Objectives To examine the impact of the one child family policy in China on fertility, preferred family size, and sex ratio. Design Secondary analysis of data from the Chinese cross sectional national family planning and reproductive health survey, 2001. Interviews of representative sample of women aged 15-49. Results Data were obtained from 39 585 women, with a total of 73
Qu Jian Ding; Therese Hesketh
The National Survey of Family Growth is a periodic survey conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics, and designed to produce national estimates of statistics on fertility, family planning, and aspects of maternal and child health that are closely related to childbearing. This report presents statistics based on data collected in the…
Horn, Marjorie C.; Mosher, William D.
This report documents the progress made in developing and developed nations to improve health, nutrition, education, family planning, and the condition of women over the last 40 years. It presents tables that rank the world's nations and regions on: (1) the mortality rate of children under 5 years of age; (2) the percent of children under 5 years…
Adamson, Peter, Ed.
This report brings together the latest available statistics on national achievements in child survival, health, nutrition, education, family planning, and progress for women. Each section contains a commentary, a presentation of related statistics, and a discussion on achievement and disparity. The sections are: (1) Introduction, "Social Goals and…
Progress of Nations, 1995
This report brings together the latest available statistics to record national achievements in child survival, health, nutrition, education, family planning, and progress for women. Each section contains a commentary and a presentation of related statistics. The commentaries of the report are: (1) Introduction, "One Small Step for a Summit" (Peter…
Adamson, Peter, Ed.
Wang Renzhong, secretary of the Secretariat of the CCP Central Committee, and Chen Muhua, vice premier of the State Council, addressed the national discussion meeting on propaganda for family planning. Wang Renzhong stated that if population control and family planning continue to be overlooked, population growth will become a calamity in the future. He identified family planning as a permanent strategic task and said that more publicity should be given to family planning, particularly in the rural areas. Chen Muhua discussed her recent briefing to Vice Chairman Deng on the progress made in family planning during 1980 and the current problems. She reported that Vice Chairman Deng expressed satisfaction over the 1980 achievements in family planning. Deng advised creating public opinion in favor of family planning. The national discussion meeting on propaganda for family planning was held in Beijing during January. Measures for implementing "major points of propaganda on controlling China's population growth" were studied. PMID:12264003
#12;#12;Family Emergency Preparedness Plan 1 Family Emergency Preparedness Plan Why Plan.....................................................................21 Hazardous Material Accidents ..............................................22 Nuclear Power Plants Emergency Telephone Numbers.....................................................26 Credits The Family
Noble, James S.
Studies of the Africa OR/TA Project and other Cooperating Agencies suggest that support of family planning by traditional health practitioners (THPs), traditional birth attendants (TBAs), Islamic religious leaders, and male opinion leaders (MOLs) can result in an increase in the availability of family planning services in the community. A study in Kenya shows that 100 trained THPs who were actively involved in family planning (i.e., distributors of condoms, oral contraceptives, and primary health care drugs) increased contraceptive use in Siaya and Kakamega districts from 7% to 15% and from 14% to 34%, respectively. Contraceptive use did not change in the 2 control areas. Two years after TBAs underwent training in family planning promotion, the proportion of women who named TBAs as their source of family planning information increased from 2% to 18%. In The Gambia, integration of Islamic religious leaders into family planning promotion activities resulted in an increase of current modern contraceptive method use from 9% to 20% for males and from 9% to 26% for females. Involvement of 69 MOLs has increased knowledge of family planning methods in Nkambe, Cameroon. For example, among males, knowledge about the condom increased from 52% to 81% and knowledge about spermicides increased from 12% to 44%. The corresponding figures for women were 47% to 72% and 17% to 42%, respectively. PMID:12319039
This paper looks at the formation of a South Korean national health network by focusing on the introduction of an ambitious National Family Planning (FP) Program under President Park Chung Hee (1961-1968). The program, influenced in part by the model of its neighbor, Taiwan (Taichung), saw two pilot studies carried out in Koyang (rural, beginning in 1963) and Sundong-gu (Seoul
John P. DiMoia
The full text of Family Planning Perspectives, v. 1-33, 1969-2001 is now available online at JSTOR. Visitors can search or browse the journal. Note: access to JSTOR contents is currently available only on a site license basis to academic institutions. A list of institutions with site licenses is provided.
The switch in emphasis in population policies from family planning to the development of socioeconomic policies that would encourage smaller families--summed up in the word "developmentalism"--is charted from a 1967 paper by Kinsley Davis to its culmination at the 1974 World Population Conference, when even as staunch a supporter of family planning as John D. Rockefeller came out in support of placing population policy in the context of economic and social development. The real question is, however: To what extent does developmentalism represent a true shift in policy and how much is simply a more sophisticated rhetoric designed to deflect the growing opposition to population control? On the one hand, the endorsement by a man of Rockefeller's stature indicates a significant change. On the other, the changes which the implementation of developmentalism would entail seem irreconcilable with the present political and economic structures of underdeveloped nations and of relations between them and the more developed countries. Further, developmentalism is neither as progressive as its advocates suggest, nor as threatening as its opponents cry. It is, in fact, a prescription for enhancing the effectiveness of family planning through a form of social engineering from the top; its details--more aid, investment, and trade--would involve an expanded Western role in the Third World. It is even suggested that developmentalism might be a cover for the creation of a more stratified society, where marginal members are restricted to their own quarters in an effort to secure political stability and economic growth. In the end, developmentalism might be shortlived, as pressure to step up birth control programs is felt from many quarters. PMID:12307032
Frequently, when one mentions natural family planning methods, the response is doubt, bewilderment, ridicule, or scorn. Much of this is due to the fact that many people know only of the rhythm method, which depends on a calculation based on the menstrual pattern. What many people do not know, including physicians and nurses, is that in Australia Drs. John and Lyn Billings have been scientifically researching natural methods of family planning for 25 years, and they have pioneered this Ovulation Method of family planning. The Billings Ovulation Method depends only on the mucus sign. It is based on a scientific knowledge of the combined fertility of husband and wife, and an understanding of the physiology of the female body through simple observations. Important facts relating to the practice of the method include: ovulation takes place only once in the cycle; mucus is secreted by the cervical mucosa before ovulation; the ovum lives for only 3 days at the most; and the sperms live for 5 days at the most, and only in the presence of this fertile mucus. There a 2 types of mucus. The 1st type to appear is cloudy or white. It is nonslippery, sticky, and breaks when stretched between 2 fingers. The 2nd type is like the part of a hen's egg. It is very slippery, much clearer than the former, and stretches when pulled between 2 fingers. This is fertile mucus, and ovulation occurs on the last day that this is present. Of course, it cannot be recognized as the last day until its absence is observed on the following day. The mucus sign can be both seen and felt. After a few months a woman will readily recognize her fertile time, but daily charting is advocated. Simple signs, representing the various observations, are taught. Once a couple knows and understands their combined fertility through the observation of the mucus sign they can plan their family. Rules of the method are outlined. The self control required by this method can only serve to increase the selfless love and unselfish care and respect between partners. PMID:7168858
The author reviews and makes further recommendations for 3 points of the discussion in G. Freundl's pilot study of "Natural Family Planning (Symptothermal Method) and Objective Ovulation Indicators" published by Georg Thieme Verlag in Vlume 6, "Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde," in 1984. It is suggested that the scientific basis of changes in methodological rules, such as the BT3 modified for the double control method in paragraph 3 of the discussion, must be reported Natural Family Planning (NFP) instructors in Bonn, West Germany, along with failure statistics whenever possible, to enable instructors to participate responsibly. In response to errors by users cited in paragraph 4 of the discussion, the reviewer asserts that adequate instructional materials (photos and slides) are available to acquaint the users with changes in cervical mucus and that personal guidance of a couple or small group should be carried out until detection of fertility signals is performed without difficulty and the couple has proved itself capable of abstaining for the required periods, the latter being the more difficult. The author further cautions that before shortening of the abstinence period can be promoted, instructors must be scientifically assured of the accuracy of the basal temperature -6 indicator. She emphasizes that user errors can be reduced with a shorter abstinence period, but that the couple demands reliable rules first and foremost. The author concludes with a call for closer cooperation between gynecologists and NFP instructors. PMID:6570123
The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) believes that all people have the right to family planning information, including premarital and marital counseling, contraception information, and sex education. This physician's handbook is designed to provide all doctors with the necessary instructions on the latest family planning methods…
Kleinman, Ronald L., Ed.
Objective To characterize beliefs about contraception among obstetrician-gynecologists (Ob/Gyns). Study design National mailed survey of 1800 U.S. Ob/Gyns. Criterion variables were whether physicians have a moral or ethical objection to - and whether they would offer – six common contraceptive methods. Covariates included physician demographic and religious characteristics. Results 1154 of 1760 eligible Ob/Gyns responded (66%). Some Ob/Gyns object to intrauterine devices (4.4% object, 3.6% would not offer), progesterone implants and/or injections (1.7% object, 2.1% would not offer), tubal ligations (1.5% object, 1.5% would not offer), oral contraceptive pills (1.3% object, 1.1% would not offer), condoms (1.3% object, 1.8% would not offer), and the diaphragm or cervical cap with spermicide (1.3% object, 3.3% would not offer). Religious physicians were more likely to object (OR 7.4) and to refuse to provide a contraceptive (OR 1.9). Conclusion Controversies about contraception are ongoing, but among Ob/Gyns objections and refusals to provide contraceptives are infrequent. PMID:21074134
Lawrence, Ryan E; Rasinski, Kenneth A; Yoon, John D; Curlin, Farr A
These proceedings of the second annual symposium on population growth bring together speeches and panel discussions on family planning programs. Titles of speeches delivered are: Communicating Family Planning (Mrs. Jean Hutchinson); Effects of New York's Abortion Law Change (Dr. Walter Rogers); The Law and Birth Control, Sterilization and Abortion…
Doberenz, Alexander R., Ed.; Taylor, N. Burwell G., Ed.
Effectiveness of Family Planning Methods Most Effective Less than 1 pregnancy per 100 women in a year Reversible Implant 0.05 %* Intrauterine Device ( ... Communication Programs (CCP). Knowledge for health project. Family planning: a global handbook for providers (2011 update). Baltimore, ...
Although family planning services in Portugal are open to everybody, male and female, and they are free of charge, it is mostly women who are using the services, since family planning services have integrated maternal health care. Between 1978 and 1981, the Commission for the Portuguese Commission for Equality and Women's Rights implemented a family planning information, education, and communication project under technical and financial aid by the United Nations Population Fund. During a training course for a group of 12 women, which took place in the small town Vialonga near Lisbon in 1992, all women said that their husbands did not play any role in family planning. The choice of the method was their sole responsibility. In 1988, data were gathered by the General Direction of Primary Health Care from the local health services. 17.6% of women used the pill, and 28% practiced coitus interruptus. Condom use amounted to 5.7%. Other methods were the IUD (7.3%), natural methods (3.6%), spermicides (2.6%), the diaphragm (0.3%), and sterilization (female 3.6%; male 0.3%). In 1992, the Commission published a study on family planning, involving 638 men and 882 women, which concluded that the responsibility for family planning was no longer exclusively with women and that young, single people were in favor of family planning information sessions. The Portuguese Constitution states that the state shall promote a wider knowledge of family planning methods and responsible parenthood. The Health Secretary of State ordered the integration of family planning into the National Health Service in 1976. A 1984 law, Sex Education and Family Planning, and a 1985 Government Order constitute the legal framework for the practice of family planning. The Commission for Equality and Women's Rights has been implementing information, education, and communication activities since 1976. One of the members of the Consultative Council is the Association for Family Planning, which has also been disseminating information, training, and counselling since it was founded in 1967. PMID:12222247
Family planning visits are designed to help women build families in a manner most compatible with their life goals. Women's knowledge regarding age-related fertility is suboptimal, and first wanted pregnancies are now occurring at older ages. Here we review the issue of diminishing chances of a pregnancy occurring in women over 30 years of age. A debate arises over whether to perform a standard fertility assessment at an age when, for example, oocyte freezing is still practical and feasible, knowing that the proven predictors in subfertile couples may be less informative, or even inappropriate, in women without complaints about fertility. Studies have demonstrated that if women knew that their fertility was diminishing, they might alter life plans, including having children sooner or considering oocyte preservation. Therefore, we argue that physicians need to make an effort to evaluate a woman's childbearing priorities, though not necessarily their fertility, during the initial family planning visit. PMID:25406182
Seifer, David B; Minkoff, Howard; Merhi, Zaher
Family planning (FP) saves lives through planned management of pregnancy. Healthy mothers produce healthy infants. Maternal mortality in developing countries was estimated in 1990 at 500,000 and infant and child mortality at 14 million. Empirical evidence shows that spacing births 2 years apart reduces the risk of infant mortality. FP also gives women the option of avoiding unwanted pregnancy, dangerous illegal abortions, and unhealthy childbearing conditions. The issues of infant and child survival maternal survival, the interaction between maternal and child health (MCH), program costs, and suggested actions are each discussed separately. Child deaths are mainly attributed to respiratory and diarrheal diseases, which are complicated by malnutrition: 23,000 child deaths/day in developing countries. Prevention is possible through breast feeding, immunization, adequate nutrition and hygiene, oral rehydration therapy, and birth spacing. Birth spacing is possible through prolonged breast feeding and/or use of oral contraceptives, injectables and implants, the IUD, condoms, and sterilization. The primary causes of maternal mortality are induced abortion (19%), toxemia (17%), hemorrhage (28%), infection (11%), obstructed labor (11%), and other 15%). The risks are related to a woman's health status and prior pregnancies and the quality and availability of prenatal and delivery care. The relationship between repeated childbearing and breast feeding and women's nutritional status is still being researched. Mortality in developing countries is due to more pregnancies and less access to medical care; advances in technology permit women to plan healthy reproductive lives. The Safe Motherhood Initiative is at work to remedy this situation. Childbearing is safer when women are aged 18-35 years, have fewer than 5 births, space births every 3 years, and do not have existing health problems. FP is cost-effective. The World Bank estimates that an increase in funding to US$10.50/capita would reduce maternal mortality by 50% and reduce infant mortality. Effective programs are characterized by 1) integrated MCH and FP programs, 2) expanded, quality services, 3) community-based distribution, 4) availability from all sectors, public and private, 5) IEC, 6) cultural sensitivity, 7) promotion of full breast feeding, and 8) AIDS education, information, and testing. PMID:12317826
It is now well accepted that a woman can conceive from an act of intercourse for a maximum of only about 7 days of her menstrual cycle. The reliability of natural family planning depends on identifying this window of fertility without ambiguity. Several symptomatic markers, cervical mucus and basal body temperature, have been used extensively and with considerable success in most women but failures occur. Ovarian and pituitary hormone production show characteristic patterns during the cycle. Urinary estrogen and pregnanediol measurements yield reliable information concerning the beginning, peak, and end of the fertile period, provided that the assays are accurate and performed on timed specimens of urine. We have developed such enzyme immunoassays for urinary estrogen and pregnanediol glucuronides that can be performed at home. In the early versions of the assays, enzyme reaction rates were measured by eye, but more recently, a simple photoelectronic rate meter has been used. The final problem to be solved is not technologic but whether women are sufficiently motivated to expend the same time and effort each day for 10 days a month, with less cost, on fertility awareness as they spend on making a cup of tea. PMID:3314524
Brown, J B; Blackwell, L F; Billings, J J; Conway, B; Cox, R I; Garrett, G; Holmes, J; Smith, M A
Wade et al.'s report, entitled "A randomized prospective study of the use-effectiveness of 2 methods of natural family planning," contains items worthy of emphasis. These includes the following: 1) less than 5% of the women in the study were prevented from using the method assigned them because of problems in identifying their cervical mucus pattern; 2) those who were unable or unwilling to adhere to the methodology were encouraged to drop out; 3) the largest single category of pregnancies occurred in both groups when the volunteers failed to follow the rules for avoiding pregnancy; 4) it was judged that there were 6 pregnancies in the ovulation method group to be classified as method failures, apparently for a total of 4501 cycles, which gives a method-failure rate of 1.6%; 5) couples were required to sign an informed consent statement of their awareness that the chances of the occurrence of pregnancy could be as high as 25% for the ovulation method; 6) recruiting difficulties constituted an important finding, primarily because they were unexpected by the investigators; 7) the volunteers recruited into the trial were restricted to those women whose menstrual cycles were 24-36 days; 8) the couples who failed to continue with the use of these 2 natural methods--ovulation and temperature rhythm--were on the average younger, more sexually active, and had fewer children; and 9) the ovulation method brings the partners into confrontation with their fertility in each cycle, and this has marked psychological results, including an awakening of the suppressed desire for that fertility to become creative of human life. PMID:7081306
Billings, J J
Family planning is an important public health activity. Title X (Pub L No. 91-572), enacted in 1970, remains the only national family planning program in the United States dedicated to providing voluntary and confidential services to all individuals. We conducted a thematic analysis of Title X's legislative history. Of 293 federal bills included in the legislative history, only 20 (6.8%) were enacted into law. Regardless of the proposed challenges, limited changes have been adopted. Except for technical amendments, bills involving restrictions accounted for the highest percentage of enacted bills, demonstrating efforts to undermine reproductive health rights. Title X requires political will and bipartisan support if it is to continue to protect individuals' reproductive rights. PMID:21940931
Daley, Ellen M.; Perrin, Kay M.; Mahan, Charles S.; Buhi, Eric R.
This paper summarizes family planning activities and accomplishments from 1968 to 1970 in Thailand, with particular emphasis on the Family Health Project conducted by the Ministry of Public Health. This project, in reality a family planning program, provided remarkable success in that it was established with no official national population policy…
Population Council, New York, NY.
... to have children in the future. They include vasectomy and tubal ligation. These procedures can sometimes be reversed if a ... 26. Jensen JT, Mishell DR. Family planning: contraception, sterilization, and pregnancy termination. In: Lentz GM, Lobo RA, ...
Natural family planning (NFP) is based on the knowledge *largely nonexistent) of a women as to whether she is in her fertile period or not. In contrast to the calendar method, the Billings method consists of observing bodily functions, whereby women learn about the fertile and infertile period during the menstrual cycle. This method is very safe as long as the woman has been instructed thoroughly. The Pearl index (the number of pregnancies/100 woman years) can be 1. In a Swedish province, 7/1000 population used this method and had an abortion rate of .5/1000, a fact contradicting the allegation of mass abortion as a result of the method. Only well-trained NFP instructors can teach women, and at the University of Umea such training has been available for some years. The biological basis of the Billings method rests on the fact that every release of an egg is preceded by a ripening process of a follicle in the ovary. This follicle secretes increasing amounts of estrogen which stimulates the cervix to produce secretions for the sperm. Right before ovulation, the follicle reduces estrogen production and noradrenaline takes over, stimulating the peak-day secretion (P-secretion) for further selection of sperm. Ovulation usually occurs on the peak day, which is the day of maximum fertility and the last day of mucous symptoms. For 3 days after peak day until menstruation, the risk of becoming pregnant diminishes successively until it is as low as after sterilization. The instructor is trained to recognize and overcome certain factors that make it more difficult to identify the mucous symptoms, such as the previous use of oral contraceptives, certain illnesses, drugs, and life styles. NFP can also be used for attaining pregnancy by identifying the peak day; women with premenstrual syndrome can calculate when their symptoms start, and sportswomen can predict the time of their menstruation. NFP is fascinating when it is compared to other methods because of its human dimension, and there is still a great deal to be learned about it. PMID:1618690
In her contribution to the international seminar on "Natural Family Planning" organized in October by the Irish Department of Health in cooperation with the World Health Organization, Professor Judith Bardwick, professor of psychology at the University of Michigan, offered an explanation for the high dropout rate from contraceptive programs based on periodic abstinence and for the difference between method failure rates of as little as 1% and user failure rates as high as 30% or more. She argued that contraceptive methods which ask women to maintain a continuous observation of the symptoms of their menstrual cycles will draw the attention of the women continuously to the act of coitus. Yet, simultaneously, the use of these symptoms as a contraceptive means requires abstinence from coitus. Even Bardwick was unable to make very definite statements regarding contraception based on periodic abstinence because of the lack of available data. A primary benefit of the Irish seminar was the presentation of the preliminary results from a 5-center international study of the Billings Method (also known as the Ovulation Method or the Cervical Mucus Method). The study, supervised by the World Health Organization in Geneva, is being conducted in Auckland, Bangalore, Dublin, Manila, and San Miguel and involves 870 couples. Over 80% of the couples are Roman Catholic. Professor H.G. Burger reported findings from the first 3 months of the study. The method (which uses observation of both the quantity and quality of vaginal mucus to determine the time of ovulation) required an average of 15-18 days abstinence in each cycle with 11-15 days available for intercourse. 90.8% of the women were thought to have acquired a good understanding of the method after the 1st cycle and 97.1% after the 3rd cycle. The couples' motivation for using the method was "religious" in 40% of the cases and "unhappiness with other methods" in about 25%. During the 2704 cycles under observation, there were 45 pregnancies in 5.2% of the women. 2 of these were regarded as user failures. Method related failures ranged from 0.48 to 3.00 and user-related failures from 0.96 to 19.25. PMID:12263405
When properly taught and practised, natural family planning can be a highly effective form of birth regulation. Recent studies indicate low failure rates of less than three pregnancies per 100 women years for couples with a strong motivation to follow the method. Studies show that pregnancy rates are high when the rules for avoiding pregnancy are not adhered to. Successful natural family planning can lead to heightened self esteem and marital enrichment. PMID:6667188
Contrary to the promise of the sixties, the condition of families and children in the United State has deteriorated. However, the subject of family policy seems relevant once more. Establishing social policy conducive to the stability and well?being of family life will require an honest addressing of issues including family structure, poverty, drugs, and race. Fiscal policies also must be
Daniel Patrick Moynihan
Family planning in the United States has been a noteworthy success. More than 80 percent of the married women aged 15 to 44 are regular users of contraceptives. Further, virtually all primary care physicians provide contraceptives or family planning services, and there are now an estimated 4,000 family planning clinics in the country receiving support under the Title X Family Planning Authority. Despite this record of success, serious family planning problems remain. Of the slightly more than three and one half million births, an estimated one million are unplanned. More than one million pregnancies are terminated by legal abortion. Certain subgroups of the population have disproportionately high risks of unintended pregnancy. For example, unplanned births are almost twice as frequent among poor as among nonpoor women; one of every four births to black women is unintended versus one in ten to white women; and teenagers, women with language barriers, and women living in rural areas and on Indian reservations experience high rates of unintended pregnancy. PMID:6414015
Countries, states, and island nations often need forward planning of their radiotherapy services driven by different motives. Countries without radiotherapy services sponsor patients to receive radiotherapy abroad. They often engage professionals for a feasibility study in order to establish whether it would be more cost-beneficial to establish a radiotherapy facility. Countries where radiotherapy services have developed without any central planning, find themselves in situations where many of the available centers are private and thus inaccessible for a majority of patients with limited resources. Government may decide to plan ahead when a significant exodus of cancer patients travel to another country for treatment, thus exposing the failure of the country to provide this medical service for its citizens. In developed countries, the trigger has been the existence of highly visible waiting lists for radiotherapy revealing a shortage of radiotherapy equipment. This paper suggests that there should be a systematic and comprehensive process of long-term planning of radiotherapy services at the national level, taking into account the regulatory infrastructure for radiation protection, planning of centers, equipment, staff, education programs, quality assurance, and sustainability aspects. Realistic budgetary and cost considerations must also be part of the project proposal or business plan. PMID:25505730
Throughout the 1990s, Ireland experienced phenomenal growth in the emerging fields of information technologies (including such sectors as website design), and was dubbed the Celtic Tiger, due to its economic success. The country envisions a strong development plan for the coming years, hence the reason for this very site. Ireland's National Development Plan involves an investment of over 52-billion euros of public, private, and EU funds over the period from 2000 to 2006, and involves significant improvements in health services, social housing, education, roads, rural development, and industry. The site itself contains a bevy of documents, such as an executive summary and a complete version of the Development Plan itself, and a project database, which details the status of the hundreds of projects which are an integral part of this ongoing process. Overall, this site will be of great interest to persons working in the field of social policy, planning, and international development schemes.
...Proclamation 9061--National Family Week, 2013 Presidential Documents Federal Register...9061 of November 22, 2013 National Family Week, 2013 By the President of the United States...American society. During National Family Week, we celebrate the spirit that moves...
This year's annual review of family planning in Korea and Taiwan is represented in three articles. The first, "Korea/Taiwan 1970: Report on the National Family Planning Programs," separately views the program administration, budget, personnel, and evaluation, as well as the various methods employed in controlling the number of births, and…
Worth, George; And Others
Between 1950 and 1985, Africa's population rose from 225 to 460 million people. The population should double in size from 2010, adversely affecting the quality of life in Africa. In 30 years forests have dwindled, deserts expanded, animal species have been decimated. In effect, the ecological system in Africa has been destroyed. An inevitable result of these conditions is the need for African populations to support family planning (FP) in their daily attitudes ad behavior. Each year thousands of women and millions of children die due to too many births or births spaced too close together, as well as too many young or old women giving birth. More than 50,000 clandestine abortions are performed each day. FP can bring more benefits at less cost than all other technologies existing today. It allows women to choose birth intervals and family size freely. FP allows men and women to engage in sexual intercourse without an unwanted pregnancy. It also allows couples to delay birth of a child until they are financially secure. Africa needs to restore parental responsibility as a necessary condition of family welfare. Political and opinion leaders in Africa, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, sidestep the issue of FP and delay supporting it. In Africa FP rests almost entirely with nongovernmental organizations and FP associations. More and more African States are beginning to consider FP as an essential element of socioeconomic development. The Africa Region of IPPF must awaken the conscience of governments in the interests of family planning. It is important to break their conspiracy of silence on FP and urge the governments to include family planning. Information, education, and communication are needed to overcome the obstacles facing family planning. Africa needs FP services now more than ever. PMID:12318557
...Proclamation 8756--National Family Week, 2011 Proclamation 8757--National Farm-City Week, 2011 Proclamation 8758--National Child's...8756 of November 18, 2011 National Family Week, 2011 By the President of the United...
It is imperative to make family planning more accessible in low resource settings. The poorest couples have the highest fertility, the lowest contraceptive use and the highest unmet need for contraception. It is also in the low resource settings where maternal and child mortality is the highest. Family planning can contribute to improvements in maternal and child health, especially in low resource settings where overall access to health services is limited. Four critical steps should be taken to increase access to family planning in resource-poor settings: (i) increase knowledge about the safety of family planning methods; (ii) ensure contraception is genuinely affordable to the poorest families; (iii) ensure supply of contraceptives by making family planning a permanent line item in healthcare system's budgets and (iv) take immediate action to remove barriers hindering access to family planning methods. In Africa, there are more women with an unmet need for family planning than women currently using modern methods. Making family planning accessible in low resource settings will help decrease the existing inequities in achieving desired fertility at individual and country level. In addition, it could help slow population growth within a human rights framework. The United Nations Population Division projections for the year 2050 vary between a high of 10.6 and a low of 7.4 billion. Given that most of the growth is expected to come from today's resource-poor settings, easy access to family planning could make a difference of billions in the world in 2050. PMID:19770158
Natural Family Planning (NFP) is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as “methods for planning or avoiding pregnancies by observation of the natural signs and symptoms of the fertile and infertile phase of the menstrual cycle. It is implicit in the definition of natural family planning, when used to avoid conception that drugs, devices and surgical procedures are not used, there is abstinence from sexual intercourse during the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle, and the act of intercourse, when it occurs, is complete.”1 The fertile period may be determined by using Rhythm, a calculation based on previous cycles, basal body temperature (BBT) charting alone, mucus secretion alone (Billings or Ovulation method), or symptothermal charting (Serena method), which includes observation of both mucus and BBT. The effectiveness of each method is discussed, and the social and psychological profile of couples who use NFP is reviewed. Nfp methods can be used not only to avoid pregnancy, but also to achieve pregnancy and thus are particularly useful in investigating and treating infertility. The function of the Family Life Clinic at St. Michael's Hospital in Toronto is described. PMID:21267296
Derzko, Christine M.
Natural Family Planning (NFP) is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "methods for planning or avoiding pregnancies by observation of the natural signs and symptoms of the fertile and infertile phase of the menstrual cycle. It is implicit in the definition of natural family planning, when used to avoid conception that drugs, devices and surgical procedures are not used, there is abstinence from sexual intercourse during the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle, and the act of intercourse, when it occurs, is complete."(1) The fertile period may be determined by using Rhythm, a calculation based on previous cycles, basal body temperature (BBT) charting alone, mucus secretion alone (Billings or Ovulation method), or symptothermal charting (Serena method), which includes observation of both mucus and BBT. The effectiveness of each method is discussed, and the social and psychological profile of couples who use NFP is reviewed. Nfp methods can be used not only to avoid pregnancy, but also to achieve pregnancy and thus are particularly useful in investigating and treating infertility. The function of the Family Life Clinic at St. Michael's Hospital in Toronto is described. PMID:21267296
Derzko, C M
This monograph focuses on men's potentially positive role in family planning. In addition, it identifies reasons why so few organized family planning programs have targeted men as clients and why men have so often played a peripheral or negative role in family planning. The document is presented in seven chapters. Chapter I introduces the topic…
Placing great emphasis on self-reliance, Indonesia's family planning program has been extremely successful in reducing the country's birth rate. since 1970, the once-threatening fertility rate has declined by more than 35%. And from 1980-90, the fertility rate declined from 4.6 to 3.0. The reason behind the dramatic change in fertility has been the increase in contraceptive use. Over 1/2 of all women of reproductive age use contraceptives, and nearly 95% of currently married women recognize at least one modern contraceptive method. A 1987 survey revealed that 62% of married women of reproductive age had used contraceptives, a figure that is expected to increase. The rise in contraceptive use is the direct result of carefully orchestrated initiatives under the leadership of Indonesia's National Family Planning Coordinating Board (BKKBN), which has enjoyed the consistent support of President Suarto, who has headed the country for over a 1/4 century. BKKBN has implemented a highly successful self-reliance ("KB Mandiri") program called the Blue Circle campaign. Made possible by the participation of the private sector, the program has marketed government-subsidized contraceptives under the Blue Circle name. A pay-as-you-can program, the Blue Circle campaign charges middle and upper class couples full price, and only a partial fee or no fee at all for less wealthy clients. Observers also attribute the family planning program's success to the country's culture and to the strong support from the nation's Muslim population. In the coming years, the number of privately supplied contraceptives are expected to soar, and Indonesia's family planning program may soon become fully self-supported. PMID:12284516
In 1969, the Government of Indonesia declared that the population explosion was a national problem. The National Family Planning Program was consequently launched to encourage adoption of the ideal of a small, happy and prosperous family norm. Micro-approach messages are composed of the following: physiology of menstruation; reproductive process; healthy pregnancy; rational family planning; rational application of contraceptives; infant and child care; nutrition improvement; increase in breastfeeding; increase in family income; education in family life; family health; and deferred marriage age. Macro-approach messages include: the population problem and its impact on socioeconomic aspects; efforts to cope with the population problem; and improvement of women's lot. In utilizing the media and communication channels, the program encourages the implementation of units and working units of IEC to produce IEC materials; utilizes all possible existing media and IEC channels; maintains the consistent linkage between the activity of mass media and the IEC activities in the field; and encourages the private sector to participate in the production of IEC media and materials. A media production center was set up and carries out the following activities: producing video cassettes for tv broadcasts of family planning drama, family planning news, and tv spots; producing duplicates of the video cassettes for distribution to provinces in support of the video network; producing teaching materials for family planning workers; and transfering family planning films into video cassettes. A video network was developed and includes video monitors in family planning service points such as hospitals, family planning clinics and public places like bus stations. In 1985, the program will be expanded by 50 mobile information units equipped with video monitors. Video has potentials to increase the productivity and effectiveness of the family planning program. The video production process is cheaper and simpler than film production. Video will be very helpful as a communication aid in group meetings. It can also be used as a teaching aid for training. PMID:12313886
Sumarsono, S K
To curb the deleterious socioeconomic effects of rapid population growth, the Government of Malawi has adopted a National Child Spacing Program. Women who attend maternal health centers are counseled about the harmful effects of closely spaced childbearing, informed of contraceptive options, and urged to discuss family planning with their husband. This strategy fails to consider the control by Malawian men over women's reproductive capacities and family size decision making. If Malawi's child spacing program is to be successful in reducing fertility, the emphasis must be shifted to men. Needed is an educational campaign to convince men that large family size--currently considered a sign of virility--adversely affects the family's standard of living. Malawian men are more likely to be convinced by arguments based on economics than concerns about maternal-child health. For example, educational messages could focus on the inability of malnourished children to perform farm work, the higher incomes and ability to provide old age support of well-educated children, the high price of a large dwelling, and the debts incurred by providing food and clothing for many children. Specific target groups in need of such interventions include low-income skilled and semi-skilled urban workers, smallholder farmers, and small-scale businessmen. In rural areas, family planning messages can be incorporated into existing agricultural extension and functional literacy programs. PMID:12319396
There are currently signs that more women are considering the natural family planning methods as an alternative to medical contraception. In response to this revival of interest, the World Health Organization is now conducting field work on 'natural' family planning methods in New Zealand, the Philippines, India, California, and Columbia and is also preparing a teaching package to be pilot tested in several countries. The natural methods of family planning are all based on the woman correctly ascertaining the pattern of her natural menstrual cycle and abstaining from sexual intercourse during the fertile time. In most women this means that there are 2 "safe periods" - at the beginning of the 28-day cycle until a few days before ovulation and at the end of the cycle from 3 or 4 days after ovulation has occurred. Originally, the "safe period" was taught by the calendar method, which involved a woman carefully plotting her menstrual cycle over a period of six months to a year and making calculations as to the shortest possible and longest possible cycle length, and thus the likely time of ovulation. A more accurate measure is to actually find out the point of ovulation by measuring basal body temperature. With this method the woman must take her temperature every morning immediately upon waking, before rising, smoking, eating or drinking. The Billings' ovulation method is the method now becoming increasingly popular. The method involves noticing the natural changes in the body over the whole menstrual cycle, particularly the quantity and quality of the cervical mucous. 1 new aid for pinpointing the exact time of ovulation is the Ovutime Fertility Detection System developed at Harvard University Medical School and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In the long-term, the rhythm method is unlikely to prove the answer to the problem of fertility regulation for the modern woman. PMID:12260793
The prevailing focus of birth control programs on women's methods is a result of the prevailing attitude that the purpose of birth control measures is to protect women from excessive child bearing while allowing men to have their pleasure and escape the consequences of their actions. Male methods of contraception, such as coitus interruptus and condoms, although they have historically played a far greater role than women's methods, are denigrated as being unreliable or associated with extramarital sex respectively. Family planning clinics promote diaphragms, cervical caps, or pills in preference to condoms or coitus interruptus. Only 8% of the world contraceptive budget is spent on male methods. In the UK, family planning services are available free -- to women. If men choose sterilization, they are expected to pay for it themselves. Nevertheless, the increasing popularity of vasectomy shows that men are willing to accept responsibility for birth control. Male involvement needs to be promoted through small-scale studies and social marketing technics away from the medical setting, and condoms and vasectomy services must be available. The pill has placed the responsibility for birth control on the woman, but the responsibility must be shared, no matter which partner initiates the contraceptive precaution. The importance of behavioral factors is shown by the fact that most contraceptive failures are due to human error. PMID:12282033
This manual is designed to address some of the basic problems of those who work in family planning education, and is based on the recurring questions and concerns of participants in a nationwide series of DHEW-sponsored family planning education and communication workshops. The manual proceeds chronologically, dealing first with the planning of a…
Health Services Administration (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. Bureau of Community Health Services.
Family Health International's (FHI) research and development activities in improving and developing contraceptives and making them available to the public are presented. While FHI, along with other agencies, has been actively promoting and contributing to ongoing international family planning efforts since its creation in 1971, the period 1971-91 has, nonetheless, witness more births, maternal deaths, induced abortions, and infant deaths than over any 20-year span in history. While family sizes have decreased over the period due to greater contraceptive awareness and use, politicians, civil servants, and theologians are indicted as partly responsible for retarding further positive change. The number of women of reproductive ages in developing countries will increase by almost 30% in the 1990s, and the world's population will at least double over the next century. 95% of new births will stem from developing countries. Concerted efforts and global commitments of policymakers must be forthcoming in the battle against both high fertility and AIDS prevention. Specifically, at least 130 million new contraceptive users must be recruited in the 1990s. Surveys and field experiences indicate a large degree of unmet need for contraceptive services, with 50-80% of married women in developing countries expressing their desire to limit or space future births. Demand for contraception only increases once a program is in place; rapid reductions of total fertility are exemplified in the cases of Thailand, Colombia, South Korea, Sri Lanka, and Indonesia. Given the resources and commitment, the number of users could be doubled within 10 years. PMID:12284276
Natural methods of family planning make use of the naturally occurring signs and symptoms of the fertile and infertile phases of the menstrual cycle. Recognizable signs and symptoms occur cyclically, and women can be taught to recognize them. Changes take place in basal body temperature, cervical mucus, and the cervix uteri. Basal body temperature rises about .2 degrees C (.4 degrees F) immediately after ovulation when the blood levels of progesterone increase. Following menstruation, cervical mucus is composed of cense cellular matter that forms an impenetrable barrier (typeG). As the cycle progresses under the influence of increasing estrogen, there is a predominance of characteristically lumpy opaque mucus (type L). A few days before ovulation, the characteristically thin slippery crystal clear stretchy mucus is produced (type S). Fertile mucus is composed of a combination of L-type and S-type mucus. Estrogen casuses changes to take place in the muscle and connective tissue of the cervix. As estrogen levels rise during the pre-ovulatory phase, the cervix softens and the cervical os opens. A woman can be aware of these changes by gently palpating the cervix with her finger tip. These signs and symptoms which reflect accurately the rise and fall of the hormones estrogen and progesterone are the basis of fertility awareness on which natural methods of family planning are based. In addition to knowing when ovulation takes place, it is also necessary to know the length of time the ovum can be fertilized after ovulation and the life span of the sperm in the female genital tract before ovulation. In fertile mucus, sperm will live an average of 3 days, but it must be understood that it is possible for sperm to survive for 5 days if conditions are right. To make allowances for sperm survuval, the fertile phase starts when follicular development begins and estrogen levels start to rise. The life span of the ovum is less than 24 hours. Natural family planning methods--including the temperature method, the ovulation method (Billings), the calandar method (rhythm), and the sympto-thermal method are explained. PMID:3091823
Family planning is a basic state policy in China. Its aim is to control population growth and to enhance population quality.\\u000a Technical services are the key measures for implementing the family planning policy. In order to ensure that people use safe,\\u000a effective, and appropriate contraceptive methods based on the government’s commitment, China has established countrywide family\\u000a planning service networks down
This review of natural family planning (NFP) focuses on the following: components of the fertile phase; sympto-thermal methods; the history and methodology of NFP (calendar rhythm, basal body temperature, cervical mucus--the Billings Ovulation method); special circumstances--periods of erratic ovulation (puberty, lactation, premenopause, discontinuation of ovulation suppression, cervicitis and vaginitis, ovulation suppression by stress and pharmaceuticals); effectiveness of natural family planning; achieving pregnancy; achieving couple autonomy (confidence in the method, periodic abstinence, dynamics of the learning process, and support systems); problem areas; and delivery systems. The number of users of NFP methods increased from 2.8% of currently married couples in 1973 to 3.4% in 1976. In 1979, 75,000 new clients received training in contemporary NFP, while the number increased to over 100,000 in 1980. NFP is planning for achieving or preventing a pregnancy by the timing of intercourse. A couple can, by observing and recording certain natural symptoms and bodily changes that occur in a woman's menstrual cycle and using the information as a guide, learn to identify fertile and infertile phases in the menstrual cycle. Precise prediction of ovulation forms one of the components of delineation of the fertile phase. Billings pioneered the use of cervical mucus as a single parameter for the prediction of ovulation and its application to NFP. Women are instructed to observe their mucus patterns at the vulva, relying primarily on the sensation of wetness and lubrication, the use of the Kegel exercise, palpation with the finger, a "wipe-through" with toilet paper, or a combination of these observations. In the absence of ovulation, the usual changing mucus pattern is also absent. NFP can be used either to achieve or to avoid pregnancy. When NFP is used to avoid pregnancy, one will encounter method-related pregnancies, teaching-related pregnancies due either to poor teaching or poor learning or both. The major use effectiveness studies are listed in table form, and the results are shown under new headings. To achieve pregnancy, it is the general practice of NFP instructors to teach women to recognize and record their fertility signs and to suggest some months of merely concentrating coitus at the time of maximum fertility. Mastery of NFP calls for both identification of the fertile phase and integration of that knowledge into the couple's sexual decision making and behaviors. Studies are reviewed in terms of the spectre of genetically damaged offspring. NFP instruction is available in nearly every country outside the Soviet bloc. PMID:7033851
This guide provides information in English, Bosnian, Russian, Spanish, and Nuer on family planning. Topics covered include a variety of birth control methods: abstinence, condoms, contraceptive foam, birth control pills, the Depo-Provera shot, the Norplant implant, diaphragms, intrauterine devices, natural family planning, sterilization, and the…
Anoka County Community Health and Environmental Services, Coon Rapids, MN.
