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1

Effort and achievement in national family planning programmes.  

PubMed

New data show that national family planning programmes have made impressive progress in the last 25 years. Fertility rates have been reduced dramatically, but during the current decade even greater achievements will be called for. PMID:7945753

Ross, J A; Mauldin, W P

1994-01-01

2

The development of national economy and family planning in China.  

PubMed

China has made great strides in family planning and in developing her national economy during the period of the 6th 5-year plan. In 1980, China's tasks were to develop the national economy and to provide her people with enough to eat and wear. By 1986, these needs had been met. The average annual growth rate for the national gross output value of industry and agriculture may reach 10% during the 6th 5-year plan and should be approximately 7% in the 7th 5-year plan. China's future goal is for all her people to be well off at the turn of the century. Controlling population growth is one of the most important steps in reaching this goal China's population growth rates were 23.33 per 1000 in 1971 and dropped to 10.81 per 1000 in 1984. Although China's family planning program advocates one child per couple, 70% of the total married women of childbearing age have 2 or 3 children. Continued publicity and education and improved medical care should gradually decrease the birth rate even more. The author cites Engels in arguing that it is one of the superiorities of the socialist system to make population growth consciously fit for the development of material production. He refutes an American view that China's population would automatically decrease with the development of a free economy and offers the US's 12 million unemployed in 1982 and 2 million homeless in 1985 as evidence that a free economy also results in overpopulation. He concludes that further demographic research should be conducted and should implement China's family planning program with different measures suited to local conditions at different stages. PMID:12268821

Xu, D

1986-07-01

3

[The National Conference of Propaganda Work on Family Planning held Beijing].  

PubMed

The National Conference on Propaganda Work in Family Planning, held in Beijing from November 1-6, 1982, was sponsored by the the Propaganda Department of the Chinese Communist Party Central Committee and the National Family Planning Committee. Among the 136 participants were representatives from various provincial, city, and autonomous region propaganda and family planning units, the General Political Department of the People's Liberation Army, general trade unions, All China Women's Federation, Communist Youth League, and propaganda reporters. The purpose of the conference was to discuss how to organize family planning propaganda in meeting China's goal of limiting the population to 1,200,000,000 by 2000, and how to arrange a Family Planning Propaganda Month for early 1983. The Chairman of the National Family Planning Committee made 3 points: family planning is a basic national policy, greater propaganda efforts must be made towards peasant family planning, and everyone must work hard to create a new situation in family planning work. The Vice Minister of the Propaganda Department remarked that family planning propaganda was foremost among the 12 national propaganda topics; these sentiments were supported totally by the representatives of the women and youth groups. The Vice Chairman of the Advisory Committee of the Central Committee said that family planning work was longterm, and that its success lay in the countryside. Finally, the Vice Chairman of the National Family Planning Committee encouraged all delegates to take the spirit of the conference back to their home. During the conference delegates also met to discuss important points in planning the Family Planning Propaganda Month. PMID:12312938

Ma, B

1983-01-29

4

Summary of the Third National Workshop of the Integrated Family Planning, Nutrition and Parasite Control Project.  

PubMed

The 3rd National Workshop of the Integrated Family Planning/Nutrition Parasite Control Project was held in January 1988, and hosted delegates from Kilimanjaro, Tanga, Mbeya, Morogoro and Arusha, Tanzania. It was observed the Tanzania has problems with population growth, poor economic growth, poor maternal health from frequent childbearing that saps women's strength and reduces agricultural production and poor acceptance of family planning. The integrated approach starts with parasite control as an entry point. People are diagnosed and treated for helminths, and literally see the worms being expelled as their abdominal pain disappears. This builds goodwill, making people more likely to accept family planning. In pilot projects, the attendance at family planning clinics jumped from 9 to 33%. The resulting improved nutritional and health status improves school and work attendance, and especially agricultural production by women, the core of a prosperous nation. Although rates of worm infections remain the same, possibly due to higher reporting, demand for treatment is at an all time high. Participants reported that people are resistant to the idea of building or using latrines, and revert to their old habits when workers leave the area. The traditional birth attendant training program, however, was accepted more readily because of the high credibility of the birth attendants. PMID:12342107

Mpangile, G S

1988-12-01

5

Use of Services for Family Planning and Infertility, United States, 1982. (Data from the National Survey of Family Growth, Series 23, No. 13).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Survey of Family Growth is a periodic survey conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics, and designed to produce national estimates of statistics on fertility, family planning, and aspects of maternal and child health that are closely related to childbearing. This report presents statistics based on data collected in the…

Horn, Marjorie C.; Mosher, William D.

1986-01-01

6

National program for family planning and primary health care Pakistan: a SWOT analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The National Program for Family Planning and Primary Healthcare was launched in 1994. It is one of the largest community based programs in the world, providing primary healthcare services to about 80 million people, most of which is rural poor. The program has been instrumental in improving health related indicators of maternal and child health in the last two decades. Methods SWOT analysis was used by making recourse to the structure and dynamics of the program as well as searching the literature. SWOT analysis Strengths of the program include: comprehensive design of planning, implementation and supervision mechanisms aided by an MIS, selection and recruitments processes and evidence created through improving health impact indicators. Weaknesses identified are slow progress, poor integration of the program with health services at local levels including MIS, and de-motivational factors such as job insecurity and non-payment of salaries in time. Opportunities include further widening the coverage of services, its potential contribution to health system research, and its use in areas other than health like women empowerment and poverty alleviation. Threats the program may face are: political interference, lack of funds, social threats and implications for professional malpractices. Conclusion Strengthening of the program will necessitate a strong political commitment, sustained funding and a just remuneration to this bare foot doctor of Pakistan, the Lady Health Worker. PMID:24268037

2013-01-01

7

The Progress of Nations, 1996: The Nations of the World Ranked According to Their Achievements in Child Health, Nutrition, Education, Family Planning, and Progress for Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report brings together the latest available statistics to record national achievements in child survival, health, nutrition, education, family planning, and progress for women. Each section contains a commentary and a presentation of related statistics. Following an introduction by UNICEF executive director Carol Bellamy, the commentaries…

Adamson, Peter, Ed.

8

[Strengthening family planning management].  

PubMed

Prior to 1984, enforcement of family planning policies in an undisclosed PLA military settlement in China's Jinan Military Region was totally inadequate. After notification from the central government, this military settlement immediately began enforcing family planning policies, resulting in sudden and full compliance with the central government's family planning policies. The system of scientific management of promoting and enforcing family planning, established by local administrators, is described. Management by objectives, clearly defined individual tasks and responsibilities, an full cooperation and support on the part of the authorities are some of the factors responsible for the effectiveness and success of the family planning efforts in this military settlement. A number of potential problem areas are identified scientific management techniques in dealing with uncooperative parties are emphasized. PMID:12159410

Hong, C; Shi, Z

1985-09-29

9

Singing about family planning.  

PubMed

The Nigerian Family Health services project teamed up with the Johns Hopkins University's Population Communication Services to produce songs called "Choices" and "Wait for Me." The songs, which were about sexual responsibility, were performed by popular music stars King Sunny Ade and Onyeka Onwenu and appeared under King Sonny Ade's long playing albums in 1989. Teaching sexual responsibility through song was suggested in focus group discussions. Findings indicated that young people were responsive to messages about sexual responsibility, postponing sex or saying "no," male sexual responsibility, and children by informed choice and not chance among married couples. An impact assessment of the songs was conducted in February, 1991. Survey findings revealed that 64% of urban and 22% of rural respondents recalled having heard the songs and seen the videos. 48% of urban youth discussed the songs with friends, and 27% discussed the songs with sexual partners. 90% of respondents reported agreement with the message that couples should have only the number of children that they can care for, and that couples should practice family planning. The target population that was affected most by the songs was aged less than 35 years. The strategy of using songs to teach youth responsible parenting appears to be a reliable strategy for mass education and mobilization. There is mass support from among members of the National Council for Women's Societies, the Planned Parenthood Federation of Nigeria, and Coca Cola Corporation, as well as the public at large. PMID:12318626

Emah, E

1993-01-01

10

Partners in family planning.  

PubMed

Studies of the Africa OR/TA Project and other Cooperating Agencies suggest that support of family planning by traditional health practitioners (THPs), traditional birth attendants (TBAs), Islamic religious leaders, and male opinion leaders (MOLs) can result in an increase in the availability of family planning services in the community. A study in Kenya shows that 100 trained THPs who were actively involved in family planning (i.e., distributors of condoms, oral contraceptives, and primary health care drugs) increased contraceptive use in Siaya and Kakamega districts from 7% to 15% and from 14% to 34%, respectively. Contraceptive use did not change in the 2 control areas. Two years after TBAs underwent training in family planning promotion, the proportion of women who named TBAs as their source of family planning information increased from 2% to 18%. In The Gambia, integration of Islamic religious leaders into family planning promotion activities resulted in an increase of current modern contraceptive method use from 9% to 20% for males and from 9% to 26% for females. Involvement of 69 MOLs has increased knowledge of family planning methods in Nkambe, Cameroon. For example, among males, knowledge about the condom increased from 52% to 81% and knowledge about spermicides increased from 12% to 44%. The corresponding figures for women were 47% to 72% and 17% to 42%, respectively. PMID:12319039

1994-12-01

11

Studies in Family Planning, Number 38. Beyond Family Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper, published by The Population Council, reviews 29 proposals dealing with population controls beyond the current efforts of national programs of voluntary family planning. The proposals are subsumed under eight descriptive categories which are: (1) Extensions of voluntary fertility control; (2) Establishment of involuntary fertility…

Berelson, Bernard

12

Demographic evaluation of progress and target of national family planning programme of India.  

PubMed

The number of couples effectively protected is a good index to measure the effect of India's family planning program. The methodology, which is complicated, takes into account the following factors: cumulative effect of sterilization and IUD and current number of conventional contraceptives and oral contraceptive (OC) users; annual attrition rate for sterilization and IUD due to aging, mortality, and removal/expulsion of IUD; latest age distribution of acceptors; latest joint survival ratios of husbands and wives in different age groups; and use-effectiveness of different methods. The number of couples effectively protected increased gradually from 10.6 in 1970-71 to 23.9 in 1976-77. An upward trend appeared evident in 1980-81. The most effective means of effective couple protection was provided by sterilization (20.1%) out of a total 22.5%. The trend for the last 4 years favors tubal ligations, 73.7% of total sterilizations in India in 1979-80. Of the conventional contraceptives, condoms were preferred to OCs in the government family planning centers. The popularity of the IUD was low. Number of births averted is another good index of measurement of the effect of the family planning program. This complicated index considers the following facts: latest age distribution of acceptors; IUD retention rates; and joint survivance ratios of husbands and wives in different age groups. The number of births averted was actually less in 1978-79 and 1979-80 in contrast to 1976-77. It is estimated that over 4 million illegal abortions take place annually in India. The number of medical terminations was as follows: 1975-76, 214,197; 1976-77, 278,870; 1977-78, 241,724; 1978-79, 305,804; and 1979-80, 306,878. It is most difficult at any 1 time to estimate the effect of a motivational campaign. A significant effect of such a campaign is reflected in the lowering of average age and average number of living children of sterilization acceptors. Gross reproduction rate has been lowered in the rural areas from 2.8 in 1972 to 2.24 in 1978; the figures in the urban community were 2.1 in 1972 and 1.59 in 1978. The government's longterm target is to achieve zero population growth by the year 2000. PMID:12339272

Chaudhuri, S K

1982-04-01

13

Redefining family planning programs.  

PubMed

The Population Council's issue paper entitled Reconsidering the Rationale, Scope, and Quality of Family Planning Programs calls on family planning programs to focus only on reducing unwanted fertility by helping people meet their own reproductive goals safely and ethically. Many family planning programs have been wrongly handed the extra responsibility of reducing wanted fertility. They have therefore used inappropriate means (e.g., incentives, quotas, and coercion) to boost contraceptive prevalence. If programs do focus on reducing unwanted fertility, they will foster reductions in overall fertility and population growth as well as improvements in clients' health and well-being. A new framework has emerged from this shift in rationale. It sets the stage for expanding the scope, improving the quality, and assessing the impact of family planning programs in terms of client choice, health, and well-being. A program needs to determine the range and quality of family planning services it provides at the local level. Local program managers, policymakers, and consumer interest groups should establish minimum or achievable standards of service based on the local health care capacity. Program items that should be assessed include choice of methods, information for clients, technical competence, interpersonal relations, mechanisms to encourage continuity of care, and appropriate constellation of services. The Population Council has conducted rapid appraisals of the quality of care of family planning services to help local program managers to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of their programs. The HARI (Helping Individuals Achieve their Reproductive Intentions) Index measures a program's success in helping clients safely prevent unwanted or unplanned pregnancy. Program managers can conduct a self-assessment that revolves around answering four questions. Family planning services are an important social investment and are essential to development. PMID:12288915

1995-01-01

14

Barriers in family planning.  

PubMed

Because of cultural factors, many people in India are opposed to family planning. They are not able to understand that the real problem facing India is overpopulation. In the past, people were exhorted to have many children, and to look upon numerous offspring as a blessing, and this concept has not changed, although the times and environment have. The majority of marriages in rural areas take place when the girl is hardly 16 or 17, which contributes to high fertility. Also illiteracy breeds ignorance about improved methods of cultivation and about methods of planned parenthood. Starved, poor couples have larger numbers of children than do well-to-do families, and thus poverty becomes a vicious circle. Doctors should come forward and offer their help to family planning programs, and social workers should be less concerned with official routines than results. Educating illiterate, adamant people is no easy task, and requires the zeal of a missionary. PMID:12338670

Pendharkar, L P

1968-01-01

15

Family planning in Africa.  

PubMed

The population growth rates and population policies and programs in African countries are summarized. Individual attention is given to Algeria, Gambia, Ghana, Liberia, Mali, Nigeria, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mauritius, Tanzania, Gabon, Zaire, Botswana and the Republic of South Africa. In addition, cultural and educational obstacles to family planning programs in Africa are briefly examined. PMID:12333999

1975-01-01

16

JSTOR: Family Planning Perspectives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The full text of Family Planning Perspectives, v. 1-33, 1969-2001 is now available online at JSTOR. Visitors can search or browse the journal. Note: access to JSTOR contents is currently available only on a site license basis to academic institutions. A list of institutions with site licenses is provided.

1998-01-01

17

Family planning and vocations.  

PubMed

In many Western countries the number of vocations has fallen to as low as 1/10 what it was a generation ago. The author blames several factors for this occurrence. An identity crisis among the members of the faith that is a result of broken homes is seen as a factor. The growth of materialism and the consumer mentality is seen as another factor leading people away from the life of sacrifices for God. But the author feels that the strongest force behind this fact is the use of family planning without a serious reason. Catholics are only allowed to use family planning if they have a serious health or financial reason for doing so, and then it can only be a natural method. Large families reinforce the ideals and attitudes necessary to create a person that is willing to seek a vocation. People from broken homes are not usually accepted because the matter of perseverance becomes a problem. When a child grows up in a large family it learns to make sacrifices. It also sees its parents making sacrifices for the children. It is the author's opinion what without this atmosphere of sacrifice at home, one is not prepared for the sacrifices that go with a vocation. It is also the author's opinion that families in the 3rd World tend to be larger, poorer yet still happier then Western families. Further, vocations in the 3rd World are abundant. PMID:12179689

Burke, C

1989-01-01

18

Family planning concept.  

PubMed

Family planning is defined as the voluntary, responsible decision made by individuals and couples as to the desired family size and timing of births. Therefore on the microlevel it means children are born because they are wanted and provided for and on the macrolevel it contributes to the betterment of human life. This paper deals with the health consequences of uncontrolled fertility. Health risks are related to birth order, social class, maternal age, birth intervals, and family size are described, including: 1) fetal, infant, and childhood morbidity and mortality, 2) poor physical and intellectual development of the unwanted child, 3) pregnancy wastage, 4) maternal risk of illness and death, 5) father's risk of hypertension and gastric ulcers, 6) marital risk, 7) poor nutrition, 8) environmental hazards such as overcrowding, poor water supply, atmospheric contamination, 9) increased incidence of genetic diseases, and 10) mental health problems of parents as well as children due to strains caused by large families. Even though the responsibility of family planning lies mainly with married couples it is the duty of health workers to inform the people of the problems that arise in a situation of uncontrolled reproduction. PMID:6920653

Dumindin, J B

1981-01-01

19

[Family planning in Europe].  

PubMed

The results of a comparative study of demographic problems in 24 European countries are presented. The focus is on reproductive behavior, including the treatment of infertility, family planning, induced abortion, education for marriage and parenthood, and consultative services. The author notes that changes in the age of sexual maturity, age at marriage, the educational status of women, the impact of mass media, the stability of marriages, the acceptance of sexual intercourse prior to marriage, and the general availability of birth control impose changes on the provision of educational and consultative services. English and Russian abstracts of this article are available separately. PMID:12313828

Wynnyczuk, V

1984-01-01

20

Law and family planning.  

PubMed

This discussion of law and family planning reviews some recent reports of the Australain Law Reform Commission (ALRC), the law as it affects family planning and the sexuality of young people with reference to the Irish dilemma, the law's approach in Ingland, Canada, and the US. The ALRC works only on references recived by it from the Federal Attorney General. No reference so far received has been specific to the issues of family planning, but some past and present projects are partly relevant. The most recent report of the ALRC, tabled in Federal Parliament in December 1983 related to privacy protection. An issue that arose in this inquiry related to the subject of the rights to privacy of young people. In a discussion paper the ALRC had suggestd that young persons between the ages of 12-16 should have certain defined legal protection of privacy, even against their parents. Specifically, the ALRC was thinking of medical advice and school counseling. Obviously the issue of contraceptive advice was raised in this context, and never has a tenative proposal of the ALRC engendered so much bitter criticism. The Commission modified its proposal on this topic and the details of the revised proposals are disclosed in its report. Clearly, the rights of young people in regard to sexual advice, education, and treatment are matters of great controversy and strongly divided community opinion. In Australia there are some who are totally opposed to family planning for themselves, their children, and even for others. Such opposition exists in the medical profession. Presumably, such people base their views on strongly held moral principles. They generally believe that contraception interferes in the ways of nature. Far from being promoted by open discussion and instruction in the schools, such matters are intimate concerns of a small circle, principally the family. In dealing with those aspects that concern the rights of parents in thes matters, attention turns to England's Gillick case. Because the Australian legal system is so similar to England's the resulting decision can offer instruction. Judge Woolf of Londons High Court of Justice dismissed Mrs. gillick's case. According to the report, children under the age of 16 years are entitled, in England, to receive contraceptive advice without the knowledge or consent of their parents, at least where the alternatives sought to be prevented were unwanted pregnancies, abortions, and veneral diseases. Woolf reportedly viewed the prescription of the contraceptive pill as not so much "an instrument for a crime or anything essential to its commission, "but a palliative against the consequences of the crime, that is, unlawful sexual relations. In Canada the debate has been vigorous and, except in Quebec (where there is a statutory oligation to inform parents), it also proceeds against the background of the English common law. In 1976 the US Supreme Court held that a state law could not constitutionally impose a blanket requirement of parental consent on a minor having an abortion during the 1st trimester of her pregnancy. In Australia there is law reform and social reform to be carried out. PMID:6700494

Kirby, M D

1984-03-17

21

Family Planning Programs in the Third World  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the population of less developed countries (LDCs) now lives in countries with national family planning programs to reduce fertility and improve family welfare. Such programs are a new phenomenon. In some LDCs increasing birth-control practice and fertility declines occurred along with considerable social and economic development, but even there rapid changes among the disadvantaged masses are generally associated

Ronald Freedman

1990-01-01

22

The family planning users' perspective.  

PubMed

The three main actors in family planning services are the service providers, the service users, and the family planning methods. While the quality of care framework mainly addresses the provision of services and the providers, and has motivated and allowed service providers to assess and improve the services they offer, the quality concept is universally valid and may be applied to the use of methods and the methods themselves. The quality of family planning methods has, in fact, been a major issue in family planning since the pill scares of the late 1960s and the Dalkon Shield in the 1970s. Contraceptive research and development have, however, since improved the safety and efficacy of both existing and new methods. With the understanding that a client's perspective differs from that of a service provider, the paper discusses increasing clients' understanding of their bodies, reproduction, and sexuality; increasing clients' understanding about how different methods of family planning work and their effects on the body and fertility; increasing clients' skills in practicing family planning; acknowledging and supporting the use of traditional methods of family planning as legitimate; supporting family planning success as well as failure; integrating family planning information and use with STD/HIV awareness and prevention; and encouraging shared responsibility between men and women. PMID:12318921

Berer, M

1994-01-01

23

A trial of text messaging in Family Planning Clinics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The New Zealand Family Planning Association (Family Planning) is a national not-for-profit organiza- tion providing sexual and reproductive primary care health services as well as health promotion, profe s- sional training and advocacy on issues of sexual an d reproductive health. By 2006 Family Planning had become acutely aware of the increasing amount of staff time being used to make

Helen MacKenzie

24

Population Growth: Family Planning Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These proceedings of the second annual symposium on population growth bring together speeches and panel discussions on family planning programs. Titles of speeches delivered are: Communicating Family Planning (Mrs. Jean Hutchinson); Effects of New York's Abortion Law Change (Dr. Walter Rogers); The Law and Birth Control, Sterilization and Abortion…

Doberenz, Alexander R., Ed.; Taylor, N. Burwell G., Ed.

25

Effectiveness of Family Planning Methods  

MedlinePLUS

Effectiveness of Family Planning Methods Most Effective Less than 1 pregnancy per 100 women in a year Reversible Implant 0.05 %* Intrauterine Device ( ... Communication Programs (CCP). Knowledge for health project. Family planning: a global handbook for providers (2011 update). Baltimore, ...

26

Family planning saves lives.  

PubMed

Family planning (FP) saves lives through planned management of pregnancy. Healthy mothers produce healthy infants. Maternal mortality in developing countries was estimated in 1990 at 500,000 and infant and child mortality at 14 million. Empirical evidence shows that spacing births 2 years apart reduces the risk of infant mortality. FP also gives women the option of avoiding unwanted pregnancy, dangerous illegal abortions, and unhealthy childbearing conditions. The issues of infant and child survival maternal survival, the interaction between maternal and child health (MCH), program costs, and suggested actions are each discussed separately. Child deaths are mainly attributed to respiratory and diarrheal diseases, which are complicated by malnutrition: 23,000 child deaths/day in developing countries. Prevention is possible through breast feeding, immunization, adequate nutrition and hygiene, oral rehydration therapy, and birth spacing. Birth spacing is possible through prolonged breast feeding and/or use of oral contraceptives, injectables and implants, the IUD, condoms, and sterilization. The primary causes of maternal mortality are induced abortion (19%), toxemia (17%), hemorrhage (28%), infection (11%), obstructed labor (11%), and other 15%). The risks are related to a woman's health status and prior pregnancies and the quality and availability of prenatal and delivery care. The relationship between repeated childbearing and breast feeding and women's nutritional status is still being researched. Mortality in developing countries is due to more pregnancies and less access to medical care; advances in technology permit women to plan healthy reproductive lives. The Safe Motherhood Initiative is at work to remedy this situation. Childbearing is safer when women are aged 18-35 years, have fewer than 5 births, space births every 3 years, and do not have existing health problems. FP is cost-effective. The World Bank estimates that an increase in funding to US$10.50/capita would reduce maternal mortality by 50% and reduce infant mortality. Effective programs are characterized by 1) integrated MCH and FP programs, 2) expanded, quality services, 3) community-based distribution, 4) availability from all sectors, public and private, 5) IEC, 6) cultural sensitivity, 7) promotion of full breast feeding, and 8) AIDS education, information, and testing. PMID:12317826

1992-12-01

27

Natural family planning.  

PubMed

It is now well accepted that a woman can conceive from an act of intercourse for a maximum of only about 7 days of her menstrual cycle. The reliability of natural family planning depends on identifying this window of fertility without ambiguity. Several symptomatic markers, cervical mucus and basal body temperature, have been used extensively and with considerable success in most women but failures occur. Ovarian and pituitary hormone production show characteristic patterns during the cycle. Urinary estrogen and pregnanediol measurements yield reliable information concerning the beginning, peak, and end of the fertile period, provided that the assays are accurate and performed on timed specimens of urine. We have developed such enzyme immunoassays for urinary estrogen and pregnanediol glucuronides that can be performed at home. In the early versions of the assays, enzyme reaction rates were measured by eye, but more recently, a simple photoelectronic rate meter has been used. The final problem to be solved is not technologic but whether women are sufficiently motivated to expend the same time and effort each day for 10 days a month, with less cost, on fertility awareness as they spend on making a cup of tea. PMID:3314524

Brown, J B; Blackwell, L F; Billings, J J; Conway, B; Cox, R I; Garrett, G; Holmes, J; Smith, M A

1987-10-01

28

[The press and family planning].  

PubMed

The treatment in the press of family planning hinges on two fundamental factors: the taboo of the leftist groups and the taboo of the Catholic Church, whose head is against abortion under any circumstances. Leftist views insinuate that family planning is the genocidal plan of North American imperialists against the Third World and, in particular, against Latin America. This genocidal plan is supposed to subject poor populations to international schemes. In the press family planning is often treated in a sanctimonious fashion, lumping it together with topics like pornography, sex, and violence. In 1983 the daily newspaper Expreso published a supplement running every week for almost three months about the issue of population, which dealt fairly extensively with such topics as population and housing, education, employment, and urban proliferation, as well as responsible parenthood and child survival. In addition, there was a detailed description of contraceptive methods. In October 1986 another surprising thing happened: the President of Peru talked about the topic of family planning, which at the time was an act of courage. Since then much has changed; the whole world is interested in family planning and certain aspects of population. Since October 1986 more has been published in this domain than during the preceding 20 years. In contrast, the Church reacted differently to this issue: after some initial caution, the conference of Peruvian bishops attacked all methods of modern contraceptives and private institutions of family planning. The information boom in family planning will certainly continue. At the moment this flood of articles and editorials about the issue is an expression of the anxiety of families related to uncontrolled reproduction and the fear of overpopulation in large cities devoid of minimal services. PMID:12281466

Abraham De D'ornellas, R

1987-01-01

29

Strategies for Family Planning Promotion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The information, education, and communication (IEC) component of family planning programs can create awareness, increase knowledge, build approval, and influence behavior. Some important lessons from the past two decades, especially the 1980s, on designin...

P. T. Piotrow, K. A. Treiman, J. G. Rimon, S. H. Yun, B. V. Lozare

1994-01-01

30

Family planning propaganda outline, 1988.  

PubMed

In 1988, the regional Family Planning (FP) Commission of Nei Monggol, China, issued a propaganda outline containing the following language: "In order to fulfill the three fighting targets put forward by the autonomous regional party committee, efforts should be made to accelerate the speed of developing the economy on the one hand and bring population growth under strict control on the other hand. It is necessary to further stabilize the existing policy on FP work and to continuously encourage one couple to have one child throughout their life. In allowing rural people to have a second birth, rural authorities must strictly enforce the measure, strictly ban second or more births outside the plan, and strictly prohibit people marrying too early and giving birth too early. Minority nationalities should also implement the FP policy in line with the demand of central authorities." The propaganda outline also urges Communist party members, CYL members, and cadres at all levels to actively respond to the party's call and be vanguards in FP work. PMID:12289660

1988-01-01

31

Natural Family Planning  

MedlinePLUS

... planning are currently taught. The first is the mucus or ovulation method. In this method, the days ... ovulation are determined by checking the woman's cervical mucus. When a woman is most likely to become ...

32

Iran rebuilds family planning services.  

PubMed

After the revolution, the Islamic Republic of Iran instituted pronatalist policies which included lowering the minimum marriage age for girls to 9 years, abolishing some laws securing women's rights, and limiting availability of family planning (FP) services. By 1983, Iran's population growth rate was 3.9% which was among the highest worldwide. Before the revolution, Iran had 37 million people. About 2 million more people were added each year, resulting in a population size of 60 million by 1992. By the mid-1980s, economic development stood idle, there were not enough houses, children attended schools on 3 shifts, and malnutrition was spreading. In 1989, the government formed a population council and reestablished FP services. It also increased the minimum age of marriage for girls to 13 years, slightly improved women status, and eliminated fertility incentives for couples with at least 4 children. It also significantly increased funding for FP (from 560 million to 13 billion rials between 1990 and 1992). Government spending for FP will likely increase 2% annually until 2011. The government initiated a promotion of FP mass media campaign, emphasizing a 2-child family. Some posters showed a family with 2 girls. The mass media campaign promoted specific contraceptive methods (even tubal occlusion and vasectomy), a practice other Middle Eastern countries not do. 80% of sterilization acceptors claimed to learn about sterilization from the radio or newspapers. The Ministry of Health has invited the Association for Voluntary Surgical Contraception (AVSC) to help with its campaign to update sterilization techniques, including the non scalpel vasectomy technique. AVSC hopes to become even more involved in helping Iran update its national FP program. PMID:12318289

Butta, P

1993-07-01

33

Family Shelter Planning.  

E-print Network

shaped cloud. When the pulverized material cools, it comes back to earth and constitutes fallout. Only very strong, reinforced underground shel- ters can protect against the first three dangers of a nuclear explosion-blast, heat and initial radiation... cost I_ $800 to $1200. This type shdttr fib? new hous This plan shows tho pouibilify of designing &-round shel- construction lessens danger from f* debris, o hn hat becomo on aclivo ama in he funaHon af tho plan. from the how giving way in case...

Russell, Laura J.; Riney, Bobye J.

1964-01-01

34

National Survey of America's Families  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Urban Institute in 1997 conducted a survey of Americans in thirteen states nationwide that "provides a comprehensive look at the well-being of adults and children." The survey emphasizes the differences among children in low- and high-income families. The first results from the 1997 round of the National Survey of America's Families are available in Snapshots of America's Families.

1997-01-01

35

Virginians tune-in to family planning.  

PubMed

Virginia Bureau of Family Planning initiated an information program aimed at the state's diverse geography which reflects its many cultures using television public service announcements (PSAs). 4 PSAs were produced: economic consideration of family planning, eligibility requirements for services, and 2 general presentations. Following success of these spots, radio spots were developed geared to specific target audiences. These spots built a framework for outreach workers who independently operate clinics in the 39 Virginia health districts. Even though highly regionalized, the Bureau maintains close contact with each district and directs feedback sessions where common problems and experiences are discussed. The Bureau also began a bimonthly newsletter in 1975 which keeps 3000 subscribers abreast of family planning activities. These information dissemination efforts have paid off: Virginia hospitals are required to provide family planning literature to all maternity patients. And Virginia has the nation's 1st ongoing statewide, publicly run voluntary sterilization program, servicing 1000 patients free of charge during the 1st year of operation. The Bureau operates on an annual budget of $5.3 million in state funds as well as HEW Title 5, 10, and 20 family planning funding. PMID:12277857

1977-01-01

36

National Development Plan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Throughout the 1990s, Ireland experienced phenomenal growth in the emerging fields of information technologies (including such sectors as website design), and was dubbed the Celtic Tiger, due to its economic success. The country envisions a strong development plan for the coming years, hence the reason for this very site. Ireland's National Development Plan involves an investment of over 52-billion euros of public, private, and EU funds over the period from 2000 to 2006, and involves significant improvements in health services, social housing, education, roads, rural development, and industry. The site itself contains a bevy of documents, such as an executive summary and a complete version of the Development Plan itself, and a project database, which details the status of the hundreds of projects which are an integral part of this ongoing process. Overall, this site will be of great interest to persons working in the field of social policy, planning, and international development schemes.

37

Incentives to promote family planning  

PubMed Central

Objective Over the past 60 years, population control has become an increasingly urgent issue worldwide as a growing population strains already limited resources. The use of financial incentives to promote family planning is an innovative approach that has potential to make a contribution to efforts to better manage population growth. This report reviews eight studies that examined the effect of incentives on family planning. Method Published studies that tested the impact of incentives to promote some aspect of family planning and included an appropriate control or comparison condition were reviewed. Results Incentives have been used to promote attendance at contraceptive education sessions, adoption and continuation of contraceptive methods, sterilization, and to limit family size. All but one of the eight studies reviewed reported positive outcomes, but weaknesses in study design and execution limit the strength of the conclusions that can be drawn. Conclusion Review of this literature suggests that family planning behaviors, like other behaviors, are sensitive to incentives. Given the tremendous need for efficacious interventions in global efforts to manage population growth, further research on this topic using more rigorous experimental methods is warranted. PMID:22743293

Heil, Sarah H.; Gaalema, Diann E.; Herrmann, Evan S.

2012-01-01

38

Population Control, Family Planning and Planned Parenthood.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Remarks in this article were made as part of a panel discussion presented at the Planned Parenthood-World Population combined Southeast Council and National Board Meeting, Savannah, Georgia, in May 1970. The problems and consequences of an increasing birth rate are indicated along with the need for reducing present rates of population growth and…

Hilmar, Norman A.

39

Family Planning Programmes in Africa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The countries discussed in this paper are the francophone countries of West Africa and the Republic of Congo, with comparative references made to North Africa (mainly Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia). Obstacles to the adoption of family planning in the countries of tropical Africa are a very high mortality rate among children; a socioeconomic…

Pradervand, Pierre

40

[Family Planning Circular of 1990].  

PubMed

In 1990, the government of Guangdong issued a Family Planning Circular demanding that the people of Guangdong take immediate actions to push ahead with Guangdong's family planning (FP) work. The Circular provides that, despite the fact that Guangdong has achieved gratifying results in its FP work this year, it has failed to fulfill its FP quotas and check excessive population growth for 4 successive years in the 7th 5-Year period. The Circular also provides that, in view of this rigorous situation, the Government demands that people's governments at all levels in Guangdong immediately formulate specific plans aimed at fully implementing to the FP quotas and an FP-oriented responsibility system at all levels. All concerned departments and mass organizations in Guangdong are required actively to cooperate and coordinate with one another in carrying out FP work. PMID:12317499

1990-05-10

41

Observations concerning family planning education in China.  

PubMed

In China, raising the age at marriage is an integral part of the family planning program. The new marriage law sets the minimum age at 22 for men and 20 for women. Marriage is a universal practice, and an unmarried person over 28 is a rarity. For economic purposes, the Central Committee of the People's Republic adopted the 1-child family policy in 1980. Childlessness is not encouraged. An extensive organizational network at the national, provincial, and local governmental levels conducts the family planning program. The media is widely used to publicize the message. Billboards, posters, state-run television, and other media tools regularly promote the virtues of the 1-child family, regardless of the sex of the child. Premarital sex is rare, and sex education, if any, is limited to adults--those about to be married. In Shanghai, physiology education in the middle school does include sex education and reproduction. All hospitals have family planning offices, and services include excellent maternal/child health care and family planning counseling. Family planning services are also found in the workplace. Permission must be obtained from the Production Brigade to marry and to have a child. Inspite of this, the family planning program is not viewed as coercive. When certain segments of the working population want to have more children than have been allocated, adjustments (e.g., delays in marriage or in pregnancy) are made. A unique feature of the program is its use of reward and punishment which varies from province to province, and between rural and urban populations. Economic incentives (monetary subsidies, free education for the children, housing priorities, and pension benefits) are given to those who have 1 child and withheld from those who have 2 children. In some areas, additional economic penalties (payment to state) are required from families with 2 children. Another unique feature is the trend toward later marriage, with 25 or 26 becoming the norm. It appears that China's family planning program is achieving success, but this can only be viewed in its own sociocultural setting and not in the context of other countries. PMID:12337663

Hamburg, M V

1981-11-01

42

Studies in Family Planning. Volume 2, Number 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This year's annual review of family planning in Korea and Taiwan is represented in three articles. The first, "Korea/Taiwan 1970: Report on the National Family Planning Programs," separately views the program administration, budget, personnel, and evaluation, as well as the various methods employed in controlling the number of births, and…

Worth, George; And Others

43

78 FR 71431 - National Family Week, 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proclamation 9061--National Family Week, 2013 Presidential Documents Federal Register...9061 of November 22, 2013 National Family Week, 2013 By the President of the United States...American society. During National Family Week, we celebrate the spirit that moves...

2013-11-27

44

[The challenges of the family planning program].  

PubMed

Mexican family planning officials used date from the 1990 population census to revise population growth estimates and determine program needs for different family planning institutions during 1990-94. Total fertility rates were used to estimate fertility, using information from sociodemographic surveys taken over the past 10 years. Total fertility rates were estimated at 3.29 in 1987, 2.8 in 1990, and projected at 2.5 in 1994. These rates correspond to a crude birth rate of 24-25/1000 in 1990 and 22-23 in 1994 and natural increase rates of 1.87% and 1.67%. In obtaining these estimates, the structure of fertility of the 1987 National Survey of Fertility and Health and the program projections of women by ages of the National Population Council and the National Institute of Statistics, Geography, and were considered. The TARGET model was used to estimate the numbers of women in union using different modern methods who would need to be served by family planning programs in order to meet the proposed total fertility rates. The prevalence of sterilization, IUDS, and oral contraceptives (OCs) in women in union would be 59% in 1990 and 62% in 1994, or in absolute terms 7.8 million women in 1990 and 9.3 million in 1994. The public sector has replaced the private as the major source of family planning services. The Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) share is expected to increase from 48.3% of users in 1990 to 56.5% in 1994. The other 3 public sector institutions will maintain their current level of coverage. The private sector has played a smaller role in family planning in Mexico than in many other countries, and the state will thus have the major responsibility for service provision, including family planning education, promotion, and counseling of prospective clients. Existing services should be made more accessible as far as physical access and hours of operation, and the methods available should be increased beyond OCs and condoms. Traditional midwives in rural areas should be trained to administer modern methods in collaboration with institutional health services so that rural-urban differences in coverage and quality can be decreased. It is estimated that, of the 59% of women in union who want no more children, 44% are using a traditional method or no method. Encouraging these women to use contraception is a challenge for the family planning program. It will not be enough to communicate the general advantages of family planning; specific information on each method is needed. The integration of family planning into maternal-child health services is necessary for the focus on reproductive health and preventing high risk pregnancies. Health services should cooperate with the civil registration system to identify newlyweds and provide them with family planning information. Greater efforts are needed to reach adolescents through cooperation with educational institutions. PMID:12158037

Alarcon, F; Mojarro, O

1991-01-01

45

NATIONAL SURVEY OF FAMILY GROWTH  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) provides information on childbearing, contraception, and related aspects of maternal and child health. The NSFG is the principal national source of data on trends and group differences in contraceptive use and effectiveness, use of fami...

46

[Sexuality, discussion and family planning].  

PubMed

Choosing a contraceptive forces clients to reflect on their way of viewing sexual relations and to confront norms and taboos they have internalized. This situation is charged with emotion which largely goes beyond technical and medical aspects. The Interregional Center of Family Planning in Monthey in the Chablais region of Switzerland has developed a framework to manage implicit demands from family planning clients. This framework permits counselors to hear the here-and-now of the client and her request and to link the request with the before-and-after. After learning the most pressing reason for visiting the clinic, the counselor begins prevention work: to expose the wishes of the client and to encourage self-confidence to dare to say no. The framework to use in a session with an adolescent guides the counselor to consider the following: the relationship with her parents; loyalty towards the original culture of her parents; success or failure at school or at her apprenticeship; her relationship with the person with whom she had sex; body image; experience of the first in-love emotions or first sexual intercourse; sense of control at the gynecologist office; and, for older teens (18-20 years), her professional life plan and becoming self-reliant. The framework to use in a session with a postpartum woman guides the counselor to consider the following: childbirth experience; relationship with the baby and evolution of the mother-baby bond; capacity of the couple to adapt to changes; return to home; role of the family and family-in-law; and how everyone envisions his/her role and place. The framework to use in a session with a woman who has undergone induced abortion guides the counselor to consider the following: eventual prejudices linked to the contraceptive (e.g., fear of cancer); her feelings about failure of that contraceptive; self-image as a woman; relationship with her partner; desire for children; and couple's plan. PMID:7847923

Launaz, E

1994-01-01

47

Post-abortion family planning.  

PubMed

In many countries, reproductive health services do not actively include post-abortion family planning services for women who are treated for complications of unsafe abortion. This greatly increases the risk of further unintended pregnancies and unsafe abortions. The authors, drawing on the recommendations of a meeting of experts, make a plea for bridging the gap and dealing more realistically with this urgent need. PMID:7873025

McLaurin, K E; Senanayake, P; Toubia, N; Ladipo, O A

1995-01-01

48

Family Planning: Improving Opportunities for Women. Report Number 18.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report contains eight articles on the importance of the role of women in family planning. An Assistant Secretary General for Social Development and Humanitarian Affairs, United Nations, calls for increased female participation in national development. The Secretary General of The International Planned Parenthood Federation observes that women…

Victor-Bostrom Fund Committee, Washington, DC.

49

76 FR 72601 - National Family Week, 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proclamation 8756--National Family Week, 2011 Proclamation 8757--National Farm-City Week, 2011 Proclamation 8758--National Child's...8756 of November 18, 2011 National Family Week, 2011 By the President of the United...

2011-11-23

50

Men and Family Planning. Worldwatch Paper 41.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph focuses on men's potentially positive role in family planning. In addition, it identifies reasons why so few organized family planning programs have targeted men as clients and why men have so often played a peripheral or negative role in family planning. The document is presented in seven chapters. Chapter I introduces the topic…

Stokes, Bruce

51

Family planning and the controversial contraceptives.  

PubMed

India was one of the first countries in the world to launch a national family planning program in an apparent effort to help women gain access to birth control measures and reduce population growth. Family planning acquired a different meaning and emphasis in the 1960s, however, when a clause in the US PL480 wheat import policy demanded that India speed its implementation of birth control measures if the country wanted food aid. Women in India were therefore expected to consume contraceptives with dangerous and unknown side effects in order to quality the country for food aid. Women rejected this stipulation. By the 1980s, it was acknowledged that family planning programs in India had failed to produce a decline in the birth rate and that no sign of change was on the horizon despite the investment of substantial funds to that end, the input of expert assistance, and the establishment of appropriate infrastructure in the country. Experts and policy makers blamed women for having misused the pill and sought alternative methods which would not require user compliance. Norplant and norethisterone enanthate (Net-en) were subsequently developed. Policymakers, experts, and the press have now been clamoring for the right to conduct Norplant trials despite reported side effects. The drug's ability to prevent pregnancy is more important for family planning experts. The author notes that the emphasis has been upon contraceptive methods for women instead of men because men were not expected to take responsibility for family planning. She also notes that feminists are opposed to Norplant and Net-en, and hopes that the government withdraws them from the market. PMID:12289896

Dias Saxena, F

1995-01-01

52

Data sheet charts family planning progress.  

