7. Primary Criteria and Functional Requirements (LLNL, 1996b), 8. Project Execution Plan (DOE, 1996c), 9. Schedule Risk Assessment, 10. Construction Safety Program (LLNL, 1997), 11. Title I Design Media, 12. Congressional Data Sheet. The process used in developing this plan was to form a Risk Assessment team of knowledgeable project personnel. This included: Assurances Manager, Systems Integration Manager, Project Control Manager, a Risk Management consultant, Deputy Associate Project Engineer for Activation and Start-up (Co-chairperson), and Lead Engineer for Safety Analysis (Co-chairperson). They were familiar with the risk basis documents and developed a list of the key risk elements. A methodology for assigning likelihoods, consequences, and risks was developed. Risk elements were then reviewed, and likelihoods, consequences, and risks were assigned. Risk mitigation measures were then developed. Comments were obtained, resolved and incorporated, and this document presents the results of the assessment.

Brereton, S.J.

1997-02-01

370

Are husbands a barrier to women's family planning use? The case of Morocco.  

PubMed

Little is known about men's role in the adoption of family planning. Recent studies suggest that men may be a barrier to women's use of family planning. However, it is not clear whether husbands represent a true or a perceived barrier. Using the 1992 Morocco Demographic and Health Survey data, this study examines (1) whether women and men report concordant fertility desires, discussions, and contraceptive use; (2) the accuracy of women's perceptions of their husbands' fertility desires; and (3) whether husbands are a barrier to women's family planning use. The results demonstrate that, controlling for women's own fertility desires, husbands' true fertility desires are associated with family planning use. Likewise, women who perceive their husbands to want fewer children than they want are more likely to use family planning. Future fertility and family planning programs need to include men to reduce their role as both perceived and true barriers to family planning use. PMID:10842498

Speizer, I S

371

Family planning: pitting the private sector against a public problem.  

PubMed

A most promising recent international development has been the harnessing of commercial marketing techniques to promote family planning. Although most projects of this type are government approved and subsidized by international funding organizations, they are a striking departure from traditional government-operated, medically oriented programs. Results have often been dramatic because of certain attributes of the commercial sector, such as 1) marketing, management, finance, distribution, and logistics skills; 2) awareness of and sensitivity to consumers' needs; and 3) the consistent and self-sustaining motivation of profit. PMID:12334218

Harvey, P D

1975-01-01

372

Family planning in Brazil: why not tubal sterilisation during childbirth?  

PubMed

Sterilisation is the most desired method of contraception worldwide. In 1996, the Brazilian Congress approved a family planning law that legitimised female and male sterilisation, but forbade sterilisation during childbirth. As a result of this law, procedures currently occur in a clandestine nature upon payment. Despite the law, sterilisations continue to be performed during caesarean sections. The permanence of the method is an important consideration; therefore, information about other methods must be made available. Tubal sterilisation must not be the only choice. We argue that review of this restriction will not contribute to the increase in caesarean sections but will allow for greater sterilisation choice for men and women. PMID:23362330

Soares, Leila Cristina; Brollo, Jorge Luiz Alves

2013-01-29

373

Results of the 2007 National Resident Matching Program: family medicine.  

PubMed

The results of the 2007 National Resident Matching Program (NRMP) reflect a currently stable level of student interest in family medicine residency training in the United States. Compared with the 2006 Match, five fewer positions (with 25 fewer US seniors) were filled in family medicine residency programs through the NRMP in 2007, at the same time as 20 fewer (two more US seniors) in primary care internal medicine, the same number of pediatrics-primary care (four fewer US seniors), and one more (19 fewer US seniors) in internal medicine-pediatrics programs. Multiple forces, including student perspectives of the demands, rewards, and prestige of the specialty; the turbulence and uncertainty of the health care environment; lifestyle issues; and the impact of faculty role models continue to influence medical student career choices. Eighty-four more positions (12 more US seniors) were filled in categorical internal medicine. Fifty-four more positions (22 more US seniors) were filled in categorical pediatrics programs. The 2007 NRMP results suggest that interest in family medicine and primary care careers continues to decline. With the needs of the nation calling for the roles and services of family physicians, family medicine matched too few graduates through the 2007 NRMP to meet the nation's needs for primary care physicians. PMID:17764041

Pugno, Perry A; McGaha, Amy L; Schmittling, Gordon T; DeVilbiss, Ashley; Kahn, Norman B

2007-09-01

374

Results of the 2008 National Resident Matching Program: family medicine.  

PubMed

The results of the 2008 National Resident Matching Program (NRMP) reflect a currently stable level of student interest in family medicine residency training in the United States. Compared with the 2007 Match, 91 more positions (with 65 more US seniors) were filled in family medicine residency programs through the NRMP in 2008, at the same time as 10 fewer (one fewer US senior) in primary care internal medicine, eight fewer positions were filled in pediatrics-primary care (10 fewer US seniors), and 19 fewer (27 fewer US seniors) in internal medicine-pediatrics programs. Multiple forces, including student perspectives of the demands, rewards, and prestige of the specialty, the turbulence and uncertainty of the health care environment, lifestyle issues, and the impact of faculty role models, continue to influence medical student career choices. Thirty-one more positions (20 fewer US seniors) were filled in categorical internal medicine. Thirty more positions (84 fewer US seniors) were filled in categorical pediatrics programs. The 2008 NRMP results suggest that while interest in family medicine experienced a slight increase in the number of students choosing the specialty, interest in other primary care careers continues to decline. With the needs of the nation calling for the roles and services of family physicians, family medicine still matched too few graduates through the 2008 NRMP to meet the nation's needs for primary care physicians. PMID:18988043

Pugno, Perry A; McGaha, Amy L; Schmittling, Gordon T; DeVilbiss, Ashley D; Ostergaard, Daniel J

2008-09-01

375

Results of the 2009 National Resident Matching Program: family medicine.  

PubMed

The results of the 2009 National Resident Matching Program (NRMP) reflect a persistently low level of student interest in family medicine residency training in the United States. Compared with the 2008 Match, 70 fewer positions (with 89 fewer US seniors) were filled in family medicine residency programs through the NRMP in 2009, at the same time that 18 fewer positions were filled in primary care internal medicine (11 fewer US seniors), one more position was filled in pediatrics-primary care (three more US seniors), and 13 more positions were filled in internal medicine-pediatrics programs (but with seven fewer US seniors). Multiple forces, including student perspectives of the demands, rewards and prestige of the specialty, the turbulence and uncertainty of the health care and economic environments, lifestyle issues, the advice of deans, and the impact of faculty role models, continue to influence medical student career choices. A total of 152 more positions (28 fewer US seniors) were filled in categorical internal medicine. Thirty-one more positions (72 more US seniors) were filled in categorical pediatrics programs. The 2009 NRMP results suggest that while interest in family medicine experienced a slight increase in the number of students choosing the specialty last year, overall interest in primary care careers continues to decline. With the nation continuing to call for the roles and services of family physicians, family medicine still matched too few graduates through the 2009 NRMP to effectively address the nation's needs for primary care physicians. PMID:19724942

Pugno, Perry A; McGaha, Amy L; Schmittling, Gordon T; DeVilbiss, Ashley D; Ostergaard, Daniel J

2009-09-01

376

Planning for Life. A Compendium of Nationally Recognized Career Planning Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This compendium, which is designed to provide readers with a variety of career planning (CP) program ideas, contains abstracts summarizing 10 elementary, middle, and high school CP programs identified as exemplary by a national review team. Explained in chapter 1 are the primary objectives of the Planning for Life program, which is jointly…

National Consortium of State Career Guidance Supervisors, Columbus, OH.

377

Indonesia. B. The building of a successful population-family planning programme.  