The desire to limit fertility is recognized both by individuals and by nations. The concept of family planning is based on the right of individuals and couples to regulate their fertility and is based in the area of health, human rights and population. Despite the changes in policies and family planning programs worldwide, there are large geographic areas that have not yet met the minimum requirements in this regard, the reasons are multiple, including economic reasons but also ideological or religious. Knowledge on the physiology of the menstrual cycle, specifically ovulation process has been further enhanced due to the advances in reproductive medicine research. The series of events around ovulation are used to detect the "fertile window", this way women will look for the possibility of postponing their pregnancy or actually start looking for it. The aim of this article is to review the current methods of family planning based on fertility awareness, from the historical methods like the core temperature determination and rhythm, to the most popular ones like the Billings ovulation method, the Sympto-thermal method and current methods like the two days, and the standard days method. There are also mentioned methods that require electronic devices or specifically computer designed ones to detect this "window of fertility". The spread and popularity of these methods is low and their knowledge among physicians, including gynecologists, is also quite scarce. The effectiveness of these methods has been difficult to quantify due to the lack of well designed, randomized studies which are affected by small populations of patients using these methods. The publications mention high effectiveness with their proper use, but not with typical use, what indicates the need for increased awareness among medical practitioners and trainers, obtaining a better use and understanding of methods and reducing these discrepancies. PMID:22808858
Haghenbeck-Altamirano, Francisco Javier; Ayala-Yáñez, Rodrigo; Herrera-Meillón, Héctor
This paper reviews China's family planning (FP) policy and its progress and problems in reaching state goals. Opening with a brief description of the one-child policy introduced in 1979, the paper moves backward in time to a consideration of the historical perspective and government policy. The current situation is then described in more detail. It is noted that China's population of 1.14 billion in 1990 would have been 1.3 billion without FP and that China contains 22% of the world's population with only 7% of its arable land. The state hopes to limit the growth rate to 12.5/1000 in the coming decade but a birth peak is predicted, birth control work has progressed very unevenly, marriage and pregnancy under age 18 is still common in rural areas, and life expectancy has risen. Urban compliance is very high, but the desire to have sons is still strong in rural areas. Problems with the birth rate among the migrating population are being addressed by the requirement that migrants produce "FP cards" before applying for residency permits. It is believed that female infanticide is still practiced in rural areas and that eliminating son preference would reduce the overall birth rate. While many couples rely on sterilization, the government is conducting research on new forms of the IUD (the most popular contraceptive) and vaccines and is encouraging the use of condoms. Most contraceptives are distributed free through an extensive network of FP associations. China has faced international criticism for the potential abuse to human rights implicit in its one-child policy, but China maintains that it opposes forced abortions, forbids infanticide, and that the FP policy reflects a more humane response to the reality of China's situation than would allowing couples to have large families. While China's methods would not work in a more pluralistic society which extols individualism, China's success or failure will in large measure determine the future of the world. PMID:12288213
Meredith, W H
On the basis of Marx and Engels' prediction and thesis of scientific socialism, socialist China, the most populous nation in the world, is the 1st to have realized the planned management of population reproductive in the history of mankind, thus giving an answer to the problem in practice. This paper makes a tentative exploration of such a necessity in socialist family planning. Engels points out that 1) under private ownership, population reproduction takes class antagonism as the basis, while public ownership of the means of production eradicates it; 2) in capitalist society, the reproduction of the labor force is commodity reproduction--public ownership of the means of production can be divorced from the domain of commodity; and 3) under private ownership, population reproduction is purely the private business of an individual or a family whose economic benefit forms the motive force of population reproduction--public ownership liberates it from one's personal gains making it a public affair. The great significance of family planning to economic development can be recognized as production, consumption, and accumulation. Taking family planning as the basis for the reproduction plan of the labor force is the guarantee of realizing the material production plan. Family planning reflects the trend of the structure and change of consumer requirements and provides the direct and indirect objectives of various items of material production planning; it provides the objective basis for social accumulation and the arrangement of expanding reproduction. 3 conclusions are derived: 1) the building up of the public ownership of the means of production affords man the possibility to regulate the production of matter as well as man, 2) the characteristics of the planned development of a socialist national economy demands the planned production of man, and 3) family planning and the development of a socialist economy demand their mutual congruence. PMID:12314263
Addressing the cultural and religious beliefs around the issue of family planning has been a big challenge for the international development community. The concept of family planning has raised some concerns regarding its acceptability within Muslim populations. While some Muslim states and organisations have adopted a rather cautious approach to the issue, others have gone to the extent of inviting religious leaders to present religiously sound interpretations (fatwa) on the subject. Alongside these deliberations are some alarming statistics on maternal health. The World Health Organization estimates that worldwide 211 million women become pregnant each year and that about two-thirds of them deliver live infants. The remaining one-third of pregnancies end in miscarriage, stillbirth or induced abortion. Some 200 million women in developing countries have an unmet need for effective contraception. These statistics and the ongoing discussion surrounding family planning in the Muslim communities raise legitimate questions. How is family planning perceived within the Muslim community? Does Islam address the issue of family planning? Is it permissible? How should appropriate family planning programmes within Muslim settings be developed and applied? This article seeks to present the ongoing debate on family planning within the Muslim community and offer recommendations to organisations for effective strategy implementation of family planning programmes within Muslim settings. The article provides a brief background on the historical development of family planning in the Muslim community, and outlines Muslim perceptions on this issue. It concludes with recommendations for non-governmental organisations on how to effectively implement acceptable family planning programmes within Muslim settings. PMID:20067669
El Hamri, Najat
This article summarizes China's general state of family planning (FP) legislation and FP policy. Article 25 of the Chinese Constitution and Article 12 of the Marriage Law require that F¿ must be promoted by the State. There was only one national law on FP: "Measures for Management of FP of the Floating Population," which was established on December 26, 1991. The text of this law was reported in "China Population Today," Number 1, February, 1992. This law authorized provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities under central government control to establish their own FP regulations according to the conditions of their regions. The first province with regulations was Guangdong in 1980, followed by Qinghai, Shaanxi, and Ningxia in 1986. Sichuan regulations were published in 1987, followed by Guizhou, Hubei, Liaoning, Fujian, Shandong, Jilin, and Anhui in 1988. In 1989, the following states published regulations: Guangxi, Tianjin, Hebei, Hainan, and Zhejiang. The remaining 11 provinces and autonomous regions passed regulations in 1990 and 1991 to complete the total 28 administrative units for provinces with FP regulations. Only Tibet and Xianjiang do not have regulations. Regulations promote deferred marriage and deferred childbearing, fewer and healthier births, the practice of one couple and one child, and birth spacing for those suffering with only one child; genetic defects were to be prevented. Minorities, in general, ascribed to the following conditions: 1) one-child family, unless difficulties would arise as a result. This provision applied to Beijing, Tianjin, and Shanghai municipalities and Jiangsu and Sichuan provinces. Allowing a second birth for families with only daughters was allowed in 18 provinces and regions. 2) Two-child families were allowed in Ningxia, Yunnan, Qinghai, guangdong, and Hainan provinces. 3) Ethnic populations (8% or 90 million in 1990) have special policies, which are more lenient than policies governing the Han majority. The exception was Zhuang nationality, which has the same policy as the Han. FP policy in China is not unified as a "one-child policy." PMID:12286963
Strategies to accelerate progress of India's family planning programme are discussed and the importance of improving the quality and reach of services to address unmet contraceptive need by providing method choice is emphasized. Although there is a growing demand for both limiting and spacing births, female sterilisation, is the dominant method in the national programme and use of spacing methods remains very limited. Fertility decline has been slower in the empowered action group (EAG) states which contribute about 40 per cent of population growth to the country and also depict gloomy statistics for other socio-development indicators. It is, therefore, important to intensify efforts to reduce both fertility and mortality in these states. arationale has been provided for implementing integrated programmes using a gender lens because the lack of women's autonomy in reproductive decision-making, compounded by poor male involvement in sexual and reproductive health matters, is a fundamental issue yet to be addressed. The need for collaboration between scientists developing contraceptive technologies and those implementing family planning services is underscored. If contraceptive technologies are developed with an understanding of the contexts in which they will be delivered and an appreciation of end-users' needs and perspectives, they are more likely to be accepted by service providers and used by clients. PMID:25673535
In February 1999, an Executive Order by President Clinton established the National Invasive Species Council (NISC) to take a leadership role in dealing with invasive species issues. As part of that order, NISC has prepared a plan "to minimize the economic and ecological impacts and the harm to animal and human health associated with invasive species." This document, "National Management Plan: Meeting the Invasive Species Challenge," is posted on the NISC Webpage, with public commentary invited through November 18, 2000.
In Britian, national library planning does not attempt to provide a detailed central plan for all library development; rather it focuses on a limited range of crucial issues: the provision of appropriate legislative, institutional, and financial structures for broad library service. The Public Libraries and Museums Act of 1964 charged both…
Hookway, H. T.
The scientific foundations and most notable features of modern natural family planning (NFP) methods are described. NFP techniques require observation of the signs and symptoms occurring during the fertile and infertile phases of the menstrual cycle. Abstinence during the fertile period is implied when NFP is used to avoid pregnancy. Modern NFP methods are associated with success rates similar to those of oral contraceptives, the IUD, and condoms. NFP methods are based on such phenomena as the limited survival time of the ovum and sperm, the occurrence of ovulation only once per cycle, the ability to diagnose ovulation using simple means, and the ability of human beings to delay sexual satisfaction. Among the advantages of NFP methods are low cost, brevity of the required training time, increased knowledge of the body and capacity for self control, shared responsibility by both partners, and moral and religious acceptability. The Billings and symptothermal methods have shown average use-effectiveness rates ranging from 71.5 to 89.5% and from 83.4 to 97.8%, respectively. All studies of symptothermal methods conducted since 1985 have shown Pearl indexes under 5. The symptothermal method is based on observation of the duration of previous cycles, cervical mucus, basal body temperature, and optionally on palpation of the cervix and other symptoms such as breast swelling, acne, intermenstrual bleeding, and mood changes. Use of the symptothermal method requires special graph paper for recording the temperature and other symptoms. The beginning of the fertile phase is recognized by subtracting 19 from the shortest cycle in the past year, or by the appearance of cervical changes or changes in the mucus. PMID:8715078
Soler, F; Fernández Martínez, M; Díaz Sáez, J
A pilot project started recently in 4 locations by the Family Planning Organization of the Philippines in cooperation with the Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning and the Asian Parasite Control Organization uses de-worming as an entry point to establish credibility for family planning workers among the target population. The ultimate goal of the project is to encourage community participation to such an extent that family planning and related efforts are sustained by the community itself and the field worker is no longer needed. Integrated parasite control/family planning projects have already gone through the 4 principal developmental stages of strategic planning, project design and development, implementation and assessment, and program maintenance in some areas since their beginnings in 1976. Support for such programs has been obtained from 3 international bodies working in family planning, and 2 others have recently indicated interest. Activities to develop criteria for project expansion are now underway. The 4 projects in the Philippines, located in Binakayan, Cavite; San Pedro, Laguna; Caramoan, Camarines Sur; and Davao City, are each staffed by a project manager, doctors, nurses, and medical technologists. The projects, especially the Caramoan project, have been quite successful, and efforts are being made to include nutrition in the integrated program. PMID:12338133
Any successful development program that combines family planning, nutrition, and parasite control such as the integrated project, must include effective information, education, and communication (IEC) components. The Population an Community Development Association (PDA), the largest nonprofit organization in Thailand provides a network of family planning service delivery composed of volunteer distributors including midwives, school techers and shopkeepers. Reliability and accessibility are the 2 important elements. A concerted media campaign which exposes people to condoms and other contraceptives helps desensitize an otherwise "too personal" issue. The problem which confronts family planning communication is how to counteract the sensuous messages form advetisers while focusing on mundane topics such as maternal and child health, responsible parenthood, and family budgets. The PDA has tried to use the same attractions to promote family planning. It distributes promotional items such as T-shirts, pens towels and cigarette lighters bearing family planning messages. In addition to the use of television and radio, PDA also utilizes every possible channel of communication. Approaches include: the Youth-to-Youth Program; informational exhibits; video-mobile vans which visit schools and factories; and the holding of PDA's vasectomy festivals. Informational exhibits on family planning and health care use a variety of audio-visual methods. Video is an effective communication medium. The PDA video material ordinarily consists of family dramas illustrating good and bad family planning practices. By holding vasectomy festivals, PDA provides a media-attracting forum to educate the public and promote vasectomey as the most effective birth control method. Mass media campaigns must be linked with fieldwork outreach. PMID:12314464
...National Military Families Recognition Day Presidential Documents...National Military Families Recognition Day, 1994 By the President...Reserves. Military families face abrupt separations, moves...National Military Families Recognition Day.'' I call upon...
This annotated listing of books is intended as a reference for anyone seeking an authoritative introduction to population and family planning information, as a world, family, or individual concern. For each entry, the International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is provided if available. The number preceding each reference represents the…
Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc., New York, NY.
This descriptive study examined the readability levels of Individualized Family Service Plans (IFSPs). The readability of 85 de-identified IFSP documents developed by seven agencies that serve families and children enrolled in a county early intervention program was analyzed using Flesch Kincaid grade levels and Flesch reading ease scores. The…
Pizur-Barnekow, Kris; Patrick, Timothy; Rhyner, Paula M.; Folk, Lillian; Anderson, Kara
The National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) provides information on childbearing, contraception, and closely related aspects of maternal and child health from a sample of women in the United States (including Alaska and Hawaii). The National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) was con...
National family planning programs have been an important instrument in accelerating global fertility decline and in restricting ultimate world population to a level probably below ten billion. They began to come into being after 1950 and will probably go out of existence in most of the world's regions by 2050. The archetypal programs were instituted in Asia and North Africa. The end of the twentieth century is an appropriate half-way mark at which to evaluate the twentieth-century programs and to assess what changes in them will be needed for the twenty-first century. Some changes are necessary because dramatic events have occurred: (1) long-term replacement-level fertility has been attained in most of East Asia and some of Southeast Asia, and accordingly, some programs there are being phased out; (2) mainland South Asian fertility has been slower to decline; (3) international donor funding is diminishing and may not be significant during much of the twenty-first century; (4) the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development held in Cairo called for a radical change in programs away from demographic aims and toward reproductive health and the improvement of the situation of women; and (5) the future family planning frontier will be sub-Saharan Africa, for which radically new types of programs may have to be developed. These issues were discussed in January 2000 at a conference held in Dhaka, Bangladesh. A selection of contributions to the conference is published here. This article provides an overview of the issues based partly on this selection and partly on the discussions that took place at the conference. PMID:11974413
Caldwell, John C; Phillips, James F; Barkat-e-Khuda
An understanding of the close link between federal policy and family homelessness is critical for ensuring that one day no child in the United States is homeless. This article discusses the nature of family homelessness, the national policy framework that exists to help vulnerable families, the homeless assistance system that federal policy has…
...stay on their parents' health insurance plan until they...with no out-of-pocket costs, prohibits insurance...care. I also signed the Health Care and Education Reconciliation...help families cover the rising costs of higher...
Modern fertility awareness-based methods (FABMs) of family planning have been offered as alternative methods of family planning. Billings Ovulation Method, the Creighton Model, and the Symptothermal Method are the more widely used FABMs and can be more narrowly defined as natural family planning. The first 2 methods are based on the examination of cervical secretions to assess fertility. The Symptothermal Method combines characteristics of cervical secretions, basal body temperature, and historical cycle data to determine fertility. FABMs also include the more recently developed Standard Days Method and TwoDays Method. All are distinct from the more traditional rhythm and basal body temperature methods alone. Although these older methods are not highly effective, modern FABMs have typical-use unintended pregnancy rates of 1% to 3% in both industrialized and nonindustrialized nations. Studies suggest that in the United States physician knowledge of FABMs is frequently incomplete. We review the available evidence about the effectiveness for preventing unintended pregnancy, prognostic social demographics of users of the methods, and social outcomes related to FABMs, all of which suggest that family physicians can offer modern FABMs as effective means of family planning. We also provide suggestions about useful educational and instructional resources for family physicians and their patients. PMID:19264938
Pallone, Stephen R; Bergus, George R
As the most populous country of the world, China pursues an integrated programme for socio-economic development with family planning as a vital part of it. The aim is to ensure that population growth does not outpace the economic development, the availability of natural resources and environmental protection efforts. Current policy on family planning includes: the promotion of late marriage and deferred child bearing, advocating the practice of "one couple, one child", to encourage birth spacing for those who want a second child. Technical guidelines are: contraception as the priority; comprehensive use of various contraceptive methods in men and women; induced abortion allowed on request if no contraindications; state provided contraceptives, barrier devices and technical services. The birth rate of 33.34/1000, death rate of 7.6/1000 and natural increase rate of 25.83/1000 in 1970 was brought down to 21.04/1000, 6.7/1000 and 14.26/1000 respectively in 1985. A total fertility for 1950 of 5.87 was gradually brought down to 2.31 in 1990. 260 million births were averted between 1970-1991; the world's "5-billion population day" was postponed for 2 years and Asian "3-billion population day" was postponed for 3 years. The State Family Planning Commission under the State Council was set up in 1981. The China Family Planning Association, the China Population Association and non-governmental organisations promote family planning work in a coordinated way. The current family planning policy is now well accepted in the urban area, and gaining increasing momentum in the rural area. Persistant education is still important to break the millennia old tradition of having more children and more boys. PMID:7892742
Methods of family planning involving periodic abstinence are being promoted aggressively by Catholic and other church groups in the U.S. and worldwide, under the name "natural family planning." The major methods are the calendar rhythm, basal body temperature, cervical mucus, and a combination known as the sympto-thermal methods. These methods require avoiding coitus from 7-17 days of the cycle, not including menses. Effectiveness figures quoted range from 93-99% by church sources, to 80.4% by WHO studies of selected women, to 65-89% by family planning experts. Reasons for high failure rates are irregular ovulation, human error, poor instruction, and insufficient cooperation by spouse. Although proponents claim that periodic abstinence is risk-free, they usually fail to consider the alternative risks of pregnancy and childbirth in case of method failure. Furthermore, the major complication rate of pills, IUDs, legal abortions and sterilization amount to only 0.3% of users, and artificial methods protect variously against sexually transmitted diseases, AIDS, cervical, ovarian and endometrial cancer. Other drawbacks of natural family planning are reluctance with handling one's body, cultural attitudes toward open discussion about sexuality and women's autonomy, need for mature communication between spouses, insufficient literacy to use charts, and the cost of extensive training. In the U.S., training is estimated to cost from 2.5 to 3.2 times the costs of barrier methods or pills, not including the time the woman must devote to daily measurements. The article concludes with a review of the recent history of the Roman Catholic doctrine on family planning, of attitudes and practice of U.S. catholics, and of the U.S. government's role in spreading natural family planning and hindering the implementation of other contraceptive methods within and outside of the country. PMID:12178833
...Docket No. FRA-2010-0020] National Rail Plan AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...development of the long-range National Rail Plan (NRP) through an open docket. In...INFORMATION: Background: The Passenger Rail Investment and Improvement Act of...
With the Billings Ovulation Method of natural family planning, women chart the symptoms of changes of their cervical mucus to determine when they are ovulating. The Ovulation Method is simple to learn, and some studies have shown it to be 98.5% effective. It can be used throughout a woman's child-bearing years. Unlike other methods of natural family planning, a woman need not have regular menstrual cycles to use the Ovulation Method. Usually, volunteer married couples trained in the method teach it; however, the physician's support can greatly increase the competence of these instructors. PMID:21278993
With the Billings Ovulation Method of natural family planning, women chart the symptoms of changes of their cervical mucus to determine when they are ovulating. The Ovulation Method is simple to learn, and some studies have shown it to be 98.5% effective. It can be used throughout a woman's child-bearing years. Unlike other methods of natural family planning, a woman need not have regular menstrual cycles to use the Ovulation Method. Usually, volunteer married couples trained in the method teach it; however, the physician's support can greatly increase the competence of these instructors. PMID:21278993
Data from Korea were used to explore the importance of community level variables in explaining family planning adoption at the individual level. An open system concept was applied, assuming that individual family planning behavior is influenced by both environmental and individual factors. The environmental factors were measured at the village level and designated as community characteristics. The dimension of communication network variables was introduced. Each individual was characterized in terms of the degree of her involvement in family planning communication with others in her village. It was assumed that the nature of the communication network linking individuals with each other effects family planning adoption at the individual level. Specific objectives were to determine 1) the relative importance of the specific independent variables in explaining family planning adoption and 2) the relative importance of the community level variables in comparison with the individual level variables in explaining family planning adoption at the individual level. The data were originally gathered in a 1973 research project on Korea's mothers' clubs. 1047 respondents were interviewed, comprising all married women in 25 sample villages having mothers' clubs. The dependent variable was family planning adoption behavior, defined as current use of any of the modern methods of family planning. The independent variables were defined at 3 levels: individual, community, and at a level intermediate between them involving communication links between individuals. More of the individual level independent variables were significantly correlated with the dependent variables than the community level variables. Among those variables with statistically significant correlations, the correlation coefficients were consistently higher for the individual level than for the community level variables. More of the variance in the dependent variable was explained by individual level than by community level variables. Community level variables accounted for only about 2.5% of the total variance in the dependent variable, in marked contrast to the result showing individual level variables accounting for as much as 19% of the total variance. When both individual and community level variables were entered into a multiple correlation analysis, a multiple correlation coefficient of .4714 was obtained together they explained about 20% of the total variance. The 2 communication network variables--connectedness and integrativeness--were correlated with the dependent variable at much higher levels than most of the individual or community level variables. Connectedness accounted for the greatest amount of the total variance. The communication network variables as a group explained as much of the total variance in the dependent variable as the individual level variables and greatly more that the community level variables. PMID:12339471
Lee, S B
... in the U.S. include: (1) the nation's high poverty rate; (2) a lack of affordable housing across the nation; (3) the continuing impacts of the Great Recession; (4) racial disparities; (5) the challenges of single parenting; and (6) the ways in which traumatic ...
This document explores risks to the health and lives of women and children that can be avoided or reduced by family planning. Emphasis throughout is on case studies and statistics from developing nations. Data are presented in expository and chart form. Information is presented in four chapters. Chapter I, Child Health and Family Planning,…
By the mid-1960s, countries that accounted for 66% of the population of developing countries had adopted policies designed to reduce their rates of population growth; by 1986, the corresponding figure had reached 78%. In the developing regions as a whole, fertility has fallen by more than 30% since 1950. Contraceptive use has risen sharply, and there has been more than 10-fold increase in the number of couples in developing countries who use contraceptives. There is a very strong association between use of contraception and fertility in developing countries. Social and economic modernization is also taking place, although quite unevenly in the developing regions, so that the relationship of modernization is fertility is not very easy to demonstrate. In general, the experience of the developing countries suggest that a strong family- planning program effort can, and does, lead to a more rapid fertility decline than would be likely based only on socioeconomic variables. The effectiveness of family-planning programs can be enhanced by increasing the range of choice of contraceptive methods offered. However, it is difficult to disentangle the various factors that contribute to the effectiveness of family-planning programs. The public sector is the main supplier of family-planning services in most developing countries, and there is no clear trend towards the reliance on the private sector. PMID:12282637
Mauldin, W P
Montana State University 1 Family Financial Planning Dr. Deborah Haynes Department of Health and Human Development 217 Herrick Hall, Bozeman, MT 59717-3540 406-994-5013 Email: dhaynes@montana in this consortium, Montana State University offers two of the twelve required courses, in addition to the three
Lawrence, Rick L.
Data from two research studies in Newfoundland, Canada are summarized. The first study examined divorced persons and their family patterns. It was found that numbers and timing of children did not affect marital stability, and neither did whether children were born before or during the current marriage. But whether the children were planned had a…
Johnson, Frank C.; Johnson, May R.
The author discusses charges of black genocide" and the difference between the individual and structural theories about the causes of poverty and concludes that lack of access by the poor to family planning services should be regarded as a problem in the distribution of medical services and not as a welfare problem. (Author)
Rauch, Julia B.
Since 1976, the Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning has operated a series of pilot projects in several Asian countries in which family planning fieldworkers are given the added taks of controlling soil-transmitted intestinal parasite (hookworm) and providing associated nutrition education, as a means of increasing their credibility, contributing to more favorable attitudes toward family planning. Given that family planning is a new and formal program being introduced into a community, the Integrated Program has 4 stages: 1) Strategic planning. The earlier people at all levels are brought into the project processes, the higher the chances of positive commitment. A tripartate steering committee is thus formed, involving influential people from government, private, and expert sectors, with primary policy-making responsibility and responsibility for project design, implementation and assessment, and with links to funding sources. 2) Project design and development. Local leadership is identified and involved in discussions, and additional project staff, other personnel, and community groups are drawn in, a process called "bottom-up planning." Community leaders, properly motivated and trained, are best for organizing in the community, with project staff providing technical and logistical support. Plans are often modified, and identifying community leaders can be time consuming, but they are essential to program success. 3) Implementation. At this stage project staff has 2 functions: promotion and delivery of services and helping the community to take over the program at its maintenance stage. Where potentially cooperative local groups are not functioning, project staff must form them. 4) Assessment. While rates of family planning acceptance and continuation and declines in parasite infestation are indicators of success or failure, more important is people's attitude as shown by participation and assumption of responsibility. In addition to conventional measurements, 4 kinds of evidence also needed are positive reaction of the community; increased government recognition or support; increased cooperation and activity among government and private organizations on information, education, and communication; observable change in the community. The final, maintenance stage, when the program has become institutionalized and self sustaining within the community, has not yet been reached by any of the pilot proejcts. PMID:483343
Trainer, E S
China conducted its 1st nationwide Family Planning Publicity Month in 1983, from New Year's Day to Spring Festival (February 13). The campaign emphasized the rural areas and focused on explaining why family planning is a state policy. The most noticeable achievements of this campaign were that every household became familiar with the fact that family planning is a basic state policy. The majority of the population take this policy seriously, realizing that strict control of population growth is both a good and imperative policy. More than 1,830,000 propaganda columns and photo exhibitions were displayed, 5,900,000 radio and television programs broadcast, 2,010,000 theatrical performances, movie and slide showings presented, and 97,000,000 copies of materials published for public dissemination. The activities were varied and interesting, vivid and lively, and purposeful and persuasive. 1 of the most effective methods of publicizing population control has been the presentation of comparative statistics. This aspect of the campaign was a specific and lively form of education in population theory and practice. The presentation of statistics that show the relationship among population, land use, grain produce, and income enabled the population to reason out why population growth needs to match economic and social development. Another important accomplishment of the publicity month was that a large number of couples of reproductive age became convinced of the need to use contraception. According to the incomplete statistics, 8,860,000 people had surgical operations for birth control. The universal promotion of ligations by either partner of a reproductive couple who already had given birth to a 2nd child was an important development of family planning technique promoted simultaneously with the promotion of IUDs. The increase in the number of people doing family planning work was another achievement of the publicity month. More than 15,240,000 publicity personnel and 760,000 medical personnel were trained. The enthusiasm of the Party and the people contributed to the success of the publicity month. The success of the publicity month is inseparable from the achievements and experience gained through China's longterm pursuit of family planning. PMID:12312452
Information about fertility awareness helps to fulfil the broader definition of the services many family planning clinics offer. Although information about natural family planning is requested by a small number of clients seeking family planning advice, many more clients benefit from information about fertility awareness. Fertility awareness is far more than just basic reproductive anatomy and physiology; fertility awareness involves understanding basic information about fertility and reproduction, being able to apply it to oneself, and being able to discuss it with a partner or with a health professional. Fertility awareness is fundamental to understanding and making informed decisions about reproductive health and sexual health. If clients have a better understanding of fertility awareness, they are in a stronger position to make informed decisions about how they wish to manage their reproductive and sexual health, for example: (1) Fertility awareness information is used to help couples to plan pregnancies as well as to avoid them. This can be helpful to couples who are having difficulty conceiving, for the timing of intercourse or for the timing of some of the sub-fertility investigations. (2) The information is also useful when helping couples to understand how each method of family planning works--how the family planning method interrupts normal fertility, how the method will fail if not used correctly, and how fertility returns when the method is discontinued. (3) Women who are fully breastfeeding value the knowledge about reduced fertility, as do women during the perimenopausal years who value being given clear information about their declining fertility. (4) When counselling couples about the importance of avoiding sexually transmitted diseases it is important they understand sexually transmitted diseases may damage their fertility. (5) Couples who choose only to use a barrier method during the time they think the woman is fertile are a group who do not readily identify themselves to family planning providers. These couples often do not have adequate information about fertility awareness. Advances in technology and the understanding of ovulation, ovum and sperm survival have confirmed that the guidelines used to teach fertility awareness and natural family planning effectively identify the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle. Serial ultrasound studies on the ovaries during the menstrual cycle have confirmed the accuracy of the hormonal assays in pinpointing the likely time of ovulation. Ultrasound studies have also shown that subjective observations of the alterations in cervical mucus and the basal body temperature rise are accurate indicators of the fertile phase. Research on the chances of conception on each day of the menstrual cycle, using hormonal assays to estimate the time of ovulation, was carried out in 1994 by Weinberg and Wilcox. Their results showed that the timing of sexual intercourse, in relation to ovulation, strongly influences the chance of conception. Conception only occurred during a 6-day interval that ended on the estimated day of ovulation. The chances of conception fell to zero 24 hours after ovulation. Several different methods of natural family planning are taught; some methods depend on only using one of the indicators of fertility, others are based on two or more indicators. The main indicators of fertility are: observing the cervical mucus, recording the basal body temperature, palpating the cervix and a calculation based on the cycle length. Research studies performed using a combination of the indicators of fertility show that the failure rate using a combination is less than most of the studies which use a single indicator. In each case the method failure is far lower than the user failure. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED) PMID:9678103
Pyper, C M
The purpose of this National Ignition Facility Acquisition Plan is to describe the overall procurement strategy planned for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Project. The scope of the plan describes the procurement activities and acquisition strategy for the following phases of the NIF Project, each of which receives either plant and capital equipment (PACE) or other project cost (OPC) funds:
The calendar rhythm method of natural family planning (NFP) is one of the most popular contraceptive methods in the Philippines. As a result, the Philippines has one of the highest NFP prevalence rates in the developing world. In recent years, family planning program officials have become increasingly interested in improving the practice of NFP, both by improving the quality of rhythm practice and by introducing newer, more accurate NFP methods. Over the years a substantial body of research data related to NFP practice in the Philippines has accumulated. This paper presents major findings from past research on NFP in the Philippines, discusses their implications for program management, describes current research, and suggests needs for future research. PMID:6710549
Laing, J E
IPPF does not advise that periodic abstinence be considered an equal alternative to more effective family planning methods because of findings from recent, carefully conducted trials that show unusually high failure and discontinuation rates compared with other methods. Periodic abstinence for family planning depends upon identifying the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle which occurs around the time of ovulation and avoiding sexual intercourse during that time. Abstinence is sometimes necessary during a large part of the cycle because of the difficulty of accurately predicting the fertile phase. In recent major studies, almost 20% of women using the sympto-thermal method became pregnant within a year, as did about 25% of those using the cervical mucus method, compared with less than 5% of those using oral contraceptives or IUDs. The sympto-thermal method appears more effective than the cervical mucus method, but both show wide ranges of pregnancy and discontinuation rates among different groups of women. Nevertheless, family planning associations should familiarize themselves with the periodic abstinence techniques for couples for whom periodic abstinence techniques for couples for whom periodic abstinence is the only choice. Such couples should be clearly informed that the method is not considered an effective method of family planning. Periodic abstinence is better than no method, however, and various other benefits can be obtained, such as knowledge of female physiology. Couples may identify the fertile phase to use barrier methods only on days estimated to be fertile, and it may lead to use of more effective contraception. Methods of detecting ovulation are also useful in diagnosis and treatment of infertility. PMID:12338510
Family planning is a basic state policy in China. Its aim is to control population growth and to enhance population quality. Technical services are the key measures for implementing the family planning policy. In order to ensure that people use safe, effective, and appropriate contraceptive methods based on the government's commitment, China has established countrywide family planning service networks down to the township level. The people can access various and convenient contraceptive services. In urban areas, all contraceptive services are free. The contraceptive prevalence rate in 2007 was 84.6%, the percentage of intrauterine device (IUD) was 52.3%, that of female sterilization was 32.3%, and that of vasectomy was 6.1%. This means that more than 90% of married childbearing couples were using long-term contraceptives. At the same time, the government gives priority to supporting research on contraceptive technology. Studies' results have provided scientific evidence for development, introduction, and expansion of contraceptive methods, and also for establishment and revision of the technical guidelines. Great efforts have been made in promoting "human-oriented and client-centered" services during the recent ten years. Remarkable success has been achieved in improving the quality of technical services. PMID:21191833
Based on interviews with 24 families, the article discusses family planning and the choices available to those families in which a child has previously died from Tay-Sachs or related lipid storage diseases. (IM)
Schneiderman, Gerald; And Others
Compiled from the world's research literature, this bi-monthly classified list of references on population and family planning emphasizes recently published material, primarily journal literature. Topics covered include: population and fertility; reproductive behaviour; the family; education in population, family planning, and sex; family…
Linzell, Dinah, Comp.
Pakistan's national family planning program dates back to 1965. Despite these many years of family planning campaigns, Pakistan still has one of the highest population growth rates in the world. Only 12% of Pakistani couples currently use contraceptives, approximately the same percentage as in 1972, and the average total fertility rate per woman is 5.5 children, only 1 less than two decades ago. Average annual per capita income in Pakistan is less than US$400. Were each Pakistani woman to limit her family to just two children, effective immediately, Pakistan's population would still exceed 150 million by 2000. If fertility rates remain at current levels, however, Pakistan's population will surpass 280 million by 2020. The manner in which Islam is interpreted by some religious leaders, a broad preference for sons over daughters, early and almost universal marriage, the low status of women, traditional support for natural fertility, and poor health status are principle reasons why population growth remains high in Pakistan. Poor health and the low status of women play particularly important roles. Health conditions therefore need to be improved and women educated so that birth spacing and birth limiting at lower levels may become realities. The actions of Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto and that a woman holds her position should go far to help improve women's status in Pakistan. Well-trained health professionals are also needed to become more aware about family planning and to take the lead for change. PMID:12319515
Adolescent childbearing is a major concern because of the associated negative health, social, and economic consequences. To determine whether teenagers are using organized family services to prevent unwanted pregnancies, the National Reporting System for Family Planning Services began in 1972 to collect information on family planning clinic…
With cervical mucus, or Billings, method of family planning, a woman learns to recognize the characteristics of her cervical mucus that identify the fertile phase in her menstrual cycle. She and her partner abstain from sexual activity during a period from the first indication of mucus until four days after the mucus peak day, which includes ovulation. They also abstain during menses, because mucus can be confused with menstrual bleeding. This method of family planning is used widely, worldwide, by couples seeking a natural, reliable method of family planning. Between July 1988 and May 1990, 688 couples of child-bearing age, most of whom were parous, used the Billings method for contraception. Five hundred and fifty of these couples used the method for more than 12 months. Efficacy, continuation rates, and discontinuation rates were analyzed using life-table analysis for 10,175 woman-months of data collected. The net cumulative discontinuation rates per 100 women at 12 and 18 months were 19.85 and 34.58, respectively, resulting in continuation rates of 80.15 and 65.42. The discontinuation rates per 100 women for method-related reasons at 12 and 18 months were 1.61 and 2.84, respectively, while the discontinuation rates for unintended pregnancy were 1.02 and 1.18. During the study, 67 subjects volunteered to have vaginal smears taken from the upper part of the vaginal wall for cytologic examinations, and among them serum and urine LH levels were measured in 10 subjects and urinary estrogen and progesterone were assayed in 35 cases. These tests related other indications of the menstrual cycle to the ability of the women to judge ovulation by cervical mucus. Our research suggests that further investigation of the Billings method is warranted and that careful planning and organization are needed to disseminate the method more broadly. PMID:7863845
Xu, J X; Yan, J H; Fan, D Z; Zhang, D W
Since the 3rd plenary session, the Party Central Committee and the State Council of China have attached great importance to family planning work, pointing out that the population has always been an extremely important issue in China's economic and social development. Characteristics that clarify China's situation are 1) a low level of industrial and agricultural production and the underdevelopment of economy and culture, 2) a large population with a young age composition, 3) a vast territory with conditions differing tremendously in various places, and 4) a predominantly rural population with feudal ideological influences--such as boys are superior to girls--that are relatively deep-rooted. The total fertility rate of childbearing age women in 1983 was 2.07 which, when compared with 5.68 in the 1960s and 4.01 in the 1970s, dropped 3.61 and 1.97 respectively. This growth rate is already lower than their population replacement rate, and is much lower than that of developing countries. Governments at all levels and related departments, all people's organizations, and all professions and trades now regard family planning as a part of their own work; unlike the old days, the concept of childbirth has greatly changed among the masses after years of publicity and practice in family planning. A nationwide scientific research network for family planning is now taking shape; in contraception and birth control, the types and model sizes of IUDs and oral drugs of domestic make are relatively complete. PMID:12314259
Natural family planning (NFP) refers to techniques for planning or preventing pregnancy by observation of natural signs of fertility. In using natural family planning to avoid pregnancy, there is abstinence from sexual intercourse during the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle. Social values which are incorporated into the method include couples…
Shivanandan, Mary; Borkman, Thomasina
... NCHS Home Surveys and Data Collection Systems Key Statistics from the National Survey of Family Growth V ... Survey of Family Growth Staff Division of Vital Statistics National Center for Health Statistics 3311 Toledo Road ...