PubMed

"Monitoring Family Planning Programs 1996," a wallchart produced by the Carolina Population Center at the University of Chapel Hill in collaboration with the Population Reference Bureau, compiles most of the available data regarding family planning programs in 96 developing countries and presents the evaluation indicators in a comparative overview. Data on government spending, types of services available, facilities, and the number of new contraceptive users served each year are included. Key findings include the following information. Although most governments are concerned about high birth rates (80% of governments in Africa and over 50% of governments in Latin America), West Asian governments (Iraq, Jordan, Yemen, and Syria) consider the high fertility rates there to be satisfactory and have not promoted family planning. In East Asia, where family planning has been established for decades, fertility has decreased below replacement level. In spite of governmental concern, family planning effort lags in many countries; of the 95 countries with family planning effort scores, only 41 received moderate or strong scores (50-92% of the maximum score possible). These included 62% of Latin American countries, 23% of African countries, and just over 50% of Asian countries. National and international spending is often insufficient. The highest annual per capita expenditure by a government on family planning services occurs in Mauritius (US $1.65 per person); Afghanistan, Brazil, the Congo, Honduras, Iran, Paraguay, Uganda, and Zaire spend less than US $0.01 per person. Costa Rica, El Salvador, Mauritius, Tunisia, and Zimbabwe spend a total per capita, from all sources, of US $1 or more. Almost 50% of the married women in developing countries use a modern form of contraception; 17% of married women of reproductive age in Africa do so (11% in sub-Saharan Africa, and 36% in North Africa). Contraceptive prevalence in Latin America is 53%; in Asia it ranges from 34% in South Central Asia to 78% in East Asia. Service providers may be too few in number. The ratio of married women, ages 15-44, per staff member ranges from 111,235 in the Ivory Coast to 109 in Viet Nam. Of the 38 countries that have more than 1000 women per staff member, 16 are in Africa, 12 are in Latin America, and 10 are in Asia. PMID:12320944

1997-06-01

53

Spousal veto over family planning services.  

PubMed Central

In many countries a spouse, usually the husband, can veto a partner's use of family planning services. Where spousal veto acts as a barrier to family planning services it represents a serious threat to the lives and health of women and children. Removal of spousal authorization requirements has been shown to increase the use of family planning services. The Family Guidance Association of Ethiopia, for example, removed their requirement in 1982 and clinic utilization increased by 26 per cent within a few months. Courts of several countries have held that spousal veto practices violate principles of personal privacy and autonomy and the right to health care. The effect of such judgements has been to reinforce rights to sexual nondiscrimination found, for example, in national constitutions and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. This article discusses the nature and application of spousal veto practices, explains how such requirements can violate certain human rights, and explores possible remedies to this problem, including ministerial, legislative, and judicial initiatives. PMID:3812842

Cook, R J; Maine, D

1987-01-01

54

Studies in family planning. 6. Singapore.  

PubMed

Family planning progress in Singapore during 1972 is reviewed. The Singapore Family Planning and Population Board launched its most intensive family planning campaign in July 1972. A primary objective of the campaign was to promote both male and female sterilizations. Stronger social disincentives to discourage large family size (higher delivery fees, reduction of income tax deductions, reduction of allowable maternity leaves, and housing priority for small families) have been read in Parliament and will take effect August 1, 1973. The 1972 crude birth rate was estimated at 22.6 per 1000, compared with 22.3 in 1971. The crude death rate remains constant at an estimated 5.4 per 1000. The rate of natural increase has risen to an estimated 17.2 per 1000, compared with 16.9 in 1971. The Second Five-Year Plan (1971-1975) sets a target of 80,000 new acceptors to be recruited evenly throughout the period. In 1972, the Board recruited 17,666 new acceptors. The main method used continued to be the pill, but the number of new pill users dropped from 19,000 in 1968 to 10,000 in 1971 and 1972. The number of condom acceptors dropped from 10,076 in 1968 to 7343 in 1972. IUD insertions were 3703 in 1968, and in 1972 there were only 177 IUDs inserted. Female sterilizations rose from 477 in 1966 to 3848 in 1971 to over 5700 in 1972. Abortions rose from 2929 in 1969 to 5943 in 1972. The Board approved the establishment of a Research and Evaluation Committee at the close of 1972. An Information, Education, and Communication Unit and a Training Center financed by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) were established in 1972. The Family Planning Campaign is being evaluated by pre- and postcampaign KAP-type surveys. During 1972, clinical trials were initiated on the Dalkon Shield and the Copper 7 with encouraging preliminary results. The average desired family size among Singapore families is 3.6, and there are problems in trying to reduce this figure. The informational aspects of the communications program have reached a "saturation" stage. Future emphasis must be on persuasion and motivation. PMID:4710480

Kee, W F; Lee, A S

1973-05-01

55

Family planning and maternal and child health services.  

PubMed

Considerable effort has been made in the area of family planning in the State of Punjab. Family planning personnel has been recruited and trained at the State Family Planning Training and Research Center in Kharar; supplies of Nirodh, IUDs, oral contraceptives, and hospital equipment along with transportation facilities have been made available; and there has been some building construction. The State Health Education Bureau has worked to produce publicity material and has also used the mass media to create awareness of family planning among the people. As many as 120 rural and 49 urban Family Welfare Planning Centers are providing family planning services along with 856 subcenters in rural areas. 1123 other institutions are also doing family planning work in addition to the efforts of 34 mobile sterilization and IUD units attached to the District Family Planning Bureau and the contributions of some voluntary organizations. Although the state has adopted the cafeteria approach to family planning and the focus is on provision of family planning services on routine days in the various institutions to well-motivated couples, mass family planning camps for vasectomy, tubal ligations, and IUD insertions have been held with considerable success. Additionally, the State has integrated family planning programs with maternal and child health care in order to provide a totality of service. This precedes the total integration of this national program w ith general health services. Punjab has done well in achieving its targets for 1974-1975. Sterilization targets were set at 38,300 and 36,460 sterilizations, 95.2% of the target, were performed. IUD targets were 27,000, and the number achieved was 39,637 or 109.4%. The conventional contraceptive user target was 99,800, and 151,976 or 152.3% of the target figure became conventional contraceptive users. PMID:12307760

Singh, A

1975-12-01

56

[Family planning in Benin: what future?].  

PubMed

In Benin, family planning began in the late 1960s, but its activities were not clear or specific. It made small strides in private clinics until a family planning association was formed, later named the Beninese Association to Promote the Family (ABPF). Family planning promoters maintain that reduction in births per couple is necessary for economic development in Africa. Family planning detractors think that a child is a fruit of God and that family planning impedes his or her coming to the world. ABPF has worked much to promote Beninese families, but it is still not well known. Despite the associations efforts and those of many other institutions, contraceptive prevalence is low and the abortion rate and its risks remain high, namely, death, infertility, and contraction of various diseases. Thus, it is important to rethink family planning strategies. All intervening parties should coordinate activities to better reach urban and rural populations. Many rural inhabitants go to cities to escape poverty and the misery evoked by their family size and meager earnings only to find unemployment in the cities. In order for family planning to have an effect in Benin, it is important to begin working with youth. Any family planning strategy must consider their aspirations. The youth are inclined to be more receptive to family planning than the adults who do not want to give up old habits. Yet, contraceptive use in 14-20 year olds is low even though sexual activity is high. Since the youth want a small family size, a small plot of land, a care, and a successful life, it is important to give priority to jobs. We need to educate the youth so they can freely decide their family size. Socioeconomic reasons are the primary factor pushing people to accept family planning, followed by health reasons. Research is needed to learn why contraceptive prevalence is still low. PMID:12318558

Danlodji, R

1993-01-01

57

Ethical approaches to family planning in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Africa has historically provided the geographical flashpoint of ethical issues relating to family planning programs. Until recently in Sub-Saharan Africa, advocacy of family planning by non-Africans was unacceptable and by Africans politically inadvisable. This has changed in the 1980s. The health rationale for family planning is backed by strong evidence, especially in Africa, where infant and maternal mortality and morbidity

F. T. Sai; K. Newman

1989-01-01

58

Strengthening Families Model Plan Plan Summary  

E-print Network

practices that offer children guidance without harsh punishment are related to positive outcomes, County Committee Description Positive parenting practices play an essential role in children raising grandchildren). Educating families about positive parenting practices and healthy family

59

[Notes on family planning and political power in the Maghreb].  

PubMed

This paper examines the reasons for which family planning takes different forms in 3 similar northwest African countries, Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia. There is a malthusian attitude toward population growth in Tunisia and Morocco, where there are national family planning programs; such is not the case in Algeria. While all 3 countries recognize the need for limiting population growth, there is more emphasis on this politically in Tunisia than in Algeria. In Tunisia the head of state will speak out on family planning; in Morocco the head of state leaves this for organizations to do. Ideas on family planning get out more effectively to the Tunisian population than to the Moroccans. In differing degrees, respect for time honored tradition and recognition of religious values are factors that family planners must deal with in all of these countries if state authorities are to be taken more seriously. PMID:12311266

Boukraa, R

1976-01-01

60

Population problems and family planning in Africa.  

PubMed

Focus is on the population problems in Africa and what the African peoples and governments are doing about these problems. The position of this writer is that there is definitely a population problem in Africa. Those who take the opposing view support their arguments by looking at the following indicators: population density and pressure, undeveloped resources, the availability of empty lands, and alleged intrigue by external forces. Few governments have population control policies and/or national family planning programs. These countries include Ghana, Kenya, Mauritius, Morocco, Tunisia, and the United Arab Republic. Currently, governments of black African countries for the greater part either support family planning programs or allow such efforts to exist under private auspices. Of the 35 African countries and territories covered by the United States Agency for International Development report, only the governments of Cameroon, Malagasy, and Malawi have stated explicitly that they want to encourage population growth. In all surveys in East Africa, the ideal family size was more than 5 and generally 6 children. In Ghana and Nigeria, the ideal size was 7 or more. Generally, the ideal family size in Black Africa ranges from 6-8 children, but the influences of urbanization and education in West Africa reduced the ideal family size to between 4 and 6. Abstinence, herbs, and withdrawal are widely known in traditional African society though withdrawal was little used as a contraceptive method. Regarding modern contraceptive methods, the most knowledgeable group is the urban elites. Below the elite, the knowledge level is very low. There is little contraceptive practice in Africa. PMID:12259218

Uche, C

1972-01-01

61

Natural family planning: point, counterpoint.  

PubMed

The Humanae Vitae posits that periodic abstinence from sexual intercourse enriches one with spiritual values. The discipline required in natural family planning brings peace and serenity to the family, helps solve other problems, helps both spouses to be less selfish, and deepens one's sense of responsibility. Parents acquire the capacity to have a deeper influence in the education of their children, and the children grow up with a sound appraisal of human values. The case study of a married couple, however, suggests that only frustration and resentment will result from periodic abstinence. The couple was advised by their physician to use the basal temperature method combined with the calendar method. Repeated pregnancies and births ensued. The couple eventually had to resort to three-week periods of abstinence from sexual intercourse. While pregnancy has been avoided for three years, the practice of periodic abstinence from sexual intercourse for such long periods is very difficult for both the husband and wife. The relationship has become tense and mutually damaging. The husband argues that the rhythm method transforms sexual intercourse from a spontaneous expression of spiritual and physical love into a simple release of bodily energy. He is obsessed with sex throughout the long period of abstinence, his marital fidelity is at risk, his disposition toward his wife and children is adversely affected, and he must avoid all affection toward his wife for three weeks at a time. The husband sees periodic abstinence as a diabolical, immoral, and deeply unnatural method of fertility control. The wife is sullen and resentful toward her husband when the time for sexual relations finally arrives. She finds it difficult to respond to her husband's advances after the three-week periods during which he reserves his affection. The wife's dreams and unguarded thoughts are invariably sexual. Periodic abstinence and the Roman Catholic Church are discussed. PMID:12178862

Hume, M

1991-01-01

62

Approaches to family planning in Muslim communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Addressing the cultural and religious beliefs around the issue of family planning has been a big challenge for the international development community. The concept of family planning has raised some concerns regarding its acceptability within Muslim populations. While some Muslim states and organisations have adopted a rather cautious approach to the issue, others have gone to the extent of inviting

Najat El Hamri

2010-01-01

63

Circular on family planning, 1988.  

PubMed

This Hubei, China, Circular, issued near the end of 1988, provides the following: "The population growth situation in our country is grim. Since 1986, the natural population growth rate has risen continuously. To draw the prompt attention of the whole party and the entire people to the issue of our population, all localities must seriously unfold the activities of publicizing family planning (FP) this winter and next spring, in coordination with education in current affairs. It is necessary to publicize FP in an all-around way and with accuracy, and the activities of publicizing must be carried out effectively in a solid and deep-going way. In the rural areas, stress must be placed on areas where FP work is not carried out well and where there is a prevailing tendency toward early marriage, early child-bearing, and extra-budgetary births. In cities, publicity and education must be conducted especially among the transient population, individual households, and jobless households. During the period of publicity, large-scale street-corner publicity activities must be carried out in cities and towns so as to create strong public opinion and to combine the endeavor to publicize current affairs and policies with the effort to popularize knowledge about contraception and birth-control, to execute measures of contraception and birth control, and to establish FP associations in the countryside." PMID:12289626

1988-01-01

64

Family planning policy and its implementation in China.  

PubMed

Practicing family planning constitutes China's fundamental state policy. The basic task is to control population quantity and improve population quality. Since 1970, important achievements have been made in both these categories. The birth rate has declined from 33.43/1000 to 17.5/1000. Population quality has been improved by increasing maternal and child health and education. Practicing family planning is China's most important need because China is not only the world's most populous country, it is also a developing socialist country with insufficient farm land. In 1978, the Communist party leaders, demographers, and family planners reached a consensus that social production includes both material production and human reproduction. A large population can have both positive and negative effects; where material production is underdeveloped, excessive population growth is burden to economic development and raising living standards. China is putting family planning first to help solve the problems of underdevelopment. The Chinese government has attempted to work out realistic, reasonable, and acceptable family planning policy. Goals include 1) quadrupling the gross national product by 2000 and 2) keeping the population size to 1.2 billion in the same time frame. This would give people an $800 per capita income by 2000. To achieve this goal, the government has advocated the one child family since 1979. This policy varies, however, with different economic and cultural conditions, locations, nationalities, and individual circumstances. Government guidance in combination with people's voluntarism is the basicprinciple in practicing family planning. PMID:12280504

Shen, G

1985-10-01

65

Family planning legislation and policy in China.  

PubMed

This article summarizes China's general state of family planning (FP) legislation and FP policy. Article 25 of the Chinese Constitution and Article 12 of the Marriage Law require that F¿ must be promoted by the State. There was only one national law on FP: "Measures for Management of FP of the Floating Population," which was established on December 26, 1991. The text of this law was reported in "China Population Today," Number 1, February, 1992. This law authorized provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities under central government control to establish their own FP regulations according to the conditions of their regions. The first province with regulations was Guangdong in 1980, followed by Qinghai, Shaanxi, and Ningxia in 1986. Sichuan regulations were published in 1987, followed by Guizhou, Hubei, Liaoning, Fujian, Shandong, Jilin, and Anhui in 1988. In 1989, the following states published regulations: Guangxi, Tianjin, Hebei, Hainan, and Zhejiang. The remaining 11 provinces and autonomous regions passed regulations in 1990 and 1991 to complete the total 28 administrative units for provinces with FP regulations. Only Tibet and Xianjiang do not have regulations. Regulations promote deferred marriage and deferred childbearing, fewer and healthier births, the practice of one couple and one child, and birth spacing for those suffering with only one child; genetic defects were to be prevented. Minorities, in general, ascribed to the following conditions: 1) one-child family, unless difficulties would arise as a result. This provision applied to Beijing, Tianjin, and Shanghai municipalities and Jiangsu and Sichuan provinces. Allowing a second birth for families with only daughters was allowed in 18 provinces and regions. 2) Two-child families were allowed in Ningxia, Yunnan, Qinghai, guangdong, and Hainan provinces. 3) Ethnic populations (8% or 90 million in 1990) have special policies, which are more lenient than policies governing the Han majority. The exception was Zhuang nationality, which has the same policy as the Han. FP policy in China is not unified as a "one-child policy." PMID:12286963

1992-10-01

66

Main points for 1991 family planning work.  

PubMed

The main points for 1991 Family Planning (FP) Work in China are discussed as follows: 1) strengthen leadership, 2) strengthen grass roots buildup, 3 intensify population plan management and improve the responsibility system, 4) strengthen publicity and promote population and FP education in rural areas, 5) strengthen and establish the legal system for FP management, 6) provide excellent contraceptive and birth control services, 7 perform inservice training conscientiously and technical secondary education earnestly, and 8) coordinate efforts among related departments. Leadership changes involve the 2 top leaders of the Communist Party Committees and governments at each level taking personal responsibility for the implementation of their local population plans and FP work. FP work must have a prominent place on all agendas. The FP service network needs to be accelerated in countries, townships, and villages and grass roots units strengthened in urban areas. Provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities must work out their local population plans for 1991-95 and 1991-99 according to the national population target. Rational apportionment needs to be considered for prefectures and counties. The emphasis should be on timely and accurate feedback and statistical supervision. The 1990 national population census data should be used to inform everyone about the current population situation. Legal needs entail standardizing documentation and developing local laws and regulations within a comprehensive system. Improvements are needed in such areas as rules and regulations pertaining to the administration of charges for unplanned births, identification of disabled children and approval of the birth quota. Abortion and unplanned births are to be averted through prepregnancy management. The emphasis is on voluntary use of contraception by couples of childbearing age. Inservice training should improve the political, ideological, professional proficiency, and ability to function. Certification will eventually be provided. Provision for FP insurance needs to be encouraged through civil affairs departments, banks, and insurance companies. PMID:12343642

1991-06-01

67

1993--Twenty-Fifth Annual National Council on Family Relations Videotape Competition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lists and annotates winning entries in 1993 National Council on Family Relations Videotape Competition in categories of substance abuse, aging, social issues, divorce/remarriage, families with special needs, family violence, human development, reproduction and family planning, marital/family issues, mental health, nontraditional families,…

Gentry, Deborah; And Others

1994-01-01

68

President puts renewed emphases on family planning.  

PubMed

President Jiang Zemin called for major improvements in the country's family planning, resources management and environmental protection at a work conference held in Beijing on March 12 this year on population control, natural resources and environmental protection. In his address, the president noted that the country will strive to control its population within 1.4 billion by the year 2010, halt the deterioration of the environment and noticeably improve it, and enhance resources management. ¿It is an arduous and important task for the Party and the whole nation,¿ the president said. As the world's most populous developing nation, China has limited per capita natural resources. ¿We must always see population control, preservation of resources and environmental protection from a strategic point of view,¿ Jiang said. In the 21st century, China must continue to make great efforts to stabilize the fertility level, maintain rational use and strict management of resources, and protect and improve the environment. ¿Our success or failure will have a direct bearing on the country's economic and social security, the quality of people's lives and the long-term development of China,¿ the president said. In the new century, it is imperative that we earnestly carry out the decisions of the Party and central government on family planning and the stabilization of a low fertility. On environmental protection, the president stressed that continued efforts should be devoted to both pollution prevention and control and ecological protection. The country should implement the strictest rules and regulations, and continue to uphold the principle of ¿developing while protecting: protecting while developing,¿ he said. In developing China's vast western region, it is also necessary to handle well the relationship between economic development and population control. PMID:12295908

2000-02-01

69

Wujiang's service-oriented family planning programme.  

PubMed

Wujiang City in south Jiangsu Province is a county-level city, well known for its economic development and effective family planning program. Family planning is practiced voluntarily by the people. The growth rate of the city's population has decreased to 5.47/1000; the proportion of planned births has increased to 98%; and the total fertility rate has declined to 1.5. There are 34 towns (and townships) and 883 administrative villages under the jurisdiction of the city. The living standard has improved significantly. The successful implementation of family planning is largely due to the quality services delivered to farmers, especially women of reproductive age. In an interview, Mme. Ji and Mme. Shen, chiefs of the Wujiang Family Planning Committee, describe the services they deliver. The information, education, and communication (IEC) program is focused on population schools (city, town, township, and village), which deliver information to middle school students, premarital youth, and women who are pregnant, lying-in, or menopausal. Pamphlets on marriage and reproductive health are published by the county population school. Family planning service centers, which deliver contraceptive and technical services, were established in every town and township in 1993. Ultrasound scans are available and have been used to diagnose diseases, including cancer. Over 3000 women have been helped. Misuse of fetal sex identification is banned. The Family Planning Committee and the technical service centers in the city provide counselling services on fewer, healthier births; maternal and child health care; reproductive health; and treatment of infertility. There are several kinds of insurance related to family planning; these include old age support for the parents of only-children, safety insurance for only-children, and old age insurance for newlyweds. The insurance premium is shared by the couple (100 yuan) and the township (400 yuan). Only-child couples, two-daughter families, and childless families will then have support when they grow old. PMID:12290278

Zhu, H

1995-08-01

70

Family planning via the postpartum approach.  

PubMed

Since motivation for family planning is extremely high after delivery or abortion, women should be consulted about the use of contraception within 3 months postpartum. The International Postpartum Family Planning Program began in 1966 and now provides family planning information and services in 26 urban hospitals in 15 countries for women of low socioeconomic status. In the first 2 years, 236,000 acceptors were enrolled in the program out of an estimated target in developing countries of 1,870,000 women. Home visit follow up surveys found that 82% were continuing some method of contraception 18 months after initial acceptance. The cost has been $3.20 per acceptor. The rates of postpartum return visits have increased since the initiation of the postpartum family planning program. The Population Council is now extending the program to other countries of the developing world to work in rural as well as in urban areas. PMID:12177898

Zatuchni, G I

1969-10-01

71

Jiang Sannu's home clinic for family planning.  

PubMed

Jiang Sannu, a physician in China's Jiang Jia Village (Shaanxi Province), opened a family planning clinic in her own home in March 1987 to increase accessibility to contraceptive supplies and information among rural couples. Jiang was the elected head of the village women's federation. During the day, Jiang Sannu travels door-to-door throughout the village, providing information on issues such as prenatal care, breastfeeding, and family planning policy and methods. She provides gynecologic and pediatric medical services as well as midwifery. The nearest maternity hospital is 2-3 kilometers from the village, so Jiang has to date delivered over 20 infants. In the evenings, she disseminates Communist Party Central Committee documents on family planning regulations through the village tweeter. There is widespread agreement among villagers that this family planning facility is well suited to the needs of the local community. PMID:12281589

1987-10-01

72

Cambodian refugees' family planning knowledge and use.  

PubMed

An ethnographic study was conducted within a Cambodian refugee community to discover information about Cambodian women's and men's knowledge and use of family planning methods. This 18-month study included participant observation at community and calendrical events, and within families' homes. Open-ended interviews were conducted with 53 informants from a variety of educational and socio-economic backgrounds. Both women and men were interviewed through a female bilingual interpreter when the informant lacked proficiency in speaking English. Major findings include a lack of knowledge among the sample about how the family planning methods work in the woman's body, and concerns about side-effects. Implications include the need to include Cambodian women and men in the planning and implementation of family planning programmes. PMID:7560523

Kulig, J C

1995-07-01

73

On the efficiency of multiple media family planning promotion campaigns.  

PubMed

This article presents the result of a study conducted by Miriam N. Jato on the impact of multimedia family planning communication campaigns on contraceptive use. The study was conducted in Tanzania, where a government program integrated family planning into maternal and child health care services in 1988, while in 1992 a private-sector condom-marketing program begun and a national population policy for wider distribution of family planning information was adopted by the government. In less than 3 years, contraceptive use was found to have doubled to a level of 11.3% and the total fertility rate declined from an average of 6.3 to 5.8 live births. The result of the study indicates that exposure to media sources of family planning messages was directly associated with increased contraceptive use. Moreover, the use of modern methods increased among women who were exposed to a greater number of media sources, as did discussion of family planning with spouses and attendance of health facilities. The programmatic implications of the results confirm that utilization of multiple media channels in the promotion of family planning and other reproductive issues must be continued, with emphasis on media sources that reach large audiences. PMID:12349449

1999-01-01

74

Family planning services / sex education / teenage pregnancy.  

PubMed

1991-92 enacted, pending, and dead legislation on family planning services, sex education, teen pregnancy, and related subtopics are summarily listed. Legislation is presented in the areas of contraceptives/contraceptive services, parental consent/notification for contraceptives, school-based clinics/school health services, sex/health education, state programs for family planning services, sterilization, and teenage pregnancy prevention and care programs. Miscellaneous legislation is also listed. PMID:12285803

1992-09-01

75

[Medical social care in family planning].  

PubMed

Basic pattern of medical social work, including its main directions and objects, methods and forms are considered. Necessity of adoption of medical social work in functioning of institutions of family planning is validated. Groups of clients as objects of medical social work are considered. Content, forms and methods of medical social work in family planning institutions differentiated depending on particular client group is analyzed. PMID:17004383

Vorobtsova, E S; Martynenko, A V

2006-01-01

76

Family planning KAP survey in Gaza.  

PubMed

This study explores the reproductive attitudes, contraceptive use, demand for family planning and related topics of a representative sample of the female population of reproductive age resident in a Refugee Camp in the Gaza Strip. A cluster sample of 841 resident women of reproductive age (15-49 years) was interviewed in their homes. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed using BMDP software. 98% of the interviewees favour family planning and 88% plan to use a contraceptive in the future. However, 52% of the women at risk do not use any contraception because of their husband's opposition, fear of side effects or lack of knowledge. The risk of having seven or more children is positively associated with a woman's low educational level and husband's desire for more than seven children. Despite favourable attitudes regarding family planning, there is ignorance and the prevalence of contraception use is low. There is a gap between fertility preference and achievement. PMID:10695981

Donati, S; Hamam, R; Medda, E

2000-03-01

77

NATIONAL SURVEY OF FAMILY GROWTH (NSFG)  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) provides information on childbearing, contraception, and closely related aspects of maternal and child health from a sample of women in the United States (including Alaska and Hawaii). The National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) was con...

78

Can Better National Policy End Family Homelessness?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An understanding of the close link between federal policy and family homelessness is critical for ensuring that one day no child in the United States is homeless. This article discusses the nature of family homelessness, the national policy framework that exists to help vulnerable families, the homeless assistance system that federal policy has…

Roman, Nan

2010-01-01

79

National Ignition Facility: Experimental plan  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE), and EG&G formed an NIF Target Diagnostics Working Group. The purpose of the Target Diagnostics Working Group is to prepare conceptual designs of target diagnostics for inclusion in the facility CDR and to determine how these specifications impact the CDR. To accomplish this, a subgroup has directed its efforts at constructing an approximate experimental plan for the ignition campaign of the NIF CDR. The results of this effort are contained in this document, the Experimental Plan for achieving fusion ignition in the NIF. This group initially concentrated on the flow-down requirements of the experimental campaign leading to ignition, which will dominate the initial efforts of the NIF. It is envisaged, however, that before ignition, there will be parallel campaigns supporting weapons physics, weapons effects, and other research. This plan was developed by analyzing the sequence of activities required to finally fire the laser at the level of power and precision necessary to achieve the conditions of an ignition hohlraum target, and to then use our experience in activating and running Nova experiments to estimate the rate of completing these activities.

Not Available

1994-05-01

80

Funding for international family planning attacked.  

PubMed

US funding for foreign assistance has been jeopardized in recent years in the context of dwindling public support for foreign aid. To stymie the provision of international family planning program assistance and services overseas, Congressional opponents of family planning and abortion are offering amendments to foreign aid legislation at every possible opportunity. State Department reauthorization legislation is the current target of family planning opponents' efforts. Reauthorization is the process by which Congress indicates its ongoing support for a program, makes any necessary changes, and sets new funding ceilings. The global gag rule joined UNFPA funding cuts on the 1997 State Department reauthorization bill, H.R. 1757, which passed the House of Representatives in early June. If successfully appended to the State Department bill, the gag rule would prevent the US from funding any organization in a developing country which provides legal abortion services or communicates with its government on abortion-related policy, regardless of whether that organization used its own non-US funds. These restrictions and cuts to international family planning program assistance could adversely affect family planning programs, leading to less contraceptive use and higher rates of abortion, maternal morbidity, and maternal mortality. President Bill Clinton has promised to veto the bill if both houses of Congress accept the restrictions. These issues will probably arise on the annual appropriations legislation which funds US operations overseas. PMID:12292727

Kaeser, L

1997-08-01

81

President Jiang Zemin on family planning and environmental protection.  

PubMed

Presented in this brief article are excerpts of a speech given by the Chinese State President and Party Secretary-General Jiang Zemin at the National Forum on Family Planning and Environmental Protection on March 8, 1997. He states that family planning and environmental policies require long-term considerations. Both family planning and environmental matters are correlated and relate to socioeconomic development in China. Population growth will have negative impacts on the environment, and environmental mismanagement will adversely affect people's health and living conditions. The importance of environmental and family planning policies must be known to every household, and these policies must be effectively implemented as part of socioeconomic development programs. Although China's family planning policy has been successful in reducing China's population size and growth, the task ahead of guaranteeing a population under 1.3 billion by 2000 is enormous. The challenge will be to implement effective programs in rural and poverty-stricken areas. Family planning should be combined with poverty alleviation and income development. Policies should give priority to poor family planning acceptors. China has made "significant progress in environmental protection," but the public is creating "a higher demand on the quality of the environment." By the year 2000, the trends in environmental pollution and ecological destruction must be controlled and the quality of the environment improved. By 2010, there should be evidence of environmental improvements in urban areas, in degraded situations, and in rural areas. Environmental protection will require the cooperation between all departments, the Communist Party, and the Chinese people. PMID:12347918

Jiang, Z

1997-04-01

82

[Family planning program on the island of Mauritius].  

PubMed

Because of concern with rapid population growth and resource limitations in its island nation, the government of Mauritius several years ago adopted a family planning program whose objective was to slow the crude reproduction rate from 2.9 in 1962 to 1.1 between 1980-87. The Mauritian Family Planning Association had met considerable opposition, especially from religious groups, in the years following its formation in 1957, and a Catholic group, Family Action, had been formed to promote methods acceptable to the Church. In 1965 the government began to subsidize the Mauritian Family Planning Association. As recently as 1977 the maternal mortality rate in Mauritius was 1.6/1000, 15 times higher than in Europe or the US. 23 of each 38 deaths were believed due to complications of clandestine abortion, and hospitalization rates for abortion complications were also high. Maternal mortality following live births at home was estimated at 2.7/1000, compared to 1.3 for hospital births. The government announced the goal of reducing infant mortality from 45/1000 live births in 1977 to 40/1000 by 1982-87. Important causes of perinatal mortality were prematurity, intestinal infection, diarrhea, and pneumonia. The World Bank sent 2 missions to advise the government on organization of a family planning program in 1967, and in 1970 an accord was signed with the United Nations Fund for Population Activities for family planning assistance. In 1974, family planning services were integrated into the Maternal-Child Health Division of the Ministry of Health. A variety of contraceptive means were to be offered. Family planning personnel include physicians, clinic assistants, nurses, midwives, promoters, and fieldworkers. Family planning supervisors are responsible for fieldworkers, promoters, and clinic assistants in specified geographic areas. In 1978, there were 71 maternal-child health/family planning centers, 42 contraceptive distribution centers, and 14 family planning clinics, in addition to clinics and hospitals outside the national program. A communication committee was formed in 1978 to coordinate the communication activities of the Family Planning Association, Family Action, and the government program. IEC programs are addressed to adults and to youth in schools, who may receive instruction at primary of secondary level by any of the 3 programs on population, family life, and sex education. A 1975 survey indicated that 88% of the women interviewed knew about the pill, 44% the IUD, 52% the Ogino method, and 50% the condom. 1161 of the 1821 married women interviewed stated they had never used contraception and 833 were currently using some method. The total fertility rate declined from 5.9 in 1962 to 3.3 in 1972 and 3.1 in 1978. From 1980 to 1981 the crude birthrate declined from 27.9 to 25.1/1000 and the crude mortality rate from 7.2 to 6.9/1000. PMID:12265821

1983-01-01

83

Vanguard family planning acceptors in Senegal.  

PubMed

This study examines contraceptive use among clients at the three clinics providing family planning services in Dakar, Senegal in early 1983. Most clients first became interested in family planning following the birth of a child, and most are interested in spacing future pregnancies, although one-third state that they want no more children. The clinic itself was found to be an important determinant of the type of contraceptive used, with only the government-operated clinic providing a balance between IUDs, oral contraceptives, and barrier methods. Nearly half of the clients interviewed said that a lack of knowledge about contraception is the reason for the low contraceptive prevalence rates among Senegalese women; another frequently cited reason was the opposition of the husband. Most clients reported the broadcast media to be the best means of providing family planning information to potential acceptors. PMID:4060212

Nichols, D; Ndiaye, S; Burton, N; Janowitz, B; Gueye, L; Gueye, M

1985-01-01

84

NATIONAL PLAN TO ACHIEVE MARITIME DOMAIN AWARENESS  

E-print Network

NATIONAL PLAN TO ACHIEVE MARITIME DOMAIN AWARENESS FOR THE NATIONAL STRATEGY FOR MARITIME SECURITY OCTOBER 2005 #12;National Strategy for Maritime Security: National Plan to Achieve Maritime Domain Awareness i FOREWORD By signing National Security Presidential Directive-41/Homeland Security Presidential

Acton, Scott

85

Family planning and protection of human rights.  

PubMed

The discussion of human rights in China is based on the White Paper issued by the Information Office under the State Council on November 1, 1991. China is the most populous country in the world at 1.14 billion in 1990. Annual increases of 17 million are expected even with family planning (FP). The area of cultivated land/capita has dropped to 1.3 mu (16.5% of an acre)/capita, or 25% of the world average. Fresh water resources have also dropped similarly. The amount of grain.person is 22% of that in the US. 25% of additional income to the national income is consumed by newborns annually. Savings have been cut and reinvestment in economic development has been slowed. There are pressures on all social and economic systems. There is acknowledged success in FP. The birth rate has dropped to 21.06.1000 in 1990, the rate of natural increase to 14.39%/1000, and the fertility rate to 2.31. These figures are lower than the averages for other developing countries. The FP policy is to promote deferred marriage and childbearing, fewer but healthier births, and 1 child/couple. Rural families who are having difficulties may after an interval of several years have a 2nd child. Minority nationalities are being encouraged to adopt FP voluntarily. Han requirements are different. The policy has been understood and supported by the masses and has contributed to the drop in 3rd and higher parity births to 19.32% in 1989 from 62.21% in 1970. The government role is one of guidance and persuasion within the law, and cannot be accomplished by administrative decrees alone. The government has given priority to enlightening the masses through publicity and education that birth control has a direct impact on the nation's prosperity and people's happy family life. The China FP Association has set up 600,000 grass roots branches with 32 million members to assist in aiding the masses in self-education, self-management, and self-service. Ideological education has been combined with helping the masses solve practical problems. FP identifies contraception as protection of maternal and child health. 75% of couples of childbearing age practice contraception. Coercive abortions are resolutely opposed. Induced abortion in cases of contraceptive failure are voluntary and safe. The abortion ratio is comparable to world rates, but lower rates are targeted. Policy objectives are to control population growth and improve the quality of human resources. Maternal and child health care is provided. Law forbids infanticide. Policy conforms to item 9 of the UN Mexico City Declaration on Population and Development, 1984, and the UN World Population Plan of Action. PMID:12317280

1991-12-01

86

75 FR 17203 - National Rail Plan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. FRA-2010-0020] National Rail Plan AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...development of the long-range National Rail Plan (NRP) through an open docket. In...INFORMATION: Background: The Passenger Rail Investment and Improvement Act of...

2010-04-05

87

Systems effects on family planning innovativeness.  

PubMed

Data from Korea were used to explore the importance of community level variables in explaining family planning adoption at the individual level. An open system concept was applied, assuming that individual family planning behavior is influenced by both environmental and individual factors. The environmental factors were measured at the village level and designated as community characteristics. The dimension of communication network variables was introduced. Each individual was characterized in terms of the degree of her involvement in family planning communication with others in her village. It was assumed that the nature of the communication network linking individuals with each other effects family planning adoption at the individual level. Specific objectives were to determine 1) the relative importance of the specific independent variables in explaining family planning adoption and 2) the relative importance of the community level variables in comparison with the individual level variables in explaining family planning adoption at the individual level. The data were originally gathered in a 1973 research project on Korea's mothers' clubs. 1047 respondents were interviewed, comprising all married women in 25 sample villages having mothers' clubs. The dependent variable was family planning adoption behavior, defined as current use of any of the modern methods of family planning. The independent variables were defined at 3 levels: individual, community, and at a level intermediate between them involving communication links between individuals. More of the individual level independent variables were significantly correlated with the dependent variables than the community level variables. Among those variables with statistically significant correlations, the correlation coefficients were consistently higher for the individual level than for the community level variables. More of the variance in the dependent variable was explained by individual level than by community level variables. Community level variables accounted for only about 2.5% of the total variance in the dependent variable, in marked contrast to the result showing individual level variables accounting for as much as 19% of the total variance. When both individual and community level variables were entered into a multiple correlation analysis, a multiple correlation coefficient of .4714 was obtained together they explained about 20% of the total variance. The 2 communication network variables--connectedness and integrativeness--were correlated with the dependent variable at much higher levels than most of the individual or community level variables. Connectedness accounted for the greatest amount of the total variance. The communication network variables as a group explained as much of the total variance in the dependent variable as the individual level variables and greatly more that the community level variables. PMID:12339471

Lee, S B

1983-12-01

88

Family planning services / sex education / teenage pregnancy.  

PubMed

State legislative proposals and actions related to family planning services/sex education/teenage pregnancy are presented for 1991 and 1992. Proposals' sponsors, topics, and dates of introduction are listed under the following subtopics: contraceptives/contraceptive services, miscellaneous, parental consent/notification for contraceptives, school-based clinics/school health services, sex/health education, state programs for family planning services, sterilization, and teenage pregnancy prevention and care programs. Proposals are listed under subheadings according to whether they were vetoed, killed, or enacted. PMID:12317962

1992-12-01

89

Black Families: A Source of National Strength.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, Arthur Jefferson, the Executive Director of the Office of Criminal Justice Plans and Analysis, discusses crime in the black community and its effect on the black family. The literature on the impact of crime on the black family is not extensive; however, there is considerable information concerning crime in the black community in…

Jefferson, Arthur M.

90

Family planning perspective for Haryana State.  

PubMed

The basic, subsistence level, needs for an average Indian are Rs. 100 per month. Normally an Indian spends 57 percent of his income on food. From 1961-71 the per capita income rose by only Rs. 90, from Rs. 337 to Rs. 427. 40 percent of the Indian population lives below the poverty line. The population rises in geometric progression, but the economy develops arithmetically. The goal of family planning officials is to stabilize the population as quickly as possible. If the basic minimum is Rs. 100 per month by 1998 then the population must be stabilized by 1984 to zero population growth. The birth rate must be reduced from 20 in 1978-79 to 13 by 1984. The Gross National Product should be raised by a rate of 6 percent per year. If zero population growth is achieved, 4,160,838 births will have been avoided. 1 birth avoided saves approximately Rs. 690 to Rs. 1360. To achieve zero population growth requires massive sterilizations, IUD insertions, and constant motivational efforts through workers in a small community of 3500-5000. The hospital for the State of Haryana needs facilities and personnel to be able to perform 75,000 tubectomies. PMID:10308707

Sondhi, P R

1975-01-01

91

NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM LAND MANAGEMENT PLANNING RULE NATIONAL SCIENCE PANEL  

E-print Network

1 NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM LAND MANAGEMENT PLANNING RULE NATIONAL SCIENCE PANEL Washington, D, 2010 to provide comments on particular topics regarding the development of the new planning rule. I of the planning rule. In addition to writing a new rule, lawmakers and the USFS should convene a National Forest

Nie, Martin

92

National Family Caregiver Support Program  

MedlinePLUS

... is available through this database. Back to top Funding History Funding for Family Caregiver Support Services during the past ... resource for policymakers and the public on the economic, social, and personal imperatives of intergenerational cooperation. The ...

93

Family planning programs during last one decade in Korea.  

PubMed

The public and private family planning programs in Korea are described and their progress in population control during the 1960's is discussed. A goal of a natural increase rate of 2% per year by 1971 was set in 1961 when the rate was 3%. It was estimated that 45% of the married couples of childbearing age would have to actively practice family planning to meet that goal, and 2370 family planning workers are participating now in the program throughout the country. The family planning program operates as part of the already existing national health service network. All fmaily planning services are provided free or with only a nominal charge at most. Intrauterine devices, oral contraceptives, condoms and vasectomies are the most common contraceptive methods chosen, in that order. A 1968 survey on abortion which is illegal in Korea showed 30% of urban women and 15% of rural women had had at least 1 induced abortion. In 1970 it was estimated that 1.8 million IUD insertions and 146 thousand vasectomies had been performed, 276,000 women had been started on oral contraceptives, and 163,000 condoms had been distributed. Numerous problems have been encountered by the Korean family planning program including inadequate financing and political power, association with a generally poor maternal health service, lack of follow-up and statistical evaluating, and unnecessary bureaucratic procedures. Professionally, trained family planning workers have a high attrition rate. Ever-greater numbers of young Korean women are now entering their childbearing period which increases the challenge to the family planning program, along with the problems of an increasingly heterogeneous urban society. Reducing family size to only 2 children conflicts with deep-seated cultural traditions, and even if the motivation exists, present contraceptive technology remains inadequate. In partial response to these problems, increasing emphasis is being placed on paramedical personnel and a mass media educational campaign. Improved organization, a greater supply of well-trained workers, and well-controlled field and clinical studies are needed to improve Korea's family planning program. PMID:5161482

Yang, J M

1971-01-01

94

Behavior change strategies for family planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technology of behavior modification is central to most family planning and population control strategies. Positive, differential and negative reinforcement, usually cast in terms of 'incentives' and 'disincentives', have been applied to promoting child spacing and contraceptive use throughout the developing world. A wide variety of options are available to program planners interested in decreased birth rates, increased contraceptive use

John P. Elder; Jacqueline D. Estey

1992-01-01

95

Nursing 572: Principles of Family Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A description is provided of "Principles of Family Planning," a course designed for graduate nursing students or practicing nurses seeking continuing education credit. The first sections of the course description provide a rationale for the course, information on its curricular placement, scheduling information, and statements of long-range and…

Newton, Marsha

96

Private sector joins family planning effort.  

