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1

National health services and family planning: Thailand, a case study.  

PubMed

The family planning program of Thailand was organized, planned, and implemented by means of the rural health and hospital services of the Ministry of Public Health. Without this integration, the program would not have been allowed by the government. The Thai health system was reasonably well-established, the use of its personnel lessened cost and duplication of efforts, and the resulting integration was successful. The program operated very quietly between 1968 and 1970. No public information was allowed. There were no full-time family planning workers, and no goals and incentives were offered. Only in 1970 when the government announced a national population policy were the restrictions on public information removed. In the development of the program, more than 7600 employees of the Ministry of Public Health received the 1-week training program. After training, family planning clinics were opened in the provincial hospitals and in those rural health centers staffed with a physician. Initially, the auxiliary midwives were expected only to motivate and provide information to those in their areas, referring interested couples to the centers and hospitals for the IUDs, oral contraceptives, and sterilization programs that were available. However, after the successful completion of a pilot study in 1970, the midwives were permitted to prescribe the oral contraceptive. A postpartum program which attempted to motivate women in the use of family planning 2-4 days following delivery revealed that with proper motivation efforts a majority of women will accept family planning services postpartum. A special evaluation section was developed within the Ministry to assess the progress of the program. Many problems continue to require attention, such as the need for high level government support shown by a budget increase and the development of effective supervision for staff within the health system. PMID:1147129

Hemachidha, C; Rosenfield, A G

1975-08-01

2

Family planning in developing nations: a global concern, our concern.  

PubMed

Rapid population growth is a serious problem in many developing countries and family planning policies developed in response to the problem raise many ethical issues; home economists can help the citizens in their respective countries increase their knowledge of population dynamics and help them assess the ethical implications of population and family planning policies. Most developing countries have high population growth rates. The annual population growth rates for 1975-79 were 2.8% for Africa, 2.6% for Latin America, and 2.1% for Asia. Population grows exponentially: a population growing at an annual rate of 3% increases. 1900% in a century. If current population trends continue the world's population will stablize toward the end of the 21st century at about 10 billion persons, compared to the world's present population of 4.3 billion. Rapid population growth not only threatens the future welfare of society as a whole, but currently impedes the economic development of the world's poorest nations. Consequently, the governments in many developing countries have adopted vigorous family planning programs. It is difficult to reduce population growth in developing countries because these countries have a high proportion of young people in their populations, i.e., a high number of persons of reproductive age. Barriers to family planning acceptance include 1) high illiteracy rates 2) high infant mortality rates 3) the high economic and socialvalue placed on children in developing countries and 4)religious beliefs. Methods used by governments to alter population growth include 1) manipulating access to contraceptives, 2)developing programs to alter social determinants of fertility, 3) using propaganda to encourage or discourage birth control and repressing information contrary to the government's policies, 4) offering incentives to those who further government policies and imposing disincentives on those who do not comply with government policies, and 5) exerting political pressure to force individual to comply with the govermnent's policies. The use of some of these methods raises ethical issues. When does pressure become coercion? Is coecion justified by the need to ensure the future welfare of the world? In India, sterilization was promoted by making payments to sterilization acceptors and promoters and to physicians who performed sterilizations. In Taiwan, savings deposits were made for children of couples with 1 or 2 children, and the deposits were decreased in additional childred were born. In China incentives, disincentives, and polititcal and peer pressure are used to promote the governt's family planning policies. Do these strong measures lead to infaticide and to the abuse of children whose births result in economic loss for other family members? Do they violate human rights? These issues should be discussed in home economics classes, and additional efforts must be made to ensure that male students are also provided with population information. Home economists can promote the critical assessment of the population problem and its solutions. PMID:12339668

Harriman, L

1984-01-01

3

Use of Services for Family Planning and Infertility, United States, 1982. (Data from the National Survey of Family Growth, Series 23, No. 13).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Survey of Family Growth is a periodic survey conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics, and designed to produce national estimates of statistics on fertility, family planning, and aspects of maternal and child health that are closely related to childbearing. This report presents statistics based on data collected in the…

Horn, Marjorie C.; Mosher, William D.

1986-01-01

4

Farmers and family planning.  

PubMed

13 African nations have family planning policies, but the family planning efforts in rural or poorer communities have consistently been less effective. This article gives African farmers' views and concerns on birth control. Many of the rural mothers express concerns that they need to have many children because: they know they will lose some children to illness, they need the children's help cultivating the fields, it is prestigious to have many children, they want to be sure that there is someone to care for them in their old age. Examples of family case histories are provided along with the specific views of family planning by these parents. The family planning programs in Niger, Kenya, and Zimbabwe are described along with the pertinent statistics on population growth rates. PMID:12282757

Anza, S; Amakoye, S; Morna, C L; Pradervand, P

1989-12-01

5

Family planning education.  

PubMed

17 days were spent devoted to the effort of learning about China's educational approach to family planning in the hope of discovering how they are achieving their remarkable success in reducing population growth. As a member of the 1981 New York University/SIECUS Colloquim in China, it was necessary to rely on the translation provided by the excellent guides. Discussions were focused on questions prepared in advance about the topics that concerned the group. These observations, based on a short and limited exposure, cover the following areas: marriage and family planning policies; the family planning program; school programs; adult education; family planning workers; and unique aspects of the program. China has an official position on marriage and family planning that continues to undergo revisions. The new marriage law sets the minimum ages of marriage at 22 for men and 20 for women. Almost everyone marries, and an unmarried person over age 28 is a rarity. The family planning program in China is carried out by an extensive organizational network at national, provincial, and local government levels. Officials termed it a "propaganda campaign." Hospitals, clinics, and factories invariably displayed posters; a popular set of four presents the advantages of the 1 child family as follows: late marriage is best, for it allows more time to work and study; 1 child is best for the health of the mother; one gets free medical care for his/her child if a family has only 1 child; and there is more time to teach 1 child. The state operated television regularly explains the 1 child policy utilizing special films. According to 1 family planning official, "before marriage there is little sex." There are few abortions for unmarried women. Education about sex is for adults, for those persons who are about to be married. There is little if any sex education in schools. Sexual teaching is not generally acceptable, especially in the rural areas. By contrast, in Shanghai the physiology teaching in the middle school does include sex education and reproduction. Sex information for adults is offered at the time of marriage. Married or about to be married adults are the major target of the state's family planning education effort. The key educators are an extensive network of family planning workers. All hospitals have a family planning office, and there are also family planning workers in the factories. What is unique about the Chinese approach is its use of reward and punishment. PMID:6550674

Hamburg, M V

1983-02-01

6

The Progress of Nations: The Nations of the World Ranked Acording to Their Achievements in Health, Nutrition, Education, Family Planning, and Progress for Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report documents the progress made in developing and developed nations to improve health, nutrition, education, family planning, and the condition of women over the last 40 years. It presents tables that rank the world's nations and regions on: (1) the mortality rate of children under 5 years of age; (2) the percent of children under 5 years…

Adamson, Peter, Ed.

7

Family Health and Family Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is made up of a selection of some of the papers distributed to participants in courses on "Family Health and Family Planning" which have been organized each year since 1973 by the International Children's Center and the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. Six courses, held between 1973 and 1978, brought together a…

World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

8

Current family planning work viewed from results of the National Fertility Sample Survey.  

PubMed

According to data from a 1982 State Family Planning Commission fertility sample survey, the total fertility rate (TFR) of Chinese women was 5.87 in the 1950s and 5.68 in the 1960s. The fertility rate of women in this period was the highest in Chinese history. The consequences of this rapid population growth in the 1950s and 1960s will continue to affect population reproduction for a long period. The average number of young couples getting married between 1983 and 1987 will be 10 million per year, and 12 million per year between 1988 and 1992. Even if women's fertility is kept at 2 births each, the annual births will be 20 million. If family planning policies are lax or not effective, the fertility rate is likely to increase on a large scale. The TFR must drop from 2.63 in 1981 to 1.7 in 1985 and further down to 1.5 in 1990 and remain at that level at all times to achieve the control target of 1.2 billion. There is a great discrepancy in family planning work between urban and rural areas; the 1981 birth rate in urban areas was 14.5/1000, and in rural areas it was 22.43/1000. There is also a great imbalance in family planning work between the Hans and the minorities; the 1981 TFR was 2.53 among the Hans and 4.55 among the minorities. To ensure the realization of the population control target set for the end of this century, it is necessary to attain new levels and be more scientific in publicity, education, and technical measures for family planning. Considering the health of women and reliability of birth control, it is desirable for couples under age 40 who have 2 children to have ligation surgery. Survey data show that great achievements in family planning have been made in the 10 year period, but continued intensive development of family planning work is still necessary. PMID:12314260

Xiao, Z; Chen, S

1985-07-01

9

The Progress of Nations: The Nations of the World Ranked According to Their Achievements in Child Health, Nutrition, Education, Family Planning, and Progress for Women, 1994.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report brings together the latest available statistics to record national achievements in child survival, health, nutrition, education, family planning, and progress for women. Each section contains a commentary and a presentation of related statistics. The commentaries of the report are: (1) Introduction, "One Small Step for a Summit" (Peter…

Adamson, Peter, Ed.

1994-01-01

10

[Strengthening family planning management].  

PubMed

Prior to 1984, enforcement of family planning policies in an undisclosed PLA military settlement in China's Jinan Military Region was totally inadequate. After notification from the central government, this military settlement immediately began enforcing family planning policies, resulting in sudden and full compliance with the central government's family planning policies. The system of scientific management of promoting and enforcing family planning, established by local administrators, is described. Management by objectives, clearly defined individual tasks and responsibilities, an full cooperation and support on the part of the authorities are some of the factors responsible for the effectiveness and success of the family planning efforts in this military settlement. A number of potential problem areas are identified scientific management techniques in dealing with uncooperative parties are emphasized. PMID:12159410

Hong, C; Shi, Z

1985-09-29

11

The case for family planning.  

PubMed

This paper briefly examines the troubled history of the rise of family planning services to full incorporation in the National Health Service by 1974, and argues for continued and increased governmental support of service provision. Health promotion of family planning now extends to all men and women, and has become threatened by service cutbacks. Family planning is crucial in preventing unwanted pregnancies and reducing infant, child, and maternal mortality. Methods may help control the spread of AIDS, provide protection against cancer, and/or reduce the incidence of gynecological problems. Family planning programs also facilitate screening, and allow women the means to control their fertility in order to meet desired career goals. Population policy is not on the agenda, and remains a sensitive issue in Britain. The role of nurses in the expanded realm of family planning service provision is discussed, followed by consideration of financing for training and services. Transfer of family planning services from district health authority community clinics exclusively to general practitioners would be untenable for several reasons, in addition to its largely cost-ineffective nature. Coordinated planning and delivery of health care between health and community care are called for. Finally, the impact of service cutbacks and restrictive legislation upon the abortion rate, especially among younger women, is considered. PMID:2008246

Leathard, A

12

Origins and Evolution of Family Planning Programs in Developing Countries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Family planning programs exist in virtually every nation. As of 1998, 179 countries with 99 percent of the world's population had some form of family planning program. Despite their pervasiveness, family planning programs have caused controversy and drawn...

J. R. Seltzer

2002-01-01

13

Field Experiments of Family Planning Incentives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of four quasi-experiments on family planning incentives in three Asian nations is presented, and a multi-national comparative field experiment on family planning incentives is proposed. Experiments include: (1) The Ernakulam vasectomy campaigns, (2) Indian Tea Estates retirement bond incentive program, (3) Taiwan educational bond…

Rogers, Everett M.

14

Family Planning Regulations, 21 July 1989.  

PubMed

At the end of a meeting held on July 21, 1989 the municipal government of Beijing, China reiterated and defined the following regulations: The policy of 1 child/couple should be implemented continuously in Beijing's urban and rural areas. Those regulations formulated in the past allowing a small number of couples with special conditions to have a 2nd child should be implemented with strict control. The family planning policies for remarried couples will not change, and must be implemented strictly. The basic guidelines of the family planning policies for foreign couples are: Foreign couples residing in Beijing will not be subject to the control of the municipal family planning policies, if neither member of the couple has acquired Chinese nationality and if their children have also not acquired Chinese nationality. However, those foreigners residing in Beijing who have already acquired Chinese nationality should strictly subject themselves to the control of the municipal family planning policies. The basic guideline of the family planning policies for Chinese students studying abroad is: Chinese students studying abroad should not enjoy special treatment, because practicing family planning is the obligation of all Chinese citizens. The basic guideline of the family planning policies for minority nationalities is: Because most of the people of minority nationality in Beijing live in the areas populated for the most part with people of Han nationality, they should not enjoy a family planning policy more relaxed than that for the Han nationality people. PMID:12344513

1989-01-01

15

Use of Family Planning and Related Medical Services Among Women Aged 15-44 in the United States: National Survey of Family Growth, 2006-2010. National Health Statistics Reports, Number 68, September 5, 2013.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents national estimates of the use of family planning services and related medical services among women aged 15-44 in the United States in 2006-2010. Selected indicators are compared with similar measures for 2002 and 1995 to examine chang...