The health care profession is witnessing a shift in focus from the interests and needs of the service provider to those of the potential consumer in an effort to attract and maintain clients. This study illustrates the role that marketing research can play in the development of program strategies, even for relatively small organizations. The study was conducted for Planned Parenthood of Louisiana, a recently organized affiliate that began offering clinical services in May 1984, to provide information on the four Ps of marketing: product, price, place, and promotion. Data from telephone interviews among a random sample of 1,000 women 15-35 years old in New Orleans before the clinic opened confirmed that the need for family planning services was not entirely satisfied by existing service providers. Moreover, it indicated that clinic hours and the cost of services were in line with client interests. The most useful findings for developing the promotional strategy were the relatively low name recognition of Planned Parenthood and a higher-than-expected level of interest that young, low income blacks expressed in using the service. PMID:3112854
Bertrand, J T; Proffitt, B J; Bartlett, T L
The national evaluation of the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) consists of five separate studies. The Single-Family Study is one of three studies that will estimate program energy savings and cost effectiveness in principal WAP submarkets. This report presents the experimental plan for the Single-Family Study, which will be implemented over the next three years (1991--1993). The Single-Family Study will directly estimate energy savings for a nationally representative sample of single-family and small multifamily homes weatherized in the 1989 program year. Savings will be estimated from gas and electric utility billing records using the Princeton Scorekeeping Method (PRISM). The study will also assess nonenergy impacts (e.g., health, comfort, safety, and housing affordability), estimate cost effectiveness, and analyze factors influencing these outcomes. For homes using fuels such as wood, coal, fuel oil, kerosene, and propane as the primary source of space conditioning, energy savings will be studied indirectly. The study will assemble a large nationally representative data base. A cluster sampling approach will be used, in which about 400 subgrantees are selected in a first stage and weatherized homes are selected in a second range. To ensure that the Single-Family Study is able to identify promising opportunities for future program development, two purposively selected groups of subgrantees will be included: (1) subgrantees that install cooling measures (such as more efficient air conditioning equipment or radiant barriers), and (2) exemplary subgrantees that use state-of-the-art technologies and service delivery procedures (such as advanced audit techniques, blower door tests, infrared scanners, extensive client education, etc.). These two groups of subgrantees will be analyzed to identify the most effective program elements in specific circumstances. 14 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.
Berry, L.G.; Brown, M.A.; Wright, T.; White, D.L.
Using social learning theory as a framework, we explore two sets of antecedents to work and family role planning attitudes among emerging adults: their work-family balance self-efficacy and their perceptions of their parents' work-to-family conflict. A total of 187 college students completed a questionnaire concerning their work-family balance…
Basuil, Dynah A.; Casper, Wendy J.
From 1990 to 2011, contraceptive use in Ethiopia increased ninefold and the total fertility rate fell from 7.0 to 4.8. These are two dramatic illustrations of a family planning success story that has emerged over the last two decades and is still emerging. What are the main elements of this success? We posit that the four most significant factors are: political will, generous donor support, nongovernmental and public-private partnerships, and the government's establishment of a network of health extension workers. In this study, we look at these factors and how their interaction increased the proportion of women having both the desire to use and ability to access contraceptives. Also highlighted are some of the key lessons learned in Ethiopia that are relevant to other African countries interested in emulating the country's success. PMID:24323662
Olson, David J; Piller, Andrew
The most recent data on natural methods of family planning, notably on the Billings, or ovulation, method, show statistically significant data on their effectiveness. A study conducted on 1139 couples followed for 2 years has yielded a failure rate of only 1.14%. Another study conducted in 1980 on 55 couples followed for a 2 year period has yielded a similar failure rate. Many experts sustain that NFP methods are not only completely risk-free, but are a creative contribution to a couple's human experience. The 3 NFP methods are the thermal, the sympto-thermal, and the ovulation method. NFP methods are not as well known as they deserve to be; women have a right to know all that is available to them in the field of contraception. PMID:7264099
This study deals with biologic and socioeconomic fertility differentials of married female teachers in the Alexandria Governorate who were surveyed via questionnaire from October 1966 to February 1967. It also shows fertility patterns of educated working women, their opinions about family planning, their use of contraceptives, and their knowledge and use of family planning services. Of the 3893 teachers who responded, 65%, or 2626, were married and 92.5% were of childbearing age. The average age was 32.70 years; the average duration of marriage was 7.18 years. Half had just 1 or 2 children, with an inverse relationship between educational attainment and number of children. The number of children increased with the age of the teacher, but there was an inverse relationship between age at marriage and number of children. Just over 25% of the pregnancies ended in abortion, with an average of .64 abortions per teacher. There was a direct relationship between age of teacher and frequency of abortion. Teachers who married when they were under 20 were the most likely to abort. 13% of the teachers were pregnant at the time of the study. An inverse relationship existed between the desire to be pregnant and the number of surviving children. Statistics for married teachers over 45 who had completed their fertility indicate that the average teacher is likely to have 1.02 abortions, 3.1 deliveries, and 2.6 living children. All teachers favored family planning. 77.3% were currently practicing it, most in the 30-44 age group. 42% had consulted private doctors; 44.3% were prac ticing without medical advice; and only 14.8% went to a family planning center. The pill and the IUD were the most popular method, being used by 59.7%. Among those with children, those with no boys were the least likely to use contraceptives. Teachers, with their frequent contact with young people and parents, are seen as a good conduit for information about family planning. However, most teachers themselves got their initial information about family planning from the mass media. PMID:12254508
Kamel, W H; Hanna, A T; Kamel, N A; Wahdan, M H
Practical advice was given on how to secure funding for privately sponsored US family planning programs in local communities. The first step is in identifying community foundations that are directly involved in social service delivery in the local area. For example, Norplant kits were made available to low-income women through a grant from the Baltimore-based Abell Foundation. Another example is that local funds were used to produce a Norplant video, which was needed for outreach programs and for explaining the pros and cons of Norplant use. The short video was designed for multiple audiences, even though it was locally produced and funded in Baltimore. Sometimes the health department can create a consortium of providers for applying for a group grant. The Foundation Center in New York provides information on foundations, including state-by-state analysis of foundations and family planning funded projects. The Foundation Directory and Grants Index publishes by subject a list of foundations funding such areas. These publications are available in network or local libraries. Background information needs to be obtained on the guidelines required for applying for a specific foundation's grant; guidelines may vary widely between foundations and have strict or loose restrictions on form and substance. An important initial step is writing a very brief synthesis of your proposal (2 pages), if there is no prior knowledge of the receptivity of the foundation to the proposed program. If the project is within the scope of the foundation, a larger formal proposal is the next step. Foundations want to see well through out projects, budgeted carefully, with evaluation components. Examples of successful projects conducted elsewhere are good testimonials to the potential success of the proposed venture. Cultural acceptance in the community, pilot projects replicable in other areas, and target populations are important considerations to be included in the proposal. PMID:12318752
Natural family planning (NFP) tends to be considered as a matter of chance resulting in unplanned pregnancies and large families. A World Health Organization (WHO) multicenter trial of the ovulation method of NFP was undertaken during 1975-79 with the primary objective of determining what proportion of women of many different cultures could be taught to recognize changes in the cervical mucus around the time of ovulation. The conclusions were that: a) irrespective of cultural, educational, or economic background, over 95% of fertile women could recognize the mucus signs of fertility; b) the fertility rate was 22.6 pregnancies per 100 woman years; c) the preovulatory and postovulatory days designated by the ovulation method of NFP rules as infertile were indeed infertile, as the pregnancies in this phase were 4 per 1000 acts of intercourse. The knowledge gained through the WHO trial and subsequent experience has given NFP organizations and teachers a much greater understanding of the fertile and infertile phases, so that total pregnancy rates have been steadily falling. Of the 11 NFP studies so far reported in the 1990s, the 3 that had total pregnancy rates greater than 5 per 100 woman years were trials of atypical NFP approaches or teaching methods. The results can be compared with reported pregnancy rates of between 0.18 and 3.6 for artificial contraceptive methods in well-motivated couples. One criticism of NFP is that the necessary periods of abstinence may be detrimental to the marital relationship. It is suggested that the sexual revolution of the last 20-30 years has caused marital and family breakdown on a massive scale, thus NFP might be the antidote. Since women are potentially fertile for no more than 6-8 days in the cycle, these easily recognized symptoms empower women through the knowledge they impart regarding their state of fertility. All women are entitled to this simple and fundamental information. PMID:7503859
Ryder, B; Campbell, H
This document contains a project continuation plan for the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI). The plan was developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP) funded by a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This continuation plan describes the current status of NSTI (staffing and clients), long-term goals, strategies, and long-term financial solvency goals.The Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University (NMSU) is the operator and manager of the NSTI. To realize the NSTI, Arrowhead Center must meet several performance objectives related to planning, development, execution, evaluation, and sustainability. This continuation plan is critical to the success of NSTI in its mission of incubating businesses with security technology products and services.
This report documents the action plan for developing the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) program for southern New Mexico. The NSTI program is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). This action plan serves as a tool in measuring progress in the development process and delivery of services for the NSTI program. Continuous review and evaluation of the action plan is necessary in the development process of the NSTI. The action plan includes detailed steps in developing the NSTI program based on recommended best practices in incubator development by the National Business Incubation Association (NBIA). Included are tasks required to implement the NSTI, developed within a work breakdown structure. In addition, a timeline is identified for each task.
This report documents the operations plan for developing the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) program for southern New Mexico. The NSTI program will focus on serving businesses with national security technology applications by nurturing them through critical stages of early development. The NSTI program is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The operation plan includes detailed descriptions of the structure and organization, policies and procedures, scope, tactics, and logistics involved in sustainable functioning of the NSTI program. Additionally, the operations plan will provide detailed descriptions of continuous quality assurance measures based on recommended best practices in incubator development by the National Business Incubation Association (NBIA). Forms that assist in operations of NSTI have been drafted and can be found as an attachment to the document.
In early 2009, Congress directed the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to develop a National Broadband Plan to ensure every American has "access to broadband capability." Congress also required that this plan include a detailed strategy for achieving affordability and maximizing use of broadband to advance "consumer welfare, civic…
Federal Communications Commission, 2010
In 1957, the Indonesian Planned Parenthood Federation was established. In 1970, the National Family Planning Board (BKKBN) was created. The current contraceptive prevalence rate is 45-50%. The family planning program began with a health-oriented approach. To promote acceptance, religious leaders were asked to provide legitimacy to the program. Through their efforts, it became possible to include all the means and medication used for family planning services within the program. In developing an IEC strategy to encourage couples to accept family planning, 3 main factors were studied: 1) the types of innovations that were to be introduced, 2) the characteristics of the Indonesian community, and 3) the need for an IEC strategy to convey the programs messages the community and make the community itself the agent of the innovation being introduced. The elements of the strategy were introduced stage by stage to avoid unnecessary debate. Another strategic step was the introduction of family planning using a community approach. A 3rd strategic step was a shift from couples as family planning acceptors to the introduction of the norm of a small, happy, and prosperous family. The 1st stage, expansion of program coverage, 1) promoted the need for and desirability of family planning to make the small and happy family the norm and 2) supplied contraceptives and information about contraceptives throughout Indonesia. The 2nd stage, the program maintenance approach, included 1) an increase in the frequency of visits to villages by mobile family planning teams, 2) the integration of family planning activities with other health-related activities, and 3) giving people a wider choice of methods and helping them to choose the most suitable method for them. The 3rd stage made family planning a community activity, integrated within the economic and social fabric of community life. The general strategy of the IEC program is to make the various target groups full family planning participants, who will in turn, help to draw nonacceptors into the program. Social marketing is being used to 1) reach those as yet uninformed about family planning, 2) promote the quality of various information and motivation activities so that they will become behaviorally oriented, and 3) provide an opportunity for the private sector to participate in the program professionally. PMID:12342240
This paper examines whether improved access to family planning services for under 16 is likely to help in achieving the aim of reducing underage conceptions. A simple model of rational choice is introduced which suggests that family planning increases rates of underage sexual activity and has an ambiguous impact on underage conception and abortion rates. The model is tested on
RANCH ESTATE PLANNING "Keep the ranch in the family" Wednesday - August 8, 2012 1:00 p.m. - 5:00 p.m. Basic Estate Planning Devices THE WILL. What should it say? Learn how a properly drafted Will may save family and business? ESTATE TAX DEFERRAL. A married couple can elect to not pay any estate tax
Objectives: To assess the suitability of cervical cancer screening in family planning (FP) clinics and the relevance for women's health. Methods: A survey was done on clients visiting the clinics of the Family Planning Association of Kenya (FPAK). Client characteristics, age, screening status and PAP smear results were registered. In-depth interviews were held with a limited number of staff and
P. Claeys; H. De Vuyst; G. Mzenge; J. Sande; V. Dhondt; M. Temmerman
A typology of incentives and the general effects of incentives for family planning are discussed in "Incentives in the Diffusion of Family Planning Innovations," the first of three studies in this monthly publication of The Population Council. A brief review of the history of incentives and their present status in the fields is given, together…
Population Council, New York, NY.
National Wetlands Inventory Draft Strategic Plan: Conserving America's Wetlands for Future America's Wetlands for Future Generations Cover Photo: Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge, on Virginia's Chesapeake Bay, showing combined climate change and other impacts on wetlands, with dead or dying trees from
Current scientific information on health and contraception is in demand in Francophone countries of Africa. Contraceptive technology updates (CTU) have been held in Senegal, Niger, and Togo in order to provide family planning (FP) experts, program managers, providers, and government officials with the opportunity to exchange information and gather new materials. Family Health International's CTUs in Senegal in 1990 were useful in changing policy. Routine blood testing, as a requirement for oral contraceptives, was eliminated. In Niger, there was resistance to changing the policy requiring pelvic examinations and laboratory tests before oral pill distribution. After CTU seminars were held, the attending physicians were gradually convinced by the medical experts that these procedures interfered with and were not necessary for oral pill dispensing. Other changes that came about due to the workshops were the use of licensed practical nurses as FP providers, and the use of village health workers as oral contraceptive providers after an initial prescription. Age and parity requirements for injectables were also changed to a lower age due to the efforts of CTUs. In Togo, a CTU seminar was held with leaders from Togo and nine other African countries. In the final declaration, policies were recommended for authorizing adolescent FP services and promoting non-clinic service delivery approaches. Prior to the seminars, information on local country conditions was gathered; this information was useful in showing how changes in local barriers to contraception use and continuation could be affected. The use of international information was helpful in Togo for understanding the importance of using injectables and providing pill access through rural outlets. The participation of a delivery of professions and people involved in FP has been important for policy and service providers. Follow-up training at the service delivery level is needed, where changing habits and attitudes is necessary. The first step is convincing health workers of their important contribution to FP, and then, working to change non-medical barriers. PMID:12318095
Providing 75% of family planning services in the United Kingdom, general practitioners are required to produce leaflets which describe the contraceptive services they provide. The authors analyzed information about family planning provided to clients through practice leaflets. 88% of practice leaflets from the 198 practices in Devon were available from the Devon Family Health Services Authority for analysis. It was determined that the leaflets are not being best used to advertise the range and potential of family planning services. Although all practices in Devon offer contraceptive services, only 90% of leaflets mentioned that the services are available. Reference to postcoital contraception and information about services outside the practice for people who might not want to see their family doctor are also sorely lacking. A clear need exists to provide patients with more information. Finally, the authors found that group practices and those with female partners are most likely to give high priority to family planning issues in their leaflets. PMID:7950663
Marshall, M N; Gray, D J; Pearson, V; Phillips, D R; Owen, M
The Jamaica Family Planning Association started holding presentations and discussions in the workplace in January 1986, now reaching 8000 people in 32 companies. The firms are primarily manufacturers (21) and hotels(7), but also include publishing, construction, printing and supermarket businessess. In these companies as well as many of the 480 members of the Jamaica Chamber of Commerce, employees are usually women of reproductive age who cannot afford to take time off to attend a clinic. There is a great demand for information and discussion on sexually transmitted diseases and clarification of the contraindications of various contraceptive methods. At the end of the discussions, educators offer pills, condoms and neo-sampoon, and may refer people for clinical services. Almost new acceptors have been recruited. The success of the project depends heavily on cooperation of management, supervisors and union representatives. In some cases union representives or company nurses act as distributors of contraceptives. This project has been so successful that some companies expressed an interest in participating in the Associations's resource development program. PMID:12179837
The prevalence of the use of natural family planning (NFP) can be estimated from sample surveys of married women in the reproductive ages (MWRA). Surveys in developed and developing countries during the past decade indicate that the prevalence of NFP use varies from 0 to 11%. In addition, if one considers NFP use in relation to other contraceptive methods, the percentage of all current contraceptors who use NFP varies from 1 to 35%. This suggests that NFP is an important method in certain countries. Pregnancy rates for NFP vary widely, but most reliable studies report 1-year life-table pregnancy rates between 10 and 25/100 woman-years. The Billings ovulation method consistently has higher pregnancy rates than the sympto-thermal method and NFP users generally have among the highest pregnancy rates compared to other methods. The major safety issue concerning NFP is the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with aged gametes. There are suggestions from a number of investigations that conceptions distant from ovulation have a higher risk of spontaneous abortion and a higher proportion of male births. The findings with respect to birth defects or multiple pregnancies are less consistent, although some studies have reported an increased risk of chromosomal anomalies. PMID:3170708
Gray, R H; Kambic, R T
...National Forest System Land Management Planning; Correction AGENCY: Forest Service...National Forest System land management planning rule in the Federal Register, on April...Ecosystem Management Coordination staff's Planning Specialist Regis Terney at...
...2010-04-01 false Regional and national planning meetings. 632.18 Section 632...EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Program Planning, Application and Modification Procedures § 632.18 Regional and national planning meetings. Grant funds may be...
...SERVICES Draft National Plan To Address Alzheimer's Disease AGENCY: Office of the Assistant...on the draft National Plan to Address Alzheimer's Disease, which is available at http...Barack Obama signed into law the National Alzheimer's Project Act (NAPA),...
Rwanda's official family planning policy dates back to 1981 and creation of the National Office of Population (ONAPO). Among its other function, ONAPO monitors proper use of family planning methods and studies the integration of family planning services into public health. Pilot family planning programs began in the prefectures of Butare, Kigali, and Ruhengeri and were extended to the other 7 around 1985. The development of family planning services in Rwanda is based on their integration into existing services, especially those devoted to maternal-child health. In 1989, 277 of the 350 health centers of all kinds in Rwanda and 12 secondary posts offered family planning services. The rate of integration was 79.4%. 185 of the 277 health services with family planning services were in the public sector. As of December 1989, the rate of integration in different prefectures varied from a high of 95.5% in Kibungo to a low of 64.9% in Gisenyi. Integration is particularly weak in health facilities administered by the Catholic Church. The 2 strategies to confront this situation are continuing dialogue with Catholic Church officials and creation of secondary family planning posts to improve accessibility to family planning for populations served by Church health services. The number of new and continuing family planning users increased from 1178 and 1368 respectively in 1982 to 66,950 and 104,604 through September 1990. There is wide variation from 1 prefecture to another in recruitment of new acceptors and in the number of acceptors per health facility. Recruitment of new acceptors is greatest in Ruhengeri, followed by Kigali and Byumba. As of September 1990, 28,943 women used pills, 2037 used IUDs, 66,515 used injectables, 3051 used barrier methods, 2888 used auto-observation methods, 343 used implants, and 588 were sterilized. The overall rate of contraceptive prevalence increased from .9% in 1983 to 6.2% in 1989 and 10% in 1990. The strategy for promoting family planning has included training of personnel, improvement of supervision, regular supply of contraceptive equipment and supplies to health supervision, regular supply of contraceptive equipment and supplies to health centers, diversification of available methods, and addition of secondary family planning posts to improve accessibility. Obstacles still affecting Rwanda's family planning program include the pronatalist cultural orientation, which is being confronted by a vigorous IEC program. The reluctance of Catholic-affiliated health services to offer modern family planning methods, the shortage of trained family planning workers, contraceptive supply problems, and geographic inaccessibility of family planning services are other serious problems. To confront these problems, ONAPO plans to begin social marketing program, create more secondary health planning posts, promote integration of family planning services into the vaccination program, strengthen efforts to motivate postpartum women, and undertake a community distribution program for condoms and spermicides. PMID:12283850
5 major criteria are used to evaluate family planning methods: efficacy, both theoretical and practical; acceptability as measured by continuation of use; safety; reversibility; and cost, including the cost of treatment, follow-up, and screening for contraindications. Traditional family planning methods are mostly based on periodic abstinence during the presumed fertile period. The calendar, temperature, Billings or cervical mucus, and symptothermal methods are based on observation of different symptoms of ovulation and fertility. Their advantages are that they do not require intervention by health personnel, their costs of use are nil, and they are morally acceptable to some couples. Their efficacy is lower than that of other methods and they should be viewed as methods to space rather than limit births. The withdrawal method, also less effective, requires active cooperation by the male partner. Among mechanical methods, the use of condoms has increased recently because of the protection they offer against HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases. Their efficacy depends on correct use, regular use, and the quality of the condom. The Pearl index varies from 93099 per 100 woman-years. The diaphragm must be individually measured and should be used with spermicides. The Pearl index ranges from 85095 per 100 woman-years. Spermicides, generally either nonoxynol-9 or benzalkonium chloride, are surfactants that have a Pearl index of 83-97 per 100 woman-years. They are available as creams, jellies, foams, suppositories, tablets, or impregnated sponges. Most failures appear due to errors of utilization. The mechanism of action of the IUD is imperfectly understood, but it is known to prevent nidation of the fertilized egg. Copper devised have higher rates of efficacy and tolerance. Pearl indices range from 95-99.5. Contraindications include genital infection, uterine anomalies, valvular cardiopathy, and coagulation problems. The IUD is relatively contraindicated if there is history of ectopic pregnancy or upper genital tract infections. The combined oral contraceptive is the most widely utilized method in France. The Pearl index is nearly 100 in the absence of forgetting, vomiting, or drug interactions. The contraindications are basically those of estrogens: history of thrombosis, prolonged bedrest, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, hepatic disorders, hormonodependent cancers, or smoking after age 35. Progestin-only methods are available in 3 forms: low-dose pills which must be taken at the same time each day, higher-dosed progestins taken for 20 days each month, and injectable progestins providing contraception for 8-12 weeks. Postcoital contraception using OCs or IUDs is possible but not well known among women or physicians. The Neuwirth law authorizing use of contraception in France was passed in 1967. Amendments in 1974 improved access and provided for reimbursement for some methods, but some newer forms are not reimbursed. PMID:1853135
The objective of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan is to compile and to consolidate information annually on how the ORNL Waste Management Program is conducted, which waste management facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, what activities are planned for the forthcoming fiscal year (FY), and how all of the activities are documented.
The experiences of natural family planning (NFP) counselors around the US indicate a growing interest in NFP methods in recent years, on the part of low parity non-Catholics as well as of higher parity Catholics. Fears of side effects of artificial methodss and interest in ecology and natural things are cited as the main reasons for the growing popularity of NFP. The calendar rhythm method has been largely replaced by the symptothermic methods, that combine observation of general physical symptoms such as mucus, abdominal pain, breast fullness, skin eruption, and mood changes with recording of basal body temperature (BBT), and the ovulation or Billings method, which records in great detail the presence and consistency of vaginal mucus during the menstural cycle. The Billings method identifies safe, relatively safe, and fertile days according to mucus signs alone. Both methods require keeping of chars. The BBT method has been rated as highly effective when intercourse is confined to the postovulatory phase, but it has the disadvantage of not being able to predict ovulation and of not being useful during menopause, after childbirth, and during nursing. Advocates of the ovulation method claim it can reliably predict ovulation at any time, but recognition of the mucus signs can be difficult and no intercourse is allowed during the menstrual period. Most NFP clinics in the US now offer a choice of methods. The majority of couples are able to assume responsibility for interpretation of their charts after a few months, but counseling is necessary at the beginning for success with the method. All NFP methods requre varied periods of abstinence during the fertile days of the cycle, a major hurdle in acceptance of NFP. Success depends on motivation, and most failures are believed attributable to "taking a chance." Cooperation of both spouses is more essential in NFP than in other methods. Couples who persevere in NFP accept the period of abstinence as a challenge and find it a source of enrichment for their marriages. PMID:12339514
Past practices of Natural Family Planning (NFP) have included such techniques as: 1) calendar rhythm in which a constant mathematical relationship was calculated between the day of ovulation and the beginning of the succeeding menstrual period, 2) temperature rhythm in which sexual intercourse is permitted by observing that the basal body temperature rises at the time of ovulation, 3) a combination of calendar and temperature rhythm methods, 4) paper test strips which measure glucose and electrolytes in vaginal secretions, 5) electronic devices of various sorts which record changes in the potentials of the pelvic organs at the time of ovulation, and 6) recent developments in computer technology which measure a number of variables. All of these techniques depend upon the identification of the fertile and infertile periods of the menstrual cycle. More recent studies by the World Health Organization have analyzed the teaching phase of NFP and the effectiveness phase of NFP using the detection of ovulation by following changes in the quality of cervical mucus. These studies tested 869 women with varied backgrounds in 5 countries. The data support the fact that many motivated women can detect ovulation reasonably accurately by following changes in their cervical mucus (the Billings method), although teaching time and motivation are considerable. Long-term and detailed data are necessary to determine the value of these methods. The advantage of NFP is the avoidance of drugs and devices. Disadvantages are that demands are placed on the sex life of couples, and there are associations between failures and increased rates of congenital abnormalities. PMID:7308500
Connell-Tatum, E B
The ovulation method of family planning relies on self-recognition of physiological changes occuring around time of ovulation rather than a calendar to enable a couple to avoid sexual intercourse during the fertile period. The most practical signs are elevated basal body temperature, changes in the amount and physicochemical properties of cervical mucus, and ovulation pain. The basal body temperature rises about .3 degrees C following ovulation. The problem with this method is that it is retrospective. The mucus symptoms, as described by Billings and associates in Melbourne, Australia, are: 1) a variable number of days with no vaginal discharge following menstrual bleeding; 2) onset of mucus symptoms characterized by increasing quantities of ''cloudy'' or ''sticky'' secretion; 3) a clear, slippery lubricative mucus having the characteristics of raw white of egg (spinnbarkeit), which is an immediate forwarning of ovulation; 4) a variable period of thick, opaque, diminished volume discharge followed by dry days. The clear ''peak symptom'' mucus lasts 1-2 days; in a study of 22 women followed for 27 cycles this symptom occurred .9 days +3 or -2 days before ovulation. The problem is that 2 of the 22 cycles reported in detail had ovulation 3 days after the peak symptom and 1 had ovulation 4 days after. Intercourse on the 4th day, therefore, would have had a significant risk of pregnancy. Weissman and associates collected data on 282 women on the Pacific island of Tonga who used the mucus symptoms alone to control conception. In the 2503 cycles there were 53 unplanned pregnancies, 25.4 per 100 woman-years using the Pearl formula. 50 resulted from the couples ''taking a chance,'' 2 misunderstood the method, 28 abandoned the method because they wanted more children, and 1 woman became pregnant even though she thought she understood the method. Field trials with groups who are more motivated than those in the Tongan trial are needed. PMID:12306723
France, J T
This paper is a summary of what has been learned from the experience with national energy planning in developing countries. It considers lessons learned about the roles of data, analysis, and modeling in this enterprise, because of the connections between these components and our common interest in research to advance the state of the art; but it concludes that the most important needs at this time are institutional rather than analytical, which suggests a somewhat different set of priorities for scholarship related to national energy planning in the developing world.
... false How does one apply for a family planning services grant? 59.4 Section 59...HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.4 How does one...
...false Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant? 59.3 Section 59...HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.3 Who is eligible...
...What requirements must be met by a family planning project? 59.5 Section 59.5 Public...HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.5 What requirements...
... false How does one apply for a family planning services grant? 59.4 Section 59.4...HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.4 How does one apply...
...false Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant? 59.3 Section 59.3...HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.3 Who is eligible to...
The purpose of this National Ignition Facility Acquisition Plan is to describe the overall procurement strategy planned for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Project. The scope of the plan describes the procurement activities and acquisition strategy for the following phases of the NIF Project, each of which receives either plant and capital equipment (PACE) or other project cost (OPC) funds: Title 1 and 2 design and Title 3 engineering (PACE); Optics manufacturing facilitization and pilot production (OPC); Convention facility construction (PACE); Procurement, installation, and acceptance testing of equipment (PACE); and Start-up (OPC). Activities that are part of the base Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program are not included in this plan. The University of California (UC), operating Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Lockheed-Martin, which operates Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR-LLE), will conduct the acquisition of needed products and services in support of their assigned responsibilities within the NIF Project structure in accordance with their prime contracts with the Department of Energy (DOE). LLNL, designated as the lead Laboratory, will have responsibility for all procurements required for construction, installation, activation, and startup of the NIF.
Visit this Web site from the National Teacher Training Institute (NTTI) for a set of engaging lesson plans for middle and high school students. The latest life science offerings address DNA and RNA, pika camouflage, environmental issues, and adaptation. A number of older lesson plans are available as well. In addition to providing detailed instructions, each lesson plan includes a variety of features and resources such as links for in-class research and downloadable activity sheets. The lessons take about one class period to complete and require the use of educational videos -- part of NTTI's goal to increase "dynamic use of classroom technology."
The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a US Department of Energy inertial confinement laser fusion experimental facility currently under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). To ensure that decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) issues at the end-of-life are manageable, this subject has received attention from an early stage. This paper summarizes the NIF D&D issues, and the status of the D&D plan.
Brereton, S., LLNL
This plan provides a high-level summary of environmental monitoring performed by various organizations within and around the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site as required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and DOE Order 458.1, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, Guide DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance, and in accordance with 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. The purpose of these orders is to 1) implement sound stewardship practices that protect the air, water, land, and other natural and cultural resources that may be impacted by DOE operations, and 2) to establish standards and requirements for the operations of DOE and DOE contractors with respect to protection of the environment and members of the public against undue risk from radiation. This plan describes the organizations responsible for conducting environmental monitoring across the INL Site, the rationale for monitoring, the types of media being monitored, where the monitoring is conducted, and where monitoring results can be obtained. Detailed monitoring procedures, program plans, or other governing documents used by contractors or agencies to implement requirements are referenced in this plan. This plan covers all planned monitoring and environmental surveillance. Nonroutine activities such as special research studies and characterization of individual sites for environmental restoration are outside the scope of this plan.
Background Adolescent pregnancy has significant health and socio-economic consequences for women, their families and communities. Efforts\\u000a to prevent too-early pregnancy rely on accurate information about adolescents' knowledge, behaviours and access to family\\u000a planning, however available data are limited in some settings. Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) reports are recognised\\u000a as providing nationally representative data that are accessible to policymakers and programmers.
Elissa Kennedy; Natalie Gray; Peter Azzopardi; Mick Creati
The National Highway Planning Network is a data base of major highways in the continental United States. It is a foundation for analytic studies of highway performance, for vehicle routing and scheduling problems, and for mapping purposes. The network is based on a set of roadways digitized from the National Atlas by the US Geological Survey. It has been enhanced at Oak Ridge National Laboratory by adding additional roads and attribute detail and correcting topological errors to produce a true analytic network. This documentation is intended primarily to assist users of this data base by describing its structure, data elements, and development.
Abbreviations and Acronyms #12;Preamble: NASA's Vision for Science NASA's Science Mission DirectorateNational Aeronautics and Space Administration Science Plan For NASA's Science Mission Directorate 2007Â2016 #12;#12;Contents Preamble: NASA's Vision for Science1 Chapter 1: Purpose and Progress 4
NATIONAL FOREST INVENTORY INDONESIA Wardoyo Forest Planning Agency Ministry of Forestry - Indonesia AND EXTENT OF THE MAIN FOREST AND LANDUSE TYPES TO ESTIMATE VOLUME AND GROWTH BY FOREST TYPE, SPECIES AND SPECIES GROUPS TO ASSESS THE STATE OF FOREST AREAS AND DIVERSITY #12;NFI COMPONENTS: 1. FOREST RESOURCES
This document contains a business plan for the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI), developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP) and performed under a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This business plan describes key features of the NSTI, including the vision and mission, organizational structure and staffing, services, evaluation criteria, marketing strategies, client processes, a budget, incubator evaluation criteria, and a development schedule. The purpose of the NSPP is to promote national security technologies through business incubation, technology demonstration and validation, and workforce development. The NSTI will focus on serving businesses with national security technology applications by nurturing them through critical stages of early development. The vision of the NSTI is to be a successful incubator of technologies and private enterprise that assist the NNSA in meeting new challenges in national safety, security, and protection of the homeland. The NSTI is operated and managed by the Arrowhead Center, responsible for leading the economic development mission of New Mexico State University (NMSU). The Arrowhead Center will recruit business with applications for national security technologies recruited for the NSTI program. The Arrowhead Center and its strategic partners will provide business incubation services, including hands-on mentoring in general business matters, marketing, proposal writing, management, accounting, and finance. Additionally, networking opportunities and technology development assistance will be provided.
In Indonesia, the provision of family planning services to the community for a fee through a privately operated clinic is a relatively new concept. The idea to charge patients for family planning services came up during several meetings sponsored by the National Family Planning Coordinating Board (NFPCB) in its effort to increase family planning acceptance in urban areas. NFPCB realized that while the village family planning program was very effective, the urban family planning program was lagging behind for several reasons: while its services were free, most government-run clinics were open only in the morning, making it inconvenient for working mothers to avail themselves of the services; government operated clinics were crowded; since the services were free, they were perceived to be not of good quality; and there was a limited range of contraceptives and drugs available in the government operated clinics. In 1980, the Yayasan Kusuma Buana (YKB), a private nonprofit health and family planning organization in Jakarta, was asked by the Badan Koordenasi Keluarga Berencana Nasional (BKKBN) to set up a semi-commercial, urban family planning clinic as a pilot project. The clinic was established in an area where most of the residents belonged to the lower middle income group. After almost 3 years, the clinic became self-reliant and was used by the YKB as a basis for expanding the project. Currently, there are 9 such clinics in Jakarta and YKB is helping 10 other Indonesian cities to set up their own clinics. This paper considers the main components of YKB's strategy for planning and managing the clinic and and provides an analysis of the YKB experience in operating a successful family planning and maternal and child health program in the urban areas. To become self-reliant and at the same time have a successful family planning and health program, clinics should have the following characteristics: integrated services; competent and attractive clinic personnel; a strategic location; longer clinic hours; and a reasonable fee structure. A variety of outreach activities have been found to be useful in generating communiting interest in the YKB clinics, including inviting mothers groups to hold their meetings on the clinic premises. Information/education/communication materials in the form of posters, leaflets, booklets, flipcharts, and magnetic boards are needed to support community outreach and promotional activities. Those who plan to undertake the creation of a private clinic should keep in mind the following points if success is to be realized: community outreach is critical; clinic services should be adapted to community needs; adequate staff training and support should be provided; services should be expanded; and ties with government organizations, medical organizations, and community groups should be established and maintained. PMID:12340743
The overall population problem of the world is discussed briefly. The author asserts that rapid population growth has serious social and political implications and imposes serious restraints on economic progress. It is also linked to problems of urbanization. Family planning is a way out. The state alone is not enough to make family planning successful, it must be supported by the different segments of society. Employers have a major social responsibility in this respect. After this general introduction, and the assertion of the basic role of the employer in family planning programs, the author deals with the specific situation in India in terms of 1) its population problem, 2) progress and impact of the Indian family planning program, and 3) the role of employers in the promotion of family planning in India; a detailed section is devoted to the family planning centers of the Tata group of companies (Tata textile units, chemicals, iron and steel, engineering and locomotive, etc.). The author enumerates the measures to promote effective participation by employers, which include 1) an organized framework, 2) assistance to employers, and 3) removal of disincentives. The author concludes by saying that the efforts of employers to limit population growth need to be supplemented by international cooperation and action. PMID:12257448
Tata, N H
The family planning programme of India has shown many significant changes since its inception five decades back. The programme has made the contraceptives easily accessible and affordable to the people. Devices with very low failure rate are provided free of cost to those who need it. Despite these significant improvements in service delivery related to family planning the programme cannot be said to achieve success at all levels. There are many issues with the family planning services available through the public health facilities in India. Failure to adopt the latest technology is one of these. But the most serious drawback of the programme is that it has never been able to bridge the gap between the two genders related to contraceptives. The programme gave emphasis to women-centric contraceptive and thus women were seen as their clients. The choice to adopt a contraceptive though is 'cafeteria approach' in family planning lexicon; it is the choice of the husband that is ultimately practiced. There is not enough dialogue between husband and wife and husband and health worker to discuss the use of one contraceptive over another. The male gender needs to be taken in confidence while promoting the family planning practice. The integration of gender equity is to be done carefully so as not to make dominant gender more powerful. Only when there is equity between genders while using family planning services the programme will achieve success. PMID:25673536
Garg, Suneela; Singh, Ritesh
This strategic plan contains information on the vision, mission, business and technology environment, goals, objectives, and incubation process of the National Security Technology Incubation Program (NSTI) at Arrowhead Center. The development of the NSTI is a key goal of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP). Objectives to achieve this goal include developing incubator plans (strategic, business, action, and operations), creating an incubator environment, creating a support and mentor network for companies in the incubator program, attracting security technology businesses to the region, encouraging existing business to expand, initiating business start-ups, evaluating products and processes of the incubator program, and achieving sustainability of the incubator program. With the events of 9/11, the global community faces ever increasing and emerging threats from hostile groups determined to rule by terror. According to the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Strategic Plan, the United States must be able to quickly respond and adapt to unanticipated situations as they relate to protection of our homeland and national security. Technology plays a key role in a strong national security position, and the private business community, along with the national laboratories, academia, defense and homeland security organizations, provide this technology. Fostering innovative ideas, translated into relevant technologies answering the needs of NNSA, is the purpose of the NSTI. Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University is the operator and manager of the NSTI. To develop the NSTI, Arrowhead Center must meet the planning, development, execution, evaluation, and sustainability activities for the program and identify and incubate new technologies to assist the NNSA in meeting its mission and goals. Technology alone does not give a competitive advantage to the country, but the creativity and speed with which it is employed does. For a company to succeed, it must have sustainable competitive advantages in seven key areas: geography, products and businesses, distribution, sales and service culture, efficiency, brand, and most important, people. The four strategic goals of the plan are to: 1. Identify and recruit small businesses with technology applications for national security. 2. Design and implement a national security incubator program that provides incubator services and physical space for the targeted businesses. 3. Provide business assistance and technical leadership to NSTI clients to assist in bringing their products to market. 4. Construct a new multi-tenant facility with dedicated physical space for businesses with technology applications for national security.