PubMed

Projects supported by the Directorate for Population (S&T/POP) of the U.S. Agency for International Development and aimed at increasing for-profit private sector involvement in providing family planning services and products are described. Making products commercially available through social-marketing partnerships with the commercial sector, USAID has saved $1.1 million in commodity costs from Brazil, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Indonesia, and Peru. Active private sector involvement benefits companies, consumers, and donors through increased corporate profits, healthier employees, improved consumer access at lower cost, and the possibility of sustained family planning programs. Moreover, private, for-profit companies will be able to meet service demands over the next 20 years where traditional government and donor agency sources would fail. Using employee surveys and cost-benefit analyses to demonstrate expected financial and health benefits for businesses and work forces, S&T/POP's Technical Information on Population for the Private Sector (TIPPS) project encourages private companies in developing countries to invest in family planning and maternal/child health care for their employees. 36 companies in 9 countries have responded thus far, which examples provided from Peru and Zimbabwe. The Enterprise program's objectives are also to increase the involvement of for-profit companies in delivering family planning services, and to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of private volunteer organizations in providing services. Projects have been started with mines, factories, banks, insurance companies, and parastatals in 27 countries, with examples cited from Ghana and Indonesia. Finally, the Social Marketing for Change project (SOMARC) builds demand and distributes low-cost contraceptives through commercial channels especially to low-income audiences. Partnerships have been initiated with the private sector in 17 developing countries, with examples provided from the Dominican Republic, Liberia and Ecuador. These projects have increased private sector involvement in family planning, thereby promoting service expansion at lower public sector cost. PMID:12343476

1989-12-01

97

National Foreign Language Planning: Practices and Prospects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A selection of essays on foreign language planning at the national level contains articles on the language planning process, language choice, teacher education, testing and assessment, and transnational planning. Essays include the following: "Foreign Language Teaching Policy: Some Planning Issues" (Theo J. M. van Els); "Foreign Language Planning

Sajavaara, Kari, Ed.; And Others

98

Family planning in a Roman Catholic community.  

PubMed

For centuries in Malta, both Catholic and civil officials have condemned abortion. In 1650, medical practitioners found guilty of administering abortive substances were sentenced to 5 years as galley oarsmen. It was illegal to counsel on, administer, take, or cultivate abortive plants. In 1786, those considered guilty of abortion included not just women who sought abortions, but violent husbands and "careless" women who spontaneously miscarried. In the late 19th century, by the end of their childbearing years, women had a mean parity of 11. Despite the 1930 Encyclical of Pope Pius XI denouncing the use of contraceptives, the Maltese population has increasingly accepted family planning, as indicated by the decreasing birth rates beginning in the 1950s (14/100 births in 1957 to 8/100 births in 1985). A survey in the late 1950s revealed that even though 82% of couples were familiar with the rhythm method, only 27% knew how to use it. So the Maltese Church set up free family planning clinics in 1962 under the direction of the Cana Movement to promote the rhythm method. By 1971, 87% of women used some form of family planning, especially rhythm method followed by withdrawal. In 1982, the government succumbed to the pressure of a women's group and established family planning clinics which offered, free-of-charge, all family planning methods, except abortion. In 1983, 91.4% of women who had just delivered planned to use some form of family planning (coitus interruptus and other sexual practices [59%], artificial contraceptive methods (26%), and rhythm method [12%]). 37.6% of people approved of artificial contraceptive methods. 31.9% approved of abortion (39% to protect mother's health and 16% to prevent a handicapped child). In the 1990s, these figures were 49% and 36% (47% and 20%), respectively. The accelerating process of secularization and increasing disagreement with the Church's teachings have caused the change in attitudes. The Roman Catholic Church in Malta is still a quasi-political force, however. It objects to the promotion and use of condoms (despite the AIDS epidemic), sterilization, and the IUD. PMID:12289091

Savona-ventura, C

1995-03-01

99

Family Planning: Its Impact on the Health of Women and Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document explores risks to the health and lives of women and children that can be avoided or reduced by family planning. Emphasis throughout is on case studies and statistics from developing nations. Data are presented in expository and chart form. Information is presented in four chapters. Chapter I, Child Health and Family Planning,…

Maine, Deborah

100

Health and family planning: facts and issues.  

PubMed

Family planning can play a significant role in reducing maternal and child health in developing countries. Poor health of women, complications of pregnancy and childbirth, low birthweight, malnutrition, and infection--all major contributors to infant and maternal mortality--are strongly affected by fertility patterns. In addition, 200,000 women a year die from complications of illegal abortions--deaths that could be prevented if couples had access to effective means of contraception. A significant number of infants in developing countries are compromised from birth by low birthweight, caused by the poor health and nutritional status of a mother whose condition has been aggravated by closely spaced pregnancies. Moreover, children of high birth orders have more frequent illnesses and grow more slowly than those from smaller families. Another contributor to poor maternal and child outcomes is births to women under 20 and over 35 years of age. Breastfeeding not only has psychological advantages in terms of maternal-infant bonding, but delays the return of fertility and thus lengthens the interpregnancy interval. However, traditional methods such as breastfeeding must be complemented by the use of technically and culturally appropriate contraceptive methods. Although 95% of the population in the Third World live in countries that provide some form of support to family planning programs, there remains a tremendous unmet need for contraception, especially improved oral contraceptives, long-acting agents, vaginal rings, new barrier methods, modern male methods, and improved forms of natural family planning. An estimated 300 million couples do not want more children, but are not using a family planning method, chiefly because of inadequate access to services in rural areas and urban slums. PMID:3387296

1988-04-01

101

Family planning / sex education / teenage pregnancy.  

PubMed

The Alan Guttmacher Institute's State Reproductive Health Monitor provides legislative information on family planning, sex education, and teenage pregnancy. The listing contains information on pending bills; the state, the identifying legislation number, the sponsor, the committee, the date the bill was introduced, a description of the bill, and when available, the bill's status. From January through February, 1993, the bills cover a wide range of regulation and social policy including: appropriations for family planning services; Norplant implants for women receiving AFDC benefits; the requirement that health insurance policies provide coverage for contraception services; the repeal of the sterilization procedure review committee; since a need for such a committee has vanished; requiring hotels, motels, and innkeepers to offer condoms for sale to registered guests; allowing male and female public assistance recipients between ages 18-35 who submit to sterilization operations to be eligible to receive a $2,000 grant; a provision that no more children may be included in the size of the family, for the purpose of determining the amount of AFDC benefits that a family may receive, than at the time that eligibility was determined, and that before a family with 2 or more children can receive AFDC benefits, the woman must consent to and have surgically implanted Norplant or a similar reversible birth control device with a 5-year or longer effectiveness. PMID:12344860

1993-02-01

102

China's first family planning publicity month.  

PubMed

China conducted its 1st nationwide Family Planning Publicity Month in 1983, from New Year's Day to Spring Festival (February 13). The campaign emphasized the rural areas and focused on explaining why family planning is a state policy. The most noticeable achievements of this campaign were that every household became familiar with the fact that family planning is a basic state policy. The majority of the population take this policy seriously, realizing that strict control of population growth is both a good and imperative policy. More than 1,830,000 propaganda columns and photo exhibitions were displayed, 5,900,000 radio and television programs broadcast, 2,010,000 theatrical performances, movie and slide showings presented, and 97,000,000 copies of materials published for public dissemination. The activities were varied and interesting, vivid and lively, and purposeful and persuasive. 1 of the most effective methods of publicizing population control has been the presentation of comparative statistics. This aspect of the campaign was a specific and lively form of education in population theory and practice. The presentation of statistics that show the relationship among population, land use, grain produce, and income enabled the population to reason out why population growth needs to match economic and social development. Another important accomplishment of the publicity month was that a large number of couples of reproductive age became convinced of the need to use contraception. According to the incomplete statistics, 8,860,000 people had surgical operations for birth control. The universal promotion of ligations by either partner of a reproductive couple who already had given birth to a 2nd child was an important development of family planning technique promoted simultaneously with the promotion of IUDs. The increase in the number of people doing family planning work was another achievement of the publicity month. More than 15,240,000 publicity personnel and 760,000 medical personnel were trained. The enthusiasm of the Party and the people contributed to the success of the publicity month. The success of the publicity month is inseparable from the achievements and experience gained through China's longterm pursuit of family planning. PMID:12312452

Shen, G

1983-05-01

103

Fertility and family planning in Vietnam.  

PubMed

This report provides the first reliable statistical data on fertility patterns and the family planning program in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Findings are from the 1988 Demographic and Health Survey of Vietnam and the 1989 census survey. The data show that the total fertility rate has declined from over 6 children per woman in the early 1970s to under 4 in the later 1980s. Contraceptive prevalence for modern methods is estimated at 37 percent among married women of reproductive age in 1988. The average duration of breastfeeding is over 14 months; marriage is relatively late. The IUD is the most common contraceptive method and abortion is widespread. The major factors likely to influence fertility and family planning in the future are the government's population policy, improved access to modern methods of contraception, and the institution of new economic policies that are currently under way in Vietnam. PMID:1759276

Allman, J; Vu, Q N; Nguyen, M T; Pham, B S; Vu, D M

1991-01-01

104

National Security College Strategic Plan: 20132016  

E-print Network

National Security College Strategic Plan: 2013­2016 National Security College National Security College The National Security College is a joint initiative of the Commonwealth Government and The Australian National University #12;College Head's Overview Public policy and academic analysis share a common

Botea, Adi

105

International family planning funds will be expedited.  

PubMed

With a 53-46 vote on February 25, the Senate approved a resolution to speed up the release of funding to the US Agency for International Development (USAID) for its overseas family planning programs. The resolution, which had been passed by the House on February 13 (see RFN VI/2), will make money budgeted for fiscal year 1997 available on March 1, 4 months earlier than originally scheduled. Under the omnibus budget bill approved at the end of September 1996, funding was to have been withheld until July 1--a full 9 months into the fiscal year--unless President Clinton made a finding that the delay was harming the functioning of the US family planning program. Based on a report from USAID, which found that the delay would cause at least 17 programs around the world to suspend their services and result in significant and permanent damage to US population-control efforts, President Clinton issued the finding in support of moving up the release of funds. The Senate did not consider a House-passed provision that would have barred family planning programs that receive US money from providing abortions, even if they paid for the procedures through other sources of funding. PMID:12292202

1997-02-28

106

Tay Sachs and Related Storage Diseases: Family Planning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on interviews with 24 families, the article discusses family planning and the choices available to those families in which a child has previously died from Tay-Sachs or related lipid storage diseases. (IM)

Schneiderman, Gerald; And Others

1978-01-01

107

Bibliography of Family Planning and Population, Volume 1 Number 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compiled from the world's research literature, this bi-monthly classified list of references on population and family planning emphasizes recently published material, primarily journal literature. Topics covered include: population and fertility; reproductive behaviour; the family; education in population, family planning, and sex; family

Linzell, Dinah, Comp.

108

[On family planning policy in Brazil].  

PubMed

Brazil's population could vary from a minimum of 164.5 million to a maximum of 183.5 million at the turn of the century. The increase in population is due essentially to a decline in mortality, since natality has remained steady, averaging 6.2 children/woman. During the 1st 4 years of the 1980s, a 19% drop in natality was registered, with the greatest reduction occurring in the East-Central (25%) region, testimony to an increased presence of highly effective contraceptive means. 65% of all married women between the ages of 15 and 44 use contraceptives, placing Brazil among the most developed countries (U.S.A., 68%). The main contraceptive method used is sterilization, preferred even by very young women, median age 29, as evidenced by a study in Sao Paulo. The choice of contraceptives, however, is limited. During the military dictatorship family planning was put in the hands of private organizations (BEMFAM since 1965, CEPAIMC since 1975) and recent policies have emphasized a hands-off attitude leaving birth control decisions to the family nucleus. The economic crisis, at the end of the 1970s, modified this position. In order to avoid that, only the wealthy classes have access to family planning means, the government increasingly plays an active role in providing information and assistance. A not-for-profit institution, ABEPF (Brazilian Association for Family Planning Entities), the largest of its kind in Latin America, organizes and promotes private initiative programs. Acting as a true syndicate, each clinic affiliated with the association receives training of professionals and equipment for installation of laboratories and consulting rooms. Various women's rights movements have been active and succeeded in influencing political parties. PMID:12280937

Berquo, E

1987-01-01

109

Evaluation of the five-year family planning plan.  

PubMed

Interviews were conducted with white and black women in 16 Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas (SMSA) during 1969 and 1970. Ages ranged from 15 to 44 and all the women were below the 150% poverty level. The intent was to estimate the number of unwanted births with the effects of the federal 5-year family planning plan being considered. The results showed 3.8 unwanted births per 100 white women subsequent to adoption of the pill or IUD, and 6.3 unwanted births for black women. If all women below the 150% poverty level had adopted contraceptives or sterilization, 366,456 unwanted births would have been prevented. A possible 24% reduction in unwanted births is attributed to the 5-year plan. PMID:4759553

Bauman, K E; Udry, J R

1973-11-01

110

The politics of Latin American family-planning policy.  

PubMed

In population planning in Latin America the programs are as successful as the government's support of family planning. Colombia is one of the few Latin American countries which has actively exhorted its populace to birth control. If the propensity for large families reflects a belief in the economic or social utility of children, instead of machismo, birthrates will fall with expanded social security and economic welfare programs. If birthrates are the result of machismo, new gender models stressing the positive rewards and social esteem to be gained through responsible parenthood would have to be taught to both adults and children. The position profamily planning in most Latin American countries is generally supported by the ministers, technocrats, corporations, businessmen, middle-class women, doctors, mass media, protestant congregations, and working-class women. Family planning is usually opposed by members of the armed forces, Catholic hierarchy, Catholic lay organizations, oligarchy, university students, leftist intellectuals, Marxist insurgents, Indian communities, and peasants. The portion of the total national populations encompassed by the groups composing the core combination, ideological bias, and stability group ranges from 50-60% in Argentina, Uruguay, and Venezuela to 10-20% in Central America, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Paraguay. Most groups are outside the policy-making process. PMID:12261441

Weaver, J L

1978-07-01

111

78 FR 23491 - National Forest System Land Management Planning; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Forest System Land Management Planning; Correction AGENCY: Forest...revising, and monitoring land management plans (the planning rule). The National Forest...National Forest System Land Management Planning Rule Final...

2013-04-19

112

Publicity and education are fundamental to China's family planning programme.  

PubMed

This article summarizes and discusses the documents concerning family planning promulgated by the Communist Party, National People's Congress and the Government of China since the start of China's family planning program. In 1955 a document was issued entitled the Directive Concerning Population Control pointing out that the public should be made aware of birth control. In 1965 the summary of the 2nd Conference on Urban Work discussed ways of explaining the significance of family planning, to make it a voluntary action of the people. In 1980 the necessity of 1 child per couple was pointed out and policies were formulated regarding ideological and political education. During the 80's several documents were issued which stressed the voluntariness and initiative of the people in practicing birth control, and that any type of coercion was prohibited. For 30 years the fundamental practice of strengthening publicity and education and opposing coercion has remained unchanged no matter how birth policies have been scored in population control since 1979. PMID:12341203

Zou, P

1987-04-01

113

A Congressional view: access to family planning important.  

PubMed

The US Congress has become reluctant to appropriate funds for family planning assistance in developing countries. In the Congress, international family planning has misguidedly and mistakenly become the battleground over abortion. It is unfortunate that the majority in the 104th and 105th Congress have undertaken a concerted attack on US support for international family planning by reducing needed funding and saddling the program with onerous restrictions. While the Congress debates international family planning funding, women, children, and families around the world are suffering the consequences of reduced and/or restricted access to family planning services. Cutting and/or restricting international family planning funds produces a devastating effect on the health and well-being of women and children in developing countries, and in the long term, the consequences will be overpopulation leading to poverty, malnutrition, urban crowding, environmental degradation, and the depletion of the world's resources. PMID:12322271

Pelosi, N

1998-09-01

114

[Promoting family planning work in Xiaqidu township by establishing a family planning association in each village].  

PubMed

A family planning association was established in each village of Xiaqidu Township in Hunan Province, China in October 1986. The positive functions of each such association were so fully developed that family planning work reached new levels. For example, most villages are no longer experiencing early marriages or unplanned births. Some of the villages have established associations for individual work groups. The traditional method was for both township and village associations to rely upon the positive attitudes of officials to instill into fertile women Party policy, and to arouse their patriotism and initiative. By establishing family planning associations at the village level, however, the people can conduct their own affairs and educate themselves. Emphasis has been placed on attracting into the associations those who are of childbearing age, as well as older villagers of experience. The associations' raison d'etre was to serve the people. They did so through: propaganda (disseminating population theory, birth control and family planning information); helping the people overcome poverty, traditional thinking, and ignorance; assisting women with any problems and anxieties relating to child-bearing; delivering contraceptives to households; and providing the elderly with care and the young with education. PMID:12159303

Li, C

1987-07-01

115

[Speech by Dr. Qian Xinzhong, Minister-in-charge of the State Family Planning Commission and Laureate of the United Nations Population Award, at the United Nations Population Award presentation ceremony (30 September 1983)].  

PubMed

On September 30, 1983, the Minister of the People's Republic of China's State Family Planning Commission, appeared before the UN and was awarded the UN Population Award. The Minister later addressed the UN during which he recounted China's progress in public health made over the past 100 years. From 1949 to 1970, China experienced a population growth of more than 280 million. However, since 1970, China has been actively working toward controlling its rate of natural population growth, the result of which has been a reduction from 26/1000 capita per year in 1970 to 14.5/1000 capita per year in 1982. The Minister further attributed this success to the Chinese Communist Party and Chinese government. He concluded his speech by stating that China's current policies are to bring its rate of population growth under control, while improving the quality of life of its citizens. PMID:12159402

Qian, X

1983-11-29

116

Couple Communication and Sexual Attitudes in Natural Family Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Natural family planning (NFP) refers to techniques for planning or preventing pregnancy by observation of natural signs of fertility. In using natural family planning to avoid pregnancy, there is abstinence from sexual intercourse during the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle. Social values which are incorporated into the method include couples…

Shivanandan, Mary; Borkman, Thomasina

117

Experimental plan for the Single-Family Study  

SciTech Connect

The national evaluation of the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) consists of five separate studies. The Single-Family Study is one of three studies that will estimate program energy savings and cost effectiveness in principal WAP submarkets. This report presents the experimental plan for the Single-Family Study, which will be implemented over the next three years (1991--1993). The Single-Family Study will directly estimate energy savings for a nationally representative sample of single-family and small multifamily homes weatherized in the 1989 program year. Savings will be estimated from gas and electric utility billing records using the Princeton Scorekeeping Method (PRISM). The study will also assess nonenergy impacts (e.g., health, comfort, safety, and housing affordability), estimate cost effectiveness, and analyze factors influencing these outcomes. For homes using fuels such as wood, coal, fuel oil, kerosene, and propane as the primary source of space conditioning, energy savings will be studied indirectly. The study will assemble a large nationally representative data base. A cluster sampling approach will be used, in which about 400 subgrantees are selected in a first stage and weatherized homes are selected in a second range. To ensure that the Single-Family Study is able to identify promising opportunities for future program development, two purposively selected groups of subgrantees will be included: (1) subgrantees that install cooling measures (such as more efficient air conditioning equipment or radiant barriers), and (2) exemplary subgrantees that use state-of-the-art technologies and service delivery procedures (such as advanced audit techniques, blower door tests, infrared scanners, extensive client education, etc.). These two groups of subgrantees will be analyzed to identify the most effective program elements in specific circumstances. 14 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Berry, L.G.; Brown, M.A.; Wright, T.; White, D.L.

1991-09-01

118

Ethiopia: an emerging family planning success story.  

PubMed

From 1990 to 2011, contraceptive use in Ethiopia increased ninefold and the total fertility rate fell from 7.0 to 4.8. These are two dramatic illustrations of a family planning success story that has emerged over the last two decades and is still emerging. What are the main elements of this success? We posit that the four most significant factors are: political will, generous donor support, nongovernmental and public-private partnerships, and the government's establishment of a network of health extension workers. In this study, we look at these factors and how their interaction increased the proportion of women having both the desire to use and ability to access contraceptives. Also highlighted are some of the key lessons learned in Ethiopia that are relevant to other African countries interested in emulating the country's success. PMID:24323662

Olson, David J; Piller, Andrew

2013-12-01

119

Work-Family Planning Attitudes among Emerging Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using social learning theory as a framework, we explore two sets of antecedents to work and family role planning attitudes among emerging adults: their work-family balance self-efficacy and their perceptions of their parents' work-to-family conflict. A total of 187 college students completed a questionnaire concerning their work-family balance…

Basuil, Dynah A.; Casper, Wendy J.

2012-01-01

120

Family planning / sex education / teenage pregnancy.  

PubMed

The Alan Guttmacher Institute's "State Reproductive Health Monitor: Legislative Proposals and Actions" provides US legislative information on family planning, sex education, and teenage pregnancy. The listing contains information on legislation including the state, the identifying legislative number, the sponsor, the committee, the date the bill was introduced, a description of the bill, and the bill's status. The bills cover: 1) family planning services and programs, e.g., requiring the Department of Human Services to provide written information concerning the availability of the Norplant contraceptive implant through the Medicaid program adding chlamydia screening to the existing law, or requesting a study assessing the social and financial impact of mandatory health insurance for contraceptive devices; 2) parental consent and notice for contraception legislation; 3) school-based clinics and school health services, e.g., establishing health screening programs in public schools, allowing school-based health centers to dispense drug prescriptions; 4) sex and health education, e.g., urging all school boards to require all public elementary, middle, and high schools that teach sex education to emphasize abstinence from sexual intercourse as the only effective protection against pregnancy or sexually transmitted diseases and to require that information about sexual assault by an acquaintance and related issues be included in sex education courses in public schools; 5) teenage pregnancy prevention and care programs, e.g., requesting the public health, welfare, and labor committee to conduct a study of efforts to reduce infant mortality, teen pregnancy, and related problems as well as establishing and maintaining pregnancy and parenting education programs in secondary schools; and 6) infertility legislation on assisted reproductive technologies, including issues such as clarifying the status of children and adults born from donated eggs or preembryos, relinquishment of rights by the donors of eggs, sperms, or preembryos, allowable compensation for such donations, and the granting of legal status to fertilized ex utero embryos. PMID:12286572

1993-05-01

121

My university. What I learned from the Productive Cooperative Movement to Promotion of Humanistic Family Planning.  

PubMed

Based on experiences with the Productive Cooperative Movement and the Parasite Control Movement in Japan, the Japanese Family Planning Movement began in April 1954. The resultant private and nonprofit Japan Family Planning Association (JFPA) followed and it served to help Japan achieve its goal of reducing fertility by promoting family planning. It did so by publishing a monthly newsletter on family planning, hosting meetings and national conventions, spreading information via the mass media, and selling contraceptives and educational materials. JFPA earned funding from these sales with no support from the government thereby establishing self dependence and freedom to speak candidly to the government. The JFPA learned that families wanted to improve their standard of living and were willing to limit family size to 2 children. After the birth rate peaked in 1955, the birth rate and the number of illegal abortions decreased. In the 1950s, JFPA joined the International Planned Parenthood Federation and subsequently learned of the problems faced by developing countries. Based on the successful reduction of fertility in Japan and a strong economic base, JFPA and the government were in a position to organize an international cooperation program for family planning. Therefore, the leader of JFPA resigned to found the Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning which promotes family planning in developing countries via its integrated family planning, nutrition, and parasite control program. A steering committee composed of leaders from government, universities, and private organizations sets the policies for the program in each country. It is to the Japanese government's advantage to work with private organizations instead of providing all social services because they are flexible and provide administrative stability and national expenses are minimized. PMID:12316428

Kunii, C

1990-07-01

122

Costs can influence family planning decisions.  

PubMed

This article discusses research in Cebu, Philippines, that examines the relationship between costs and income and family planning (FP) decisions. Clients weigh the costs and benefits of obtaining FP services. Costs may include the time to purchase supplies, travel to clinics, child care, and lost work time. Women should consider the costs of having more children. Family Health International's Women's Studies Project explored couple's FP decision-making. In Cebu, women play a decisive role in household expenditure decisions. 64% of women made sole decisions about children's shoes and clothing. 43% made decisions about taking children to the doctor. Women consulted husbands for larger expenditures, such as land purchases, hiring household help, and travel outside Cebu. If conflicts arose, 82% reported a mutual final decision, while 12% accepted the husband's judgment. Only 12% of women made sole decisions about FP. About 20% of the sample of women discussed FP with adult females. 25% of the women who consulted their husbands about FP made the final decision when there was conflict. Only 7% reported that the husband's decision was final. A recent follow-up study to a 1983 study finds that price is only one among many factors that affect contraceptive decision-making. Rural women in Cebu reported that the time needed to obtain contraceptives was an important factor in determining their use. A study of 64 women in rural southern India finds that contraceptive prevalence was influenced by women's autonomy rather than income. Women's and children's ages, family size, and birth order affected women's autonomy and access to money. In another related study, Pakistani women had lower fertility rates when wives' unearned income was high. An increase by 25% in unearned income among rural women decreased fertility by one child. PMID:12293233

Barnett, B

1998-01-01

123

Women need skills, income and family planning.  

PubMed

The myth in Pakistan is that women do not work outside the home but they do even though they tend not to be paid for it. They handle wheat and plant vegetables. They tend to and milk cattle. They handle manure used for fuel and fertilizer. They receive some money albeit small amounts for picking pesticide-laden cotton which puts them at risk. These work activities link them more closely with nature and natural resources than men. Yet modern harvest methods prevent women from gleaning fields for grain to sell to raise money for their family or for wheat stalks to use as fuel. This forces them to take wood from forests or shrubbery, thereby straining these limited resources. Other problems include population growth, male migration, landlessness, and insufficient health services. Society prefers sons. It considers women as childbearers and transitory persons. Females tend not to be educated, thus society does not value women. Social norms and infant mortality are associated with family size--the poorest women tend to have the highest fertility. More children serve as an economic safety valve. Many studies shatter the myth that women do not work. Policymakers and planners need to learn the results of these studies. The number of female-headed households rises. An increasing number of women must work to supplement their husband's income. To empower women, they need education and to acquire skills. Since they tend to be anemic, have an average of 9 births, and a life expectancy at birth for women of 55 years, they must also have access to health and family planning services. Nongovernmental organizations should help women to be more economically productive which allows them some economic independence. For example, in Gilgit, such an organization has trained women in tree planting, nursery rearing, vegetable growing, and caring for chickens. PMID:12285666

Mumtaz, K

1990-01-01

124

National Security Technology Incubator Action Plan  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the action plan for developing the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) program for southern New Mexico. The NSTI program is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). This action plan serves as a tool in measuring progress in the development process and delivery of services for the NSTI program. Continuous review and evaluation of the action plan is necessary in the development process of the NSTI. The action plan includes detailed steps in developing the NSTI program based on recommended best practices in incubator development by the National Business Incubation Association (NBIA). Included are tasks required to implement the NSTI, developed within a work breakdown structure. In addition, a timeline is identified for each task.

None

2008-02-28

125

BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT PLAN.  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Wildlife Management Plan (WMP) is to promote stewardship of the natural resources found at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), and to integrate their protection with pursuit of the Laboratory's mission.

NAIDU,J.R.

2002-10-22

126

Maintaining technical excellence requires a national plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To meet the challenge of technical excellence, AIA established a rocket propulsion committee to develop the National Rocket Propulsion Strategic Plan. Developing such a plan required a broad spectrum of experience and disciplines. The Strategic Plan team needed the participation of industry, government, and academia. The plan provides, if followed, a means for the U.S. to maintain technical excellence and world leadership in rocket propulsion. To implement the National Rocket Propulsion Strategic Plan is to invest in the social, economic, and technological futures of America. The plan lays the basis for upgrading existing propulsion systems and a firm base for future full scale development, production, and operation of rocket propulsion systems for space, defense, and commercial applications.

Davidson, T. F.

1991-01-01

127

Search is on for most outstanding family planning workers and clinics.  

PubMed

The JSI Research and Training Institute, Inc, sponsored a national wide search in the Philippines commencing March 15, 1994, and ending July 7, 1994, for commendable family planning workers. The winners of the competition were selected from five categories: the best family planning volunteer worker, government family planning service worker, nongovernment family planning service worker, a government family planning clinic or center, and a nongovernment family planning clinic or center. Winners in each category were selected at the provincial or chartered city level, regional level, and national level. Nomination forms were made available in Provincial Health Offices or City Health Offices. Nomination criteria involved a worker who must have worked for at least 18 months for a family planning service agency and a volunteer who must have worked at least a year a family planning service agency in referring cases. Clinics or centers must have been in operation for at least 18 months and preferably accredited by the government. Winner selection criteria was based on the number of clients served, the commitment to family planning, and the quality of their work. Nominations were disqualified if workers were involved with performing abortions, coercing clients to practice family planning, or discriminating against any legally acceptable methods of contraception. Provincial selection of the winner occurred on July 15, 1994, and these winners were entered in the regional competition, which was set for August 1 and September 15, 1994. Regional winners competed in the national competition in November 1994. The award for each provincial winner will be a certificate, an aneroid sphygmomanometer, and a stethoscope. Provincial clinics will receive a certificate and a wall clock. Regional winners will receive a certificate and wrist watches. Regional clinics will receive a certificate and an examining table or karaoke sound system. The five national winners will receive a plaque of appreciation, a three day stay in Manila, and a round trip ticket to award ceremonies. Personnel will receive a complete medical kit, while the center will get a refrigerator. An opportunity to visit a family planning program in an Asian country will be provided to national winners. PMID:12290569

1994-01-01

128

National Security Technology Incubator Operations Plan  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the operations plan for developing the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) program for southern New Mexico. The NSTI program will focus on serving businesses with national security technology applications by nurturing them through critical stages of early development. The NSTI program is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The operation plan includes detailed descriptions of the structure and organization, policies and procedures, scope, tactics, and logistics involved in sustainable functioning of the NSTI program. Additionally, the operations plan will provide detailed descriptions of continuous quality assurance measures based on recommended best practices in incubator development by the National Business Incubation Association (NBIA). Forms that assist in operations of NSTI have been drafted and can be found as an attachment to the document.

None

2008-04-30

129

Connecting America: The National Broadband Plan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In early 2009, Congress directed the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to develop a National Broadband Plan to ensure every American has "access to broadband capability." Congress also required that this plan include a detailed strategy for achieving affordability and maximizing use of broadband to advance "consumer welfare, civic…

Federal Communications Commission, 2010

2010-01-01

130

Population Growth and Family Planning. IN Visitors' Information Special Report. SO 6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rapid and still-accelerating increase in the world's population, especially in developing nations, will have a number of serious economic, social, and ecological consequences for the whole world. Germany is attempting to help solve these problems by providing family planning and poverty alleviation assistance to developing nations. German…

Heisse, Thomas

131

Family planning: cultural and religious perspectives.  

PubMed

The world population explosion has caused political leaders to look upon national and regional birth control projects as vital. Support for regulation of individual fertility has been evident in all cultures, and at all times, even in those societies in which social and religious rules have favoured the abundant production of children. As the secularization of Western society and scientific enquiry gained momentum during the modern period, knowledge of reproduction increased and was applied to control human population growth. The various methods of contraception and their development through the years from the ancient ideas to the modern era are presented. Each approach to fertility control has its advantages and disadvantages. No one method is perfect for everyone, for every clinical setting, and in every culture. Higher levels of fertility have been associated with 'traditional', religious prohibitions on some forms of birth control, 'traditional' values about the importance of children and the priority of family, and 'traditional' family and gender roles reinforced by religion. The attitude of the main religious groups to contraceptive practice is discussed. PMID:8345093

Schenker, J G; Rabenou, V

1993-06-01

132

The USA National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study (NLLFS): Homophobia, Psychological Adjustment, and Protective Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study assessed the influence of protective factors on the psychological adjustment of children who had experienced homophobia and whose mothers were participants in a longitudinal study of planned lesbian families. Data were collected as part of the National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study by interviewing the children and having the mothers complete questionnaires. No significant differences were found in the

Henny M. W. Bos; Nanette K. Gartrell; Heidi Peyser; Frank van Balen

2008-01-01

133

Efficient implementation of the basic state policy of family planning for the control of population growth.  

PubMed

The speeches of Chinese Communist Party General Secretary Jiang Zemin and Premier Li Peng are summarized. The speeches were presented at the National Forum on Family Planning on March 21, 1993. Central Committee Party members, governors, and provincial party secretaries were in attendance. Minister Peng Peiyun of the State Family Planning Commission provided introductory remarks. The highlights of Jiang's and Li's speeches emphasized controlling population growth and achieving the second and third stage targets of the modernization drive. The goal was to develop the country economically while reducing the birth rate. Importance was placed on party officials and organizations taking responsibility for family planning implementation and being firm, yet reasonable and practical. Jiang Zemin mentioned that economic development needed to be speeded up along with effective control of population. Economic development surged during 1992 and many achievements were attained in family planning. Leadership in family planning improved. The sobering reality was that although the population growth rate declined, the absolute numbers of the population were still very hugh: 20 million newborns annually and an annual net increase of population of 13-15 million. Closing the gap between demands of and supply to society will be great. Low fertility was not stabilized; the birth rate was very uneven throughout the country and unplanned births had not been lowered. Because provinces and autonomous regions will be experiencing new problems with the economic reform, and there is a need to devote attention to these situations. The economic goal was gross national strength and per capita share. Family planning regulations should be followed and family planning practice should be included in the socioeconomic plan. Minorities have improved in family planning, but rural areas are still problematic. Premier Li Peng said that lessons learned from past family planning experiences should be applied to the future; rural family planning should be stressed and unevenness smoothed out. Problems have arisen between the public and the party, which need to be worked out to the interest of each. An integrated program of population, economy, society, resources, and the environment needs to occur, and family planning needs to be strengthened so that Chinese characteristics can be taken advantage of in family planning. PMID:12286984

1993-04-01

134

Studies in Family Planning, Volume 2 Number 12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A typology of incentives and the general effects of incentives for family planning are discussed in "Incentives in the Diffusion of Family Planning Innovations," the first of three studies in this monthly publication of The Population Council. A brief review of the history of incentives and their present status in the fields is given, together…

Population Council, New York, NY.

135

World society, family planning programs and the health of children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Drawing on world society and policy analysis literatures, the purpose of this paper is to examine the uneven diffusion of family planning programs in the developing world and the subsequent consequences for child health. The study begins by assessing the effect of world society ties on countries' commitment to and capacity for family planning programs. It then examines

Wade Roberts

2009-01-01

136

The Individual Family Service Plan (IFSP). ERIC Digest #E605.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief paper summarizes principles of the Individual Family Service Plan (IFSP) as required under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, Part C. It lists five ways in which the IFSP differs from the Individualized Education Plan including the centrality of the family. Steps that lead to effective IFSPs are identified. These include:…

Bruder, Mary Beth

137

Achievements of the Iranian family planning programmes 1956-2006.  

PubMed

Family planning programmes initiated in the Islamic Republic of Iran from 1966 met with limited success. Following the 1986 census family planning was considered a priority and was supported by the country's leaders. Appropriate strategies based on the principles of health promotion led to an increase in the contraceptive prevalence rate among married women from 49.0% in 1989 to 73.8% in 2006. This paper reviews the family planning programmes in the Islamic Republic of Iran and their achievements during the last 4 decades and discusses the principles of health promotion and theories of behaviour change which may explain these achievements. Successful strategies included: creation of a supportive environment, reorientation of family planning services, expanding of coverage of family planning services, training skilled personnel, providing free contraceptives as well as vasectomy and tubectomy services, involvement of volunteers and nongovernmental organizations and promotion of male participation. PMID:22574484

Simbar, M

2012-03-01

138

Family planning in the workplace in Jamaica.  

PubMed

The Jamaica Family Planning Association started holding presentations and discussions in the workplace in January 1986, now reaching 8000 people in 32 companies. The firms are primarily manufacturers (21) and hotels(7), but also include publishing, construction, printing and supermarket businessess. In these companies as well as many of the 480 members of the Jamaica Chamber of Commerce, employees are usually women of reproductive age who cannot afford to take time off to attend a clinic. There is a great demand for information and discussion on sexually transmitted diseases and clarification of the contraindications of various contraceptive methods. At the end of the discussions, educators offer pills, condoms and neo-sampoon, and may refer people for clinical services. Almost new acceptors have been recruited. The success of the project depends heavily on cooperation of management, supervisors and union representatives. In some cases union representives or company nurses act as distributors of contraceptives. This project has been so successful that some companies expressed an interest in participating in the Associations's resource development program. PMID:12179837

1987-08-01

139

Family planning at heart of political debate.  

PubMed

In the US, the efforts of Chris Smith, a Republican member of the House of Representatives from New Jersey, have led to Congressional approval of two restrictions on US aid to foreign family planning (FP) programs. The first restriction prohibits the US from funding any organization that performs abortion with its own funds, even in countries where abortion is legal (except in cases of life endangerment, rape, or incest). The bill specifies that President Clinton can waive this prohibition only at a cost of $44 million to the already reduced FP funding. The second restriction prohibits US funding of any group that engages in abortion-related lobbying and is, in effect, a "gag rule" that would punish organizations for engaging in activities that would be protected in the US by the First Amendment of the Constitution. Clinton has threatened to veto the legislation even though this means that he will risk losing his ability to pay dues owed to the UN or to provide backing to the International Monetary Fund. Smith's actions reflect efforts to eliminate federal funding of domestic and international FP programs despite the fact that polls continually demonstrate the widespread approval of the US public for such programs. PMID:12348706

Kaeser, L

1998-09-01

140

House battles over UN family planning funds.  

PubMed

The House International Relations Subcommittee on Operations and Human Rights approved HR 1253 by voice vote on April 10, 1997. HR 1253 is a reauthorization of State Department programs for fiscal years 1998 and 1999. Republican anti-choice subcommittee chair Chris Smith inserted language which prohibits the State Department from funding the UNFPA, the UN family planning program. The restriction would only be lifted if President Clinton certifies that the UNFPA has ended all activities in China or that no government-coerced abortions have taken place in China during the previous 12 months. Since neither change is likely, the Smith provision would effectively bar the US from funding the UNFPA, even though the agency does not support abortion services. The State Department authorization was then taken up by the full House International Relations Committee as part of HR 1486, a bill which would reorganize foreign policy operations. By a 23-16 vote on May 6, the committee approved an amendment which deleted the Smith provision and instead stipulated that US funds cannot be used for UNFPA programs in China. Pro-choice representative Tom Campbell sponsored the amendment which deleted the Smith provision. President Clinton's proposed budget for fiscal year 1998 also includes the Campbell provision. PMID:12292412

1997-05-01

141

Barriers to Effective Intercultural Communication in Family Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document addresses communication problems between Anglo-American family planning counselors and Latin-American clients. Cultural differences in attitudes toward family, work, and sexuality are examined. The extended family provides the Latin-American woman with positive self-identity and serves as a source of social relations; it also favors…

Alcalay, Rina; Caldiz, Laura

142

Role of village practitioners in family planning service delivery system.  

PubMed

The acceptability of village practitioners (VPs) as providers of family planning service and their efficiency in delivery of such services is assessed. 120 VPs were selected on stratified random sample basis from 4 Thanas in Malaysia and were trained for 21 days on different aspects of family planning, MCH diagnosis and treatment of common ailments. Regular monthly meetings at the respective Thana Health Complexes were held to assess the progress of work on clinical discussion and for problem solving. The VPs showed interest in the training program and opined that such training programs should be organized on a continual basis. After training, the VPs were actively involved in distribution of contraceptives and referral of patients for clinical methods for 1 year. The compiled progress report on distribution of contraceptives in monthly meetings shows that the VPs contributed to 37% of the total performances of the population control division in the 4 Thanas. The use of contraceptives improved during the experimental project. 50% of the males and 36% of the females reported current use of contraceptives compared to 23% in the National Program. PMID:12314740

Rahman, S

1985-12-01

143

Interspousal communication on family planning and its effect on contraceptive adoption in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

This article explores the hypothesis that interspousal communication on family planning significantly influences the use of contraceptive method in Bangladesh using the nationally representative 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey data. Both bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses were employed in the study. The findings are consistent with the hypothesis. Both cross-sectional and fixed-effect binary logistic regression models yielded quantitatively important and statistically reliable estimates of the positive effect of husband-wife discussion on family planning on the current use of contraceptive method. Son preference, current residence, region, and visitations by family planning workers are also important determinants of contraceptive use. Programs should be undertaken on behalf of the government to involve men in family planning to increase the contraceptive prevalence rate at the point that needs to achieve the replacement level of fertility in Bangladesh. PMID:21659331

Kamal, S M Mostafa; Islam, Md Aynul

2012-05-01

144

Post-abortion family planning: reversing a legacy of neglect.  

PubMed

UN policies have been narrowly focused and have created within the international community the disintegration of family planning and postabortion family planning services. Local policy markers were thus encouraged to circumvent the difficult policy issues surrounding abortion. The result was unsafe abortion as the leading cause of maternal mortality and morbidity. Health professionals must resist the pressures to segregate abortion from reproductive health. The destructive effect is evident in the lives lost, the chronic disability or injury. and the deterioration of families. Death, disability, and injury is preventable in the case of abortion. The current political climate has changed and there is more support throughout the world for dealing with unsafe abortion. Efforts were made in the formation of a 25-member technical working group in Bellagio, Italy, in February 1993 to focus attention on reintegrating abortion and family planning. Conference participants represented a range of professions related to reproductive health needs. The group consensus was that abortion care facilities and family planning programs must be responsive to provision of family planning services to abortion patients. Family planning centers must serve all women and provide referral when abortion services are not part of the program. Abortion care providers must be aware of family planning and create links with providers of family planning. High-quality services are the goal that can be achieved by designing programs to meet the need of individuals rather than an arbitrary set of standards. Post-abortion family planning can be improved despite restrictive laws and must not be ignored until laws have changed. Political and managerial will is required in order to improve access to a full range of reproductive health services for women. It is an ethically responsible mandate to facilitate access to safe, appropriate contraceptive information and services following abortion. PMID:8105318

McLaurin, K E; Senanayake, P; Toubia, N; Ladipo, O A

1993-10-30

145

Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan is to compile and to consolidate information annually on how the ORNL Waste Management Program is conducted, which waste management facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, what activities are planned for the forthcoming fiscal year (FY), and how all of the activities are documented.

Not Available

1992-12-01

146

20 CFR 632.18 - Regional and national planning meetings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Regional and national planning meetings. 632.18 Section 632...EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Program Planning, Application and Modification Procedures § 632.18 Regional and national planning meetings. Grant funds may be...

2010-04-01

147

National Special Security Events: Transportation Planning for Planned Special Events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unique among planned special event activities are those events that carry the National Special Security Event (NSSE) designation. NSSEs occur with some frequency, with 35 of these events held between September 1998 and February 2010. These events include, but are not limited to, presidential inaugurations, presidential nominating conventions, major sports events such as the Super Bowl, and major international meetings

Nancy Houston; Craig Baldwin; Andrea Vann Easton; Jeff Sangillo

2011-01-01

148

PROFAM expands Mexican family planning clinics.  