PubMed

Indonesia's population and family planning program is one of the most successful in the world, but much work must be done to meet the reduction in fertility targets set by the government. The goal is a birthrate of 22/1000 by the year 1990, a 50% decrease from the 1970 birthrate. With eligible couples entering the program at a rate of 600,000-750,000, a hard job lies ahead. The basic tenets which have made the Indonesia program strong will be used to meet the goals for 1990. The first of these is political commitment, meaning that all government leaders, from the President to the village chief, back the program and work actively for its success. Along with political commitment is the use of cultural values. The javanese society is feudal, in the sense that people try to respect elders, both leaders in the village and beyond. Thus, when the President speaks in favor of family planning, it carries considerable weight and significance. The village chief speaks favorably of family planning and that means the villagers are receptive to trying it. Another important cultural tenet is that of mutual help, or what is termed "gotong royong." This system goes back for centuries and forms the basis of village interaction. It is simply that people help each other for the common good. The National Family Planning Coordinating Board (BKKBN), with the help of the formal and informal leaders, has defined family planning as something which is for the mutual benefit of the entire community. A 3rd tenet of the program is flexibility. The BKKBN has continually experimented with various approaches. With flexibility comes some risk. The BKKBN has managed to maintain a system whereby it is possible to take risks, and this element of flexibility has benefitted the program greatly. Ownership is another important tenet of the program. The community feels that the program is theirs and that they can decide the activities of the acceptor groups and that they are responsible for maintaining and sustaining one another. The final tenet, which has aided in the development of a successful program, is that the BKKBN is the sole coordinator of the program, responsible for all family planning activities in both the public and private sector. These tenets and others will be used in the future in an effort to meet the 1990 targets. PMID:12313054

Suyono, H

1984-01-01

378

75 FR 67903 - National Family Caregivers Month, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Family Caregivers Month, we honor the millions of Americans who give...of themselves to provide for the health and well-being of a...and communities, they are a shining example of our Nation's great...BARACK OBAMA, President of the United States of America,...

2010-11-04

379

The quality of family planning services in rural China.  

PubMed

This article provides a preliminary analysis of three aspects of service quality in four rural counties in China--the availability of contraceptive methods, information given to users, and provider knowledge about methods. Contraceptive choice and characteristics of contraceptive use by women in the study areas are also examined. The data are derived from a survey carried out by the authors during 1987, under the auspices of China's State Family Planning Commission. The survey was conducted in four rural counties located in Fujian and Heilongjiang provinces. A total of 318 married women of reproductive age were randomly selected and interviewed. All family planning service sites serving the women were visited and a sample of service providers was interviewed. No shortage of contraceptives existed in any of the counties, but variations in community wealth and local procurement practices have resulted in the acquisition of an IUD with high failure rates. Although providers believe they inform women about method choices and side effects, women were poorly informed about the methods they selected. Not all providers who insert IUDs and distribute pills were knowledgeable about contraindications and side effects of the methods. Ever-use of contraception was nearly 100 percent, but most women, especially in Heilongjiang, have only used one method: the IUD or sterilization. Improvements in quality, especially in method mix, providers' level of knowledge, and the quality and quantity of information provided to users will likely improve contraceptive continuation, client satisfaction, and women's health. PMID:1604461

Kaufman, J; Zhang, Z; Qiao, X; Zhang, Y

380

Staffing patterns in family planning clinics: which model is best?  

PubMed

Data from 36 publicly-funded family planning clinics in Pennsylvania are examined to explore staffing patterns and to identify features which constitute an optimally effective delivery system for basic family planning services. The clinics serve approximately 50,000 women yearly. Previous clinic evaluation data and questinnaire results from clinic directors and female clients from the basis for analysis. 4 categories of clinics, based on an ascending staff-to-patient complexity, are determined. The number of services offered does not differ substantially or consistently across the categories, and no association exists between staffing pattern and clinic location. Measures of efficiency vary across the 4 clinic models, but the model 1 type, in which the patient sees only 2 staff members, provides services at a cost 1/2 that incurred by the other staffing models. Model 4 clinics, those most heavily staffed, were rated significantly less favorably in the client survey than other clinics. About 80% of the clients prefer to see a female clinician, and 45% would rather see physician than another type of clinician. 34% prefer a nurse practitioner. Nearly all respondents said they intended to return to the clinic. The study suggests that the simpler a clinic's organization, the more efficiently it operates. PMID:3622738

Winter, L; Goldy, A S

381

Minister Peng Peiyun stresses improved management and services. Urban family planning programme.  

PubMed

This article gives a summary of the main points of an address by Minister Peng Peiyun of the State Family Planning Commission at the National Conference on China's Urban Family Planning Program (December 1996). Minister Peng says that China made considerable progress in reducing fertility and increasing life expectancy in urban areas. The changes are attributed to the family planning (FP) program, urban socioeconomic development, improvements in education and medical and health care services, a sound social security system, effective IEC, and the contraceptive service network. Minister Peng characterizes the urban FP program as having a long-term, stable policy for promoting one child per couple. Units at all levels are required to practice family planning. Urban FP programs have effective IEC, a contraceptive service system, and scientific management within a community service system. The FP program targets the floating population of migrants. Urban populations pose may challenges that the FP program has partially met. The aim is population development balanced with socioeconomic development and sustainable development. There is a need to increase public awareness of public services. The FP program recognizes the need to implement the "two transitions" in urban areas: to shift to a policy of FP integrated with socioeconomic development and to shift to an interest-oriented program integrated with social constraints. The aim is to improve the quality of life for the urban population and to sustain low fertility levels. FP programs are still weak in dealing with the floating population, unplanned and unintended pregnancies, abortions, and maternal health. IEC should be strengthened and include topics on women's rights, reproductive health, sex education, environmental protection, and sustainable development. PMID:12320704

1997-02-01

382

On financial management of population and family planning programs.  

PubMed

In the 3 day workshop of the Southeast Asian Region on the Financial Management of Population/Family Planning Programs held from March 15 to 17 it was recommended that there by standardization of financial reporting procedures by country programs for population planning. Related to this recommendation was the proposal that measurement of cost benefit and cost effective analysis of country programs be undertaken by the Research and Evaluation Units of the respective population organizations in close coordination with the financial managers. Other major recommendations included: 1) closer coordination between donor agencies and policy making bodies of country programs in the disbursement of funds; 2) more exchange of experiences, ideas, technical knowledge on the financial management of country programs in the Inter G overnmental Coordinating Committee for Southeast Asian countries; and 3) inclusion of applicable financial management topics in the training of clinical staff and followup in actual operation. The priority areas identified for the Inter Governmental Coordinating Committee countries (Nepal, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, and the Philippines) are financial planning; generation of resources and budgeting and allocation of funds; accounting and disbursement of funds; financial management at the clinic level; use of and control of foreign aid; and cost effectiveness, benefit analysis and financial reporting. PMID:12334205

1976-03-01

383

77 FR 33237 - Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Death Valley National...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Death Valley National Park, Inyo County, CA...Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan, Death Valley National Park...Valley Warm Springs Management Plan for Death Valley [[Page 33238

2012-06-05

384

Child abuse as an inhibiting factor for family planning.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to determine the magnitude of the problem of using children as an economic asset to the family thus, in one way increasing the prevalence of child abuse in Egypt and also hindering the family planning program. Two focus-group interviews were conducted in urban & rural areas for 10 women with the same age range and socioeconomic background. All were non-users of any contraception. Subsequently an interview was conducted for all women who attended the Ob. & Gyn. Clinic at Ain Shams University Hospital in the period from June to August 1991, their ages ranged from 30-35 years and they never used contraception. Another group of women with the same characteristics were interviewed from a rural area at Fayoum Governorate. A questionnaire was filled for each interviewed woman. The total women interviewed in urban area is 340 while in the rural area they were 400 women. Sixty percent of urban women and 80% of rural women are illiterate, 70% of the urban & 100% of rural women are housewives. Their years of marriage ranged between 10-20 years and all of them have more than five children. A percentage of 73.5% of urban women and 85% of rural women stated that children are used as an economic asset to their families, they work in urban areas as assistants in motor repairs, hair-dressers, beggars, bakeries, shops, restaurants and factories while in rural areas they work as agricultural workers. PMID:1295939

Fahim, H I; Faris, R

1992-01-01

385

The Big Red How-To Guide: Planning a Health Fair for Children and Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community health fairs usually focus on adult health issues and seldom on child and family health or the link between health and education. This guide's purpose is to assist communities in developing child and family-focused health fairs. The guide is divided into two major sections: pre-planning and planning. The pre-planning section covers steps…

Foley, Christina A.