This paper explores the use of Islamic doctrine and jurisprudence by family planning organizations in the Gilgit-Baltistan region of northern Pakistan. It examines how particular interpretations of Islam are promoted in order to encourage fertility reductions, and the ways Muslim clerics, women and their families react to this process. The paper first discusses how Pakistan's demographic crisis, as the world's
Abstracts of current publications in the fields of population and family planning are contained in this monthly acquisitions list of the Katherine Dexter McCormick Library, Planned Parenthood, New York. Organized in two parts, Part 1 contains an annotated list of the books most recently acquired by the Library, marked with its Library call number,…
Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.
Realizing the potential of commercial marketing in changing the attitude and behavior of the target audience in the early years of the 4th 5-year development plan, the National Family Planning Program tried to develop new ventures in communicating the concept of the small family norm to the people. The condom was chosen as the 1st product to be sold through the social marketing project because male awareness about family planning was still low. Based on audience research, the pricing, packaging, and branding of the product was developed. The most accepted brand name was Dua Lima because it has a neutral meaning, is easily remembered, and can be described in sign language. The last reason is very important because most consumers have difficulty communicating about condoms in the sales outlet. Social marketing has proved effective because of strong public relations activities and the involvement of formal and informal leaders. This experiment has convinced family planning management that social marketing is workable for promoting the small family norm. In 1987, under the new program of self-sufficiency in family planning, the private sector is invited to participate by providing family planning services for target audiences, using the principles of self-sufficiency and self-support. There are 2 principal activities; 1) the IEC campaign, and 2) product (contraceptive) selling. IEC activities include a media campaign public relations work. Product selling is done through commercial channels such as pharmaceutical firms, drug stores, private doctors, and midwives. It was decided that the campaign would be aided by a name and logo. The blue circle was chosen because it is unique, communicative, and simple. The social marketing of contraceptives in Indonesia can be considered a breakthrough in communication strategy for a national development program. PMID:12282138
Reproductive behaviour in modern western society has changed dramatically in the last two decades. Parenthood is now well\\u000a planned. If planned pregnancies do not occur as expected, early infertility care is often demanded with the risk of over-treatment.\\u000a Live birth rates in untreated subfertile couples reach nearly 55% in 36 months. During this period, self-monitoring with natural\\u000a family planning (NFP)
Christian Gnoth; Petra Frank-Herrmann; Günter Freundl
Statement of the problem . Importance of the study. Purpose of the study Source of data . II. FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE USE OF GIFTS IN FAMILY ESTATE PLANNING Theory of estate planning. Theory of gift planning. Theory of community property 7 14... III LEGAL CHARACTERISTICS OF INTER VIVOS GIFTS 17 Absolute transfers 17 Incomplete transfers Present or future interests. 18 20 Gifts in contemplation of death. 22 Successive estates Antenuptial gifts. Gifts to minors. Community property 24...
Lehrmann, Otto Quade
There is renewed interest in natural family planning (NFP) as the Philippine Population Program enters the 1980s. Much of this interest is due to the realization that, properly practiced, NFP can be a highly effective means of birth spacing. In 1978 the Special Committee to Review the Philippine Population Program recommended that more efforts be made to promote NFP. The different methods of NFP are reviewed. Sex without intercourse, coitus interruptus, and prolonged nursing are not officially recognized as NFP methods by the Program. The rhythm method was first described independently by Drs. Hermann Knaus of Austria and Kyusaku Ogino of Japan in the 1930s. Ogino's method of calculating a woman's fertile period is based on the lengths of the last 12 menstrual cycles which she recorded on a calendar. The advantages of rhythm are that it is inexpensive, it requires only the cost of charts which may be homemade, there are no physical side effects, control is in the woman's hands, and it is acceptable to people who consider it their duty to follow religious teachings. Disadvantages include: keeping constant, accurate records of cycles for long periods of time; the need for perseverance and correct interpretation of the chart; the possible need for medical advice and help; and the fear that something might upset a woman's cycle and change the time of ovulation. The continuation rates of rhythm acceptors in the Philippines are unimpressive. A study of 142 women revealed a high pregnancy/failure rate--25% for a 12-month period compared to 0 with oral contraception (OC) and the IUD's 2%. The basal body temperature method helps determine the unsafe period with some accuracy. Its premise is that there are slight but detectable changes in a woman's body temperature during her cycle. These changes herald ovulation. A special thermometer must record temperature changes of 0.1 degree Farenheit. This instrument and the charts are the only expenses involved. The reviewers of the Philippine Population Program noted that since the end of the unsafe period can be indicated only by the temperature, the total period of abstinence becomes long, although the basal body temperature method gives more or less 10 successive days for intercourse. The cervical mucus method, also known as the Billings method, takes into account the cervical secretions during the menstrual cycle. Appearance of this mucus is an indication of fertility. All that is required of a practitioner is to learn to distinguish the different sensations of wetness and dryness. The disadvantage is that the method becomes ineffective in areas where there is cervicitis or infection of the cervix. The symptom thermal method is the basal body temperature method combined with other NFP techniques and is widely used. With this method an accurate record of the 6 immediately preceding menstrual cycles is established. The start of the fertile period is set by substracting 20 days plus 1. The woman watches for symptoms like pelvic heaviness, breast softness, and mucus discharge. PMID:12265791
...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List AGENCY...NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN Accordingly, the amendment to Table 1of Appendix B to CFR Part 300 to...
The purpose of this National Ignition Facility Acquisition Plan is to describe the overall procurement strategy planned for the National Ignition Facility M Project. It was prepared for the NIP Prood Office by the NIF Procurement Manager.
The six National Standards for Family-School Partnerships provide a research-based framework for strengthening family engagement programs, activities, and policies by shifting the focus from what schools should do to involve parents, to what parents, schools, and communities can do together to support student success. An adjunct to the National…
Differences between the Report of the UN World Population Conference and the Report of the Third Asian and Pacific Population Conference were discussed in reference to 1) the relative importance placed on family planning and development in lowering fertility levels, 2) the degree to which family planning and development programs should be integrated, and 3) setting family planning targets. The UN conference was held in Bucharest, Hungary, in 1974 and the Asian and Pacific Conference was held in Colomb, Sri Lanka in 1982. The relative importance of family planning and development on fertility was a major issue at the Bucharest conference. The World Population Plan for Action (WPPA) formulated at the Bucharest conference did not recommend family planning as a strategy for reducing fertility; instead, the WPPA recommended that countries interested in reducing fertility should give priority to development programs and urged developed countries to promote international equity in the use of world resources. In contrast, the Asia-Pacific Call for Action on Population and Development as formulated at the Colomb conference, strongly recommended both development and family planning programs as a means to reduce fertility. It urged governments to adopt strong family planning policies, to make family planning services available on a regular basis, and to educate and motivate their populations toward family planning. In regard to integration strategies, the WPPA called for integrating family planning programs and development programs wherever possible, and particularly recommended integrated delivery of family planning and health services. The Asia-Pacific Call for Action supported an integrated approach, but only in those situations where it was proven to be a workable approach, i.e., where it improved the efficiency of family planning services. Combining family planning and maternal and child health programs is known to be an advantageous approach, but the consequences of integrating family planning with other health programs and with development programs needs further study. The WPPA recommended that governments set targets for life expectancy and infant mortality, but it did not mention setting fertility targets or establishing an ideal family size. It did urge governments to create the type of socioeconomic conditions which would permit couples to have the number of children they desired and to space them in the manner they wished. The WPPA noted that substantial national effort would be required to reduce the birthrate to the UN projected rate of 30/1000 population in developing regions by 1985. The Asia-Pacific Call for Action urged countries to set specific targets which would make it possible for them to attain replacement level fertility in the year 2000. It will be interesting to observe the degree to which the Asian and Pacific countries will be able to influence the participants at the upcoming International Conference on Population to their way of thinking on these critical issues. A copy of the Asia-Pacific Call for Action on Population and Development is included in an annex to the article. PMID:12313216
The countries of Latin America and the Caribbean are facing the gradual phase-out of international-donor support of contraceptive commodities and technical and management assistance, as well as an increased reliance on limited public sector resources and a limited private sector role in providing contraceptives to the public. Therefore, those nations must develop multisectoral strategies to achieve contraceptive security. The countries need to consider information about the market for family planning commodities and services in order to define and promote complementary roles for the public sector, the commercial sector, and the nongovernmental-organization sector, as well as to better identify which segments of the population each of those sectors should serve. While it is unable to mandate private sector participation, the public sector can create conditions that support and promote a greater role for the private sector in meeting the growing needs of family planning users. Taking steps to actively involve and expand the private sector's market share is a critical strategy for achieving a more equitable distribution of available resources, addressing unmet need, and creating a more sustainable future for family planning commodities and services. This paper also discusses in detail the experiences of two countries, Paraguay and Peru. Paraguay's family planning market illustrates a vibrant private sector, but with limited access to family planning commodities and services for those who cannot afford private sector prices. In Peru a 1995 policy change that sought to increase family planning coverage had the effect of restricting access for the poor and leaving the Ministry of Health unable to pay for the growing need for family planning commodities and services. PMID:16105325
Sharma, Suneeta; Gribble, James N; Menotti, Elaine P
This study investigates family planning activity in 308 Nigerian women attending an antenatal clinic. Family planning awareness was present in 234 women (76%) and practice occurred in 168 (54.5%). Proposal to practice family planning occurred in 66 of 137 women who had never used contraception while 69 (22.4%) had no intention to practice family planning.
J. I. B. Adinma; B. O. Nwosu
...National Forest System Land Management Planning Directives AGENCY: Forest Service...Forest System (NFS) land management planning regulation. Issuance of these proposed...including ``RIN 0596-AD06'' or ``planning directives'' on the cover sheet...
Climate change is one of the most critical global challenges of our times. Recent events have emphatically demonstrated our growing vulnerability to climate change. Climate change impacts will range from affecting agriculture – further endangering food security – to sea-level rise and the accelerated erosion of coastal zones, increasing intensity of natural disasters, species extinction, and the spread of vector-borne diseases. India released its much-awaited National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) to mitigate and adapt to climate change on June 30, 2008, almost a year after it was announced. The NAPCC runs through 2017 and directs ministries to submit detailed implementation plans to the Prime Minister's Council on Climate Change by December 2008. This article briefly reviews the plan and opinion about it from different experts and organizations. PMID:20165607
Pandve, Harshal T.
After decades of turmoil and international sanctions much of the key civil infrastructure within Iraq has fallen into disrepair, leading to a considerable decline in the provision of basic and essential municipal services. This is particularly true of waste and resource management services that have seen years of underdevelopment and deterioration. This has resulted in a lack of provision of basic public services in the waste sector which have been replaced by a burgeoning unregulated informal market in waste collection, disposal and recycling. In response, a National Solid Waste Management Plan (NSWMP) for Iraq was developed in 2007, to plan for the strategic development of all aspects of waste management in the country over the coming 20 years. In particular, the NSWMP focuses on policy development and integrated planning regarding regulatory framework, economic aspects, institutional capacity, citizen and technical education, and technical and operational development. This paper summarizes the key objectives, challenges and subsequent recommendations contained in the NSWMP for Iraq. PMID:19470543
Knowles, James A
Until recently, state regulators have focused most of their attention on the development of least-cost or integrated resource planning (IRP) processes for electric utilities. A number of commissions are beginning to scrutinize the planning processes of local gas distribution companies (LDCs) because of the increased control that LDCs have over their purchased gas costs (as well as the associated risks) and because of questions surrounding the role and potential of gas end-use efficiency options. Traditionally, resource planning (LDCs) has concentrated on options for purchasing and storing gas. Integrated resource planning involves the creation of a process in which supply-side and demand-side options are integrated to create a resource mix that reliably satisfies customers` short-term and long-term energy service needs at the lowest cost. As applied to gas utilities, an integrated resource plan seeks to balance cost and reliability, and should not be interpreted simply as the search for lowest commodity costs. The National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners` (NARUC) Energy Conservation committee asked Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) to survey state PUCs to determine the extent to which they have undertaken least cost planning for gas utilities. The survey included the following topics: status of state PUC least-cost planning regulations and practices for gas utilities; type and scope of natural gas DSM programs in effect, including fuel substitution; economic tests and analysis methods used to evaluate DSM programs; relationship between prudency reviews of gas utility purchasing practices and integrated resource planning; key regulatory issued facing gas utilities during the next five years.
Until recently, state regulators have focused most of their attention on the development of least-cost or integrated resource planning (IRP) processes for electric utilities. A number of commissions are beginning to scrutinize the planning processes of local gas distribution companies (LDCs) because of the increased control that LDCs have over their purchased gas costs (as well as the associated risks) and because of questions surrounding the role and potential of gas end-use efficiency options. Traditionally, resource planning (LDCs) has concentrated on options for purchasing and storing gas. Integrated resource planning involves the creation of a process in which supply-side and demand-side options are integrated to create a resource mix that reliably satisfies customers' short-term and long-term energy service needs at the lowest cost. As applied to gas utilities, an integrated resource plan seeks to balance cost and reliability, and should not be interpreted simply as the search for lowest commodity costs. The National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners' (NARUC) Energy Conservation committee asked Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) to survey state PUCs to determine the extent to which they have undertaken least cost planning for gas utilities. The survey included the following topics: status of state PUC least-cost planning regulations and practices for gas utilities; type and scope of natural gas DSM programs in effect, including fuel substitution; economic tests and analysis methods used to evaluate DSM programs; relationship between prudency reviews of gas utility purchasing practices and integrated resource planning; key regulatory issued facing gas utilities during the next five years.
There are two common ways to evaluate algorithms: performance on benchmark problems derived from real applications and analysis of performance on parametrized families of problems. The two approaches complement each other, each having its advantages and disadvantages. The planning community has concentrated on the first approach, with few ways of generating parametrized families of hard problems known prior to this work. Our group's main interest is in comparing approaches to solving planning problems using a novel type of computational device - a quantum annealer - to existing state-of-the-art planning algorithms. Because only small-scale quantum annealers are available, we must compare on small problem sizes. Small problems are primarily useful for comparison only if they are instances of parametrized families of problems for which scaling analysis can be done. In this technical report, we discuss our approach to the generation of hard planning problems from classes of well-studied NP-complete problems that map naturally to planning problems or to aspects of planning problems that many practical planning problems share. These problem classes exhibit a phase transition between easy-to-solve and easy-to-show-unsolvable planning problems. The parametrized families of hard planning problems lie at the phase transition. The exponential scaling of hardness with problem size is apparent in these families even at very small problem sizes, thus enabling us to characterize even very small problems as hard. The families we developed will prove generally useful to the planning community in analyzing the performance of planning algorithms, providing a complementary approach to existing evaluation methods. We illustrate the hardness of these problems and their scaling with results on four state-of-the-art planners, observing significant differences between these planners on these problem families. Finally, we describe two general, and quite different, mappings of planning problems to QUBOs, the form of input required for a quantum annealing machine such as the D-Wave II.
Hen, Itay; Rieffel, Eleanor G.; Do, Minh; Venturelli, Davide
Preventing the birth of children with ?-thalassemia major (?-TM) is an important health issue. We investigated family planning practices and related factors among families with affected children. We selected a total of 569 parents from the parents of patients with ?-TM who were registered at thalassemia referral clinics in southern Iran. Information was recorded regarding demographic variables, socioeconomic status and family planning practices. The correlations between family planning practice and related factors were evaluated. Approximately 96.0% of the parents (546) were practicing contraception at the time of the study. Only 12.8% of the families whose first child had ?-TM decided to have no more children. The most frequent contraceptive method was tubal ligation (TL) (37.5%) followed by oral contraceptive pills (OCP) (31.5%). Higher education level of the mothers and higher economic status of the families were found to be related with the lower numbers of children with ?-TM (p = 0.001). We found a high percentage of safe contraception being used by at-risk couples. It seems that educational programs have been effective in influencing family planning practices. Further attention should be devoted to increasing the knowledge of at-risk couples with a greater focus on parents of low socioeconomic status. Because of cultural factors in Iran, many of these at-risk couples opted to achieve the desired family size, so implementation of a well-organized prenatal diagnostic system seems necessary. PMID:23181733
Haghpanah, Sezaneh; Johari, Sheyda; Parand, Shirin; Bordbar, Mohammad Reza; Karimi, Mehran
for the Helping Professions 3 HED 32544 Human Sexuality 3 SOC 32210 Researching Society 3 ConcentrationSUGGESTED THREE-YEAR GRADUATION PLAN Human Development and Family Studies Â Family Life Education- Bachelor of Science [EH-BS-HDFS-FLE] College of Education, Health and Human Services School of Lifespan
This is a longitudinal population-based survey of families and households in the United States that was designed to look at the causes and consequences of changes in American family and household structure. The first wave of the NSFH consists of interviews conducted during 1987-1...
In 1979, the National Family Planning Program's (NFPP) multiservice mobile unit pilot project was implemented to deliver a full complement of clinical and nonclinical family planning services to remote Thai villages by transporting nurses, physicians, and supplies by van. 15 provinces with the lowest family planning achievement in 1978 were selected to participate in the project for 1 year; one refused. Funding was allocated for mobile unit trips and promotional billboards. Implementation at the time of data analysis averaged 9.8 province-months, sufficient to reveal trends in project achievement. 9579 new acceptors were reported after 805 mobile trips in the 14 provinces, an average of 12 new acceptors/trip. New acceptor recruitment costs were estimated at $6.20/client. Based on Thai data for continuation rates, an estimated 18,238 couples years of protection (CYP) were achieved by the mobile unit. In comparison to other family planning services' mobile units, the multiservice unit had the lowest operating costs, but the most expensive cost/CYP. The effectiveness of the promotional billboards was assessed by comparing acceptor rates in provinces with and without billboards. Overall, the provinces with billboards showed less of an increase in new acceptors. When months of project implementation are controlled, a positive effect of the billboards is suggested. While demonstrating that all modern contraception can be delivered via mobile units to remote villages, there is inadequate acceptance of the highly effective family planning methods to justify the cost of transporting staff and equipment. PMID:12311584
Although pharmacies now dispense primarily modern products originating in large multinational corporations, the community pharmacist has not been replaced by any ultramodern technological advance. Many thousand persons acquire family planning products in pharmacies. The pharmacist works many hours a day, is always available, and provides free advice to his clients. Pharmacists are consulted daily on numerous topics, especially on family planning. Many prsons in rural areas are without the services of a physician and rely on pharmacists all the more. Pharmacists could orient the public on family planning in general, help in choosing the most appropriate of available methods, and refer patients to physicians in case of problems. Participants at the recent International Conference on the Role of Retail Pharmacists in Family Planning, held in Alexandria, Egypt, concluded that pharmacists should cooperate with physicians and other health professionals to provide family planning services and should participate in elaboration of laws regulating the manufacture, storage, prices, and distribution of contraceptives. The prices of contraceptive supplies to the consumer could be reduced if taxes and import duties were removed, if supplies were produced locally, or if supplies were subsidized by some donor organization. PMID:12178199
This Institutional Plan for FY 2004-2008 is the principal annual planning document submitted to the Department of Energy's Office of Science by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Washington. This plan describes the Laboratory's mission, roles, and technical capabilities in support of Department of Energy priorities, missions, and plans. It also describes the Laboratory strategic plan, key planning assumptions, major research initiatives, and program strategy for fundamental science, energy resources, environmental quality, and national security.
Quadrel, Marilyn J.
A survey was carried out to ascertain the extent of family planning services provided by family doctors. Of the 134 doctors surveyed, 119 (88.8%) replied. Of these 97 (81.5%) were male, 30 (25.2%) were aged less than 40 and 22 (18.5%) were greater than 60. Sixty-four (53.8%) worked in single-handed practices, 52(43.7%) were vocationally trained, 101 (84.9%) had the MICGP or equivalent and 42 (35.3%) had a family planning certificate. Of the 119 respondents, 99 (83.2%) give instruction in natural family planning methods, 114 (95.8%) prescribe oral contraceptives, 102 (85.7%) prescribe the "morning after pill", 40 (33.6%) fit diaphragms and 17 (14.3%) fit intrauterine devices. Only 3 (2.5%) perform male sterilisations. Doctors aged less than 60 years were 1.3 times more likely to prescribe oral contraceptives (p < 0.0001), and were four times more likely to fit diaphragms (p < 0.01). Doctors who hold a family planning certificate were 2.4 times more likely to fit diaphragms (p < 0.001) and were 2.5 times more likely to fit intrauterine devices. As to who should provide these services, the family doctor was the preferred option for 95 (79.8%) with regard to natural family planning, 107 (89.9%) for the contraceptive pill, 76 (63.9%) for the diaphragm, 58 (48.7%) for the intrauterine device, 45 (37.8%) for male sterilisations and 4 (3.4%) for female sterilisations. Younger doctors and those with a family planning certificate were more likely to say that family doctors should provide these services.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7890537
Bedford, D; Howell, F; Lynskey, I
One hundred planned lesbian-parent families (i.e., two-mother families in which the child was born to the lesbian relationship) were compared with 100 heterosexual-parent families on child adjustment, parental characteristics, and child rearing. Questionnaires, observations, and a diary of activities were used to collect the data. The results show that especially lesbian social mothers (i.e., nonbiological mothers) differ from heterosexual fathers on parental characteristics (e.g., more parental justification and more satisfaction with the partner as coparent) and child rearing (e.g., more parental concern and less power assertion). Child adjustment is not associated with family type (lesbian-parent families vs. heterosexual-parent families), but is predicted by power assertion, parental concern, and satisfaction with the partner as coparent. PMID:17352583
Bos, Henny M W; van Balen, Frank; van den Boom, Dymphna C
This paper explores inequalities in the use of modern family planning methods among married women of reproductive age (MWRA) in rural Nepal. Data from the 2012 Nepal Household Survey (HHS) were utilized, which employed a stratified, three-stage cluster design to obtain a representative sample of 9,016 households from rural Nepal. Within the sampled households, one woman of reproductive age was randomly selected to answer the survey questions related to reproductive health. Only four out of every ten rural MWRA were using a modern family planning method. Short-acting and permanent methods were most commonly used, and long-acting reversible contraceptives were the least likely to be used. Muslims were less likely to use family planning compared to other caste/ethnic groups. Usage was also lower among younger women (likely to be trying to delay or space births) than older women (likely to be trying to limit their family size). Less educated women were more likely to use permanent methods and less likely to use short-term methods. To increase the CPR, which has currently stalled, and continue to reduce the TFR, Nepal needs more focused efforts to increase family planning uptake in rural areas. The significant inequalities suggest that at-risk groups need additional targeting by demand and supply side interventions. PMID:25405205
Mehata, Suresh; Paudel, Yuba Raj; Dotel, Bhogendra Raj; Singh, Dipendra Raman; Poudel, Pradeep; Barnett, Sarah
This paper explores inequalities in the use of modern family planning methods among married women of reproductive age (MWRA) in rural Nepal. Data from the 2012 Nepal Household Survey (HHS) were utilized, which employed a stratified, three-stage cluster design to obtain a representative sample of 9,016 households from rural Nepal. Within the sampled households, one woman of reproductive age was randomly selected to answer the survey questions related to reproductive health. Only four out of every ten rural MWRA were using a modern family planning method. Short-acting and permanent methods were most commonly used, and long-acting reversible contraceptives were the least likely to be used. Muslims were less likely to use family planning compared to other caste/ethnic groups. Usage was also lower among younger women (likely to be trying to delay or space births) than older women (likely to be trying to limit their family size). Less educated women were more likely to use permanent methods and less likely to use short-term methods. To increase the CPR, which has currently stalled, and continue to reduce the TFR, Nepal needs more focused efforts to increase family planning uptake in rural areas. The significant inequalities suggest that at-risk groups need additional targeting by demand and supply side interventions. PMID:25405205
Mehata, Suresh; Paudel, Yuba Raj; Dotel, Bhogendra Raj; Singh, Dipendra Raman; Poudel, Pradeep; Barnett, Sarah
Introduction In recent decades, the foreign population in Spain has increased significantly, particularly for Catalonia, an autonomous region of Spain (2.90% in 2000 and 15.95% in 2010) and in particular Girona province (6.18% in 2000 and 21.55% in 2010). Several studies have shown a lower use of family planning methods by immigrants. This same trend is observed in Spain. The objective of this paper is to determine the existence of differences and possible sources of inequity in the use of family planning methods among health service users in Catalonia (Spain) by sex, health status, place of birth and socioeconomic conditions. Methods Data were taken from an ad-hoc questionnaire which was compiled following a qualitative stage of individual interviews. Said questionnaire was administered to 1094 Catalan public health service users during 2007. A complete descriptive analysis was carried out for variables related to public health service users’ sociodemographic characteristics and variables indicating knowledge and use of family planning methods, and bivariate relationships were analysed by means of chi-square contrasts. Considering the use (or non-use) of family planning methods as a dependent variable and a set of demographic, socioeconomic and health status variables as explanatory factors, the relationship was modelled using mixed models. Results The analysed sample is comprised of 54.3% women and 45.7% men, with 74.3% natives (or from the EU) and 25.7% economic immigrants. 54.8% use some method of family planning, the condom (46.7%) and the pill (28.0%) being the two most frequently used methods. Statistical modelling indicates that those factors which most influence the use of family planning methods are level of education (30.59% and 39.29% more likelihood) and having children over 14 (35.35% more likelihood). With regard to the origin of the user, we observe that patients from North Africa,sub. Saharan Africa and Asia are less likely to use family planning methods (36.68%, 38.59% and 70.51%, respectively). Conclusions The use of family planning methods is positively related to a higher level of education and having children over 14. Factors such as sex, age, income and self-perceived health do not appear to influence their use. Furthermore, being a native of this country, the European Union or Central/South America represents a greater likelihood of use than being African or Asian. Although no general differences in use were found between sexes, the difference found in the case of Asian women stands out, with a higher likelihood of use. PMID:22818829
...COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY National Ocean Council--National Ocean Policy Draft Implementation Plan AGENCY: Council...establishing a National Policy for the Stewardship of the Ocean, our Coasts, and the Great Lakes (National...
...TECHNOLOGY POLICY National Plan for Civil Earth Observations; Request for Information...development of a National Plan for Civil Earth Observations (``National Plan...Please include ``National Plan for Civil Earth Observations'' in the subject line...
...Caregiver Support Program and the Lifespan Respite Care Program, and through new initiatives like the National Plan to Address Alzheimer's Disease. These efforts help caregivers access services, provide quality support, and reinforce their support...
...AGRICULTURE Forest Service Northern Sierra Forest Plan Amendment EIS: Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest, Stanislaus National Forest, Lake Tahoe Basin Management Unit: Carson City, Douglas, and Washoe Counties,...
This speech by the chairman of the Child and Human Development Subcommittee of the Senate Labor and Human Resources Committee focuses on issues relating to the needs and problems of children and families. Programs under the jurisdiction of the Subcommittee include child abuse, child care, domestic violence, aspects of adoption and foster care…
In 1970 the Public Health Service Act was passed and Title X had a provision to establish and fund a national network of family planning clinics through the Office of Family Planning (OFP). The Reagan administration's policy towards family planning suffers from dilemmas and shortcomings that had an influence on the programs put in place by Title X. The attempts to reshape the philosophy of Title X have for the most part failed, but these attempts have had some negative effects none the less. This article examines the history of Title X and the attempts by the Reagan administration to change it. For the years 1985-86, the OFP had a budget of $142 million of which $135 million went to fund the clinics and the rest went to training, educational materials, and research and development of newer and better ways of getting family planning to the people. Before 1987 the Reagan administration tried to change the strategy of family planning from sex education, contraception and abortion to advocating abstinence, adoption counseling, infertility counseling, and natural contraception. This tactic failed because the Reagan administration was only able to divert $5 million towards these new goals. Congress was the administration's primary obstacle. Another unsuccessful tactic was to change the method of funding by moving the money to block grants which all states received from the federal government to do with basically as they pleased. But Congress went ahead and funded Title X directly in the usual manner. After 1986 the Reagan administration found a new avenue to accomplish its policy change. The "Superbill" as it is called would restrict funding to any clinics that refer for abortion, counsel for abortion or are closely overlapping fiscally or physically with abortion services. The administration also rail-roaded through new regulations to this effect in case Congress did not pass the Superbill. As of the writing of this article, pro-family planning organizations have gotten court injunctions to block the new regulations. PMID:10105516
This collection of snapshots examines the well-being of America's children and adults through the lens of the 1999 National Survey of America's Families. Snapshots include: "Foreword: Snapshots of America's Families II: A View of the Nation and 13 States from the National Survey of America's Families" (Alyssa Wigton and Alan Weil); "Family…
Koppelman, Jane, Ed.
This brief review of the work of Thomas Malthus was presented in observance of the 10th anniversary of Rwanda's National Office of Population. When Malthus published his observations on the relationship between growth of population and that of resources, England was experiencing a situation of economic, political, and social crisis. Malthus foresaw a catastrophe if England's unprecedented population growth continued while food and industrial production remained stagnant. Obvious parallels can be noted in the situation of contemporary Rwanda, extending even to the optimism of a large part of the population concerning the effects of population growth and the unrealistic solution proposed by religious groups. Malthus believed that the growth of population is potentially geometric, while that of resources can never be more than arithmetic. He identified 2 kinds of obstacles to population growth, which he termed positive checks and preventive checks. Preventive checks included celibacy and chastity, but also contraception, which he condemned as morally indefensible along with infanticide, abortion, and adultery. Positive checks included especially the misery that was the fate of most of the European population in the 18th and 19th centuries. Disease, famine, and war would keep down population numbers. Malthus, ever pessimistic in his writings, doubted that remedies could be found for the problems posed by his principles of population. He rejected the egalitarian system reflected in the poor laws and equally rejected the possibility of a solution in emigration. The most astonishing thing about the controversy surrounding the ideas of Malthus is that "Malthusianism" came to be equated with ideas encouraging birth limitation through the use of contraception, a possibility condemned by Malthus himself. After World War II, with the decline of fertility well established in the developed countries, attention turned to the developing world, which in 1990 contained some 5 billion persons totalling over 80% of the entire world population. The developed nations and the organisms they created were at the forefront of population control efforts in the developing countries. 10 years after the founding of Rwanda's National Office of Population, the country is still threatened by uncontrolled population growth. PMID:12317099
A benefit-cost technique to measure the economic returns of family planning programs and the assumptions and limitations inherent in this type of analysis are presented. This approach takes the present value of the discounted consumption stream of an unborn child as the main measure of the benefit accruing to society from the prevention of a…
Zaidan, George C.
One of the best examples of the validity of the theory of “diffusion of innovations” is the case of family planning in developing countries. The desire of health, development and environment advocates in rich countries to make modern contraceptive use and lower fertility a norm in developing countries was translated into organized efforts to reach top-level leaders in these countries.
Chen Muhua, the Chinese vice premier in charge of family planning spoke at a forum on the family, marriage, and family planning held in Beijing. She made the point that an attempt will be made to realize the goal of a 1 child family on the part of 95% of the married couples in the cities and 90% of the married couples in the countryside. Chen Muhua pointed out that the population growth rate should be in scale with economic developments, and she called for wide scale propaganda regarding the importance of birth control. The vice premier went on to say that late marriage and late birth should be advocated and that attention should be paid to the well being of women, children, and the aged. More than 200 delegates from Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei Provinces and from the People's Liberation Army attended the forum. 10 representatives spoke of their experience in promoting family planning. Vice Premiers Wang Zhen and Bo Yibo also spoke and noted that birth control was of considerable importance in improving the material and spiritual life of China's future generations. PMID:12338054
The key role of family plans has always been an undisputed assumption underlying research in the area of adolescent girls' career development. However, the exact manner in which family plans affect girls and the specific theoretical implications of this effect have been understood differently during the last 30 years. The depressing effect of family plans on adolescent girls' career plans
Female hormonal contraceptives, introduced commercially in 1959, contained 10 mg of norethynodrel and .15 mg of mestranol. The estrogen and progesterone doses were progressively reduced over time. In 1989, approximately 60 million couples used oral contraceptives (OCs) ranging from 1% in Japan to 40% in the Netherlands. The monophasic pill contains .01 - .04 mg of ethinyl estradiol (EE), and the biphasic pill contains increasing doses of progesterone and estroprogesterone in the course of the menstrual cycle. Triphasic combined pills contain an initially dominant estrogen dose. In oral sequential pills, estrogen is given on days 14-16 followed by a estroprogesterone for 5-7 days. Micropills with progesterone, injectables with medroxyprogesterone, and 3rd-generation OCs such as gestoden with a low progesterone dose of .04 mg/day and reduced androgenic activity are among other OCs. The OCs are administered in 21-22 day packets. Absolute contraindications include history of venous thrombosis, atherogenic lipid profile, hormone-dependent cancer, and allergy. Relative contraindications include arterial ailments, smoking, hypertension, older age, obesity, and familial history of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular accidents. Interactions with antibiotics (ampicillin and tetracycline) occur as the modified intestinal flora reduces the level of deconjugated EE. Most frequent side effects are depression, modification of libido, ocular disorders, headache, and urinary infection. Benefits include favorable modification of menstrual cycle, and reduction of endometriosis and endometrial and ovarian cancer. Systemic risks such as cardiovascular and blood coagulation effects occur mainly with high-dose OCs. Further topics addressed are the cancer risk and protective effect of OCs, postcoital OCs, traditional contraception, the IUD, RU-486, implants, vaccination with the human antigonadotropine, and the vaginal ring. PMID:1823414
Dumitrache, F; Gheorghi??, E
Sub-Saharan Africa has one of the highest fertility rates in the world, which is further promoted by the low utilisation of modern contraceptive methods. Yet, many communities claim to have traditional methods of family planning that pre-date the introduction of modern contraceptives, implying that contraception is a culturally acceptable norm. It was therefore postulated that the study population would have a high level of awareness and practice of natural methods of family planning. We aimed to obtain an insight into the extent and correctness of knowledge about natural family planning methods, and its practice as a guide to the general acceptance of contraception as a concept. Pre-tested structured questionnaires were administered to women of childbearing age in households properly numbered for primary healthcare activities. The level of awareness of natural family planning methods was significantly less than awareness for modern methods of contraception. The awareness rate for rhythm method, lactational amenorrhoea method and coitus interruptus was 50.7%, 42.1% and 36.1%, respectively. For all three national family planning methods, there is a steady decline between awareness, correct description of method and utilisation, a difference that was statistically significant in all cases. The sociodemographic factors of the responders had varying influence on utilisation of all three natural family planning methods studied. Rural dwellers practised the lactational amenorrhoea method significantly more often than urban dwellers. Significantly more Muslims than Christians with four children or more practised coitus interruptus or the rhythm method, while the use of lactational amenorrhoea method was significantly increased with the number of living children in both religious groups. There is a relatively low level of awareness of natural family planning methods in the study population, poor utilisation and wrong use of methods. Therefore, improving the correct level of information on natural family planning methods is likely to improve the use of both natural family planning and modern contraceptive methods. PMID:17000506
Audu, B M; Yahya, S J; Bassi, A
5. Photocopy of original plans (from National Archives, Cartographic Division, Record Group 77, Misc. Forts File, Benicia Barracks) Delineator unknown. Note dated September 27, 1854 PLAN AND ELEVATIONS - Benicia Arsenal, Hospital, Benicia, Solano County, CA
6. Photocopy of original plans (from National Archives, Cartographic Division, Record Group 156) Delineator unknown. Commanding Officer's signature dated May 22, 1871 PLAN, ELEVATION, AND SECTION - Benicia Arsenal, Guard & Engine House, Benicia, Solano County, CA
The Family Planning Association (FPA) of China's Shuilianyu Township (Feixian County, Shadong Province) has made a major contribution to both contraceptive acceptance and poverty alleviation. Before the FPA was established in 1988, interviews were conducted in over 700 households in 18 villages in the township. The interviews suggested that adoption of China's one-child policy was being jeopardized by the failure of Communist Party and township officials to themselves adhere to this standard. As a result of this survey, disciplinary actions were taken against 18 officials who had violated the policy or shown bias in granting others permission to have extra children. The township government expressed willingness to have the Family Planning Association assume supervision over family planning implementation and developed "Regulations Governing Democratic Participation and Democratic Supervision by the FPA." Complaint desks and special boxes were established to collect information from the public about corrupt officials. In one case, the FPA was able to advocate on behalf of a man who had two daughters but no sons and was concerned about old age support. The village association was persuaded to give the man a piece of land on which to build a three-room dwelling so his future son-in-law could live with the family. According to custom, only sons have the right to access to land for housing. PMID:12291694
This article points out the important role of family planning (FP) in controlling population growth in China. The impact of development on fertility decline is much slower. China's current FP policy promotes deferred marriage and deferred childbearing and fewer, but healthier, births. The policy promotes one child per couple. Rural couples in certain circumstances, such as if the first birth is a girl, are allowed to have a second child that is properly spaced. FP should be promoted in ethnic inhabited areas. Under this policy, fertility declined from 2.59 to 2 children/woman during the period 1987-92. In more developed areas, fertility has declined below replacement level to 1.6. FP was first promoted in the National Program for Agricultural Development in the 1950s. Birth control was promoted in densely populated areas without high minority concentrations. Fertility hovered around 6.1 during 1950-57. The Cultural Revolution halted fertility decline. The 1974 FP policy emphasized deferred marriage and deferred childbearing, and spaced (by 4-5 years) but fewer births. Fertility declined from 4.2 to 2.3 during 1974-80, in response to the government directive. Rural population declined from 4.6 to 2.5, and urban population declined from 2.0 to 1.15. The one-child policy was promoted in 1980 and became official state policy. FP became an obligation to the state. Rural areas were less compliant with the one-child policy, which led to the 1984 allowances for a second child. PMID:12293912
In 1965, Nancy Milio established a prenatal and family planning clinic in Detroit, Michigan, to address health disparities and limited access to care among low-income, African American, urban women. Women's health disparities persist today nationally and internationally. Using historical methods, this research analyzes how Milio provided women's health services in the context of the social and political environment. Milio empowered neighborhood women to direct, plan, and participate in the care they received. Successful methods to address disparities in access to family and planning and prenatal care should include empowered participation from the women these programs are intending to serve. PMID:24892860
DeGuzman, Pamela B; Schminkey, Donna L; Koyen, Emily A
The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) enables low-income families to reduce their energy costs by providing funds to make their homes more energy efficient. In addition, the program funds Weatherization Training and Technical Assistance (T and TA) activities to support a range of program operations. These activities include measuring and documenting performance, monitoring programs, promoting advanced techniques and collaborations to further improve program effectiveness, and training, including developing tools and information resources. The T and TA plan outlines the tasks, activities, and milestones to support the weatherization network with the program implementation ramp up efforts. Weatherization of multifamily buildings has been recognized as an effective way to ramp up weatherization efforts. To support this effort, the 2009 National Weatherization T and TA plan includes the task of expanding the functionality of the Weatherization Assistant, a DOE-sponsored family of energy audit computer programs, to perform audits for large and small multifamily buildings This report describes the planning effort for a new multifamily energy audit tool for DOE's WAP. The functionality of the Weatherization Assistant is being expanded to also perform energy audits of small multifamily and large multifamily buildings. The process covers an assessment of needs that includes input from national experts during two national Web conferences. The assessment of needs is then translated into capability and performance descriptions for the proposed new multifamily energy audit, with some description of what might or should be provided in the new tool. The assessment of needs is combined with our best judgment to lay out a strategy for development of the multifamily tool that proceeds in stages, with features of an initial tool (version 1) and a more capable version 2 handled with currently available resources. Additional development in the future is expected to be needed if more capabilities are to be added. A rough schedule for development of the version 1 tool is presented. The components and capabilities described in this plan will serve as the starting point for development of the proposed new multifamily energy audit tool for WAP.