PubMed

Mexico's private, nonprofit social marketing company, known as PROFAM, intends to expand its family planning clinics to marginal urban areas. The clinics are part of PROFAM's push to diversify social marketing outlets for contraceptive products and other birth control methods. PROFAM expects to establish 3 new clinics, possibly including a pregnancy test laboratory, a small 1-doctor clinic, and a large clinic housing an operating room. 1 clinic will be located outside the Mexico City area, the program's traditional boundaries. The company currently runs 2 small clinics and a pregnancy testing laboratory in Ciudad Netzahualcoyti, a community of 3.5 million on Mexico City's outskirts. PROFAM recently obtaine d government approval to sell condoms in food stores, which should increase distribtuion and sales. Currently, the company sells over 1 million high quality, lubricated condoms each month, accounting for over half of the Mexican market. Distribution covers 85% of the country's drugstore. Program setbacks occurred in 1981, when the Mexican government cancelled PROFAM's sales permits for all contraceptive products except condoms. Cancelled products included an oral contraceptive and 3 vaginal spermicides. These 4 products had provided nearly 100,000 couple years of protection in 1979 and an estimated 120,000 CYP 1980. During 1979 and 1980, condoms provided about 27,000 and 60,000 CYP, respectively. PROFAM had relied heavily on the pill and spermicides because its early studies showed condoms had a negative image in Mexico, due largely to the product's association with extramarital affairs. To counter this, PROFAM launched a widespread, free product sampling program in 1979, along with a continuing educational and advertising drive. Subsequent consumer surveys revealed a marked increase in product acceptance, with PROFAM's condom becoming the most widely known brand available in Mexico. PMID:12267250

1983-01-01

149

[Knowledge, attitudes and practices among religious students concerning family planning].  

PubMed

To determine the knowledge, attitude and practices concerning family planning of students attending religious schools in Lebanon, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 450 male and female students. A validated structured questionnaire was completed by the students. The majority of the students (65%) had a moderate level of knowledge, males more than females, but females had more positive beliefs and attitudes. More females agreed with family planning programmes and methods than males, but 35% had a negative attitude to family planning; a significant percentage had negative attitudes to contraceptive methods based on their view that they are not allowed (haram) in Islam. Among the married students, less than 40% used a family planning method; of those, the majority used a female method. Religion plays an important role in the health behaviour of religious students. Religious leaders can therefore inhibit or promote family planning, which will affect the success of family planning programmes. Thus, they should be included in the development and promotion of family planning programmes. PMID:22891526

Karout, N; Altuwaijri, S

2012-07-01

150

National Ignition Facility project acquisition plan  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this National Ignition Facility Acquisition Plan is to describe the overall procurement strategy planned for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Project. The scope of the plan describes the procurement activities and acquisition strategy for the following phases of the NIF Project, each of which receives either plant and capital equipment (PACE) or other project cost (OPC) funds: Title 1 and 2 design and Title 3 engineering (PACE); Optics manufacturing facilitization and pilot production (OPC); Convention facility construction (PACE); Procurement, installation, and acceptance testing of equipment (PACE); and Start-up (OPC). Activities that are part of the base Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program are not included in this plan. The University of California (UC), operating Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Lockheed-Martin, which operates Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR-LLE), will conduct the acquisition of needed products and services in support of their assigned responsibilities within the NIF Project structure in accordance with their prime contracts with the Department of Energy (DOE). LLNL, designated as the lead Laboratory, will have responsibility for all procurements required for construction, installation, activation, and startup of the NIF.

Callaghan, R.W.

1996-04-01

151

Idaho National Engineering Laboratory site development plan  

SciTech Connect

This plan briefly describes the 20-year outlook for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Missions, workloads, worker populations, facilities, land, and other resources necessary to fulfill the 20-year site development vision for the INEL are addressed. In addition, the plan examines factors that could enhance or deter new or expanded missions at the INEL. And finally, the plan discusses specific site development issues facing the INEL, possible solutions, resources required to resolve these issues, and the anticipated impacts if these issues remain unresolved.

Not Available

1994-09-01

152

National Teacher Training Institute: Lesson Plan Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visit this Web site from the National Teacher Training Institute (NTTI) for a set of engaging lesson plans for middle and high school students. The latest life science offerings address DNA and RNA, pika camouflage, environmental issues, and adaptation. A number of older lesson plans are available as well. In addition to providing detailed instructions, each lesson plan includes a variety of features and resources such as links for in-class research and downloadable activity sheets. The lessons take about one class period to complete and require the use of educational videos -- part of NTTI's goal to increase "dynamic use of classroom technology."

2007-03-19

153

Family planning in the reorganized N.H.S. (e) Community family planning services.  

PubMed

Recommendations on community family planning services are made by an Aberdeen Medical Health Officer. It is noted that: 1) both GPs and clinics have their value in contraceptive treatment; 2) clinics should be conveniently located and might be set up in buildings which are used for other health purposes at other times; 3) most women work so there should be evening sessions; 4) arrangements should be made which include both an appointments system and emergency visits; 5) reception at the clinic should be courteous and without moral judgements; 6) domiciliary services should be used only as a last resort; and 7) payment of prescription charges is now required, but there might be advantages in changing this to a free service. The ideal person for motivating people to use the service is the health visitor. More health visitors are needed, salaries and promotions must be raised, and enrolled nurses should be recruited to act as assistants to health visitors. Benefits of the Aberdeen community family planning services are described. Such services increase the happiness of the community and save the community a considerable amount of money. PMID:4428028

Macqueen, I A

1974-06-01

154

National Ignition Facility Title II Design Plan  

SciTech Connect

This National Ignition Facility (NIF) Title II Design Plan defines the work to be performed by the NIF Project Team between November 1996, when the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) reviewed Title I design and authorized the initiation of Title H design and specific long-lead procurements, and September 1998, when Title 11 design will be completed.

Kumpan, S

1997-03-01

155

China: women benefit from the family planning programme.  

PubMed

This statement was made by the director of CPIRC in China. Opening remarks focused on the admirable achievement in the reduction of births over 20 years by about 300 million, which is more than the combined populations of Canada and the USA. Family planning programs are considered as providing the means for couples to have fewer children and as promoting social progress and the advancement of women. IEC programming for family planning is extensive and country wide. Home visitation for family planning is part of programming within the All China Women's Federation and the China Family Planning Association. IEC programs include information about population, reproductive health, and family planning for millions of families. The opportunity is available for Chinese women to acquire knowledge and make decisions that balance individual needs with social responsibility and to have access to information on modern methods, on healthy childrearing patterns, and on maternal health. Chinese women are considered able to have an equal say with their husbands in determining the size and spacing of children. The maternal and child health (MCH) and family planning network is described as including 374 MCH hospitals, over 2800 MCH clinics and stations, 2300 county family planning service stations, and millions of medical professionals in mobile medical teams. Jiangsu is identified as a particularly successful province in achievement of health and family planning. State family planning policy and related regulations are understood within the context of integrated programs combining family planning with economic development, poverty alleviation, popularization of modern scientific knowledge, and betterment of social security systems. The example is given of Henan province where girls are enthusiastic about learning and bring productive skills as a form of dowry to the marriage. Rural women are encouraged to participate in training, and urban women are encouraged to serve as public role models. Family planning acceptance has not occurred evenly across the country, and some old social traditions of son preference still prevail. China is described as committed to programs for sustainable development, the protection of women's rights, and the enhancement of women's status. PMID:12290277

Xiao, Z

1995-08-01

156

42 CFR 59.3 - Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant? 59.3 Section 59...HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.3 Who is eligible...

2010-10-01

157

42 CFR 59.4 - How does one apply for a family planning services grant?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false How does one apply for a family planning services grant? 59.4 Section 59...HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.4 How does one...

2010-10-01

158

National Security Technology Incubator Business Plan  

SciTech Connect

This document contains a business plan for the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI), developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP) and performed under a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This business plan describes key features of the NSTI, including the vision and mission, organizational structure and staffing, services, evaluation criteria, marketing strategies, client processes, a budget, incubator evaluation criteria, and a development schedule. The purpose of the NSPP is to promote national security technologies through business incubation, technology demonstration and validation, and workforce development. The NSTI will focus on serving businesses with national security technology applications by nurturing them through critical stages of early development. The vision of the NSTI is to be a successful incubator of technologies and private enterprise that assist the NNSA in meeting new challenges in national safety, security, and protection of the homeland. The NSTI is operated and managed by the Arrowhead Center, responsible for leading the economic development mission of New Mexico State University (NMSU). The Arrowhead Center will recruit business with applications for national security technologies recruited for the NSTI program. The Arrowhead Center and its strategic partners will provide business incubation services, including hands-on mentoring in general business matters, marketing, proposal writing, management, accounting, and finance. Additionally, networking opportunities and technology development assistance will be provided.

None

2007-12-31

159

[A comprehensive study of family planning rules of several provinces].  

PubMed

Since 1982, 26 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions have promulgated regulations on family planning (FP). These regulations were passed by the provincial people's congress and were equivalent to local legislation. This paper analyzed and compared the regulations of 16 provinces. The regulations basically included general principals, regulations on births, incentives and disincentives, birth control methods, prevention of genetic diseases, and program management. The regulations for the urban populations of 16 provinces were similar. Each couple was to have one child. A second child could be permitted in special circumstances. Incentives given to one-child families included their health care allowance, priority in housing allocation, in education, and in employment. For rural couples, most provinces allow families with one daughter to have another children after a few years of spacing, while 3 provinces allow 2 children for every family. Stipulations on incentives to one-child couples in rural areas were vague for most of the provinces, while 6 provinces had specific terms for incentives. Temporary migrants in China currently exceed 30 million people. It was difficult to implement the FP program among them. 7 of the provincial regulations included articles on the FP practice of migrants, mostly requiring migrants to observe the regulations of the areas migrated to before residence and work permits were issued. The other 9 provinces formulated temporary regulations for temporary migrants. Deficiencies have been found in some of the provincial regulations. Some of the terms and language used were ambiguous. An in some cases, the quality of the population and prevention of congenital diseases were neglected. It was suggested that a national FP law should be promulgated. Implementation of the law and regulations is an important as their promulgation. Such a law should be closely monitored and evaluated for subsequent improvement. PMID:12285487

Yu, Y

1991-04-01

160

Later life care planning conversations for older adults and families.  

PubMed

While most older adults have thought about their future care needs, few have discussed their preferences with family members. We interviewed older persons (24), adult children (24), health professionals (23), and representatives of stakeholder associations (3) to understand their views and experiences on later life care (LLC) planning conversations, in terms of (a) their respective roles, and (b) barriers and facilitators that should be taken into account when having these conversations. Roles described included that of information user (older persons), information seeker (family members), and information provider (health care providers). The study identified practical and emotional considerations relevant to LLC planning conversations. This study found strong support for planning for LLC before the need arises, as well as important potential benefits for older adults, family members, and health professionals. There is interest in, and need for, resources to guide families in LLC planning. PMID:24652903

Stolee, Paul; Zaza, Christine; Sharratt, Michael T

2014-09-01

161

Family Planning Practice Guidelines for HIO Service Providers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Practical guidelines are presented for providing family planning services through polyclinics run by health insurance organizations. Intended for use by clinic medical staff, the report gives instructions on providing the following types of contraceptives...

F. Ali, J. Kulmindar, K. O'Hanley

1990-01-01

162

Idaho National Laboratory Environmental Monitoring Plan  

SciTech Connect

This plan describes environmental monitoring as required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, “Environmental Protection Program,” and additional environmental monitoring currently performed by other organizations in and around the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The objective of DOE Order 450.1 is to implement sound stewardship practices that protect the air, water, land, and other natural and cultural resources that may be impacted by DOE operations. This plan describes the organizations responsible for conducting environmental monitoring across the INL, the rationale for monitoring, the types of media being monitored, where the monitoring is conducted, and where monitoring results can be obtained. This plan presents a summary of the overall environmental monitoring performed in and around the INL without duplicating detailed information in the various monitoring procedures and program plans currently used to conduct monitoring.

Joanne L. Knight

2008-04-01

163

Idaho National Laboratory Site Environmental Monitoring Plan  

SciTech Connect

This plan describes environmental monitoring as required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, “Environmental Protection Program,” and additional environmental monitoring currently performed by other organizations in and around the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The objective of DOE Order 450.1 is to implement sound stewardship practices that protect the air, water, land, and other natural and cultural resources that may be impacted by DOE operations. This plan describes the organizations responsible for conducting environmental monitoring across the INL, the rationale for monitoring, the types of media being monitored, where the monitoring is conducted, and where monitoring results can be obtained. This plan presents a summary of the overall environmental monitoring performed in and around the INL without duplicating detailed information in the various monitoring procedures and program plans currently used to conduct monitoring.

Joanne L. Knight

2012-08-01

164

African American Women and Family Planning Services: Perceptions of Discrimination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine perceived race-based discrimination in obtaining family planning or contraceptive services among African American women in the U.S.Methods: We conducted a 30-minute telephone survey with a random sample of 500 African Americans (aged 15–44), which included questions about race-based discrimination when obtaining family planning services. The present analyses were limited to the

Sheryl Thorburn; Laura M. Bogart

2005-01-01

165

Minister Peng on population situation and major experiences of family planning implementation.  

PubMed

Minister Peng Peiyen of the State Family Planning Commission delivered a speech at the 6th National Symposium on Population Science and the Conference of the Population Association of China. Population programs should be an integral part of economic and social development and a priority for the Communist Party and at all levels of government. Full responsibility for implementation should be taken by top Party organizations and government. Achievement in family planning should be based on the target responsibility system. Family planning policy should be evenly implemented throughout the country. Family planning quotas are preferred as strict and effective controls on births. Traditional ideas about childbearing should be challenged through information, education, and communication [IEC]. Grassroots level networks should be strengthened for effective program management. Family planning should better serve and be integrated with the socialist agenda of economic development. Large numbers of family planning workers need to be trained in a systematic way. Self-management, self-education, and self-service should be encouraged among the population. The family planning program is still unevenly developed in the country, and there are still a large number of annual births, which puts pressure on socioeconomic development, natural resources, and ecology. The most important task for China is the control of population growth, which also involves improving the quality of human resources and readjusting the population structure. The practice of family planning is a policy decision, which is required for attainment of the 2nd and 3rd strategic goals for economic development. There is a need for demographic research to guide program implementation. Research should focus on controlling population growth, improving the quality of human resources, and expanding the scope of inquiry. PMID:12318708

Peng, P

1994-02-01

166

Knowledge into Action: The Use of Research in Taiwan's Family Planning Program. Paper No. 10.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on the effects that research on the Taiwan family planning program has had on social change, both in the intergration of research findings into national action programs and in the dissemination of these ideas to other Asian countries, this report discusses five individual case studies and presents a summary and analysis of the research…

Cernada, George; Sun, T. H.

167

A Decade of Family Planning Progress. Draper Fund Report No. 13.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

World population growth and family planning progress in developing nations are discussed. The Draper Fund, established within the Population Crisis Committee (PCC) in 1975 to honor PCC's principal founder, encourages and funds activities which promise the greatest impact in slowing world population growth. There are 10 articles and an editorial.…

Draper World Population Fund, Washington, DC.

168

[Family planning and diverse declarations of human rights].  

PubMed

Human beings have always desired to claim their rights, even in times when only a small proportion of the population was considered fully human and the rest were slaves, servants, uncivilized, colonized, underdeveloped, or, in the recent euphemism, "developing". The French Declaration of the Rights of Man of 1789 marked the 1st time in history that rights for all people were publicly affirmed. The rights in question were essentially constitutional and political, but the idea of claiming rights had been born. In 1948, the international community approved the Universal Declaration of Human Rights which encompassed all types of rights. Other international acts on civil and political rights and the rights of women and children have complemented and interpreted the 1948 document. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights affirmed that all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights and that all persons have a right to satisfaction of economic, social, and cultural needs. The convention on elimination of all forms of discrimination against women referred in its preamble to the particular disadvantages of women living in poverty and affirmed the right of all women to education in health and family welfare, including family planning, as well as to medical and family planning services. Women were affirmed to have the same rights as men to decide freely and in an informed manner on the number and spacing of their children and to have access to the information, education, and means to exercise these rights. The United Nations has demonstrated its interest in Population Commission in 1946 and of the UN Fund for Population Activities in 1969, and through decennial worldwide population conferences in 1954, 1965, 1974, and 1984. UN demographic goals include reduced fertility on a worldwide basis, a reduced proportion of women not using reliable contraception, a substantial reduction of early marriage and adolescent pregnancy, reduction in infant and maternal mortality, a life expectancy of at least 62 years in all countries, and a better geographic distribution of population within national territories permitting rational use of resources. Governments which subscribed to the declaration and conventions on human rights should respect their promises. Population growth which outpaces increases in production will make it increasingly difficult to satisfy the rights and needs of all population sectors. A government confronted with this problem is obliged to explore every possible means of increasing production but must also seek to control population growth. Contraception is a legitimate means of achieving this end. PMID:12316572

Gakwaya, D

1990-08-01

169

Population and Family Planning in Latin America. Report Number 17.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of Latin America's demographic situation has led many to believe that the present rapid rates of population growth, the highest anywhere in the world, must be reduced in order to prevent catastrophe. Family planning associations, affiliated with the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), have been organized in 29 Latin…

Piotrow, Phyllis T., Ed.

170

Current Literature in Family Planning, November 1972, No. 51.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Abstracts of current publications in the fields of population and family planning are contained in this monthly acquisitions list of the Katherine Dexter McCormick Library, Planned Parenthood, New York. Organized in two parts, Part 1 contains an annotated list of the books most recently acquired by the Library, marked with its Library call number,…

Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.

171

The provision of family planning services in the Caribbean.  

PubMed

This article examines the provision of family planning services in selected countries in the Caribbean. The potential impact of the funding shortfall resulting from the phasing out of funding by the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), and the strategies being adopted by the selected countries to cope with this, are considered. Stratified random sampling methods were employed to select eight Caribbean countries and a pre-designed questionnaire was administered to the agency responsible for family planning services in each country. The sample was stratified geographically to include countries from different parts of the Caribbean. The questionnaire was designed to collect information on the services provided, the name of the agency responsible for the provision of services and, where possible, the number of users of each type of service in 1998 and 1997. Vast disparities were found in the provision of family planning services in different Caribbean countries, in terms of the groups involved, the services available in each country, as well as methods of data collection and compilation. Anguilla and Bermuda were found to provide only limited family planning services, while Barbados, Jamaica and Grenada provide much more sophisticated services. A salient finding was the innovative approaches that various countries in the region have adopted to fund family planning programmes in anticipation of the phasing out of IPPF funding. The standpoint taken in the study is that countries such as Anguilla and Bermuda must strive to improve their provision of family planning services, and that they could learn from Barbados, Grenada and Jamaica, which provide much more comprehensive services. It is also concluded that, unless alternative funding sources are identified and accessed, the provision of family planning services in the Caribbean is likely to decline in the future. PMID:12117216

Yeboah, David Achanfuo

2002-07-01

172

75 FR 71519 - National Family Week, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...solutions to the issues affecting American families. In my first year in...the continued success of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act...the family unit in helping all Americans reach their dreams. As we confront our...

2010-11-24

173

The National Broadband Plan: Connecting America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has been working on a National Broadband Plan for the United States since early 2010, and this website provides information about their ongoing work. The hope for this plan is that it will open up economic opportunities to a wide range of locales that are not currently served by broadband Internet access. On this site, visitors can look over sections that include "About Broadband", "Events", "Initiatives", and "The Plan". First-time visitors may want to click on the "About Broadband" to get some basic details about the importance of broadband access. Moving on, visitors can click on "The Plan" to watch an overview of the plan from the chairman of the FCC, and they may also view an executive summary and the entire plan. After that, visitors should look at the thematic areas of the site (such as "Health Care" and "Civic Engagement") to learn more about how increased broadband will transform these sectors of life in America.

174

Explorations in a Proposed National Policy for Children and Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes the changes and problems facing American families. Offers a national policy model for children and families--currently lacking in the United States--that includes economic supports, health care, social services, and a research program for gauging family needs. Offers strategies for analysis and implementation. (RJM)

Pardeck, John T.; Chung, Woo Sik

1997-01-01

175

National solid waste management plan for Iraq.  

PubMed

After decades of turmoil and international sanctions much of the key civil infrastructure within Iraq has fallen into disrepair, leading to a considerable decline in the provision of basic and essential municipal services. This is particularly true of waste and resource management services that have seen years of underdevelopment and deterioration. This has resulted in a lack of provision of basic public services in the waste sector which have been replaced by a burgeoning unregulated informal market in waste collection, disposal and recycling. In response, a National Solid Waste Management Plan (NSWMP) for Iraq was developed in 2007, to plan for the strategic development of all aspects of waste management in the country over the coming 20 years. In particular, the NSWMP focuses on policy development and integrated planning regarding regulatory framework, economic aspects, institutional capacity, citizen and technical education, and technical and operational development. This paper summarizes the key objectives, challenges and subsequent recommendations contained in the NSWMP for Iraq. PMID:19470543

Knowles, James A

2009-06-01

176

National conference on integrated resource planning: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

Until recently, state regulators have focused most of their attention on the development of least-cost or integrated resource planning (IRP) processes for electric utilities. A number of commissions are beginning to scrutinize the planning processes of local gas distribution companies (LDCs) because of the increased control that LDCs have over their purchased gas costs (as well as the associated risks) and because of questions surrounding the role and potential of gas end-use efficiency options. Traditionally, resource planning (LDCs) has concentrated on options for purchasing and storing gas. Integrated resource planning involves the creation of a process in which supply-side and demand-side options are integrated to create a resource mix that reliably satisfies customers' short-term and long-term energy service needs at the lowest cost. As applied to gas utilities, an integrated resource plan seeks to balance cost and reliability, and should not be interpreted simply as the search for lowest commodity costs. The National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners' (NARUC) Energy Conservation committee asked Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) to survey state PUCs to determine the extent to which they have undertaken least cost planning for gas utilities. The survey included the following topics: status of state PUC least-cost planning regulations and practices for gas utilities; type and scope of natural gas DSM programs in effect, including fuel substitution; economic tests and analysis methods used to evaluate DSM programs; relationship between prudency reviews of gas utility purchasing practices and integrated resource planning; key regulatory issued facing gas utilities during the next five years.

Not Available

1991-01-01

177

National conference on integrated resource planning: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

Until recently, state regulators have focused most of their attention on the development of least-cost or integrated resource planning (IRP) processes for electric utilities. A number of commissions are beginning to scrutinize the planning processes of local gas distribution companies (LDCs) because of the increased control that LDCs have over their purchased gas costs (as well as the associated risks) and because of questions surrounding the role and potential of gas end-use efficiency options. Traditionally, resource planning (LDCs) has concentrated on options for purchasing and storing gas. Integrated resource planning involves the creation of a process in which supply-side and demand-side options are integrated to create a resource mix that reliably satisfies customers` short-term and long-term energy service needs at the lowest cost. As applied to gas utilities, an integrated resource plan seeks to balance cost and reliability, and should not be interpreted simply as the search for lowest commodity costs. The National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners` (NARUC) Energy Conservation committee asked Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) to survey state PUCs to determine the extent to which they have undertaken least cost planning for gas utilities. The survey included the following topics: status of state PUC least-cost planning regulations and practices for gas utilities; type and scope of natural gas DSM programs in effect, including fuel substitution; economic tests and analysis methods used to evaluate DSM programs; relationship between prudency reviews of gas utility purchasing practices and integrated resource planning; key regulatory issued facing gas utilities during the next five years.

Not Available

1991-12-31

178

National Conference on Integrated Resource Planning: Proceedings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until recently, state regulators have focused most of their attention on the development of least-cost or integrated resource planning (IRP) processes for electric utilities. A number of commissions are beginning to scrutinize the planning processes of local gas distribution companies (LDCs) because of the increased control that LDCs have over their purchased gas costs (as well as the associated risks) and because of questions surrounding the role and potential of gas end-use efficiency options. Traditionally, resource planning (LDCs) has concentrated on options for purchasing and storing gas. Integrated resource planning involves the creation of a process in which supply-side and demand-side options are integrated to create a resource mix that reliably satisfies customers' short-term and long-term energy service needs at the lowest cost. As applied to gas utilities, an integrated resource plan seeks to balance cost and reliability, and should not be interpreted simply as the search for lowest commodity costs. The National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners' (NARUC) Energy Conservation committee asked Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) to survey state PUCs to determine the extent to which they have undertaken least cost planning for gas utilities. The survey included the following topics: status of state PUC least-cost planning regulations and practices for gas utilities; type and scope of natural gas DSM programs in effect, including fuel substitution; economic tests and analysis methods used to evaluate DSM programs; relationship between prudency reviews of gas utility purchasing practices and integrated resource planning; and key regulatory issues facing gas utilities during the next five years.

179

76 FR 41273 - National Emergency Communications Plan (NECP) Tribal Report  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DHS-2011-0025] National Emergency Communications Plan (NECP) Tribal Report...CS&C), Office of Emergency Communications (OEC), will submit...Collection Request, National Emergency Communications Plan Tribal Report....

2011-07-13

180

Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory  

E-print Network

Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan For: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Computation;Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) LBNL CRTF UC Project No.912314 LAWRENCE BERKELEY NATIONAL ........................................................ 10 2.6 Identifying of Non-Storm Water Discharges

181

78 FR 11620 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List: Deletion of the Kerr-McGee (Sewage Treatment Plant) Superfund Site...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). EPA...

2013-02-19

182

Phase Transitions in Planning Problems: Design and Analysis of Parameterized Families of Hard Planning Problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are two common ways to evaluate algorithms: performance on benchmark problems derived from real applications and analysis of performance on parametrized families of problems. The two approaches complement each other, each having its advantages and disadvantages. The planning community has concentrated on the first approach, with few ways of generating parametrized families of hard problems known prior to this work. Our group's main interest is in comparing approaches to solving planning problems using a novel type of computational device - a quantum annealer - to existing state-of-the-art planning algorithms. Because only small-scale quantum annealers are available, we must compare on small problem sizes. Small problems are primarily useful for comparison only if they are instances of parametrized families of problems for which scaling analysis can be done. In this technical report, we discuss our approach to the generation of hard planning problems from classes of well-studied NP-complete problems that map naturally to planning problems or to aspects of planning problems that many practical planning problems share. These problem classes exhibit a phase transition between easy-to-solve and easy-to-show-unsolvable planning problems. The parametrized families of hard planning problems lie at the phase transition. The exponential scaling of hardness with problem size is apparent in these families even at very small problem sizes, thus enabling us to characterize even very small problems as hard. The families we developed will prove generally useful to the planning community in analyzing the performance of planning algorithms, providing a complementary approach to existing evaluation methods. We illustrate the hardness of these problems and their scaling with results on four state-of-the-art planners, observing significant differences between these planners on these problem families. Finally, we describe two general, and quite different, mappings of planning problems to QUBOs, the form of input required for a quantum annealing machine such as the D-Wave II.

Hen, Itay; Rieffel, Eleanor G.; Do, Minh; Venturelli, Davide

2014-01-01

183

[The pharmacist should play an active role in family planning].  

PubMed

Although pharmacies now dispense primarily modern products originating in large multinational corporations, the community pharmacist has not been replaced by any ultramodern technological advance. Many thousand persons acquire family planning products in pharmacies. The pharmacist works many hours a day, is always available, and provides free advice to his clients. Pharmacists are consulted daily on numerous topics, especially on family planning. Many prsons in rural areas are without the services of a physician and rely on pharmacists all the more. Pharmacists could orient the public on family planning in general, help in choosing the most appropriate of available methods, and refer patients to physicians in case of problems. Participants at the recent International Conference on the Role of Retail Pharmacists in Family Planning, held in Alexandria, Egypt, concluded that pharmacists should cooperate with physicians and other health professionals to provide family planning services and should participate in elaboration of laws regulating the manufacture, storage, prices, and distribution of contraceptives. The prices of contraceptive supplies to the consumer could be reduced if taxes and import duties were removed, if supplies were produced locally, or if supplies were subsidized by some donor organization. PMID:12178199

Portes, M

1983-01-01

184

Civic Formation and a New Vocabulary for National Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interest in spatial planning and territorial cohesion has prompted new scales of land-use planning interventions. This paper considers the experimentation and learning around the National Planning Framework in Scotland. This political instrument is predicated on active public participation to craft and legitimate a national planning agenda to re-position a devolved Scotland in a global context. The process involves a

Deborah Peel; Greg Lloyd

2007-01-01

185

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan FY 2004-2008  

SciTech Connect

This Institutional Plan for FY 2004-2008 is the principal annual planning document submitted to the Department of Energy's Office of Science by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Washington. This plan describes the Laboratory's mission, roles, and technical capabilities in support of Department of Energy priorities, missions, and plans. It also describes the Laboratory strategic plan, key planning assumptions, major research initiatives, and program strategy for fundamental science, energy resources, environmental quality, and national security.

Quadrel, Marilyn J.

2004-04-15

186

Family planning practices in families with children affected by ?-thalassemia major in Southern Iran.  

PubMed

Preventing the birth of children with ?-thalassemia major (?-TM) is an important health issue. We investigated family planning practices and related factors among families with affected children. We selected a total of 569 parents from the parents of patients with ?-TM who were registered at thalassemia referral clinics in southern Iran. Information was recorded regarding demographic variables, socioeconomic status and family planning practices. The correlations between family planning practice and related factors were evaluated. Approximately 96.0% of the parents (546) were practicing contraception at the time of the study. Only 12.8% of the families whose first child had ?-TM decided to have no more children. The most frequent contraceptive method was tubal ligation (TL) (37.5%) followed by oral contraceptive pills (OCP) (31.5%). Higher education level of the mothers and higher economic status of the families were found to be related with the lower numbers of children with ?-TM (p = 0.001). We found a high percentage of safe contraception being used by at-risk couples. It seems that educational programs have been effective in influencing family planning practices. Further attention should be devoted to increasing the knowledge of at-risk couples with a greater focus on parents of low socioeconomic status. Because of cultural factors in Iran, many of these at-risk couples opted to achieve the desired family size, so implementation of a well-organized prenatal diagnostic system seems necessary. PMID:23181733

Haghpanah, Sezaneh; Johari, Sheyda; Parand, Shirin; Bordbar, Mohammad Reza; Karimi, Mehran

2013-01-01

187

Functional Education for Family Life Planning: A Program Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, the first in a series of monographs, describes the experiences of World Education in Asia, Africa, and Latin America in its efforts to establish programs in functional literacy, adult education, and population planning. It is divided into three main sections. Section I, A Program Comes into Being, describes the thrust of the overall…

Keehn, Thomas B.

188

A comparison of the individualized education plan and the individualized family service plan.  

PubMed

The individualized education plan (IEP) and the individualized family service plan (IFSP) are mandated for children with special needs. Occupational therapists participate in the development of both the IEP and the IFSP. This paper summarizes the similarities and the differences in the mandated components. The components addressed are (a) information about the child's status, (b) information about the family, (c) outcomes for the child and family, (d) intervention services, (e) other services, (f) dates and duration of services, (g) selection of a case manager, and (h) transition plans. PMID:1532691

Decker, B

1992-03-01

189

NATIONAL SURVEY OF FAMILIES AND HOUSEHOLDS  

EPA Science Inventory

This is a longitudinal population-based survey of families and households in the United States that was designed to look at the causes and consequences of changes in American family and household structure. The first wave of the NSFH consists of interviews conducted during 1987-1...

190

Is family planning an economic decision?  

PubMed

This study examines economic models of household choice and the role of economic factors in determining the timing of births. A static economic model is presented and tested with data from the Netherlands. After the availability of contraceptives, the family size variable shifted from being an exogenous to an endogenous one, because births could be regulated. Costs of childbearing were construed to have maintenance costs for parents and society, attendance costs of care, and intangible costs such as anxiety or personal freedom. Benefits were intangible ones, such as joy and happiness; income; public benefits; and attendance benefits. Intangible benefits enlarged the utility of children, but maintenance costs diminished resources available for consumption. Child quality was a product of market goods purchased by parents and others and household labor. Household time allocation varied with child's age. Private responsibility for children varied by country. Quality of child care varied between countries and over time. Quality was dependent upon economies of scale, variable costs by the age of the child, variable time commitments by age of the child, and market substitutes for private child care. Higher income families spent more money but less time on children. It is pointed out that Becker's model explained number of children, but not timing of births. Postponement of birth was unlikely for those with a limited education, an unpleasant job, and low wages. When the advantages and disadvantages of having a baby were positive, spouses or single women with a high subjective preference were expected to bear a child as soon as possible. Government policy can affect the average family size by increasing or decreasing the financial and/or time burden of children. Postponement may be chosen based on long term analysis of a couple's future, the formation and use of capital, and/or high subjective time preference. Before and after first birth are different frames of reference for couples. Before the birth, the future may be vague. After the birth, life without a child becomes unimaginable. PMID:12291178

Wunderink, S R

1995-09-01

191

A Comparative Study of Family Planning Service Statistics Systems in the ESCAP Region. Asian Population Studies Series No. 15.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph contains a study conducted by the Population Division of the United Nations Economic and Social Committee for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP). The document is designed to aid policy-makers, administrators and evaluation personnel in family planning programs in the ESCAP region, primarily; and researchers working in the field of family

United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok (Thailand).

192

Family planning in the reorganized N.H.S. (b) Future of the clinic service.  

PubMed

The National Health Service (N.H.S.) of the United Kingdom will be resturctured in April 1974 and that will be the start of a new era, the author asserts. Family planning services are ready for an integration and that is what the reorganization will aim for. Access to family planning services at present is achieved through the general practitioner, free access clinics and hospitals, and there is no coordination of these 3 contraceptive services. The family planning Association (FPA) has been responsible for the establishment of clinic services and for the rise in contraceptive services. The reorganization of N.H.S. will also aim for decentralization so that the main reponsibility for the integration of family planning services will be done at the district level. A Co-ordinator of Family Planning Services should be appointed for each district. In the integrated Health Service, each clinic is to have a local backup of health visitor and social workers, and consultant obstetricians and gynecologists. PMID:4428025

Elstein, M

1974-06-01

193

[The necessity of family planning policy].  

PubMed

The rationale behind the current government policy in promoting birth control in China was that the large population had been a heavy burden to economic growth. Besides, there had not been any important social mechanism that moved against population growth. Excessive "idle" population has facilitated raising young generations. Before rural economic reform, the income distribution in rural areas depended on the number of people in a family. This system apparently had a pro-natal effect. Even after the reform, no significant advantage of having a small family has appeared. As the net flow of wealth from children to parents was still considered positive and the opportunity costs in raising children is relatively low in rural areas, the incentive to produce more children is still present. In urban areas, grandparents may take the responsibility of caring for children for a large number of young couples; therefore, the opportunity costs to these parents may not be significant. Cultural traditions and a distorted low cost of raising children all stimulate population growth. Under such conditions, using an administrative system to implement population policies would be the most effective means of halting population growth. The target of the policy should be the causes of population growth rather than the outcome. PMID:12317523

Yan, H

1991-02-01

194

National Master Plan for Development of Waste-to-Energy in India 1 The National Master Plan  

E-print Network

1 National Master Plan for Development of Waste-to-Energy in India 1 The National Master Plan a National Master Plan (NMP) for waste-to-energy as one of the activities under UNDP/GEF assisted project. The NMP provides a framework for waste-to-energy programme for the country besides a means of processing

Columbia University

195

Quinault Indian Nation Renewable Energy Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Quinault Indian Nation (Nation) initiated this study on conservation and production of renewable energy because this approach created the opportunity: • To become self-sufficient and gain greater control over the energy the Nation uses; • To generate jobs and businesses for its members; • To better manage, sustain, and protect its resources; • To express the cultural values of the Nation in an important new arena. The Nation has relatively small energy needs. These needs are concentrated at two separate points: the Quinault Beach Resort and Casino (QBRC) and Taholah on the Quinault Indian Reservation (QIR). Except for the town of Queets, energy needs are small and scattered. The needs vary greatly over the season. The small scale, widely dispersed, and variable nature of these needs presents a unique challenge to the Nation. Meeting these needs requires a resource and technology that is flexible, effective, and portable. Conservation is the most cost-effective way to meet any need. It is especially effective in a situation like this where production would leave a high per unit cost. This plan is based on first gaining energy savings through conservation. Major savings are possible through: 1. Upgrading home appliances on the QIR. 2. Weatherizing homes and facilities. 3. Changes in lighting/ventilation in the QBRC pool room. These elements of the plan are already being implemented and promise to save the Nation around a quarter of its present costs. Wood biomass is the best resource available to the QIN for energy production either on-site or for commercial development. It is abundant, flexible and portable. Its harvesting has high job potential and these jobs are a good fit for the present “skill set” of the QIN. This plan focuses on using wood biomass to produce energy and other value-added products. Our study considered various technologies and approaches to using wood for energy. We considered production for both on-site and commercial production. This plan calls for commercial-scale production only, with the QIN being the first “customer” for the product. This plan favors employing the pyrolysis technology to produce bio-oil, heat, and char. We favor this approach and technology because it is the most cost effective way to use the available resource. Its main product, bio-oil, has proven utility for the production of heat and electricity. It has promise for use as an alternative fuel, which is a much higher value than present uses of wood and it meets the QIN need for flexibility, scalability, and portability. Char, the secondary product from the pyrolysis process, has proven value-added uses. In addition to these direct benefits, the use of biomass in pyrolysis technology has significant indirect benefits. These benefits include the fact that the technology is a good fit with the Nation’s cultural values, i.e., environmental protection and the holistic use of a resource. It fits well with current QIN enterprises. For example, char could be processed into a charcoal co-product for QIN fish. Finally, the QIN can become a leader in developing and demonstrating this innovative approach to the use of wood. This plan proposes key organization steps to insure both excellent implementation of the plan and taking the best advantage of the processes and facilities put in place. This plan calls for two new QIN organizations: an energy production/distribution corporation and a community development corporation. The production/distribution corporation can be either a utility or a business enterprise that develops and markets renewable energy. The community development corporation can be a not-for-profit to support the QIN in taking best advantage of its energy opportunities. The production and distribution corporation is the subject of a further business planning effort now underway. This plan envisions a community development corporation that works directly with the Business Committee on research, education, and project development. Specifically, this corporation can seek grant funding to research energy m

Don Hopps, Institute for Washington's Future; Jesse Nelson, Institute for Washington's Future

2006-11-28

196

Inequalities in the Use of Family Planning in Rural Nepal  

PubMed Central

This paper explores inequalities in the use of modern family planning methods among married women of reproductive age (MWRA) in rural Nepal. Data from the 2012 Nepal Household Survey (HHS) were utilized, which employed a stratified, three-stage cluster design to obtain a representative sample of 9,016 households from rural Nepal. Within the sampled households, one woman of reproductive age was randomly selected to answer the survey questions related to reproductive health. Only four out of every ten rural MWRA were using a modern family planning method. Short-acting and permanent methods were most commonly used, and long-acting reversible contraceptives were the least likely to be used. Muslims were less likely to use family planning compared to other caste/ethnic groups. Usage was also lower among younger women (likely to be trying to delay or space births) than older women (likely to be trying to limit their family size). Less educated women were more likely to use permanent methods and less likely to use short-term methods. To increase the CPR, which has currently stalled, and continue to reduce the TFR, Nepal needs more focused efforts to increase family planning uptake in rural areas. The significant inequalities suggest that at-risk groups need additional targeting by demand and supply side interventions.

Mehata, Suresh; Paudel, Yuba Raj; Dotel, Bhogendra Raj; Singh, Dipendra Raman; Poudel, Pradeep; Barnett, Sarah

2014-01-01

197

Ethical issues in family planning for hospitalized psychiatric patients.  

PubMed

The authors present guidelines based on their experience with a family planning program for patients in mental hospitals. They believe that informed consent for these patients should include an adequate knowledge base, the patients' competence to make decisions, and the absence of coercion. Among safeguards are the reversibility of contraceptive procedures, the separation of the family planning counselor from the treatment staff to avoid possible covert coercion, and careful choice of the stage of hospitalization at which counseling occurs. The authors examine the implications of a patient's refusal to use contraception, noting the impossibility of involuntary contraception and the ethical and legal problems regarding sterilization procedures. PMID:1115263

Grunebaum, H; Abernethy, V

1975-03-01

198

77 FR 69733 - National Family Week, 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...To ensure families have health coverage when they need it most, the Affordable Care Act put in place comprehensive...companies accountable, improve health care quality, and expand access...THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA, President of the...

2012-11-21

199

[Chen Muhua gives radio talk on family planning].  

PubMed

Planned parenthood is a major event concerning the vital interests of each family and individual and the prosperity and development of China. An excessive population growth rate has limited an improvement of the people's living standards and has adversely affected economic growth. Planned parenthood should be encouraged in accordance with China's Constitution and the provisions of the new marriage law. Late marriage and childbirth is a way of showing one's responsiblity toward the next generation. Eugenics is an important aspect of planned parenthood. Giving birth to physically unhealthy or mentally retarded children will place additional burdens on the family and society. In promoting planned parenthood it is necessary to do ideological and educational work in a patient and meticulous way. Planned parenthood must be widely propagated. Late marriage, late birth, and eugenics must be encouraged, and the advantages and significance of the 1 child family must be publicized. It is necessary to make early and realistic efforts to ensure the success of ideological work in planned parenthood, contraceptive measures, and birth programs. This will prevent unwanted conceptions and help achieve the goal of bringing the population under control. It is also necessary to strengthen work regarding maternity and child care and to popularize scientific knowledge concerning nursing babies. PMID:12264021

1981-02-01

200

Opportunities for chlamydia control in the era of healthcare reform: lessons from two decades of innovative family planning care.  

PubMed

In the USA, family planning clinics are primary providers of reproductive healthcare to young women and their male partners and have long provided quality sexually transmitted infection (STI) care and prevention. Chlamydia, an easily treatable STI that can lead to serious adverse outcomes if untreated, is the most common bacterial STI in the USA, and annual chlamydia screening is recommended for sexually active women aged ?25 years. As early adopters of routine screening, family planning clinics screen >50% of all care-seeking eligible women for chlamydia, performing better than private sector healthcare plans. To achieve high levels of quality care, family planning clinics have been leaders in implementing evidence-based care delivery and developing prevention innovations. As national healthcare reform is implemented in the USA and categorical STI clinics close, public-sector demand on family planning clinics will increase. PMID:23241153

Satterwhite, Catherine L; Chow, Joan M; Bernstein, Kyle T; Guerry, Sarah L; Nakatsukasa-Ono, Wendy; Bauer, Heidi M

2013-01-01

201

Results of the 2005 National Resident Matching Program: Family Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of the 2005 National Resident Matching Program (NRMP) reflect a currently stable level of student interest in family medicine residency training in the United States. Compared with the 2004 Match, 19 more positions (66 fewer US seniors) were filled in family medicine residency programs through the NRMP in 2005, at the same time as four fewer (18 fewer

Perry A. Pugno; Gordon T. Schmittling; Gerald T. Fetter; Norman B. Kahn

202

The Role of Communications in Population and Family Planning Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, the author outlines the historical development of information and education programs for population control and family planning, arguing that communications activities should receive as much emphasis as the health services program. The public information aspect includes use of mass media, advertising and promotion, public relations…

Sweeney, William O.

203

A Crucial New Direction for International Family Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Repressive attitudes toward female sexuality by Third World men and ignorance of the basic biology of the female reproductive system by Third World women have led to the failure of family planning efforts. Use of the "Universal Childbirth Picture Book," which illustrates the female reproductive system, is recommended. (IS)

Hosken, Fran P.