386

Evaluation of Family Planning Programmes, An Example from Botswana. Research for Action No. 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 1969 the International Planned Parenthood Federation has worked with the government of Botswana in setting up family planning services. An evaluation of the family planning aspects of the program were carried out. This is a summary of three research studies and some general comments. Included is: (1) an introduction to Botswana and the…

Cook, Sheila

387

The Social Context of Family Planning In a South Indian Village  

Microsoft Academic Search

98 large that further increases would ham- per efforts to improve the standard of liv- ing. Successive plans placed increasing emphasis on improving the family plan- ning program, in order to achieve targets that would help reduce the birthrate. The family planning program started with a clinic approach in the 1950s and 1960s, and subsequently added a network of fieldworkers.

A. Dharmalingam

388

Teaching Families To Collaborate: From a Mad Hatter's Tea Party to Effective Program Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the roles, perceptions, and expectations of parents, families, and professionals relating to program planning for persons with disabilities. Guidelines and checklists are provided for families and service providers to improve participation and collaboration in conferences and program-planning meetings. Engaging families in active…

Schnieders, Christine A.; Tafoya, Anne T.

1998-01-01

389

Argonne National Laboratory institutional plan FY 2001--FY 2006.  

SciTech Connect

This Institutional Plan describes what Argonne management regards as the optimal future development of Laboratory activities. The document outlines the development of both research programs and support operations in the context of the nation's R and D priorities, the missions of the Department of Energy (DOE) and Argonne, and expected resource constraints. The Draft Institutional Plan is the product of many discussions between DOE and Argonne program managers, and it also reflects programmatic priorities developed during Argonne's summer strategic planning process. That process serves additionally to identify new areas of strategic value to DOE and Argonne, to which Laboratory Directed Research and Development funds may be applied. The Draft Plan is provided to the Department before Argonne's On-Site Review. Issuance of the final Institutional Plan in the fall, after further comment and discussion, marks the culmination of the Laboratory's annual planning cycle. Chapter II of this Institutional Plan describes Argonne's missions and roles within the DOE laboratory system, its underlying core competencies in science and technology, and six broad planning objectives whose achievement is considered critical to the future of the Laboratory. Chapter III presents the Laboratory's ''Science and Technology Strategic Plan,'' which summarizes key features of the external environment, presents Argonne's vision, and describes how Argonne's strategic goals and objectives support DOE's four business lines. The balance of Chapter III comprises strategic plans for 23 areas of science and technology at Argonne, grouped according to the four DOE business lines. The Laboratory's 14 major initiatives, presented in Chapter IV, propose important advances in key areas of fundamental science and technology development. The ''Operations and Infrastructure Strategic Plan'' in Chapter V includes strategic plans for human resources; environmental protection, safety, and health; site and facilities; security, export control, and counterintelligence; information management; communications, outreach, and community affairs; performance-based management; and productivity improvement and overhead cost reduction. Finally, Chapter VI provides resource projections that are a reasonable baseline for planning the Laboratory's future.

Beggs, S.D.

2000-12-07

390

Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program. National Program Plan FY 1984  

SciTech Connect

This FY 1984 National Program Plan for the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) provides specific guidance from the Department of Energy (DOE) for FY 1984 CFRP activities and a baseline for activities in future years. This is the second issue of the Plan, which is updated anually and summarizes program objectives, summary plans and schedules, budget allocations, contractor involvement, and interfaces with other research programs. The National Program Plan is a controlling document for the Technical Program Plan, which is prepared annually by the CFRP at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and is one of the hierarchical group of planning documents. The CFRP is a part of the DOE's program of research and development (R and D) on nuclear fission systems and is directed by the LMFBR Fuel Cycle Projects Division, Office of Spent Fuel Management and Reprocessing Systems at DOE-Headquarters through the Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO). The strategy of the program is to maintain the capability to commit to a breeder option through a strong R and D program on breeder reprocessing and alternate fuels and fuel cycles in order to achieve operating and economic advantages.

Not Available

1984-01-01

391

Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program. National Program Plan, FY 1985  

SciTech Connect

This FY 1985 National Program Plan for the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) provides specific guidance from the Department of Energy (DOE) for FY 1985 CFRP activities and a baseline for activities in future years. This is the third issue of the Plan, which is updated annually and summarizes program objectives, plans, and schedules, budget allocations, contractor involvements, and interfaces with other research programs. The National Program Plan is a controlling document for the Technical Program Plan, which is prepared annually by the CFRP at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and is one of a hierarchical group of planning documents. The CFRP is a part of the DOE's program of research and development (R and D) on nuclear fission systems and is directed by the LMFBR Fuel Cycle Projects Division, Office of Spent Fuel Management and Reprocessing Systems at DOE-Headquarters through the Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO). The strategy of the program is to maintain the capability to commit to a breeder option through a strong fuel cycle R and D program and international technical exchanges.

Not Available

1985-03-01

392

WILDLAND FIRE MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY.  

SciTech Connect

This Wildland Fire Management Plan (FMP) for Brookhaven National Lab (BNL) and the Upton Ecological and Research Reserve (Upton Reserve) is based on the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (FWS) fire management planning procedures and was developed in cooperation with the Department of Energy (DOE) by Brookhaven Science Associates. As the Upton Reserve is contained within the BNL 5,265-acre site, it is logical that the plan applies to both the Upton Reserve and BNL. The Department of the Interior policy for managing wildland fires requires that all areas managed by FWS that can sustain fire must have an FMP that details fire management guidelines for operational procedures and specifies values to be protected or enhanced. Fire management plans provide guidance on fire preparedness, fire prevention, wildfire suppression, and the use of controlled, ''prescribed'' fires and mechanical means to control the amount of available combustible material. Values reflected in the BNL/Upton Reserve Wildland FMP include protecting life and public safety; Lab properties, structures and improvements; cultural and historical sites; neighboring private and public properties; and endangered and threatened species and species of concern. Other values supported by the plan include the enhancement of fire-dependent ecosystems at BNL and the Upton Reserve. This FMP will be reviewed periodically to ensure the fire program advances and evolves with the missions of FWS, BNL, and the Upton Reserve. This Fire Management Plan is a modified version of the Long Island National Wildlife Refuge Complex Fire plan (updated in 2000), which contains all FWS fire plan requirements and is presented in the format specified by the national template for fire management plans adopted under the National Fire Plan. The DOE is one of the signatory agencies on the National Fire Plan. FWS shall be, through an Interagency Agreement dated November 2000 (Appendix C), responsible for coordinating and implementing prescribed burns and fuel reduction projects in the Upton Reserve. Prescribed fire and fuel reduction in locations outside the Upton Reserve will be coordinated through the Natural Resource Management Program at BNL, and done in consultation with FWS. This FMP is to be used and implemented for the entire BNL site including the Upton Reserve and has been reviewed by FWS, The Nature Conservancy, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Forest Rangers, and DOE, as well as appropriate BNL emergency services personnel.

ENVIRONMENTAL AND WASTE MANAGEMENT SERVICES DIVISION

2003-09-01

393

Advertising family planning in the press: direct response results from Bangladesh.  

PubMed

In 1977 and again in 1982, a series of couponed ads were run in three major Bangladeshi newspapers to test the relative effectiveness of different family planning themes. The ads offered a free booklet about methods of family planning (1977) or "detailed information on contraceptives" (1982) in the context of family health, the wife's happiness, the children's future, and family economics. The most effective ads, by a highly significant margin, were those stressing the importance of family economics (food and shelter) and the children's (sons') future. The least effective ads stressed the benefits of family planning for the wife. PMID:6701954

Harvey, P D

394

76 FR 57702 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National...of Deletion for the State Marine of Port Arthur (SMPA) Superfund...Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous...requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply....