A. Chandra G. Marintez I. Febo-Vazquez W. Mosher

2013-01-01

16

Biomedical Research in Family Welfare Planning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is a comprehensive review of the biomedical research work pertinent to family planning being done in the National Institute of Family Planning in India in the past years. Significant progress made in the following areas are described in detail:...

S. Roy R. P. Das S. K. Basu

1976-01-01

17

Family planning and Islam.  

PubMed

This summarizes briefly teachings on family planning according to the consensus, or Ijma, of Muslim jurists. "Limitation of numbers" or family planning is permitted for preserving the good life, for ensuring economic security, for preserving the health of the wife, and, by implication, when the consent of the wife is given. Azl (coitus interruptus) is definitely permitted with the consent of the wife. New methods may be adopted subject to the principle of moral behavior. The wife can adopt any method with the consent of her husband in order to save her life. She can adopt it without his consent if she is in poor health. The use of qualified medical advice is emphasized. The view that contraception is killing children is extreme; the admonition in the Holy Koran not to recourse to infanticide is to discourage the killing of children, and is not directed at healthy methods of birth control. Islam stands for a positive life and does not give credence to the fatalism and pessimism of Malthusian calculus. It also does not uphold family planning as a negative factor in economics and society. PMID:12276340

Zaman, H

1971-01-01

18

Flexible family planning. Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region.  

PubMed

China has an inconsistent family planning policy. It encourages the Han majority in urban areas to have only 1 child and those in rural areas 2 children. It allows minority nationalities in urban areas to have 2 children and those in rural areas to have 4 children. The government did not promote family planning earlier in the Muslim-dominated Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in the northwesternmost part of China because the 13 minority groups did not understand the concept of family planning. Yet, it did not try to promote family planning in the languages of the minorities. The government finally began to promote family planning here in 1989, 18 years after it had introduced the concept to the Han nationality. A noted Islamic leader in the region's capital, Urumqi, supports family planning and his words carry more influence than those of family planning workers. Most of the region's nationalities are Muslims. Just 4% of the huge region is inhabited. Growth of the minority populations has reduced the amount of arable land from 4.2 mu in 1949 to 3.3 mu in 1987. Between 1988 and 2000, the minority population is expected to increase 36% compared to 18% for the Han majority. Presently, 14% of married women are sterilized, 27% use the IUD, and 31% do not use contraception. Obstacles to improving contraceptive use among minorities are failure to provide a consistent supply of long-term contraceptives (e.g., IUD) and a great influx of migrant workers. China needs a common family planning policy. A family planning survey in Xinhe County of Aksu Prefecture shows that urban residents are more likely to know about family planning than rural residents (92% vs. 82%). Most rural residents (79%) want at least 3 children. Rural residents prefer sons due to feudal patriarchal traditions and as a source of field labor and support in old age. PMID:12287769

Cai, H

1994-03-01

19

Population Growth: Family Planning Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These proceedings of the second annual symposium on population growth bring together speeches and panel discussions on family planning programs. Titles of speeches delivered are: Communicating Family Planning (Mrs. Jean Hutchinson); Effects of New York's Abortion Law Change (Dr. Walter Rogers); The Law and Birth Control, Sterilization and Abortion…

Doberenz, Alexander R., Ed.; Taylor, N. Burwell G., Ed.

20

MCH promotes family planning.  

PubMed

Family planning (FP) has been promoted in China through improvements in maternal and child health (MCH) which have affected people's attitude toward childbearing. A case study of FP in Taicang County of Jiangsu Province, China is given. Total population is 446,620; natural increase is 10/1000. 99% of births have been planned in recent years. Contraceptive prevalence has reached 92.71%. Contraceptive awareness has opened people up to health education in general. The community participates in management of human wastes, improvement of water supplies, and parasite control in rural areas. MCH was begun in the early 1980s with premarital examinations, prenatal examinations, postnatal visits, and physical checkups. A systematic program has established in 1983. A pilot program integrating FP, MCH, and parasite control operated between 1984 and 1986, in 7 townships was established and MCH was institutionalized. Increases occurred in comprehensive care for women from 49.1% in 1984 to 78.3% in 1986. Children's coverage rose from 78.2% to 85.9%. Perinatal mortality dropped from 30.2/1000 to 20.8/1000. Neonatal mortality declined from 21.3/1000 to 17.3/1000. Infant mortality also decreased from 31.6/1000 to 21.5/1000. Integration of programs throughout the county was achieved after 1987. 99% of women used the MCH handbook. Between 1987 and 1990, the perinatal, neonatal, and infant mortality rate dropped to 12.9/1000, 9.5/1000, and 14.7/1000, respectively. MCH achievements are attributed to a strengthening of the MCH network to improve access and improve MCH workers' level of professional skill, to the availability of premarriage and couples of reproductive age services and child care, and to the contribution of research. Careful monitoring during pregnancy helped reduce the incidence of difficult labors for high risk women from 17.55 in 1984 to 11-15% in recent years. 99.9% deliver in hospitals. There were no maternal deaths in 1989 or 1990. Neonatal tetanus has been eliminated. 94.2% of mothers receive postpartum visits. Special services at township hospitals are given to children deemed to be physically weak; 345 in 1990 were so treated. In villages, doctors monitor height and weight of children. 94.7% of children 0-1 year receive comprehensive care. Those 1-7 years also receive a high level of care. Security was enhanced by the MCH measures. Girls and boys are considered equal in good health. PMID:12317814

Duan, Y

1992-06-01

21

Family planning: the unfinished agenda.  

PubMed

Promotion of family planning in countries with high birth rates has the potential to reduce poverty and hunger and avert 32% of all maternal deaths and nearly 10% of childhood deaths. It would also contribute substantially to women's empowerment, achievement of universal primary schooling, and long-term environmental sustainability. In the past 40 years, family-planning programmes have played a major part in raising the prevalence of contraceptive practice from less than 10% to 60% and reducing fertility in developing countries from six to about three births per woman. However, in half the 75 larger low-income and lower-middle income countries (mainly in Africa), contraceptive practice remains low and fertility, population growth, and unmet need for family planning are high. The cross-cutting contribution to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals makes greater investment in family planning in these countries compelling. Despite the size of this unfinished agenda, international funding and promotion of family planning has waned in the past decade. A revitalisation of the agenda is urgently needed. Historically, the USA has taken the lead but other governments or agencies are now needed as champions. Based on the sizeable experience of past decades, the key features of effective programmes are clearly established. Most governments of poor countries already have appropriate population and family-planning policies but are receiving too little international encouragement and funding to implement them with vigour. What is currently missing is political willingness to incorporate family planning into the development arena. PMID:17113431

Cleland, John; Bernstein, Stan; Ezeh, Alex; Faundes, Anibal; Glasier, Anna; Innis, Jolene

2006-11-18

22

Family planning as preventive health measure.  

PubMed

The link between health and family planning efforts in the Philippines goes back to the beginnings of the National Population Program. In this interview, Dr. Dumindin of the Ministry of Health (MOh) discusses the impact of family planning on health. The family planning program of the MOH, since its inception in 1970, has undergone expansion and taken new initiatives and directions to meet the changing needs of the target clientele. Family planning information, education, and motivation is provided and maintained during routine prenatal, natal, and postnatal clinic and field activities. As of January 1986, the MOH had a total of 2100 clinics--rural health units, medical centers, hospitals, mobile clinics, and special clinics--all over the country. It is estimated that the Ministry's family planning activities have averted around a million births. It is hoped to extend the coverage of the programs to areas that have not been reached before, through further community involvement, by enlisting the participation of more workers in the community, training them on integrated health and family planning services, setting up more service facilities and clinic extensions, and by improving contraceptive use-effectiveness. Hopefully, the Philippine people will become less program-dependent and more self-motivated, and they will recognize the need for birth spacing, birth limiting, and total health care--not as suggested from the outside, but coming from within themselves. PMID:12314762

Dumindin, J B

1986-01-01

23

Approaching 4 Decades of Legislation in the National Family Planning Program: An Analysis of Title X's History From 1970 to 2008  

PubMed Central

Family planning is an important public health activity. Title X (Pub L No. 91-572), enacted in 1970, remains the only national family planning program in the United States dedicated to providing voluntary and confidential services to all individuals. We conducted a thematic analysis of Title X's legislative history. Of 293 federal bills included in the legislative history, only 20 (6.8%) were enacted into law. Regardless of the proposed challenges, limited changes have been adopted. Except for technical amendments, bills involving restrictions accounted for the highest percentage of enacted bills, demonstrating efforts to undermine reproductive health rights. Title X requires political will and bipartisan support if it is to continue to protect individuals' reproductive rights.

Daley, Ellen M.; Perrin, Kay M.; Mahan, Charles S.; Buhi, Eric R.

2011-01-01

24

Men and Family Planning in Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Having followed a pronatalist policy during the first decade of its life, the Islamic Republic of Iran adopted a frankly antinatalist policy with specific demographic and health objectives in 1989. The official Family Planning Programme reintroduced since then has proven exceptionally effective by international standards. By 1997, when the last nation-wide KAP survey was conducted, contraceptive prevalence rate had risen

Amir H. Mehryar; F. Mostafavi; Homa Agha

25

Tradition not against family planning -- Ooni.  

PubMed

The Ooni of Ife, Oba Okunade Sijuwade Olubose II, at the Population and Family Planning conference held in November, 1992, voiced strong support for family planning. He began by quoting the old Yoruba adage that "a proliferation of children is multiplication of adversities." He supported the National Population Programme because, he said, there were no longer valid reasons to have large families, traditionally encouraged when there was a need for farm labor. More current concerns were the impact of structural adjustment programs and the consequence of higher costs of education, health care, and other necessities of modern life. The nation must be concerned with the cost of uncontrolled numbers of children. He called on Nigerians to accept the Programme's goal of improving the quality of life by preventing needless deaths and illnesses, and lowering of population growth by reducing fertility. He urged government to inform the population of the impediment to national development by uncontrolled population growth. One sociocultural obstacle to the Population and Family Planning Programme, the notion of children as God's gifts, not to be courted or regulated, he countered with the argument that traditional polygamous family life did ensure appropriate birth spacing and protection of the health of mother. He noted that the Programme did not violate religious beliefs against abortion. He called on other traditional rulers to support grassroots mobilization and to practice child spacing actively for the development of communities and the progress of the nation. PMID:12318633

Okwudili, O

1993-01-01

26

National Development Plan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Throughout the 1990s, Ireland experienced phenomenal growth in the emerging fields of information technologies (including such sectors as website design), and was dubbed the Celtic Tiger, due to its economic success. The country envisions a strong development plan for the coming years, hence the reason for this very site. Ireland's National Development Plan involves an investment of over 52-billion euros of public, private, and EU funds over the period from 2000 to 2006, and involves significant improvements in health services, social housing, education, roads, rural development, and industry. The site itself contains a bevy of documents, such as an executive summary and a complete version of the Development Plan itself, and a project database, which details the status of the hundreds of projects which are an integral part of this ongoing process. Overall, this site will be of great interest to persons working in the field of social policy, planning, and international development schemes.

27

Poverty, Fertility Preferences and Family Planning Practice in the Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper looks at the interaction of poverty, fertility preferences and family planning practice in the Philippines using the series of nationally representative Family Planning Surveys conducted annually since 1999 augmented by census and other survey data. Its contribution lies on providing recent and nationally representative empirical evidence on the long running but largely unresolved debate in the country on

Aniceto C. Orbeta Jr.

2005-01-01

28

Virginians tune-in to family planning.  

PubMed

Virginia Bureau of Family Planning initiated an information program aimed at the state's diverse geography which reflects its many cultures using television public service announcements (PSAs). 4 PSAs were produced: economic consideration of family planning, eligibility requirements for services, and 2 general presentations. Following success of these spots, radio spots were developed geared to specific target audiences. These spots built a framework for outreach workers who independently operate clinics in the 39 Virginia health districts. Even though highly regionalized, the Bureau maintains close contact with each district and directs feedback sessions where common problems and experiences are discussed. The Bureau also began a bimonthly newsletter in 1975 which keeps 3000 subscribers abreast of family planning activities. These information dissemination efforts have paid off: Virginia hospitals are required to provide family planning literature to all maternity patients. And Virginia has the nation's 1st ongoing statewide, publicly run voluntary sterilization program, servicing 1000 patients free of charge during the 1st year of operation. The Bureau operates on an annual budget of $5.3 million in state funds as well as HEW Title 5, 10, and 20 family planning funding. PMID:12277857

1977-01-01

29

Integrated family planning: the Chilean experience.  