1984-01-01

204

A Holistic Approach to Family Planning Counseling and Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A family planning clinic which was part of a large public maternity hospital in Salvador Bahia, Brazil received a grant to expand its services and to evaluate a service model focusing on client counseling and education. The counseling, education, and service provision process included individual pre-consultation with a nurse, group education and…

Chaves, Lushanhya Coutinho; And Others

205

Local Needs Assessment and Planning Efforts for Family Caregivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the adequacy of the current Area Agency on Aging (AAA) needs assessment techniques for identifying and meeting the unique needs of family caregivers, as required under the reauthorized Older Americans Act (OAA, 2000). Our analysis is based on a review of California AAAs' Title III-E Area Plans and their responses to a follow-up survey. The findings underscore

Kathryn G. Kietzman; Andrew E. Scharlach; Teresa S. Dal Santo

2004-01-01

206

Transition Planning Involving Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Family involvement in the transition process has been recognized as a crucial indicator of successful transition planning. Many parents, however, take a passive role in their child's Individualized Education Program (IEP) transition meeting. Moreover, despite the clear mandate of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), parents from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds are even less involved. This article explores

Kyeong-Hwa Kim; Mary E. Morningstar

2005-01-01

207

Family planning clinics: facing higher costs and sicker patients.  

PubMed

Family planning clinics throughout the United States are facing a variety of obstacles that threaten their ability to provide necessary contraceptive services to low-income women and teenagers, according to interviews with clinic administrators. In the last few years, the proportion of patients coming to family planning agencies in need of screening or treatment for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) has increased dramatically. Many providers report that 10-15 percent of their clients are infected with chlamydia, the most prevalent STD. The increasing costs of Pap tests and contraceptives are also major problems: As a result of recent federal legislation, the price of Pap tests has risen substantially, and that of contraceptives is beginning to increase steeply. Finally, Title X funding for family planning services has decreased 66 percent over the last decade if both cuts and inflation are taken into account. As a result of the squeeze between increased costs and decreased public funding, clinics have been forced to charge higher fees, maintain long waiting lists for appointments and curtail community outreach. In addition, growth of the family planning patient population has slowed dramatically, and even declined, in some places. PMID:1743271

Donovan, P

1991-01-01

208

Diffusion of Innovations: Family Planning in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the best examples of the validity of the theory of “diffusion of innovations” is the case of family planning in developing countries. The desire of health, development and environment advocates in rich countries to make modern contraceptive use and lower fertility a norm in developing countries was translated into organized efforts to reach top-level leaders in these countries.

ELAINE MURPHY

2004-01-01

209

[National Issues Relating to Children and Families].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This speech by the chairman of the Child and Human Development Subcommittee of the Senate Labor and Human Resources Committee focuses on issues relating to the needs and problems of children and families. Programs under the jurisdiction of the Subcommittee include child abuse, child care, domestic violence, aspects of adoption and foster care…

Cranston, Alan

210

Client-centered counseling improves client satisfaction with family planning visits: evidence from Irbid, Jordan  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Background: High levels of unmet need for family planning and high contraceptive discontinuation rates persist in Jordan, prompting the Jordan Health Communication Partnership (JHCP) to initiate a client-centered family planning service program called “Consult and Choose” (CC), together with community-based activities to encourage women with unmet need to visit health centers. Methods: We held exit interviews with 461 family planning clients between November–December 2011 to assess, from the clients' perspective, whether trained providers followed the CC protocol and used the CC tools, as well as to measure client satisfaction. We also tracked referral card information from community-based activities to health centers and examined service statistics to explore trends in family planning use. Results: On average, clients reported that providers performed 5.6 of the 7 steps outlined in the CC protocol. Nearly 83% of respondents were very satisfied with their clinic visits. Logistic regression analysis found that the odds of being “very satisfied” increases by 20% with each additional counseling protocol step performed and by 70% with each increase in the number of CC materials used. Between June 2011 and August 2012, 14,490 referral cards from community-based activities were collected in health centers, 59% of which were for family planning services. Service statistic trends indicate an increase in the number of new family planning users and in couple-years of protection after starting the CC program. Conclusions: Implementation of the CC program at health centers nationally, in tandem with community-based interventions, could play a key role in attaining Jordan's goal of reducing its total fertility rate to 2.1 by 2030. Although this initiative would likely be replicated most readily in other middle-income countries, lower-resource countries could also adapt the tested CC approach.

Kamhawi, Sarah; Underwood, Carol; Murad, Huda; Jabre, Bushra

2013-01-01

211

Quality services for Shanghai couples. Urban family planning programme.  

PubMed

This article is based on a report prepared by the Family Planning Technical Guidance Station of Shanghai, China. The Municipal Bureau of Public Health and the Family Planning Office of Shanghai established a special unit for family planning and technical guidance for contraceptive services in the late 1960s. The special unit became a formal program in 1980. Recent activities focused on improving reproductive health care and contraceptive services. The first clinic offered a variety of contraceptives to choose from and a quiet setting to discuss delicate issues. The counseling involved women in a variety of circumstances, including women who sought an abortion after contraceptive failure. In one example, a couple both learned how to insert a diaphragm, which was key to contraceptive success, since the wife was unable to insert the device properly. The first training class for 100 young couples was held in 1983. The class was so popular that classes were established to train trainers. In 1990 the center introduced new up-to-date counseling skills and audiovisual aides. Training workshops are devoted to counseling, modern and up-to-date contraceptive information, health care, emergency contraception, and other topics. There are pilot programs in communities and among households that integrate health education for family planning and maternal-child health care. Over the 16-year period, 100,000 visits were recorded. IEC includes textbooks about reproductive health, wall charts, and videotapes that promote informed choice. The center conducted technical training for 320 family planning service centers. Unwanted births and abortion have declined. The center conducts studies about the safety of IUDs. PMID:12320706

1997-02-01

212

[Nursing intervention in the family treatment plan for anorexia nervosa].  

PubMed

One of the main nursing interventions in the treatment of eating disorders is family psycho-education, an essential aspect of mental health treatment. This article describes and analyses the difficulties families expressed in the performance of a treatment plan for patients hospitalised for anorexia nervosa (AN) in the adolescent Day Hospital of Mental Health, of the Corporació Sanitària Parc Taulí, during 2009. Data was also collected data on professional interventions, performed by the nurse assigned to this unit, in order to group and categorise them, and as an aid to nursing intervention. A total of 10 families of the 10 patients admitted with a diagnosis of AN were included in the study period. In all cases, the patients were young women who had received treatment before in an Outpatient Unit, with partial or no response to the treatment. The difficulties expressed by the families were grouped into five categories from content analysis: problems in preparing a balanced diet, problems as they are unable to handle the behaviour and emotions of the patient, problems because as there are no previous family eating habits, problems because there is no family control or supervision, and problems with the established guidelines. Specific individualised interventions are proposed for developing and promoting a nursing care plan, and assessing the results. PMID:22104194

Torralbas-Ortega, Jordi; Puntí-Vidal, Joaquim; Arias-Núñez, Eloisa; Naranjo-Díaz, M Carmen; Palomino-Escrivá, Jezabel; Lorenzo-Capilla, Angel

2011-01-01

213

Idaho National Laboratory Cultural Resource Management Plan  

SciTech Connect

As a federal agency, the U.S. Department of Energy has been directed by Congress, the U.S. president, and the American public to provide leadership in the preservation of prehistoric, historic, and other cultural resources on the lands it administers. This mandate to preserve cultural resources in a spirit of stewardship for the future is outlined in various federal preservation laws, regulations, and guidelines such as the National Historic Preservation Act, the Archaeological Resources Protection Act, and the National Environmental Policy Act. The purpose of this Cultural Resource Management Plan is to describe how the Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office will meet these responsibilities at Idaho National Laboratory in southeastern Idaho. The Idaho National Laboratory is home to a wide variety of important cultural resources representing at least 13,500 years of human occupation in the southeastern Idaho area. These resources are nonrenewable, bear valuable physical and intangible legacies, and yield important information about the past, present, and perhaps the future. There are special challenges associated with balancing the preservation of these sites with the management and ongoing operation of an active scientific laboratory. The Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office is committed to a cultural resource management program that accepts these challenges in a manner reflecting both the spirit and intent of the legislative mandates. This document is designed for multiple uses and is intended to be flexible and responsive to future changes in law or mission. Document flexibility and responsiveness will be assured through regular reviews and as-needed updates. Document content includes summaries of Laboratory cultural resource philosophy and overall Department of Energy policy; brief contextual overviews of Laboratory missions, environment, and cultural history; and an overview of cultural resource management practices. A series of appendices provides important details that support the main text.

Julie Braun Williams

2013-02-01

214

1993 West Virginia family practice residents: demographics and future plans.  

PubMed

To call attention to the concerns of the 92 family practice residents in the five programs in West Virginia and assist with their retention, a questionnaire was mailed to these physicians. The questions asked concerned their home states, future plans, educational debts, salary expectations, recruiting preferences, and their suggestions on how to interest more medical students into this specialty. The responses to the survey provided valuable information regarding how to improve retention of family practice residents in the state, as well as increase the number of medical students entering family medicine. In addition, the survey showed the Bureau of Public Health, the Kellogg Program and the Rural Health Initiative Program are not as effective as they could be in recruiting family practice residents to practice in underserved areas of the state. PMID:8310691

Sebert, S L

1993-09-01

215

Snapshots of America's Families II: A View of the Nation and 13 States from the National Survey of America's Families, 1997-1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of snapshots examines the well-being of America's children and adults through the lens of the 1999 National Survey of America's Families. Snapshots include: "Foreword: Snapshots of America's Families II: A View of the Nation and 13 States from the National Survey of America's Families" (Alyssa Wigton and Alan Weil); "Family

Koppelman, Jane, Ed.

216

The Use of Traditional Media in Family Planning Programs in Rural Java. Cornell University, Current Papers in the Communication Arts #2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Java's present national family planning program is hampered not only by a serious lack of formal communication media, but also by cultural, social and economic barriers that impede the communication effort. To reach the predominantly rural population, family planning programs could utilize Java's traditional mass media: the folk operas, comedies,…

Crawford, Robert H.; Adhikarya, Ronny

217

6. Photocopy of original plans (from National Archives, Cartographic Division, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Photocopy of original plans (from National Archives, Cartographic Division, Record Group 156) Delineator unknown. Commanding Officer's signature dated May 22, 1871 PLAN, ELEVATION, AND SECTION - Benicia Arsenal, Guard & Engine House, Benicia, Solano County, CA

218

Family planning associations vital to supervision of programme implementation.  

PubMed

The Family Planning Association (FPA) of China's Shuilianyu Township (Feixian County, Shadong Province) has made a major contribution to both contraceptive acceptance and poverty alleviation. Before the FPA was established in 1988, interviews were conducted in over 700 households in 18 villages in the township. The interviews suggested that adoption of China's one-child policy was being jeopardized by the failure of Communist Party and township officials to themselves adhere to this standard. As a result of this survey, disciplinary actions were taken against 18 officials who had violated the policy or shown bias in granting others permission to have extra children. The township government expressed willingness to have the Family Planning Association assume supervision over family planning implementation and developed "Regulations Governing Democratic Participation and Democratic Supervision by the FPA." Complaint desks and special boxes were established to collect information from the public about corrupt officials. In one case, the FPA was able to advocate on behalf of a man who had two daughters but no sons and was concerned about old age support. The village association was persuaded to give the man a piece of land on which to build a three-room dwelling so his future son-in-law could live with the family. According to custom, only sons have the right to access to land for housing. PMID:12291694

Zhu, H

1996-06-01

219

Cost-effectiveness of the family planning programme in Pakistan.  

PubMed

The author compares the per unit costs of different types of service outlets and contraceptive methods, and highlights methodological issues related to costing studies in his assessment of the most cost-effective way to provide family planning services from a wide range of service delivery modes and methods. Couple-year of protection and births averted data are analyzed from Sheikhupura district of Punjab for 1991-92. The low volume of activity has resulted in high per unit cost. Service outlet productivity or volume of activity can, however, be increased by increasing the variable or operational costs and without any change in the fixed staffing and capital costs up to an optimal limit to gain from economies of scale. The increase in the volume of activity by every existing service outlet will lower the per unit cost achieving economic efficiency and increase the number of births averted and couple-protection rate increasing the demographic impact. Strategic shifts can also be made between contraceptive mixes, but demand must be generated for family planning in order to ensure greater use of existing service outlets and increase the volume of activity to reduce per unit costs. Demand for family planning can be increased through an assortment of appropriate mass media venues, improving service quality, and a range of long-term initiatives including a push for female literacy, incentives/disincentives to have small families, tax benefits to individuals and corporations which donate time and/or other resources to family planning, and pricing contraceptives on the ability to pay. PMID:12346204

Manzoor, K

1994-01-01

220

National Energy Audit Tool for Multifamily Buildings Development Plan  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) enables low-income families to reduce their energy costs by providing funds to make their homes more energy efficient. In addition, the program funds Weatherization Training and Technical Assistance (T and TA) activities to support a range of program operations. These activities include measuring and documenting performance, monitoring programs, promoting advanced techniques and collaborations to further improve program effectiveness, and training, including developing tools and information resources. The T and TA plan outlines the tasks, activities, and milestones to support the weatherization network with the program implementation ramp up efforts. Weatherization of multifamily buildings has been recognized as an effective way to ramp up weatherization efforts. To support this effort, the 2009 National Weatherization T and TA plan includes the task of expanding the functionality of the Weatherization Assistant, a DOE-sponsored family of energy audit computer programs, to perform audits for large and small multifamily buildings This report describes the planning effort for a new multifamily energy audit tool for DOE's WAP. The functionality of the Weatherization Assistant is being expanded to also perform energy audits of small multifamily and large multifamily buildings. The process covers an assessment of needs that includes input from national experts during two national Web conferences. The assessment of needs is then translated into capability and performance descriptions for the proposed new multifamily energy audit, with some description of what might or should be provided in the new tool. The assessment of needs is combined with our best judgment to lay out a strategy for development of the multifamily tool that proceeds in stages, with features of an initial tool (version 1) and a more capable version 2 handled with currently available resources. Additional development in the future is expected to be needed if more capabilities are to be added. A rough schedule for development of the version 1 tool is presented. The components and capabilities described in this plan will serve as the starting point for development of the proposed new multifamily energy audit tool for WAP.

Malhotra, Mini [ORNL; MacDonald, Michael [Sentech, Inc.; Accawi, Gina K [ORNL; New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL; Im, Piljae [ORNL

2012-03-01

221

Family Structure and Children's Health and Behavior: Data from the 1999 National Survey of America's Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from the 1999 National Survey of America's Families, this research investigates the association and pathways between family structure and child well-being among children age 6 to 17. Three indicators of child well-being are examined: parent-rated health, limiting health conditions, and child behavior. Results show that both stepfamilies…

Wen, Ming

2008-01-01

222

Achieving success with family planning in rural Afghanistan  

PubMed Central

Abstract Problem Afghan women have one of the world’s highest lifetime risks of maternal death. Years of conflict have devastated the country’s health infrastructure. Total fertility was one of the world’s highest, contraceptive use was low and there were no Afghan models of success for family planning. Approach We worked closely with communities, providing information about the safety and non-harmful side-effects of contraceptives and improving access to injectable contraceptives, pills and condoms. Regular interaction with community leaders, mullahs (religious leaders), clinicians, community health workers and couples led to culturally acceptable innovations. A positive view of birth spacing was created by the messages that contraceptive use is 300 times safer than pregnancy in Afghanistan and that the Quran (the holy book of Islam) promotes two years of breastfeeding. Community health workers initiated the use of injectable contraceptives for the first time. Local setting The non-for-profit organization, Management Sciences for Health, Afghan nongovernmental organizations and the Ministry of Public Health implemented the Accelerating Contraceptive Use project in three rural areas with different ethnic populations. Relevant changes The contraceptive prevalence rate increased by 24–27% in 8 months in the project areas. Men supported modern contraceptives once they understood contraceptive safety, effectiveness and non-harmful side-effects. Injectable contraceptives contributed most to increases in contraceptive use. Lessons learnt Community health workers can rapidly increase contraceptive use in rural areas when given responsibility and guidance. Project innovations were adopted as best practices for national scale-up. PMID:20428392

Saeedi, Nika; Samadi, Abdul Khalil

2010-01-01

223

On the socioeconomic benefits of family planning work.  

PubMed

The focus of this article is on 1) the intended socioeconomic benefit of Chinese family planning (FP) versus the benefit of the maternal production sector, 2) the estimated costs of FP work, 3) and the principal ways to lower FP costs. Marxian population theory, which is ascribed to in socialist China, states that population and socioeconomic development are interconnected and must adapt to each other and that an excessively large or small population will upset the balance and retard development. Malthusians believe that large populations reduce income, and Adam Smith believed that more people meant a larger market and more income. It is believed that FP will bring socioeconomic benefits to China. The socioeconomic benefit of material production is the linkage between labor consumption and the amount of labor usage with the fruits and benefits of labor. FP invests in human, material, and financial resources to reduce the birth rate and the absolute number of births. The investment is recouped in population. The increased national income generated from a small outlay to produce an ideal population would be used to improve material and cultural lives. FP brings economic benefits and accelerates social development (ecological balances women's emancipation and improvement in the physical and mental health of women and children, improvement in cultural learning and employment, cultivation of socialist morality and new practices, and stability). In computing FP cost, consideration is given to total cost and unit cost. Cost is dependent on the state budget allocation, which was 445.76 million yuan in 1982 and was doubled by 1989. World Bank figures for 1984 affixed the FP budget in China at 979.6 million US dollars, of which 80% was provided by China. Per person, this means 21 cents for central, provincial, prefecture, and country spending, 34 cents for rural collective set-ups, 25 cents for child awards, and various subsidies, 15 cents for sterilization, and 5 cents for rural medical services, or 1 US dollar/person. Unit costs are the costs to reduce the population of one and include direct and indirect costs. The unit cost between 1970-82 was 35.5 yuan, but if outlays for families and industrial units are included, the cost was 70-100 yuan. Population growth, however, must be balanced so that aging does not cancel out the benefits from FP gains. Lower costs can be achieved by better FP administration. PMID:12343682

Yang, D

1991-01-01

224

National Plant Genome Initiative: Five Year Plan: 2003 - 2008  

NSF Publications Database

... About the National Science and Technology Council Cover Letter Interagency Working Group on Plant ... Science and Technology Council Executive Summary Introduction Plan for 2003 - 2008 Cost Estimates ...

225

National Institutes of Health Research Plan on Down Syndrome  

E-print Network

National Institutes of Health Research Plan on Down Syndrome October 2007 U.S. DEPARTMENT................................................................................. 2 BACKGROUND ON DOWN SYNDROME.......................................................................................... 2 HIGHLIGHTS OF ONGOING RESEARCH ON DOWN SYNDROME AT THE NIH...... 3 NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE

Baker, Chris I.

226

78 FR 72060 - Chimney Rock National Monument Management Plan; San Juan National Forest; Colorado  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Monument Management Plan; San Juan National Forest; Colorado AGENCY...agency, proposes to amend the 2013 San Juan National Forest Land and Resource...to [comments-rocky-mountain-san-juan-pagosa@fs.fed.us], or...

2013-12-02

227

78 FR 69462 - National Nanotechnology Initiative Strategic Plan; National Science and Technology Council...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY OFFICE National...Nanotechnology Initiative Strategic Plan; National Science and Technology Council; National Nanotechnology...Executive Office of the President, Office of Science and Technology Policy. [[Page...

2013-11-19

228

Clinton's Child Care Plan: Helping Families to Secure and Pay for Child Care. Family Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews features of President Bill Clinton's proposed $22 billion child care plan, a set of spending measures and tax credits designed to make child care more affordable, available, and safe for low- and middle-income families. Features noted include Head Start and after-school programs, and business tax credits. (HTH)

Lindjord, Denise

1998-01-01

229

Family Emergency Plan Make sure your family has a plan in case of an emergency. Before an emergency happens, sit down together and decide how you will  

E-print Network

Family Emergency Plan Make sure your family has a plan in case of an emergency. Before an emergency and what you will do in an emergency. Keep a copy of this plan in your emergency supply kit or another safe member and keep it up to date. Name: Social Security Number: Date of Birth: Important Medical Information

Burke, Peter

230

Career Planning in Harmony with Family Values and Needs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Balancing career and family! Balancing what you love and who you love!! It is such an attention getting topic. And yet, if you really think about it, people have been doing it for ages. What makes it challenging in today's world is the dual income families that throw off-balance of traditional style of balancing family and profession. Balancing family and career is not as difficult. The question is more meaningful when you ask how do you find the right balance, and in fact, what is the right balance? How do you know you are there? Happiness at home and self esteem due to work is genderless issue however, it is essentially talked more in the context of women. Some of the things that could be helpful in achieving the right balance, are time management, proper prioritization, asking for help, a caring family, friends, and most importantly colleagues. In the portfolio of professional passions, it is important to identify the areas that are conducive to possibilities of changing family needs, international families, spouse's career and job relocation, etc. So, the bottom line question is whether it is possible to find a right balance between family and career? I would submit to you that with passion, courage, open- mindedness, and proper career planning, it is definitely possible. We just need to utilize the same techniques in choosing and sustaining the right balance that we use in identifying research topics and executing it. This discussion will look into further details of the challenges of balancing family and career from the perspective of also an immigrant, and possible ways of overcoming them.

Dubey, Archana

2008-03-01

231

The National Science Board Strategic Plan  

NSF Publications Database

The National Science Foundation Act of 1950 created the National Science Foundation and the National Science Board "To promote the progress of science; to advance the national health, prosperity, and welfare; to secure the national defense?. The National Science Board serves as the governing board of the National Science Foundation, establishing its policies and approving its budgets and priorities. These include: the Federal Investment in Science and Engineering, Educating the National ...

232

Family planning: Choices and challenges for developing countries.  

PubMed

While slow and uneven progress has been made on maternal health, attaining the 1994 Cairo International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) goal for achieving universal access to reproductive health remains elusive for many developing countries. Assuring access to sexual and reproductive health services, including integrated family planning services, remains a critical strategy for improving the health and well-being of women and alleviating poverty. Family planning not only prevents maternal, infant, and child deaths, but also empowers women to engage fully in socioeconomic development and provides them with reproductive choices. This paper will discuss the current landscape of contraception in developing countries, including options available to women and couples, as well as the challenges to its provision. Finally, we review suggestions to improve access and promising strategies to ensure all people have universal access to reproductive health options. PMID:24957693

Mbizvo, Michael T; Phillips, Sharon J

2014-08-01

233

Differences in counseling men and women: family planning in Kenya.  

PubMed

A comparison of family planning sessions with male and female clients in Kenya found distinct gender differences. Most men came for information, while women wanted to adopt, continue, or change contraceptive methods. Consultations with men and couples were more than twice as long as consultations with women. Men communicated actively (for example, by volunteering extra information, asking questions, and expressing worries) during 66% of their turns to speak, compared with 27% for women. Providers offered men more detailed information than women, asked them fewer questions, issued fewer instructions, and responded more supportively. These communication patterns may be seen as a reflection of Kenyan gender roles and men's and women's different reasons for seeking family planning services. Kenyan providers need to improve the quality of their interactions with women. They also need to anticipate men's outspokenness and understand the male agenda if they are to counsel men effectively. PMID:11013546

Kim, Y M; Kols, A; Mwarogo, P; Awasum, D

2000-01-01

234

The selection of family planning discussion partners in Nepal.  

PubMed

There is growing evidence that the information women receive about family planning from their social network is influential in their decisions to use a contraceptive method. Less is known, however, regarding the role individuals play in constructing their social network and, thereby, determining the nature of its influence. This study examined the criteria women use to select their family planning discussion partners and the individual-level factors that promote the addition of a contraceptive user to one's discussion network. Sociometric data were collected in November 1997 and February 1999 from all currently married women aged 15 to 49 years in three villages of Dang District in the Mid-Western Region of Nepal (panel N = 281). Preference for women from one's ethnic group and the strategic selection of contraceptive users was observed. Contraceptive use and attitudes toward family planning were both positively associated with the addition of a contraceptive user to one's discussion network, suggesting that women seek contraceptive users to confirm their existing beliefs and behaviors. Understanding the dynamics of social network formation can assist programs to better utilize the behavior change potential of peer networks. PMID:16203631

Boulay, Marc; Valente, Thomas W

2005-09-01

235

Socialist spiritual civilization enhances consciousness in family planning.  

PubMed

Since 1985, there have been no cases of coercion in the practice of family planning and yet also no unplanned births among the over 1200 members of the Chinese Communist Party in Hunan Province's Fuxing Township. Ideological work is aimed at demonstrating that fertility control is in the interest of both individuals and the state. All township cadres are asked by the government to take the lead in practicing family planning, publicizing population policies, and assisting in solving the difficulties of the masses. They are further expected to take the lead in the provision of 5 services: 1) publicity about population theory and family planning policy; 2) birth control training and provision; 3) management and distribution of contraceptives; 4) maternal-child health services, including free health check-ups for the 870 children in the township and follow-up visits to the 2100 women who have undergone tubal ligation; and 5) development of social welfare and assistance to 1-child households. PMID:12341553

1987-02-01

236

Philippines. Church vs. state: Fidel Ramos and family planning face "Catholic Power".  

PubMed

Catholic groups and individuals united in a public rally in Manila's Rizal Park to decry a "cultural dictatorship," which promotes abortion, homosexuality, lesbianism, sexual perversion, condoms, and artificial contraception. Government spokesmen responded that condoms and contraception were part of government policy to spread family planning knowledge and informed choices among the population. Cardinal Jaime Sin and former president Corazon Aquino joined forces to lead the movement against the national family planning program in the largest demonstration since the ouster of Ferdinand Marcos in 1986. Also criticized was the 85-page draft action plan for the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) scheduled for September 1994. Cardinal Sin accused President Clinton of using the action plan to promote worldwide abortion. Under the administration of President Fidel Ramos, family planning funding has quintupled and the number of family planning workers has increased from 200 to 8000. President Ramos has gone the farthest of any administration in opposing the Church's positions on contraception and abortion, although years ago Fidel Ramos and Cardinal Sin were allies in the effort to push out Ferdinand Marcos. The population of the Philippines is 85% Catholic, and laws reflect the Church's doctrine against divorce and abortion. The current growth rate is 2.3%, and the goal is to reduce growth to 2.0% by 1998, the end of Ramos's term in office. The population target is in accord with demographic goals proposed in the UN draft action plan. The Vatican has opposed the language in the plan and may have encouraged other religious leaders to join those opposed to the "war against our babies and children." Sin said that contraceptive distribution was "intrinsically evil" and should be stopped now. Ramos's administration stated that their policies and programs are not "in the hands of the devil" and there is support for the Church on family values and abortion. Health minister Flavier has indicated that illegal abortion has become very common, and control of abortion is through family planning. The Protestant president will oppose abortion at ICDP. PMID:12345705

1994-08-24

237

Family Planning in Five Continents: Africa, America, Asia, Europe, Oceania. November 1975 Update.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document gives highlights of the family planning situation in countries of the world, together with basic demographic statistics. Its purpose is to provide a quick reference source for those who work in family planning, population, and other related fields. Following a brief history of the pioneering work in family planning, population…

International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

238

Screening family planning needs: an operations research project in Guatemala  

PubMed Central

Background Public sector health care providers in rural Guatemala have infrequently offered family planning information and services in routine visits. This operations research project tested a strategy to modify certain practices that prevent health workers from proactively screening clients' needs and meeting them. Methods The research design was quasi-experimental with a pretest-posttest-follow-up comparison group design. Health districts, which comprise health centers and posts, were purposively assigned to intervention or comparison groups to assure comparability of the two groups. The strategy was based on a job-aid designed to guide health workers in screening clients' reproductive intentions and family planning needs, help them to offer contraceptive methods if the woman expressed interest, and facilitate the provision of the method chosen at the time of the visit. The strategy was implemented at intervention sites during a period of six months. Upon completion of post-intervention measurements, the strategy was scaled up to the comparison sites, and a follow-up assessment was conducted nine months later. Results were evaluated by conducting three rounds of exit interviews with women exposed to the risk of unwanted pregnancy. Results Study results showed a two to five-fold increase in providers' screening of clients' reproductive intentions. The proportion of clients who received information about contraceptives increased from 8% at the baseline to 42% immediately post-intervention, and 36% at the follow-up survey. The intervention also proved successful in improving the role service providers play in offering women a chance to ask questions and assisting women in making a selection. The proportion of women who received a method, referral or appointment increased and remained high in the intervention group, although no change was seen in the comparison group after their participation in the strategy. Conclusion The easy-to-use job aid developed for this project proved useful for screening clients' needs and reducing providers' reluctance to discuss family planning with clients and offer contraceptive services. Such family planning screening devices can be useful in traditional settings where both providers and clients shy away from discussing family planning issues. PMID:15132752

Mendez, Francisco; Lopez, Felipe; Brambila, Carlos; Burkhart, Marianne

2004-01-01

239

Career-Life Planning with First Nations People.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Career-Life Planning Model for First Nations People (1997) was created by Drs. Rod McCormick and Norm Admundson to address the need for more culturally sensitive career planning with First Nations people. The most unique thing about this model is the inclusion of many cultural practices, such as: opening and closing prayers, the invitation to…

Offet-Gartner, Kathy

240

NATIONAL METAL FINISHING ENVIRONMENTAL R&D PLAN - AN UPDATE  

EPA Science Inventory

This document is an update to the National Metal Finishing Environmental R&D Plan (EPA/600/R-97/095), dated September 1997. The 1997 Plan and Update are available on the National Metal Finishing Resource Center's web site, www.nmfrc.org. The primary purpose in preparing an up...

241

45 CFR 1357.15 - Comprehensive child and family services plan requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Comprehensive child and family services plan requirements...HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES REQUIREMENTS...

2013-10-01

242

45 CFR 1357.15 - Comprehensive child and family services plan requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Comprehensive child and family services plan requirements...HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES REQUIREMENTS...

2010-10-01

243

45 CFR 1357.15 - Comprehensive child and family services plan requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Comprehensive child and family services plan requirements...HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES REQUIREMENTS...

2012-10-01

244

45 CFR 1357.15 - Comprehensive child and family services plan requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Comprehensive child and family services plan requirements...HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES REQUIREMENTS...

2011-10-01

245

Oak Ridge National Laboratory Institutional Plan, FY 1995--FY 2000  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the institutional plan for Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the next five years (1995-2000). Included in this report are the: laboratory director`s statement; laboratory mission, vision, and core competencies; laboratory plan; major laboratory initiatives; scientific and technical programs; critical success factors; summaries of other plans; and resource projections.

Not Available

1994-11-01

246

National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Emergency Planning in Athletics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a position statement by the National Athletic Trainers' Association on emergency planning in athletics, examining the professional and legal importance of emergency plans and looking at components of emergency plans, which include implementation, personnel, equipment, communication, transportation, venue location, emergency care…

Andersen, J. C.; Courson, Ronald W.; Kleiner, Douglas M.; McLoda, Todd A.

2002-01-01

247

Enhancing The National Map Through Tactical Planning and Performance Monitoring  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tactical planning and performance monitoring are initial steps toward improving 'the way The National Map works' and supporting the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Science Strategy. This Tactical Performance Planning Summary for The National Map combines information from The National Map 2.0 Tactical Plan and The National Map Performance Milestone Matrix. The National Map 2.0 Tactical Plan is primarily a working document to guide The National Map program's execution, production, and metrics monitoring for fiscal years (FY) 2008 and 2009. The Tactical Plan addresses data, products, and services, as well as supporting and enabling activities. The National Map's 2-year goal for FY 2008 and FY 2009 is to provide a range of geospatial products and services that further the National Spatial Data Infrastructure and underpin USGS science. To do this, the National Geospatial Program will develop a renewed understanding during FY 2008 of key customer needs and requirements, develop the infrastructure to support The National Map business model, modernize its business processes, and reengineer its workforce. Priorities for The National Map will be adjusted if necessary to respond to changes to the project that may impact resources, constrain timeframes, or change customer needs. The supporting and enabling activities that make it possible to produce the products and services of The National Map will include partnership activities, improved compatibility of systems, outreach, and integration of data themes.

2008-01-01

248

Links between Cairo and Kyoto: addressing global warming through voluntary family planning.  

PubMed

Over the past three decades, with a combination of new technology, rising female literacy rates, and strengthened family planning programs, the world has seen dramatic increases in the use of contraception, with corresponding declines in fertility and population growth rates. At the International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo in 1994, parties pledged a tripling of funding for reproductive health programs in developing countries. Many demographers believe that making such programs more widely available to women would extend the decline in birth rates and shift the world towards the low scenario of United Nations population projections over the next century and a half. By examining the costs and impacts of such programs, in view of the links between population and carbon emissions, this paper shows that extension of voluntary family planning could make a large and cost-effective contribution to the greenhouse gas limitation goals of the Kyoto Protocol that was negotiated in 1997. PMID:11928354

Skeer, Jeffrey

2002-02-01

249

Family-Driven Youth-Guided Practices in Residential Treatment: Findings from a National Survey of Residential Treatment Facilities. Residential Treatment for Children & Youth, vol. 27, issue 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports findings from a national survey of residential treatment providers that examined adoption of family-driven, youth-guided practices. Providers reported several practices consistent with family-driven, youth-guided care, such as strength-based individualized treatment planning, but fewer include youth or family members in facility governance activities.

Jonathan D. Brown; Kirsten Barrett; Henry T. Ireys; Kamala Allen; Sheila A. Pires; Gary Blau

2010-01-01

250

Results of the 2009 National Resident Matching Program: family medicine.  

PubMed

The results of the 2009 National Resident Matching Program (NRMP) reflect a persistently low level of student interest in family medicine residency training in the United States. Compared with the 2008 Match, 70 fewer positions (with 89 fewer US seniors) were filled in family medicine residency programs through the NRMP in 2009, at the same time that 18 fewer positions were filled in primary care internal medicine (11 fewer US seniors), one more position was filled in pediatrics-primary care (three more US seniors), and 13 more positions were filled in internal medicine-pediatrics programs (but with seven fewer US seniors). Multiple forces, including student perspectives of the demands, rewards and prestige of the specialty, the turbulence and uncertainty of the health care and economic environments, lifestyle issues, the advice of deans, and the impact of faculty role models, continue to influence medical student career choices. A total of 152 more positions (28 fewer US seniors) were filled in categorical internal medicine. Thirty-one more positions (72 more US seniors) were filled in categorical pediatrics programs. The 2009 NRMP results suggest that while interest in family medicine experienced a slight increase in the number of students choosing the specialty last year, overall interest in primary care careers continues to decline. With the nation continuing to call for the roles and services of family physicians, family medicine still matched too few graduates through the 2009 NRMP to effectively address the nation's needs for primary care physicians. PMID:19724942

Pugno, Perry A; McGaha, Amy L; Schmittling, Gordon T; DeVilbiss, Ashley D; Ostergaard, Daniel J

2009-09-01

251

Results of the 2008 National Resident Matching Program: family medicine.  

PubMed

The results of the 2008 National Resident Matching Program (NRMP) reflect a currently stable level of student interest in family medicine residency training in the United States. Compared with the 2007 Match, 91 more positions (with 65 more US seniors) were filled in family medicine residency programs through the NRMP in 2008, at the same time as 10 fewer (one fewer US senior) in primary care internal medicine, eight fewer positions were filled in pediatrics-primary care (10 fewer US seniors), and 19 fewer (27 fewer US seniors) in internal medicine-pediatrics programs. Multiple forces, including student perspectives of the demands, rewards, and prestige of the specialty, the turbulence and uncertainty of the health care environment, lifestyle issues, and the impact of faculty role models, continue to influence medical student career choices. Thirty-one more positions (20 fewer US seniors) were filled in categorical internal medicine. Thirty more positions (84 fewer US seniors) were filled in categorical pediatrics programs. The 2008 NRMP results suggest that while interest in family medicine experienced a slight increase in the number of students choosing the specialty, interest in other primary care careers continues to decline. With the needs of the nation calling for the roles and services of family physicians, family medicine still matched too few graduates through the 2008 NRMP to meet the nation's needs for primary care physicians. PMID:18988043

Pugno, Perry A; McGaha, Amy L; Schmittling, Gordon T; DeVilbiss, Ashley D; Ostergaard, Daniel J

2008-09-01

252

Results of the 2007 National Resident Matching Program: family medicine.  

PubMed

The results of the 2007 National Resident Matching Program (NRMP) reflect a currently stable level of student interest in family medicine residency training in the United States. Compared with the 2006 Match, five fewer positions (with 25 fewer US seniors) were filled in family medicine residency programs through the NRMP in 2007, at the same time as 20 fewer (two more US seniors) in primary care internal medicine, the same number of pediatrics-primary care (four fewer US seniors), and one more (19 fewer US seniors) in internal medicine-pediatrics programs. Multiple forces, including student perspectives of the demands, rewards, and prestige of the specialty; the turbulence and uncertainty of the health care environment; lifestyle issues; and the impact of faculty role models continue to influence medical student career choices. Eighty-four more positions (12 more US seniors) were filled in categorical internal medicine. Fifty-four more positions (22 more US seniors) were filled in categorical pediatrics programs. The 2007 NRMP results suggest that interest in family medicine and primary care careers continues to decline. With the needs of the nation calling for the roles and services of family physicians, family medicine matched too few graduates through the 2007 NRMP to meet the nation's needs for primary care physicians. PMID:17764041

Pugno, Perry A; McGaha, Amy L; Schmittling, Gordon T; DeVilbiss, Ashley; Kahn, Norman B

2007-09-01

253

[Coverage of family planning services in five health regions].  

PubMed

In 1984, a team of specialists from the National Population Council and the Ministry of Health evaluated the availability of family planning services in 5 health regions of Peru: a sector of Lima, Arequipa, San Martin, Cuzco, and Cajamarca. The numbers of women aged 15-49 years in the health regions, the numbers subject to Ministry of Health programming, the numbers of acceptors, and the percentage of coverage respectively were 1,357,298, 906,675, 83,542, and 9.21% in Lima; 183,168, 122,356, 4789, and 3.91% in Arequipa; 77,427, 51,721, 1610, and 3.11% in San Martin; 283,088, 189,103, 7695, and 4.07% in Cuzco; and 120,375, 80,411, 1181, and 1.47% in Cajamarca. There were 98,817 acceptors in the 5 regions, and the coverage was 7.32%. The differences in coverage achieved in the 5 regions were due to different financial and professional resources in the different regions as well as to differences in sociodemographic characteristics and especially degree of urbanism. A better distribution and more rational utilization of budgetary and professional resources would permit a levelling of the regional rates of coverage and an increase of the total coverage. The number of acceptors of condoms and other methods, pills, and IUDs respectively were 17,034, 30,117, and 36,391 in Lima; 2176, 1830, and 783 in Arequipa; 352, 751, and 507 in San Martin; 2879, 3507, and 1309 in Cuzco, 250, 445, and 486 in Cajamarca, and 22,691, 36,650, and 39,476 in all 5 regions. Of the 98,817 acceptors, 23.0% chose condoms and others, 37.1% pills, and 39.9% chose IUDs. Regional variations in methods selected depended primarily on the professional resources available. In areas where more physicians were available there were higher rates of IUD use. PMID:12267241

Herrera Miranda, J L

1985-04-01

254

Minister Zhang Weiqing on the goals of China's family planning programme.  

PubMed

This article presents an excerpt from a speech given by the Minister of the State Family Planning Commission at the Annual National Conference on Family Planning in Beijing, China, on March 16, 1998. Minister Zhang indicated that the Political Bureau, Communist Party-Central Committee called a meeting in February 1998. The aim was to hear a progress report by the State Family Planning Commission. The Bureau approved a series of goals set by the year 2000 and by mid-century. 1) China's population should be under 1.3 billion by 2000. Programs must emphasize the reduction of birth defects and improve reproductive health services. 2) Total population should be under 1.4 billion by 2010. Greater efforts should be made to improve the quality of life and to address problems of population aging and the rising sex ratio. 3) Population should continue to be controlled by 2021, and have an improved quality of life and access to reproductive health services. 4) Population should decline after 2050. Mid-1997 population was 1.236 billion, or 1.243 if Hong Kong population is included. The birth rate in 1997, declined in 20 of 31 provinces, municipalities, and autonomous regions. Rapid declines occurred in Gansu, Guangdong, and Hubei provinces. The 1998 goals for family planning are to strengthen leadership at all levels and performance at local levels, upgrade the qualifications of family planners at all levels, and to create positive public images and practices. The "Three Stresses" on IEC, contraception, and regular management/services will be implemented in 1998. This will require effective management, technical service, and mass participation networks. PMID:12293916

Zhang, W

1998-06-01

255

Iran's shift in family planning policies: concerns and challenges.  

PubMed

Iran's significant success in implementing Family Planning (FP) during the past 25 years, has made it a role model in the world. The Total Fertility Rate (TFR) in Iran has dropped from 6.5 in 1960 to 1.6 in 2012, which is well below the targeted value of 2.2 for the country. Iran's success story, however, did not merely root in the implementation of FP programs. In other words, families' strong tendency to limit fertility and delayed marriages had an undeniable role in decreasing the TFR. On the other hand, Iranian policy-makers are very concerned about such a decrease and have recently restricted access to contraception, while outlawing any surgery that reduces fertility. This paper, tries to highlight the pros and cons of such restrictive policies, and argue that the policy-makers might be jeopardizing the success of Iran's FP program by overestimating its role in the TFR reduction rate. PMID:25337596

Karamouzian, Mohammad; Sharifi, Hamid; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

2014-10-01

256

Family Discussions About Contraception and Family Planning: A Qualitative Exploration of Black Parent and Adolescent Perspectives  

PubMed Central

CONTEXT Parent-adolescent communication is associated with increased adolescent contraceptive use. However, studies of this association are limited by their lack of examination of the communication process, reliance on cross-sectional designs and infrequent comparison of parent and adolescent perspectives. Examining communication in black families is particularly important, given the high pregnancy rate among black adolescents. METHODS Between December 2007 and March 2008, a total of 21 focus groups were conducted with 53 black families (68 parents and 57 adolescents) in Pennsylvania. Separate groups were held for males and females, and for parents and adolescents. The discussion guide explored family communication about sexual health topics, including contraception, family planning and abortion. Sessions were audio-recorded; data were transcribed and analyzed using a grounded theory approach to content analysis and the constant comparison method. RESULTS Five key themes emerged among both parents and adolescents. First, discussions about contraception were indirect and framed in terms of the need to avoid negative consequences of sex. Second, contraceptive knowledge was low. Third, parents more often reported helping male adolescents get condoms than helping females get contraceptives. Fourth, discussions emphasized planning for the future over contraception. Finally, negative attitudes toward abortion were prevalent. CONCLUSIONS Parent-adolescent communication interventions should improve contraceptive knowledge, help parents understand the harmful effects of gender biases in information dissemination, and provide mothers and fathers with communication skills tailored to enhance the role they play in their adolescents’ sexual development. PMID:20887285

Akers, Aletha Y.; Schwarz, Eleanor Bimla; Borrero, Sonya; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

2010-01-01

257

Men's attitudes about family planning in Dakar, Senegal.  