Malhotra, Mini [ORNL; MacDonald, Michael [Sentech, Inc.; Accawi, Gina K [ORNL; New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL; Im, Piljae [ORNL
... About the National Science and Technology Council Cover Letter Interagency Working Group on Plant ... Science and Technology Council Executive Summary Introduction Plan for 2003 - 2008 Cost Estimates ...
Site Plan & Transverse Section - Chickamauga National Military Park Tour Roads, Alexander's Bridge, At the confluence of West Chickamauga Creek and Gordon's Slough, Fort Oglethorpe, Catoosa County, GA
It is the policy of the Department of Energy (DOE) that pollution prevention and sustainable environmental stewardship will be integrated into DOE operations as a good business practice to reduce environmental hazards, protect environmental resources, avoid pollution control costs, and improve operational efficiency and mission sustainability. In furtherance of this policy, DOE established five strategic, performance-based Pollution Prevention (P2) and Sustainable Environmental Stewardship goals and included them as an attachment to DOE O 450.1, Environmental Protection Program. These goals and accompanying strategies are to be implemented by DOE sites through the integration of Pollution Prevention into each site's Environmental Management System (EMS). This document presents a P2 and Sustainability Program and corresponding plan pursuant to DOE Order 450.1 and DOE O 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. This plan is also required by the state of Idaho, pursuant to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) partial permit. The objective of this document is to describe the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site P2 and Sustainability Program. The purpose of the program is to decrease the environmental footprint of the INL Site while providing enhanced support of its mission. The success of the program is dependent on financial and management support. The signatures on the previous page indicate INL, ICP, and AMWTP Contractor management support and dedication to the program. P2 requirements have been integrated into working procedures to ensure an effective EMS as part of an Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS). This plan focuses on programmatic functions which include environmentally preferable procurement, sustainable design, P2 and Sustainability awareness, waste generation and reduction, source reduction and recycling, energy management, and pollution prevention opportunity assessments. The INL Site P2 and Sustainability Program is administratively managed by the INL Site P2 Coordinator. Development and maintenance of this overall INL Site plan is ultimately the responsibility of DOE-ID. This plan is applicable to all INL Site contractors except those at the Naval Reactors Facility.
E. D. Sellers
National Institutes of Health Research Plan on Down Syndrome October 2007 U.S. DEPARTMENT................................................................................. 2 BACKGROUND ON DOWN SYNDROME.......................................................................................... 2 HIGHLIGHTS OF ONGOING RESEARCH ON DOWN SYNDROME AT THE NIH...... 3 NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE
Baker, Chris I.
The benefits of various-sized families in Malaysia were discussed by several women and supplemented with official statements on family planning (FP). The Director of the National Population and Family Development, Dr. Raj Karim, advised that maternal health is jeopardized when women have more than five children. About 30% of reproductive age women in Malaysia have five or more children. A Federation of FP Associations spokesperson agreed that women should be advised of the dangers of bearing over five children, of the importance of spacing births two to four years apart, and of the ideal age of childbearing (21-39 years). The government lacks an official policy on family size. The government position is, however, compatible with Islamic teachings on spacing in order to protect the health of the mother and child. Islamic law does not permit sterilization or abortion. The "fatwas" of Islamic teaching may have been misconstrued by those not using any form of contraception. Dr. Karim, who has five children, reported that having a large family can be difficult for a woman with a job, a career, and a husband or when both parents work. Most Malays desire large families. The average Malay family size was 4.1 children in 1990; Malaysian Chinese have fertility of 2.3 children and Malaysian Indians have 2.6 children. People say that the benefits outweigh the hardships of a large family. PMID:12287219
Fuel cells are being developed for application in the transportation sector because they will convert hydrogen to electric power at high efficiencies with virtually no detrimental environmental impact. To realize these energy, environmental, and economic benefits, developers of FCV's need to (1) reduce the size and weight of current designs, (2) develop fuel cell propulsion systems with rapid start-up and greater load-following capability, (3) reduce system cost and/or improve performance, and (4) utilize alternative fuels to a large extent. This Plan addresses the FCV-related requirements of the Energy Act, describing a development program for light- and heavy-duty propulsion systems, a basic R&D program on fuel cell technology that is separate from, but feeds into, the system development activities, and supporting analyses. Implementation of the Program Plan by means of industry/government alliances will accelerate the commercialization of FCV's. In the long term, the successful deployment of large numbers of FCV's promises to eliminate the transportation sector as a major contributor to the nation's environmental problems.
Catholic groups and individuals united in a public rally in Manila's Rizal Park to decry a "cultural dictatorship," which promotes abortion, homosexuality, lesbianism, sexual perversion, condoms, and artificial contraception. Government spokesmen responded that condoms and contraception were part of government policy to spread family planning knowledge and informed choices among the population. Cardinal Jaime Sin and former president Corazon Aquino joined forces to lead the movement against the national family planning program in the largest demonstration since the ouster of Ferdinand Marcos in 1986. Also criticized was the 85-page draft action plan for the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) scheduled for September 1994. Cardinal Sin accused President Clinton of using the action plan to promote worldwide abortion. Under the administration of President Fidel Ramos, family planning funding has quintupled and the number of family planning workers has increased from 200 to 8000. President Ramos has gone the farthest of any administration in opposing the Church's positions on contraception and abortion, although years ago Fidel Ramos and Cardinal Sin were allies in the effort to push out Ferdinand Marcos. The population of the Philippines is 85% Catholic, and laws reflect the Church's doctrine against divorce and abortion. The current growth rate is 2.3%, and the goal is to reduce growth to 2.0% by 1998, the end of Ramos's term in office. The population target is in accord with demographic goals proposed in the UN draft action plan. The Vatican has opposed the language in the plan and may have encouraged other religious leaders to join those opposed to the "war against our babies and children." Sin said that contraceptive distribution was "intrinsically evil" and should be stopped now. Ramos's administration stated that their policies and programs are not "in the hands of the devil" and there is support for the Church on family values and abortion. Health minister Flavier has indicated that illegal abortion has become very common, and control of abortion is through family planning. The Protestant president will oppose abortion at ICDP. PMID:12345705
There are couples with unmet family planning needs and couples who do not use any modern method, yet they desire to space or avoid pregnancies. Many of them look for safe and effective options like the natural family planning methods. The Billings Ovulation Method based on single index cervical mucus parameter is one such option. The present multicentre trial conducted in India has shown an encouraging use-effectiveness of the method, indicating method failure as low as 1.5 +/- 0.3 and use-failure 15.9 +/- 0.8 per 100 users at 21 months. The method continuation rates have also been as high as 88.3/100 users at 6 months and 52.0/100 users at 21 months. PMID:8838482
Bhargava, H; Bhatia, J C; Ramachandran, L; Rohatgi, P; Sinha, A
We consider the evidence for the effect of access to reproductive health services on the achievement of Millennium Development Goals 1, 2, and 3, which aim to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, achieve universal primary education, and promote gender equality and empower women. At the household level, controlled trials in Matlab, Bangladesh, and Navrongo, Ghana, have shown that increasing access to family planning services reduces fertility and improves birth spacing. In the Matlab study, findings from long-term follow-up showed that women's earnings, assets, and body-mass indexes, and children's schooling and body-mass indexes, substantially improved in areas with improved access to family planning services compared with outcomes in control areas. At the macroeconomic level, reductions in fertility enhance economic growth as a result of reduced youth dependency and an increased number of women participating in paid labour. PMID:22784535
Canning, David; Schultz, T Paul
During the last decade, the World Health Organization has paid increasing attention to some reliable methods of birth control based on periodic abstinence. There are 2 main methods of natural family planning--the Sympto-Thermal method and the Billings Ovulation method. The latter is explained in this paper. Its scientific basis, use, effectiveness, and importance as a birth control method as well as for understanding certain types of infertility are discussed. (author's) PMID:7037526
Meier-Vismara, E; Meier-Vismara, U
This review of periodic abstinence for family planning emphasizes terminology and distinctions between the prevalent methods, and issues that will enable the health practitioner to be informed about this family planning choice. Periodic abstinence developed in the 1930s when Ogino and Knaus independently discovered the timing of ovulation, and consequently the calendar-based rhythm method became sanctioned by the church. Philippine surveys find a 40/100 woman-year pregnancy rate with rhythm. The cervical mucus method is also known as the ovulation, Billings or mucus method. Coitus is permitted by the 4th night after the peak day. Symptoms may be obscured by vaginal or seminal fluids, infections, allergies, or drugs. The symptothermal method employs mucus symptoms and basal body temperature. Coitus is allowed on the 3rd night after the temperature rise. It has the lowest failure rate, ranging from 11.2-19.8. Some family planning groups also use other symptoms such as midcycle spotting or pain, cervical position, dilation or texture, moods or libido. Various teaching groups have published charts that facilitate charting symptoms, such as temperature graphs with wide scales to make it easier to read the temperature rise. Measuring efficacy rates is difficult, and different definitions are used for several types of failures. The most important factor in success with natural family planning is the motivation of the couple. The most common cause of failure is conscious departure from the rules. Some current issues regarding abstinence are possible risks of birth defects from aged gametes, the difficulty of predicting ovulation in women with irregular cycles, the effects of vaginal infection and illness on the mucus signs, the potential for sex selection through the use of timing of intercourse and development of tests and devices to predict ovulation. PMID:2663279
Labbok, M H; Queenan, J T
An analysis of 46 posters from 27 countries of Sub-Saharan Africa allowed the values conveyed by this medium to be defined, the status of the announcer and the recipient to be clarified, and their relationship and the attendant social consequences to be brought out. One of the primary characteristics of this sample was that the vast majority of the posters contained drawings and only a limited number used photos. The family was the theme most commonly represented by the image and the text: information on family planning necessarily involved the family, the synonym of fertility. The majority of posters represented the traditional, nuclear family of the Western world, comprising the father, mother, and children. It was interesting to observe that this image did not necessarily reflect reality in Africa, where traditionally the extended family, including the grandparents, uncles and aunts, is more widespread. The message most commonly conveyed the image of the nuclear family. The number of children shown varied from 1 to 4, with an average of 2. The most widely used message strategies in this sample of posters involved three types of announcer: authoritarian, nonauthoritarian, and character announcer. The authoritarian type announcer was not visually depicted but consisted of messages that were written orders or threats. The nonauthoritarian announcer, also not depicted, gave messages that contained no orders or threats. The character announcer was one the characters portrayed in the picture. PMID:12319939
De Paolis, M R
Since 1985, there have been no cases of coercion in the practice of family planning and yet also no unplanned births among the over 1200 members of the Chinese Communist Party in Hunan Province's Fuxing Township. Ideological work is aimed at demonstrating that fertility control is in the interest of both individuals and the state. All township cadres are asked by the government to take the lead in practicing family planning, publicizing population policies, and assisting in solving the difficulties of the masses. They are further expected to take the lead in the provision of 5 services: 1) publicity about population theory and family planning policy; 2) birth control training and provision; 3) management and distribution of contraceptives; 4) maternal-child health services, including free health check-ups for the 870 children in the township and follow-up visits to the 2100 women who have undergone tubal ligation; and 5) development of social welfare and assistance to 1-child households. PMID:12341553
Inconsistent use of contraceptives or discontinuance of family planning services places women at risk of unintended pregnancies. Dropping out of family planning clinics also could mean interrupting gynecological care. Nonetheless, approximately 20% of adolescent family planning patients and nearly 25% of adult patients do not return for a second…
Armstrong, Kay A.; And Others
This study reviews and analyzes family planning legislation in seven countries of the Mediterranean region: Greece, Italy, Morocco, Portugal, Spain, Tunisia, and Turkey. Part 1, a general review, specifically focuses on the role of religion in the development of family planning programs, laws with an indirect effect on family planning (minumum age…
This document gives highlights of the family planning situation in countries of the world, together with basic demographic statistics. Its purpose is to provide a quick reference source for those who work in family planning, population, and other related fields. Following a brief history of the pioneering work in family planning, population…
International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).
Eighty-two of 83 mental health professionals, including psychiatrists, were surveyed to determine their attitudes and behaviors toward AIDS prevention and family planning counseling with psychiatrically ill female outpatients. Nearly all reported that information should be provided on AIDS and family planning. However, they reported that they had raised topics of AIDS with only 19% of patients and family planning with
John H. Coverdale; John F. Aruffo
...2010-10-01 false How is a Tribal Family Assistance Plan amended? 286.165...Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...
...2010-10-01 false Who submits a Tribal Family Assistance Plan? 286.70 Section...Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...
In 1973, a small-scale project to involve family planning staff in program management was introduced in the Sangam primary health center in Andhra Pradesh by the Adminstrative Staff College of India, Hyderabad. Through group meetings, involving all levels of health center personnel, problem areas were identified and analysed and solutions sought. On the basis of recommendations made by the groups, a work plan was drawn up. Monthly review meetings were held to discuss progress in implementing the plan. The project was found to have a positive effect on staff morale and commitment, and program acceptance levels increased. In light of the success of the project at Sangam, a proposal has been submitted to the government to expand the project to other primary health centers in the district. PMID:936257
Murthi, M N
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine prospectively whether unplanned pregnancies are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes among users of natural family planning. METHODS: Women who became pregnant while using natural family planning were identified in five centers worldwide: there were 373 unplanned and 367 planned pregnancies in this cohort. The subjects were followed up at 16 and 32 weeks' gestation and after delivery. The risks of spontaneous abortion, low birth-weight, and preterm birth were estimated after adjustment by logistic regression. RESULTS: The women with unplanned pregnancies were more likely to be at the extremes of age, to report more medical problems before and during the index pregnancy, and to seek antenatal care later in gestation than the women with planned pregnancies. However, women with planned pregnancies reported a higher rate of spontaneous abortion in previous pregnancies (28.8%) than did women with unplanned pregnancies (12.9%). There were no significant differences in the rates of spontaneous abortion, low birthweight, or preterm birth between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: No increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes was observed among women who experienced an unplanned pregnancy while using natural family planning. PMID:9096531
Bitto, A; Gray, R H; Simpson, J L; Queenan, J T; Kambic, R T; Perez, A; Mena, P; Barbato, M; Li, C; Jennings, V
The document presents a new set of standards for family and consumer sciences (FACS) education. Section 1 is a three-chapter overview. Chapter 1 addresses the rationale for change and the FACS vision and mission. Chapter 2 describes the approach to develop the national standards, FACS format, and components of the standards. Chapter 3 provides…
National Association of State Administrators for Family and Consumer Sciences.
Background: The Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR) Education for All National Plan of Action (EFA NPA) for 2003-2015 seeks to accomplish three major tasks: equitable access, improved quality and relevance and strengthened education management. Purpose: To design a National Education For All Action Plan for basic education in Lao PDR which…
Online Submission, 2005
National Aeronautics and Space Administration 2010 Science Plan For NASA's Science Mission Directorate EARTH SCIENCE HELIOPHYSICS PLANETARY SCIENCE ASTROPHYSICS www.nasa.gov July 2010 #12;THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY BLANK #12;Science Plan for NASA's Science Mission Directorate 2 6 2.1 National Policy Direction
This document is an update to the National Metal Finishing Environmental R&D Plan (EPA/600/R-97/095), dated September 1997. The 1997 Plan and Update are available on the National Metal Finishing Resource Center's web site, www.nmfrc.org. The primary purpose in preparing an up...
This paper examines family planning in Brazil as biopolitics and explores how the democratization of the State and of reproductive health services after two decades of military dictatorship (1964-1984) has influenced health professionals' and family planning users' discourses and practices. Do health professionals envisage family planning as a 'right' or do they conceive it, following the old neo-Malthusian rationale, as a 'moral duty' of poor people, whose 'irrational' reproduction jeopardizes the family's and the nation's well being? And how do their patients conceptualize and embody family planning? To answer these questions, this paper draws on 13 months of multi-sited ethnographic research undertaken between 2003 and 2005 in two public family planning services in Salvador da Bahia, where participant observation was undertaken and unstructured interviews were conducted with 11 health professionals and 70 family planning users, mostly low income black women. The paper examines how different bio-political rationalities operate in these services and argues that the old neo-Malthusian rationale and the current, dominant discourse on reproductive rights, gender equality and citizenship coexist. The coalescence of different biopolitical rationalities leads to the double stigmatization of family planning users as 'victims' of social and gender inequalities and as 'irrational' patients, 'irresponsible' mothers and 'bad' citizens if they do not embody the neo-Malthusian and biomedical rationales shaping medical practice. However, these women do not behave as 'docile bodies': they tactically use medical and non-medical contraceptives not only to be good mothers and citizens, but also to enhance themselves and to attain their own goals. PMID:22889428
De Zordo, Silvia
in each year's Annual Report. The Academic Affairs Strategic Plan allows us to clarify our goals. Preamble The purpose of the Academic Affairs Strategic Plan is to identify the goals, actions, and outcomesAcademic Affairs Strategic Plan Action Plan 2008-2009 1) Creating Academic Programs of National
Hardy, Christopher R.
The Paraguayan Center for Population Studies (CEPEP) has always carefully planned its activities, but a process of strategic planning beginning in 1989 allowed several shortcomings in the planning process to be identified and corrected. The planning strategy had previously been strongly vertical, with only departmental directors and the executive director fully involved. Other office personnel and clinic directors were prevented from contributing in any meaningful way by bureaucratic obstacles and their lack of an overall vision of the organization's mission. Although CEPEP had devoted considerable effort to diagnosis and evaluation prior to developing its plans, the type of evaluation conducted was not appropriate for analyzing medium and longterm trends and needs. Improved planning required continuous analysis of the organization as a whole, rather then evaluation of specific projects, and it required a frank and realistic analysis of the internal organization in relation to CEPEP's goals and its short, medium, and longterm strategies. CEPEP planning suffered from overly general objectives and failed to prioritize goals. Assignment of human and financial resources tended to reproduce the distribution of resources of the preceding year rather than being guided by the plan. New and innovative programs were not funded immediately; available funds were assigned almost exclusively to existing programs. New projects tended to be implemented only because an international donor appeared with the idea and a disposition to fund it. Such projects were often unrelated to planned activities, of short duration, and of dubious relevance to CEPEP goals. The plenary meetings, committee work, and seminars for CEPEP's strategic planning were time consuming but productive. They provided a foundation for CEPEP to redefine its goals and strategies. New plans call for a strong component of activities designed to change the attitude of the government toward family planning, and open the organization to collaborative programs with other public and private sector institutions. Activities in rural areas are to receive greater emphasis. More resources are to be devoted to information and education. The new objectives and tasks require an internal reorganization, which is currently underway. PMID:12343251
Carron, J M
This article concerns how globalization and the aging of the world's population are affecting the already complex issue of intergenerational transnational caregiving. Globalization has caused an increase in workforce mobility with large numbers of individuals seeking employment overseas. This, coupled with increased longevity globally, has resulted in many workers leaving their elderly parents in need of care in their home countries. This has spawned caregiving across national borders, or caring for family relations across nations. Currently in the United States, not enough emphasis is given to family caregiving. Data compiled by AARP and the National Alliance for Caregiving estimate the economic value for this group of family caregivers in 2007 to be $375 billion, accounting for 34-52 million family caregivers per given year. This does not include those families who are transnational caregivers. The seminal work in this emerging field has been done by social anthropologists Loretta Baldassar, Cora Velekoop Baldock, and Raelene Wilding, who have defined the components of transnational caregiving based on an ethnographic study using qualitative data to study nine immigrant communities in Western Australia. Although their research focused on caregiving from a distance, additional work has been added to the discussion by introducing the element of "care drain" and further cultural perspectives. Therefore, this research is an exploratory study on intergenerational transnational caregiving within the context of the changing world and its demographics. Within the context of globalization and global aging, the following questions are addressed: What is the significance of family caregiving? What is a transnational? How has technology changed "transnationalism" today? What are the elements that comprise transnational caregiving? How does culture play a role in transnational caregiving? What are some of the national initiatives undertaken by governments to aid in workforce issues and recognition of caregiving organizations? By exploring these questions, it is hoped that there will be a better understanding of transnational caregiving and its relevance in all societies. PMID:21717848
Dhar, V Erica
Second in a series of booklets designed to assist Year 6 teachers with planning instruction to meet objectives of the National Literacy Strategy, this booklet reproduces the medium-term planning for the Autumn and Spring Terms 2001-2002 and contains detailed planning for a further Autumn Term unit (report Writing) and two for the Spring Term…
Department for Education and Skills, London (England).
This report discusses the institutional plan for Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the next five years (1995-2000). Included in this report are the: laboratory director`s statement; laboratory mission, vision, and core competencies; laboratory plan; major laboratory initiatives; scientific and technical programs; critical success factors; summaries of other plans; and resource projections.
This Wildland Fire Management Plan (FMP) for Brookhaven National Lab (BNL) updates the 2003 plan incorporating changes necessary to comply with DOE Order 450.1 and DOE P 450.4, Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy and Program Review; Wildland and Prescribed Fire Management Policy and implementation Procedures Reference Guide. This current plan incorporates changes since the original draft of the FMP that
Presents a position statement by the National Athletic Trainers' Association on emergency planning in athletics, examining the professional and legal importance of emergency plans and looking at components of emergency plans, which include implementation, personnel, equipment, communication, transportation, venue location, emergency care…
Andersen, J. C.; Courson, Ronald W.; Kleiner, Douglas M.; McLoda, Todd A.
The Korean Mothers' Club Program, a large national program of family planning that relies strongly on existing channels of interpersonal communication at the village level for its success, is reviewed in this monograph. The efforts of one such club to help an extremely poor village, Oryu Li, to achieve a large measure of pride, confidence, and…
Kincaid, D. Lawrence; And Others
...Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities...Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP...District Library, 300 South River Avenue, Holland, MI 49423...Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals,...
...Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities...Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Contents I. Introduction...are shown on the following tables. The cleanup goals...
methods of selecting judges in the United States. After highlighting this troubling characteristic of the Missouri Plan’s process of selecting judges, I turn briefly to the retention of judges and caution against the dangers posed by subjecting sitting...
Ware, Stephen J.
The place education has been assigned in the national development programs of 10 nations is discussed, the problems that these countries have encountered in managing education are examined, and the measures adopted to solve educational problems are assessed. Included are the following papers: (1) "The Nature of National Development Planning" (R.…
Thomas, R. Murray, Ed.
Despite skepticism on the part of the health care delivery system, increasing numbers of women and couples are relying on natural family planning methods to avoid or achieve pregnancy. Most clients require 2-4 cycles to become familiar with the delineation of the fertile phase. Both the ovulation and the sympto-thermal methods are considered to have a method effectiveness of at least 98%. Teaching-related unplanned pregnancies fall below 5%. Use of the Billings ovulation method requires the couple to abstain from intercourse from the beginning of mucus until the 4th day after peak. The sympto-thermal method is preferred by those desiring a multiple-index approach. 75-80% of users of this method can detect cervical softening and dilatation, and 50% are aware of the change of position of the cervix. Knowledge of mucus buildup patterns can be expecially important for adolescents, lactating women, and premenopausal women in helping them to determine whether cycles are ovulatory. Instruction in interpretation of the mucus cycle is further advised in cases of infertility. Unwillingness of the partners to practice it constitutes the only contraindication to natural family planning. However, couples are advised to wait for the postovulatory infertile phase of the cycle to have intercourse in cases where prgnancy would pose a serious threat to the life of the mother or fetus. Although some groups recommend the use of a barrier method rather than abstinence during fertile periods, this practice makes mucus recognition more difficult and impedes confidence in the method. Attainment of couple autonomy in natural family planning involves 2 phases: 1) correct recognition of the signs of fertility and 2) comfort with periodic asbsinence. Successful autonomy is reflected in the high continuation rates found in programs that offer adequate counseling support. PMID:6672043
...Prevention [Docket No. CDC-2012-0004] Draft Public Health Action Plan--A National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection, Prevention...requesting public comment on the draft National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection,...
...Prevention [Docket No. CDC-2012-0004] Draft Public Health Action Plan--A National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection, Prevention...requesting public comment on the draft National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection,...
Determining sex of offspring by timing of intercourse has been a subject of intense interest for the lay public and professional community. This metaaanalysis of couples practicing natural family planning provides an opportunity to evaluate sex ratios in relation to the timing of conception with several parameters, including basal body temperature shift and peak mucus as markers of ovulation. Data from six studies show a statistically significant lower proportion of male births among conceptions that occur during the most fertile time of the cycle. PMID:1836712
Gray, R H
A Natural Family Planning service was evaluated at the end of a 30-month developmental phase. There were 444 women taught and 322 method acceptor of which 248 intended to avoid pregnancy. NFP clients were older (mean age 26.9 vs 22.4 and 23.7 for comparison groups), and a larger percentage were married (83.1 per cent vs 23.0 per cent for the comparison group). After one year of use, the unplanned pregnancy rate was 14.4 per cent and the total dropout rate was 37.6 per cent by life table analysis. PMID:7294271
Kambic, R; Kambic, M; Brixius, A M; Miller, S
The Billings/ovulation method is a periodic abstinence method of regulating births based on the client's interpretation of changing patterns in secretions of cervical mucus monitored by external self-examination. It was developed in Australia and is now widely promoted overseas. This paper outlines the method's recent history and goes on to discuss its physiological basis, its use-effectiveness as measured in a number of major trials, and some evidence concerning its general acceptability and applicability in family planning programs. PMID:6515667
...FRL-9463-7] National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List AGENCY: Environmental Protection...Regional Administrator, Region 4. Accordingly, the amendment to Table 1 of Appendix B to Part 300 to remove the entry ``Hipps...
...FRL-9465-5] National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List AGENCY: Environmental Protection...Regional Administrator, Region 6. Accordingly, the amendment to Table 1 of Appendix B to CFR part 300 to remove the entry...
...FRL-9465-7] National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List AGENCY: Environmental Protection...Regional Administrator, Region 6. Accordingly, the amendment to Table 1 of Appendix B to CFR part 300 to remove the entry...
...FRL-9463-8] National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List AGENCY: Environmental Protection...Administrator, Region 4. 0 Accordingly, the amendment to Table 1 of Appendix B to Part 300 to remove the entry ``Hipps...
862 men attending the family health clinic, General Hospital, Kurunegala, Sri Lanka for sterilization over the October 1, 1982-March 1983 period were interviewed to study the characteristics of the men attending the clinic and to assess the popularity of vasectomy over other methods of family planning. For the study to be more comprehensive, the figures of the family planning activities of the hospital from 1977-82 also were examined. 438 (55.5%) of the study subjects were paddy cultivators. 71 of the men were in the 16-25 age group, 422 in the 26-35 age group, 272 in the 36-45 age group, and 97 in the 46 and older age group. 725 (85%) of the men were literate. Middle income groups comprised the major segment of men in this series. In 544 (63.1%) the vasectomy was motivated by friends and relatives; only 15 (2.0%) were motivated by health staff. 821 of the men (95.3%) belonged to the 16-39 age group. A table summarizes the relationship between age of the last living child and vasectomy performance. For 279 of the men, the age of their last living child was less than 1 year; it was 1-2 years for 218 men, 2-3 years for 180 men, and 3 or more years for 185 men. Study observations indicate that a consensus is becoming established about the role played by the male partner in family planning. The incentive scheme, acceptability and safety of the method, and a change in life styles should be considered. In the 862 vasectomies performed, there were no major complications or failures in contraception. Some pertinent factors for the favorable trend in vasectomy at this clinic are: health education talks delivered by a trained staff nurse at this clinic, outpatient department, and wards of the hospital; motivation activities of the community development social workers in the field; this clinic being the leading clinic of the limited number of institutions in Kurunegala conducting regular male sterilization clinics, and personality characteristics of the medical officer, staff, and the facilities available at the clinic. The middle months and the latter part of the year were the most popular periods at this clinic. These months represent the nonharvesting season. The study shows that the small family norm has been preferred by the majority; only 111 had more than 3 living children. Better education, better communication, and better approach methods may improve vasectomy acceptance rates. PMID:6680335
...Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Fire Island National Seashore, New York AGENCY...a Deer and Vegetation Management Plan, Fire Island National Seashore, New York...Deer and Vegetation Management Plan at Fire Island National Seashore, New York....
...Docket No. APHIS-2010-0039] National Poultry Improvement Plan; General Conference...General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan. DATES: The General...Rhorer, Senior Coordinator, National Poultry Improvement Plan, VS, APHIS, 1498...
...General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan; Solicitation for Membership...General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan. DATES: Consideration...Roney, Senior Coordinator, National Poultry Improvement Plan, VS, APHIS, 1506...
...General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan; Cancellation of Meeting...General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan scheduled for January...Roney, Senior Coordinator, National Poultry Improvement Plan, VS, APHIS, 1506...
...General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan AGENCY: Animal and Plant...General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan (Committee) for a 2year...Roney, Senior Coordinator, National Poultry Improvement Plan, VS, APHIS,...
...General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan; Reestablishment AGENCY...General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan (Committee) for a 2-year...Rhorer, Senior Coordinator, National Poultry Improvement Plan, VS, APHIS,...
This article gives a summary of the main points of an address by Minister Peng Peiyun of the State Family Planning Commission at the National Conference on China's Urban Family Planning Program (December 1996). Minister Peng says that China made considerable progress in reducing fertility and increasing life expectancy in urban areas. The changes are attributed to the family planning (FP) program, urban socioeconomic development, improvements in education and medical and health care services, a sound social security system, effective IEC, and the contraceptive service network. Minister Peng characterizes the urban FP program as having a long-term, stable policy for promoting one child per couple. Units at all levels are required to practice family planning. Urban FP programs have effective IEC, a contraceptive service system, and scientific management within a community service system. The FP program targets the floating population of migrants. Urban populations pose may challenges that the FP program has partially met. The aim is population development balanced with socioeconomic development and sustainable development. There is a need to increase public awareness of public services. The FP program recognizes the need to implement the "two transitions" in urban areas: to shift to a policy of FP integrated with socioeconomic development and to shift to an interest-oriented program integrated with social constraints. The aim is to improve the quality of life for the urban population and to sustain low fertility levels. FP programs are still weak in dealing with the floating population, unplanned and unintended pregnancies, abortions, and maternal health. IEC should be strengthened and include topics on women's rights, reproductive health, sex education, environmental protection, and sustainable development. PMID:12320704
-led education; and online education. The University aims to transform national and global understandingsThe Australian National University: University Education Plan 1 2014 University Education Portfolio Operational Plan Introduction A key goal of ANU by 2020 is that the University will be known for educational
First in a series, this booklet contains suggestions for planning literacy in Year 6. This Year 6 plan for 2001-2002 and the short-term unit plan for narrative writing are a distillation of the work of a representative group of Year 6 teachers. It contains the Year 6 Term 1 Units 2 and 5 on Narrative Writing. It begins with an outline of the basic…
Department for Education and Skills, London (England).
SUGGESTED THREE-YEAR GRADUATION PLAN Human Development and Family Studies ÂCase Management Internship in Human Development and Family Studies: Case Management I 3-6 Offered in fall only; fulfills THREE-YEAR GRADUATION PLAN Human Development and Family Studies ÂCase Management for Individuals
SUGGESTED THREE-YEAR GRADUATION PLAN Human Development and Family Studies ÂCase Management HDFS 44192 Internship in Human Development and Family Studies: Case Management I 3-6 Offered in fall below #12;SUGGESTED THREE-YEAR GRADUATION PLAN Human Development and Family Studies ÂCase Management
This report demonstrates the use of Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) to evaluate the technical competence of two cohorts of family planning service providers in Kenya trained with a new curriculum. One cohort had just finished training within two months of the study. The other cohort was the first group trained with the new curriculum about one year before the study. LQAS was adapted from industrial and other public health applications to assess both the individual competence of 30 service providers and the competence of each cohort. Results show that Cohorts One and Two did not differ markedly in the number of tasks needing improvement. However, both cohorts exhibited more tasks needing improvement in counseling skills as compared with physical examination skills or with all other skills. Care-givers who were not currently providing services accounted for most service-delivery problems. This result suggests that providers' use of their skills explains their ability to retain service-delivery skills learned in training to a greater degree than does the amount of time elapsed since they were trained. LQAS proved to be a rapid, easy-to-use empirical method for management decisionmaking for improvement of a family planning training curriculum and services. PMID:9216034
Valadez, J J; Transgrud, R; Mbugua, M; Smith, T
This article provides a preliminary analysis of three aspects of service quality in four rural counties in China--the availability of contraceptive methods, information given to users, and provider knowledge about methods. Contraceptive choice and characteristics of contraceptive use by women in the study areas are also examined. The data are derived from a survey carried out by the authors during 1987, under the auspices of China's State Family Planning Commission. The survey was conducted in four rural counties located in Fujian and Heilongjiang provinces. A total of 318 married women of reproductive age were randomly selected and interviewed. All family planning service sites serving the women were visited and a sample of service providers was interviewed. No shortage of contraceptives existed in any of the counties, but variations in community wealth and local procurement practices have resulted in the acquisition of an IUD with high failure rates. Although providers believe they inform women about method choices and side effects, women were poorly informed about the methods they selected. Not all providers who insert IUDs and distribute pills were knowledgeable about contraindications and side effects of the methods. Ever-use of contraception was nearly 100 percent, but most women, especially in Heilongjiang, have only used one method: the IUD or sterilization. Improvements in quality, especially in method mix, providers' level of knowledge, and the quality and quantity of information provided to users will likely improve contraceptive continuation, client satisfaction, and women's health. PMID:1604461
Kaufman, J; Zhang, Z; Qiao, X; Zhang, Y
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether women with congenital heart disease were receiving appropriate advice on contraception. SETTING: Adult congenital heart disease clinic in a tertiary cardiac referral centre. DESIGN: Questionnaire administered to 35 consecutive female patients attending the adult congenital clinic. The cardiologist assessed what the risk would be if each patient used an oestrogen containing contraceptive pill (OCP). RESULTS: Of the 33 patients admitted to the study 6 patients thought their heart condition precluded them from taking an OCP when in fact it did not and 3 incorrectly said that an OCP would be suitable for them. Three women with relatively minor lesions had been incorrectly denied the OCP and 2 further patients were using inappropriate methods. There had been 6 unwanted pregnancies in the total group. CONCLUSIONS: Many women with congenital heart disease do not know the most appropriate method of contraception for them or have received incorrect advice. It is often patients with less severe lesions who receive the most inappropriate advice. It is clear that the family planning needs of this population are currently poorly catered for. Each unit must ensure that the information necessary in making informed decisions on contraception is available to the doctor advising on family planning. PMID:8774329
Leonard, H.; O'Sullivan, J. J.; Hunter, S.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Healthy People 2020 call for improvements in meeting men's reproductive health needs but little is known about the proportion of men in need. This study describes men aged 35 to 39 in need of family planning and preconception care, demographic correlates of these needs, and contraception use among men in need of family planning. Using data from Wave 4 (2008-2010) of the National Survey of Adolescent Males, men were classified in need of family planning and preconception care if they reported sex with a female in the last year and believed that they and their partner were fecund; the former included men who were neither intentionally pregnant nor intending future children and the latter included men intending future children. Men were classified as being in need of both if they reported multiple sex partners in the past year. About 40% of men aged 35 to 39 were in need of family planning and about 33% in need of preconception care with 12% in need of both. Current partner's age, current union type, and sexually transmitted infection health risk differentiated men in need of family planning and preconception care (all ps < .01) and participants' race/ethnicity further differentiated men in need of preconception care (p < .01). More than half of men in need of family planning reported none of the time current partner hormonal use (55%) or condom use (52%) during the past year. This study identified that many men in their mid-30s are in need of family planning or preconception care. PMID:25389215
Casey, Frances E; Sonenstein, Freya L; Astone, Nan M; Pleck, Joseph H; Dariotis, Jacinda K; Marcell, Arik V
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab/ Site Specific Safety Plan Site Specific Safety Plan Site Specific Safety Plan shall contain at a minimum: List by name & phone numbers the following person who will be on the project: Submit: Name of the On-site Superintendent & Phone. Submit: Name of the On-site Health and Safety
...support our Nation's communities. During National Family...our colleagues, and the community where we live. We must appreciate the diversity of other families’ traditions...I invite States, local communities, and individuals to...
Site Plan and Transverse Section - Chickamauga National Military Park Tour Roads, Gordon's Slough Bridge, At the confluence of Alexander's Bridge Road and Gordon's Slough, southeast of Alexander's Bridge, Fort Oglethorpe, Catoosa County, GA
East Elevation, Bridge Plan & Truss Details - Chickamauga National Military Park Tour Roads, Alexander's Bridge, At the confluence of West Chickamauga Creek and Gordon's Slough, Fort Oglethorpe, Catoosa County, GA
North & South Elevations and Bridge Plan - Chickamauga National Military Park Tour Roads, Gordon's Slough Bridge, At the confluence of Alexander's Bridge Road and Gordon's Slough, southeast of Alexander's Bridge, Fort Oglethorpe, Catoosa County, GA
National Center for Combating Terrorism Strategic Plan is to document the mission, vision, and goals for success; define the build plan; and describe initiatives that support the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Department of Defense, U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Department of Justice, intelligence community, National Governors Association, and other organizations or departments with combating terrorism training, testing, and technology responsibilities.
The U.S. National Physical Activity Plan (NPAP) is a comprehensive strategic plan aimed at increasing physical activity levels in all segments of the American population. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the development of the NPAP, provide an update on the status of the NPAP, and comment on the future of the NPAP. The NPAP was released…
Bornstein, Daniel B.; Pate, Russell R.
Third in a series of booklets designed to assist Year 6 teachers with planning instruction to meet objectives of the National Literacy Strategy, this booklet contains Summer Term planning exemplification for three "revision" units (Narrative, Poetry and Non-fiction) prior to the Key Stage 2 tests and one unit after the tests (Extended narrative…
Department for Education and Skills, London (England).