PubMed

To determine the most effective method for incorporating contraceptive services into a general health program, researchers analyzed the results of an IUD-based family planning program in three separate areas of Chile: two similar towns representing all social strata, and one working-class district in Santiago. From 1964 to mid-1970, IUD contraceptive services were provided in special family planning departments within hospital and outpatient clinics operated by Chile's National Health Service (SNS); information and education were offered in pediatric and obstetrical waiting rooms and postpartum wards. In 1968, SNS restricted the number of acceptors, and in mid-1970, individual family planning units were closed and contraceptive services became the responsibility of maternal-child health units. Prior to 1970, all three sample areas recorded a steady increase in the number of accumulated acceptors and a steadily decreasing birthrate; after 1971, birthrates increased and the number of acceptors declined. A 1964-1969 decrease in the number of hospitalizations for incomplete abortion, particularly in the working-class district of Santiago where a bortion has been the only known method of contraception, was reversed with program termination. Data suggests that family planning is most effectively integrated into existent health services when offered in separate facilities. Direct integration into maternal-child health units may result in the neglect of the family planning aspect of preventive health, and will deny services to two important contraceptive groups: childless women, and men. PMID:12307204

1974-04-01

30

Incentives to promote family planning  

PubMed Central

Objective Over the past 60 years, population control has become an increasingly urgent issue worldwide as a growing population strains already limited resources. The use of financial incentives to promote family planning is an innovative approach that has potential to make a contribution to efforts to better manage population growth. This report reviews eight studies that examined the effect of incentives on family planning. Method Published studies that tested the impact of incentives to promote some aspect of family planning and included an appropriate control or comparison condition were reviewed. Results Incentives have been used to promote attendance at contraceptive education sessions, adoption and continuation of contraceptive methods, sterilization, and to limit family size. All but one of the eight studies reviewed reported positive outcomes, but weaknesses in study design and execution limit the strength of the conclusions that can be drawn. Conclusion Review of this literature suggests that family planning behaviors, like other behaviors, are sensitive to incentives. Given the tremendous need for efficacious interventions in global efforts to manage population growth, further research on this topic using more rigorous experimental methods is warranted.

Heil, Sarah H.; Gaalema, Diann E.; Herrmann, Evan S.

2012-01-01

31

[Family planning among gipsy women].  

PubMed

Family is the major social unit of gipsy society. The basic value in ethno-culture of gypsies is children. As in almost all aspects of health, regarding the reproduction health and access to health care gipsy population do not have good enough indexes. The purpose of this research is to determine the information gipsy women have about family planning. The inquiry is conducted through 100 gipsy women in different ages in the village Bukovlak, Pleven municipality. PMID:20380105

Dilova, P; Popova, T; Atanassova, K; Samuilova, E

2009-01-01

32

Kanyakumari district accepts family planning.  

PubMed

The people of Kanyakumari District known for their die-hard conservatism, finally seem to have taken to family planning as a way of life. This is borne out by the overwhelming support extended by them to the tubectomy camp organized by the District Family Planning Bureau, Kanyakumari, from 22nd to 27th February 1972. The target of 300 operations set for the camp was exceeded by 99. This is a significant achievement considering the fact that the district consists of only 9 Panchayat Unions covering a vast coastal area with a population of over 1/2 lakhs which is mainly engaged in the fishing industry and is generally not in favor of family planning. The camp provided free food and transport facilities to the patient and the person attending her and a monetary incentive of Rs. 30 per case, besides post-operational care which included periodical home visits by the staff of the Public Health Center for over 3 months. Administration of Vitamin A solution and immunisation of the children of the acceptors and their neighbors constituted an additional feature of this campaign. The effort made by the staff of the Family Planning Department, the Maternity Assistants of the Headquarters Hospital, Nagercoil, where the camp was held, and the Field Publicity Department of the Government of India, were responsible for the success of this campaign. PMID:12332926

1972-04-01

33

Family Planning Programmes in Africa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The countries discussed in this paper are the francophone countries of West Africa and the Republic of Congo, with comparative references made to North Africa (mainly Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia). Obstacles to the adoption of family planning in the countries of tropical Africa are a very high mortality rate among children; a socioeconomic…

Pradervand, Pierre

34

Family allowance and family planning in Chile.  

PubMed Central

Family allowances designed to promote maternal and child health and welfare could be self-defeating if they stimulated otherwise unwanted births, as often assumed. That assumption, with its public health and demographic implications, needs testing. An attempt to test it was made in Chile in 1969--1970 through interviews with 945 wives receiving an allowance and 690 non-recipients. Recipients practiced contraception significantly more than did non-recipients. This was not explained by wives' educational attainment or employment, the couples' earnings, or number of living children, but was associated with a 50 per cent greater utilization of professional prenatal care by recipients during the most recent pregnancy; women with such care (regardless of allowance status) were 75 per cent more likely than others to control their fertility. Prenatal care was probably sought more by recipients in part because an additional stipend was provided as soon as pregnancy was confirmed, usually at clinics with integrated family planning. Greater family income, attributable to the allowance, probably also contributed to the recipients' better prenatal attention and to contraceptive practice. Noteworthy, too, was the finding that with the number of living children controlled, contraceptive practice was significantly greater amoung couples who had never lost a child.

Plank, S J

1978-01-01

35

Evaluating family planning costs. Introduction.  

PubMed

This article discusses the goal of providing universal access to family planning (FP) and the prospects for achieving this goal in developing countries. The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo received the endorsement of 180 nations for universal FP access by 2015. The UN Population Fund estimated that at current rates of spending, it would require about $14 billion annually to reach this goal by 2015. Funds would need to triple. An additional $80 billion annually would be needed to pay for related reproductive health services. Donors and developing country governments cannot absorb these additional costs. It is suggested that the cost increases could be absorbed through client fees, private sector services, cost reductions, and integration of services. Experts caution that increasing FP service fees may discourage FP service use. Some FP organizations are subsidizing FP services by generating greater income from other health-related services. Strategies are needed to encourage private-sector FP service provision through social marketing, loans to the commercial sector, and better training of private doctors and nurses. Cost reduction may include reducing excess capacity in delivery systems and unnecessary procedures. Low-cost contraceptives could be promoted. There is insufficient information on the costs of integrating services, such as sexually transmitted disease clinic services with FP services. FP managers must face difficult choices about competing priorities. Costs for each service must be compared. Costs may be influenced by a variety of factors, including the choice of contraceptive methods, the channels of service delivery, and funding. Decisions about allocation of resources must emphasize the best interests of the client for a range of choices and safe, effective, and affordable services. PMID:12293238

1998-01-01

36

National transuranic program plan  

SciTech Connect

As a result of various program initiatives, the U.S. generated and will continue to generate waste contaminated with radioactive materials. Because of increased awareness of the risks and special requirements to safely manage long-lived alpha-emitting radionuclides, a new category of radioactive waste, transuranic (TRU) waste, was adopted in 1970. Heads of Field Elements can determine that other alpha-contaminated wastes, peculiar to a specific site, must be managed as transuranic waste{close_quotes}. TRU waste is generated and stored at various DOE sites around the country. In December 1993, the National Transuranic Program Office (NTPO) was established as part of the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) to integrate and coordinate the diverse organizational elements that contribute to the complex-wide management of TRU waste. Numerous sites with small TRU waste inventories are also part of the national TRU waste system. The majority of TRU waste is also contaminated with hazardous materials and is thus considered mixed waste. Mixed waste must be managed in compliance with all federal, state, and local regulations that are applicable to the radioactive and/or hazardous component of the waste. Each generator site is responsible for the management of its respective waste. Sites must plan and implement programs to minimize, characterize, package, treat, store, ship, and dispose of all TRU waste; construct required waste management facilities and equipment; obtain permits; perform site-specific National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) analyses; conduct environmental studies; perform laboratory analyses; and certify that waste meets appropriate disposal facility criteria. Due to the toxicity and long half-lives of TRU radionuclides, TRU waste must be disposed in a manner that offers greater confinement than shallow land burial.

Not Available

1994-10-11

37

NATIONAL SURVEY OF FAMILY GROWTH  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) provides information on childbearing, contraception, and related aspects of maternal and child health. The NSFG is the principal national source of data on trends and group differences in contraceptive use and effectiveness, use of fami...

38

A Training Program for Statewide Family Planning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes training for a statewide family planning program involving a large number of agencies in North Carolina which are involved in delivery of family planning services. Focus is on the need for involvement, commitment, and skills within each agency so the family planning program could be optimally effective. (WL)

Smallegan, Marian; Gustaveson, Patricia

1976-01-01

39

Marketing Education's National Marketing Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses formation of the National Council for Marketing Education and how its Marketing Strategy Committee developed a plan to tackle the image problem. The committee chose five target audiences and developed a strategy to reach each target. The plan was introduced in October 1987 through a national videoconference. (CH)

Zwissler, Karen

1987-01-01

40

Video: useful tool for delivering family planning messages.  

PubMed

In 1969, the Government of Indonesia declared that the population explosion was a national problem. The National Family Planning Program was consequently launched to encourage adoption of the ideal of a small, happy and prosperous family norm. Micro-approach messages are composed of the following: physiology of menstruation; reproductive process; healthy pregnancy; rational family planning; rational application of contraceptives; infant and child care; nutrition improvement; increase in breastfeeding; increase in family income; education in family life; family health; and deferred marriage age. Macro-approach messages include: the population problem and its impact on socioeconomic aspects; efforts to cope with the population problem; and improvement of women's lot. In utilizing the media and communication channels, the program encourages the implementation of units and working units of IEC to produce IEC materials; utilizes all possible existing media and IEC channels; maintains the consistent linkage between the activity of mass media and the IEC activities in the field; and encourages the private sector to participate in the production of IEC media and materials. A media production center was set up and carries out the following activities: producing video cassettes for tv broadcasts of family planning drama, family planning news, and tv spots; producing duplicates of the video cassettes for distribution to provinces in support of the video network; producing teaching materials for family planning workers; and transfering family planning films into video cassettes. A video network was developed and includes video monitors in family planning service points such as hospitals, family planning clinics and public places like bus stations. In 1985, the program will be expanded by 50 mobile information units equipped with video monitors. Video has potentials to increase the productivity and effectiveness of the family planning program. The video production process is cheaper and simpler than film production. Video will be very helpful as a communication aid in group meetings. It can also be used as a teaching aid for training. PMID:12313886

Sumarsono, S K

1985-10-01

41

Market research and family planning.  

PubMed

Market research into contraceptive distribution (especially condoms) has been carried out in Britain by private manufacturers, but the results of this research are generally unavailable. Academics have not used the techniques of market research, preferring their own forms of sociological research and being hampered by limited resources. Attempts to design programs to introduce the provision of free family planning services proved unsuccessful, even though the programs offered supplies, sympathetic personnel, and publicity. Part of this failure is attributed to the lack of any baseline research on the demand for and acceptability of these services in the project areas. These failures are contrasted to a very successful commercial marketing campaign for a brand of condom, and with a commercially designed Dutch program aimed at teenagers. The author urges that those who have a message of social importance to deliver look into the techniques of market research used by industry to alter people's attitudes and buying habits. This will require the provision by local and central government of adequate funds for research into attitudes and needs, which ought to be essential before any family planning campaigns are launched. PMID:12336067

Smith, W

1979-04-01

42

[Family planning and majority acceptance].  

PubMed

76% of the population of The capital cities of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, favor abortion liberation in varying degrees, and 63% favored government action on family planning programs all over the country. 67% of the women, 82% of the university students, and more than 70% of the high social class interviewed were in favor of federal funded family planning. 70% of the Rio de Janeiro and 57% of the Sao Paulo interviewees were in favor of the development of facilities to access contraceptive methods. However, 6% of the interviewees in both cities did not use any contraceptive method. 76% were in favor of sex education in high school. 46% that were against this idea had only primary educations. 58% were in favor of abortion only in special cases; this group was not examined for differences between level of schooling, socioeconomic status, age, sex, and region. Only 15% were in favor of abortion for economic reasons; 18% were in favor of total liberation. However, abortion is still far from being considered an alternative to birth control. PMID:12281063

1987-01-01

43

42 CFR 441.20 - Family planning services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Family planning services. 441.20 Section...General Provisions § 441.20 Family planning services. For recipients eligible under the plan for family planning services, the plan must...

2010-10-01

44

42 CFR 441.20 - Family planning services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Family planning services. 441.20 Section...General Provisions § 441.20 Family planning services. For recipients eligible under the plan for family planning services, the plan must...

2009-10-01

45

Changes in American opinion about family planning.  

PubMed

A 1998 public opinion survey conducted in the United States indicated high levels of support for many family planning policies, including US health insurance coverage of family planning services and US sponsorship of family planning programs in developing countries. To gauge changes in opinion on these issues since then, some of the 1998 questions were asked in an omnibus 2003 survey. The results indicate continuing high support for requiring US health insurers to cover family planning services (87 percent in 1998 and 84 percent in 2003), but some loss of support (from 80 to 69 percent) for US sponsorship of family planning programs in developing countries. Opinion remains divided on the policy of prohibiting nongovernmental organizations from receiving federal funding for performing or actively promoting abortion services. The authors explore several possible explanations for these findings, including the role changing presidential policy may have had in shaping opinion regarding family planning aid for developing countries. PMID:15511063

Grammich, Clifford; DaVanzo, Julie; Stewart, Kate

2004-09-01

46

National Energy Policy Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This plan report is divided into the following chapters: the course ahead, currently predominant fuels (oil, gas), America's energy triad, sources of diversity and long-term supply, sources of uncertainty, summary of current projections, and public commen...