2011-09-16

395

Results of the 2010 national resident matching program: family medicine.  

PubMed

The results of the 2010 National Resident Matching Program (NRMP) reflect a small but promising increased level of student interest in family medicine residency training in the United States. Compared with the 2009 Match, 75 more positions (with 101 more US seniors) were filled in family medicine residency programs through the NRMP in 2010, at the same time that seven more positions were filled in primary care internal medicine (one more US senior), 14 fewer positions were filled in pediatrics-primary care (16 fewer US seniors), and 16 more positions were filled in internal medicine-pediatrics programs (58 more US seniors). Multiple forces including student perspectives of the demands, rewards, and prestige of the specialty; national dialogue about health care reform; turbulence in the economic environment; lifestyle issues; the advice of deans; and the impact of faculty role models continue to influence medical student career choices. Ninety-four more positions (90 more US seniors) were filled in categorical internal medicine. Fifty-seven more positions (29 more US seniors) were filled in categorical pediatrics programs. The 2010 NRMP results suggest that there is a small increase in primary care careers; however, students continue to show an overall preference for subspecialty careers. Despite matching the highest number of US seniors into family medicine residencies since 2004, in 2010 the production of family physicians remains insufficient to meet the current and anticipated need to support the nation's primary care infrastructure. PMID:20830620

Pugno, Perry A; McGaha, Amy L; Schmittling, Gordon T; DeVilbiss Bieck, Ashley D; Crosley, Philip W; Ostergaard, Daniel J

2010-09-01

396

78 FR 5494 - Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan, Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Lake Meredith National...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-IMR-LAMR-10224...Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan, Draft...Meredith National Recreation Area, Texas AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior...the National Park Service (NPS...Road Vehicle Management Plan (Plan...Meredith National Recreation Area...

2013-01-25

397

76 FR 68503 - Winter Use Plan, Final Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National Park, Idaho, Montana...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Final Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National Park, Idaho, Montana, and...Statement for the Winter Use Plan, Yellowstone National Park...Statement (EIS) for a Winter Use Plan for Yellowstone National Park, located in Idaho,...

2011-11-04

398

76 FR 77249 - Winter Use Plan, Final Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision, Yellowstone National...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Impact Statement Record of Decision, Yellowstone National Park, Idaho, Montana, and...Impact Statement for a Winter Use Plan, Yellowstone National Park...Decision for the Winter Use Plan for Yellowstone National Park, located in Idaho,...

2011-12-12

399

Knowledge, attitude and practice of family planning among Igbo women of south-eastern Nigeria.  

PubMed

A total of 200 Nigerian women visiting Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital's antenatal clinic were interviewed about their knowledge, attitude and practice of family planning. About 90% were literate. Their knowledge (80%) and approval (87%) of family planning was high, but the practice of modern family planning was low (25%) with most women involved in Billings/safe period (56%). The common methods used were Billings/safe period, condom, withdrawal and the intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD). A total of 81.5% of the respondents are still willing to give birth while 77% agreed that their last pregnancy was planned. A total of 58.5% of respondents were educated about family planning in the antenatal clinic. The most common source of family planning information was mass media, closely followed by health workers, while the most common single reason for non-practice of family planning was rejection by the husband. We therefore conclude that despite the high education/literacy with the attendant and high knowledge and approval rate of family planning in this part of Nigeria, the practice of family planning is still low, especially due to partner objection. Policy makers should therefore increase male involvement in family planning programmes and pursue a more aggressive public awareness campaign. PMID:16368587

Ikechebelu, J I; Joe-Ikechebelu, N N; Obiajulu, F N

2005-11-01

400

Empowerment in family planning as viewed by Iranian women: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

Women carry the primary responsibility for family planning in most parts of the world, and should be afforded the power of decision-making and control over their fertility. This study seeks to gain insight into Iranian women's perception of the meaning of empowerment in family planning. Using a qualitative study, seven focus group discussions and five individual interviews were conducted with 35 married Iranian women of reproductive age. The data were analysed using a conventional content analysis approach, in which themes and categories were explored to reveal women's experiences of empowerment in family planning. The results demonstrated four main categories: control over fertility plan, participative family planning, maintaining health and access to optimal family planning services. They viewed knowledge of family planning and autonomy of decision-making in fertility issues as essential elements for control of their fertility plan. Participants felt more empowered when joint family planning decisions were made with their partners in an atmosphere of agreement. Therefore, family planning policymakers should plan services with new approaches that focus on women's health and empowerment. PMID:22047779

Kohan, Shahnaz; Simbar, Masoumeh; Taleghani, Fariba

2011-11-03

401

Family planning education helps build self-esteem.  

PubMed

I got married at the age of 20. In our community, generally girls are married off at 15 or 16, but my marriage was delayed according to my father's and my wishes. I did not desire to have my first child immediately. My husband and I are very young and I did not want to assume maternal responsibilities so early in life. Picking up courage, I spoke to my husband. On learning that he had similar views, I was very relieved. I belong to a middle-class family. Due to an absence of a high school in the village. I was forced to drop out of school. Young girls in our community are not allowed to move freely within the village, much less the outside world. But when I was 19, I got the opportunity to gain a lot of information on family planning, health, personal hygiene and good nutrition as part of the Better Life Project. I also learned beauty skills, embroidery, knitting and video film-making. Often I share the information and skills I learned with others. I have even advised my brother's wives about proper child care and immunization. Now that I have a good relationship with the unmarried sister of my husband, I sometimes tell her whatever I have learned. I have felt a great change in myself. My earlier inhibitions in talking to people have dropped, and I can entertain and speak freely with guests who come home. I am more confident about traveling outside my village to other places alone or with company. Learning to operate a video camera and producing a film was my favorite experience. I discovered that I can do what is normally said to be the work of boys only. Sometimes I think that if I had not learned new skills, I would not have been able to share my feelings about family planning with my husband. My mother-in-law is also agreeable to our decision about waiting to have children because both my brothers-in-law have large families. However, I have to face my sisters-in-law who taunt me about my childless status. The problem now is that my husband is not satisfied using condoms. I have decided to consult the doctor at the mobile clinic about taking pills or other methods of contraception. PMID:12287152

Choudhary, P

1993-10-01

402

Folklore information from Assam for family planning and birth control.  

PubMed

The author collected folklore information on herbal treatments to control fertility from different parts of Assam, India. Temporary methods of birth control include Cissampelos pareira L. in combination with Piper nigrum L., root of Mimosa pudica L. and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. Plants used for permanent sterilization include Plumbago zeylanica L., Heliotropium indicum L., Salmalia malabrica, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L., Plumeria rubra L., Bambusa rundinacea. Abortion is achieved through use of Osbeckia nepalensis or Carica papaya L. in combination with resin from Ferula narthex Boiss. It is concluded that there is tremendous scope for the collection of folklore about medicine, family planning agents, and other treatments from Assam and surrounding areas. Such a project requires proper understanding between the survey team and local people, tactful behavior, and a significant amount of time. Monetary rewards can also be helpful for obtaining information from potential respondents. PMID:12266264

Tiwari, K C; Majumder, R; Bhattacharjee, S

1982-11-01

403

Addressing global health, economic, and environmental problems through family planning.  