EPA has taken the lead, in consort with NIH, in developing the Quality Management Plan (QMP) for the National Children's Study (NCS); the QMP will delineate a systematic planning process for the implementation of the NCS. The QMP will state the goals and objectives of the NCS, th...
This report discusses the institutional plan for Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the next five years. Included in the report are: laboratory director`s statement; laboratory mission, vision, and core competencies; laboratory strategic plan; major laboratory initiatives; scientific and technical programs; critical success factors; summaries of other plans; resource projections; appendix which contains data for site and facilities, user facility, science and mathematic education and human resources; and laboratory organization chart.
...2013-10-01 false Comprehensive child and family services plan requirements. 1357...DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE...
...2011-10-01 false Comprehensive child and family services plan requirements. 1357...DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE...
...2010-10-01 false Comprehensive child and family services plan requirements. 1357...DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE...
...2012-10-01 false Comprehensive child and family services plan requirements. 1357...DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE...
This article reviews field experiences with provision of family planning services in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programs in ten countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Family planning is a standard component of most antenatal care and maternal-child health programs within which PMTCT programs are offered. Yet PMTCT sites often miss opportunities to provide HIV-positive clients with family planning
Naomi Rutenberg; Carolyn Baek
The overarching goal of the National Infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP) is to build a safer, more secure, and more resilient America by preventing, deterring, neutralizing, or mitigating the effects of deliberate efforts by terrorists to destroy, incapacitate, or exploit elements of our Nation's critical infrastructure and key resources (CIKR)…
US Department of Homeland Security, 2009
The National Mapping Division (NMD) has developed this comprehensive strategic plan to chart the course of the National Civil Applications Program (NCAP) over the next 5 years. To meet the challenges of the future, the NCAP is changing its program emphases, methods of responding to customer needs, and business practices. The NCAP Strategic Plan identifies the new direction for the program through a series of strategic thrusts and goals for managers to use in formulating plans, establishing program emphases, and determining resource needs and allocations.
U.S. Geological Survey
As part of the preparations for the 1994 UN International Conference on Population and Development, an expert group meeting on family planning (FP), health, and family well-being was held in India on October 26-30, 1992. The group focused on the following issues: 1) society and FP, a review of existing FP programs, and the implementation of FP programs (including quality of services and human resources development, unreached populations, adolescent fertility, diffusion of innovative activities, community-based distribution systems and social marketing, and future contraceptive requirements and logistics management needs); 2) FP and health (including safe motherhood and child survival, the interdependence of services, sexually transmitted diseases [STDs], and AIDS); 3) FP and family well-being (including family size, family structure, child development, fertility decline, and family support systems); and 4) the involvement of people in FP programs (community participation, cost of supplies and service, contraceptive research and development, and a reexamination of the roles of various agencies). Both developed and developing countries were considered, with an emphasis on the latter. After reviewing the progress made in implementing the World Population Plan of Action adopted in Bucharest in 1974, the expert group drafted 35 recommendations to governments, donors, and other agencies. Governments are asked to support FP programs as a cost-effective component of a development strategy, to provide opportunities for women to participate in public policy processes, to support the family through public policies and programs, to increase investments in FP and reproductive and maternal and child health, to increase support to the health and education sectors to achieve basic human rights, to provide safe access to counseling and abortion services, and to include STD/HIV education and prevention in the work of FP programs. FP programs should receive support and funding and should involve nongovernment groups in advocacy efforts. They should help individuals achieve their reproductive goals in a voluntary, informed manner. Governments should attempt to set up programs to meet unmet needs and programs should be evaluated periodically. FP programs should respond to community needs and incorporate the user's perspective in the broadest range of services possible. The special needs of adolescents should be served through special confidential programs. Social marketing of contraception should be encouraged to create demand. The involvement and responsibility of men should be encouraged. Information, education, and communication activities should be supported, and population and family life education should be extended and strengthened in formal settings. Nongovernmental organizations should receive support from governments and the international community and should coordinate activities at these levels. Barriers to private sector involvement in FP should be removed, and public/private partnerships should be encouraged. Forecasting of contraceptive requirements should be improved, and the role of the commercial sector in meeting needs should be strengthened. Funding for programs should be increased, and costs should be made as effective as possible. Technical and social service research should receive funding. Utilization of data for program planning should be given higher priority. PMID:12287717
Continuation rates among family planning acceptors in the Philippines were studied through data collected in 1971-1972. More than 1/2 the respondents were continuing with the original method. Coitus-independent methods were found to be more effective than coitus-dependent methods in preventing pregnancy. Health-related side effects accounted for nearly 1/2 the dropouts among women using a coitus-independent method; failure resulting in pregnancy was the reason cited for the majority of dropouts using coitus-dependent methods. Changes from 1 method to another tend in the direction of coitus-independent methods. Findings that 1/4 of the women dropped out of the program and 1/5 changed method indicate a high level of dissatisfaction with available methods. PMID:12308791
Ballweg, J A; Maccorquodale, D W
The purpose of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Integrated Sampling Plan (referred to herein as the Plan) is to provide a comprehensive, integrated approach for collecting and analyzing groundwater samples to meet the needs and objectives of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity. Implementation of this Plan will provide high-quality data required by the UGTA Activity for ensuring public protection in an efficient and cost-effective manner. The Plan is designed to ensure compliance with the UGTA Quality Assurance Plan (QAP). The Plan’s scope comprises sample collection and analysis requirements relevant to assessing the extent of groundwater contamination from underground nuclear testing. This Plan identifies locations to be sampled by corrective action unit (CAU) and location type, sampling frequencies, sample collection methodologies, and the constituents to be analyzed. In addition, the Plan defines data collection criteria such as well-purging requirements, detection levels, and accuracy requirements; identifies reporting and data management requirements; and provides a process to ensure coordination between NNSS groundwater sampling programs for sampling of interest to UGTA. This Plan does not address compliance with requirements for wells that supply the NNSS public water system or wells involved in a permitted activity.
Marutzky, Sam; Farnham, Irene
A nutrition game designed for the Food Policy and Nutrition Division of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations to aid in planning national nutrition education programs in Third World countries is described. The Simulated Nutrition System Game allows high-level ministerial staff in developing countries to discuss, via a common language created by SNUS I, the issues, problems, and complexities of national nutrition programs. PMID:858673
Duke, R D; Cary, R
Background Average contraceptive prevalence rate in the Nkwanta district of Ghana was estimated to be 6.2% relative to the national average at the time, of 19%. While several efforts had been made to improve family planning in the country, the district still had very low use of modern family planning methods. This study sought to determine the factors that influenced modern family planning use in general and specifically, the factors that determined the consistently low use of modern family planning methods in the district. Methods A case–control study was conducted in the Nkwanta district of Ghana to determine socio-economic, socio-cultural and service delivery factors influencing family planning usage. One hundred and thirty cases and 260 controls made up of women aged 15–49 years were interviewed using structured questionnaires. A logistic regression was fitted. Results Awareness and knowledge of modern family planning methods were high among cases and controls (over 90%). Lack of formal education among women, socio-cultural beliefs and spousal communication were found to influence modern family planning use. Furthermore, favourable opening hours of the facilities and distance to health facilities influenced the use of modern contraceptives. Conclusion While modern family planning seemed to be common knowledge among these women, actual use of such contraceptives was limited. There is need to improve use of modern family planning methods in the district. In addition to providing health facilities and consolidating close-to-client service initiatives in the district, policies directed towards improving modern family planning method use need to consider the influence of formal education. Promoting basic education, especially among females, will be a crucial step as the district is faced with high levels of school dropout and illiteracy rates. PMID:25117887
The NIF contains a large number of optics that also act as vacuum barriers. These are subject to brittle failures that may result in significant consequences. This Fracture Control Plan identifies the requirements, needed documentation, and required actions for minimizing the potential for brittle failures of these fracture critical components in the NIF laser system. The goal of this plan is to ensure that all fracture-critical systems present no more than a low level of risk. Risk considers both consequences (to workers, the environment, and public confidence) and probability of failure. This plan interprets and implements the guidance contained in the ME Design Safety Standard, Section 5.4, ''Design Safety Standards for Fracture Critical Components for High Power Laser Systems'' (LLNL, 2000).
Proponents of natural family planning (NFP) were interviewed to update thinking about these methods. People in general think that NFP means only the Rhythm method, and that it is ineffective. NFP teachers counter that there are many different ways of determining ovulation: basal temperature, cervical mucus, luteinizing hormone assays, salivary estrogen/progesterone level, oral/vaginal electrical resistance among others. Each of these techniques has its own effectiveness rate, which should be determined separately, and not lumped together. It is not valid to combined barrier methods with NFP to derive efficacy statistics, because perfect abstinence during the fertile period is absolutely effective, while all barrier methods are subject to failure. Furthermore, during the learning phase, abstinence should be practiced, so that the presence of vaginal secretions or semen does not obscure cervical symptoms. Good psychological rapport is the key to mastering NFP. Proponents believe that NFP is the best method for both sophisticated western couples and those in developing countries who are concerned about a highly effective and completely safe contraceptive method. The International Federation for Family Life Promotion has produced a 100-page guide for teaching NFP in developing countries. PMID:12341794
For many across the country, the National Park system contains some of the most precious cultural and natural resources in the United States. At any given time, the National Park Service is working on dozens of long-term plans for the development and conservation of various properties under their oversight, including national monuments and national historic sites. This website provides access to current plans, environmental impact analyses, and related documents that are under review. Visitors to the site can search for plans by geographic region, by state, or by a drop-down menu of all of the various properties. The site also contains a number of other helpful links, including those that lead to a glossary of relevant terms and the Council on Environmental Policy.
The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan for FY 2000-2004 sets forth the laboratory's mission, roles, technical capabilities, and laboratory strategic plan. In the plan, major initiatives also are proposed and the transitioning initiatives are discussed. The Programmatic Strategy section details our strategic intent, roles, and research thrusts in each of the U.S. Department of Energy's mission areas. The Operations/Infrastructure Strategic Plan section includes information on the laboratory's human resources; environment, safety, and health management; safeguards and security; site and facilities management; information resources management; management practices and standards; and communications and trust.
Pearson, Erik W.
The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan for FY 2001-2005 sets forth the laboratory's mission, roles, technical capabilities, and laboratory strategic plan. In the plan, major initiatives also are proposed and the transitioning initiatives are discussed. The Programmatic Strategy section details our strategic intent, roles, and research thrusts in each of the U.S. Department of Energy's mission areas. The Operations/Infrastructure Strategic Plan section includes information on the laboratory's human resources; environment, safety, and health management; safeguards and security; site and facilities management; information resources management; managaement procatices and standards; and communications and trust.
Fisher, Darrell R.; Pearson, Erik W.
This ethnographic inquiry examines how family languages policies are planned and developed in ten Chinese immigrant families in Quebec, Canada, with regard to their children's language and literacy education in three languages, Chinese, English, and French. The focus is on how multilingualism is perceived and valued, and how these three languages…
Curdt-Christiansen, Xiao Lan
Based on "Zlata's Diary: A Child's Life in Sarajevo" by Zlata Filipovic, this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that historical drama, like other historical fiction, is rooted in history but contains imaginary elements as well; and that the author describes in her diary what it was like to be a teenager in…
The study assessed the influence of protective factors on the psychological adjustment of children who had experienced homophobia and whose mothers were participants in a longitudinal study of planned lesbian families. Data were collected as part of the National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study by interviewing the children and having the mothers complete questionnaires. No significant differences were found in the psychological adjustment of children in the present study and their age-matched peers in a U.S.-population sample. Homophobia had a negative impact on the well-being of children who experienced it. Attending schools with LGBT curricula and their mothers' participation in the lesbian community were found to protect children against the negative influences of homophobia. PMID:19042752
Bos, Henny M W; Gartrell, Nanette K; Peyser, Heidi; van Balen, Frank
ABSTRACT A USAID-sponsored family planning project called “FALAH” (Family Advancement for Life and Health), implemented in 20 districts of Pakistan, aimed to lower unmet need for family planning by improving access to services. To enhance the quality of care offered by the public health system, the FALAH project trained 10,534 facility-based health care providers, managers, and medical college faculty members to offer client-centered family planning services, which included a module to explain the Islamic viewpoint on family planning developed through an iterative process involving religious scholars and public health experts. At the end of the FALAH project, we conducted a situation analysis of health facilities including interviews with providers to measure family planning knowledge of trained and untrained providers; interviewed faculty to obtain their feedback about the training module; and measured changes in women's contraceptive use through baseline and endline surveys. Trained providers had a better understanding of family planning concepts than untrained providers. In addition, discussions with trained providers indicated that the training module on Islam and family planning helped them to become advocates for family planning. Faculty indicated that the module enhanced their confidence about the topic of family planning and Islam, making it easier to introduce and discuss the issue with their students. Over the 3.5-year project period, which included several components in addition to the training activity, we found an overall increase of 9 percentage points in contraceptive prevalence in the project implementation districts—from 29% to 38%. The Islam and family planning module has now been included in the teaching program of major public-sector medical universities and the Regional Training Institutes of the Population Welfare Department. Other countries with sizeable Muslim populations and low contraceptive prevalence could benefit from this module. PMID:25276535
Mir, Ali Mohammad; Shaikh, Gul Rashida
This document presents design concepts and considerations for planning and developing middle and high school family and consumer sciences education facilities. It includes discussions on family and consumer sciences education trends and the facility planning process. Design concepts explore multipurpose laboratories and spaces for food/nutrition…
Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.
The purpose of this study was to ascertain reasons for non-participation in a public family planning program following a commitment to participate. A sample of 650 women who had made appointments at a public family planning clinic were divided into four groups: Post-Partum Kept (PPK), Post-Partum Missed (PPM), Supply Kept (SK), and Supply Missed…
Greer, Candyce D.; Cole, Steven G.
This book contains 27 papers on the development of national standards for family and consumer sciences (FACS) education. The following papers are included: "Leadership for Change: Developing the National Standards" (Peggy Wild); "National Standards Model" (Wanda S. Fox); "Reasoning for Action" (Wanda S. Fox, Janet F. Laster); "Career, Community,…
Vail, Ann, Ed.; Fox, Wanda S., Ed.; Wild, Peggy, Ed.
Patriarchal traditions and a history of armed conflict in Timor-Leste provide a context that facilitates violence against women. More than a third of ever-married Timorese women report physical and/or sexual domestic violence (DV) perpetrated by their most recent partner. DV violates women's rights and may threaten their reproductive health. Marital control may also limit women's reproductive control and healthcare access. Our study investigated relationships between DV and marital control and subsequent family planning, maternal healthcare, and birth outcomes in Timor-Leste. Using logistic regression, we examined 2009-2010 Demographic and Health Survey data from a nationally representative sample of 2,951 women in Timor-Leste. We controlled for age, education, and wealth. We limited our analyses of pregnancy- and birth-related outcomes to those from the 6 months preceding the survey. Rural women with controlling husbands were less likely than other rural women to have an unmet need for family planning (Adj. OR 0.6; 95 % CI 0.4-0.9). Rural women who experienced DV were more likely than other rural women to have an unplanned pregnancy (Adj. OR 2.6; 95 % CI 1.4-4.8), fewer than four antenatal visits (Adj. OR 2.3; 95 % CI 1.1-4.9), or a baby born smaller than average (Adj. OR 3.1; 95 % CI 1.4-6.7). DV and marital control were not associated with the tested outcomes among urban women. Given high rates of DV internationally, our findings have important implications. Preventing DV may benefit both women and future generations. Furthermore, rural women who experience DV may benefit from targeted interventions that mediate associated risks of negative family planning, maternal healthcare, and birth outcomes. PMID:25480470
Meiksin, Rebecca; Meekers, Dominique; Thompson, Susan; Hagopian, Amy; Mercer, Mary Anne
Background: The phenomenon of planned lesbian families (i.e., two-mother families in which the child was born to the lesbian relationship) is relatively new and very little research has been conducted among those families. The overall aim of this research was to examine whether planned lesbian mother families differ from heterosexual families on…
Bos, Henny M. W.; Van Balen, Frank; Van Den Boom, Dymphna C.
...Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List: Partial...43088, in Appendix B to Part 300, in Table 2, in the entry in the fifth row, in the second column of the table, ``Letterkenny Army Depot (SE...
This study compared the perception of social support and the degree of internalized homophobia for two demographically similar groups: lesbians with planned families and lesbians who did not have children. Results found that lesbians with planned families perceived significantly less social support from friends overall, from gay men and lesbian friends specifically, and more support from their families-of-origin than lesbians who did not have children. Lesbians with planned families also reported significantly higher internalized homophobia specific to disclosure of sexual identification. The authors suggest that selective disclosure may be an adaptive response rather than a true measure of internalized homophobia. PMID:17352597
DeMino, Kathleen A; Appleby, George; Fisk, Deborah
...for Proposed General Management Plan, Pinnacles National Monument, San Benito and Monterey...EIS) for the General Management Plan, Pinnacles National Monument, California. A Notice...Karen Beppler-Dorn, Superintendent, Pinnacles National Monument, 5000 Highway...
22 physician-providers who serve natural family planning (NFP) programs, mostly in the private sector, gathered to formulate a standard terminology for the field. The Billings and sympto-thermal methods are the 2 methods taught by this group. The sypto-thermal method helps a woman predict ovulation by detecting changes in her cervical mucus and in the cervix itself. Ovulation is confirmed by monitoring the temperature shift as well as by observing the cessation of mucus buildup, closing of the cervix, and firmness of the os. Those women using the Billings ovulation method predict fertility by the appearance of the cervical mucus, its sensation, color, and elasticity. Sperm will only survive if the cervical mucus is of the fertile type. It is also helpful to recognize mucus patterns of anovulation during breastfeeding, weaning, and premenopause. Use-effective rates which only reflect pregnancy are inadequate in evaluating NFP. A series of definitions are presented which in the future will help to analyze NFP data to accurately reflect NFP effectiveness. The terms included are: total pregnancies, planned pregnancy rate, pregnancy avoidance, method effectiveness rate, method-related pregnancies, informed choice pregnancies, teaching-related pregnancies, and unresolved pregnancies. All NPF teaching programs include instruction in basic reproductive physiology and in the recognition of the fertile phase. The cervical mucus factor is emphasized in ovulation method groups while thermal and other parameters are given equal weight in the sympto-thermal groups. It is the intent of NPF to teach couples to distinguish the fertile phase by using the fertility markers and to have them integrate this information into their sexual decision making. Success is dependent on teacher skill and the ability to inspire confidence in the method. Recognition of the mucus patterns of ovulation and anovulation are crucial in assessing infertility. All family providers under Title 10 must by law offer either NFP instruction or referrals to sites which do. A directory of non-Title 10 providers of NFP Services is available for $4.00 from the Human Life and NFP Foundation, 205 South Patrick Street, Alexandria, Virginia, 22314. PMID:7095160
Brennan, J J; Klaus, H
Formal planning for climate change adaptation is emerging rapidly at a range of geo-political scales. This first generation of adaptation plans provides useful information regarding how institutions are framing the issue of adaptation and the range of processes that are recognized as being part of an adaptation response. To better understand adaptation planning among developed nations, a set of 57 adaptation plans from Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States was evaluated against a suite of 19 planning processes identified from existing guidance instruments for adaptation planning. Total scores among evaluated plans ranged from 16% of the maximum possible score to 61%, with an average of 37%. These results suggest adaptation plans are largely under-developed. Critical weaknesses in adaptation planning are related to limited consideration for non-climatic factors as well as neglect for issues of adaptive capacity including entitlements to various forms of capital needed for effective adaptation. Such gaps in planning suggest there are opportunities for institutions to make better use of existing guidance for adaptation planning and the need to consider the broader governance context in which adaptation will occur. In addition, the adaptation options prescribed by adaptation plans reflect a preferential bias toward low-risk capacity-building (72% of identified options) over the delivery of specific actions to reduce vulnerability. To the extent these findings are representative of the state of developed nation adaptation planning, there appear to be significant deficiencies in climate change preparedness, even among those nations often assumed to have the greatest adaptive capacity.
Preston, Benjamin L [ORNL; Westaway, Richard M. [IMS Consulting, Bristol, Avon, England; Yuen, Emma J. [CSIRO Climate Adaptation Flagship, Aspendale, Vic, Australia
This Wildland Fire Management Plan (FMP) for Brookhaven National Lab (BNL) and the Upton Ecological and Research Reserve (Upton Reserve) is based on the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (FWS) fire management planning procedures and was developed in cooperation with the Department of Energy (DOE) by Brookhaven Science Associates. As the Upton Reserve is contained within the BNL 5,265-acre site, it is logical that the plan applies to both the Upton Reserve and BNL. The Department of the Interior policy for managing wildland fires requires that all areas managed by FWS that can sustain fire must have an FMP that details fire management guidelines for operational procedures and specifies values to be protected or enhanced. Fire management plans provide guidance on fire preparedness, fire prevention, wildfire suppression, and the use of controlled, ''prescribed'' fires and mechanical means to control the amount of available combustible material. Values reflected in the BNL/Upton Reserve Wildland FMP include protecting life and public safety; Lab properties, structures and improvements; cultural and historical sites; neighboring private and public properties; and endangered and threatened species and species of concern. Other values supported by the plan include the enhancement of fire-dependent ecosystems at BNL and the Upton Reserve. This FMP will be reviewed periodically to ensure the fire program advances and evolves with the missions of FWS, BNL, and the Upton Reserve. This Fire Management Plan is a modified version of the Long Island National Wildlife Refuge Complex Fire plan (updated in 2000), which contains all FWS fire plan requirements and is presented in the format specified by the national template for fire management plans adopted under the National Fire Plan. The DOE is one of the signatory agencies on the National Fire Plan. FWS shall be, through an Interagency Agreement dated November 2000 (Appendix C), responsible for coordinating and implementing prescribed burns and fuel reduction projects in the Upton Reserve. Prescribed fire and fuel reduction in locations outside the Upton Reserve will be coordinated through the Natural Resource Management Program at BNL, and done in consultation with FWS. This FMP is to be used and implemented for the entire BNL site including the Upton Reserve and has been reviewed by FWS, The Nature Conservancy, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Forest Rangers, and DOE, as well as appropriate BNL emergency services personnel.
ENVIRONMENTAL AND WASTE MANAGEMENT SERVICES DIVISION
The National Action Plan for Primary Health Care, a planning document of the Sierra Leonean Ministry of Health for the restructuring of the country's rural health services, is analyzed in its social, economic, and historical context. It appears to be an attempt of the national government to gain control over the highly devolved health care delivery system, but the state has neither the political will nor the power to achieve this goal. The utility of the document is therefore in doubt, which raises two important questions: Whose interests does this plan serve, and at whose cost? PMID:2307554
Succession planning is an important step for families owning woodlands and farms that wish to maintain the character of the land and continue the families' connection to it. We introduce Ties to the Land, an educational curriculum that helps families communicate more effectively about the fate of their land and how to transition to future…
Withrow-Robinson, Brad; Sisock, Mary; Watkins, Susan
Data from 68 families that participated at 3 times in the Family Socialization and Developmental Competence Project (D. Baumrind, 1973) were used to study children's participation in planning-related discussions during family interactions in relation to parenting style. Results indicate that such discussions occur from early in the child's life and that with age children initiate more of them. Children's initiations
Mary Gauvain; Ruth Duran Huard
This study analyzed the goals statements on Individualized Family Service Plans (IFSPs) or Individual Education Programs (IEPs) of 72 families in nine communities. The sample was drawn from communities of varying sizes in three states (Colorado, North Carolina, and Pennsylvania). Families were chosen to include children in 1-year age groupings and…
Gallagher, James J.
Community Involvement in Early Intervention. A Report on the Planning and Development of "Families First": An Early Intervention Program for Coordinated Family Support Services for Marin City Families.
This report documents the planning and development of Families First, an early intervention program to be implemented in Marin City, California. The program has been designed to integrate and coordinate the provision of a wide range of services to families of children from the third trimester of pregnancy to the age of 8 years who live in a…
Lally, J. Ronald
This report presents a five year plan for the laboratory. This plan takes advantage of the technical strengths of the lab and its staff to address issues of concern to the nation on a scope much broader than Sandia`s original mission, while maintaining the general integrity of the laboratory. The plan proposes initiatives in a number of technologies which overlap the needs of its customers and the strengths of its staff. They include: advanced manufacturing technology; electronics; information and computational technology; transportation energy technology and infrastructure; environmental technology; energy research and technology development; biomedical systems engineering; and post-cold war defense imperatives.
...false Family remittances to nationals of Vietnam and Cambodia. 500.565 Section 500...565 Family remittances to nationals of Vietnam and Cambodia. (a) The remittances...provided that the relative is a national of Vietnam or Cambodia, is a resident of...
This document reprints China's "Regulations on Family Planning (FP) Management of the Floating Population" that went into effect on January 1, 1999. The regulations, which apply to married labor migrants of reproductive age, call on all levels of the government to include FP management of this group in the target population of each administrative area. In addition to assigning governmental responsibilities, the regulations require adults to acquire certificates of marriage and childbearing at their local FP departments before they migrate. The adults should present these certificates to the proper authorities upon arrival at their destination. Efforts should be made to educate migrants about population and FP requirements; reach migrants with contraceptive services; and link approval of temporary residence permits, business licenses, and work permits with proper certification of marriage and childbearing. Employers will be responsible for the FP management of labor migrants, and landlords should assist local officials in this FP management. Incentives for adhering to the one child policy will be awarded by the migrants' place of household registration, but the cost of contraceptive operations will be born by employers if applicable or by the place of household registration. Penalties for violating the FP regulations will be meted out by the government of the place of current residence or of household registration (with only one penalty given for a single violation). Fines will be instituted for fabricating, selling, or acquiring fake certificates of marriage and childbearing or for failing to follow these regulations. PMID:12321927
Recent years have witnessed important developments in natural family planning (NFP), which is based on the observation of fertile and infertile periods of the menstrual cycle, so that the couple is able to know when sexual intercourse may lead to a pregnancy. A review of the main studies regarding the effectiveness of NFP showed a decrease in the Pearl Index and life table values from the early 1980s to date, indicating that progress both in the teaching and in the application of these contraception, methods has been achieved. The main cause of lack of success seems to be the misapplication of NFP rules, whereas the errors due to the method itself are few. Furthermore, it seems that the symptothermal method might give better results than the ovulation method, even though no comparative study has been carried out, and that the first studies on the lactational amenorrhea method show encouraging results. Finally, it seems that NFP is best suited for 'spacers' of pregnancies, rather than for 'limiters'. Indeed, the former are more likely to show good compliance, since the sexual abstinence periods are limited and an unwanted pregnancy is not regarded as a completely negative event. PMID:9209901
Guida, M; Tommaselli, G A; Pellicano, M; Palomba, S; Nappi, C
Family participation in educational planning for children with disabilities is believed to result in plans that are more responsive to the child's needs and that lead to better social, emotional, and educational outcomes. Participation in educational planning is also a fundamental right of parents and a cornerstone of special education…
Jivanjee, Pauline; Kruzich, Jean M.; Friesen, Barbara J.; Robinson, Adjoa
This article explores the emergence of Mexico’s campaigns in the 1970s and 1980s to reduce population increase. Using primarily\\u000a archival material from the National Population Council in Mexico City, the author argues that federal health organizations,\\u000a in particular the Population Council, embraced the use of oral contraception and family planning as the means to introduce\\u000a modern role models for a
Gabriela Soto Laveaga
Started in 1993, The Carl and Ruth Shapiro Family National Center for Accessible Media (NCAM) is part of WGBH's Media Access Group. They are primarily interested in creating appropriate policy and technology programs to make sure that various media and technologies are accessible to people with disabilities. On their site, visitors might wish to start by reading over their "What's New?" area, which features some updates on their latest projects, such as their work on simplified captions and access to in-flight entertainment. Moving on, the "Projects" area contains information on their ongoing and completed projects, which include work on increasing access to emergency alerts and research on edited captions for profoundly deaf children. This area also includes a number of useful publications, such as the 2006 document, "Accessible Digital Media: Design Guidelines for Electronic Publications, Multimedia and the Web".
and involvement opportunities for family members and students, Parent and Family Relations seeks to support2012-2013 Strategic plan for Parent and Family Relations (06/12/2012) MISSION Parent and Family Relations is dedicated to student success by engaging parents and family members as active partners
...effective national market system plan. (4) Every national market system plan filed pursuant...phase; (C) An analysis of the impact on...Every national market system plan, or any amendment...is posted on a plan Web site or on a...
The National Science Foundation (NSF) Grant Proposal Guide (NSF 09-29) contains new guidance regarding compliance with the mentoring requirement of the America COMPETES Act. NSF Program Staff will review the Postdoctoral Researcher Mentoring Plan Requirement with regard to NSF proposal submissions. Each NSF proposal that requests funding to support postdoctoral researchers must include, as a supplementary document, a description of
We report progress on the design of the shock timing tuning procedure for the 2010 ignition campaign at the National Ignition Facility. Our keyhole target design provides adequate drive surrogacy for us to time the first three shocks empirically. The major risk to our plan is hard x-ray preheat, which can cause the diagnostic window to become opaque.
Munro, D. H.; Robey, H. F.; Spears, B. K.; Boehly, T. R.
...AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection 9 CFR Part 145 [Docket No. APHIS-2009-0031] RIN 0579-AD21 National Poultry Improvement Plan and Auxiliary Provisions Correction In rule document 2011-6539 appearing on pages 15791-15798 in the...
i Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Integrated Safety Management (ISM) Plan at the ALS December Accelerator Safety Envelope BRC Beamline Review Committee CSEE Center for Science and Engineering Education Division Director This work was supported by the Director, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy
Knowles, David William
Objectives. The California Family Planning, Access, Care, and Treatment Program was implemented in 1997 to provide family planning services for uninsured, low-income women and men. We estimated the impact on fertility of providing 500 000 women with contraceptives. Methods. Paid claims and medical record review data were used to estimate pregnancies averted. Pregnancies women experienced while enrolled in the program and pregnancies they would have experienced given methods used before enrollment were modeled as a Markov process. Results. One year of Family Planning, Access, Care, and Treatment services averted an estimated 108 000 unintended pregnancies that would have resulted in 50 000 unintended births and 41 000 induced abortions. Conclusions. Providing contraceptives to low income, medically indigent women significantly reduced the number of unintended pregnancies in California. PMID:15284041
Foster, Diana Greene; Klaisle, Cynthia M.; Blum, Maya; Bradsberry, Mary E.; Brindis, Claire D.; Stewart, Felicia H.
This Wildland Fire Management Plan (FMP) for Brookhaven National Lab (BNL) updates the 2003 plan incorporating changes necessary to comply with DOE Order 450.1 and DOE P 450.4, Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy and Program Review; Wildland and Prescribed Fire Management Policy and implementation Procedures Reference Guide. This current plan incorporates changes since the original draft of the FMP that result from new policies on the national level. This update also removes references and dependence on the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service and Department of the Interior, fully transitioning Wildland Fire Management responsibilities to BNL. The Department of Energy policy for managing wildland fires requires that all areas, managed by the DOE and/or its various contractors, that can sustain fire must have a FMP that details fire management guidelines for operational procedures associated with wild fire, operational, and prescribed fires. Fire management plans provide guidance on fire preparedness, fire prevention, wildfire suppression, and the use of controlled, 'prescribed' fires and mechanical means to control the amount of available combustible material. Values reflected in the BNL Wildland FMP include protecting life and public safety; Lab properties, structures and improvements; cultural and historical sites; neighboring private and public properties; and endangered, threatened, and species of concern. Other values supported by the plan include the enhancement of fire-dependent ecosystems at BNL. This FMP will be reviewed periodically to ensure the fire program advances and evolves with the missions of the DOE and BNL. This Fire Management Plan is presented in a format that coverers all aspects specified by DOE guidance documents which are based on the national template for fire management plans adopted under the National Fire Plan. The DOE is one of the signatory agencies on the National Fire Plan. This FMP is to be used and implemented for the entire BNL site including the Upton Reserve and has been reviewed by, The Nature Conservancy, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Forest Rangers, and DOE, as well as appropriate BNL emergency services personnel. The BNL Fire Department is the lead on wildfire suppression. However, the BNL Natural Resource Manager will be assigned to all wildland fires as technical resource advisor.
The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of research and development (R&D) facilities for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on the Hanford Site's 300 Area (see Figure 1). Process wastewater from these facilities is treated by the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) and discharged to the Columbia River via a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System-permitted outfall. The NPDES permit specifies limits of chemical constituents and requires proper operation and maintenance of the TEDF. To meet permit requirements, Fluor Hanford, operator of the TEDF, requires generators who discharge to the 300 Area TEDF to submit a Liquid Waste Certification Plan. This plan is the second revision to PNNL's plan.
Ballinger, Marcel Y.
Brookhaven National Laboratory is a multidisciplinary laboratory in the Department of Energy National Laboratory system and plays a lead role in the DOE Science and Technology mission. The Laboratory also contributes to the DOE missions in Energy Resources, Environmental Quality, and National Security. Brookhaven strives for excellence in its science research and in facility operations and manages its activities with particular sensitivity to environmental and community issues. The Laboratory's programs are aligned continuously with the goals and objectives of the DOE through an Integrated Planning Process. This Institutional Plan summarizes the portfolio of research and capabilities that will assure success in the Laboratory's mission in the future. It also sets forth BNL strategies for our programs and for management of the Laboratory. The Department of Energy national laboratory system provides extensive capabilities in both world class research expertise and unique facilities that cannot exist without federal support. Through these national resources, which are available to researchers from industry, universities, other government agencies and other nations, the Department advances the energy, environmental, economic and national security well being of the US, provides for the international advancement of science, and educates future scientists and engineers.
The current status of natural family planning (NFP) was reviewed. There is renewed interest in NFP, and many couples who find other methods unacceptable for medical, safety, or personal reasons are turning to NFP methods. The percent of contraceptive users who rely on behavioral methods in developing countries in 35% in Peru, 20%-25% in Haiti, Philippines, and Sri Lanka, and average 7.5% for the remaining 23 developing countries. IN the US about 4.7% of all contraceptive users rely on behavioral methods. Worldwide, rhythm is the most commonly used form of behavior fertility control, but this method is not promoted by most NFP programs. The 3 modern methods of NFP are 1) the basal body temperature method, 2) the cervical mucus, or Billings method, and 3) the sympto-thermal method. All these methods rely on physical signs and symptoms to detect ovulation and require sexual abstinence during the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle. The basal body temperature method requires women to detect the slight rise in temperature which occurs at the time of ovulation. The method is 94%-97% effective if intercourse is restricted to the postovulatory phase of the cycle. Disadvantages of the method are that intercourse must be restricted to only 7-13 days of the cycle, women must take their temperature daily, the method cannot be used during fever episodes, and the method is inappropriate for use during lactation or near menopause. The cervical mucus method is based on observing cervical mucus changes during the cycle. These changes signal the fertile and infertile phases of the cycle. According to a World Health Organization study, 93% of the women instructed in the method were able to detect mucus changes, and illiterate women were as adept at identifying these changes as university graduates. Findings also indicated that the method was 97% effective if abstinence was practiced during 15 days of the cycle, but use-effectiveness was only about 80%. This method has the advantage of not requiring ovulatory regularity. The sympto-thermal method uses a combination of symptoms including temperature shifts and mucus changes to detect ovulation. Some studies indicate that the combined method is more effective than those methods based on only 1 symptom, but many individuals find the combined method difficult and confusing. The advantages of NFP methods are that they require no medical supervision and that they have no side effects. Family planning providers often have negative attitudes toward NFP and many programs do not provide NFP services. Many providers maintain that the methods are ineffective and difficult to apply and that there is little demand for NFP. Research should be undertaken to determine if these opinions are valid. The major source of funding for NFP programs and projects is the US Agency for International Development (USAID). The agency is currently supporting 22 NFP projects under USAID grants and another 16 bilateral NFP programs. The research undertaken in connection with these projects should provide needed information on NFP advantages, disadvantages, effectiveness, and demand. PMID:12280130
Spieler, J; Shuler, A
This ethnographic inquiry examines how family languages policies are planned and developed in ten Chinese immigrant families\\u000a in Quebec, Canada, with regard to their children’s language and literacy education in three languages, Chinese, English, and\\u000a French. The focus is on how multilingualism is perceived and valued, and how these three languages are linked to particular\\u000a linguistic markets. The parental ideology
Xiao Lan Curdt-Christiansen
In view of the scarce information about family planning among the Mexican population, audiovisual material was prepared to promote the mehtods and benefits of family planning. The material consists of 22 slides, recorded explanation, and music. Psychological factors, such as sensory perception, image symbiolism, language, education, sex, attention span, motivation, and identification, and social factors, such as status and recognition, were taken into consideration. The program is presently shown to an average of 120 persons daily, including outpatients and hospital patients. Its use led to a considerable increase in the number of patients who voluntarily attend the family planning clinic for medical advice on fertility control. PMID:56290
García Flores, R F; Ita Cruz, R A
This paper provides new evidence that family planning programs are associated with a decrease in the share of children and adults living in poverty. Our research design exploits the county roll-out of U.S. family planning programs in the late 1960s and early 1970s and examines their relationship with poverty rates in the short and longer-term in public census data. We find that cohorts born after federal family planning programs began were less likely to live in poverty in childhood and that these same cohorts were less likely to live in poverty as adults. PMID:25346655
Bailey, Martha J.; Malkova, Olga; Norling, Johannes
OBJECTIVES: To study the burden of disease of reproductive tract infections (RTIs) and cervical dysplasia in women attending a family planning clinic in Nairobi, Kenya, and to assess the acceptability of integrating reproductive healthcare services into existing family planning facilities. METHODS: In a family planning clinic in Nairobi, Kenya, 520 women were enrolled in a study on RTI and cervical
M. Temmerman; N. Kidula; M. Tyndall; R. Rukaria-Kaumbutho; L. Muchiri; J. O. Ndinya-Achola
The population explosion has been abating since the 2nd half of the 1960s. The birth rate of the 3rd World dropped from 45/1000 during 1950-55 to 31/1000 during 1985-90. From the 1st half of the 1960s to the 1st half of the 1980s the total fertility of such countries dropped from 6.1 to 4.2 children/woman. In Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, and Malaysia living standards improved as a result of industrialization, and fertility decreased significantly. In Sri Lanka, China, North Vietnam, and Thailand the drop of fertility is explained by cultural and religious factors. In 1982 about 78% of the population of developing countries lived in 39 states that followed an official policy aimed at reducing the population. Another 16% lived in countries supporting the concept of a desired family size. However, World Bank data showed that in the mid-1980s in 27 developing countries no state family planning (FP) programs existed. India adopted an official FP program in 1952, Pakistan followed suit in 1960, South Korea in 1961, and China in 1962. In Latin America a split policy manifested itself: in Brazil birth control was rejected, only Colombia had a FP policy. In 1986 the governments of 68 of 131 developing countries representing 3.1 billion people considered the number of children per woman too high. 31 of these countries followed concrete population control policies. On the other hand, in 1986 24 countries of Africa with 40% of the continent's population took no measures to influence population growth. In Latin America and the Caribbean 18 of 33 countries were idle, except for Mexico that had a massive state FP program. These programs also improve maternal and child health with birth spacing of at least 2 years, and the prevention of pregnancies of too young women or those over 40. The evaluation of rapidly spreading FP programs in the 1970s was carried out by the World Fertility Survey in 41 countries. The impact of FP programs was more substantial than socioeconomic factors. Contraceptive use increased in Mexico from 13% in 1973 to 41% in 1978 among women of fertile age. According to 1984 and 1988 UN data modern methods of contraception were used by 70% of women in China, 60-65% in Southeast Asia, Costa Rica, and Puerto Rico. In contrast, less than 5% used them in most countries of Africa, 15-20% in West Asia, 25-30% in South Asia, and 40% in Latin America. The pill was the most popular method. From the early 1980s in South and East Asia 1/5 of women got sterilized after attaining the desired family size. Less than 10% of women used IUDs in developing countries. FP programs have benefited from higher education levels and economic incentives and sanctions and exemplified in Singapore, China, South Korea, Thailand, and Taiwan. PMID:12343122
...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Plan Revision for Colville, and the Okanogan-Wenatchee National Forests, Washington (Collectively Called the Northeast Washington Zone Forest Plan Revision) AGENCY: Forest...