1985-01-01

47

Drawing attention to family planning.  

PubMed

In February 1990, the Mexican award winning director and animator, Carlos Carrera, went to Tokyo to oversee the photographing of the color frames (brought from Mexico) of the sex education animated film "Music for Two". The film begins with a warning that it should be shown as part of a sex education program. Further, a trained advisor guides the audience during the recommended discussion following the film. "Music for Two" is set in a large city and features a young female teen who daydreams about imaginary lovers. She soon discovers that her young male next door neighbor is interested in her. The moral of the story is that, once a woman is an adolescent, she must consider her future and have lifelong goals. In order for her to do so, however, she must know her mind and body, appreciate them, and not renounce them. This animated short feature includes both English and Spanish versions targeted to adolescents in their mid to late teens, especially females, in Latin America and the Caribbean. Mr. Carrera predicted that conservative older individuals will most likely not approve of "Music for Two". The Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning (JOICFP) and the UNFPA sponsored this animated film and the Mexican Family Planning Foundation (MEXFAM) participated in its production. The Sakura Motion Picture Company in Japan and Kinam SCL International in Mexico coproduced it. The Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs underwrote the English version and the UNFPA and IPPF underwrote the Spanish version. Further, in 1989, Mr. Carrera played a major role in a successful sex education animated feature titled "Blue Pigeon". This film was geared to youth in their early to mid teens, however. PMID:12283080

1990-03-01

48

Spiritual civilization in family planning advocated by government.  

PubMed

The National Conference on Exchange of Experience in the Building of Socialist Spiritual Civilization in the Implementation of the Family Planning Program met recently to focus on ways to help the people of China understand and support the family planning policies of the government and to change their childbearing concept. Spiritual civilization in the implementation of the family planning program can be summarized in terms of "4 educations:" the people should be united by a common ideal to carry out family planning conscientiously; the new morale and custom in the practice of family planning should be fostered and developed among the people; knowledge about population theory and family planning technology should be popularized; and the people should be guided to observe family planning regulations and policies. More than 80 papers were presented at the meeting. The experience of Keshan County in the Heilongjiang Province emerges as typical. The people's childbearing concept in Keshan County has undergone a radical change as a result of longterm education. This is the case, although this county's economic development is no better than the national average. PMID:12341554

Chen, J

1987-02-01

49

Deworming/family planning project launched on estate.  

PubMed

A deworming/family planning project funded by JOICFP was successfully initiated in Kerling Estate, Kuala Kubu Bahru, Malaysia. Rapport between estate management, workers, and the National Family Planning Board helped establish the project. A recent Gotong-Royong or community self-help project had encouraged enthusiasm among workers to clean up the estate. Mothers were exhorted to plan their families and devote attention to the health and welfare of the children. The need for parents to understand the causes of infestation and educate their children to wear slippers or shoes and develop good toilet habits was emphasized by Dr. Nor Laily Aziz. Continuing National Family Planning Board and Government support was pledged. PMID:12309491

Siva, V

1979-01-01

50

Family planning at the grass roots.  

PubMed

Despite help from national and international organizations, progress in implementing policy directives from Health Ministry offices in Cairo is slow at the receiving end. El Minya, 1 of 7 governorates to benefit from World Bank-financed population projects, still has a population growth rate of 2.5%-3% annually. An expanding network of family planning outlets in Minya, training programs for health professionals, and provision of equipment and supplies by the British government's O.D.A. fund are intended to improve maternal and child health services to the extent that perceptions of the need for large families to guard against loss of some in infancy will be obviated. The staffing and layout of the rural and urban health facilities reflect the integration of family planning into the health care system as a whole. The pill is still the most widely used method in most parts of the governorate. Home visits by nurses in rural areas are more important than the advice and supplies available at government clinics, which are visited only by those unable to afford private care, but it is doubtful that the low salaries of nurses provide sufficient incentive to encourage them to make their 150 call monthly quotas. Nursing is such an underpaid and unattractive career choice that in areas with severe shortages, the authorities have resorted to engaging the local "dayas", traditional mainstays of village health services. This represents an important shift in policy from the days when attempts were made to limit their activities. The propaganda campaign to promote small families of the State Information Service has been another important aspect of government concern. Bureaucratic delays have hampered progress of the family planning program, and less than half of the O.D.A. funds available have actually been claimed. The seriousness of the government's interest in curbing population growth has been questioned, and the prevailing view among the urban and rural population is that family size is not an issue of serious national concern. Children are viewed as a gift from God and a demonstration of virility, and it has been suggested that contraception will not be taken seriously until imposed by economic necessity. PMID:12339618

Ingram, S

1983-01-01

51

National Library Planning in Britain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Britian, national library planning does not attempt to provide a detailed central plan for all library development; rather it focuses on a limited range of crucial issues: the provision of appropriate legislative, institutional, and financial structures for broad library service. The Public Libraries and Museums Act of 1964 charged both…

Hookway, H. T.

52

Natural family planning: a review.  

PubMed

This review of natural family planning (NFP) focuses on the following: components of the fertile phase; sympto-thermal methods; the history and methodology of NFP (calendar rhythm, basal body temperature, cervical mucus--the Billings Ovulation method); special circumstances--periods of erratic ovulation (puberty, lactation, premenopause, discontinuation of ovulation suppression, cervicitis and vaginitis, ovulation suppression by stress and pharmaceuticals); effectiveness of natural family planning; achieving pregnancy; achieving couple autonomy (confidence in the method, periodic abstinence, dynamics of the learning process, and support systems); problem areas; and delivery systems. The number of users of NFP methods increased from 2.8% of currently married couples in 1973 to 3.4% in 1976. In 1979, 75,000 new clients received training in contemporary NFP, while the number increased to over 100,000 in 1980. NFP is planning for achieving or preventing a pregnancy by the timing of intercourse. A couple can, by observing and recording certain natural symptoms and bodily changes that occur in a woman's menstrual cycle and using the information as a guide, learn to identify fertile and infertile phases in the menstrual cycle. Precise prediction of ovulation forms one of the components of delineation of the fertile phase. Billings pioneered the use of cervical mucus as a single parameter for the prediction of ovulation and its application to NFP. Women are instructed to observe their mucus patterns at the vulva, relying primarily on the sensation of wetness and lubrication, the use of the Kegel exercise, palpation with the finger, a "wipe-through" with toilet paper, or a combination of these observations. In the absence of ovulation, the usual changing mucus pattern is also absent. NFP can be used either to achieve or to avoid pregnancy. When NFP is used to avoid pregnancy, one will encounter method-related pregnancies, teaching-related pregnancies due either to poor teaching or poor learning or both. The major use effectiveness studies are listed in table form, and the results are shown under new headings. To achieve pregnancy, it is the general practice of NFP instructors to teach women to recognize and record their fertility signs and to suggest some months of merely concentrating coitus at the time of maximum fertility. Mastery of NFP calls for both identification of the fertile phase and integration of that knowledge into the couple's sexual decision making and behaviors. Studies are reviewed in terms of the spectre of genetically damaged offspring. NFP instruction is available in nearly every country outside the Soviet bloc. PMID:7033851

Klaus, H

1982-02-01

53

Does family planning work in a Chinese way.  

PubMed

China's family planning work should be done with a Chinese appraoch. Consequently, consideration must be given to China's characteristics. China is low in productive forces and underdeveloped in economy and education, but the population is enormous. Thus, the Chinese government confirms family planning as a basic state policy and calls for the control of population growth to around 1.2 billion by 2000. The gross output value of industrial and agricultural production will be quadrupled so as to fit the population growth to the development of the national economy. The population of China has a large base number with a young age structure. At this time, people under the age of 30 account for about 62.7% with more than 20 million people per year reaching marriageable and childbearing age in the coming 10 years or more. The government calls for young people to marry and to have a child later and advocates the practice of 1 child for each couple. By the end of 1983 there were 34.49 million couples of childbearing age with only 1 child each, of whom 24.77 million couples chose voluntarily to have 1 child. The government, while advocating 1 child for each couple, stresses that family planning policies should be fair and resonable, acceptable to the people, and easy for field workers to implement. Since China's rural population makes up a large proportion and the feudal ideas such as preference of sons to daughters, the principle of integrating government's guidance with people's voluntariness has been practiced throughout the family planning work. To achieve the population goal set by the government, a family planning network formed with Chinese characteristics. The practice of family planning has been made a basic state policy and is included in the Constitution and the Marriage Law. The drawing up of the Family Planning Law is now underway. A solid foundation has been laid for family planning work among the masses. China is experienced in giving different guidance to regions with different backgrounds, while implementing the government's family planning policy. It combines the government's guidance with personal voluntariness by letting people choose birth control methods. There exists a complete family planning system in China with a contingent of family planning workers. Family planning and education centers and population information centers at all levels are being set up and perfected to shape a complete set of organizations. The development of scientific research on family planning technology and contraceptives ensures further improvement of family planning work. PMID:12280247

1985-03-01

54

Practical Suggestions for Family Planning Education.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Educational activities within a family planning program are discussed in a report prepared under contract to DHEW's Bureau of Community Health Services. It is assumed that in-clinic education is important in family planning programs, and, based on this as...

1975-01-01

55

A Guidebook for Family Planning Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this manual is to provide practical help in designing and improving educational components of family planning programs. It discusses methods and techniques which may be used to assist couples in developing positive attitudes and behavior with regard to family planning--activities which influence how they act, how they feel, and what…

Westinghouse Population Center, Columbia, MD. Health Systems Div.

56

77 FR 69733 - National Family Week, 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...character in their children. This week, we celebrate the unity and compassion...ahead. During National Family Week, let us recommit to keeping America's...proclaim November 18 through November 24, 2012, as National Family Week. I invite all States,...

2012-11-21

57

Family planning services and programmes in countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region.  

PubMed

This paper presents the findings of a 1999 survey of 19 countries of the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region on the family planning services and programmes in the Region. Data were collected using a questionnaire which explored the following areas: the presence of population or family planning policies and family planning activities, the family planning services available, promotional and educational activities on family planning, quality assurance, family planning data collection, analysis and dissemination, and the use of such information. The results indicate that 13 of the countries have national policies on population and family planning but even in those that do not, family planning services are widely available. The scope of the services provided varied. There is still a need to implement or strengthen family planning programmes in the Region, a need which is recognized by the countries themselves. PMID:11794067

Chichakli, L O; Atrash, H K; Musani, A S; Johnson, J T; Mahaini, R; Arnaoute, S

2000-07-01

58

Approaches to family planning in Muslim communities.  

PubMed

Addressing the cultural and religious beliefs around the issue of family planning has been a big challenge for the international development community. The concept of family planning has raised some concerns regarding its acceptability within Muslim populations. While some Muslim states and organisations have adopted a rather cautious approach to the issue, others have gone to the extent of inviting religious leaders to present religiously sound interpretations (fatwa) on the subject. Alongside these deliberations are some alarming statistics on maternal health. The World Health Organization estimates that worldwide 211 million women become pregnant each year and that about two-thirds of them deliver live infants. The remaining one-third of pregnancies end in miscarriage, stillbirth or induced abortion. Some 200 million women in developing countries have an unmet need for effective contraception. These statistics and the ongoing discussion surrounding family planning in the Muslim communities raise legitimate questions. How is family planning perceived within the Muslim community? Does Islam address the issue of family planning? Is it permissible? How should appropriate family planning programmes within Muslim settings be developed and applied? This article seeks to present the ongoing debate on family planning within the Muslim community and offer recommendations to organisations for effective strategy implementation of family planning programmes within Muslim settings. The article provides a brief background on the historical development of family planning in the Muslim community, and outlines Muslim perceptions on this issue. It concludes with recommendations for non-governmental organisations on how to effectively implement acceptable family planning programmes within Muslim settings. PMID:20067669

El Hamri, Najat

2010-01-01

59

Objective necessity of socialist family planning: a trial discussion.  

PubMed

On the basis of Marx and Engels' prediction and thesis of scientific socialism, socialist China, the most populous nation in the world, is the 1st to have realized the planned management of population reproductive in the history of mankind, thus giving an answer to the problem in practice. This paper makes a tentative exploration of such a necessity in socialist family planning. Engels points out that 1) under private ownership, population reproduction takes class antagonism as the basis, while public ownership of the means of production eradicates it; 2) in capitalist society, the reproduction of the labor force is commodity reproduction--public ownership of the means of production can be divorced from the domain of commodity; and 3) under private ownership, population reproduction is purely the private business of an individual or a family whose economic benefit forms the motive force of population reproduction--public ownership liberates it from one's personal gains making it a public affair. The great significance of family planning to economic development can be recognized as production, consumption, and accumulation. Taking family planning as the basis for the reproduction plan of the labor force is the guarantee of realizing the material production plan. Family planning reflects the trend of the structure and change of consumer requirements and provides the direct and indirect objectives of various items of material production planning; it provides the objective basis for social accumulation and the arrangement of expanding reproduction. 3 conclusions are derived: 1) the building up of the public ownership of the means of production affords man the possibility to regulate the production of matter as well as man, 2) the characteristics of the planned development of a socialist national economy demands the planned production of man, and 3) family planning and the development of a socialist economy demand their mutual congruence. PMID:12314263

Li, R

1985-07-01

60

Male Hispanic immigrants talk about family planning.  