PubMed

Although obstetrician-gynecologists recognize the importance of managing fertility for the reproductive health of individuals, many are not aware of the vital effect they can have on some of the world's most pressing issues. Unintended pregnancy is a key contributor to the rapid population growth that in turn impairs social welfare, hinders economic progress, and exacerbates environmental degradation. An estimated 215 million women in developing countries wish to limit their fertility but do not have access to effective contraception. In the United States, half of all pregnancies are unplanned. Voluntary prevention of unplanned pregnancies is a cost-effective, humane way to limit population growth, slow environmental degradation, and yield other health and welfare benefits. Family planning should be a top priority for our specialty. PMID:21606751

Speidel, J Joseph; Grossman, Richard A

2011-06-01

404

Epidemiology of endometriosis in women attending family planning clinics.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To describe the epidemiology of endometriosis in women attending family planning clinics with special reference to contraceptive methods. DESIGN--Non-randomised cohort study with follow up of subjects for up to 23 years. Disease was measured by first hospital admission rates since endometriosis can be diagnosed with accuracy only at laparotomy or laparoscopy. SETTING--17 family planning centres in England and Scotland. SUBJECTS--17,032 married white women aged 25-39 years at entry during 1968-74 who were taking oral contraceptives or using an intrauterine device or diaphragm. About 99% of the women approached agreed to participate and annual loss to follow up was about 0.3%. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Diagnosis of endometriosis, age, parity, and history of contraceptive use. RESULTS--Endometriosis was significantly related to age, peaking at ages 40-44 (chi 2 for heterogeneity = 30.9, p < 0.001). Endometriosis was not linked to duration of taking oral contraceptives. Nevertheless, the risk of endometriosis was low in women currently taking oral contraceptives (relative risk 0.4; 95% confidence interval 0.2 to 0.7), but higher in women who had formerly taken them (1.8; 1.0 to 3.1 in women who had stopped 25-48 months previously) compared with women who had never taken the pill. A similar pattern was seen for use of intrauterine devices (relative risk 0.4 (0.2 to 0.7) in current users and 1.4 (0.4 to 3.2) in users 49-72 months previously compared with never users). No association was found between endometriosis and use of the diaphragm. CONCLUSIONS--Oral contraceptives seem to temporarily suppress endometriosis. Endometriosis may be diagnosed late in women using intrauterine devices as pain and bleeding occur with both.

Vessey, M P; Villard-Mackintosh, L; Painter, R

1993-01-01

405

Impact of the National Energy Plan on Solar Economics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Energy Plan (NEP) sets as a goal the use of solar energy in two and a half million homes in 1985. A key provision of the NEP (as well as congressional alternatives) provides for the subsidization of solar equipment. The extent to which these ...

S. Ben-David S. Noll F. Roach W. Schulze

1977-01-01

406

National Security Technology Incubation Strategic Plan, November 30, 2007.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With the events of 9/11, the global community faces ever increasing and emerging threats from hostile groups determined to rule by terror. According to the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Strategic Plan, the United States must be able to q...

2007-01-01

407

Aztec Ruins National Monument Fire Management Plan, June 2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Park Service's (NPS) Management Policy (2001) and NPS Director's Order 18 both require that each park with vegetation capable of burning will prepare a wildland fire management plan to guide a fire management program that is responsible to th...

2005-01-01

408

National Credit Union Administration Strategic Plan 2011-2016.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the National Credit Union Administration's 2011-2016 Strategic Plan. Seventy-seven years ago, President Franklin Roosevelt signed the Federal Credit Union Act into law. In the depths of the Great Depression, with millions of Americans out of work ...

2011-01-01

409

76 FR 22295 - National Poultry Improvement Plan and Auxiliary Provisions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection 9 CFR Part 145 [Docket No. APHIS-2009-0031] RIN 0579-AD21 National Poultry Improvement Plan and Auxiliary Provisions Correction In rule document 2011-6539 appearing on pages 15791-15798 in the...

2011-04-21

410

Proposed Master Plan, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A master plan is proposed for the management and use of Grand Teton National Park, which provides for increased public enjoyment of park experiences, with reduced impact on park resources. Some of the adverse effects are reduction in the immediate local e...

1972-01-01

411

Muleshoe and Grulla National Wildlife Refuges Comprehensive Conservation Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) for Muleshoe National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) and Grulla NWR will serve as a management tool to be used by the refuge staff and its partners in the preservation and restoration of the ecosystems natural resources. I...

2004-01-01

412

United States National Action Plan on Women, Peace and Security.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this National Action Plan on Women, Peace, and Security is as simple as it is profound: to empower half the world's population as equal partners in preventing conflict and building peace in countries threatened and affected by war, violence, a...

2011-01-01

413

New River Gorge National River Climbing Management Plan Environmental Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this plan is to present a strategy for responding to the increasing visitor use, resource impacts, and user conflicts associated with rock climbing in areas within the boundaries of New River Gorge National River that are owned by the Natio...

2005-01-01

414

FHWA (Federal Highway Administration) National Strategic Plan, 1994.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 1994 National Strategic Plan (NSP) represents Agency-wide guidance that will help us steer toward our Vision. The NSP is intended to chart FHWA's direction and focus its diverse energies to more efficiently accomplish it's Goals, moving it closer to r...

1993-01-01

415

Wildland Fire Management Plan for Brookhaven National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This Wildland Fire Management Plan (FMP) for Brookhaven National Lab (BNL) updates the 2003 plan incorporating changes necessary to comply with DOE Order 450.1 and DOE P 450.4, Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy and Program Review; Wildland and Prescribed Fire Management Policy and implementation Procedures Reference Guide. This current plan incorporates changes since the original draft of the FMP that result from new policies on the national level. This update also removes references and dependence on the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service and Department of the Interior, fully transitioning Wildland Fire Management responsibilities to BNL. The Department of Energy policy for managing wildland fires requires that all areas, managed by the DOE and/or its various contractors, that can sustain fire must have a FMP that details fire management guidelines for operational procedures associated with wild fire, operational, and prescribed fires. Fire management plans provide guidance on fire preparedness, fire prevention, wildfire suppression, and the use of controlled, 'prescribed' fires and mechanical means to control the amount of available combustible material. Values reflected in the BNL Wildland FMP include protecting life and public safety; Lab properties, structures and improvements; cultural and historical sites; neighboring private and public properties; and endangered, threatened, and species of concern. Other values supported by the plan include the enhancement of fire-dependent ecosystems at BNL. This FMP will be reviewed periodically to ensure the fire program advances and evolves with the missions of the DOE and BNL. This Fire Management Plan is presented in a format that coverers all aspects specified by DOE guidance documents which are based on the national template for fire management plans adopted under the National Fire Plan. The DOE is one of the signatory agencies on the National Fire Plan. This FMP is to be used and implemented for the entire BNL site including the Upton Reserve and has been reviewed by, The Nature Conservancy, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Forest Rangers, and DOE, as well as appropriate BNL emergency services personnel. The BNL Fire Department is the lead on wildfire suppression. However, the BNL Natural Resource Manager will be assigned to all wildland fires as technical resource advisor.

Green,T.

2009-10-23

416

Socioeconomic status and use of family planning among Ghanaian government workers.  

PubMed

The low utilization of family planning methods in Ghana, and by inference in much of Africa, is explained by reference to traditional sociocultural values held by males. A LISREL model is tested using data collected from educated males working in the Ghanaian government. Among the findings are that lack of couple communication, segregated conjugal role relationships, and male-dominated decision-making are all significant predictors of non-use of family planning methods (pronatalist attitude is not). Possession of knowledge of family planning among Ghanaian males alone is unlikely to initiate use of family planning methods. Additional sociodemographic and modernization findings are reported. PMID:9584581

Kannae, L; Pendleton, B F

417

Women's experience regarding the role of health centers in empowering them for family planning  

PubMed Central

Background: Nowadays, the concept of family planning has been detached from the population control and it is expressed as an essential element in women’s reproductive rights, empowering them and promoting their status in society. Family planning services have an important role in fertility decisions using contraception methods in women. This study was carried out to explore the experience of women from the role of health centers in empowering them for family planning. Materials and Methods: This qualitative study was performed on 37 married women who were volunteer and eligible for contraception as well as 8 staffs and directors of family planning services. They were selected useing purposeful sampling method in Isfahan, Iran. Data were collected by recording discussions of focused group in 7 sessions and 5 individual interviews. Conventional content analysis was used for coding and classification of data. Findings: Participants descriptions about the role of health centers in empowering the family planning was classified into 4 main categories including: encouraging male’s participation in family planning, providing comprehensive reproductive health services, expanding free services for family planning and appropriate technology for public awareness. Conclusions: Accessibility to health centers and offering free services for family planning are not sufficient for empowering women in terms of their fertility desires. The health centers should offer comprehensive reproductive health services and provide family planning services with a new approach for helping women and men to consciously and freely make a responsible decision in order to have more control over their fertility.