These authors often have opportunities to talk with practitioners in education, youth development, family services, and other fields about today's families. When asked about their own families, they will most often admit their quirks and challenges--but they generally express great appreciation for their families and how they add meaning,…
Roehlkepartain, Eugene C.; Syvertsen, Amy K.
...and procedures for submitting a Tribal Family Assistance Plan? 286.160 Section...Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...
Objectives: To educate athletic trainers and others about the need for emergency planning, to provide guidelines in the development of emergency plans, and to advocate documentation of emergency planning. Background: Most injuries sustained during athletics or other physical activity are relatively minor. However, potentially limb-threatening or life-threatening emergencies in athletics and physical activity are unpredictable and occur without warning. Proper management of these injuries is critical and should be carried out by trained health services personnel to minimize risk to the injured participant. The organization or institution and its personnel can be placed at risk by the lack of an emergency plan, which may be the foundation of a legal claim. Recommendations: The National Athletic Trainers' Association recommends that each organization or institution that sponsors athletic activities or events develop and implement a written emergency plan. Emergency plans should be developed by organizational or institutional personnel in consultation with the local emergency medical services. Components of the emergency plan include identification of the personnel involved, specification of the equipment needed to respond to the emergency, and establishment of a communication system to summon emergency care. Additional components of the emergency plan are identification of the mode of emergency transport, specification of the venue or activity location, and incorporation of emergency service personnel into the development and implementation process. Emergency plans should be reviewed and rehearsed annually, with written documentation of any modifications. The plan should identify responsibility for documentation of actions taken during the emergency, evaluation of the emergency response, institutional personnel training, and equipment maintenance. Further, training of the involved personnel should include automatic external defibrillation, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, first aid, and prevention of disease transmission. PMID:12937447
Andersen, J. C.; Courson, Ronald W.; Kleiner, Douglas M.; McLoda, Todd A.
Context Each year the United States’ publicly supported family planning program serves millions of low-income women. Although the health impact and public-sector savings associated with this program's services extend well beyond preventing unintended pregnancy, they never have been fully quantified. Methods Drawing on an array of survey data and published parameters, we estimated the direct national-level and state-level health benefits that accrued from providing contraceptives, tests for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), Pap tests and tests for human papillomavirus (HPV), and HPV vaccinations at publicly supported family planning settings in 2010. We estimated the public cost savings attributable to these services and compared those with the cost of publicly funded family planning services in 2010 to find the net public-sector savings. We adjusted our estimates of the cost savings for unplanned births to exclude some mistimed births that would remain publicly funded if they had occurred later and to include the medical costs for births through age 5 of the child. Findings In 2010, care provided during publicly supported family planning visits averted an estimated 2.2 million unintended pregnancies, including 287,500 closely spaced and 164,190 preterm or low birth weight (LBW) births, 99,100 cases of chlamydia, 16,240 cases of gonorrhea, 410 cases of HIV, and 13,170 cases of pelvic inflammatory disease that would have led to 1,130 ectopic pregnancies and 2,210 cases of infertility. Pap and HPV tests and HPV vaccinations prevented an estimated 3,680 cases of cervical cancer and 2,110 cervical cancer deaths; HPV vaccination also prevented 9,000 cases of abnormal sequelae and precancerous lesions. Services provided at health centers supported by the Title X national family planning program accounted for more than half of these benefits. The gross public savings attributed to these services totaled approximately $15.8 billion—$15.7 billion from preventing unplanned births, $123 million from STI/HIV testing, and $23 million from Pap and HPV testing and vaccines. Subtracting $2.2 billion in program costs from gross savings resulted in net public-sector savings of $13.6 billion. Conclusions Public expenditures for the US family planning program not only prevented unintended pregnancies but also reduced the incidence and impact of preterm and LBW births, STIs, infertility, and cervical cancer. This investment saved the government billions of public dollars, equivalent to an estimated taxpayer savings of $7.09 for every public dollar spent. PMID:25314928
Frost, Jennifer J; Sonfield, Adam; Zolna, Mia R; Finer, Lawrence B
The authors provide a targeted review of national pandemic influenza plans from the developed and developing world, describing national variations in prioritization of vaccines and antiviral medications.
Lori Uscher-Pines; Saad B. Omer; Daniel J. Barnett; Thomas A. Burke; Ran D. Balicer
Perhaps the most important finding of this Zigone KAP survey was that about 50.3% (95% CI 46.2-54.2) of the married women of reproductive age were currently practicing modern methods of contraception. For a country like Myanmar, where the government has until recently favored a pronatalist population policy, this is indeed surprising. This 30 cluster survey, designed to determine the prevalence of various family planning methods adopted, as well as knowledge and attitudes, among villagers in rural Myanmar, covered a sample of 600 married women of reproductive age in Zigone township which has a population of 70,000. The survey results showed a high awareness of specific contraceptive methods among the target group and the ever-use rate of birth spacing methods was about 54% (95% CI 50.7-58.7). The most used method was oral contraceptives (64.6% of all users), followed by injectable contraceptives (32.3%). There was a small number of IUD users (1.1%), use of a permanent method (sterilization) was extremely low (0.3%). Seven out of ten married women of reproductive age did not want more children and one out of two women in this group were current users of contraception. Therefore a certain proportion of user was probably using these (mainly temporary) methods to terminate fertility rather than for birth spacing purposes. Moreover, only 63% of those wanting children, but not in the next 12 months, were using a contraceptive method. These findings demonstrated that there was a large group of potential contraceptive users who were currently not using a method. In an attempt to investigate the factor hindering the non-use of contraceptives when needed, the women were divided, according to their contraceptive practice, into two groups. Logistic regression was employed to compare the characteristics of women in the user and nonuser groups. After adjusting for covariates, it was found that economic group and number of living children had a positive effective effect on contraceptive use, while age and number of children under three years of age had a negative effect. The survey also found that about 48% of the contraceptive users were obtaining their supplies from the private sector and another 40% received supplies from government health officers. The reference by respondents to "health staff", as the source of supply, was assumed to be health staff working in their private practice, since the government's current health program does not cover the provision of contraceptives. PMID:7939933
Panitchpakdi, P; Podhipak, A; Sein, U K; Kywe, B
Researchers surveyed the psychological well-being of 795 women of reproductive age from Menoufiya, Egypt. Five years earlier, these women had provided data relevant to their family planning behavior. This analysis links these data sets to investigate the impact of family planning on women's sense of well-being, within the context of beliefs about appropriate gender-related behaviors. Well-being measures are derived for
Lawrence J. Severy; Cynthia Waszak; Isis Badawi; Laila Kafafi
The "National Dropout Prevention Newsletter" is published quarterly by the National Dropout Prevention Center/Network. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Family/School Relationships: Relationships That Matter; (2) Program Profile; (3) Engaging Families in the Pathway to College: Lessons From Schools That Are Beating the Odds (Anne T.…
Duckenfield, Marty, Ed.
...Required amendments to the Navajo Nation's abandoned mine land plan. 756.15 Section... INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM INDIAN TRIBE ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION PROGRAMS § 756...Required amendments to the Navajo Nation's abandoned mine land plan. Pursuant...
...Required amendments to the Navajo Nation's abandoned mine land plan. 756.15 Section... INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM INDIAN TRIBE ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION PROGRAMS § 756...Required amendments to the Navajo Nation's abandoned mine land plan. Pursuant...
...false Approval of the Navajo Nation's abandoned mine land plan. 756.13 Section... INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM INDIAN TRIBE ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION PROGRAMS § 756.13 Approval of the Navajo Nation's abandoned mine land plan. The Navajo...
...Required amendments to the Navajo Nation's abandoned mine land plan. 756.15 Section... INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM INDIAN TRIBE ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION PROGRAMS § 756...Required amendments to the Navajo Nation's abandoned mine land plan. Pursuant...
...false Approval of the Navajo Nation's abandoned mine land plan. 756.13 Section... INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM INDIAN TRIBE ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION PROGRAMS § 756.13 Approval of the Navajo Nation's abandoned mine land plan. The Navajo...
...false Approval of the Navajo Nation's abandoned mine land plan. 756.13 Section... INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM INDIAN TRIBE ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION PROGRAMS § 756.13 Approval of the Navajo Nation's abandoned mine land plan. The Navajo...
...Coordinator, National Poultry Improvement Plan, VS, APHIS, 1506 Klondike...Committee) of the National Poultry Improvement Plan (NPIP), representing cooperating...meeting include: 1. Use of performance standards in the NPIP...
Contraceptive use during the postpartum period is critical for maternal and child health. However, little is known about the use of family planning and the determinants in Nepal during this period. This study explored pregnancy spacing, unmet need, family planning use, and fertility behaviour among postpartum women in Nepal using child level data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys 2011. More than one-quarter of women who gave birth in the last five years became pregnant within 24 months of giving birth and 52% had an unmet need for family planning within 24 months postpartum. Significantly higher rates of unmet need were found among rural and hill residents, the poorest quintile, and Muslims. Despite wanting to space or limit pregnancies, nonuse of modern family planning methods by women and returned fertility increased the risk of unintended pregnancy. High unmet need for family planning in Nepal, especially in high risk groups, indicates the need for more equitable and higher quality postpartum family planning services, including availability of range of methods and counselling which will help to further reduce maternal, perinatal, and neonatal morbidity and mortality in Nepal. PMID:25003125
14027, 24011 and 24012 to declare the Human Development and Family Studies major HDFS 24012 Child electives Semester Four: [16 Credit Hours] HDFS 44020 Adolescent Development 3 HDFS 44022 Changing Roles Development and Family Studies 3 HDFS 44028 Parent/Child Relationships 3 HDFS 44023 Building Family
...Vegetation and Deer Management Plan, Morristown National...Vegetation and Deer Management Plan at Morristown...regenerating hardwood forest with mixed-aged classes...the park's general management plan (GMP) of maintaining...naturally regenerating and sustainable forested...
...National Forests, Oregon Granite Creek Watershed Mining Plans AGENCY: Forest Service...Plans of Operation in the Granite Creek Watershed Mining Plans analysis area on the Whitman...in the portions of the Granite Creek Watershed under their administration. As...
Name: Intended quarter of entry: Academic Planning Worksheet for Early Childhood & Family Studies personal statement reflecting an interest in the early childhood and family studies major and a commitment) College Example: MATH 124 Â Calculus I MATH& 151 AUT 08 5 A- BC One course in Biological Science
This guide, written for health managers and clinicians, provides information to meet the family planning needs of migrant farmworkers of Mexican culture. The promotion of maternal and child health for migrant farmworker families has brought attention to the incidence of high risk pregnancies among this population. Research indicates that a need…
Littlefield, Carla N.; And Others
Family planning programs in sub-Saharan Africa (42 countries and 450 million population), the fastest growing and poorest region in the world, need effective communications campaigns to educate people about the benefits of contraception, help change attitudes about fertility control and family size, and provide information about available…
24012 Child Development 3 See note 1 on page 2 HDFS 25512 Management of Family Resources 3 Major Cultural Diversity: Implications for the Helping Professions 3 HDFS 44020 Adolescent Development 3 SOCSUGGESTED THREE-YEAR GRADUATION PLAN Human Development and Family Studies - Gerontology - Bachelor
SUGGESTED THREE-YEAR GRADUATION PLAN Human Development and Family Studies Â Child and Youth Development and Family Studies major HDFS 24012 Child Development 3 See note 1 on page 2 HDFS 25512 Credit Hours] HDFS 44020 Adolescent Development 3 HDFS 44035 Assessment and Strategies in Case
The U.S. Department of Energy has established long-term stewardship programs to protect human health and the environment at sites where residual contamination remains after site cleanup. At the Idaho National Laboratory Site, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERLA) long-term stewardship activities performed under the aegis of regulatory agreements, the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order for the Idaho National Laboratory, and state and federal requirements are administered primarily under the direction of the Idaho Cleanup Project. It represents a subset of all on-going environmental activity at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. This plan provides a listing of applicable CERCLA long-term stewardship requirements and their planned and completed implementation goals. It proffers the Long-Term Stewardship Environmental Data Warehouse for Sitewide management of environmental data. This plan will be updated as needed over time, based on input from the U.S. Department of Energy, its cognizant subcontractors, and other local and regional stakeholders.
B. E. Olaveson
This Institutional Plan is the most comprehensive yearly "snapshot" available of Sandia National Laboratories' major programs, facilities, human resources, and budget. The document also includes overviews of our missions, organization, capabilities, planning functions, milestones, and accomplishments. The document's purpose is to provide the above information to the US Department of Energy, key congressional committees, Sandia management, and other present and potential customers. Chapter 2 presents information about Sandia's mission and summarizes our recent revision of Sandia's Strategic Plan. Chapter 3 presents an overview of Sandia's strategic objectives, chapter 4 lists laboratory goals and milestones for FY 1999, and chapter 5 presents our accomplishments during FY 1998. Chapters 3 through 5 are organized around our eight strategic objectives. The four primary objectives cover nuclear weapons responsibilities, nonproliferation and materials control, energy and critical infrastructures, and emerging national security threats. The major programmatic initiatives are presented in chapter 7. However, the programmatic descriptions in chapter 6 and the Associated funding tables in chapter 9 continue to be presented by DOE Budget and Reporting Code, as in previous Sandia institutional plans. As an aid to the reader, the four primary strategic objectives in chapter 3 are cross-referenced to the program information in chapter 6.
In mid-July to the end of August 1982, the Sichuan Provincial Party Committee and the Sichuan Provincial People's Government launched a 1-time family planning propaganda month in all of its cities and villages. The purpose was to promote and to carry out consistently and thoroughly the "Going a Step Further in Family Planning Work Directive" of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party and the State Council. Through the propaganda efforts, cadres and masses of Sichuan became familiar with the Party's family planning policy and the basis for population theory, thereby benefitting the nation, its people and future generations. In addition, people sensed the urgency, glory, and responsibility of population control. Based on incomplete data, during the month of propaganda, there were 174,182 new applications for 1 Child Certificates, which was 94.82% of the certificates applied for in the 1st half of 1982; 419,696 cases of contraceptive use, or 43.32% of those using them in the 1st 6 months of the year; 247,808 cases of those taking remedial measures, or 35.62% of those doing so in the 1st half of the year. The 1 child rate rose from a June 1982 figure of 68.21% to 68.71%; the multiple child rate dropped from 8.24% to 8%. The projected birthrate for 1982 is 16-17/1000. The success of the propaganda month was attained through: 1) organized responsibility, clearly defined goals and complete preparations that existed at all provincial Party and provincial Governmental levels; 2) the propaganda effort that was a priority of all governmental leaders, who utilized every propaganda tool available; At every level, propaganda sessions of every kind were convened, the entire propaganda machine was mobilized, and propaganda was brought into the home and to individuals; 3) propaganda, experience, and implementation that were all utilized simultaneously; and 4) the organization and administration of propaganda work that was systematized. PMID:12312939
Wan, C; Tan, S S
...National Park Service [8145-8B90-SZM] Dog Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement...Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Dog Management Plan, Golden Gate National Recreation...Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Dog Management Plan (Draft Plan/EIS),...
...Draft National Action Plan for Adverse Drug Event Prevention AGENCY: Office...draft National Action Plan for Adverse Drug Event Prevention. DATES: Comments...draft National Action Plan for Adverse Drug Event Prevention must be...
Context :? Female athletic trainers (ATs) tend to depart the profession of athletic training after the age of 30. Factors influencing departure are theoretical. Professional demands, particularly at the collegiate level, have also been at the forefront of anecdotal discussion on departure factors. Objective :? To understand the career and family intentions of female ATs employed in the collegiate setting. Design :? Qualitative study. Setting :? National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I. Patients or Other Participants :? Twenty-seven female ATs (single = 14, married with no children = 6, married with children = 7) employed in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting. Data Collection and Analysis :? All female ATs responded to a series of open-ended questions via reflective journaling. Data were analyzed via a general inductive approach. Trustworthiness was established by peer review, member interpretive review, and multiple-analyst triangulation. Results :? Our participants indicated a strong desire to focus on family or to start a family as part of their personal aspirations. Professionally, many female ATs were unsure of their longevity within the Division I collegiate setting or even the profession itself, with 2 main themes emerging as factors influencing decisions to depart: financial rewards and family planning departure. Six female ATs planned to depart the profession entirely because of conflicts with motherhood and the role of the AT. Only 3 female ATs indicated a professional goal of persisting at the Division I setting regardless of their family or marital status, citing their ability to maintain work-life balance because of support networks. The remaining 17 female ATs planned to make a setting change to balance the roles of motherhood and AT because the Division I setting was not conducive to parenting. Conclusions :? Our results substantiate those of previous researchers, which indicates the Division I setting can be problematic for female ATs and stimulates departure from the setting and even the profession. PMID:25329349
Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Eason, Christianne M; Ferraro, Elizabeth M; Goodman, Ashley
In this plan, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) continues to be committed to scientific and technological research that is based on technical excellence and innovation and that provides a foundation for and a stimulus to broader and more sustained economic growth. DOE is being asked to assist in establishing a new program for Laboratory cooperation with industry, beginning with an initial focus on materials science. The current Institutional Plan thus projects growth in the materials science area as well as in other basic physical science areas and suggests a new initiative designed to extend the various technology transfer activities and to make them more effective by using ORNL as the trial Laboratory for some of these different approaches. This Institutional Plan projects a stable future for ORNL, with only modest amounts of growth in selected areas of research for the FY 1984-FY 1989 planning cycle. Summaries of the overall picture of the proposed budget and personnel levels for the current planning cycle are included. Scientific programs, laboratory resource development, and private sector interactions are discussed.
The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a key constituent of the Department of Energy`s Stockpile Stewardship Program. The NIF will use inertial confinement fusion (ICF) to produce ignition and energy gain in ICF targets, and will perform weapons physics and high-energy- density experiments in support of national security and civilian objectives. The NIF Project is a national facility involving the collaboration of several DOE laboratories and subcontractors, including Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). The primary mission of the NIF Project is the construction and start-up operation of laser-based facilities that will demonstrate fusion ignition in the laboratory to provide nuclear-weapons-related physics data, and secondarily, to propagate fusion burn aimed at developing a potential source of civilian energy. To support the accomplishment of this very important mission, the LLNL Laser Directorate created the NIF Project Office to organize and bring about the Project. The NIF Project Office has established this Quality Assurance Program to ensure its success. This issue of the Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) adds the requirements for the conduct of Title 11 design, construction, procurement, and Title III engineering. This QAPP defines and describes the program-the management system-for specifying, achieving, and assuring the quality of all NIF Project work consistent with the policies of the Laboratory and the Laser Directorate.
Wolfe, C.R.; Yatabe, J.
Risks of 5 natural family planning (NFP) methods are compared. The main risk of these methods is the risk of pregnancy stemming from method failure, errors in instruction, error in application of the method, and failure to observe abstinence during the entire fertile period. The calendar rhythm method, the oldest NFP method, is based on calculation of likely fertile days in the preceding 6-12 menstrual cycles. The method is seldom taught at present because of its high failure rate, but it continues to be used, often by individuals with an incomplete understanding of the calculations. The principle of the basal body temperature method is well known. The thermal shift affirms the beginning of the infertile period but does not allow prediction of ovulation. Instructions provided by different organizations to identify the third day of the hyperthermal plateau are not standardized; the various interpretations applied to the same cycle do not necessarily lead to identification of the same day as the start of the infertile period. Comparisons of efficacy between methods are therefore difficult. Well-conducted prospective studies have demonstrated high theoretical efficacy, but failure rates in practice appear to be higher. Women often do not know how to interpret a temperature curve correctly, and the curve may be influenced by illness, sleeping late, a change of life style or thermometer. Some authors have reported that 3-20% of ovulatory cycles have monophasic temperature curves. The temperature method requires lengthy abstinence lasting until the third day of higher temperature, which may create conflicts in some couples. To ease the difficulties of interpretation of the temperature method, a Swiss architect developed an electronic thermometer programmed according to rules of the calendar rhythm method for cycles of 19-39 days. The woman's 6 most recent cycle lengths remain in the memory to indicate probable infertile days. Although no formal evaluations have appeared in the literature on the Bioself thermometer, the method appears to entail risks including registration of incorrect temperature due to humidity or rundown batteries, and inadequate programming to identify the safe period. The Billings or cervical mucus method is based on observation by the woman of the thickness, wetness, and other characteristics of mucus secretions in the vulva to predict ovulation. Various studies have shown high theoretical efficacy but practical efficacy is lower. Vaginal infections, some ovarian pathologies, and postpartum hormonal changes are among factors that can alter mucus patterns. The method does not confirm ovulation, and false "peak days" may occur. The symptothermal method is based on all the principles of the cervical mucus and temperature methods as well as autopalpation of the cervix and any other signs of ovulation. Effectiveness rates are high. In general pregnancy risks are the same as those for the cervical mucus and temperature methods. A theoretical heightened risk of abortion or fetal malformation common to all the methods due to fertilization of aging gametes has not been definitively evaluated. Another possible risk results from timing of abstinence at the phase of the menstrual cycle when the woman's sexual desire is likely to be greatest. PMID:3726778
Zufferey, M M
The national laboratory system provides a unique resource for addressing the national needs inherent in the mission of the Department of Energy. Argonne, which grew out of Enrico Fermi's pioneering work on the development of nuclear power, was the first national laboratory and, in many ways, has set the standard for those that followed. As the Laboratory's new director, I am pleased to present the Argonne National Laboratory Institutional Plan for FY 2002 through FY 2007 on behalf of the extraordinary group of scientists, engineers, technicians, administrators, and others who are responsible for the Laboratory's distinguished record of achievement. Like our sister DOE laboratories, Argonne uses a multifaceted approach to advance U.S. R and D priorities. First, we assemble interdisciplinary teams of scientists and engineers to address complex problems. For example, our initiative in Functional Genomics will bring together biologists, computer scientists, environmental scientists, and staff of the Advanced Photon Source to develop complete maps of cellular function. Second, we cultivate specific core competencies in science and technology; this Institutional Plan discusses the many ways in which our core competencies support DOE's four mission areas. Third, we serve the scientific community by designing, building, and operating world-class user facilities, such as the Advanced Photon Source, the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source, and the Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System. This Plan summarizes the visions, missions, and strategic plans for the Laboratory's existing major user facilities, and it explains our approach to the planned Rare Isotope Accelerator. Fourth, we help develop the next generation of scientists and engineers through educational programs, many of which involve bright young people in research. This Plan summarizes our vision, objectives, and strategies in the education area, and it gives statistics on student and faculty participation. Finally, we collaborate with other national laboratories, academia, and industry, both on scientific and engineering research and on the construction of major research facilities, such as the Spallation Neutron Source. This Plan describes some of the important collaborations currently under way. For more than 55 years, the University of Chicago has, as a public service, managed and operated Argonne under contract to the federal government. As a result, the Laboratory's research environment and performance have maintained a high standard of intellectual excellence and integrity, and the site--despite its age--is among the best maintained in the DOE complex. Currently, the University and Laboratory are strengthening their mutual ties at all levels, from student research and individual-investigator collaborations to joint appointments and strategic alliances. The Laboratory has also benefited greatly from its excellent relations with the state of Illinois, whose taxpayers have generously supported many scientific programs and facilities at Argonne. Because Argonne is a publicly funded institution operating under a performance-based contract, it is incumbent on us to conduct all our work and operate all our facilities cost-effectively and with distinction, while we maintain exemplary relations with the public (especially neighbors near the Illinois and Idaho sites); give the highest priority to the safety and health of our personnel and others on and near our site; protect the environment; and effectively implement security, counterintelligence, and export control measures. Our performance and plans in these areas are also discussed in this Plan.
Beggs, S. D.
As low income countries experience economic transition, characterized by rapid economic growth and increased government spending potential in health, they have increased fiscal space to support and sustain more of their own health programmes, decreasing need for donor development assistance. Phase out of external funds should be systematic and efforts towards this end should concentrate on government commitments towards country ownership and self-sustainability. The 2006 US Agency for International Development (USAID) family planning (FP) graduation strategy is one such example of a systematic phase-out approach. Triggers for graduation were based on pre-determined criteria and programme indicators. In 2011 the GAVI Alliance (formerly the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunizations) which primarily supports financing of new vaccines, established a graduation policy process. Countries whose gross national income per capita exceeds $1570 incrementally increase their co-financing of new vaccines over a 5-year period until they are no longer eligible to apply for new GAVI funding, although previously awarded support will continue. This article compares and contrasts the USAID and GAVI processes to apply lessons learned from the USAID FP graduation experience to the GAVI process. The findings of the review are 3-fold: (1) FP graduation plans served an important purpose by focusing on strategic needs across six graduation plan foci, facilitating graduation with pre-determined financial and technical benchmarks, (2) USAID sought to assure contraceptive security prior to graduation, phasing out of contraceptive donations first before phasing out from technical assistance in other programme areas and (3) USAID sought to sustain political support to assure financing of products and programmes continue after graduation. Improving sustainability more broadly beyond vaccine financing provides a more comprehensive approach to graduation. The USAID FP experience provides a window into understanding one approach to graduation from donor assistance. The process itself-involving transparent country-level partners well in advance of graduation-appears a valuable lesson towards success. PMID:24974106
Shen, Angela K; Farrell, Marguerite M; Vandenbroucke, Mary F; Fox, Elizabeth; Pablos-Mendez, Ariel
...Comprehensive Conservation Plan for the Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, MT...no significant impact (FONSI) for the Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife Refuge is available...e-mail). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife Refuge is...
Phenology is the study of periodic plant and animal life cycle events, how these are influenced by seasonal and interannual variations in climate, and how they modulate the abundance, diversity, and interactions of organisms. The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN) is currently being organized to engage federal agencies, environmental networks and field stations, educational institutions, and citizen scientists. The first USA-NPN planning workshop was held August 2005, in Tucson, Ariz. (Betancourt et al. ; http://www.uwm.edu/Dept/Geography/npn/; by 1 June 2007, also see http://www.usanpn.org). With sponsorship from the U.S. National Science Foundation, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and NASA, the second USA-NPN planning workshop was held at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee on 10–12 October 2006 to (1) develop lists of target species and observation protocols; (2) identify existing networks that could comprise the backbone of nationwide observations by 2008; (3) develop opportunities for education, citizen science, and outreach beginning in spring 2007; (4) design strategies for implementing the remote sensing component of USA-NPN; and (5) draft a data management and cyberinfrastructure plan.
Betancourt, Julio L.; Schwartz, Mark D.; Breshears, David D.; Brewer, Carol A.; Frazer, Gary; Gross, John E.; Mazer, Susan J.; Reed, Bradley C.; Wilson, Bruce E.
Presents model for conceptualizing interactional patterns in families presenting for treatment of obesity and method for organizing assessment and for prioritizing treatment strategies. Uses the Family FIRO Model as a framework to organize complex assessment issues, to assign priorities for treatment of issues, and to select appropriate treatment…
Doherty, William J.; Harkaway, Jill Elka
... competitively selected demonstration sites that includes training; TA; sustainability planning and more. Read More ... & Nutrition Impact of Trauma Mental Health Screening & Assessment Military ...
On November 17, 1903, fifteen miles from the nearest railway station and fifty miles northwest of the capital of the Cherokee Nation in Tahlequah, a fire engulfed the Cherokee Orphan Asylum. After the fire the Cherokee Nation relocated the homeless children to the nation's Insane Asylum in Tahlequah, where Sequoyah School stands today. The…
Reed, Julie L.
Administered a questionnaire to 267 unmarried students, stratified for race and sex, to assess attitudes toward population control. Results indicate that Ss (a) desired 2.6 children in contrast to the previous norm of 3; (b) generally favored the birth control pill and, if infertile, were willing to adopt children; (c) supported voluntary limitation of family size (including a small but
in rural Egypt are using a birth control method calls into question the "success" of Egypt's population program as a national endeavor and reveals a distinct disparity between contraceptive prevalence in rural areas as opposed to urban areas. This thesis...
Carr, Aline B.
This document presents the vision for Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the next five years, and a roadmap for implementing that vision. Brookhaven is a multidisciplinary science-based laboratory operated for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), supported primarily by programs sponsored by the DOE's Office of Science. As the third-largest funding agency for science in the U.S., one of the DOE's goals is ''to advance basic research and the instruments of science that are the foundations for DOE's applied missions, a base for U.S. technology innovation, and a source of remarkable insights into our physical and biological world, and the nature of matter and energy'' (DOE Office of Science Strategic Plan, 2000 http://www.osti.gov/portfolio/science.htm). BNL shapes its vision according to this plan.
This plan was prepared by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of the Office of Fusion Energy, Division of Development and Technology, to define the technology development needs and priorities. The US rf research and development community, with a wide representation from universities, laboratories and industries, participated in many discussions, meetings and in a three-day workshop in developing the needs and priorities definition. This very active and effective involvement of the rf leaders from all of these groups was an essential feature of the activity and results in the plan representing a broad consensus from the magnetic fusion energy development community. In addition, a number of scientists from Japan and Europe participated by providing data.
Background To describe the impact of the post-abortion family planning counseling in bringing about the contraceptive usage in women who had induced abortion in a family planning clinic. Method The Diyarbakir Office of Turkish Family Planning Association (DTFPA) is a nonprofit and nongovernmental organization which runs a family planning clinic to serve the lower socio-economic populations, in Diyarbakir-Turkey. Post abortion counseling is introduced by using proper communication skills and with using appropriate methods to women. In this study we introduced contraceptive usage of women who had induced abortion one year ago and followed by DTFPA's clinic. Results 55.3% of our clients were not using contraceptive methods before abortion. At the end of the one year, 75.9% of our followed-up clients revealed that they were using one of the modern contraceptive methods. There was no woman with IUD before induced abortion. At the end of one year 124 (52.3%) women had IUD. "A modern method was introduced immediately after abortion" was the most important factor increasing modern method usage. Conclusion Our results advocate that post-abortion counseling may be an effective tool to increase the usage of contraceptives. Improved and more qualified post-abortion family planning counseling should be an integral part of abortion services. PMID:19146657
Ceylan, Ali; Ertem, Meliksah; Saka, Gunay; Akdeniz, Nurten
Purpose of review We reviewed recent literature on the role of family planning in eliminating new pediatric HIV infections. Recent findings Global commitments to eliminate new pediatric HIV infections recognize that preventing unintended pregnancies among women with HIV is essential to achieving this goal. However, substantial shortcomings exist in translating this policy support into widespread practice. Programs to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV continue to be implemented and evaluated as a narrow set of interventions that typically begins in antenatal care, after a woman is already pregnant. In addition, data suggest that women living with HIV experience high rates of unmet need for family planning and unintended pregnancies. Evidence is growing that integrating family planning and HIV services is an effective strategy for increasing access to contraception among women with HIV who do not wish to become pregnant. A number of health systems obstacles must be resolved to achieve effective, sustained delivery of integrated services at scale. Summary Prevention of unintended pregnancies among women with HIV must be elevated as a programmatic priority. By strengthening family planning programs for all women, and better integrating family planning and HIV services, progress toward ending new pediatric HIV infections will be accelerated. PMID:23743790
Wilcher, Rose; Petruney, Tricia; Cates, Willard
The media has been employed to increase uptake of Family Planning through behaviour change communication (BCC). Understanding the barriers encountered in effectively undertaking this function would increase the strategy's effectiveness. Sixty journalists from East Africa participated in trainings to enhance their BCC skills for Family Planning in which a qualitative study was nested to identify barriers to effective Family Planning BCC in the region's media. The barriers were observed to be insufficient BCC skills, journalists' conflict of interest, interests of media houses, inaccessible sources of family planning information, editorial ideologies and absence of commercially beneficial demand. Coupled with the historical ideologies of the media in the region, the observed barriers have precipitated ineffective family planning BCC in the regions media. Effective BCC for family planning in the regions media requires capacity building among practitioners and alignment of the concept to the media's and consumers' aspirations. PMID:24069769
Kagurusi, Patrick T
...assist caregivers as they juggle work, filial, and financial responsibilities...family caregivers for their devoted work. Our businesses and companies can...loved ones in need. By offering flexible work arrangements and paid leave...
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is located near the geographic center of Long Island, New York. The Laboratory is situated on 5,265 acres of land composed of Pine Barrens habitat with a central area developed for Laboratory work. In the mid-1990s BNL began developing a wildlife management program. This program was guided by the Wildlife Management Plan (WMP), which was reviewed and approved by various state and federal agencies in September 1999. The WMP primarily addressed concerns with the protection of New York State threatened, endangered, or species of concern, as well as deer populations, invasive species management, and the revegetation of the area surrounding the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The WMP provided a strong and sound basis for wildlife management and established a basis for forward motion and the development of this document, the Natural Resource Management Plan (NRMP), which will guide the natural resource management program for BNL. The body of this plan establishes the management goals and actions necessary for managing the natural resources at BNL. The appendices provide specific management requirements for threatened and endangered amphibians and fish (Appendices A and B respectively), lists of actions in tabular format (Appendix C), and regulatory drivers for the Natural Resource Program (Appendix D). The purpose of the Natural Resource Management Plan is to provide management guidance, promote stewardship of the natural resources found at BNL, and to integrate their protection with pursuit of the Laboratory's mission. The philosophy or guiding principles of the NRMP are stewardship, adaptive ecosystem management, compliance, integration with other plans and requirements, and incorporation of community involvement, where applicable.
Since the 1970s, the federal government has spearheaded major national education programs to reduce the burden of chronic diseases in the United States. These prevention and disease management programs communicate critical information to the public, those affected by the disease, and health care providers. The National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), the leading federal program on diabetes sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), uses primary and secondary quantitative data and qualitative audience research to guide program planning and evaluation. Since 2006, the NDEP has filled the gaps in existing quantitative data sources by conducting its own population-based survey, the NDEP National Diabetes Survey (NNDS). The NNDS is conducted every 2–3 years and tracks changes in knowledge, attitudes and practice indicators in key target audiences. This article describes how the NDEP has used the NNDS as a key component of its evaluation framework and how it applies the survey results for strategic planning and program improvement. The NDEP's use of the NNDS illustrates how a program evaluation framework that includes periodic population-based surveys can serve as an evaluation model for similar national health education programs. PMID:25463016
Griffey, Susan; Piccinino, Linda; Gallivan, Joanne; Lotenberg, Lynne Doner; Tuncer, Diane
Eisenhower as a Barefoot Boy? Family Objects to a Memorial http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/07/arts/design/eisenhower-memorial-by-frank-gehry-draws-objections-from-family.htmlGehry's design for Eisenhower memorial misses the markhttp://www.washingtonpost.com/realestate/gehrys-design-for-eisenhower-memorial-misses-the-mark/2012/01/23/gIQAy22jVQ_story.htmlA Q&A With Susan Eisenhower About the Fight Over Her Grandfather's Memorialhttp://www.washingtonian.com/blogarticles/people/capitalcomment/22381.htmlIn Defense of Frank Gehryhttp://www.washingtonian.com/blogarticles/people/capitalcomment/22617.htmlDwight D. Eisenhower Memorial Commissionhttp://eisenhowermemorial.org/U.S. Commission of Fine Artshttp://www.cfa.gov/Memorials to great men and women can be controversial affairs, and the recent dispute over the Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial in Washington, DC serves as a reminder of such issues. Another planned memorial is coming under close scrutiny, and once again, the proverbial battleground is in the United States capital. Over the past couple of years, the noted designer and architect Frank Gehry has been working on the design for the memorial to President Dwight D. Eisenhower, and the groundbreaking is scheduled to take place this year on the Washington Mall. The current design features Eisenhower as a young boy in Kansas looking at some of his later accomplishments, with a backdrop of the plains of the Sunflower State. These proposed plans do not sit well with some, including his granddaughter, Susan Eisenhower, and the National Civic Art Society, which remarked that "The statue of Ike as a Kansas farmer-boy mocks the president as cornpone in chief, the supreme allied bumpkin." In January, members of the Eisenhower family made their concerns about the design public, and it remains to be seen whether there might be an extension of the comment period regarding the memorial. The preliminary design has already been approved by the United States Commission of Fine Arts, but it must also be approved by the National Capital Planning Commission. As of this writing, Frank Gehry had yet to offer comment on this recent turn of events and public discussion. The first link leads to a nice article from this Tuesday's New York Times about the proposed memorial to President Eisenhower. The second link will take users to a piece of architectural criticism by Roger K. Lewis, published in the Washington Post. Moving on, the third link will take interested parties to an interview with Susan Eisenhower about the memorial to her grandfather. The fourth link leads to follow-up exchange with Daniel J. Feil, the executive architect for the Eisenhower Memorial Commission over the past six years. The fifth link leads to the website of the Eisenhower Memorial Commission. Here visitors can learn about the commission, the designs for the proposed memorial, and also read press releases. The final link will take visitors to the homepage of the U.S. Commission of Fine Arts, where they can learn about the work of the Commission and the ways in which the Commission gives expert advice on "matters of design and aesthetics."