PubMed

In order to improve delivery of family planning services by better understanding the views of people affected, researchers conducted four focus groups among Hispanic men who recently migrated to a Midwestern community. Participants expressed opinions about, attitudes towards, and knowledge of such matters as family planning, birth control information and access, the influence of religion on family planning and birth control decisions, general familial relations, the prevalence of infidelity, use of and access to the health care system, and cultural differences between the U.S. and their countries of origin. The men voiced opinions and attitudes supportive of family planning and appeared knowledgeable about various methods of birth control. Understanding the attitudes held by immigrant men is important for health care providers in designing successful service interventions for this rapidly growing segment of the population. PMID:16702722

Sable, Marjorie R; Campbell, James D; Schwarz, Lisa R; Brandt, Julie; Dannerbeck, Anne

2006-05-01

61

Building Your Dream: The Family Handbook. Family Futures Planning Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Rhode Island Family Futures Planning Project was funded by the U.S. Administration on Aging (AoA) to develop educational materials to facilitate change in the lives of older caregivers and their relatives with developmental disabilities. Participation...

C. Susa P. G. Clark

1996-01-01

62

National Security Technology Incubation Project Continuation Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document contains a project continuation plan for the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI). The plan was developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP) funded by a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security ...

2008-01-01

63

National Guidelines for Health Planning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This booklet contains (1) the first issuance of the National Guidelines for Health Planning as they were published on March 28, 1978; (2) a reprinting from the Federal Register which consists of the Preambles to the final rule and to two notices of propos...

D. I. Zwick R. Hutchings L. C. Shannon

1978-01-01

64

1993--Twenty-Fifth Annual National Council on Family Relations Videotape Competition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lists and annotates winning entries in 1993 National Council on Family Relations Videotape Competition in categories of substance abuse, aging, social issues, divorce/remarriage, families with special needs, family violence, human development, reproduction and family planning, marital/family issues, mental health, nontraditional families,…

Gentry, Deborah; And Others

1994-01-01

65

Benefits and Costs of the Family Planning Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The benefits and costs of family planning services are examined in terms of one dimension--money. The Family Planning program provides contraceptive services to eligible persons. The Office of Family Planning contracts with provider agencies throughout th...

G. Roth H. Fowler J. A. Wray V. Harp

1981-01-01

66

Cambodian refugees' family planning knowledge and use.  

PubMed

An ethnographic study was conducted within a Cambodian refugee community to discover information about Cambodian women's and men's knowledge and use of family planning methods. This 18-month study included participant observation at community and calendrical events, and within families' homes. Open-ended interviews were conducted with 53 informants from a variety of educational and socio-economic backgrounds. Both women and men were interviewed through a female bilingual interpreter when the informant lacked proficiency in speaking English. Major findings include a lack of knowledge among the sample about how the family planning methods work in the woman's body, and concerns about side-effects. Implications include the need to include Cambodian women and men in the planning and implementation of family planning programmes. PMID:7560523

Kulig, J C

1995-07-01

67

[Grasping economic reform and family planning simultaneously].  

PubMed

This report aims at proposing ways the Chinese government can raise productivity levels and living standards while promoting the objectives of family planning. During the 1970's, family planning was heavily emphasized. Every factory, commune, and government agency had a specialized group of personnel responsible for family planning. Since the time of economic reform, this group has been vastly minimized because of the central government's demands for reduction of "unproductive" personnel. Thus, with economic reform came a sizeable obstacle to the family planning campaign. The report takes Hong Lai County as an example of recent undertakings to balance the new reforms and the family planning objectives. Hong Lai County, one of the poorest counties in the Sichuan Province, located in western central Chna, has seen a growth in GNP of 100% since the economic reform of 1979. At the same time, the government of the county has had to work extremely hard to promote family planning, especially in rural areas where these objectives are more difficult to reinforce. The county government, in an effort to encourage these objectives, has set up programs of compensation in the form of special allowances and bonuses. Moreover, eucational programs have proven effective in this area. The report indicates that much success has been achieved in the areas of education through promotional campaigns and vocational training which have, in turn, increased productivity levels and living standards. PMID:12159346

Hou, W

1985-07-29

68

A Small Library in Family Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated listing of books is intended as a reference for anyone seeking an authoritative introduction to population and family planning information, as a world, family, or individual concern. For each entry, the International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is provided if available. The number preceding each reference represents the…

Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc., New York, NY.

69

Birth control and family planning  

MedlinePLUS

... devastating to the individual or couple, a highly effective method should be chosen. In contrast, if a couple ... if it occurred earlier than planned, a less effective method may be a reasonable choice. Cost -- is the ...

70

75 FR 17203 - National Rail Plan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. FRA-2010-0020] National Rail Plan AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...development of the long-range National Rail Plan (NRP) through an open docket. In...INFORMATION: Background: The Passenger Rail Investment and Improvement Act of...

2010-04-05

71

President Jiang Zemin on family planning and environmental protection.  

PubMed

Presented in this brief article are excerpts of a speech given by the Chinese State President and Party Secretary-General Jiang Zemin at the National Forum on Family Planning and Environmental Protection on March 8, 1997. He states that family planning and environmental policies require long-term considerations. Both family planning and environmental matters are correlated and relate to socioeconomic development in China. Population growth will have negative impacts on the environment, and environmental mismanagement will adversely affect people's health and living conditions. The importance of environmental and family planning policies must be known to every household, and these policies must be effectively implemented as part of socioeconomic development programs. Although China's family planning policy has been successful in reducing China's population size and growth, the task ahead of guaranteeing a population under 1.3 billion by 2000 is enormous. The challenge will be to implement effective programs in rural and poverty-stricken areas. Family planning should be combined with poverty alleviation and income development. Policies should give priority to poor family planning acceptors. China has made "significant progress in environmental protection," but the public is creating "a higher demand on the quality of the environment." By the year 2000, the trends in environmental pollution and ecological destruction must be controlled and the quality of the environment improved. By 2010, there should be evidence of environmental improvements in urban areas, in degraded situations, and in rural areas. Environmental protection will require the cooperation between all departments, the Communist Party, and the Chinese people. PMID:12347918

Jiang, Z

1997-04-01

72

NATIONAL SURVEY OF FAMILY GROWTH (NSFG)  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) provides information on childbearing, contraception, and closely related aspects of maternal and child health from a sample of women in the United States (including Alaska and Hawaii). The National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) was con...

73

National Foreign Language Planning: Practices and Prospects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A selection of essays on foreign language planning at the national level contains articles on the language planning process, language choice, teacher education, testing and assessment, and transnational planning. Essays include the following: "Foreign Language Teaching Policy: Some Planning Issues" (Theo J. M. van Els); "Foreign Language Planning

Sajavaara, Kari, Ed.; And Others

74

Can Better National Policy End Family Homelessness?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An understanding of the close link between federal policy and family homelessness is critical for ensuring that one day no child in the United States is homeless. This article discusses the nature of family homelessness, the national policy framework that exists to help vulnerable families, the homeless assistance system that federal policy has…

Roman, Nan

2010-01-01

75

Natural family planning: very risky business.  

PubMed

Methods of family planning involving periodic abstinence are being promoted aggressively by Catholic and other church groups in the U.S. and worldwide, under the name "natural family planning." The major methods are the calendar rhythm, basal body temperature, cervical mucus, and a combination known as the sympto-thermal methods. These methods require avoiding coitus from 7-17 days of the cycle, not including menses. Effectiveness figures quoted range from 93-99% by church sources, to 80.4% by WHO studies of selected women, to 65-89% by family planning experts. Reasons for high failure rates are irregular ovulation, human error, poor instruction, and insufficient cooperation by spouse. Although proponents claim that periodic abstinence is risk-free, they usually fail to consider the alternative risks of pregnancy and childbirth in case of method failure. Furthermore, the major complication rate of pills, IUDs, legal abortions and sterilization amount to only 0.3% of users, and artificial methods protect variously against sexually transmitted diseases, AIDS, cervical, ovarian and endometrial cancer. Other drawbacks of natural family planning are reluctance with handling one's body, cultural attitudes toward open discussion about sexuality and women's autonomy, need for mature communication between spouses, insufficient literacy to use charts, and the cost of extensive training. In the U.S., training is estimated to cost from 2.5 to 3.2 times the costs of barrier methods or pills, not including the time the woman must devote to daily measurements. The article concludes with a review of the recent history of the Roman Catholic doctrine on family planning, of attitudes and practice of U.S. catholics, and of the U.S. government's role in spreading natural family planning and hindering the implementation of other contraceptive methods within and outside of the country. PMID:12178833

Hughes, J

1988-01-01

76

A call for a family planning surge  

PubMed Central

In 1994, the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo, Egypt, laid out in its Programme of Action an impressive and ambitious set of goals for improving sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) all over the world, by the target date of 2015 (International Conference on Population and Development 1994). One of these goals was the provision of universal access to a full range of safe and reliable family-planning methods. However, notwithstanding increases in budgets for family planning during the years following the ICPD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development), there has been an alarming neglect from the international community for the topic since the year 2000. As a result, the progress made during the second half of the nineties slowed down considerably between 2000 and 2010; in a sense, one could say that ten years were almost wasted! This is astonishing, the more since meeting the need for family planning would have beneficial impacts on public health, environmental sustainability and social and economic development. In this paper, we explore these impacts and urge for a strong renewed commitment of the global community in the form of a global family planning decade.

Temmerman, M.; Van Braeckel, D.; Degomme, O.

2012-01-01

77

New Directions in Family Planning Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from two research studies in Newfoundland, Canada are summarized. The first study examined divorced persons and their family patterns. It was found that numbers and timing of children did not affect marital stability, and neither did whether children were born before or during the current marriage. But whether the children were planned had a…

Johnson, Frank C.; Johnson, May R.

78

A call for a family planning surge.  

PubMed

In 1994, the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo, Egypt, laid out in its Programme of Action an impressive and ambitious set of goals for improving sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) all over the world, by the target date of 2015 (International Conference on Population and Development 1994). One of these goals was the provision of universal access to a full range of safe and reliable family-planning methods. However, notwithstanding increases in budgets for family planning during the years following the ICPD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development), there has been an alarming neglect from the international community for the topic since the year 2000. As a result, the progress made during the second half of the nineties slowed down considerably between 2000 and 2010; in a sense, one could say that ten years were almost wasted! This is astonishing, the more since meeting the need for family planning would have beneficial impacts on public health, environmental sustainability and social and economic development. In this paper, we explore these impacts and urge for a strong renewed commitment of the global community in the form of a global family planning decade. PMID:24753885

Temmerman, M; Van Braeckel, D; Degomme, O

2012-01-01

79

Current Publications in Population/Family Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This abstract/bibliography is part of an information service provided by the Council, and offers a classified selection of recent U.S. and foreign articles and books in the area of population. Categories in this issue are: 1) demography and social science; 2) human reproduction and fertility control; 3) family planning programs; 4) population…

Population Council, New York, NY.

80

Current Literature in Family Planning, Number 54.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a monthly classified review of literature, this annotated bibliography offers a selection of books and articles recently received by the Katharine Dexter McCormick Library relative to family planning in the United States. Divided into two parts, the first contains book reviews from a variety of sources. They cover the subjects fund raising,…

Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.

81

Private sector joins family planning effort.  