Kohan, Shahnaz; Simbar, Masoumeh; Taleghani, Fariba

2012-01-01

418

Brookhaven National Laboratory Institutional Plan FY2001--FY2005  

SciTech Connect

Brookhaven National Laboratory is a multidisciplinary laboratory in the Department of Energy National Laboratory system and plays a lead role in the DOE Science and Technology mission. The Laboratory also contributes to the DOE missions in Energy Resources, Environmental Quality, and National Security. Brookhaven strives for excellence in its science research and in facility operations and manages its activities with particular sensitivity to environmental and community issues. The Laboratory's programs are aligned continuously with the goals and objectives of the DOE through an Integrated Planning Process. This Institutional Plan summarizes the portfolio of research and capabilities that will assure success in the Laboratory's mission in the future. It also sets forth BNL strategies for our programs and for management of the Laboratory. The Department of Energy national laboratory system provides extensive capabilities in both world class research expertise and unique facilities that cannot exist without federal support. Through these national resources, which are available to researchers from industry, universities, other government agencies and other nations, the Department advances the energy, environmental, economic and national security well being of the US, provides for the international advancement of science, and educates future scientists and engineers.

Davis, S.

2000-10-01

419

Developmental needs and individualized family service plans among infants and toddlers in the child welfare system.  

PubMed

This study examines levels of developmental need in young children investigated by child protective services, estimates early intervention service use, and examines need and service use variations during the 5-6 years after investigation on the basis of maltreatment substantiation status. Data were from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, the first nationally representative study of children investigated for maltreatment. The sample comprised 1,845 children aged 0 to 36 months at baseline. Logistic regression with covariate adjustment was used to examine the relationship between having an Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP; a proxy and marker of early intervention services through Part C of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act) and substantiation status. A high prevalence of developmental problems was found among children with substantiated cases and children with unsubstantiated cases. Few children with developmental needs had an IFSP. Substantiation status and level of child welfare system involvement were significantly associated with having an IFSP. PMID:18495948

Casanueva, Cecilia E; Cross, Theodore P; Ringeisen, Heather

2008-05-21

420

Countywide Evaluation of the Long-Term Family Self-Sufficiency Plan. Assessing the Utility of the LTFSS Plan Service Delivery and Planning Framework.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors (the Board) adopted the Long-Term Family Self-Sufficiency (LTFSS) Plan on November 16,1999. The LTFSS plan consists of 46 projects whose goal is to promote self-sufficiency among families that are participating ...

L. M. Davis J. A. Kierman E. Reardon S. C. Remes P. S. Steinberg

2002-01-01

421

National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Emergency Planning in Athletics.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVES: To educate athletic trainers and others about the need for emergency planning, to provide guidelines in the development of emergency plans, and to advocate documentation of emergency planning. BACKGROUND: Most injuries sustained during athletics or other physical activity are relatively minor. However, potentially limb-threatening or life-threatening emergencies in athletics and physical activity are unpredictable and occur without warning. Proper management of these injuries is critical and should be carried out by trained health services personnel to minimize risk to the injured participant. The organization or institution and its personnel can be placed at risk by the lack of an emergency plan, which may be the foundation of a legal claim. RECOMMENDATIONS: The National Athletic Trainers' Association recommends that each organization or institution that sponsors athletic activities or events develop and implement a written emergency plan. Emergency plans should be developed by organizational or institutional personnel in consultation with the local emergency medical services. Components of the emergency plan include identification of the personnel involved, specification of the equipment needed to respond to the emergency, and establishment of a communication system to summon emergency care. Additional components of the emergency plan are identification of the mode of emergency transport, specification of the venue or activity location, and incorporation of emergency service personnel into the development and implementation process. Emergency plans should be reviewed and rehearsed annually, with written documentation of any modifications. The plan should identify responsibility for documentation of actions taken during the emergency, evaluation of the emergency response, institutional personnel training, and equipment maintenance. Further, training of the involved personnel should include automatic external defibrillation, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, first aid, and prevention of disease transmission. PMID:12937447

Andersen, J; Courson, Ronald W; Kleiner, Douglas M; McLoda, Todd A

2002-03-01

422

National Ignition Facility Cryogenic Target Systems Interim Management Plan  

SciTech Connect

Restricted availability of funding has had an adverse impact, unforeseen at the time of the original decision to projectize the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Cryogenic Target Handling Systems (NCTS) Program, on the planning and initiation of these efforts. The purpose of this document is to provide an interim project management plan describing the organizational structure and management processes currently in place for NCTS. Preparation of a Program Execution Plan (PEP) for NCTS has been initiated, and a current draft is provided as Attachment 1 to this document. The National Ignition Facility is a multi-megajoule laser facility being constructed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) in the Department of Energy (DOE). Its primary mission is to support the Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) by performing experiments studying weapons physics, including fusion ignition. NIF also supports the missions of weapons effects, inertial fusion energy, and basic science in high-energy-density physics. NIF will be operated by LLNL under contract to the University of California (UC) as a national user facility. NIF is a low-hazard, radiological facility, and its operation will meet all applicable federal, state, and local Environmental Safety & Health (ES&H) requirements. The NCTS Interim Management Plan provides a summary of primary design criteria and functional requirements, current organizational structure, tracking and reporting procedures, and current planning estimates of project scope, cost, and schedule. The NIF Director controls the NIF Cryogenic Target Systems Interim Management Plan. Overall scope content and execution schedules for the High Energy Density Physics Campaign (SSP Campaign 10) are currently undergoing rebaselining and will be brought into alignment with resources expected to be available throughout the NNSA Future Years National Security Plan (FYNSP). The revised schedule for delivering this system will be decided at the national level, based on experiment campaign requirement dates that will be derived through this process. The current milestone date for achieving indirect-drive ignition on the NIF is December 2010. Maintaining this milestone requires that the cryogenic systems be complete and available for fielding experiments early enough that the planned experimental campaigns leading up to ignition can be carried out. The capability of performing non-ignition cryogenic experiments is currently required by March 2006, when the NIF's first cluster of beams is operational. Plans for cryogenic and non-cryogenic experiments on the NIF are contained in NNSA's Campaign 10 Program Plans for Ignition (MTE 10.1) and High Energy Density Sciences (MTE 10.2). As described in this document, the NCTS Program Manager is responsible for managing NIF Cryogenic Target Systems development, engineering, and deployment. Through the NIF Director, the NCTS Program Manager will put in place an appropriate Program Execution Plan (draft attached) at a later time consistent with the maturing and funding these efforts. The PEP will describe management methods for carrying out these activities.

Warner, B

2002-04-25

423

Department of Energy national spent-fuel management plan  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) holds title to a large quantity of spent nuclear fuel. This spent fuel includes a wide variety of fuel types, and most of the material is highly enriched uranium. Degraded fuel and obsolete storage facilities have raised concerns regarding continued safe storage. A National Spent-Fuel Management Plan has been developed and a policy established to resolve this concern and define and ensure resolution of all associated issues for the characterization, safe storage, and proper disposition of this material. This paper discusses elements of the plan being directed by DOE headquarters.

Johnson, A.M. (Babcock Wilcox Company, Lynchburg, VA (United States))

1993-01-01

424

Polish family planning in crisis: the Roman Catholic influence.  