Women with severe maternal morbidity represent an important group to target for increasing contraceptive uptake. Our objective was to explore the future fertility intentions, use of family planning including methods and reasons for not wanting to use contraception among a group of women who had traumatic delivery experience at a tertiary teaching hospital in Accra, Ghana. Our results show that despite higher educational attainment, longer hospital stays and intention to limit or stop childbearing among women, there is a missed opportunity for family planning among women with severe maternal morbidity in this urban African hospital setting. Integrating postpartum family planning consultations by linking available services such as reproductive health clinics at the facilities rather than including additional tasks for the midwives and the doctors in the wards could be a sustainable solution in such urban, high-volume settings. PMID:25022138
Tunçalp, Ozge; Adu-Bonsaffoh, Kwame; Adanu, Richard M; Hindin, Michelle J
This paper reports the results of a 12-month implementation study documenting the process of integrating the Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM) into a multiple-method family planning service-delivery organization, the Céntro Médico de Orientación y Planificación Familiar (CEMOPLAF), in Ecuador. LAM was introduced as a family planning option in four CEMOPLAF clinics. LAM was accepted by 133 breastfeeding women during the program's first five months, representing about one-third of postpartum clients. Seventy-three percent of LAM acceptors were new to any family planning method. Follow-up interviews with a systematic sample of 67 LAM users revealed that the method was generally used correctly. Three pregnancies were reported, none by women who were following LAM as recommended. Service providers' knowledge of LAM resulted in earlier IUD insertions among breastfeeding women. Relationships with other maternal and child health organizations and programs were also established. PMID:7940621
Wade, K B; Sevilla, F; Labbok, M H
...NPS-PWR-PWRO--0315-696; 8145-8B90-SZM] Dog Management Plan/Draft Environmental Impact...for Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Dog Management Plan, Golden Gate National Recreation...National Park Service has prepared a Draft Dog Management Plan and Environmental...
for this failure. Yet, sev- eral recent efforts to build hands  have demonstrated how technological limitations in the analy- This work is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants DMS-0139715, DMS-0139701, and bodies called "obstacles," whose configurations are specified functions of time (of- ten obstacle
... Hospital Discharge," Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Patient Safety Network. http://psnet.ahrq.gov/primer.aspx?primerID= ... Hospital to Home, A Consumer Fact Sheet." National Patient Safety Foundation. http://www.npsf.org/download/SafetyAsYouGo.pdf ...
Background Contraceptive use is low in developing countries which are still largely driven by male dominated culture and patriarchal values. This study explored family planning (FP) decisions, perceptions and gender dynamics among couples in Mwanza region of Tanzania. Methods Twelve focus group discussions and six in-depth interviews were used to collect information from married or cohabiting males and females aged 18–49. The participants were purposively selected. Qualitative methods were used to explore family planning decisions, perceptions and gender dynamics among couples. A guide with questions related to family planning perceptions, decisions and gender dynamics was used. The discussions and interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed manually and subjected to content analysis. Results Four themes emerged during the study. First, “risks and costs” which refer to the side effects of FP methods and the treatment of side -effects as well as the costs inherit in being labeled as an unfaithful spouse. Second, “male involvement” as men showed little interest in participating in family planning issues. However, the same men were mentioned as key decision-makers even on the number of children a couple should have and the child spacing of these children. Third, “gender relations and communication” as participants indicated that few women participated in decision-making on family planning and the number of children to have. Fourth, “urban–rural differences”, life in rural favoring having more children than urban areas therefore, the value of children depended on the place of residence. Conclusion Family Planning programs should adapt the promotion of communication as well as joint decision-making on FP among couples as a strategy aimed at enhancing FP use. PMID:23721196
To address low contraceptive use in Afghanistan, we supported 2 large public maternity hospitals and 3 private hospitals in Kabul to use modern quality improvement (QI) methods to integrate family planning into postpartum care. In 2012, QI teams comprising hospital staff applied root cause analysis to identify barriers to integrated postpartum family planning (PPFP) services and to develop solutions for how to integrate services. Changes made to service provision to address identified barriers included creating a private counseling space near the postpartum ward, providing PPFP counseling training and job aids to staff, and involving husbands and mothers-in-law in counseling in person or via mobile phones. After 10 months, the proportion of postpartum women who received family planning counseling before discharge in the 5 hospitals increased from 36% to 55%, and the proportion of women who received family planning counseling with their husbands rose from 18% to 90%. In addition, the proportion of postpartum women who agreed to use family planning and left the hospital with their preferred method increased from 12% to 95%. Follow-up telephone surveys with a random sample of women who had received PPFP services in the 2 public hospitals and a control group of postpartum women who had received routine hospital services found significant differences in the proportion of women with self-reported pregnancies: 3% vs. 15%, respectively, 6 months after discharge; 6% vs. 22% at 12 months; and 14% vs. 35% at 18 months (P < .001). Applying QI methods helped providers recognize and overcome barriers to integration of family planning and postpartum services by testing changes they deemed feasible. PMID:25276580
Tawfik, Youssef; Rahimzai, Mirwais; Ahmadzai, Malalah; Clark, Phyllis Annie; Kamgang, Evelyn
Familial pancreatic cancer (FPC) is a rare hereditary tumor syndrome. The 10-years experience of the national case collection\\u000a for familial pancreatic cancer of Germany (FaPaCa) is reported. Since 1999 FaPaCa has collected families with at least two\\u000a first-degree relatives with confirmed pancreatic cancer (PC), who did not fulfill the criteria of other hereditary tumor syndromes.\\u000a Histopathological verification of tumor diagnoses,
Ralph Schneider; Emily P. Slater; Mercede Sina; Nils Habbe; Volker Fendrich; Elvira Matthäi; Peter Langer; Detlef K. Bartsch
Summarizes information gathered in a national survey of the course offerings and programs in marriage and family counseling offered by 244 counselor education departments. Approximately two-thirds of those departments offered such courses. Approximately 90 percent of the departments supported marriage and family course offerings in counselor…
Peltier, Steven W.; Vale, Sara O.
Emergency responders are the front line of defense against catastrophic terrorist attacks on US soil. Advanced systems and cutting-edge technologies can increase responders' capabilities, or make their resources go farther in time of crisis, but there is a disconnection of understanding between those who produce the systems and technologies, and those who need them at the local level. Local jurisdictions rarely have a budget to support or influence technology development and acquisition. The laboratories, agencies, universities, or industries that develop these emerging technologies are responding to requirements from different markets (usually larger) than individual local jurisdictions. Indeed, responders may not even know of new technology development, availability, or relevance to responders" needs. Consequently, technology developers have limited insight into what technologies responders need. Local, and even state, budgets by themselves are not sufficiently large or coordinated to influence technology development towards the needs of responders, without the assistance of federal direction and funding. If federal direction and funding of technology is to produce and deliver useful capabilities for local responders, federal technology planners must understand the needs of responders, and develop technology plans to meet those needs. Project Responder's National Technology Plan for Emergency Response provides a foundation and building blocks for technology planning, to focus federal research and development investments toward improving the capabilities of state and local emergency responders.
Pollard, Neal A.; Tuohy, Robert V.; Garwin, Thomas M.; Powell, Maria E.; Royal, Michelle; Singley, George T., III
The National Science Foundation (NSF) Grant Proposal Guide (NSF 09-29) contains new guidance regarding compliance with the mentoring requirement of the America COMPETES Act. NSF Program Staff will review the Postdoctoral Researcher Mentoring Plan Requirement with regard to NSF proposal submissions. Each NSF proposal that requests funding to support postdoctoral researchers must include, as a supplementary document, a description of the mentoring activities that will be provided for such individuals. In no more than one page, the mentoring plan must describe the mentoring that will be provided to all postdoctoral researchers supported by the project, irrespective of whether they reside at the submitting organization, any subawardee organization, or at any organization participating in a simultaneously submitted collaborative project. Examples of mentoring activities include, but are not limited to: career counseling; training in preparation of grant proposals, publications and presentations; guidance on ways to improve teaching and mentoring skills; guidance on how to effectively collaborate with researchers from diverse backgrounds and disciplinary areas; and training in responsible professional practices. The proposed mentoring activities will be evaluated as part of the merit review process under the Foundation's broader impacts merit review criterion. Proposals that include funding to support postdoctoral researchers, and, do not include the requisite mentoring plan will be returned without review.
The National Museum of Natural History has a myriad of exciting resources for those who wish to help young people learn about natural history. On the site, visitors can make their way through three sections: Lesson Plans, Web-based Student Activities, and Resources for Teachers & Classrooms. In the Lesson Plans area, visitors can browse resources that include the Ocean Portal, which features lesson plans and fact sheets created by several partner organizations, including NOAA. Also, the area contains a great Measuring Biodiversity Across North America activity which uses state-of-the art interactive mapping technology. The Web-based Student Activities area includes a visually stimulating map titled "This Dynamic Planet" that allows users to explore 1,500 volcanoes, 44,000 earthquakes, and 170 impact craters. The area also includes a wonderful coral reef activity and a great encyclopedia of information of mammals in North America. The last area leads to external links such as the Monterey Bay Aquarium Online Field Guide and the popular AnthroNotes, which contains articles on current anthropological research.
Background A cultural preference for sons has been well documented in India, resulting in skewed sex ratios, especially exhibited in northwest India. Previous research has shown that family sex composition is associated with family planning (FP) use and couples’ desire for more children. This study examines family sex composition and fertility and FP behaviors in urban Uttar Pradesh, India; little work has examined these issues in urban settings where family sizes are smaller and FP use is common. Methods Data for this analysis comes from a 2010 representative survey of married, non-pregnant fecund women aged 15–49 from six cities in Uttar Pradesh, India. Multivariate analyses are used to examine the association between family sex composition and fertility desires and FP use. Results The multivariate results indicate that family sex composition is associated with fertility desires and FP use. Women without living children and without at least one child of each sex are significantly less likely to want no more children and women with both sons and daughters but more sons are significantly more likely to want no more children as compared to women that have both sons and daughters but more daughters. Women with no living children and women with daughters but no sons are less likely to be modern FP users than nonusers whereas women with both sons and daughters but more sons are more likely to be modern FP users than nonusers as compared to women with both sons and daughters but more daughters. Conclusions These findings confirm that family sex composition affects fertility behavior and also reveals that preference for sons persists in urban Uttar Pradesh. These results underscore the importance of programs and policies that work to enhance the value of girl children. PMID:24025670
The planned, comprehensive inclusion of general practitioners/family physicians in specialist education has begun with the project entitled Harmonization of Family Medicine Service with European Standards by the Implementation of Compulsory Residency. According to the Project, all physicians working in family medicine practice should have an opportunity to complete the respective residency by 2015. Analysis of the planned and completed family medicine residency in Croatia during the 2002-2006 period is presented. Of the total family medicine residency positions planned during the four-year period, 543 (90.5%) have been completed, with the greatest discrepancy recorded in program A applying to physicians younger than 35 having concluded a contract with the Croatian Institute of Health Insurance. In addition, this relationship varied among different countries. There are a number of obstacles hindering the Project implementation. However, it should be noted that the Project has made a breakthrough in upgrading the quality of family medicine practice, as a pledge of future development and rational performance of the entire health care system in Croatia, in order to promote the health care of the population at large. PMID:17593648
Vrci?-Keglevi?, Mladenka; Kati?, Milica; Tiljak, Hrvoje; Lazi?, Durdica; Neki?, Venija Cerovecki; Petricek, Goranka; Ozvaci?, Zlata; Soldo, Dragan
Background Unmet need for family planning is responsible for 7.4 million disability-adjusted life years and 30% of the maternity-related disease burden. An estimated 35% of births are unintended and some 200 million couples state a desire to delay pregnancy or cease fertility but are not using contraception. Unmet need is higher among the poorest, lesser educated, rural residents and women under 19 years. The barriers to, and successful strategies for, satisfying all demand for modern contraceptives are heavily influenced by context. Successfully overcoming this to increase the uptake of family planning is estimated to reduce the risk of maternal death by up to 58% as well as contribute to poverty reduction, women’s empowerment and educational, social and economic participation, national development and environmental protection. Methods To strengthen health systems for delivery of context-specific, equity-focused reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health services (RMNCH), the Investment Case study was applied in the Asia-Pacific region. Staff of local and central government and non-government organisations analysed data indicative of health service delivery through a supply–demand oriented framework to identify constraints to RMNCH scale-up. Planners developed contextualised strategies and the projected coverage increases were modelled for estimates of marginal impact on maternal mortality and costs over a five year period. Results In Indonesia, Philippines and Nepal the constraints behind incomplete coverage of family planning services included: weaknesses in commodities logistic management; geographical inaccessibility; limitations in health worker skills and numbers; legislation; and religious and cultural ideologies. Planned activities included: streamlining supply systems; establishment of Community Health Teams for integrated RMNCH services; local recruitment of staff and refresher training; task-shifting; and follow-up cards. Modelling showed varying marginal impact and costs for each setting with potential for significant reductions in the maternal mortality rate; up to 28% (25.1-30.7) over five years, costing up to a marginal USD 1.34 (1.32-1.35) per capita in the first year. Conclusion Local health planners are in a prime position to devise feasible context-specific activities to overcome constraints and increase met need for family planning to accelerate progress towards MDG 5. PMID:23140196
BackgroundIn the UK, pregnant women are not offered and recommended a hepatitis C virus (HCV) test because no effective intervention to prevent vertical transmission of HCV exists following conception. Mother-to-child transmission of HCV could, however, be reduced if infected women planning to have children underwent a course of therapy prior to conception.ObjectiveTo determine what proportion of female family planning clinic
Laura Sharp; Sharon J Hutchinson; David Goldberg; Avril Taylor; Susan Carr
as a strategy for providing comprehensive family support. In L. K. Koegel, R L Koegel, & G. Dunlap (Eds.), Positive behavioral support: Including people with difficult behavior in the community (pp. 99-114). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing... to beat the odds. Increasingly, there is a great deal being written about the importance of visions in future planning (see, e.g., Senge, 1990). In our own Group Action Planning, we found that great expectations grow in ever-increasing circles. It would...
Turnbull, Ann P.; Turnbull, H. Rutherford
...Support Program and the Lifespan Respite Care Program, and through new initiatives like the National Plan to Address Alzheimer's Disease. These efforts help caregivers access services, provide quality support, and reinforce their...
Contraceptive use in Senegal is among the lowest in the world and has barely increased over the past 5 years, from 10% of married women in 2005 to 12% in 2011. Contraceptive stockouts in public facilities, where 85% of women access family planning services, are common. In 2011, we conducted a supply chain study of 33 public-sector facilities in Pikine and Guediawaye districts of the Dakar region to understand the magnitude and root causes of stockouts. The study included stock audits, surveys with 156 consumers, and interviews with facility staff, managers, and other stakeholders. At the facility level, stockouts of injectables and implants occurred, on average, 43% and 83% of the year, respectively. At least 60% of stockouts occurred despite stock availability at the national level. Data from interviews revealed that the current "pull-based" distribution system was complex and inefficient. In order to reduce stockout rates to the commercial-sector standard of 2% or less, the Government of Senegal and the Senegal Urban Reproductive Health Initiative developed the informed push distribution model (IPM) and pilot-tested it in Pikine district between February 2012 and July 2012. IPM brings the source of supply (a delivery truck loaded with supplies) closer to the source of demand (clients in health facilities) and streamlines the steps in between. With a professional logistician managing stock and deliveries, the health facilities no longer need to place and pick up orders. Stockouts of contraceptive pills, injectables, implants, and intrauterine devices (IUDs) were completely eliminated at the 14 public health facilities in Pikine over the 6-month pilot phase. The government expanded IPM to all 140 public facilities in the Dakar region, and 6 months later stockout rates throughout the region dropped to less than 2%. National coverage of the IPM is expected by July 2015. PMID:25276582
Daff, Bocar Mamadou; Seck, Cheikh; Belkhayat, Hassan; Sutton, Perri
...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Arapahoe Basin Ski Area Master Development Plan, Arapaho National Forest, Summit County, CO AGENCY...status of the 1982 Plan, the Forest Service and A- Basin determined that an...
...alternative represents current management of the Ironwood Forest National...reasonable, yet varying, management scenarios. The alternatives...from current BLM planning documents, including the Phoenix Resource Management Plan (1989),...
BackgroundMen¿s participation is crucial to the success of family planning programs and women¿s empowerment and associated with better outcomes in reproductive health such as contraceptive acceptance and continuation, and safer sexual behaviors. Limited choice and access to methods, attitudes of men towards family planning, perceived fear of side-effects, poor quality of available services, cultural or religious oppositions and gender-based barriers are some of the reasons for low utilization of family planning. Hence, this study assessed the level of male involvement in family planning services utilization and its associated factors in Debremarkos town, Northwest Ethiopia.MethodsA community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from October to November, 2013. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 524 eligible samples. Data were collected by using semi-structured questionnaires. Epi Info and SPSS were used to enter and analyze the data; univariate, bivariate and logistic regression analyses were performed to display the outputs.ResultsOnly 44 (8.4%) respondents were using or directly participating in the use of family planning services mainly male condoms. The reasons mentioned for the low participation were the desire to have more children, wife or partner refusal, fear of side effects, religious prohibition, lack of awareness about contraceptives and the thinking that it is the only issue for women. Opinion about family planning services, men approval and current use of family planning methods were associated with male involvement in the services utilization.ConclusionsIn this study, the level of male involvement was low. Lack of information, inaccessibility to the services and the desire to have more children were found to be the reasons for low male involvement in family planning services utilization. Governmental and nongovernmental organizations, donors and relevant stakeholders should ensure availability, accessibility and sustained advocacy for use of family planning services. The family planning programs should incorporate the responsibility and role of males in the uptake of family planning services. PMID:25439300
Kassa, Mihretie; Abajobir, Amanuel; Gedefaw, Molla
For many missions, the European Space Agency ESA has followed a delta approach connected with excessive software reuse for the development of operational ground software for space missions. This approach of mission families is well proven and has already led to enormous cost savings regarding development and maintenance costs. Advances in mission planning and mission automation are an example how
Michael Koller; C. Schurig
During 20-22 September Manchester is to host the 1993 follow up to last year's "earth summit" in Rio de Janeiro. At that summit the threat posed by world overpopulation received considerable attention. Catholicism was perceived as opposed to birth control and therefore as a particular threat. This was based on the notion that the only method of birth control approved by the church--natural family planning--is unreliable, unacceptable, and ineffective. In the 20 years since E L Billings and colleagues first described the cervical mucus symptoms associated with ovulation natural family planning has incorporated these symptoms and advanced considerably. Ultrasonography shows that the symptoms identify ovulation precisely. According to the World Health Organisation, 93% of women everywhere can identify the symptoms, which distinguish adequately between the fertile and infertile phases of the menstrual cycle. Most pregnancies during trials of natural family planning occur after intercourse at times recognised by couples as fertile. Thus pregnancy rates have depended on the motivation of couples. Increasingly studies show that rates equivalent to those with other contraceptive methods are readily achieved in the developed and developing worlds. Indeed, a study of 19,843 poor women in India had a pregnancy rate approaching zero. Natural family planning is cheap, effective, without side effects, and may be particularly acceptable to the efficacious among people in areas of poverty. Images p724-a p724-b p724-c p724-d p724-e p724-f p724-g PMID:8401097
Ryder, R E
During 20-22 September Manchester is to host the 1993 follow up to last year's "earth summit" in Rio de Janeiro. At that summit the threat posed by world overpopulation received considerable attention. Catholicism was perceived as opposed to birth control and therefore as a particular threat. This was based on the notion that the only method of birth control approved by the church--natural family planning--is unreliable, unacceptable, and ineffective. In the 20 years since E L Billings and colleagues first described the cervical mucus symptoms associated with ovulation natural family planning has incorporated these symptoms and advanced considerably. Ultrasonography shows that the symptoms identify ovulation precisely. According to the World Health Organisation, 93% of women everywhere can identify the symptoms, which distinguish adequately between the fertile and infertile phases of the menstrual cycle. Most pregnancies during trials of natural family planning occur after intercourse at times recognised by couples as fertile. Thus pregnancy rates have depended on the motivation of couples. Increasingly studies show that rates equivalent to those with other contraceptive methods are readily achieved in the developed and developing worlds. Indeed, a study of 19,843 poor women in India had a pregnancy rate approaching zero. Natural family planning is cheap, effective, without side effects, and may be particularly acceptable to the efficacious among people in areas of poverty. PMID:8401097
Ryder, R E
Background This study examined the efficacy of a family planning clinic-based intervention to address intimate partner violence (IPV) and reproductive coercion. Study Design Four free-standing urban family planning clinics in Northern California were randomized to intervention (trained family planning counselors) or standard-of-care. English-and Spanish-speaking females ages 16-29 years (N=906) completed audio computer-assisted surveys prior to a clinic visit and 12 to 24 weeks later (75% retention rate). Analyses included assessment of intervention effects on recent IPV, awareness of IPV services, and reproductive coercion. Results Among women reporting past 3-month IPV at baseline, there was a 71% reduction in the odds of pregnancy coercion among participants in intervention clinics compared to participants from the control clinics that provided standard of care. Women in the intervention arm were more likely to report ending a relationship because the relationship was unhealthy or unsafe regardless of IPV status (AOR 1.63, 95% CI 1.01 – 2.63). Conclusions Results of this pilot study suggest that this intervention may reduce risk for reproductive coercion from abusive male partners among family planning clients and support such women to leave unsafe relationships. PMID:21310291
Miller, Elizabeth; Decker, Michele R.; McCauley, Heather L.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Levenson, Rebecca R.; Waldman, Jeffrey; Schoenwald, Phyllis; Silverman, Jay G.
The Africa Operations Research/Technical Assistance Project developed an integrated approach to introducing and institutionalizing family planning in Kenya. This approach consisted of: 1) the development of the Situation Analysis methodology to diagnose problems; 2) the development of a computer simulation model for choosing operations research (OR) strategies; 3) an OR training workshop; 4) the implementation of three OR field studies testing educational approaches to several program problems; 5) a conference to review the findings and implications from the three studies. Technical assistance was provided in all phases. Results from the field studies indicated that all of the tested educational interventions had at least some short-term impact. Health talks with waiting maternal and child health (MCH) clients doubled the proportion adopting family planning; a simple educational package for clinic supervisors, along with a day of training, raised the proportion of family planning clients receiving education and referral for voluntary surgical sterilization (VSC) and increased the number of tubal ligations at a referral hospital. Waiting time was reduced. The Division of Family Health of the Ministry of Health has submitted plans to introduce these interventions into several districts of the country in the near future. Full institutionalization of OR requires additional cycles of program activities. PMID:20840985
Miller, R A; Frerichs, R R
COPE (Client-Oriented, Provider-Efficient) methodology, a self-assessment tool that has been used in 35 countries around the world, was used to improve the quality of care in family planning clinics in Kenya. COPE involves a process that legitimately invests power with providers and clinic-level staff. It gives providers more control over their…
This update of the 1998 Plan for the 21st Century was designed to augment the California Community College Family and Consumer Sciences in the 21st Century packet, produced in 1996. It summarizes a variety of activities, products and events that have taken place over the past two years, and suggests resources and contacts for learning more about…
Mount San Antonio Coll., Walnut, CA.
Family planning clinics for university students play a valuable role in promoting health. This research project, a pilot study among women students who sought family planning services through a Costa Rican university clinic, introduced student evaluation of the family planning clinic, documented services provided in family planning visits, and identified issues for further study. Aged 18-33 years, the 53 respondents (a convenient sample) who completed a self-administered questionnaire were mostly (64%) single; all were sexually active; and 78% wished to have children (or more children) some day. Though all were sexually active at the time of their visit, only 62% were currently using contraception, and fewer than half of these were using effective methods. Nearly all students (96%) reported they learned new information during their appointment, and many received screening tests and examinations. Respondents rated their satisfaction with aspects of clinic service as high, citing the clinic's low visibility on campus as the most important area for improvement. All of the students said they would definitely return (85%) or would consider returning (15%). The results support the continuance of such a clinic on the campus, as well as of the practice of student evaluation. This collaborative study demonstrated areas for future research and stimulated interest in the university clinic as a research setting. PMID:8375977
Objective To describe predictors of contraceptive method discontinuation and switching behaviors among HIV positive couples receiving couples' voluntary HIV counseling and testing services in Lusaka, Zambia. Design Couples were randomized in a factorial design to two family planning educational intervention videos, received comprehensive family planning services, and were assessed every 3-months for contraceptive initiation, discontinuation and switching. Methods We modeled factors associated with contraceptive method upgrading and downgrading via multivariate Andersen-Gill models. Results Most women continued the initial method selected after randomization. The highest rates of discontinuation/switching were observed for injectable contraceptive and intrauterine device users. Time to discontinuing the more effective contraceptive methods or downgrading to oral contraceptives or condoms was associated with the women's younger age, desire for more children within the next year, heavy menstrual bleeding, bleeding between periods, and cystitis/dysuria. Health concerns among women about contraceptive implants and male partners not wanting more children were associated with upgrading from oral contraceptives or condoms. HIV status of the woman or the couple was not predictive of switching or stopping. Conclusions We found complicated patterns of contraceptive use. The predictors of contraception switching indicate that interventions targeted to younger couples that address common contraception-related misconceptions could improve effective family planning utilization. We recommend these findings be used to increase the uptake and continuation of contraception, especially long acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods, and that fertility-goal based, LARC-focused family planning be offered as an integral part of HIV prevention services. PMID:24088689
Haddad, Lisa; Wall, Kristin M; Vwalika, Bellington; Htee Khu, Naw; Brill, Ilene; Kilembe, William; Stephenson, Rob; Chomba, Elwyn; Vwalika, Cheswa; Tichacek, Amanda; Allen, Susan
SUGGESTED THREE-YEAR GRADUATION PLAN Human Development and Family Studies Â Child and Youth Development - Bachelor of Science [EH-BS-HDFS-CYD] College of Education, Health and Human Services School to ensure a timely graduation. Course Subject and Title Credit Hours Upper Div. Min. Grade Major GPA
BACKGROUND: In Brazil, a Ministry of Health report revealed women who underwent an abortion were predominantly in the use of contraceptive methods, but mentioned inconsistent or erroneously contraceptive use. Promoting the use of contraceptive methods to prevent unwanted pregnancies is one of the most effective strategies to reduce abortion rates and maternal morbidity and mortality. Therefore, providing post-abortion family planning
Ana Laura CG Ferreira; Ariani I Souza; Raitza A Lima; Cynthia Braga
...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Motorized Travel Management Plan, Tonto National Forest; Gila, Maricopa, Pinal, and Counties, AZ AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare...
...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Revision of the Land Management Plan for the Francis Marion National Forest AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of initiating the development of...
The National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE) has created these classroom-tested lesson plans for teachers working in grades K-12. On the left-hand side of the page, visitors will note four tabs: Elementary, Middle, Secondary, and College. In each section, visitors will find announcements about grants, issue briefs, and information about joining email discussion lists. Visitors won't want to miss the Back to School Ideas area, as it features helpful fact sheets, discussion activities, and information about introducing students to more difficult reading material. There is a great Back to School Booklist in this section as well. Focus on 21st Century Literacies is a key section as it includes activities designed to address teaching in this new millennium such as ÃÂ¢Ã¢ÂÂ¬ÃÂOn a Musical Note: Exploring Reading Strategies by Creating a Soundtrack" and "A Collaboration of Sites and Sounds: Using Wikis to Catalog Protest Songs."
The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s (INEL`s) Sample Management Office (SMO) conducts a Performance Evaluation Program that ensures that data of known quality are supplied by the analytical. chemistry service organizations with which the INEL contracts. The Analytical Services Performance Evaluation Plan documents the routine monitoring and assessment of suppliers conducted by the SMO, and it describes the procedures that are followed to ensure that suppliers meet all appropriate requirements. Because high-quality analytical support is vital to the success of DOE Environmental Management programs at the INEL, the performance of organizations providing these services must be routinely monitored and assessed. Analytical disciplines for which performance is monitored include metals, organics, radiochemical, and miscellaneous classical analysis methods.
Connolly, J.M.; Sailer, S.J.; Anderson, D.A.
ABSTRACT Background: Private-sector drug shops are often the first point of health care in sub-Saharan Africa. Training and supporting drug shop and pharmacy staff to provide a wide range of contraceptive methods and information is a promising high-impact practice for which more information is needed to fully document implementation experience and impact. Methods: Between September 2010 and March 2011, we trained 139 drug shop operators (DSOs) in 4 districts of Uganda to safely administer intramuscular DMPA (depot medroxyprogesterone acetate) contraceptive injections. In 2012, we approached 54 of these DSOs and interviewed a convenience sample of 585 of their family planning clients to assess clients' contraceptive use and perspectives on the quality of care and satisfaction with services. Finally, we compared service statistics from April to June 2011 from drug shops, community health workers (CHWs), and government clinics in 3 districts to determine the drug shop market share of family planning services. Results: Most drug shop family planning clients interviewed were women with low socioeconomic status. The large majority (89%) were continuing family planning users. DMPA was the preferred contraceptive. Almost half of the drug shop clients had switched from other providers, primarily from government health clinics, mostly as a result of more convenient locations, shorter waiting times, and fewer stock-outs in drug shops. All clients reported that the DSOs treated them respectfully, and 93% trusted the drug shop operator to maintain privacy. Three-quarters felt that drug shops offered affordable family planning services. Most of the DMPA clients (74%) were very satisfied with receiving their method from the drug shop and 98% intended to get the next injection from the drug shop. Between April and June 2011, clinics, CHWs, and drug shops in 3 districts delivered equivalent proportions of couple-years of protection, with drug shops leading marginally at 36%, followed by clinics (33%) and CHWs (31%). Conclusion: Drug shops can be a viable and convenient source of short-acting contraceptive methods, including DMPA, serving as a complement to government services. Family planning programs in Uganda and elsewhere should consider including drug shops in the network of community-based family planning providers. PMID:25611480
Akol, Angela; Chin-Quee, Dawn; Wamala-Mucheri, Patricia; Namwebya, Jane Harriet; Mercer, Sarah Jilani; Stanback, John
Objectives. Women in correctional institutions have substantial reproductive health problems, yet they are underserved in receipt of reproductive health care. We assessed the level of risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and the reproductive health needs of 484 incarcerated women in Rhode Island to plan an intervention for women returning to the community. Methods. We used a 45-minute survey to assess medical histories, pregnancy and birth control use histories, current pregnancy intentions, substance use during the past 3 months, histories of childhood sexual abuse, and health attitudes and behaviors. Results. Participants had extremely high risks for STDs and pregnancy, which was characterized by inconsistent birth control (66.5%) and condom use (80.4%), multiple partners (38%), and a high prevalence of unplanned pregnancies (83.6%) and STDs (49%). Only 15.4% said it was not likely that they would have sexual relations with a man within 6 months after release. Conclusion. Reproductive health services must be offered to incarcerated women. Such interventions will benefit the women, the criminal justice systems, and the communities to which the women will return. PMID:16571701
Clarke, Jennifer G.; Hebert, Megan R.; Rosengard, Cynthia; Rose, Jennifer S.; DaSilva, Kristen M.; Stein, Michael D.
...General Management Plan, Paterson Great Falls National Historical Park, NJ AGENCY...Statement (GMP/EIS) for Paterson Great Falls National Historical Park (NHP), New...Congress established the Paterson Great Falls NHP Advisory Commission to advise in...
...prepared and approved a Record of Decision for the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the new General Management Plan (GMP) for Ross Lake National Recreation Area, part of the North Cascades National Park Service Complex (Complex). The...
As the 21st century begins to unfold, NASA will focus, with renewed vigor, on the challenges and opportunities before us and on developing the unique capabilities that strengthen America and address our national needs. Our Mission is driven by science, exploration, and discovery, and it will be carried out with a firm commitment to fiscal responsibility. We will study climate change and the natural and human-induced hazards to Earth's ecosystem. We will help to counter the threat of international terrorism by developing technologies that can improve the security and safety of our air transportation system. We will lead the world into a new understanding of our planet, our solar system, and the universe around us, and in so doing, we will begin to understand whether life may have developed elsewhere in the cosmos. This strategic plan lays out our hopes for the future and the important things we seek to accomplish for America. We are privileged to be entrusted with these pursuits and thrilled to be able to carry them out. We invite you to join us on this great adventure. Releasing this strategic plan with our 2004 budget request represents our new commitment to the integration of budget and performance reporting. In this way, we will ensure that strategic priorities are aligned with and influence budget priorities. Our new Integrated Budget and Performance Document, a companion volume to this strategic plan, expands on the goals and objectives presented here and identifies the specific long-term and annual performance measures for which we will be held accountable.
The accuracy of family planning health care professionals' perceptions of the practices and needs of Mexican-American women was compared with actual needs and practices. Discrepancies were found in reports of problems in obtaining family planning services, fertility-related values, and the acceptability of female sterilization as a birth control…
Jorgensen, Stephen R.; Adams, Russell P.
This study explored barriers to and facilitators of using family planning services among HIV-positive men in Nyanza Province, Kenya. From May to June 2010, in-depth interviews were conducted with 30 men receiving care at 15 HIV clinics. The key barriers to the use of family planning included concerns about side effects of contraceptives, lack of knowledge about contraceptive methods, myths and misconceptions including fear of infertility, structural barriers such as staffing shortages at HIV clinics, and a lack of male focus in family planning methods and service delivery. The integration of family planning into HIV clinics including family planning counseling and education was cited as an important strategy to improve family planning receptivity among men. Integrating family planning into HIV services is a promising strategy to facilitate male involvement in family planning. Integration needs to be rigorously evaluated in order to measure its impact on unmet need for contraception among HIV-positive women and their partners and assure that it is implemented in a manner that engages both men and women. PMID:23738057
Steinfeld, Rachel L.; Newmann, Sara J.; Onono, Maricianah; Cohen, Craig R.; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Grossman, Daniel
The article describes the National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act which provides for recovery awards for vaccine-related injuries caused by diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, polio, measles, mumps, and rubella vaccines. A Vaccine Injury Table lists types of disabilities covered and time periods for first symptoms. The claims process, legal assistance,…
Gage, Jack; And Others
Objective The relation between levels of contraceptive use and the incidence of induced abortion remains a topic of heated debate. Many of the contradictions are likely due to the fact that abortion is the end point of a process that starts with sexual activity, contraceptive use (or non-use), followed by unwanted pregnancy, a decision to terminate, and access to abortion. Trends in abortion rates reflect changes in each step of this process, and opposing trends may cancel each other out. This paper aims to investigate the roles played by the dissemination of contraception and the evolving norms of motherhood on changes in abortion rates. Methods Drawing data from six national probability surveys that explored contraception and pregnancy wantedness in France from 1978 through 2010, we used multivariate linear regression to explore the associations between trends in contraceptive rates and trends in (i) abortion rates, (ii) unwanted pregnancy rates, (iii) and unwanted birth rates, and to determine which of these 3 associations was strongest. Findings The association between contraceptive rates and abortion rates over time was weaker than that between contraception rates and unwanted pregnancy rates (p?=?0.003). Similarly, the association between contraceptive rates and unwanted birth rates over time was weaker than that between contraceptive rates and unwanted pregnancy rates (p?=?0.000). PMID:24670784
Bajos, Nathalie; Le Guen, Mireille; Bohet, Aline; Panjo, Henri; Moreau, Caroline
The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Weatherization Assistance Program was created by Congress in 1976 under Title IV of the Energy Conservation and Production Act. The purpose and scope of the Program as currently stated in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 10CFR 440.1 is 'to increase the energy efficiency of dwellings owned or occupied by low-income persons, reduce their total residential expenditures, and improve their health and safety, especially low-income persons who are particularly vulnerable such as the elderly, persons with disabilities, families with children, high residential energy users, and households with high energy burden' (Code of Federal Regulations, 2005). DOE sponsored a comprehensive evaluation of the Program in the early 1990's to provide policy makers and program implementers with up-to-date and reliable information they needed for effective decision making and cost-effective operations. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) managed the five part study which was based primarily on data from Program Year (PY) 1989 and supplemented by data from 1991-92 (Brown, Berry, and Kinney, 1994). In more recent years, ORNL has conducted four metaevaluations of the Program's energy savings using studies conducted by individual states between the years 1990-1996 (Berry, 1997), 1996-1998 (Schweitzer and Berry, 1999), 1993-2002 (Berry and Schweitzer, 2003), and 1993-2005 (Schweitzer, 2005). DOE announced through its Weatherization Program Notice 05-1 (DOE, 2004) that it would undertake a new national evaluation of the Program because the Program that was evaluated comprehensively in the early 1990's is vastly different from the Program of today. The Program has incorporated new funding sources, management principles, audit procedures, and energy-efficiency measures in response to findings and recommendations resulting from the 1989 National Evaluation, the Weatherization Plus strategic planning process, and other federal, state, and local initiatives. For example, the use of computerized audits has increased, cooling and baseload measures have been added, weatherization approaches tailored to the unique construction characteristics of mobile homes have been developed, the weatherization of large multifamily buildings has expanded and become more sophisticated, the flexibility to improve 'energy-related' health and safety has been provided, and leveraging with utilities, other state programs, and owners of large multifamily buildings has increased considerably. The Department of Energy tasked ORNL with planning the new evaluation in light of its experience in conducting the previous national evaluation and the metaevaluations. This preliminary evaluation plan, developed by ORNL, documents how the new national evaluation will be performed. In the remaining portion of this section, the purpose and fundamental questions the evaluation will address are identified and how these questions were derived is discussed.
Ternes, Mark P [ORNL; Schweitzer, Martin [ORNL; Tonn, Bruce Edward [ORNL; Schmoyer, Richard L [ORNL; Eisenberg, Joel Fred [ORNL
This article summarizes two speeches made by Minister Peng Peiyun of the China State Family Planning Commission. The Minister discussed the achievements and the challenges during 1991-95 and expected goals for the Ninth Five-Year Plan (1996-2000). The Minister indicated that all provinces fulfilled their population plans. 67.88 million births were added during 1991-95, but this number was 15.79 million lower than expected. The total fertility rate declined to under 2.0 children/woman in 1994. The rate of high-parity births declined from 19.32% in 1990 to 9.5% in 1994. The average age at first marriage increased from 22.12 years in 1990 to 22.73 years in 1994. Valuable lessons were learned and reported during the early 1990s. The most important lesson was that an integrated approach that linked services to improve productivity with family planning services was successful. The Integrated Approach that was practiced in the provinces of Jilin, Jiangsu, and Sichuan was successful in improving women's status, increasing family income, and developing the rural economy. These quality of life improvements helped to change traditional ideas about childbearing. This approach and the dissemination of positive outcomes was the subject of a conference held in October 1995. The challenges ahead for China include reducing the absolute size of a population that is increasing at the rate of 13 million annually. Present low fertility may be unstable due to the strong administrative constraints. Family planning effectiveness varies between more and less developed provinces. Seven less developed provinces still have a high birth rate: Guangxi, Hainan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Tibet, Ningxia, and Xinjiang. New problems will appear with the shift to a market economy. Before the year 2000 China must limit population size to under 1.3 billion, stabilize low fertility, shift the focus to the populous central west, target the floating population, and secure more funding. PMID:12347492
This document describes the process followed to develop the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Integrated Sampling Plan (referred to herein as the Plan). It provides the Plan’s purpose and objectives, and briefly describes the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity, including the conceptual model and regulatory requirements as they pertain to groundwater sampling. Background information on other NNSS groundwater monitoring programs—the Routine Radiological Environmental Monitoring Plan (RREMP) and Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP)—and their integration with the Plan are presented. Descriptions of the evaluations, comments, and responses of two Sampling Plan topical committees are also included.
Farnham, Irene; Marutzky, Sam