PubMed

Projects supported by the Directorate for Population (S&T/POP) of the U.S. Agency for International Development and aimed at increasing for-profit private sector involvement in providing family planning services and products are described. Making products commercially available through social-marketing partnerships with the commercial sector, USAID has saved $1.1 million in commodity costs from Brazil, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Indonesia, and Peru. Active private sector involvement benefits companies, consumers, and donors through increased corporate profits, healthier employees, improved consumer access at lower cost, and the possibility of sustained family planning programs. Moreover, private, for-profit companies will be able to meet service demands over the next 20 years where traditional government and donor agency sources would fail. Using employee surveys and cost-benefit analyses to demonstrate expected financial and health benefits for businesses and work forces, S&T/POP's Technical Information on Population for the Private Sector (TIPPS) project encourages private companies in developing countries to invest in family planning and maternal/child health care for their employees. 36 companies in 9 countries have responded thus far, which examples provided from Peru and Zimbabwe. The Enterprise program's objectives are also to increase the involvement of for-profit companies in delivering family planning services, and to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of private volunteer organizations in providing services. Projects have been started with mines, factories, banks, insurance companies, and parastatals in 27 countries, with examples cited from Ghana and Indonesia. Finally, the Social Marketing for Change project (SOMARC) builds demand and distributes low-cost contraceptives through commercial channels especially to low-income audiences. Partnerships have been initiated with the private sector in 17 developing countries, with examples provided from the Dominican Republic, Liberia and Ecuador. These projects have increased private sector involvement in family planning, thereby promoting service expansion at lower public sector cost. PMID:12343476

1989-12-01

82

Behavior of Young People Regarding Family Planning  

PubMed Central

Conflict of interest: none declared. Family planning is a conscious activity of reproductive age that inclines, not only to regulate the number and timing of birth, but also to have a healthy child and to fulfill all of its role throughout the life cycle. The survey included 1804 students of various generations, which is approximately 9.3% of all students of the University of Montenegro. Instrument of survey was questionnaire with 25 closed type questions. Methods used for statistical data analyses were methods of descriptive statistics and nonparametric methods to analyze significance of differences at the significance p>0.05. The study comprised 53.9% of students aged up to 20 years and 46.1% of students aged from 21 to 26 years. There is statistically significant difference among students regarding sources of knowledge on family planning by age (Chi 2 = 14.54, p<0.05). The students have got information on family planning mostly from parents (46.7%). Out of total number of interviewed students, who stated that abortion is good method of contraception, 12.8% claimed doctors as the source of information, then books, mass media and parents. The most of interviewed students find condom as the best contraceptive method. Students used to get information on family planning mostly often from their parents, and most of them consider that they are well informed. One third of students do not protect themselves from undesired pregnancy, but most of them consider abortion as non adequate method of family planning.

Ljaljevic, Agima; Terzic, Natasa; Palibrk, Marija; Mugosa, Boban

2013-01-01

83

Family life clinics for Gulf state: Bahrain FPA helps bring a family planning breakthrough.  

PubMed

Family life clinics which will provide family planning services alongside maternal and child health services and general counseling are opening in health centers throughout Bahrain and in the main hospital at Manama. Bahrain, a small island in the Arabian Gulf, formed its first Family Planning Association (FPA) just 4 years ago; and this new initiative is seen as a direct result of cooperation between FPA and the government. To spread family planning awareness and services particularly to the poorer section of the population, Bahrain's FPA developed in various stages. Stage 1, in 1975, was to attract and educate volunteers and channel their interest into special committees dealing with programs; public relations; child welfare; legal and medical affairs; research; and conferences and education. Stage 2 came with the need to coordinate the work and set up a 2-person staff and an office. Stage 3 developed with the first field campaign. Door-to-door visiting was tried but was not popular with volunteers or residents. Approaching the population through community clubs and institutions was tried with much success. The new family life clinics are the latest stage of a fruitful cooperation between FPA and the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs. In addition to the new family life clinics, an active effort to improve family planning awareness has continued using national seminars and mass media. Fund-raising is under way for a mobile,clinic which will provide health services and methods of contraception, to which there is still substantial resistance, to many on the island who have no exposure to the mass media. Wide acceptance of the need for family planning for the sake of mothers, the family, and the child is growing in Bahrain. PMID:12335914

1979-01-01

84

Worker-Client Relations and Related Policy Issues in the Bangladesh Family Planning Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the request of the government of Bangladesh the International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh established the Maternal and Child Health-Family Planning (MCH-FP) Extension Project in 1982. This paper discusses: (1) the design of the MCH-FP; (2) the major characteristics of the national health and family planning program under…

Hossain, Mian Bazle

85

Five levels of family planning progress: lessons from Thailand.  

PubMed

The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) has developed terms to categorize nations on the basis of their level of modern contraceptive prevalence. Categorization reveals national family planning elements and circumstances common to each level, aiding policymakers in policy projection and appropriate program formulation. At the lowest prevalence level, emergent countries demonstrate less than 8% modern contraceptive prevalence. Launch countries are from 8-15%, growth countries from 16-34%, consolidation countries from 35-49%, while mature countries range from 50% and higher. Related country characteristics according to respective stages are explored in the paper. Thailand's successful progression through these stages is provided as a model example. For developing countries at a more broad level, launch stage countries should emphasize consensus building for family planning, and consider adopting a national family planning policy. Growth stage countries require effective communication programs, while countries in the consolidation phase need to attract groups from outside of the mainstream. Finally, countries in the mature stage should progressively realize greater responsibility in the private sector for service provision. PMID:12284222

Robey, B

1991-09-01

86

China's first family planning publicity month.  

PubMed

China conducted its 1st nationwide Family Planning Publicity Month in 1983, from New Year's Day to Spring Festival (February 13). The campaign emphasized the rural areas and focused on explaining why family planning is a state policy. The most noticeable achievements of this campaign were that every household became familiar with the fact that family planning is a basic state policy. The majority of the population take this policy seriously, realizing that strict control of population growth is both a good and imperative policy. More than 1,830,000 propaganda columns and photo exhibitions were displayed, 5,900,000 radio and television programs broadcast, 2,010,000 theatrical performances, movie and slide showings presented, and 97,000,000 copies of materials published for public dissemination. The activities were varied and interesting, vivid and lively, and purposeful and persuasive. 1 of the most effective methods of publicizing population control has been the presentation of comparative statistics. This aspect of the campaign was a specific and lively form of education in population theory and practice. The presentation of statistics that show the relationship among population, land use, grain produce, and income enabled the population to reason out why population growth needs to match economic and social development. Another important accomplishment of the publicity month was that a large number of couples of reproductive age became convinced of the need to use contraception. According to the incomplete statistics, 8,860,000 people had surgical operations for birth control. The universal promotion of ligations by either partner of a reproductive couple who already had given birth to a 2nd child was an important development of family planning technique promoted simultaneously with the promotion of IUDs. The increase in the number of people doing family planning work was another achievement of the publicity month. More than 15,240,000 publicity personnel and 760,000 medical personnel were trained. The enthusiasm of the Party and the people contributed to the success of the publicity month. The success of the publicity month is inseparable from the achievements and experience gained through China's longterm pursuit of family planning. PMID:12312452

Shen, G

1983-05-01

87

Family planning / sex education / teenage pregnancy.  

PubMed

The Alan Guttmacher Institute's State Reproductive Health Monitor provides legislative information on family planning, sex education, and teenage pregnancy. The listing contains information on pending bills; the state, the identifying legislation number, the sponsor, the committee, the date the bill was introduced, a description of the bill, and when available, the bill's status. From January through February, 1993, the bills cover a wide range of regulation and social policy including: appropriations for family planning services; Norplant implants for women receiving AFDC benefits; the requirement that health insurance policies provide coverage for contraception services; the repeal of the sterilization procedure review committee; since a need for such a committee has vanished; requiring hotels, motels, and innkeepers to offer condoms for sale to registered guests; allowing male and female public assistance recipients between ages 18-35 who submit to sterilization operations to be eligible to receive a $2,000 grant; a provision that no more children may be included in the size of the family, for the purpose of determining the amount of AFDC benefits that a family may receive, than at the time that eligibility was determined, and that before a family with 2 or more children can receive AFDC benefits, the woman must consent to and have surgically implanted Norplant or a similar reversible birth control device with a 5-year or longer effectiveness. PMID:12344860

1993-02-01

88

Implementation Plan: National Nuclear Security Administration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed this Implementation Plan with regard to the establishment of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) on March 1, 2000, as provided by Title 32 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Ye...

2000-01-01

89

National Security Technology Incubator Action Plan. National Security Preparedness Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents the action plan for developing the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) program for southern New Mexico. The NSTI program is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by Department ...

2008-01-01

90

Population Assistance and Family Planning Programs: Issues for Congress.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Congressional Research Service (CRS) report analyzes population assistance and family planning programs. For FY2004 the Administration seeks $425 million in bilateral family planning funds and sets asides $25 million in a reserve account for the Unit...

L. Nowels

2003-01-01

91

Foreign Assistance: USAID Compliance with Family Planning Restrictions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States has provided international family planning assistance through the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) since the mid-1960s. The United States remains the world's single largest contributor to family planning programs in deve...

2000-01-01

92

Social Science Research on Family Planning in Developing Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After looking at the results of some family planning programs, the contributions and shortcomings of social science research relevant to family planning is discussed, plus its future role and its acceptance in developing countries. (Author/ND)

Allman, James; Mathsson, Bertil

1975-01-01

93

Family Planning Services: Focus for State Initiative. Delaware.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Guidelines are presented for use by State officials, local providers, and interested organizations and individuals in the development of expanded family planning services. The guidelines are based on data relating to family planning service availability a...

1975-01-01

94

Benefits and Costs of the Family Planning Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A discussion is provided of the benefits and costs of family planning services in California. A review of the budgetary needs of the Family Planning Program is presented, and the characteristics of the program are examined. The Family Planning Office requ...

1977-01-01

95

Nursing's Acceptance of the Function of Family Planning Counselor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The changes in family planning methods in the 1960s and the recognition of population control as a public health problem brought to the nursing profession the issue of the nurse's involvement in family planning counseling. The author reviews the literature defining the functions of the nurse with regard to family planning counseling. (Author/RP)

Monteiro, Lois

1974-01-01

96

[On family planning policy in Brazil].  

PubMed

Brazil's population could vary from a minimum of 164.5 million to a maximum of 183.5 million at the turn of the century. The increase in population is due essentially to a decline in mortality, since natality has remained steady, averaging 6.2 children/woman. During the 1st 4 years of the 1980s, a 19% drop in natality was registered, with the greatest reduction occurring in the East-Central (25%) region, testimony to an increased presence of highly effective contraceptive means. 65% of all married women between the ages of 15 and 44 use contraceptives, placing Brazil among the most developed countries (U.S.A., 68%). The main contraceptive method used is sterilization, preferred even by very young women, median age 29, as evidenced by a study in Sao Paulo. The choice of contraceptives, however, is limited. During the military dictatorship family planning was put in the hands of private organizations (BEMFAM since 1965, CEPAIMC since 1975) and recent policies have emphasized a hands-off attitude leaving birth control decisions to the family nucleus. The economic crisis, at the end of the 1970s, modified this position. In order to avoid that, only the wealthy classes have access to family planning means, the government increasingly plays an active role in providing information and assistance. A not-for-profit institution, ABEPF (Brazilian Association for Family Planning Entities), the largest of its kind in Latin America, organizes and promotes private initiative programs. Acting as a true syndicate, each clinic affiliated with the association receives training of professionals and equipment for installation of laboratories and consulting rooms. Various women's rights movements have been active and succeeded in influencing political parties. PMID:12280937

Berquo, E

1987-01-01

97

Tay Sachs and Related Storage Diseases: Family Planning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on interviews with 24 families, the article discusses family planning and the choices available to those families in which a child has previously died from Tay-Sachs or related lipid storage diseases. (IM)

Schneiderman, Gerald; And Others

1978-01-01

98

National Special Security Events: Transportation Planning for Planned Special Events.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Unique among planned special event activities are those events that carry the National Special Security Event (NSSE) designation. NSSEs occur with some frequency, with 35 of these events held between September 1998 and February 2010. These events include,...

A. V. Easton C. Balswin J. Sangillo N. Houston

2011-01-01

99

[Program to motivate post-partum women to use family planning methods].  

PubMed

The 1983 National Fertility Survey in Rwanda indicated that 73% of the population knew about family planning and 11% used some method, but fewer than 1% used a modern method. Between 1983-88 the proportion using a modern method increased to only 4.2%. A survey of unsatisfied demands in maternal-child health and family planning indicated that 31% of fertile-aged women had had unwanted pregnancies. A new project has been designed to motivate women delivering in health facilities to adopt and use a family planning method in the 6 weeks following delivery. The major program activities will be training in family planning communication for health and social service personnel frequently in contact with postpartum women, supervision, and evaluation. Content of the family planning training will include the health benefits of family planning, information to give clients about family planning interviews. The persons providing the family planning information should be sensitive to the needs of the client, have the confidence of clients, and be capable of communicating clearly and easily. Clients should be informed about the mode of action, efficacy, advantages, possible secondary effects, use instructions, warning signs, and need for follow- up of the different methods. Available methods in Rwanda include standard and low-dose pills, progestin pills, injectables, Norplant, IUDs, condoms and spermicides, sterilization, and natural family planning methods. PMID:12316204

Munyakazi, A

1989-12-01

100

Strategic Plan - National Cancer Institute  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content The National Cancer Institute www.cancer.gov The National Institutes of Health A Research Network of the Division of Cancer Prevention CCOP - Community Clinical Oncology Program Home Contact the Program For Members Home About the Program

101

World population growth, family planning, and American foreign policy.  