PubMed

A survey of men's behaviour and opinions with respect to family planning, undertaken in Dakar in 1986, shows that contrary to popular belief, acceptance of contraception at least for the purpose of spacing births is substantial, even among men from the most conservative backgrounds. Actual use of contraceptives varied considerably across occupations. Among functionaries and students, it ranges between 25 and 49%. Among the working class, prevalence is low, especially within marriage. Uncertainty about the position of Islam regarding fertility control is apparent even among the highly educated and is given as a reason for rejecting use of contraceptives. PMID:2768287

Posner, J K; Mbodji, F

1989-07-01

258

Satisfied IUD acceptors as family planning motivators in Sri Lanka.  

PubMed

In this study, government midwives were teamed with currently satisfied IUD acceptors to strengthen field motivational and recruitment efforts. The objective was to increase the number of new IUD acceptors. In the experimental study areas, a total of 3,019 new IUD acceptors were recruited. Time series regression analysis revealed a significant difference between the experimental and comparison areas that was over and above what might be expected on the basis of the past history of differences between these two areas. These and other findings suggest that teaming currently satisfied acceptors with government field-workers can have a substantial impact on the recruitment of new family planning users. PMID:3775829

Fisher, A A; de Silva, V

1986-01-01

259

NATIONAL PLAN FOR CIVIL EARTH OBSERVATIONS  

E-print Network

, promoting national security and economic growth, and advancing scientific inquiry. The observations and climate, natural hazards, land-use change, ecosystem health, and natural-resource availability; Homeland and National Security; Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) Education; Science

Schrijver, Karel

260

Brookhaven National Laboratory Master Planning Update  

E-print Network

· Focus on redevelopment of central areas rather than site expansion #12;· Attractive, reliable, cost Roof Leaks Deteriorated Mechanical & Electrical Systems Labs Needing Renovations Average age of active. The implementation plan will be a living document that is used as a continual planning tool. Modernization of our

Homes, Christopher C.

261

Family planning for the mentally disordered and retarded.  

PubMed

Increasing perception of healthy reproductive functioning and conception prevention has been accompanied by greater recognition of the needs for emotional and sexual fulfillment of individuals with mental disorder or retardation. Although family planning services have burgeoned in the United States and many other countries and the special concerns of mentally disordered and retarded persons have been well documented, organized efforts to include counseling on fertility regulation in mental health and in training programs have, with few exceptions, been sparse. Recent trends are discussed in terms of reported experience from the United States and Denmark. It is recommended that women of childbearing age in psychiatric facilities be given an opportunity to participate in programs offering screening for and treatment of gynecological conditions, as well as family planning counseling, before going on home leave or discharge. Such counseling should be adapted to a woman's emotional functioning, consider possible contraindications of specific contraceptive methods, and, to the extent possible, involve the partner. Ethical aspects need to be considered to avoid even the appearance of coercion. Similar opportunities should be provided for retarded persons seeking to achieve a satisfying sexual life. Surgical contraception and abortion are discussed within the context of patient rights, competence, and the desirability of avoiding unintended conceptions and reducing unwanted births that may engender further stress and psychosocial difficulties for the woman, the child, and society. The experience of former patients might well be useful in restructuring current service programs and priorities. PMID:2348193

David, H P; Morgall, J M

1990-06-01

262

"Family planning and population programs" a book review article.  

PubMed

RESUMEN: El volumen Planeamiento Familiar y Programas de Poblacion es un libro indispensable tanto para demógrafos como para otras personas interesadas en el control de población. Tiene sus limitaciones dodo su caracter heterogéneo, su falta de autocrítica, el no tratar sobre la validez y confiabilidad de las encuestas de conocimientos, attitudes y prácticas (KAP), su injustificado tono optimista, y su fracaso al no explorar y considerar alternativas para las presunciones y premisas sobre las cuales se basan los actuates programas de planeamiento familiar. Es sin embargo un importante hito que resume las contribuciones de las ciencias sociales y biomédicas al campo de la demografía.SummaryThe volume Family Planning and Population Programs is an indispensable book to demographers as well as to others concerned with population control. It is not without limitations because of its heterogeneous character, its lack of self-criticism, its failure to deal with the reliability and validity of KAP surveys, its unwarranted optimistic aura, and its failure to explore and consider alternatives to the basic assumptions and premises on which present family planning programs are based. It is, nevertheless, a landmark in its summarization of the contribution of the social and biomedical sciences to demographic engineering. PMID:21279790

Hauser, P M

1967-03-01

263

Samish Indian Nation Long-Term Strategic Energy Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Tribes strategic energy planning effort is divided into three phases: (1) Completing an Energy Resource Assessment; (2) Developing a Long-Term Strategic Energy Plan; and (3) Preparing a Strategic Energy Implementation Plan for the Samish Homelands. The Samish Indian Nation developed a comprehensive Strategic Energy plan to set policy for future development on tribal land that consists of a long-term, integrated, systems approach to providing a framework under which the Samish Community can use resources efficiently, create energy-efficient infrastructures, and protect and enhance quality of life. Development of the Strategic Energy plan will help the Samish Nation create a healthy community that will sustain current and future generations by addressing economic, environmental, and social issues while respecting the Samish Indian Nation culture and traditions.

Christine Woodward; B. Beckley; K. Hagen

2005-06-30

264

76 FR 24050 - Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, Biscayne National...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Park Service [2310-0003-422] Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Final Programmatic...Environmental Impact Statement for the Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Biscayne National...Environmental Impact Statement for the Coral Reef Restoration Plan (Plan/FEIS)...

2011-04-29

265

77 FR 3435 - General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan; Cancellation of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan; Cancellation of Meeting...General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan scheduled for January...Roney, Senior Coordinator, National Poultry Improvement Plan, VS, APHIS, 1506...

2012-01-24

266

77 FR 1051 - General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan; Meeting AGENCY: Animal...General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan. DATES: The meeting...Roney, Senior Coordinator, National Poultry Improvement Plan, VS, APHIS, 1506...

2012-01-09

267

75 FR 70712 - General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan; Reestablishment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan; Reestablishment AGENCY...General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan (Committee) for a 2-year...Rhorer, Senior Coordinator, National Poultry Improvement Plan, VS, APHIS,...

2010-11-18

268

77 FR 59888 - General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan AGENCY: Animal and Plant...General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan (Committee) for a 2year...Roney, Senior Coordinator, National Poultry Improvement Plan, VS, APHIS,...

2012-10-01

269

76 FR 1592 - National Poultry Improvement Plan; General Conference Committee Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. APHIS-2010-0039] National Poultry Improvement Plan; General Conference...General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan. DATES: The General...Rhorer, Senior Coordinator, National Poultry Improvement Plan, VS, APHIS, 1498...

2011-01-11

270

76 FR 35467 - Deer and Vegetation Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Fire Island National Seashore...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Fire Island National Seashore, New York AGENCY...a Deer and Vegetation Management Plan, Fire Island National Seashore, New York...Deer and Vegetation Management Plan at Fire Island National Seashore, New York....

2011-06-17

271

76 FR 3652 - Dog Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Golden Gate National Recreation Area, California  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Environmental Impact Statement, Golden Gate National Recreation Area, California AGENCY...Statement for the Dog Management Plan, Golden Gate National Recreation Area...Management Plan (Draft Plan/EIS), Golden Gate National Recreation Area (GGNRA),...

2011-01-20

272

76 FR 22114 - National Emergency Communications Plan (NECP) Tribal Report  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. DHS-2011-0025] National Emergency Communications Plan (NECP) Tribal Report AGENCY...NPPD), Office of Cybersecurity and Communications (CS&C), Office of Emergency Communications (OEC), will submit the...

2011-04-20

273

SUGGESTED THREE-YEAR GRADUATION PLAN Human Development and Family Studies  

E-print Network

SUGGESTED THREE-YEAR GRADUATION PLAN Human Development and Family Studies ­ Child and Youth Development and Family Studies major HDFS 24012 Child Development 3 See note 1 on page 2 HDFS 25512-YEAR GRADUATION PLAN Human Development and Family Studies ­ Child and Youth Development - Bachelor of Science [EH

Sheridan, Scott

274

Year 6 Planning Exemplification 3. National Literacy Strategy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Third in a series of booklets designed to assist Year 6 teachers with planning instruction to meet objectives of the National Literacy Strategy, this booklet contains Summer Term planning exemplification for three "revision" units (Narrative, Poetry and Non-fiction) prior to the Key Stage 2 tests and one unit after the tests (Extended narrative…

Department for Education and Skills, London (England).

275

From Physical Activity Guidelines to a National Activity Plan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The U.S. National Physical Activity Plan (NPAP) is a comprehensive strategic plan aimed at increasing physical activity levels in all segments of the American population. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the development of the NPAP, provide an update on the status of the NPAP, and comment on the future of the NPAP. The NPAP was released…

Bornstein, Daniel B.; Pate, Russell R.

2014-01-01

276

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Health and Safety Plan  

E-print Network

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Health and Safety Plan for the ALS User Chemistry Laboratory.doc ii October 15, 2009 Health and Safety Plan for the ALS User Chemistry Laboratory Revision 0, October Chemistry Laboratory Manager.............................................................2 2.1.4 Users

Knowles, David William

277

Oak Ridge National Laboratory institutional plan, FY 1996--FY 2001  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the institutional plan for Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the next five years. Included in the report are: laboratory director`s statement; laboratory mission, vision, and core competencies; laboratory strategic plan; major laboratory initiatives; scientific and technical programs; critical success factors; summaries of other plans; resource projections; appendix which contains data for site and facilities, user facility, science and mathematic education and human resources; and laboratory organization chart.

NONE

1995-12-01

278

Women's attitudes towards mechanisms of action of family planning methods: survey in primary health centres in Pamplona, Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Informed consent in family planning includes knowledge of mechanism of action. Some methods of family planning occasionally work after fertilization. Knowing about postfertilization effects may be important to some women before choosing a certain family planning method. The objective of this survey is to explore women's attitudes towards postfertilization effects of family planning methods, and beliefs and characteristics possibly

Jokin de Irala; Cristina Lopez del Burgo; Carmen M Lopez de Fez; Jorge Arredondo; Rafael T Mikolajczyk; Joseph B Stanford

2007-01-01

279

Family planning education helps build self-esteem.  

PubMed

I got married at the age of 20. In our community, generally girls are married off at 15 or 16, but my marriage was delayed according to my father's and my wishes. I did not desire to have my first child immediately. My husband and I are very young and I did not want to assume maternal responsibilities so early in life. Picking up courage, I spoke to my husband. On learning that he had similar views, I was very relieved. I belong to a middle-class family. Due to an absence of a high school in the village. I was forced to drop out of school. Young girls in our community are not allowed to move freely within the village, much less the outside world. But when I was 19, I got the opportunity to gain a lot of information on family planning, health, personal hygiene and good nutrition as part of the Better Life Project. I also learned beauty skills, embroidery, knitting and video film-making. Often I share the information and skills I learned with others. I have even advised my brother's wives about proper child care and immunization. Now that I have a good relationship with the unmarried sister of my husband, I sometimes tell her whatever I have learned. I have felt a great change in myself. My earlier inhibitions in talking to people have dropped, and I can entertain and speak freely with guests who come home. I am more confident about traveling outside my village to other places alone or with company. Learning to operate a video camera and producing a film was my favorite experience. I discovered that I can do what is normally said to be the work of boys only. Sometimes I think that if I had not learned new skills, I would not have been able to share my feelings about family planning with my husband. My mother-in-law is also agreeable to our decision about waiting to have children because both my brothers-in-law have large families. However, I have to face my sisters-in-law who taunt me about my childless status. The problem now is that my husband is not satisfied using condoms. I have decided to consult the doctor at the mobile clinic about taking pills or other methods of contraception. PMID:12287152

Choudhary, P

1993-10-01

280

National Civil Applications Program: strategic plan vision for 2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The National Mapping Division (NMD) has developed this comprehensive strategic plan to chart the course of the National Civil Applications Program (NCAP) over the next 5 years. To meet the challenges of the future, the NCAP is changing its program emphases, methods of responding to customer needs, and business practices. The NCAP Strategic Plan identifies the new direction for the program through a series of strategic thrusts and goals for managers to use in formulating plans, establishing program emphases, and determining resource needs and allocations.

2004-01-01

281

National oil and hazardous substances pollution contingency plan final revision  

SciTech Connect

These final revisions update the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan of the US Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) and improve the efficiency, coordination, and effectiveness with which federal agencies respond to a discharge or substantial threat of discharge of oil or a hazardous substance. The changes include increased state participation in the plan, provision for the preparation of local contingency plans, incorporation of the National Pollution Equipment Inventory System, provision for scientific support coordinators and periodic field testing, and clarification of the application of the Endangered Species Act. Comments to these revisions, which become effective as of March 19, 1980, and CEQ response are discussed.

Not Available

1980-03-19

282

17 CFR 242.608 - Filing and amendment of national market system plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Filing and amendment of national market system plans. 242.608 Section 242.608...Nms-Regulation of the National Market System § 242.608 Filing and amendment of national market system plans. (a) Filing of national...

2013-04-01

283

Yugoslavia: Death of a Nation. [Lesson Plan].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on "Zlata's Diary: A Child's Life in Sarajevo" by Zlata Filipovic, this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that historical drama, like other historical fiction, is rooted in history but contains imaginary elements as well; and that the author describes in her diary what it was like to be a teenager in…

Lemberger, Beth

284

Henan Provincial Rules and Regulations on Family Planning.  

PubMed

Effective July 1, 1990, the full text of Henan Provincial Rules and Regulations on Family Planning (FP) are reported as approved by the 7th Henan Provincial People's Congress Standing Committee on April 12,1990. The 8 chapters and 57 articles cover general principles (articles 1-8), birth control (9-15), control over FP (16=20), aristogenesis and birth control measures (21-28), administration of the law (29-32),rewards (33-36), punishments (37-52), regulations on governance (53-57). Family planning is to correspond to economic and social development and be compatible with resources, environmental protection, and ecological balance. One child/family is the advocated position. Couples are responsible. Leadership needs strengthening at all government levels. The law must be enforced and done so impartially. January is the official FP month. Early marriage, early births, births without marriage, and unapproved births are prohibited. Child births must be planned. 2nd children are allowed only 1) when county level family technical appraisal determines that the 1st child cannot grow up to become part of the normal productive work force, 2) when the couple adopted a child and then the woman 30 years becomes pregnant after suffering from sterility, 3) when returned overseas Chinese or Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwanese resettlers have 1 child, 4) when remarriage occurs and 1 spouse had no children, and 5) when one spouse of the couple is a disabled serviceman or the child of a revolutionary martyr. In rural areas, exceptions are made for 1st children who are girls and hardship conditions exist, for a man with only daughters in the spouse's family line and he has responsibility for in-law support, for longstanding livelihood in remote locations, and the couple are minorities. Regardless of the exceptions, people are encouraged to still have only 1 child. Premarriage health examination is strongly recommended. Rewards include 12 days' work leave plus holiday leave for late marriage, and 3 months' leave plus maternity leave for a late birth. Peasants are exempt from collective voluntary labor for 1 year for late birth and marriage. Certificates are given as well as special treatment. A fine of 100-200 yuan is given for an unapproved birth, unless termination occurs. 50% of the monthly income of both parties will be used as a fine for unlawful marriage at an early age until 1 year after the lawful age is reached. A fine of 100-300 yuan is imposed for babies without a permit. Wages are lowered by 20-30% for a 2nd birth for 7 years; no bonuses or advancements are given for 2 years and they may be discharged. A fine may also be imposed for 14 years. Other rules govern urban residents only and pertain to contraceptive practices and medical personnel. PMID:12285789

1990-06-01

285

Results of the 2004 national resident matching program: family medicine.  

PubMed

The results of the 2004 National Resident Matching Program (NRMP) reflect a leveling in the recent trend of declining student interest in family medicine residency training in the United States. Compared with the 2003 Match, 34 more positions (36 fewer US seniors) were filled in family medicine residency programs through the NRMP in 2004, at the same time as 14 fewer (four fewer US seniors) in primary care internal medicine, 10 more in pediatrics-primary care (one more US senior), and 35 more (38 more US seniors) in internal medicine-pediatric programs. In comparison, one less position (one more US senior) was filled in anesthesiology and seven fewer (five more US seniors) in diagnostic radiology, two "marker" disciplines that have shown increases over the past several years. Many different forces, including student perspectives of the demands, rewards, and prestige of the specialty; the turbulence and uncertainty of the health care environment; liability protection issues; and the impact of faculty and resident role models, continue to influence medical student career choices. A total of 165 more positions (12 more US seniors) were filled in categorical internal medicine while 164 more positions (15 more US seniors) were filled in categorical pediatrics programs, where trainees perceive options for either practicing as generalists or entering subspecialty fellowships, depending on the market. With the needs of the nation, especially for rural and underserved populations, continuing to offer opportunities for family physicians, family medicine experienced a slight increase through the 2004 NRMP. The 2004 NRMP suggests that the trend away from family medicine and primary care careers may be leveling off. PMID:15343417

Pugno, Perry A; McPherson, Deborah S; Schmittling, Gordon T; Fetter, Gerald T; Kahn, Norman B

2004-09-01

286

Results of the 2002 National Resident Matching Program: family practice.  

PubMed

The results of the 2002 National Resident Matching Program (NRMP) reflect a persistent decline of student interest in family practice residency training in the United States. Compared with the 2001 Match, six fewer positions (103 fewer US seniors) were filled in family practice residency programs through the NRMP in 2002, as well as 48 fewer (30 fewer US seniors) in primary care internal medicine, 1 fewer in pediatrics-primary care (8 more US seniors), and 45 fewer (45 fewer US seniors) in internal medicine-pediatric programs. In comparison, 43 more positions (70 more US seniors) were filled in anesthesiology, but 11 fewer (16 fewer US seniors) in diagnostic radiology, two "marker" disciplines that have shown increases over the past 3 years. Eight fewer positions (60 fewer US seniors) were also filled in categorical internal medicine while 99 fewer positions (142 fewer US seniors) were filled in categorical pediatrics programs, where trainees perceive options for either practicing as generalists or entering subspecialty fellowships, depending on the market. While the needs of the nation, especially rural and underserved populations, continue to offer opportunities for family physicians, family practice experienced a fifth year of decline through the 2002 NRMP. Many different forces, however, are impacting medical student career choices, including student perspectives of the demands, rewards, and prestige of the specialty, the turbulence and uncertainty of the health care environment, liability protection issues, and the impact of faculty and resident role models. The 2002 NRMP results may herald the leveling of recent trends away from family practice careers. PMID:12269534

Pugno, Perry A; McPherson, Deborah S; Schmittling, Gordon T; Kahn, Norman B

2002-09-01

287

Selawik National Wildlife Refuge Revised Comprehensive Conservation Plan  

E-print Network

with others to conserve, protect, and enhance fish, wildlife, plants, and their habitats for the continuing benefit of the American people. Refuge System Mission Statement The mission of the National Wildlife Refuge System is to administer a national network of lands and waters for the conservation, management, and, where appropriate, restoration of the fish, wildlife, and plant resources and their habitats within the United States for the benefit of present and future generations of Americans. —National Wildlife Refuge System Improvement Act of 1997 The comprehensive conservation plan details program planning levels that are substantially greater than current budget allocations and, as such, is for strategic planning and program prioritization purposes only. This plan does not constitute a commitment for staffing increases or funding for future refuge-specific land acquisitions, construction projects, or operational and maintenance increases.

U. S. Fish; Wildlife Service; June U. S. Fish; Wildlife Service; Mission Statement; Wildlife Service Is Working; Fish; Wildlife Service

2011-01-01

288

National nutrition planning in developing countries via gaming-simulation.  

PubMed

A nutrition game designed for the Food Policy and Nutrition Division of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations to aid in planning national nutrition education programs in Third World countries is described. The Simulated Nutrition System Game allows high-level ministerial staff in developing countries to discuss, via a common language created by SNUS I, the issues, problems, and complexities of national nutrition programs. PMID:858673

Duke, R D; Cary, R

1977-01-01

289

[Family planning and community development: an indissoluble partnership].  

PubMed

Local publications about population in Rwanda over the past 3 years have tended either to view population growth and high density as advantageous because they lead to more intensive use of resources and hence development, or to view Rwanda as regressing economically and socially because of its very rapid population growth. It is questionable whether Rwanda's development goals can be attained without bringing down the rate of population growth. Population pressure in some rural areas has become catastrophic, yet parents do not see their large families as a problem because they expect their children once grown to make their living elsewhere. Local authorities should help to communicate the concept that only demographic stability will allow achievement of communal development goals. The advantages of smaller families should be discussed. Rwanda's policy of increasing agricultural production has encountered numerous obstacles. Subdivision of plots through inheritance, sale, or sharecropping is a problem in itself and also tends to increase erosion. None of the methods of increasing plot size by collectivization or resettling the population is without serious drawbacks. The best solution appears to be encouragement of better cultivation techniques through extension agents and demonstration projects at the local level. Artisanal activities and manual labor should be promoted to provide employment at the communal level. Community development projects should be decentralized and carefully planned to meet local needs. PMID:12315661

Butera, G

1988-12-01

290

[Understanding and implementing the Party's policies on family planning accurately in an all-around way].  

PubMed

Recently, the Party's Central Committee held numerous meetings to study the problem of family planning. The main goal of these meetings was to find a correct family planning policy, which should be based on common sense, support from the people, and reasonable work from the cadres. Family planning policies and regulations should be realistic and creative. In the implementation of policies, different methods should be adopted for varied situations, and there should also be appropriate guiding principles for different categories. To cope with a new situation, creative methods and approaches should be chosen in order to implement the family planning policy. The correct method will ensure complete implementation of the policy. In family planning work, the first step is the improvement of ideological education, so that the people may have a correct understanding of the need for family planning. In the technical management work of family planning, a constant improvement in the quality of service should be the goal. Through practical working experience in family planning, some rules and regulations will be found, and they should be used to promote the management level and the level of family planning work in general. PMID:12159337

Liang, J; Peng, Z

1984-05-29

291

National Park Service Planning, Environment and Public Comment Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For many across the country, the National Park system contains some of the most precious cultural and natural resources in the United States. At any given time, the National Park Service is working on dozens of long-term plans for the development and conservation of various properties under their oversight, including national monuments and national historic sites. This website provides access to current plans, environmental impact analyses, and related documents that are under review. Visitors to the site can search for plans by geographic region, by state, or by a drop-down menu of all of the various properties. The site also contains a number of other helpful links, including those that lead to a glossary of relevant terms and the Council on Environmental Policy.

292

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan FY 2001-2005  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan for FY 2001-2005 sets forth the laboratory's mission, roles, technical capabilities, and laboratory strategic plan. In the plan, major initiatives also are proposed and the transitioning initiatives are discussed. The Programmatic Strategy section details our strategic intent, roles, and research thrusts in each of the U.S. Department of Energy's mission areas. The Operations/Infrastructure Strategic Plan section includes information on the laboratory's human resources; environment, safety, and health management; safeguards and security; site and facilities management; information resources management; managaement procatices and standards; and communications and trust.

Fisher, Darrell R.; Pearson, Erik W.

2000-12-29

293

National Ignition Facility Risk Management Plan  

SciTech Connect

The NIF Risk Management Plan has been prepared in accordance with the DOE Life Cycle Asset Management Good Practice Guide to support Critical Decision 3 of the NIF Project. The objectives of the plan are to: 1) identify the risks to the completion of the Project in terms of meeting technical and regulatory requirements, cost, and schedule, 2) assess the risks in terms of likelihood of occurrence and their impact potential relative to technical performance, ES&H (environment, safety and health), costs, and schedule, and 3) address each identified risk in terms of suitable risk mitigation measures. The documents that form the basis for this risk assessment are as follows: 1. Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Stockpile Stewardship and Management (DOE, 1996a) and Record of Decision (DOE, 1996b), 2. Preliminary Hazards Analysis (Brereton, 1993), 3. Fire Hazards Analysis (Jensen, 1997), 4. Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (LLNL, 1996a), 5. Reliability, Availability and Maintainability Report, 6. Radiation Protection Evaluation, 7. Primary Criteria and Functional Requirements (LLNL, 1996b), 8. Project Execution Plan (DOE, 1996c), 9. Schedule Risk Assessment, 10. Construction Safety Program (LLNL, 1997), 11. Title I Design Media, 12. Congressional Data Sheet. The process used in developing this plan was to form a Risk Assessment team of knowledgeable project personnel. This included: Assurances Manager, Systems Integration Manager, Project Control Manager, a Risk Management consultant, Deputy Associate Project Engineer for Activation and Start-up (Co-chairperson), and Lead Engineer for Safety Analysis (Co-chairperson). They were familiar with the risk basis documents and developed a list of the key risk elements. A methodology for assigning likelihoods, consequences, and risks was developed. Risk elements were then reviewed, and likelihoods, consequences, and risks were assigned. Risk mitigation measures were then developed. Comments were obtained, resolved and incorporated, and this document presents the results of the assessment.

Brereton, S.J.

1997-02-01

294

Results of the 2000 National Resident Matching Program: family practice.  

PubMed

The results of the 2000 National Resident Matching Program (NRMP) reflect substantial volatility in the perceptions and career choices of physicians entering graduate medical education in the United States. Ninety-four fewer positions (191 fewer US seniors) were filled in family practice residency programs through the NRMP in 2000, compared with 1999, as well as 60 fewer (66 fewer US seniors) in primary care internal medicine, 12 fewer in pediatrics-primary care (6 fewer US seniors), and 10 fewer (9 fewer US seniors) in internal medicine-pediatric programs. In contrast, 37 more positions (36 more US seniors) were filled in anesthesiology and 4 more (13 more US seniors) in diagnostic radiology, two "marker" disciplines that have recently been market sensitive. Twelve fewer positions (63 fewer US seniors) were also filled in categorical internal medicine, while 35 fewer positions (104 fewer US seniors) were filled in categorical pediatrics programs, where trainees perceive options for practicing as generalists or entering subspecialty fellowships, depending on the market. While the needs of the nation, especially rural and underserved populations, continue to offer a market for family physicians, family practice experienced a third year of decline through the 2000 NRMP. Current forces, including media hype, market factors, lifestyle choices, debt, and the turbulence of the health care environment, appear to be influencing many students to choose subspecialty rather than primary care careers. PMID:11002864

Pugno, P A; McPherson, D S; Schmittling, G T; Kahn, N B

2000-09-01

295

STD / AIDS prevention: new challenges for family planning programs.  

PubMed

Family planning (FP) professionals and programs are increasingly called upon to respond to increasing rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and AIDS. While structural and ideological readjustment to meet these demands may seem problematic for some programs, the AIDS epidemic allows the opportunity for programs to expand into preventive health activities. Dr. Nancy Williamson, Director of Family Health International's Division of Program Evaluation and 1 of the authors of the World Health Organization's guidelines on family planning and AIDS, responds to questions most frequently posed by FP providers considering the need for and process of FP program restructuring. She holds that programmatic expansion for the prevention of HIV infection enhances the capability to provide good contraceptive services. FP programs are not expected to abandon their central missions of preventing unwanted pregnancies, but to engage in both the prevention of STD infection and unwanted pregnancies where possible. Sharing responsible sex behavior and the condom as common means of prevention, these 2 missions are far from mutually exclusive. The AIDS epidemic has impacted upon FP programs in a number of ways. Increased demand for condoms has been observed in countries with high levels of HIV seropositivity, greater concern has been placed upon counseling and sterile procedures, view have been altered to accept this dual role of contraception, and universal precautions for the protection of both client and workers from infection are of greater importance. Promoting the consistent use of condoms for the prevention of STDs has proved more challenging than promoting for contraceptive uses. Gaining the legitimacy of condoms among married couples while they are also promoted among high-risk groups also remains difficult. On other issues, promoting the routine use of 2 temporary methods is not recommended, questions must be posed to determine clients' risk status for infection, counseling and services should be provided to those HIV+, and alternative funding sources may need to be sought for FP program expansion. Arguments for and against such expansion are discussed. Most of sub-Saharan Africa, the Caribbean, and Thailand are in most serious need of programmatic changes, India and most of Central and South American need some changes, and other areas would benefit from minor changes. Dr. Williamson finally considers how programs should be modified, changes made thus far by programs, and suggests what programs may do to enhance their capability to provide contraceptive services. PMID:12284756

Williamson, N; Townsend, S

1991-12-01

296

Integration opportunities for HIV and family planning services in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: an organizational network analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Public health resources are often deployed in developing countries by foreign governments, national governments, civil society and the private health clinics, but seldom in ways that are coordinated within a particular community or population. The lack of coordination results in inefficiencies and suboptimal results. Organizational network analysis can reveal how organizations interact with each other and provide insights into means of realizing better public health results from the resources already deployed. Our objective in this study was to identify the missed opportunities for the integration of HIV care and family planning services and to inform future network strengthening. Methods In two sub-cities of Addis Ababa, we identified each organization providing either HIV care or family planning services. We interviewed representatives of each of them about exchanges of clients with each of the others. With network analysis, we identified network characteristics in each sub-city network, such as referral density and centrality; and gaps in the referral patterns. The results were shared with representatives from the organizations. Results The two networks were of similar size (25 and 26 organizations) and had referral densities of 0.115 and 0.155 out of a possible range from 0 (none) to 1.0 (all possible connections). Two organizations in one sub-city did not refer HIV clients to a family planning organization. One organization in one sub-city and seven in the other offered few HIV services and did not refer clients to any other HIV service provider. Representatives from the networks confirmed the results reflected their experience and expressed an interest in establishing more links between organizations. Conclusions Because of organizations not working together, women in the two sub-cities were at risk of not receiving needed family planning or HIV care services. Facilitating referrals among a few organizations that are most often working in isolation could remediate the problem, but the overall referral densities suggests that improved connections throughout might benefit conditions in addition to HIV and family planning that need service integration. PMID:24438522

2014-01-01

297

Breast-feeding and family planning: a review of the relationships between breast-feeding and family planning.  

PubMed

A number of interrelated factors must be considered when breast-feeding is introduced as a concern for family planning programs: the number of pregnancies and births experienced, age at each pregnancy and birth, duration of the intervals between conceptions, lactation including duration and type, health and nutritional services available to meet the demands of pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum care. The dietary intake of the mother and her health and disease status have an effect on the duration of breast-feeding, and lactation has an effect on her ovulation and birth spacing. Those at particularly high risk include adolescent girls, older grand-multipara women, and families living in poverty. An historical relationship between the reduction in infant and childhood mortality and the falling off of births can be documented. The straightforward benefits on nutritional status of breast-fed infants, the conjunction with the antibody protection afforded by breast milk, served to reduce infant mortality and indirectly served to reduce birth rates. In addition, the prolongation of postpartum anovulatory cycles in breast-feeding women, coupled with sexual mores that postpone sexual relations while a women is breast-feeding in certain groups, will serve to prolong the interbirth intervals. Populations where breast-feeding is customary have been shown to have fewer births than populations where the women do not breast-fed and where infants are artificially fed. PMID:7039292

Brown, R E

1982-01-01

298

Planning for Life. A Compendium of Nationally Recognized Career Planning Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This compendium, which is designed to provide readers with a variety of career planning (CP) program ideas, contains abstracts summarizing 10 elementary, middle, and high school CP programs identified as exemplary by a national review team. Explained in chapter 1 are the primary objectives of the Planning for Life program, which is jointly…

National Consortium of State Career Guidance Supervisors, Columbus, OH.

299

Polish family planning in crisis: the Roman Catholic influence.  

PubMed

Poland is a country that, according to official sources, is 95% Catholic. The Catholic Church (CC) has a great deal of political power for 3 main reasons: 1) a strong Catholic tradition among Polish families, 2) the role of the Polish CC as the main supporter of the political opposition during the communist dictatorship, 3) the Polish Pope serves as an important authority for many Polish people. When democratic freedoms were won 10 years ago, the CC was poised and ready to exercise its considerable influences to further its own agenda. This can be seen in may areas: since last autumn, children receive religious instruction in state run schools, masses from St. Peter's are broadcast each week on state television, scientific congresses are being opened with High Mass and blessings, the armed forces make pilgrimages to the shrine of the Black Madonna of Czestochowa, and there was High Mass and Christmas blessing in the Polish Parliament. The Church is calling for an end of the separation of church and state. The current 1956 abortion law allows free abortions in state funded hospitals in cases of rape, socio-economic, or medical grounds in the 1st trimester. A current senate bill would allow abortion only to save the mother's life. The CC is currently trying to associate this law with the old communist totalitarian dictatorship and likens it to the Nazi Holocaust. In Poland there are 39 million people, and 600,000 abortions with a ratio of 70-100 abortions/100 live births. The main factors influencing this high rate are: 1) no sex education, 2) very low contraceptive use rates, 3) easy access to abortion, 4) CC opposition to contraception. Family planning in Poland is in a crisis that it may not come out of. Abortion, divorce, sex education, and contraception are all opposed by the CC which means that it will use its powerful influence to criminalize these practices. PMID:12284553

Mrugala, G

1991-09-01

300

75 FR 21650 - Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, Biscayne National...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Draft Programmatic...Environmental Impact Statement for the Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Biscayne National...Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the Coral Reef Restoration Plan for Biscayne...

2010-04-26

301

76 FR 2700 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; National Emergency Communications Plan (NECP) Goal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Directorate; National Emergency Communications Plan (NECP) Goal 2 Performance...CS&C)/Office of Emergency Communications (OEC) will submit the...demonstrate response-level emergency communications within one hour for...

2011-01-14

302

Islam and family planning: changing perceptions of health care providers and medical faculty in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT A USAID-sponsored family planning project called “FALAH” (Family Advancement for Life and Health), implemented in 20 districts of Pakistan, aimed to lower unmet need for family planning by improving access to services. To enhance the quality of care offered by the public health system, the FALAH project trained 10,534 facility-based health care providers, managers, and medical college faculty members to offer client-centered family planning services, which included a module to explain the Islamic viewpoint on family planning developed through an iterative process involving religious scholars and public health experts. At the end of the FALAH project, we conducted a situation analysis of health facilities including interviews with providers to measure family planning knowledge of trained and untrained providers; interviewed faculty to obtain their feedback about the training module; and measured changes in women's contraceptive use through baseline and endline surveys. Trained providers had a better understanding of family planning concepts than untrained providers. In addition, discussions with trained providers indicated that the training module on Islam and family planning helped them to become advocates for family planning. Faculty indicated that the module enhanced their confidence about the topic of family planning and Islam, making it easier to introduce and discuss the issue with their students. Over the 3.5-year project period, which included several components in addition to the training activity, we found an overall increase of 9 percentage points in contraceptive prevalence in the project implementation districts—from 29% to 38%. The Islam and family planning module has now been included in the teaching program of major public-sector medical universities and the Regional Training Institutes of the Population Welfare Department. Other countries with sizeable Muslim populations and low contraceptive prevalence could benefit from this module. PMID:25276535

Mir, Ali Mohammad; Shaikh, Gul Rashida

2013-01-01

303

Islam and family planning: changing perceptions of health care providers and medical faculty in Pakistan.  

PubMed

A USAID-sponsored family planning project called "FALAH" (Family Advancement for Life and Health), implemented in 20 districts of Pakistan, aimed to lower unmet need for family planning by improving access to services. To enhance the quality of care offered by the public health system, the FALAH project trained 10,534 facility-based health care providers, managers, and medical college faculty members to offer client-centered family planning services, which included a module to explain the Islamic viewpoint on family planning developed through an iterative process involving religious scholars and public health experts. At the end of the FALAH project, we conducted a situation analysis of health facilities including interviews with providers to measure family planning knowledge of trained and untrained providers; interviewed faculty to obtain their feedback about the training module; and measured changes in women's contraceptive use through baseline and endline surveys. Trained providers had a better understanding of family planning concepts than untrained providers. In addition, discussions with trained providers indicated that the training module on Islam and family planning helped them to become advocates for family planning. Faculty indicated that the module enhanced their confidence about the topic of family planning and Islam, making it easier to introduce and discuss the issue with their students. Over the 3.5-year project period, which included several components in addition to the training activity, we found an overall increase of 9 percentage points in contraceptive prevalence in the project implementation districts-from 29% to 38%. The Islam and family planning module has now been included in the teaching program of major public-sector medical universities and the Regional Training Institutes of the Population Welfare Department. Other countries with sizeable Muslim populations and low contraceptive prevalence could benefit from this module. PMID:25276535

Mir, Ali Mohammad; Shaikh, Gul Rashida

2013-08-01

304

Studies in Family Planning, Volume 5 Number 5. East Asia Review, 1973.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An annual review, third in a series, covers developments in the field of population and family planning in East Asia. For each of the 10 countries involved (Hong Kong, Indonesia, South Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Phillipines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, and South Vietnam) there is an article written by the agent responsible for the family planning

Keeny, S. M., Ed.

305

Population and Family Planning Education, Report of a Seminar (Holte, Denmark, July 3-28, 1972).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In July 1972, DANIDA and the Danish Family Planning Association provided delegations from selected countries the opportunity to devise teaching programs on population and family planning topics for 9-to 11-year-olds. Participants from the Arab Republic of Egypt, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, and the Philippines attended the meeting with Danish…

1972

306

Fertility Modification Thesaurus with Focus on Evaluation of Family Planning Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Division of Social and Administrative Sciences of the International Institute for the Study of Human Reproduction at Columbia University has compiled this list of terms used in indexing the literature for family planning program evaluation. This thesaurus should prove of direct use to the indexer of documents describing family planning program…

Speert, Kathryn H.; Wishik, Samuel M.

307

Utilizing grassroots workers in family planning programs in India: prospects and problems.  

PubMed

In order to rapidly expand the network of delivery systems and speed up the process of acceptance of family planning messages and methods, a shift took place in the Indian family planning program from the bureaucratic "clinical" approach to the people oriented "extension" approach. As a result, there is an increasing emphasis on moving the family planning efforts closer to the grassroots level. A key methodological issue centers on the proper selection, cultural acceptability, and the effectiveness of the grassroots workers who are to be trained and through whom family planning motivational messages and methods are to be introduced. The Indian government, from time to time, has trained and utilized different groups of grassroots workers in its family planning promotional efforts. Anthropological field studies were conducted in two different regions in India to examine the potential and actual roles of two groups of grassroots workers--opinion leaders and traditional birth attendants--in the delivery of family planning services in the rural areas. These studies revealed that while the traditional birth attendants can be trained and utilized to a limited extent in promoting family planning efforts, especially to the eligible female clients, the role of the opinion leaders in such efforts is at best questionable. Based on these field studies, cultural and technical (including bureaucratic) problems in training and utilizing opinion leaders and traditional birth attendants are explored in detail. Modifications in the training program strategies are suggested to improve and expand the family planning delivery system in rural India. PMID:12290156

Mani, S B

1991-01-01

308

WILDLAND FIRE MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY.  

SciTech Connect

This Wildland Fire Management Plan (FMP) for Brookhaven National Lab (BNL) and the Upton Ecological and Research Reserve (Upton Reserve) is based on the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (FWS) fire management planning procedures and was developed in cooperation with the Department of Energy (DOE) by Brookhaven Science Associates. As the Upton Reserve is contained within the BNL 5,265-acre site, it is logical that the plan applies to both the Upton Reserve and BNL. The Department of the Interior policy for managing wildland fires requires that all areas managed by FWS that can sustain fire must have an FMP that details fire management guidelines for operational procedures and specifies values to be protected or enhanced. Fire management plans provide guidance on fire preparedness, fire prevention, wildfire suppression, and the use of controlled, ''prescribed'' fires and mechanical means to control the amount of available combustible material. Values reflected in the BNL/Upton Reserve Wildland FMP include protecting life and public safety; Lab properties, structures and improvements; cultural and historical sites; neighboring private and public properties; and endangered and threatened species and species of concern. Other values supported by the plan include the enhancement of fire-dependent ecosystems at BNL and the Upton Reserve. This FMP will be reviewed periodically to ensure the fire program advances and evolves with the missions of FWS, BNL, and the Upton Reserve. This Fire Management Plan is a modified version of the Long Island National Wildlife Refuge Complex Fire plan (updated in 2000), which contains all FWS fire plan requirements and is presented in the format specified by the national template for fire management plans adopted under the National Fire Plan. The DOE is one of the signatory agencies on the National Fire Plan. FWS shall be, through an Interagency Agreement dated November 2000 (Appendix C), responsible for coordinating and implementing prescribed burns and fuel reduction projects in the Upton Reserve. Prescribed fire and fuel reduction in locations outside the Upton Reserve will be coordinated through the Natural Resource Management Program at BNL, and done in consultation with FWS. This FMP is to be used and implemented for the entire BNL site including the Upton Reserve and has been reviewed by FWS, The Nature Conservancy, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Forest Rangers, and DOE, as well as appropriate BNL emergency services personnel.

ENVIRONMENTAL AND WASTE MANAGEMENT SERVICES DIVISION

2003-09-01

309

Argonne National Laboratory institutional plan FY 2001--FY 2006.  

SciTech Connect

This Institutional Plan describes what Argonne management regards as the optimal future development of Laboratory activities. The document outlines the development of both research programs and support operations in the context of the nation's R and D priorities, the missions of the Department of Energy (DOE) and Argonne, and expected resource constraints. The Draft Institutional Plan is the product of many discussions between DOE and Argonne program managers, and it also reflects programmatic priorities developed during Argonne's summer strategic planning process. That process serves additionally to identify new areas of strategic value to DOE and Argonne, to which Laboratory Directed Research and Development funds may be applied. The Draft Plan is provided to the Department before Argonne's On-Site Review. Issuance of the final Institutional Plan in the fall, after further comment and discussion, marks the culmination of the Laboratory's annual planning cycle. Chapter II of this Institutional Plan describes Argonne's missions and roles within the DOE laboratory system, its underlying core competencies in science and technology, and six broad planning objectives whose achievement is considered critical to the future of the Laboratory. Chapter III presents the Laboratory's ''Science and Technology Strategic Plan,'' which summarizes key features of the external environment, presents Argonne's vision, and describes how Argonne's strategic goals and objectives support DOE's four business lines. The balance of Chapter III comprises strategic plans for 23 areas of science and technology at Argonne, grouped according to the four DOE business lines. The Laboratory's 14 major initiatives, presented in Chapter IV, propose important advances in key areas of fundamental science and technology development. The ''Operations and Infrastructure Strategic Plan'' in Chapter V includes strategic plans for human resources; environmental protection, safety, and health; site and facilities; security, export control, and counterintelligence; information management; communications, outreach, and community affairs; performance-based management; and productivity improvement and overhead cost reduction. Finally, Chapter VI provides resource projections that are a reasonable baseline for planning the Laboratory's future.

Beggs, S.D.