PubMed

Poland is a country that, according to official sources, is 95% Catholic. The Catholic Church (CC) has a great deal of political power for 3 main reasons: 1) a strong Catholic tradition among Polish families, 2) the role of the Polish CC as the main supporter of the political opposition during the communist dictatorship, 3) the Polish Pope serves as an important authority for many Polish people. When democratic freedoms were won 10 years ago, the CC was poised and ready to exercise its considerable influences to further its own agenda. This can be seen in may areas: since last autumn, children receive religious instruction in state run schools, masses from St. Peter's are broadcast each week on state television, scientific congresses are being opened with High Mass and blessings, the armed forces make pilgrimages to the shrine of the Black Madonna of Czestochowa, and there was High Mass and Christmas blessing in the Polish Parliament. The Church is calling for an end of the separation of church and state. The current 1956 abortion law allows free abortions in state funded hospitals in cases of rape, socio-economic, or medical grounds in the 1st trimester. A current senate bill would allow abortion only to save the mother's life. The CC is currently trying to associate this law with the old communist totalitarian dictatorship and likens it to the Nazi Holocaust. In Poland there are 39 million people, and 600,000 abortions with a ratio of 70-100 abortions/100 live births. The main factors influencing this high rate are: 1) no sex education, 2) very low contraceptive use rates, 3) easy access to abortion, 4) CC opposition to contraception. Family planning in Poland is in a crisis that it may not come out of. Abortion, divorce, sex education, and contraception are all opposed by the CC which means that it will use its powerful influence to criminalize these practices. PMID:12284553

Mrugala, G

1991-09-01

425

Defining Family Health Needs, Standards of Care and Priorities with Particular Reference to Family Planning. Occasional Essay Number 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay discusses family health needs in the developing world, their priorities, and the standards of health required, with particular reference to family planning. The author takes into account medical, social, and economic factors that influence those concerns. Some of the material presented in this essay first appeared in other international…

Sai, Fred T.

426

Invisible and Visible Language Planning: Ideological Factors in the Family Language Policy of Chinese Immigrant Families in Quebec  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This ethnographic inquiry examines how family languages policies are planned and developed in ten Chinese immigrant families in Quebec, Canada, with regard to their children's language and literacy education in three languages, Chinese, English, and French. The focus is on how multilingualism is perceived and valued, and how these three languages…

Curdt-Christiansen, Xiao Lan

2009-01-01

427

75 FR 43929 - National Weather Service (NWS) Strategic Plan, 2011-2020  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...100706289-0289-01] National Weather Service (NWS) Strategic Plan, 2011-2020 AGENCY: National Weather Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric...SUMMARY: The National Weather Service's (NWS) Strategic...

2010-07-27

428

Assessment of quality of care in family planning services in Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Providing quality of care in family planning services is an important task for care providers so as to increase service utilization and coverage; however, little is known about the existing quality of care in such services. Objective: To assess quality of care in family planning services in Jimma Zone, southwest Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from January

Eskindir Loh; Makonnen Asefa; Chali Jira; Fasil Tessema

429

Family planning and fertility : estimating program effects using cross-sectional data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although reproductive health advocates consider family planning programs the intervention of choice to reduce fertility, there remains a great deal of skepticism among economists as to their effectiveness, despite little rigorous evidence to support either position. This study explores the effects of family planning in Ethiopia using a novel set of instruments to control for potential non-random program placement. The

Claus C Portner; Kathleen Beegle; Luc Christiaensen

2011-01-01

430

Population and Family Planning Education, Report of a Seminar (Holte, Denmark, July 3-28, 1972).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In July 1972, DANIDA and the Danish Family Planning Association provided delegations from selected countries the opportunity to devise teaching programs on population and family planning topics for 9-to 11-year-olds. Participants from the Arab Republic of Egypt, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, and the Philippines attended the meeting with Danish…

1972

431

Successful Family Planning Programs. Draper World Population Fund Report, No. 4, Summer 1977.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication describes successful family planning programs throughout the world. Discussed in detail are programs in Colombia, Mauritius, Maharashtra, the People's Republic of China, Sri Lanka, and the United States. Photographs illustrate the articles and, in some cases, family planning vital statistics are given. The Draper World Population…

Piotrow, Phyllis T., Ed.

432

Perceptions of family planning and abortion education at a faith-based medical school  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundBecause of religious beliefs against contraception and abortion, family planning education is limited at faith-based institutions. The purpose of this study was to assess medical students' satisfaction with family planning education at a faith-based medical school.

Maryam Guiahi; Karla Maguire; Zachary T. Ripp; Rachel W. Goodman; Kimberly Kenton

433

Are husbands a barrier to women's family planning use? The case of Morocco  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about men's role in the adoption of family planning. Recent studies suggest that men may be a barrier to women's use of family planning. However, it is not clear whether husbands represent a true or a perceived barrier. Using the 1992 Morocco Demographic and Health Survey data, this study examines (1) whether women and men report concordant

Ilene S. Speizer

1999-01-01

434

Perceived Benefits and Barriers to Family Planning Education among Third Year Medical Students  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The purpose of the current study is to explore third- year medical students’ interest in learning about family planning, exposure to family planning (contraception and abortion) and perceived barriers and benefits to family planning education in their obstetrics and gynecology rotation. Method: We conducted four focus groups with 27 third-year medical students near the end of their rotation in obstetrics and gynecology. Results: Students desired education in family planning but perceived limited exposure during their rotation. Most students were aware of abortion but lacked factual information and abortion procedural skills. They felt systemic and faculty-related barriers contributed to limited exposure. Students discussed issues such as lack of time for coverage of contraception and abortion in the curricula and rotation itself. Perceived benefits of clinical instruction in family planning included increased knowledge of contraceptive management and abortion the ability to care for and relate to patients, opportunity for values clarification, and positive changes in attitudes towards family planning. Conclusions: Medical students who desire full education in family planning during their obstetrics and gynecology rotation may face barriers to obtaining that education. Given that many medical students will eventually care for reproductive-age women, greater promotion of opportunities for exposure to family planning within obstetrics and gynecology rotations is warranted.

Smith, Kimberly G.; Gilliam, Melissa L.; Leboeuf, Mathieu; Neustadt, Amy; Stulberg, Debra

2008-01-01

435

Concurrent Planning and beyond: Family-Centered Services for Children in Foster Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Family reunification is not always possible for children who have been removed from the care of their biological parents because of abuse or neglect. Concurrent planning puts into place a secondary plan for a permanent home should family reunification prove to be impossible. Working in four diverse communities around the country in an innovative…

Hudson, Lucy; Almeida, Connie; Bentley, Dawn; Brown, Josie; Harlin, Daria; Norris, Judy

2008-01-01

436

Attitudes Toward Family Planning and Fears of Genocide as a Function of Race Consciousness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demographic information, attitudes toward family planning and family planning agencies, fears of race genocide, and degree of race consciousness were elicited, by interviews, from a random sample of residents within several black communities of an urban area. A significant, positive relationship was found between race consciousness and the number…

Turner, Castellano B.; Darity, William

437

Family and Consumer Sciences: A Facility Planning and Design Guide for School Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document presents design concepts and considerations for planning and developing middle and high school family and consumer sciences education facilities. It includes discussions on family and consumer sciences education trends and the facility planning process. Design concepts explore multipurpose laboratories and spaces for food/nutrition…

Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.

438

Family Structure and Children's Health and BehaviorData From the 1999 National Survey of America's Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from the 1999 National Survey of America's Families, this research investigates the association and pathways between family structure and child well-being among children age 6 to 17. Three indicators of child well-being are examined: parent-rated health, limiting health conditions, and child behavior. Results show that both stepfamilies and intact families are advantageous relative to single-parent families. Family socioeconomic

Ming Wen

2008-01-01

439

Resource assessments in national planning - Pupua New Guinea case studies  

SciTech Connect

The nation of Papua New Guinea, encompassing 462,000 square miles of land area and a population of approximately 3 million individuals, occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and includes the Bismarck Archipelago and Bougainville Island. The diversity and complexity of Papua New Guinea's geology, coupled with the large number of known mineral occurrences of various deposit types, leads to the inescapable conclusion that the resource potential of Papua New Guinea is very large. In recognition of this potential, a resource assessment of Papua New Guinea was undertaken for the stated purpose of integrating the results of such an assessment into the nation's planning activities.