PubMed

The US decision since the 1960s to link foreign policy with family planning and population control is noteworthy for its intention to change the demographic structure of foreign countries and the magnitude of the initiative. The current population ideologies are part of the legacy of 19th century views on science, morality, and political economy. Strong constraints were placed on US foreign policy since World War II, particularly due to presumptions about the role of developing countries in Cold War ideology. Domestic debates revolved around issues of feminism, birth control, abortion, and family political issues. Since the 1960s, environmental degradation and resource depletion were an added global dimension of US population issues. Between 1935 and 1958 birth control movements evolved from the ideologies of utopian socialists, Malthusians, women's rights activists, civil libertarians, and advocates of sexual freedom. There was a shift from acceptance of birth control to questions about the role of national government in supporting distribution of birth control. Immediately postwar the debates over birth control were outside political circles. The concept of family planning as a middle class family issue shifted the focus from freeing women from the burdens of housework to making women more efficient housewives. Family planning could not be taken as a national policy concern without justification as a major issue, a link to national security, belief in the success of intervention, and a justifiable means of inclusion in public policy. US government involvement began with agricultural education, technological assistance, and economic development that would satisfy the world's growing population. Cold War politics forced population growth as an issue to be considered within the realm of foreign policy and diplomacy. US government sponsored family planning was enthusiastic during 1967-74 but restrained during the 1980s. The 1990s has been an era of redefinition of the issues and increased divisiveness among environmentalists, feminists, and population control advocates. The current justification of US population program assistance is based on concern for the health of women and children. Future changes will be dependent on ideology, theology, and political philosophy. PMID:12346346

Sharpless, J

1995-01-01

102

National Nanotechnology Initiative Strategic Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document is the strategic plan for the NNI. It describes the NNI vision and goals and the strategies by which these goals are to be achieved. The plan includes a description of the NNI investment strategy and the program component areas called for by...

2011-01-01

103

Five Weekend National Family Medicine Fellowship  

PubMed Central

PROBLEM ADDRESSED Many faculty development programs are thought time-consuming and inaccessible to academic family physicians or physicians wanting to move into academic positions. This is largely due to difficulty in leaving their practices for extended periods. Canadian family medicine needs trained leaders who can work in teams and are well grounded in the principles of their discipline as they relate to education, management, research, and policy making. OBJECTIVE OF PROGRAM To develop a team of leaders in family medicine. MAIN COMPONENTS OF PROGRAM The Five Weekend National Family Medicine Fellowship Program focuses on the essentials of education, management, communication, critical appraisal skills, and the principles of family medicine to develop leadership and team-building skills for faculty and community-based family physicians entering academic careers. This unique 1-year program combines intensive weekend seminars with small-group projects between weekends. It emphasizes a broader set of skills than just teaching, has regional representation, and focuses on leadership and teamwork using a time-efficient format. CONCLUSION The program has graduated 34 Fellows over the last 3 years. More than 90% of the 35 projects developed through course work have been presented in national or provincial peer-reviewed settings. Quantitative ratings of program structure, course content, and course outcomes have been positive.

Talbot, Yves; Batty, Helen; Rosser, Walter W.

1997-01-01

104

Reports on Population/Family Planning. Population and Family Planning Programs: A Factbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This third annual "Factbook," containing neither text nor charts, is a supplement rather than an entirely new edition. It consists of 17 tables with new information and a new map of the world showing current government positions of family planning programs and policies. As in earlier editions, the tables are the core of this report. They contain…

Nortman, Dorothy

105

National Hurricane Operations Plan, May 2010.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Office of the Federal Coordinator for Meteorological Services and Supporting Research (OFCM) annually hosts the IHC to educate attendees on the status and future plans of the Nation's hurricane forecasting and warning program. Additionally, the IHC pr...

2010-01-01

106

National Security Technology Incubator Action Plan  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the action plan for developing the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) program for southern New Mexico. The NSTI program is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). This action plan serves as a tool in measuring progress in the development process and delivery of services for the NSTI program. Continuous review and evaluation of the action plan is necessary in the development process of the NSTI. The action plan includes detailed steps in developing the NSTI program based on recommended best practices in incubator development by the National Business Incubation Association (NBIA). Included are tasks required to implement the NSTI, developed within a work breakdown structure. In addition, a timeline is identified for each task.

None

2008-02-28

107

Kalaupapa National Historical Park: Museum Management Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Kalaupapa National Historical Park Museum Management Plan identifies a series of collections management issues facing the park and presents corresponding actions to address them. The park is currently managing an archives estimated at 137,000 items; a...

B. Sullivan C. DeRooy J. Bayless K. Bush S. Buchel

2006-01-01

108

The transition to sustainable family planning programs.  

PubMed

USAID, through the matching grant project, provided International Planned Parenthood Federation's Western Hemisphere Region (IPPF/WHR) funds to increase and strengthen family planning (FP) services in Latin America. Family planning associations (FPAs) were to match any USAID-awarded funds with other funds, supporting efforts to promote sustainability of service delivery. The matching grant was an extremely effective and efficient means to expand access to good quality, voluntary FP services to low income, underserved people. Local income funded about 33% of Matching Grant FPA budgets. USAID and IPPF or other donors shared the other 66%. The Matching Grant FPAs reached the original target of 2.8 million new acceptors. The project was so successful that USAID awarded IPPF/WHR a new 5-year (1992-97) Transition Project. In Latin America and the Caribbean, its goals are to increase people's freedom to choose the number and spacing of their children and to promote a population growth rate appropriate to each country's socioeconomic development goals by helping some FPAs to become sustainable without USAID funding. Strengthening the institutional capacity of FP programs and evaluation of their performance and impact are 2 ways to achieve these goals. BEMFAM/Brazil, PROFAMILIA/Colombia, MEXFAM/Mexico, INPPARES/Peru, APROFA/Chile, CEPEP/Paraguay, AUPFIRH/Uruguay, FPATT/Trinidad and Tobago, PLAFAM/Venezuela, and BFLA/Belize have received matching subcontracts for FP service delivery and sustainability. IPPF/WHR considers Brazil, Colombia, Peru, and Mexico to be high-priority countries, largely because they have more than 60% of the population of Latin America. About 81% of Transition Project funds will go to in-country sub-grants and on regional activities, matched on a 1-to-1 basis. 86% of subcontracts will go to Colombia, Mexico, and Peru. Technical assistance and funding are also targeted to HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted disease prevention. PMID:12179841

1993-05-01

109

Family planning in Viet Nam: a vigorous approach.  

PubMed

Viet Nam, a country in transition, is vigorously implementing its population and family planning policies and plans, despite the fact that increased government expenditure for family planning only amounts to some US $0.15 per capita, far short of the minimum $0.60 required. An increased range of family planning methods will be offered to the population through a "cafeteria" approach. Genital tract infections will be reduced, as well as the incidence of abortion. Research continues on injectable and implanted contraceptives, and the use of quinacrine nonsurgical female sterilization. In the long term, a mix of imported and locally-produced contraceptives is envisaged to achieve greater sustainability. Family planning will be closely linked to economic development and poverty alleviation, with mass organizations developing family planning-linked credit, savings and income generating schemes. Pilot experience has indicated value if integrated approach linking family planning, nutrition, and parasite control. The health manpower and health services systems are being overhauled, with plans to appoint family planning focal points at commune level, linked to mobile district teams and grassroots motivators. Medical equipment, contraceptives and essential drugs for family planning and reproductive health services are in short supply at an estimated 60% of commune health stations. Both the public sector and the growing private sector will need to face the challenge of providing the population with high-quality reproductive health services and family planning options suited to individual needs and preferences. PMID:8085369

Feuerstein, M T

1994-01-01

110

Career Planning: Developing the Nation's Primary Resource.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Career planning is the most critical ingredient in developing a nation's primary resource, its workers. A 1988 Gallup Poll showed that 62 percent of U.S. workers had no career goal when they began their first job, and more than 50 percent felt they were in the wrong job. The same results probably could be applied to Canada. Career planning skills…

Jarvis, Phillip S.

111

78 FR 70231 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). This direct...National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP), which...

2013-11-25

112

National Science Foundation Facility Plan  

NSF Publications Database

Our investments range from modest laboratory instruments and information technology (IT) resources to the sorts of world- class projects that make up a special category of NSF funding designated as Major Research Equipment and Facilities Construction (MREFC). To that end, the National Science Board (NSB) and the Director, in their joint report Setting Priorities for Large Research Facility Projects Supported by the National Science Foundation, define the process used by the NSF for developing...

113

High-Deductible Health Plans: Are Vulnerable Families Enrolled?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE There is concern that high-deductible health plans may have negative effects on vulnerable groups. The objective of this study was to compare the characteristics of families who have children and switch to high-deductible health plans with those who stay in traditional plans. METHODS This double-cohort study included families who had children aged <18 years and were enrolled in a Massachusetts health plan through employers who did not offer a choice of health plans. We identified families who had traditional health maintenance organization plans for a 12-month baseline period between 2001 and 2004 and compared families whose coverage was then switched to a high-deductible health plan by their employers with similar families whose employer chose to remain in the traditional plan (controls). Data came from health plan enrollment and claims datasets and census data. We used multivariate logistic regression models to compare the characteristics of families who were switched to high-deductible health plans with controls. RESULTS We identified 839 families who had children and whose employer switched them to high-deductible health plans and 5133 controls. Among families with large employers, the adjusted odds of the employer switching to a high-deductible health plan were higher for families living in high-poverty neighborhoods. Among families with small employers, the adjusted odds of the employer switching to a high-deductible health plan were lower for families with more children, above-average family morbidity, and baseline total expenditures >$7000. CONCLUSIONS Among families with large employers offering a single health plan, those from low-income neighborhoods are more likely to be switched to high-deductible health plans. In contrast, families with small employers offering a single plan are more likely to be switched to high-deductible health plans if they are healthier and have lower baseline costs. These findings suggest that families with children in high-deductible plans may represent two distinct groups, one with higher-risk characteristics and another with lower-risk characteristics compared with those in traditional plans.

Galbraith, Alison A.; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Soumerai, Stephen B.; Miroshnik, Irina; Wharam, J. Frank; Kleinman, Kenneth; Lieu, Tracy A.

2009-01-01

114

Family planning rarely available for refugees.  

PubMed

Worldwide, there are an estimated 18 million refugees, people who have crossed international borders to escape political conflict, famine, destruction of their natural environment, or other disasters. There are an additional 24 million displaced individuals, people who left their homes but remain in their own countries. Women and children comprise more than 80% of both groups. Following some major event or series of events, these individuals have typically relocated in large number over a short period of time to an area devoid of the necessary basic facilities to support their rapid influx. International agencies, foreign governments, and nongovernmental organizations usually come forward to provide emergency relief as best they are able. With regard to the delivery of health care, health services for refugees are typically designed to meet emergency needs, such as the provision of clean water, the delivery of adequate food supplies, and the treatment of disease. Family planning is generally not provided, especially to refugees in the early stages of relocation. Reproductive health services during this initial phase are instead usually limited to care for pregnant women. Refugees, however, do have sex. In fact, birth rates in refugee camps are typically higher than they are for the host-country population. Refugees and displaced persons have often undergone some degree of psychological trauma and emotional loss. Families are displaced and separated, and loved ones have died. Those fortunate enough to make it to refugee camps and be restored to a reasonable state of health typically find themselves in limbo, away from their cherished homes, and often mourning the loss of friends, spouses, and/or children. These individuals are going to have sexual intercourse for a number of reasons. Sex relieves the boredom of camp life, especially for young people, some people want to replace children who have died or been separated from the family, women with few or no relatives have sex with men to survive, and people get raped. In the context of so much human loss and confusion, many recent widows and widowers are in need of companionship; newfound friends eventually become sex partners. In the interest of preventing unwanted pregnancies and the transmission of sexually communicated diseases, international organizations now increasingly recommend that the long-term health needs of refugees and displaced persons be addressed. Specifically, it is imperative that reproductive health services, including family planning and the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases, be made available to these individuals. PMID:12288757

Barnett, B

1995-03-01

115

Nutrition and National Development Planning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three papers are included in this document and constitute an attempt to define the position of food and nutrition issues in the context of development planning. They take as their starting point the proposition that the primary objective of development pl...

J. L. Joy P. R. Payne

1975-01-01

116

Ethiopia: an emerging family planning success story.  

PubMed

From 1990 to 2011, contraceptive use in Ethiopia increased ninefold and the total fertility rate fell from 7.0 to 4.8. These are two dramatic illustrations of a family planning success story that has emerged over the last two decades and is still emerging. What are the main elements of this success? We posit that the four most significant factors are: political will, generous donor support, nongovernmental and public-private partnerships, and the government's establishment of a network of health extension workers. In this study, we look at these factors and how their interaction increased the proportion of women having both the desire to use and ability to access contraceptives. Also highlighted are some of the key lessons learned in Ethiopia that are relevant to other African countries interested in emulating the country's success. PMID:24323662

Olson, David J; Piller, Andrew

2013-12-01

117

National space transportation systems planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the fall of 1984, the DOD and NASA had been asked to identify launch vehicle technologies which could be made available for use in 1995 to 2010. The results of the studies of the two groups were integrated, and a consumer report, dated December 1984, was forwarded to the President. Aspects of mission planning and analysis are discussed along with a combined mission model, future launch system requirements, a launch vehicle planning background, Shuttle derivative vehicle program options, payload modularization, launch vehicle technology implications, a new engine program for the mid-1990's. Future launch systems goals are to achieve an order of magnitude reduction in future launch cost and meet the lift requirements and launch rates. Attention is given to an advanced cryogenic engine, advanced LOX/hydrocarbon engine, advanced power systems, aerodynamics/flight mechanics, reentry/recovery systems, avionics/software, advanced manufacturing techniques, autonomous ground and mission operations, advanced structures/materials, and air breathing propulsion.