2000-12-07

310

Sandia National Laboratories Institutional Plan FY1994--1999  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a five year plan for the laboratory. This plan takes advantage of the technical strengths of the lab and its staff to address issues of concern to the nation on a scope much broader than Sandia`s original mission, while maintaining the general integrity of the laboratory. The plan proposes initiatives in a number of technologies which overlap the needs of its customers and the strengths of its staff. They include: advanced manufacturing technology; electronics; information and computational technology; transportation energy technology and infrastructure; environmental technology; energy research and technology development; biomedical systems engineering; and post-cold war defense imperatives.

Not Available

1993-10-01

311

Experience of Parenthood, Couple Relationship, Social Support, and Child-Rearing Goals in Planned Lesbian Mother Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The phenomenon of planned lesbian families (i.e., two-mother families in which the child was born to the lesbian relationship) is relatively new and very little research has been conducted among those families. The overall aim of this research was to examine whether planned lesbian mother families differ from heterosexual families on…

Bos, Henny M. W.; Van Balen, Frank; Van Den Boom, Dymphna C.

2004-01-01

312

75 FR 28055 - General Management Plan; Joshua Tree National Park; San Bernardino and Riverside Counties, CA...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Service General Management Plan; Joshua Tree National Park; San Bernardino and Riverside...General Management Plan (GMP) for Joshua Tree National Park, California. The new GMP...Messaros, Management Assistant, Joshua Tree National Park, Joshua, 74485...

2010-05-19

313

78 FR 5494 - Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan, Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Lake Meredith National...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Environmental Impact Statement, Lake Meredith National Recreation Area, Texas AGENCY...Vehicle Management Plan (Plan), Lake Meredith National Recreation Area (LAMR), Texas...the office of the Superintendent, Lake Meredith National Recreation Area, Alibates...

2013-01-25

314

75 FR 67149 - Request for Public Comment on the Draft 2010 National Nanotechnology Initiative Strategic Plan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Comment on the Draft 2010 National Nanotechnology Initiative Strategic Plan AGENCY...regarding the draft 2010 National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Strategic Plan...information. Overview: The National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Strategic...

2010-11-01

315

30 CFR 756.13 - Approval of the Navajo Nation's abandoned mine land plan.  

...Approval of the Navajo Nation's abandoned mine land plan. 756.13 Section 756...LANDS PROGRAM INDIAN TRIBE ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION PROGRAMS § 756.13 Approval of the Navajo Nation's abandoned mine land plan. The Navajo Nation's...

2014-07-01

316

76 FR 68503 - Ungulate Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Great Sand Dunes National Park and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Environmental Impact Statement, Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, CO AGENCY...for the Ungulate Management Plan, Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve...for the Ungulate Management Plan, Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve,...

2011-11-04

317

78 FR 55093 - Dog Management Plan, Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement, Golden Gate National Recreation...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Environmental Impact Statement, Golden Gate National Recreation Area, California AGENCY...Management Plan (Plan/SEIS), Golden Gate National Recreation Area (GGNRA), California...Shirwin Smith, Management Assistant, Golden Gate National Recreation Area, Fort...

2013-09-09

318

76 FR 79708 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement/General Management Plan, Golden Gate National Recreation...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Statement/General Management Plan, Golden Gate National Recreation Area, CA AGENCY...Statement/General Management Plan, Golden Gate National Recreation Area...current approach to management in Golden Gate National Recreation Area (GGNRA)...

2011-12-22

319

Family planning in the People's Republic of China: report on first official IPPF visit.  

PubMed

This article is a description of family planning in the People's Republic of China based on the authors' visit there in 1972. Family planning programs began in China in the late 1950's and the services are free. All birth control methods are used. Tubal ligation is performed under acupuncture anesthesia. 2 types of oral contraceptives are used. Both stainless steel and plastic IUD'S are employed._ There has been an effort to raise the average age of marriage. It is now 25 for women and 30 for men in urban areas, and 22-23 and 27-28 respectively in rural areas. Barefoot doctors and their assistants trained in simple medical techniques carry contraceptives with them for immediate distribution. They assist qualified doctors in abortions, sterilizations, and IUD insertion. They also insert IUDs themselves. The authors report on Ton Wan People's Commune where it was reported that 90% of the commune used some form of birth control. The writers also describe and give data on birth control procedures in 2 towns, Pon Pu New Village, and Shao Yun Shang. They point out that national vital statistics have not been published for a few years, and some national data available may be inaccurate. Statistics on individual communes may not be representative for the whole nation. However, it is believed that the population growth rate of China is now less than 2%, and possibly the country will achieve the goal of a 1% population growth rate set by Chou En-lai for the year 2000. PMID:12275847

Katagiri, T; Terao, T

1972-06-01

320

Curriculum Helps Families Discuss and Plan for Future of Their Woodland or Farm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Succession planning is an important step for families owning woodlands and farms that wish to maintain the character of the land and continue the families' connection to it. We introduce Ties to the Land, an educational curriculum that helps families communicate more effectively about the fate of their land and how to transition to future…

Withrow-Robinson, Brad; Sisock, Mary; Watkins, Susan

2012-01-01

321

Leadership for Change: National Standards for Family and Consumer Sciences Education. Family and Consumer Sciences Teacher Education. Yearbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 27 papers on the development of national standards for family and consumer sciences (FACS) education. The following papers are included: "Leadership for Change: Developing the National Standards" (Peggy Wild); "National Standards Model" (Wanda S. Fox); "Reasoning for Action" (Wanda S. Fox, Janet F. Laster); "Career, Community,…

Vail, Ann, Ed.; Fox, Wanda S., Ed.; Wild, Peggy, Ed.

322

Climate change and family planning: least-developed countries define the agenda  

PubMed Central

Abstract The links between rapid population growth and concerns regarding climate change have received little attention. Some commentators have argued that slowing population growth is necessary to reduce further rises in carbon emissions. Others have objected that this would give rise to dehumanizing “population control” programmes in developing countries. Yet the perspective of the developing countries that will be worst affected by climate change has been almost completely ignored by the scientific literature. This deficit is addressed by this paper, which analyses the first 40 National Adaptation Programmes of Action reports submitted by governments of least-developed countries to the Global Environment Facility for funding. Of these documents, 93% identified at least one of three ways in which demographic trends interact with the effects of climate change: (i) faster degradation of the sources of natural resources; (ii) increased demand for scarce resources; and (iii) heightened human vulnerability to extreme weather events. These findings suggest that voluntary access to family planning services should be made more available to poor communities in least-developed countries. We stress the distinction between this approach, which prioritizes the welfare of poor communities affected by climate change, and the argument that population growth should be slowed to limit increases in global carbon emissions. The paper concludes by calling for increased support for rights-based family planning services, including those integrated with HIV/AIDS services, as an important complementary measure to climate change adaptation programmes in developing countries. PMID:20072771

Carver, Louise; Butler, Colin D; Anage, Ababu

2009-01-01

323

76 FR 22295 - National Poultry Improvement Plan and Auxiliary Provisions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection 9 CFR Part 145 [Docket No. APHIS-2009-0031] RIN 0579-AD21 National Poultry Improvement Plan and Auxiliary Provisions Correction In rule document 2011-6539 appearing on pages 15791-15798 in the...

2011-04-21

324

National Risk Management Research Laboratory Strategic plan and Implementation - Overview  

EPA Science Inventory

This publication provides an overview of the strategic plan recently developed by the National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL). It includes a description of NRMRL's mission and goals and their alignment with Agency goals. Additionally, the overview contains a brief se...

325

National Science Foundation Postdoctoral Research Mentoring Plan Requirement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Science Foundation (NSF) Grant Proposal Guide (NSF 09-29) contains new guidance regarding compliance with the mentoring requirement of the America COMPETES Act. NSF Program Staff will review the Postdoctoral Researcher Mentoring Plan Requirement with regard to NSF proposal submissions. Each NSF proposal that requests funding to support postdoctoral researchers must include, as a supplementary document, a description of

Dana Lehr

2010-01-01

326

Wildland Fire Management Plan for Brookhaven National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This Wildland Fire Management Plan (FMP) for Brookhaven National Lab (BNL) updates the 2003 plan incorporating changes necessary to comply with DOE Order 450.1 and DOE P 450.4, Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy and Program Review; Wildland and Prescribed Fire Management Policy and implementation Procedures Reference Guide. This current plan incorporates changes since the original draft of the FMP that result from new policies on the national level. This update also removes references and dependence on the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service and Department of the Interior, fully transitioning Wildland Fire Management responsibilities to BNL. The Department of Energy policy for managing wildland fires requires that all areas, managed by the DOE and/or its various contractors, that can sustain fire must have a FMP that details fire management guidelines for operational procedures associated with wild fire, operational, and prescribed fires. Fire management plans provide guidance on fire preparedness, fire prevention, wildfire suppression, and the use of controlled, 'prescribed' fires and mechanical means to control the amount of available combustible material. Values reflected in the BNL Wildland FMP include protecting life and public safety; Lab properties, structures and improvements; cultural and historical sites; neighboring private and public properties; and endangered, threatened, and species of concern. Other values supported by the plan include the enhancement of fire-dependent ecosystems at BNL. This FMP will be reviewed periodically to ensure the fire program advances and evolves with the missions of the DOE and BNL. This Fire Management Plan is presented in a format that coverers all aspects specified by DOE guidance documents which are based on the national template for fire management plans adopted under the National Fire Plan. The DOE is one of the signatory agencies on the National Fire Plan. This FMP is to be used and implemented for the entire BNL site including the Upton Reserve and has been reviewed by, The Nature Conservancy, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Forest Rangers, and DOE, as well as appropriate BNL emergency services personnel. The BNL Fire Department is the lead on wildfire suppression. However, the BNL Natural Resource Manager will be assigned to all wildland fires as technical resource advisor.

Green,T.

2009-10-23

327

[Decision on family planning work of 7 March 1990].  

PubMed

The full decision in 7 parts of the Fujian Provincial CPC Committee and Government on Family Planning (FP) Work on March 7, 1990 is reported. A general statement about population growth in Fujian urges a stop to unplanned births, early marriages, and early childbearing. Section 1 pertains to cooperative leadership at all levels of party committees and governments in strengthening FP. The call is for integration of FP with economic development in accordance with the law, available cultivated land/capita, and population growth. Leadership in FP must come from the highest levels and be integrated into normal routines with provision for manpower, material, and financial resources. Local party committees and government must supervise FP work in units at all levels according the Central Committee and State Council's directives. Members of the Communist Youth League need to be actively involved. Section 2 pertains to establishing a responsibility system at various levels in order to meet targets, particularly in the next 3 years. Average annual rate of natural population growth should not exceed 13% and should be maintained at 11.33% for 1990. Couples must stay with 1 child/family and reduce unplanned births. Evaluation of work is dependent on fulfilling FP responsibilities for leaders at all levels. Rewards and punishments are to be established. Review of FP occurs annually for individuals and units, and a progress report sent to the People's Congress at the appropriate level of the Standing Committee. Accurate statistics need to be compiled. Section 3 stipulates that FP work is be carried out within the confines of provincial law. Strict enforcement of regulations is necessary. Approval is necessary for a 2nd child, and this regulation needs to be closely monitored. The position recommended is marrying and childbearing late and having only 1 child. Prevention is the key. Rewards and punishments pertain to government or party members. Social welfare benefits for those abiding by the regulations should be expanded. In section 4, emphasis is placed on rural areas lagging behind. Section 5 calls for old age homes and insurance for the aged, which could be funded from the unplanned birth funds, and a fund for women workers' childbearing and social security system. Section 7 promotes education about population, living conditions, and the legal system and propaganda on population and FP at all ages. Population theory and adolescence science need to be incorporated into the curriculum. Section 7 is concerned with increasing the collaboration between FP associations and party and government workers, both past and present. In section 8, the means of strengthening FP work is detailed. PMID:12285788

1990-05-11

328

Brookhaven National Laboratory Institutional Plan FY2001--FY2005  

SciTech Connect

Brookhaven National Laboratory is a multidisciplinary laboratory in the Department of Energy National Laboratory system and plays a lead role in the DOE Science and Technology mission. The Laboratory also contributes to the DOE missions in Energy Resources, Environmental Quality, and National Security. Brookhaven strives for excellence in its science research and in facility operations and manages its activities with particular sensitivity to environmental and community issues. The Laboratory's programs are aligned continuously with the goals and objectives of the DOE through an Integrated Planning Process. This Institutional Plan summarizes the portfolio of research and capabilities that will assure success in the Laboratory's mission in the future. It also sets forth BNL strategies for our programs and for management of the Laboratory. The Department of Energy national laboratory system provides extensive capabilities in both world class research expertise and unique facilities that cannot exist without federal support. Through these national resources, which are available to researchers from industry, universities, other government agencies and other nations, the Department advances the energy, environmental, economic and national security well being of the US, provides for the international advancement of science, and educates future scientists and engineers.

Davis, S.

2000-10-01

329

Planning Ahead: College Seniors' Concerns about Work-Family Conflict.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research suggests that working men experience as much work-family conflict as women do. More men are doing housework and childcare, and feel that family is as important as their work. An attempt was made to determine how college seniors view their potential for managing work-family conflict. College students (N=324) attending a private…

Barnett, Rosalind Chait; Gareis, Karen C.; James, Jacquelyn Boone; Steele, Jennifer

330

Carl and Ruth Shapiro Family National Center for Accessible Media  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started in 1993, The Carl and Ruth Shapiro Family National Center for Accessible Media (NCAM) is part of WGBH's Media Access Group. They are primarily interested in creating appropriate policy and technology programs to make sure that various media and technologies are accessible to people with disabilities. On their site, visitors might wish to start by reading over their "What's New?" area, which features some updates on their latest projects, such as their work on simplified captions and access to in-flight entertainment. Moving on, the "Projects" area contains information on their ongoing and completed projects, which include work on increasing access to emergency alerts and research on edited captions for profoundly deaf children. This area also includes a number of useful publications, such as the 2006 document, "Accessible Digital Media: Design Guidelines for Electronic Publications, Multimedia and the Web".

331

Spermicides for family planning and disease protection: an update.  

PubMed

As the AIDS epidemic continues growing in countries around the world, women are increasingly in need of ways to protect themselves from infection with HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STD). Although no conclusive data exists on whether spermicides used alone or with condoms effectively protect against STDs, use of vaginal spermicides should be considered a viable alternative for protection against both pregnancy and some STDs, especially among women whose partners refuse to use condoms. Despite some of the advantages and ease of using spermicides for family planning, only 3% of contraceptive users worldwide use this as their primary method. This low level of use may largely stem from perceptions of spermicides' comparative ineffectiveness among other contraceptive methods. As for preventing the spread of STDs, spermicides place a chemical barrier between infected fluids and vulnerable tissue. Lab studies demonstrate spermicides' ability to inactivate most STD pathogens, and additional data are building on human use. No published reports exist on whether spermicide use protects women against HIV infection, though anecdotal reports and unpublished findings suggest that inadequate protection may be rendered in actual field use. Speculation even exists over the potential role of frequent spermicide use in causing irritation of genital tissue. While women have complained of some spermicides' failure to properly disperse in the vagina, and vulva or penis irritation, spermicides are, however, generally acceptable to users. The gel capsule and film were particularly liked in 1 research study. In sum, spermicide use should be encouraged as appropriate especially for those with irregular sexual activity, those with partners refusing to use condoms, and those contraindicated to other methods. Even though data is lacking on method effectiveness, using this acceptable method of potentially moderate effectiveness is by far preferable to not using one which is more effective. Further research is, however, needed to assess the level of protection provided. PMID:12284758

Townsend, S

1991-12-01

332

[National plan for the prevention and control "influenza pandemic"].  

PubMed

France has developed a national plan for the prevention and control of an influenza pandemic with the aim of reducing its health impact and its consequences on the economic and social life of the country. The main objectives of the plan are to prepare the country to face an epizootic of avian influenza due to a highly pathogenic virus, to detect the first manifestation of a new flu virus, to curb its spread by adopting early and appropriate public health measures and to protect the French population, as well as French citizens abroad. Ensuring that the population has the best possible access to prevention and care, through the organisation and adaptation of the health system facing a pandemic, is one of the major goals of the plan. The plan, and organisation associated to it, forms the foundation of a coherent and adaptable system which every citizen should feel ownership of. PMID:19044053

Henry, Sabine; Manuguerra, Jean-Claude; Escourolle, Dominique; Bessette, Dominique; Camus, Daniel; Houssin, Didier

2008-10-15

333

[Family planning programs and birth control in the third world].  

PubMed

The population explosion has been abating since the 2nd half of the 1960s. The birth rate of the 3rd World dropped from 45/1000 during 1950-55 to 31/1000 during 1985-90. From the 1st half of the 1960s to the 1st half of the 1980s the total fertility of such countries dropped from 6.1 to 4.2 children/woman. In Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, and Malaysia living standards improved as a result of industrialization, and fertility decreased significantly. In Sri Lanka, China, North Vietnam, and Thailand the drop of fertility is explained by cultural and religious factors. In 1982 about 78% of the population of developing countries lived in 39 states that followed an official policy aimed at reducing the population. Another 16% lived in countries supporting the concept of a desired family size. However, World Bank data showed that in the mid-1980s in 27 developing countries no state family planning (FP) programs existed. India adopted an official FP program in 1952, Pakistan followed suit in 1960, South Korea in 1961, and China in 1962. In Latin America a split policy manifested itself: in Brazil birth control was rejected, only Colombia had a FP policy. In 1986 the governments of 68 of 131 developing countries representing 3.1 billion people considered the number of children per woman too high. 31 of these countries followed concrete population control policies. On the other hand, in 1986 24 countries of Africa with 40% of the continent's population took no measures to influence population growth. In Latin America and the Caribbean 18 of 33 countries were idle, except for Mexico that had a massive state FP program. These programs also improve maternal and child health with birth spacing of at least 2 years, and the prevention of pregnancies of too young women or those over 40. The evaluation of rapidly spreading FP programs in the 1970s was carried out by the World Fertility Survey in 41 countries. The impact of FP programs was more substantial than socioeconomic factors. Contraceptive use increased in Mexico from 13% in 1973 to 41% in 1978 among women of fertile age. According to 1984 and 1988 UN data modern methods of contraception were used by 70% of women in China, 60-65% in Southeast Asia, Costa Rica, and Puerto Rico. In contrast, less than 5% used them in most countries of Africa, 15-20% in West Asia, 25-30% in South Asia, and 40% in Latin America. The pill was the most popular method. From the early 1980s in South and East Asia 1/5 of women got sterilized after attaining the desired family size. Less than 10% of women used IUDs in developing countries. FP programs have benefited from higher education levels and economic incentives and sanctions and exemplified in Singapore, China, South Korea, Thailand, and Taiwan. PMID:12343122

Wohlschlagl, H

1991-01-01

334

31 CFR 500.565 - Family remittances to nationals of Vietnam and Cambodia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Family remittances to nationals of Vietnam and Cambodia. 500.565 Section 500...565 Family remittances to nationals of Vietnam and Cambodia. (a) The remittances...provided that the relative is a national of Vietnam or Cambodia, is a resident of...

2010-07-01

335

Impact of the Teaching Family Model on Troublesome Youth: Findings from the National Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The major findings from the 6-year national evaluation of the group home treatment program for predelinquent and delinquent youth, the Teaching Family Model, are reported. The Teaching Family Model employs a token economy motivation system, structured tea...

R. R. Jones, M. R. Weinrott, J. R. Howard

1981-01-01

336

“Let’s become fewer”: Soap operas, contraception, and nationalizing the Mexican family in an overpopulated world  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the emergence of Mexico’s campaigns in the 1970s and 1980s to reduce population increase. Using primarily\\u000a archival material from the National Population Council in Mexico City, the author argues that federal health organizations,\\u000a in particular the Population Council, embraced the use of oral contraception and family planning as the means to introduce\\u000a modern role models for a

Gabriela Soto Laveaga

2007-01-01

337

DO FAMILY PLANNING PROGRAMS DECREASE POVERTY? EVIDENCE FROM PUBLIC CENSUS DATA  

PubMed Central

This paper provides new evidence that family planning programs are associated with a decrease in the share of children and adults living in poverty. Our research design exploits the county roll-out of U.S. family planning programs in the late 1960s and early 1970s and examines their relationship with poverty rates in the short and longer-term in public census data. We find that cohorts born after federal family planning programs began were less likely to live in poverty in childhood and that these same cohorts were less likely to live in poverty as adults. PMID:25346655

Bailey, Martha J.; Malkova, Olga; Norling, Johannes

2014-01-01

338

Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Sitewide Institutional Controls Plan  

SciTech Connect

On November 9, 2002, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality approved the Record of Decision Experimental Breeder Reactor-I/Boiling Water Reactor Experiment Area and Miscellaneous Sites, which requires a Sitewide Institutional Controls Plan for the then Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (now known as the Idaho National Laboratory). This document, first issued in June 2004, fulfilled that requirement. The revision is needed to provide an update as remedial actions are completed and new areas of concern are found. This Sitewide Institutional Controls Plan is based on guidance in the May 3, 1999, EPA Region 10 Final Policy on the Use of Institutional Controls at Federal Facilities; the September 29, 2000, EPA guidance Institutional Controls: A Site Manager's Guide to Identifying, Evaluating, and Selecting Institutional Controls at Superfund and RCRA Corrective Action Cleanups; and the April 9, 2003, DOE Policy 454.1, "Use of Institutional Controls." These policies establish measures that ensure short- and long-term effectiveness of institutional controls that protect human health and the environment at federal facility sites undergoing remedial action pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and/or corrective action pursuant to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The site-specific institutional controls currently in place at the Idaho National Laboratory are documented in this Sitewide Institutional Controls Plan. This plan is being updated, along with the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Comprehensive Facilities and Land Use Plan, to reflect the progress of remedial activities and changes in CERCLA sites.

W. L. Jolley

2006-07-27

339

Steps toward a national disaster plan for obstetrics.  

PubMed

Hospitals play a central role in disasters by receiving an influx of casualties and coordinating medical efforts to manage resources. However, plans have not been fully developed in the event the hospital itself is severely damaged, either from natural disasters like earthquakes or tornados or manmade events such as a massive electrical failure or terrorist attacks. Of particular concern is the limited awareness of the obstetric units' specialized needs in the world of disaster planning. Within the same footprint of any obstetric unit, there exists a large variety of patient acuity and needs including laboring women, postoperative patients, and healthy postpartum patients with their newborns. An obstetric-specific triage method is paramount to accurately assess and rapidly triage patients during a disaster. An example is presented here called OB TRAIN (Obstetric Triage by Resource Allocation for Inpatient). To accomplish a comprehensive obstetric disaster plan, there must be 1) national adoption of a common triage and evacuation language including an effective patient tracking system to avoid maternal-neonatal separation; 2) a stratification of maternity hospital levels of care; and 3) a collaborative network of obstetric hospitals, both regionally and nationally. However, obstetric disaster planning goes beyond evacuation and must include plans for shelter-in-place and surge capacity, all uniquely designed for the obstetric patient. Disasters, manmade or natural, are neither predictable nor preventable, but we can and should prepare for them. PMID:24901273

Daniels, Kay; Oakeson, Ann Marie; Hilton, Gillian

2014-07-01

340

Low levels of family planning knowledge and use threaten Madagascar population goals.  

PubMed

1992 Madagascar Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data indicate that Madagascar has a long way to go in order to realize its 1990 National Population Policy Law goal of reducing fertility from 6.1 to 4.0 by the year 2000. Madagascar DHS data are based upon a nationally representative sample of 6260 women aged 15-49. Only 62% of sampled women in union knew a modern method of contraception and 45% knew where they could obtain one. 56% of rural women and 38% of women with no education were similarly knowledgeable. Injection, the pill, and female sterilization are the best known modern methods. The infrequent airing and limited reach of family planning messages found only 6% of respondents reporting hearing a family planning message on the radio or television in the month preceding the survey. An aggressive and widespread information, education, and communication program is therefore needed to increase the level of knowledge about modern contraceptive methods. There is considerable unmet need for family planning in Madagascar. 40% of married women in 1992 reported that they did not want to have any more children, while another 30% reported wanting to space their next birth. Only 5% of married women, however, were then currently using modern methods, and 12% were using traditional methods, mainly periodic abstinence. As for maternal and child health, 163 children under five years old die per 1000 births, with the level of mortality inversely related to the level of education attained by the mother. The under-five mortality rate is 183/1000 in rural areas and 142/1000 in urban areas. In 1992, 78% of mothers received antenatal care from an health professional, and an health professional was present at delivery for 57% of births. Only 43% of children aged 12-23 months, however, have received all recommended vaccinations, such that childhood illnesses, particularly diarrhea, are common among young children. More than 50% of children under five are stunted, and 40% are underweight. PMID:12319376

1995-01-01

341

82 Key Statistics on Work and Family Issues. The National Report on Work & Family. Special Report #9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report was prepared because of the growing national interest in the questions of work and family dynamics. It puts together 82 key statistics on work and family issues in four major areas: child care, parental leave, alternative work schedules, and elder care. In addition, a chapter of miscellaneous statistics covers areas such as the…

Bureau of National Affairs, Inc., Washington, DC.

342

Key outcomes from stakeholder workshops at a symposium to inform the development of an Australian national plan for rare diseases  

PubMed Central

Background Calls have been made for governments to adopt a cohesive approach to rare diseases through the development of national plans. At present, Australia does not have a national plan for rare diseases. To progress such a plan an inaugural Australian Rare Diseases Symposium was held in Western Australia in April 2011. This paper describes the key issues identified by symposium attendees for the development of a national plan, compares these to the content of EUROPLAN and national plans elsewhere and discusses how the outcomes might be integrated for national planning. Methods The symposium was comprised of a series of plenary sessions followed by workshops. The topics covered were; 1) Development of national plans for rare diseases; 2) Patient empowerment; 3) Patient care, support and management; 4) Research and translation; 5) Networks, partnerships and collaboration. All stakeholders within the rare diseases community were invited to participate, including: people affected by rare diseases such as patients, carers, and families; clinicians and allied health practitioners; social and disability services; researchers; patient support groups; industry (e.g. pharmaceutical, biotechnology and medical device companies); regulators and policy-makers. Results All of these stakeholder groups were represented at the symposium. Workshop participants indicated the need for a national plan, a national peak body, a standard definition of ‘rare diseases’, education campaigns, lobbying of government, research infrastructure, streamlined whole-of-lifetime service provision, case co-ordination, early diagnosis, support for health professionals and dedicated funding. Conclusions These findings are consistent with frameworks and initiatives being undertaken internationally (such as EUROPLAN), and with national plans in other countries. This implies that the development of an Australian national plan could plausibly draw on frameworks for plan development that have been proposed for use in other jurisdictions. The translation of the symposium outcomes to government policy (i.e. a national plan) requires the consideration of several factors such as the under-representation of some stakeholder groups (e.g. clinicians) and the current lack of evidence required to translate some of the symposium outcomes to policy options. The acquisition of evidence provides a necessary first step in a comprehensive planning approach. PMID:22883422

2012-01-01

343

Family Strengths and Resilience: Insights from a National Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These authors often have opportunities to talk with practitioners in education, youth development, family services, and other fields about today's families. When asked about their own families, they will most often admit their quirks and challenges--but they generally express great appreciation for their families and how they add meaning,…

Roehlkepartain, Eugene C.; Syvertsen, Amy K.

2014-01-01

344

Natural Resource Management Plan for Brookhaven National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This comprehensive Natural Resource Management Plan (NRMP) for Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) was built on the successful foundation of the Wildlife Management Plan for BNL, which it replaces. This update to the 2003 plan continues to build on successes and efforts to better understand the ecosystems and natural resources found on the BNL site. The plan establishes the basis for managing the varied natural resources located on the 5,265 acre BNL site, setting goals and actions to achieve those goals. The planning of this document is based on the knowledge and expertise gained over the past 10 years by the Natural Resources management staff at BNL in concert with local natural resource agencies including the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Long Island Pine Barrens Joint Planning and Policy Commission, The Nature Conservancy, and others. The development of this plan is an attempt at sound ecological management that not only benefits BNL's ecosystems but also benefits the greater Pine Barrens habitats in which BNL is situated. This plan applies equally to the Upton Ecological and Research Reserve (Upton Reserve). Any difference in management between the larger BNL area and the Upton Reserve are noted in the text. The purpose of the Natural Resource Management Plan (NRMP) is to provide management guidance, promote stewardship of the natural resources found at BNL, and to sustainably integrate their protection with pursuit of the Laboratory's mission. The philosophy or guiding principles of the NRMP are stewardship, sustainability, adaptive ecosystem management, compliance, integration with other plans and requirements, and the incorporation of community involvement, where applicable. The NRMP is periodically reviewed and updated, typically every five years. This review and update was delayed to develop documents associated with a new third party facility, the Long Island Solar Farm. This two hundred acre facility will result in significant changes to this plan warranting the delay. The body of this plan establishes the management goals and actions necessary for managing the natural resources at BNL in a sustainable manner. The appendices provide specific management requirements for threatened and endangered amphibians and fish (Appendices A and B, respectively), and lists of actions in tabular format - including completed items as well as ongoing and new action items (Appendices C and D, respectively).

green, T.

2011-08-15

345

Couple communication in family planning decision-making in Zahedan, Islamic Republic of Iran.  

PubMed

A qualitative study in Zahedan, Islamic Republic of Iran, used focus group discussions with 120 people in 8 main groups to understand more about couple's decision-making and the role of men in family planning. The study included men and women from Sunni and Shia sects as well as theologians from both sects. Shiites, lay people and theologians, believed that both husband and wife play a major role in decision-making about family planning, while Sunnis believed that men are the main decision-makers. All participants believed that men have an important role in family planning, but also that men do not like attending family planning clinics. Religious tenets were important in couple's decision-making about using contraceptives but there were confusions over different teachings. PMID:16700372

Rakhshani, F; Niknami, S; Ansari Moghaddam, A R

2005-07-01

346

Tulane Family Planning Operations Research in the English Speaking Caribbean: Final Research Findings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Operations research in the area of family planning has proved useful in identifying barriers to contraceptive use, resolving these problems, and testing new approaches to service delivery. The results of operations research in six English-speaking Caribbe...

J. T. Bertrand, P. Russell-Brown, E. Landry

1986-01-01

347

Women, microcredit and family planning practices: a case study from rural Ghana.  

PubMed

This paper examines the influence of informal banking club participation on family planning practices in rural Ghana. Research from Asia suggests that family planning practices are improved by club participation. This study examines this thesis in an African context, using rural Ghana as a case study. A sample of 204 women (19 years and older) was drawn from Abokobi village, Ghana. Multivariate analyses of direct, mediating and moderating effects of women’s demographic background characteristics, membership status and length, and women’s empowerment status as predictors of family planning practices are assessed. Findings suggest that club membership and membership length is not associated with family planning practices; however, age, education level, number of children and empowerment status are. PMID:21901899

Norwood, Carolette

2011-01-01

348

Learning about the Population Problem: Children's Attitudes toward Family Planning in India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research reported here examines the socialization of Indian children and adolescents toward family planning. Taken into account are socioeconomic, political, and religious influences on the attitudes of the subjects studied. (Author/EB)

Iyengar, Shanto

1979-01-01

349

The impact of mass media family planning programmes on current use of contraception in urban Bangladesh.  

PubMed

A sample of 871 currently married urban Bangladeshi women was used to assess the impact of mass media family planning programmes on current contraceptive use. The analyses suggested that radio had been playing a significant role in spreading family planning messages among eligible clients; 38% of women with access to a radio had heard of family planning messages while the figures for TV and newspaper were 18.5% and 8.5% respectively. Education, number of living children and current contraceptive use were important predictors of exposure to any mass media family planning messages. There was a negative relationship between breast-feeding and the current use of contraception indicating a low need for contraception among women who were breast-feeding. PMID:10979233

Kabir, M; Islam, M A

2000-07-01

350

Planning Grant for Breast cancer Family-based Intervention Trial (BFIT) Investigators  

E-print Network

Planning Grant for Breast cancer Family-based Intervention Trial (BFIT) Investigators: Department and Epidemiology Department of Surgery, College of Physicians and Surgeons Sheldon Feldman, MD, Associate Professor of Clinical Surgery Preya Ananthakrishnan, MD, Assistant Professor of Clinical Surgery Department

Grishok, Alla

351

Plans for National Ignition Facility operations training and operations procedures  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary plan for National Ignition Facility (NIF) Operations training developed for the 200+ staff anticipated to operate the NIF facility is discussed. We also address the development and implementation of NIF Operations procedures. These procedures serve as an essential part of the staff training program. A special aspect of NIF Operations procedures is that they will be on-line with electronic links to design, operations, and test databases, and will likely incorporate electronic checklists and archiving capabilities.

Mantrom, D.D., LLNL

1998-06-01

352

National program plan for electric vehicle battery research and development  

Microsoft Academic Search

EVs offer the prospect of reducing US petroleum fuel usage and air pollution in major metropolitan areas. In 1987, DOE-EHP commissioned a two-phase study at INEL to produce a national plan for R D on battery technology -- the limiting component in EVs. The battery assessment phase identified the most-promising'' technologies from a comprehensive list of viable EV batteries. This

G. L. Henriksen; D. L. Douglas; C. J. Warde; NC Greensboro

1989-01-01

353

Measurement and evaluation of national family planning programs.  

PubMed

RESUMEN: En los últimos quince años diez paises han inaugurado programas nacionales de planeamiento familiar: India, Pakistán, Corea del Sur, Taiwan, Turquía, Malasia, Ceilán, Túez, la República Arabe Unida, y Marruecos. Otros paises, incluyendo Tailandia, Hong Kong, Singapur, Kenya, Barbados, Trinidad y los Estados Unidos, apoyan y/o estimulan actividades de planeamiento familiar. En la mayor parte de los casos la razón fundamental del programa ha sido que si la tasa de crecimiento poblacional disminuyera, aumentaría la tasa de crecimiento económico.Las metas de largo alcance, expresadas típicamente en términos de reducir las tasa.de de natalidad o de crecimiento, tienen su ejemplo en el propósito de Pakistán de reducir su tasa de crecimiento a 26 para 1970; el de Corea de reducir su tasa de natalidad a 20 para 1971; y el de India de reducir su tasa de natalidad a 25 para 1973.Los objectivos intermedios, que cubren diversos aspectos del pro grama, incluyen metas específicas para un determinado mes a año, considerando personal, la adquisición de anticonceptivos, y el número de usarios por método. Las metas específicas anuales de aceptantes de dispositivos intrauterinos (IUD), para Taiwán, Corea, Túnez, Pakistán e India, son comunes, tanto por la naturaleza del artefacto, como por la facilidad de medición de los que continúan utilizándolos. El programa de evaluación en Taiwán, que trata de medir por diversos medios los efectos inmediatos, mediatos y de largo plazo del programa de planeamiento familiar sirve de modelo. El propósito de la evaiuación de un programa de planeamiento familiar es contribuir a la efectividad y eficiencia del programa, midiendo y analizando su progreso. Las áreas a medir pueden ser clasificadas como- (1) conocimiento acerca de; (2) actitudes hacia; (3) práctica de control de natalidad; y (4) nivel de fecundidad.Un buen sistema de evaluación debería incluir: A. Un buen conjunto de estadísticas de servicio presentadas en formularios estandarizados, en las siguienies formas: 1. Informes nensuales por áreas administrativas, sobre los actuales servicios de planeamiento familiar proporcionados en la actualidad, de carácter permanente o de larga duración (al presente, esterilización y IUD de acuerdo a las siguientes características del receptor: residencia, edad, paridad (número de hijos vivos por sexo), y donde se enteró del programa, si es posible "clase";(probablemente educación de la madre, pero posiblemente ocupación del esposo, ingreso, o equivalente); prácticas anticonceptivas anteriores; intervalo; y deseo de tener más hijos. En un programa grande estos datos pueden obtenerse en base a una muestra. 2. Informes mensuales sobre la distribución de suministros anticonceptivos (condones, píldoras, sustancias efervescentes, etc.), los primeros suministros deben ir acompañados de un registro de las características del recipiente, como anteriormente; los suministros subsecuentes se regietrarán sólo en volumen bruto. Esto también se aplicará al ritmo, donde éste método se enseñe a un número considerable de mujeres. 3. Informes regulares sobre las actividades de planeamiento familiar de médicos privados, como una estimación del efecto catalítico del programa del gobierno sobre ci sector privado. 4. Datos generates mensuales, ppr áreas admirtistrativas importantes, sabre: visitas domiciliarias, reuniones, cuñas radiates y televisadas, avisos en los periódicos y personal que trabaja. 5. Para propósitos de seguimiento una entrevi eta de campo cada 6 a 12 meses a cada N mujer de las listas para (1) y (2) arriba, en un total de 300 o 400, para conocer las tasas de continuación y las razones de abandono (ej: desea otro hijo, insatisfecha can ci método, otras). Las mue.stras podrían ser de 300 cada una, con una supuesta experiencia de 6, 12, 18 y 24 meses. B. Un buen conjunto de datos sobre costa (datos sobre cotos actulaes atribuíbles directamente al programa de planeamiento familiar) fraccionados par áreas principales y cinco a seis

Mauldin, W P

1967-03-01

354

Sandia National Laboratories Institutional Plan: FY 1999-2004  

SciTech Connect

This Institutional Plan is the most comprehensive yearly "snapshot" available of Sandia National Laboratories' major programs, facilities, human resources, and budget. The document also includes overviews of our missions, organization, capabilities, planning functions, milestones, and accomplishments. The document's purpose is to provide the above information to the US Department of Energy, key congressional committees, Sandia management, and other present and potential customers. Chapter 2 presents information about Sandia's mission and summarizes our recent revision of Sandia's Strategic Plan. Chapter 3 presents an overview of Sandia's strategic objectives, chapter 4 lists laboratory goals and milestones for FY 1999, and chapter 5 presents our accomplishments during FY 1998. Chapters 3 through 5 are organized around our eight strategic objectives. The four primary objectives cover nuclear weapons responsibilities, nonproliferation and materials control, energy and critical infrastructures, and emerging national security threats. The major programmatic initiatives are presented in chapter 7. However, the programmatic descriptions in chapter 6 and the Associated funding tables in chapter 9 continue to be presented by DOE Budget and Reporting Code, as in previous Sandia institutional plans. As an aid to the reader, the four primary strategic objectives in chapter 3 are cross-referenced to the program information in chapter 6.

Garber, D.P.

1999-01-06

355

Family Strengthening Writ Large: On becoming a Nation that Promotes Strong Families and Successful Youth. Policy Brief No. 24  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Culture and systemic change are paramount to achieving significant and long-lasting gains in child and youth wellbeing and, in time, securing the future of our nation. This brief, based on a high-level synthesis of eight years of experience and research in place-based family strengthening, makes the case for a national transformation to a society…

Online Submission, 2007

2007-01-01

356

30 CFR 756.15 - Required amendments to the Navajo Nation's abandoned mine land plan.  

...amendments to the Navajo Nation's abandoned mine land plan. 756.15 Section 756...LANDS PROGRAM INDIAN TRIBE ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION PROGRAMS § 756.15...amendments to the Navajo Nation's abandoned mine land plan. Pursuant to 30...

2014-07-01

357

30 CFR 756.14 - Approval of amendments to the Navajo Nation's abandoned mine land plan.  

...amendments to the Navajo Nation's abandoned mine land plan. 756.14 Section 756...LANDS PROGRAM INDIAN TRIBE ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION PROGRAMS § 756.14...amendments to the Navajo Nation's abandoned mine land plan. (a) Revisions to...

2014-07-01

358

Unmet need for family planning in Nepal during the first two years postpartum.  

PubMed

Contraceptive use during the postpartum period is critical for maternal and child health. However, little is known about the use of family planning and the determinants in Nepal during this period. This study explored pregnancy spacing, unmet need, family planning use, and fertility behaviour among postpartum women in Nepal using child level data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys 2011. More than one-quarter of women who gave birth in the last five years became pregnant within 24 months of giving birth and 52% had an unmet need for family planning within 24 months postpartum. Significantly higher rates of unmet need were found among rural and hill residents, the poorest quintile, and Muslims. Despite wanting to space or limit pregnancies, nonuse of modern family planning methods by women and returned fertility increased the risk of unintended pregnancy. High unmet need for family planning in Nepal, especially in high risk groups, indicates the need for more equitable and higher quality postpartum family planning services, including availability of range of methods and counselling which will help to further reduce maternal, perinatal, and neonatal morbidity and mortality in Nepal. PMID:25003125

Mehata, Suresh; Paudel, Yuba Raj; Mehta, Ranju; Dariang, Maureen; Poudel, Pradeep; Barnett, Sarah

2014-01-01

359

National aquatic animal health plans: the Australian experience.  

PubMed

Following a major pilchard (Sardinops sagax) mortality event in 1995, Australia recognised the need for a national approach to aquatic animal health, particularly with respectto disease response. Cooperation between industry and government led to the development of AQUAPLAN, Australia's National Strategic Plan for Aquatic Animal Health. Under AQUAPLAN, institutional arrangements for the national technical response to aquatic animal health emergencies were developed based on existing arrangements for terrestrial animal health. The number and range of Australian Aquatic Veterinary Emergency Plan (AQUAVETPLAN) manuals are rising steadily; these are manuals that outline Australia's approach to national disease preparedness and propose the technical response and control strategies to be activated. Additional resources include standard diagnostic techniques and a disease field identification guide. Simulation exercises provide training to respond to aquatic emergency animal disease events. While resource issues and addressing governance remain priorities for the further implementation of AQUAPLAN, the highest priority is the development of a formal arrangement between governments and private sectors on the response to an aquatic emergency animal disease event. PMID:18666480

Bernoth, E M; Ernst, I; Wright, B

2008-04-01

360

NOVEMBER 2013 POLICY BRIEF | Integrating family planning into HIV services increases use of more effective contraception | 1 Integrating family planning into HIV services  

E-print Network

), subdermal implants, injectables and oral contraceptives--in sub-Saharan Africa in general and among HIV effective contraception | 1 Integrating family planning into HIV services increases use of more effective contraception Policy Brief KEY MESSAGES � There is a very high rate of unintended pregnancy among HIV

Mullins, Dyche

361

We've come a long way, maybe: College students' plans for work and family  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young men and women today face considerable choices as they plan for family and work. We explore college students' educational preparations, as well as their attitudes, orientations, and expectations for work and family. Although we find some changes toward a more gender-equal society, we also find potential conflicts which these individuals will have to face as they attempt to combine

Joan Z. Spade; Carole A. Reese

1991-01-01

362

Using Radio To Promote Family Planning in Sub-Saharan Africa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family planning programs in sub-Saharan Africa (42 countries and 450 million population), the fastest growing and poorest region in the world, need effective communications campaigns to educate people about the benefits of contraception, help change attitudes about fertility control and family size, and provide information about available…

Henry, Kathleen

363

FOR FAMILY MEDICAL LEAVE AND SHORT TERM DISABILITY PLAN DARTMOUTH COLLEGE MEDICAL CERTIFICATION FORM  

E-print Network

FOR FAMILY MEDICAL LEAVE AND SHORT TERM DISABILITY PLAN DARTMOUTH COLLEGE MEDICAL CERTIFICATION FORM Certification of Health Care Provider for Employee's Serious Health Condition Family and Medical to other health care provider(s) for evaluation or treatment (e.g., physical therapist)? ____No ____Yes

Myers, Lawrence C.