Pintz, W.S.; Clark, A.L.

1984-01-01

440

Family planning and sex education: the Chinese approach.  

PubMed

The limitation of population growth in China to about 1.7% annually is, in large part, the result of changing sexual norms which have been brought about by community-wide sexual education. These changes include elevating the status of women, dismissing the traditional striving for male children as "old fashioned," and emphasizing responsible parenthood. About 6% of China's population is made up of minority peoples, some 54 distinctive groups including a few such as the Khalkhas and Sibos who have virtually been saved from extinction during the past 25 years. For these groups the growth rate is 6% and the central government in Peking stresses to visitors that for minorities there is no limitation of family size but that health of the mother is stressed. Conversations with Chinese health workers indicate that rural women are much more in favor of family planning than their husbands and are much more willing to be sterilized when the acceptable family size of 2 or 3 children is reached. However, men are becoming more willing to use condoms which are available without cost from village health workers. There is little sex education in the schools. Physiology is included as a minor part of general biology. Young people are cautioned not to "fall in love" at too early an age or else they will not keep their minds on their studies and will get married too early. Emphasis is on late marriage, 25 for women and 27 for men. Only a modest glance at population or sexually oriented topics are encouraged until marriage is contemplated. Then sex education is given in great variety and detail. It is the opinion of doctors and health workers that sex education is a matter for the married, not the single. Chinese society has little external sexual stimuli, nudity or seminudity is not acceptable except at the beach or the swimming pool, and the young people are generally taught to be circumspect. There is none of the advertising which permeates Western culture. It is understandable that Chinese educators are surprised when asked about the need for sex education in the schools. PMID:12260235

Fraser, S E

1977-03-01

441

Natural Resource Management Plan for Brookhaven National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This comprehensive Natural Resource Management Plan (NRMP) for Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) was built on the successful foundation of the Wildlife Management Plan for BNL, which it replaces. This update to the 2003 plan continues to build on successes and efforts to better understand the ecosystems and natural resources found on the BNL site. The plan establishes the basis for managing the varied natural resources located on the 5,265 acre BNL site, setting goals and actions to achieve those goals. The planning of this document is based on the knowledge and expertise gained over the past 10 years by the Natural Resources management staff at BNL in concert with local natural resource agencies including the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Long Island Pine Barrens Joint Planning and Policy Commission, The Nature Conservancy, and others. The development of this plan is an attempt at sound ecological management that not only benefits BNL's ecosystems but also benefits the greater Pine Barrens habitats in which BNL is situated. This plan applies equally to the Upton Ecological and Research Reserve (Upton Reserve). Any difference in management between the larger BNL area and the Upton Reserve are noted in the text. The purpose of the Natural Resource Management Plan (NRMP) is to provide management guidance, promote stewardship of the natural resources found at BNL, and to sustainably integrate their protection with pursuit of the Laboratory's mission. The philosophy or guiding principles of the NRMP are stewardship, sustainability, adaptive ecosystem management, compliance, integration with other plans and requirements, and the incorporation of community involvement, where applicable. The NRMP is periodically reviewed and updated, typically every five years. This review and update was delayed to develop documents associated with a new third party facility, the Long Island Solar Farm. This two hundred acre facility will result in significant changes to this plan warranting the delay. The body of this plan establishes the management goals and actions necessary for managing the natural resources at BNL in a sustainable manner. The appendices provide specific management requirements for threatened and endangered amphibians and fish (Appendices A and B, respectively), and lists of actions in tabular format - including completed items as well as ongoing and new action items (Appendices C and D, respectively).

green, T.

2011-08-15

442

Plans for National Ignition Facility operations training and operations procedures  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary plan for National Ignition Facility (NIF) Operations training developed for the 200+ staff anticipated to operate the NIF facility is discussed. We also address the development and implementation of NIF Operations procedures. These procedures serve as an essential part of the staff training program. A special aspect of NIF Operations procedures is that they will be on-line with electronic links to design, operations, and test databases, and will likely incorporate electronic checklists and archiving capabilities.

Mantrom, D.D., LLNL

1998-06-01

443

Engaging men in family planning services delivery: experiences introducing the Standard Days Method® in four countries.  

PubMed

Family planning is often regarded as the woman's responsibility, but there is growing recognition of the need to involve men in family planning programs. Since 2001, the fertility-awareness-based Standard Days Method® (SDM) has been introduced in more than 30 countries, providing a natural, effective birth control option. SDM requires the cooperation of the male partner, and its introduction created an opportunity to test innovative strategies to engage couples in family planning. Such strategies included couple counselling, outreach activities that encouraged men to participate in family planning and integration of family planning into traditionally male programs. Due to the SDM's intrinsic characteristics as a couple method, SDM providers are sensitized to the importance of exploring other critical sexual and reproductive health topics, including intimate partner violence, HIV, sexuality and partner communication. This paper presents several case studies describing how men were engaged in SDM introduction activities in four countries. PMID:23135072

Lundgren, Rebecka; Cachan, Jeannette; Jennings, Victoria

2012-01-01

444

AIDS and family planning clinics: confronting the crisis.  

PubMed

The conferences, statements, guidelines and recommendations of PPFA and other family planning providers all reflect growing concern about heterosexual and perinatal transmission of human immune deficiency virus (HIV). Most agree that information about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the behavior that places women at risk of infection should be part of patient education in all clinics. Condom use should be encouraged, but, preferably, without the sacrifice of the higher level of protection from unplanned pregnancy offered by other birth control methods. Clinics in areas with high rates of HIV infection should consider initiating in-depth counseling and testing programs. Providers in low-incidence areas may decide to initiate testing at the request of their local governments or because of large numbers of requests from their clients. Confidentiality is a very important issue in testing, and providers must familiarize themselves with applicable state laws on disclosure and reporting and decide if they can comfortably operate within those laws. Also, the decision whether to offer HIV testing may hinge on the availability of public funds, and, though the situation may change in the near future, there is currently very little such money available. PMID:3622740

Donovan, P

445

Regulations on family planning management of the floating population.  

PubMed

This document reprints China's "Regulations on Family Planning (FP) Management of the Floating Population" that went into effect on January 1, 1999. The regulations, which apply to married labor migrants of reproductive age, call on all levels of the government to include FP management of this group in the target population of each administrative area. In addition to assigning governmental responsibilities, the regulations require adults to acquire certificates of marriage and childbearing at their local FP departments before they migrate. The adults should present these certificates to the proper authorities upon arrival at their destination. Efforts should be made to educate migrants about population and FP requirements; reach migrants with contraceptive services; and link approval of temporary residence permits, business licenses, and work permits with proper certification of marriage and childbearing. Employers will be responsible for the FP management of labor migrants, and landlords should assist local officials in this FP management. Incentives for adhering to the one child policy will be awarded by the migrants' place of household registration, but the cost of contraceptive operations will be born by employers if applicable or by the place of household registration. Penalties for violating the FP regulations will be meted out by the government of the place of current residence or of household registration (with only one penalty given for a single violation). Fines will be instituted for fabricating, selling, or acquiring fake certificates of marriage and childbearing or for failing to follow these regulations. PMID:12321927

1998-12-01

446

78 FR 47410 - General Management Plan, Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Gateway National Recreation Area...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-NER-NERO-13240...YP0000] General Management Plan, Draft...Gateway National Recreation Area, New Jersey...AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior...the National Park Service (NPS...for the General Management Plan (GMP), Gateway National Recreation Area...

2013-08-05

447

Career Planning in Harmony with Family Values and Needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Balancing career and family! Balancing what you love and who you love!! It is such an attention getting topic. And yet, if you really think about it, people have been doing it for ages. What makes it challenging in today's world is the dual income families that throw off-balance of traditional style of balancing family and profession. Balancing family and

Archana Dubey

2008-01-01