364

Family Involvement in Transition Planning and Implementation. PRO-ED Series on Transition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part of a series designed to provide practical resources on topics essential to the process of preparing individuals with disabilities for adulthood, this manual focuses on family involvement in transition planning and implementation. Chapter 1, "Overview and Introduction," discusses the history of family involvement in education, and the…

Wehmeyer, Michael L.; Morningstar, Mary; Husted, Doris

365

Family Planning and Rural Fertility Decline in Iran: A Study in Program Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the flrst few years of the Islamic Revolution Iranian fertility was on the rise, in part because of the revolutionary government's pro-natal policies. In a policy reversal, in 1989 the government launched an ambitious and innovative family planning program speciflcally aimed at rural families. By 2005, the program had covered more than 90 percent of the rural population and

Djavad Salehi-Isfahani; Meimanat Hosseini-Chavoshi

2008-01-01

366

Cultural eactors constraining the introduction of family planning among the Kassena-Nankana of Northern Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents a focus group investigation of reasons why women in a rural, Sahelian community are reluctant to adopt family planning even when convenient services are made freely available. First, women opting to practice contraception must do so at considerable risk of social ostracism or familial conflict. Implementing individual preference is something that must be done without the support

Philip B. Adongo; James F. Phillips; Beverly Kajihara; Clara Fayorsey; Cornelius Debpuur; Fred N. Binka

1997-01-01

367

National Action Plan on superconductivity research and development. Background report  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the Superconductivity Action Plan pursuant to the Superconductivity and Competitiveness Act of 1988. Development of the Plan was coordinated by the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) with consultation from tthe staff of the National Critical Materials Council (NCMC). The Plan draws upon contributions from leaders in the technical community of the Federal Government responsible for superconductivity research and development programs, as well as from the report of the Committee to Advise the President on Superconductivity. Input from leaders in the private sector was obtained during the formulation and review of the Plan. Contents: Coordination of the Plan (Annual Reports and Ongoing Analysis of Funding); Technical areas (High-Temperature Superconductivity Materials in General, High-Temperature Superconductivity Films for Sensors and Electronics, Magnets, Large-Area High Temperature Superconductivity Films, Bulk Conductors, Materials Production and Processing Technology, Materials and Coolant Supply); Policy Areas (Research and Experimentation Tax Credit, Capital Gains Tax Differential, International Cooperation, Science and Technology Base, Environment, Health, and Safety).

Not Available

1989-12-01

368

75 FR 63851 - Draft General Management Plan and Environmental Impact Statement, Hampton National Historic Site...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Impact Statement for the General Management Plan (Draft GMP/EIS) for...and coordinate all subsequent planning and management. DATES: The National Park...will be announced on the NPS Planning, Environment, and Public...

2010-10-18

369

National Ignition Facility Quality Assurance Program Plan. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a key constituent of the Department of Energy`s Stockpile Stewardship Program. The NIF will use inertial confinement fusion (ICF) to produce ignition and energy gain in ICF targets, and will perform weapons physics and high-energy- density experiments in support of national security and civilian objectives. The NIF Project is a national facility involving the collaboration of several DOE laboratories and subcontractors, including Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). The primary mission of the NIF Project is the construction and start-up operation of laser-based facilities that will demonstrate fusion ignition in the laboratory to provide nuclear-weapons-related physics data, and secondarily, to propagate fusion burn aimed at developing a potential source of civilian energy. To support the accomplishment of this very important mission, the LLNL Laser Directorate created the NIF Project Office to organize and bring about the Project. The NIF Project Office has established this Quality Assurance Program to ensure its success. This issue of the Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) adds the requirements for the conduct of Title 11 design, construction, procurement, and Title III engineering. This QAPP defines and describes the program-the management system-for specifying, achieving, and assuring the quality of all NIF Project work consistent with the policies of the Laboratory and the Laser Directorate.

Wolfe, C.R.; Yatabe, J.

1996-09-01

370

[How to launch the activity of propaganda month of family planning in Sichuan province].  

PubMed

In mid-July to the end of August 1982, the Sichuan Provincial Party Committee and the Sichuan Provincial People's Government launched a 1-time family planning propaganda month in all of its cities and villages. The purpose was to promote and to carry out consistently and thoroughly the "Going a Step Further in Family Planning Work Directive" of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party and the State Council. Through the propaganda efforts, cadres and masses of Sichuan became familiar with the Party's family planning policy and the basis for population theory, thereby benefitting the nation, its people and future generations. In addition, people sensed the urgency, glory, and responsibility of population control. Based on incomplete data, during the month of propaganda, there were 174,182 new applications for 1 Child Certificates, which was 94.82% of the certificates applied for in the 1st half of 1982; 419,696 cases of contraceptive use, or 43.32% of those using them in the 1st 6 months of the year; 247,808 cases of those taking remedial measures, or 35.62% of those doing so in the 1st half of the year. The 1 child rate rose from a June 1982 figure of 68.21% to 68.71%; the multiple child rate dropped from 8.24% to 8%. The projected birthrate for 1982 is 16-17/1000. The success of the propaganda month was attained through: 1) organized responsibility, clearly defined goals and complete preparations that existed at all provincial Party and provincial Governmental levels; 2) the propaganda effort that was a priority of all governmental leaders, who utilized every propaganda tool available; At every level, propaganda sessions of every kind were convened, the entire propaganda machine was mobilized, and propaganda was brought into the home and to individuals; 3) propaganda, experience, and implementation that were all utilized simultaneously; and 4) the organization and administration of propaganda work that was systematized. PMID:12312939

Wan, C; Tan, S S

1983-01-29

371

Variables of the Theory of Planned Behavior Are Associated with Family Meal Frequency among Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine associations between Theory of Planned Behavior variables and the family meal frequency. Methods: Fifth-through seventh-grade students (n = 236) completed a self-administered questionnaire in their classrooms. The relationships between Theory of Planned Behavior variables (intention, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived…

Eto, Kumi; Koch, Pamela; Contento, Isobel R.; Adachi, Miyuki

2011-01-01

372

Guidelines -National Science Foundation (NSF) Data Management Plan effective January 18, 2011  

E-print Network

Guidelines - National Science Foundation (NSF) Data Management Plan ­ effective January 18, 2011 The National Science Foundation now requires that all proposals have a Data Management Plan for the proposed and pasted directly into the proposal. Resources: National Science Foundation - Data Management Plan

Heller, Barbara

373

Calling the nation to act: Implementing the national action plan to improve health literacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Action Plan to Improve Health Literacy is a framework that all clinical and public health professionals, including nurses, can use to identify and address health literacy barriers that negatively affect patient care and individual and community health outcomes. Of all the clinical disciplines, nursing has a unique relationship to health literacy because nurses are responsible for the majority

Cynthia Baur

2011-01-01

374

Physician extender services in family planning agencies: issues in Medicaid reimbursement.  

PubMed

The US Social Security Amendments of 1972 mandated the inclusion of family planning services in state Medicaid plans, authorized 90% of reimbursements for family planning care, and imposed financial penalties for failure to provide these services to Medicaid-eligible clients. On the other hand, many states have retrictive policies regarding Medicaid reimbursements to family planning agencies for services provided by physician extenders (e.g.s nurse practitioners and physician assistants). There is concern that such restrictions greatly reduce accessibility to family planning services. Reasons that hae been suggested as causes of such restrictive policies include physician concern over loss of income, the uncertain status of physician extenders in some states, a fear that this step will lead to a demand for reiimbursement for the services of other allied health care providers such as social workers, and concern that care for the indigent will lead to an expensive increase in state reimbursement for family planning services. However, a review of relevant federal law and regulations indicates that Medicaid reimbursement for services provided to eligible patients by physician extenders has never been prohibited or discouraged. Physician supervision is required in reimbursement cases, but this does not mean that a physician must be on the premises while services are delivered. The Medicaid program actually allows significant latitude in establishing administrative policies and procedures. Rather, problems faced by family planning agencies in receiving Medicaid reimbursements for physician extenders' services are due to restrictions in state laws and staff misinterpretations of policy. Research has demonstrated that physcian extenders can contribute significantly to cost effectiveness, while providing types of care in localities such as rural areas that physicians tend to avoid. Given the importance of family planning services to Medicaid-eligible clients, unwarranted policy restrictions contrary to congressional intent should be eliminated. PMID:2874155

Mondy, L W; Lutz, D B; Heartwell, S F; Zetzman, M R

1986-01-01

375

From family planning and maternal and child health to reproductive health.  

PubMed

A broad overview was provided of the changes occurring in women's health in the context of donors. In the 1990s, women's health issues began to be addressed by reproductive health rather than by family planning and maternal and child health programs in official and nongovernmental development programs (NGOs). The World Health Organization definition of reproductive health includes the right of to regulate and control their own fertility. There is international donor recognition, such as the United Nations Population Fund support for the WHO definition, children by choice, and reproductive health services for women. Family planning programs have tended to use the "welfare approach" of targeting women as mothers, and their children. Welfare programs began distribution of contraceptives, when the US Agency for International Development began in the 1960s its policy of contraceptive promotion. Target populations in developing countries were reached through social welfare and health service programs, which included women as passive recipients. The issues of poverty, environmental degradation, and violence were unheeded. The period of 1975-85 marked the emergence of discussion about women's role in society. Links were made between high fertility and low status. The research focus was on determinants of fertility decline, regardless of equity issues. Women were encouraged to become involved in political, social, economic, and education activities as a means of creating a "favorable climate for pursuing population...goals." The development literature relegated women to the subordinate position of meeting demographic objectives. The focus on poverty alleviation opened up the literature to the complexities of the relationships between fertility, education, and work. Empowerment has grown out of the framework and enhanced development. Reproductive health programs are still limited in their offerings, but there has been expansion through the linkages with NGOs. Women's preparatory meetings before the Cairo conference have stressed that gender equity and reproductive rights be placed within a broad framework with policy support. PMID:12345535

Mosse, J C

1994-06-01

376

Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in women attending a family planning clinic in Papua New Guinea.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women attending a family planning clinic in Papua New Guinea, in the period between April and June 1991. SETTING--The outpatient department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Port Moresby General Hospital, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea, the departments of Dermato-Venereology and Clinical Microbiology of the Erasmus University, Rotterdam, The Netherlands and the National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven, The Netherlands. PATIENTS--A total of 254 consecutive women who attended the family planning clinic at Port Moresby General Hospital, Papua New Guinea were enrolled into this study. METHODS--Cervical infections with C trachomatis were diagnosed using the direct immunofluorescent assay (DFA) and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Serum IgM and IgG antibodies directed against C trachomatis were detected using the enzyme-linked fluorescent assay (ELFA). RESULTS--The prevalence of C trachomatis was 14.6% using the PCR, 9.1% using the DFA and 17.3% when the results of the PCR and the DFA were combined. An elevated IgM titre was observed in 14.2% of the women, whereas 44.1% had an elevated IgG titre. The titres of IgM or IgG were significantly higher in women who were positive using the PCR or the DFA than in those who were negative in both the PCR and the DFA (p = 0.032 and p = 0.0046, respectively). CONCLUSION--Cervical infection by C trachomatis can be considered a major health problem in at least the studied population in Papua New Guinea. The prevalence of C trachomatis infection is at least comparable with that in groups with a high prevalence in industrialized countries. Effective screening and treatment programmes are imperative to combat this problem. PMID:7490045

Theunissen, J J; Kariwiga, G; Ossewaarde, J M; van Rijsoort-Vos, J H; Stolz, E; van der Meijden, W I

1995-01-01

377

Evolving plans for the USA National Phenology Network  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Phenology is the study of periodic plant and animal life cycle events, how these are influenced by seasonal and interannual variations in climate, and how they modulate the abundance, diversity, and interactions of organisms. The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN) is currently being organized to engage federal agencies, environmental networks and field stations, educational institutions, and citizen scientists. The first USA-NPN planning workshop was held August 2005, in Tucson, Ariz. (Betancourt et al. [2005]; http://www.uwm.edu/Dept/Geography/npn/; by 1 June 2007, also see http://www.usanpn.org). With sponsorship from the U.S. National Science Foundation, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and NASA, the second USA-NPN planning workshop was held at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee on 10–12 October 2006 to (1) develop lists of target species and observation protocols; (2) identify existing networks that could comprise the backbone of nationwide observations by 2008; (3) develop opportunities for education, citizen science, and outreach beginning in spring 2007; (4) design strategies for implementing the remote sensing component of USA-NPN; and (5) draft a data management and cyberinfrastructure plan.

Betancourt, Julio L.; Schwartz, Mark D.; Breshears, David D.; Brewer, Carol A.; Frazer, Gary; Gross, John E.; Mazer, Susan J.; Reed, Bradley C.; Wilson, Bruce E.

2007-01-01

378

CULTURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY.  

SciTech Connect

The Cultural Resource Management Plan (CRMP) for Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) provides an organized guide that describes or references all facets and interrelationships of cultural resources at BNL. This document specifically follows, where applicable, the format of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Guidelines for Development of Cultural Resource Management Plans, DOE G 450.1-3 (9-22-04[m1]). Management strategies included within this CRMP are designed to adequately identify the cultural resources that BNL and DOE consider significant and to acknowledge associated management actions. A principal objective of the CRMP is to reduce the need for additional regulatory documents and to serve as the basis for a formal agreement between the DOE and the New York State Historic Preservation Officer (NYSHPO). The BNL CRMP is designed to be a ''living document.'' Each section includes identified gaps in the management plan, with proposed goals and actions for addressing each gap. The plan will be periodically revised to incorporate new documentation.

DAVIS, M.

2005-04-01

379

Obesity and Family Systems: A Family FIRO Approach to Assessment and Treatment Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents model for conceptualizing interactional patterns in families presenting for treatment of obesity and method for organizing assessment and for prioritizing treatment strategies. Uses the Family FIRO Model as a framework to organize complex assessment issues, to assign priorities for treatment of issues, and to select appropriate treatment…

Doherty, William J.; Harkaway, Jill Elka

1990-01-01

380

National rf technology research and development program plan  

SciTech Connect

This plan was prepared by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of the Office of Fusion Energy, Division of Development and Technology, to define the technology development needs and priorities. The US rf research and development community, with a wide representation from universities, laboratories and industries, participated in many discussions, meetings and in a three-day workshop in developing the needs and priorities definition. This very active and effective involvement of the rf leaders from all of these groups was an essential feature of the activity and results in the plan representing a broad consensus from the magnetic fusion energy development community. In addition, a number of scientists from Japan and Europe participated by providing data.

Not Available

1983-05-01

381

BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY INSTITUTIONAL PLAN FY2003-2007.  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the vision for Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the next five years, and a roadmap for implementing that vision. Brookhaven is a multidisciplinary science-based laboratory operated for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), supported primarily by programs sponsored by the DOE's Office of Science. As the third-largest funding agency for science in the U.S., one of the DOE's goals is ''to advance basic research and the instruments of science that are the foundations for DOE's applied missions, a base for U.S. technology innovation, and a source of remarkable insights into our physical and biological world, and the nature of matter and energy'' (DOE Office of Science Strategic Plan, 2000 http://www.osti.gov/portfolio/science.htm). BNL shapes its vision according to this plan.

NONE

2003-06-10

382

77 FR 33239 - Prairie Stewardship Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, San Juan Island National Historical Park  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Environmental Impact Statement, San Juan Island National Historical Park AGENCY...Statement for Prairie Stewardship Plan, San Juan Island National Historical Park...for stewardship of prairie areas in San Juan Island National Historical...

2012-06-05

383

78 FR 19523 - General Management Plan, Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Lake Meredith National Recreation...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Environmental Impact Statement, Lake Meredith National Recreation Area and Alibates...for the General Management Plan, Lake Meredith National Recreation Area and Alibates...Arlene Wimer, Chief of Resources, Lake Meredith National Recreation Area, P.O....

2013-04-01

384

76 FR 22917 - Dog Management Plan/Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Golden Gate National Recreation Area...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Environmental Impact Statement, Golden Gate National Recreation Area, California AGENCY...Statement/Dog Management Plan, Golden Gate National Recreation Area...for dog management in 21 areas of Golden Gate National Recreation Area (GGNRA)....

2011-04-25

385

Home access: Providing computers to families via a national strategy  

E-print Network

a surveys pertaining to the media use among children and teens in the US [2]. The latest (third) report children families with computers and connection to the Internet. There is an increasing awareness to as information and communications technologies (ICT). However, for many children and their families

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

386

National Curricular Guidelines for Third-Year Family Medicine Clerkships.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The process used by the Society of Teachers of Family Medicine to develop core curriculum guidelines for third-year family medicine clerkships is described, the guidelines are presented, and dissemination, implementation, and further development activities are outlined. The work was supported by a Department of Health and Human Services grant.…

Academic Medicine, 1991

1991-01-01

387

Awareness, use, and unmet need for family planning in rural northern Nigeria.  

PubMed

Access to quality reproductive health and family planning services remain poor in Nigeria. We present results on family planning awareness and use from a survey of 3,080 women (age 15-49 years) in Jigawa, Katsina, Yobe, and Zamfara States. About 43.0% had heard of any method of contraception whereas 36.6% had heard of any modern method. Overall, 7.0% of all currently married women reported ever using a method of contraception; 4.4% used a modern method and 2.9% used a traditional method. Only 1.3% of women in union (currently married or cohabiting) used modern contraception methods at the time of the survey; 1.3% of women in union used traditional methods. Unmet need for family planning was 10.3%. Low family planning use in the presence of low awareness and low felt need suggests, among other things, a need to increase awareness and uptake and make family planning commodities available. PMID:24558787

Doctor, Henry V; Findley, Sally E; Afenyadu, Godwin Y; Uzondu, Charles; Ashir, Garba M

2013-12-01

388

Organized family planning services in the United States, 1976-1977.  

PubMed

In 1977, an estimated 4.2 million women received contraceptive services from organized family planning programs in the United States. The number of patients has grown each year since the late 1960s, but since 1973, growth has slowed concurrently with a diminished increase in the level of federal funding for family planning services. The proportion of clinic patients who are teenagers increased from 20 percent in 1969 to 31 percent in 1977. An estimated 1.3 million adolescents received services in 1977, compared with just 214,000 in 1969. Contraceptive services were provided during 1977 by 2,574 agencies at some 5,300 clinic sites. Health departments served 42 percent of all family planning patients; Planned Parenthood affiliates served 27 percent; hospitals served 13 percent; and community action groups, free clinics, neighborhood health centers and women's health programs together served 18 percent. Federal expenditures for medical family planning services provided by organized clinics and private physicians rose from an estimated $13.5 million in 1968 to $239.1 million in 1977. Estimated federal expenditures for clinic services were $192.5 million--three-quarters of the total $252.6 million in public and private expenditures for such programs. Federal project grant funds under Title X of the Public Health Services Act accounted for 42 percent of all medical family planning expenditures in clinics, and for 55 percent of all federal funds expended for this purpose. These findings are based on data from the most recent study of the organized family planning service network conducted by The Alan Guttmacher Institute (AGI) for 1977.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:401079

Torres, A

1979-01-01

389

Page 1 | B.A. in Child and Family Development | Academic Plan of Study Updated May 2014 B.A. in Child and Family Development  

E-print Network

Page 1 | B.A. in Child and Family Development | Academic Plan of Study Updated May 2014 B.A. in Child and Family Development Academic Plan of Study College of Education Department of Special Education and Child Development spcd.uncc.edu PROGRAM SUMMARY · Credit Hours: 120 hours · Concentrations

Raja, Anita

390

National Planning of Vocational and Technical Training. Colombo Plan Seminar. (Thimphu, Bhutan, April 19-22, 1976)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on the last in a series of seven seminars conducted by the Colombo Plan Bureau between 1969 and 1975 on the theme, "National Planning of Vocational and Technical Training," this report presents the proceedings of a seminar on the vocational education and training needs of one of the Colombo Plan members, Bhutan. Five working papers which…

Colombo Plan Bureau (Sri Lanka).

391

Understanding of advance care planning by family members of persons undergoing hemodialysis.  

PubMed

The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to explore hemodialysis patients' family members' understanding of end-of-life decision-making processes. The project aimed to address (a) family members' constructions of advance care planning (ACP), including their roles and responsibilities, and (b) family members' perceptions of health care providers' roles and responsibilities in ACP. Eighteen family members of persons undergoing hemodialysis were recruited primarily from outpatient dialysis facilities and interviewed individually. Confirmed transcript data were analyzed, coded, and compared, and categories were established. Interpretations were validated throughout the interviews and peer debriefing sessions were used at a later stage in the analysis. The overarching construct identified was one of Protection. Family members protect patients by (a) Sharing Burdens, (b) Normalizing Life, and (c) Personalizing Care. Recommendations for future research include the need to explore ACP of persons undergoing hemodialysis who do not have a family support system. PMID:24326309

Calvin, Amy O; Engebretson, Joan C; Sardual, S Alexander

2014-11-01

392

Control System Development Plan for the National Spherical Torus Experiment  

SciTech Connect

The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has as one of its primary goals the demonstration of the attractiveness of the spherical torus concept as a fusion power plant. Central to this goal is the achievement of high plasma {beta} ( = 2{micro}{sub 0}

/B{sup 2} a measure of the efficiency of a magnetic plasma confinement system). It has been demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally that the maximum achievable {beta} is a strong function of both local and global plasma parameters. It is therefore important to optimize control of the plasma. To this end a phased development plan for digital plasma control on NSTX is presented. The relative level of sophistication of the control system software and hardware will be increased according to the demands of the experimental program in a three phase plan. During Day 0 (first plasma), a simple coil current control algorithm will initiate plasma operations. During the second phase (Day 1) of plasma operations the control system will continue to use the preprogrammed algorithm to initiate plasma breakdown but will then change over to a rudimentary plasma control scheme based on linear combinations of measured plasma fields and fluxes. The third phase of NSTX plasma control system development will utilize the rtEFIT code, first used on DIII-D, to determine, in real-time, the full plasma equilibrium by inverting the Grad-Shafranov equation. The details of the development plan, including a description of the proposed hardware will be presented.

C. Neumeyer; D. Mueller; D.A. Gates; J.R. Ferron

1999-06-01

393

National Science Foundation Postdoctoral Research Mentoring Plan Requirement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Science Foundation (NSF) Grant Proposal Guide (NSF 09-29) contains new guidance regarding compliance with the mentoring requirement of the America COMPETES Act. NSF Program Staff will review the Postdoctoral Researcher Mentoring Plan Requirement with regard to NSF proposal submissions. Each NSF proposal that requests funding to support postdoctoral researchers must include, as a supplementary document, a description of the mentoring activities that will be provided for such individuals. In no more than one page, the mentoring plan must describe the mentoring that will be provided to all postdoctoral researchers supported by the project, irrespective of whether they reside at the submitting organization, any subawardee organization, or at any organization participating in a simultaneously submitted collaborative project. Examples of mentoring activities include, but are not limited to: career counseling; training in preparation of grant proposals, publications and presentations; guidance on ways to improve teaching and mentoring skills; guidance on how to effectively collaborate with researchers from diverse backgrounds and disciplinary areas; and training in responsible professional practices. The proposed mentoring activities will be evaluated as part of the merit review process under the Foundation's broader impacts merit review criterion. Proposals that include funding to support postdoctoral researchers, and, do not include the requisite mentoring plan will be returned without review.

Lehr, Dana

2010-01-01

394

Project responder: a national technology plan for emergency response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emergency responders are the front line of defense against catastrophic terrorist attacks on US soil. Advanced systems and cutting-edge technologies can increase responders' capabilities, or make their resources go farther in time of crisis, but there is a disconnection of understanding between those who produce the systems and technologies, and those who need them at the local level. Local jurisdictions rarely have a budget to support or influence technology development and acquisition. The laboratories, agencies, universities, or industries that develop these emerging technologies are responding to requirements from different markets (usually larger) than individual local jurisdictions. Indeed, responders may not even know of new technology development, availability, or relevance to responders" needs. Consequently, technology developers have limited insight into what technologies responders need. Local, and even state, budgets by themselves are not sufficiently large or coordinated to influence technology development towards the needs of responders, without the assistance of federal direction and funding. If federal direction and funding of technology is to produce and deliver useful capabilities for local responders, federal technology planners must understand the needs of responders, and develop technology plans to meet those needs. Project Responder's National Technology Plan for Emergency Response provides a foundation and building blocks for technology planning, to focus federal research and development investments toward improving the capabilities of state and local emergency responders.

Pollard, Neal A.; Tuohy, Robert V.; Garwin, Thomas M.; Powell, Maria E.; Royal, Michelle; Singley, George T., III

2004-09-01

395

The National Map 2.0 Tactical Plan: "Toward the (Integrated) National Map"  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The National Map's 2-year goal, as described in this plan, is to provide a range of geospatial products and services that meet the basic goals of the original vision for The National Map while furthering the National Spatial Data Infrastructure that underpins U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) science. To accomplish this goal, the National Geospatial Program (NGP) will acquire, store, maintain, and distribute base map data. The management team for the NGP sets priorities for The National Map in three areas: Data and Products, Services, and Management. Priorities for fiscal years 2008 and 2009 (October 1, 2007 through September 30, 2009), involving the current data inventory, data acquisition, and the integration of data, are (1) incorporating current data from Federal, State, and local organizations into The National Map to the degree possible, given data availability and program resources; (2) collaborating with other USGS programs to incorporate data that support the USGS Science Strategy; (3) supporting the Department of the Interior (DOI) high-priority geospatial information needs; (4) emergency response; (5) homeland security, natural hazards; and (6) graphics products delivery. The management team identified known constraints, enablers, and drivers for the acquisition and integration of data. The NGP management team also identified customer-focused products and services of The National Map. Ongoing planning and management activities direct the development and delivery of these products and services. Management of work flow processes to support The National Map priorities are identified and established through a business-driven prioritization process. This tactical plan is primarily for use as a document to guide The National Map program for the next two fiscal years. The document is available to the public because of widespread interest in The National Map. The USGS collaborates with a broad range of customers and partners who are essential to the success of The National Map, including the science community, State and Federal agencies involved in homeland security, planners and emergency responders at the local level, and private companies. Partner contributions and data remain a primary input and foundation of The National Map. Partnership strategies for each of The National Map's component data themes are outlined in this plan. Because of the importance of The National Map customers, a reassessment of customer needs will be completed during 2008. Results of the assessment will be incorporated into future decisions and priorities. A performance milestone matrix has been developed that contains the full list of milestones, major deliverables, and major tasks. The matrix forms the basis for reporting on accomplishments and issues. However, a number of risks, dependencies, and issues have been identified that could affect meeting milestones in the matrix, such as: the USGS is not the Circular A-16 lead for boundaries, transportation, and structures; availability of sufficient and sustainable funding; availability of Federal workforce and contractors with necessary skills, and numerous competing customer and stakeholder requirements.

Zulick, Carl A.

2008-01-01

396

Impediments to media communication of social change in family planning and reproductive health: experiences from East Africa.  

PubMed

The media has been employed to increase uptake of Family Planning through behaviour change communication (BCC). Understanding the barriers encountered in effectively undertaking this function would increase the strategy's effectiveness. Sixty journalists from East Africa participated in trainings to enhance their BCC skills for Family Planning in which a qualitative study was nested to identify barriers to effective Family Planning BCC in the region's media. The barriers were observed to be insufficient BCC skills, journalists' conflict of interest, interests of media houses, inaccessible sources of family planning information, editorial ideologies and absence of commercially beneficial demand. Coupled with the historical ideologies of the media in the region, the observed barriers have precipitated ineffective family planning BCC in the regions media. Effective BCC for family planning in the regions media requires capacity building among practitioners and alignment of the concept to the media's and consumers' aspirations. PMID:24069769

Kagurusi, Patrick T

2013-09-01

397

[20 years of a sex education clinic. Are family planning centers still needed?].  

PubMed

The Sexual Information Clinic in Oslo was founded more than 20 years ago. The clinic is the largest family planning centre in Norway, treating 4,000-6,000 patients per year. In recent years the treatment of venereal diseases has become the major component of the daily work. The authors describe the different groups of patients who visit the clinic. The meanage of the patients is 21 years. The high number of legal abortions among younger women and the rising incidence of sexually transmitted diseases prove the continued existence of a need for family planning centres. The authors discuss the situation of family planning centres in Norway in general and stress the importance of their work. They argue that all venereal diseases should be treated free of charge. PMID:1561604

Alfsen, G C; Hokstad, S

1992-02-28

398

76 FR 68621 - National Family Caregivers Month, 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and support our injured, our elders, and people with disabilities. This month and throughout the year, let the quiet perseverance of our family caregivers remind us of the decency and kindness to which we can all aspire. NOW, THEREFORE, I,...

2011-11-04

399

Recommended Academic Plan for A.S. in Human Development and Family Studies (2FSCC at DuBois) Children, Youth, and Family Services Option (C Y F)  

E-print Network

in Health and Human Development Professions 3 HDFS 315 (US) or 315Y (US/IL & W) Family Development 3 HDFSRecommended Academic Plan for A.S. in Human Development and Family Studies (2FSCC at DuBois) Children, Youth, and Family Services Option (C Y F) Effective Spring 2005 Semester 1 Credits Semester 2

Kaye, Jason P.

400

Integrating family planning into postpartum care through modern quality improvement: experience from Afghanistan  

PubMed Central

To address low contraceptive use in Afghanistan, we supported 2 large public maternity hospitals and 3 private hospitals in Kabul to use modern quality improvement (QI) methods to integrate family planning into postpartum care. In 2012, QI teams comprising hospital staff applied root cause analysis to identify barriers to integrated postpartum family planning (PPFP) services and to develop solutions for how to integrate services. Changes made to service provision to address identified barriers included creating a private counseling space near the postpartum ward, providing PPFP counseling training and job aids to staff, and involving husbands and mothers-in-law in counseling in person or via mobile phones. After 10 months, the proportion of postpartum women who received family planning counseling before discharge in the 5 hospitals increased from 36% to 55%, and the proportion of women who received family planning counseling with their husbands rose from 18% to 90%. In addition, the proportion of postpartum women who agreed to use family planning and left the hospital with their preferred method increased from 12% to 95%. Follow-up telephone surveys with a random sample of women who had received PPFP services in the 2 public hospitals and a control group of postpartum women who had received routine hospital services found significant differences in the proportion of women with self-reported pregnancies: 3% vs. 15%, respectively, 6 months after discharge; 6% vs. 22% at 12 months; and 14% vs. 35% at 18 months (P < .001). Applying QI methods helped providers recognize and overcome barriers to integration of family planning and postpartum services by testing changes they deemed feasible.

Tawfik, Youssef; Rahimzai, Mirwais; Ahmadzai, Malalah; Clark, Phyllis Annie; Kamgang, Evelyn

2014-01-01

401

Family planning decisions, perceptions and gender dynamics among couples in Mwanza, Tanzania: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Contraceptive use is low in developing countries which are still largely driven by male dominated culture and patriarchal values. This study explored family planning (FP) decisions, perceptions and gender dynamics among couples in Mwanza region of Tanzania. Methods Twelve focus group discussions and six in-depth interviews were used to collect information from married or cohabiting males and females aged 18–49. The participants were purposively selected. Qualitative methods were used to explore family planning decisions, perceptions and gender dynamics among couples. A guide with questions related to family planning perceptions, decisions and gender dynamics was used. The discussions and interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed manually and subjected to content analysis. Results Four themes emerged during the study. First, “risks and costs” which refer to the side effects of FP methods and the treatment of side -effects as well as the costs inherit in being labeled as an unfaithful spouse. Second, “male involvement” as men showed little interest in participating in family planning issues. However, the same men were mentioned as key decision-makers even on the number of children a couple should have and the child spacing of these children. Third, “gender relations and communication” as participants indicated that few women participated in decision-making on family planning and the number of children to have. Fourth, “urban–rural differences”, life in rural favoring having more children than urban areas therefore, the value of children depended on the place of residence. Conclusion Family Planning programs should adapt the promotion of communication as well as joint decision-making on FP among couples as a strategy aimed at enhancing FP use. PMID:23721196

2013-01-01

402

Vatican snubs UNICEF, citing concerns over family planning.  

PubMed

On November 4, the permanent mission of the Holy See to the UN stated that it would discontinue its usual annual contribution ($2000) to the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) because the agency: 1) advocated altering national legislation regarding abortion; 2) distributed contraceptives; and 3) participated in a 1995 UN publication ("Inter-agency Field Manual on Reproductive Health in Refugee Situations") that recommends use of emergency postcoital contraception in situations involving sexual violence. In the same statement, the Holy See described a shift in UNICEF activities based on the organization's failure to respond to requests that specific donations be used for "morally unobjectionable child-related projects"; pastors and church-related institutions were asked to review their contributions to UNICEF. Catholics for a Free Choice promptly announced a donation, equal to that discontinued by the Vatican, to UNICEF. PMID:12292094

1996-11-22

403

To integrate family planning into the building up of mental civilization by offering comprehensive services.  

PubMed

The government of Nangong City, a newly instituted city with a relatively large proportion of agricultural workers has integrated family planning into the building up of mental civilization. As a result, in 1986, the family planning practice rate was 98.4%. One way the government accomplished this was by developing production to eliminate poverty, to show that population development has a significant impact on socioeconomic development. To help change people's attitudes about family planning, the government 1) used publicity, such as speechmaking, mass media, and courses in population theory; 2) awarded those who made contributions; 3) carried out publicity and education in accordance with characteristics of different groups of people; and 4) encouraged bridegrooms to live with their wives' families if the wives' parents had had no son. Another technique the government used as the popularization of scientific knowledge about population theory, physiology and hygiene, birth control, and eugenics and health in births. A 4th method was to popularize knowledge of laws and regulations, such as of early marriage and consanguineous marriage. 5th, the government developed social security undertakings: 1) giving priority to single-child families and 2) taking care of the elderly. Finally, the government improved maternal and child care by 1) providing premarital health care; 2) creating a project for healthier births and better upbringing; 3) family planning workers showing warm concern for reproductive women; and 4) controlling women's diseases and providing health care knowledge, as well as family planning services. These 6 activities have resulted in 1) the decreasing momentum of per capita arable land being controlled, 2) 1-child couples having more time to learn, 3) the development of educational undertakings, 4) a change in people's traditional practices, and 5) improvement in the understanding of patriotism. PMID:12281754

1988-03-01

404

An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of National Park Service Interpretive Planning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2005-2006, the National Park Service Office of Interpretive Planning at Harpers Ferry Center, in collaboration with the author, conducted an evaluation project to (a) assess the appropriateness and quality of specific elements of National Park Service (NPS) interpretive plans, (b) determine where improvements in planning might be made, and (c)…

Wells, Marcella

2008-01-01

405

Microcredit, Family Planning Programs, and Contraceptive Behavior: Evidence From a Field Experiment in Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of community-based family planning programs and access to credit on contraceptive use, fertility, and family size\\u000a preferences has not been established conclusively in the literature. We provide additional evidence on the possible effect\\u000a of such programs by describing the results of a randomized field experiment whose main purpose was to increase the use of\\u000a contraceptive methods in rural

Jaikishan Desai; Alessandro Tarozzi

2011-01-01

406

The Influence of Parental Socialization Factors on Family Farming Plans of Preadolescent Children: An Exploratory Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous scholarship on farm families emphasizes the importance of socializing children to become farmers. This study is the first to focus on the parental socialization factors that are associated with preadolescent children's attachment to, and plans to take over, the family farm. Forty-seven 7- to 12-year-old children and their farming parents responded to a survey regarding the child's involvement in

Angela R. Wiley; Timothy Bogg; Moon-Ho Ringo Ho

407

Microcredit, family planning programs, and contraceptive behavior: evidence from a field experiment in Ethiopia.  

PubMed

The impact of community-based family planning programs and access to credit on contraceptive use, fertility, and family size preferences has not been established conclusively in the literature. We provide additional evidence on the possible effect of such programs by describing the results of a randomized field experiment whose main purpose was to increase the use of contraceptive methods in rural areas of Ethiopia. In the experiment, administrative areas were randomly allocated to one of three intervention groups or to a fourth control group. In the first intervention group, both credit and family planning services were provided and the credit officers also provided information on family planning. Only credit or family planning services, but not both, were provided in the other two intervention groups, while areas in the control group received neither type of service. Using pre- and post-intervention surveys, we find that neither type of program, combined or in isolation, led to an increase in contraceptive use that is significantly greater than that observed in the control group. We conjecture that the lack of impact has much to do with the mismatch between women's preferred contraceptive method (injectibles) and the contraceptives provided by community-based agents (pills and condoms). PMID:21506020

Desai, Jaikishan; Tarozzi, Alessandro

2011-05-01

408

A focused approach to quality of care assessment in family planning.  

PubMed

An approach to quality of care assessment for family planning based on management-by-objectives has been tested in 18 clinics. Key indicator standards were developed by the family planning agencies themselves and objective survey instruments designed to measure performance against the standards. Results were made available quickly to each clinic and led to operational changes in the majority, with evidence of improved performance and willingness to use evaluation of care as a means for clinic management. Analyses of the aggregated data showed wide variations in performance over several indices of care. PMID:6742275

Hirschhorn, N; Goldy, A S; Plager, B; Bell, P; Brier, J; Parenteau, T; McIntosh, E N; Robbins, J

1984-08-01

409

A focused approach to quality of care assessment in family planning.  

PubMed Central

An approach to quality of care assessment for family planning based on management-by-objectives has been tested in 18 clinics. Key indicator standards were developed by the family planning agencies themselves and objective survey instruments designed to measure performance against the standards. Results were made available quickly to each clinic and led to operational changes in the majority, with evidence of improved performance and willingness to use evaluation of care as a means for clinic management. Analyses of the aggregated data showed wide variations in performance over several indices of care. PMID:6742275

Hirschhorn, N; Goldy, A S; Plager, B; Bell, P; Brier, J; Parenteau, T; McIntosh, E N; Robbins, J

1984-01-01

410

Socialist market economy and the family planning program in China: some theoretical issues reconsidered.  

PubMed

Socialist market economies and planned economies differ in that planned economies have decision-making power concentrated at the top levels of administration, and government sets mandatory macrolevel planning. Socialist market economies have decentralized decision making, and government's role is in setting rules and regulations. The market provides information and prices in a socialist market economy, while in a planned economy the government supplies information. Material interests are the stimulus in a market economy, while ideology is the stimulus in planned economies. Externalities or market failures prevent the market from realizing maximum efficiency in resource allocation. Commodity production is best when the social marginal cost equals social marginal efficiency. Externalities can be handled by internalization, taxation or subsidies, or administrative intervention. Externalities in reproduction are costs within the family that are lower than the social costs. Family costs usually do not include consumption of scarce natural resources. Costs vary between rural and urban areas. In a rural area with limited natural resources, lower birth rates in a village mean a greater amount of natural resources per person. If externalities are internalized, resources could be allocated per family which equalized distribution between families so that high birth rates could be contained. Another solution to high birth rates would be to impose fines. In real life, externalities are localized at the village level; poverty in one village affects the region. Under the current Chinese socialist market economy, economic decisions and reproductive decisions are decentralized. Population control regulation exists by province and stipulates the age of childbearing, the conditions determining second children, and the length of birth interval. Each province is subject to macro central government plans which include quotas for birth rates and the number of births per province. Family planning work would be improved with elimination of quotas and regional population control plans. The government, as it did during the 1970s, would issue family planning regulations only and not intervene directly in family decisions about reproduction. Fee collection, taxation, and other administrative means could be used if externalities needed to be reduced. PMID:12319165

Zuo, X

1994-01-01

411

Urban Institute: CHA Families and the Plan for Transformation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Urban Institute provides high-quality research on economic and social policy, addressing topics such as education, employment, crime, and governance. This clutch of documents looks at the transformation of the Chicago Housing Authority and the provision of public housing in the city. The five briefs "describe key successes and challenges faced by CHA and its residents." Titles address topics like "How Chicago's Public Housing Transformation Can Inform Federal Policy?" and "Chronic Violence: Beyond the Developments." Along with these insightful documents, visitors can also look over the Previous Briefs area. Here they will find "The Health Crisis for CHA Families," "CHA After Wells-Where are the Residents Now?" and a dozen other briefs.

2013-01-01

412

Calling the nation to act: implementing the national action plan to improve health literacy.  

PubMed

The National Action Plan to Improve Health Literacy is a framework that all clinical and public health professionals, including nurses, can use to identify and address health literacy barriers that negatively affect patient care and individual and community health outcomes. Of all the clinical disciplines, nursing has a unique relationship to health literacy because nurses are responsible for the majority of patient, caregiver and community health education, and communication. The information in the Action Plan is applicable to many fields and disciplines, such as healthcare, public health, communication, and education. Leading educators, researchers, practitioners, and administrators in each relevant discipline have a responsibility to be informed about health literacy issues and identify the most promising practices to improve health literacy in their domains. The Action Plan includes goals and strategies that nursing leaders can adapt and use to develop organization-specific action plans for health literacy improvement. The Action Plan is a call to action for all clinical professionals, especially nurses, to choose, implement, and evaluate one or more health literacy strategies so that patients will be more informed and prepared to protect, promote, and manage their health. PMID:21402201

Baur, Cynthia

2011-01-01

413

The effect of family sex composition on fertility desires and family planning behaviors in urban Uttar Pradesh, India  

PubMed Central

Background A cultural preference for sons has been well documented in India, resulting in skewed sex ratios, especially exhibited in northwest India. Previous research has shown that family sex composition is associated with family planning (FP) use and couples’ desire for more children. This study examines family sex composition and fertility and FP behaviors in urban Uttar Pradesh, India; little work has examined these issues in urban settings where family sizes are smaller and FP use is common. Methods Data for this analysis comes from a 2010 representative survey of married, non-pregnant fecund women aged 15–49 from six cities in Uttar Pradesh, India. Multivariate analyses are used to examine the association between family sex composition and fertility desires and FP use. Results The multivariate results indicate that family sex composition is associated with fertility desires and FP use. Women without living children and without at least one child of each sex are significantly less likely to want no more children and women with both sons and daughters but more sons are significantly more likely to want no more children as compared to women that have both sons and daughters but more daughters. Women with no living children and women with daughters but no sons are less likely to be modern FP users than nonusers whereas women with both sons and daughters but more sons are more likely to be modern FP users than nonusers as compared to women with both sons and daughters but more daughters. Conclusions These findings confirm that family sex composition affects fertility behavior and also reveals that preference for sons persists in urban Uttar Pradesh. These results underscore the importance of programs and policies that work to enhance the value of girl children. PMID:24025670

2013-01-01

414

News Framing of Population and Family Planning Issues via Syntactic Network Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contentious political debates regarding the issues on population and family planning have been perennial over the past four decades especially in developing countries. While its prominence in the public agenda varies depending on other national issues vying for public attention, its presence in policy and political agendas is constant. Here, a computational approach to framing analysis is developed that examines the pattern of media coverage on the population i