Lucas, W. R.

1985-01-01

118

Work-Family Planning Attitudes among Emerging Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using social learning theory as a framework, we explore two sets of antecedents to work and family role planning attitudes among emerging adults: their work-family balance self-efficacy and their perceptions of their parents' work-to-family conflict. A total of 187 college students completed a questionnaire concerning their work-family balance…

Basuil, Dynah A.; Casper, Wendy J.

2012-01-01

119

Can natural family planning really work?  

PubMed

The natural family planning project of the Family Life Apostolate (FLA) in the Philippines is aimed specifically at teaching couples about the value of marriage and responsible parenthood rather than at preventing conception. The project receives no outside funding. An evaluation study of the project conducted in 1986 by the Research Institute for Mindanao Culture of Xavier University in Cagayan de Oro City lends support to the claim of success in reaching the project objective. The study sampled 380 married couples of reproductive age (MCRAs) in various camps of Del Monte Philippines and Neighboring villages. All respondents, 95% of whom were Roman Catholics, reported to be using NFP since 1978. 91% of the wives and 93% of the husbands said that NFP had improved their relationship with their spouses. 88% claimed that NFP also had enhanced their appreciation of sex, implying that periodic abstinence did not pose a problem for the respondents. The project also appears to have been effective in reducing the number of accidental pregnancies among the respondents over the 1978-85 period. The study recorded 271 accidental pregnancies out of the total 476 pregnancies during the 8-year period, yet it noted a downward trend in cumulative failure rates over the years. Among the 215 women in the sample who did not get pregnant by accident, 81.8% admitted having practiced withdrawal as a backup measure; 16.5% of the couples had used the condom. The study concludes that NFP can work. The findings suggest that NFP can work only if: the couples, most especially the husbands, are well motivated to limit family size; and the couples are well-informed and knowledgeable about the processes involved in the NFP method. PMID:12342113

Nolasco, A D

1989-01-01

120

National Nanotechnology Initiative Strategic Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The vision of the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) is a future in which the ability to understand and control matter on the nanoscale leads to a revolution in technology and industry. Toward this vision, the NNI will expedite the discovery, develo...

2004-01-01

121

Japan's national waste recovery plan  

SciTech Connect

The national program in Japan for waste recovery is reviewed. Japan's particular needs (relatively small area, large population, virtually no native energy or raw material sources) are discussed and the urgency of the program is stressed. Specific programs are described as well as government, citizen, and industrial contributions. Initiated in the early 1960's, primarily from environmental factors, the program has expanded to produce energy, fertilizers, pulp, rubber, cements, and other products. Research activities are summarized with emphasis on the Stardust Project (a national demonstration project to show that municipal wastes can be separated into garbage, paper, and plastics and each group can be processed to produce materials or energy). Clean Japan Center, an incorporated foundation, has functions of public education, surveys, demonstration plants and waste collection activities. An integrated system to process both urban and rural wastes in Toyohashi City is described. (MJJ)

Baller, J.

1982-08-01

122

Key Statistics from the National Survey of Family Growth: Vasectomy  

MedlinePLUS

... NCHS Home Surveys and Data Collection Systems Key Statistics from the National Survey of Family Growth V ... Survey of Family Growth Staff Division of Vital Statistics National Center for Health Statistics 3311 Toledo Road ...

123

National Special Security Events: Transportation Planning for Planned Special Events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unique among planned special event activities are those events that carry the National Special Security Event (NSSE) designation. NSSEs occur with some frequency, with 35 of these events held between September 1998 and February 2010. These events include, but are not limited to, presidential inaugurations, presidential nominating conventions, major sports events such as the Super Bowl, and major international meetings

Nancy Houston; Craig Baldwin; Andrea Vann Easton; Jeff Sangillo

2011-01-01

124

Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan is to compile and to consolidate information annually on how the ORNL Waste Management Program is conducted, which waste management facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, what activities are planned for the forthcoming fiscal year (FY), and how all of the activities are documented.

Not Available

1992-12-01

125

Seminars offer key to better family planning.  

PubMed

Current scientific information on health and contraception is in demand in Francophone countries of Africa. Contraceptive technology updates (CTU) have been held in Senegal, Niger, and Togo in order to provide family planning (FP) experts, program managers, providers, and government officials with the opportunity to exchange information and gather new materials. Family Health International's CTUs in Senegal in 1990 were useful in changing policy. Routine blood testing, as a requirement for oral contraceptives, was eliminated. In Niger, there was resistance to changing the policy requiring pelvic examinations and laboratory tests before oral pill distribution. After CTU seminars were held, the attending physicians were gradually convinced by the medical experts that these procedures interfered with and were not necessary for oral pill dispensing. Other changes that came about due to the workshops were the use of licensed practical nurses as FP providers, and the use of village health workers as oral contraceptive providers after an initial prescription. Age and parity requirements for injectables were also changed to a lower age due to the efforts of CTUs. In Togo, a CTU seminar was held with leaders from Togo and nine other African countries. In the final declaration, policies were recommended for authorizing adolescent FP services and promoting non-clinic service delivery approaches. Prior to the seminars, information on local country conditions was gathered; this information was useful in showing how changes in local barriers to contraception use and continuation could be affected. The use of international information was helpful in Togo for understanding the importance of using injectables and providing pill access through rural outlets. The participation of a delivery of professions and people involved in FP has been important for policy and service providers. Follow-up training at the service delivery level is needed, where changing habits and attitudes is necessary. The first step is convincing health workers of their important contribution to FP, and then, working to change non-medical barriers. PMID:12318095

Townsend, S

1993-03-01

126

Family planning in Latin America's barriadas.  

PubMed

In Latin America, many rural people build dwellings in settlements on the cities' fringes without permission from the authorities. The authorities make several unsuccessful attempts to drive them away, but eventually ignore them. In the 1960s, family planning (FP) associations were concerned about how they can serve the shantytowns, which needed their services but had no social services at all, e.g., water supply and sanitation. In the early 1970s, PROFAMILIA Colombia began a new form of FP service delivery in rural areas by training someone from the community who believed in FP to distribution (CBD) programs provided more FP than all of PROFAMILIA's 60 clinics. In 1973, PROFAMILIA started its URBAN CBD program in the slums of Bogota and learned that the people wanted FP. The CBD movement spread throughout urban and rural Latin America. Brazil's BEMFAM developed the world's largest CBD program. By 1985, 10,365 distribution posts operated in Latin America and, by 1991, there were 26,423. In urban slums in the 1980s, Mexico's MEXFAM began using community doctors, who tend to be new medical graduates. Often the community and the doctors respect each other so much that many doctors remain in the shantytowns beyond their required time. The residents' acceptance of FP provided by people who understand the community shows how they want to plan their lives and better themselves. In addition, they have taken the chance to seek a better life by leaving hopeless situations in rural areas and by building dwellings for themselves, even though they had no money, land, or even basic necessities. In Peru, shantytown residents were moved to the desert and supplied with basic construction materials. They built a community, Villa El Salvador, now complete with tree-lined streets, shops, schools, and movies. Shantytown dwellers may have the solution to Latin America's problems. PMID:12179848

1993-05-01

127

20 CFR 632.18 - Regional and national planning meetings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Regional and national planning meetings. 632.18 Section 632...EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Program Planning, Application and Modification Procedures § 632.18 Regional and national planning meetings. Grant funds may be...

2010-04-01

128

Studies in Family Planning, Volume 3 Number 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new design for government family planning programs is proposed in "Family Planning Programs: An Economic Approach," the principal article in this monthly publication of The Population Council. The design is intended primarily for low-income countries that seek large and rapid reductions in fertility. Thirteen elements of the proposed system of…

Population Council, New York, NY.

129

Family Planning in Five Continents: Africa, America, Asia, Europe, Oceania.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Population growth trends and family planning activities in Africa, America, Asia, Europe, and Oceania are summarized in this booklet developed by the International Planned Parenthood Federation. Narrative information for each continent gives a resume of population growth trends, reasons for the trends, population problems, policy formation, family

International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

130

Family Planning Services: Focus for State Initiative, Georgia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information is provided on family planning services in Georgia in an attempt to aid other States in the development of effective approaches to family planning service delivery. Estimates of need were made in 1975 among three groups of women in Georgia at ...

1975-01-01

131

Differences in Counseling Men and Women: Family Planning in Kenya.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comparisions of family planning sessions in Kenya found distinct gender differences in reasons for visiting the clinics and communication styles of both the clients and the counselors. These communication patterns may be a result of Kenyan gender roles and men's and women's different reasons for seeking family planning services. Implications of…

Kim, Young Mi; Kols, Adrienne; Mwarogo, Peter; Awasum, David

2000-01-01

132

Current Publications in Population/Family Planning Number 13.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Abstracts of current publications in the fields of population and family planning are presented in this pamphlet. Topical areas include: demography and social science, human reproduction and fertility control, family planning program, population policy, and general publications. Research studies, monthly reports, journal articles, and general…

Population Council, New York, NY.

133

Current Publications in Population/Family Planning, Number 17.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Abstracts of current publications in the fields of population and family planning are presented in this pamphlet. Topical areas include: demography and social science, human reproduction and fertility control, family planning programs, population policy, and general publications. Research studies, monthly reports, journal articles, and general…

Population Council, New York, NY.

134

Current Publications in Population/Family Planning, Number 16.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Abstracts of current publications in the fields of population and family planning are presented in this pamphlet. Topical areas include: demography and social science, human reproduction and fertility control, family planning programs, population policy, and general publications. Research studies, monthly reports, journal articles, and general…

Population Council, New York, NY.

135

Current Publications in Population/Family Planning, Number 20.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Abstracts of current publications in the fields of population and family planning are presented in this pamphlet. Topical areas include: demography and social science, human reproduction and fertility control, family planning programs, population policy, and general publications. Research studies, monthly reports, journal articles, and general…

Population Council, New York, NY.

136

Current Publications in Population/Family Planning, Number 18.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Abstracts of current publications in the fields of population and family planning are presented in this pamphlet. Topical areas include: demography and social science, human reproduction and fertility control, family planning programs, population policy, and general publications. Research studies, monthly reports, journal articles, and general…

Population Council, New York, NY.

137

National Ignition Facility project acquisition plan  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this National Ignition Facility Acquisition Plan is to describe the overall procurement strategy planned for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Project. The scope of the plan describes the procurement activities and acquisition strategy for the following phases of the NIF Project, each of which receives either plant and capital equipment (PACE) or other project cost (OPC) funds: Title 1 and 2 design and Title 3 engineering (PACE); Optics manufacturing facilitization and pilot production (OPC); Convention facility construction (PACE); Procurement, installation, and acceptance testing of equipment (PACE); and Start-up (OPC). Activities that are part of the base Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program are not included in this plan. The University of California (UC), operating Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Lockheed-Martin, which operates Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR-LLE), will conduct the acquisition of needed products and services in support of their assigned responsibilities within the NIF Project structure in accordance with their prime contracts with the Department of Energy (DOE). LLNL, designated as the lead Laboratory, will have responsibility for all procurements required for construction, installation, activation, and startup of the NIF.

Callaghan, R.W.

1996-04-01

138

National Teacher Training Institute: Lesson Plan Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visit this Web site from the National Teacher Training Institute (NTTI) for a set of engaging lesson plans for middle and high school students. The latest life science offerings address DNA and RNA, pika camouflage, environmental issues, and adaptation. A number of older lesson plans are available as well. In addition to providing detailed instructions, each lesson plan includes a variety of features and resources such as links for in-class research and downloadable activity sheets. The lessons take about one class period to complete and require the use of educational videos -- part of NTTI's goal to increase "dynamic use of classroom technology."

139

National Ignition Facility wet weather construction plan  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a wet weather construction plan for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) construction project. Construction of the NIF commenced in mid- 1997, and excavation of the site was completed in the fall. Preparations for placing concrete foundations began in the fall, and above normal rainfall is expected over the tinter. Heavy rainfall in late November impacted foundation construction, and a wet weather construction plan was determined to be needed. This wet weather constiction plan recommends a strategy, techniques and management practices to prepare and protect the site corn wet weather effects and allow construction work to proceed. It is intended that information in this plan be incorporated in the Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) as warranted.

Kugler, A N

1998-01-01

140

Decommissioning plan for the National Ignition Facility  

SciTech Connect

The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a US Department of Energy inertial confinement laser fusion experimental facility currently under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). To ensure that decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) issues at the end-of-life are manageable, this subject has received attention from an early stage. This paper summarizes the NIF D&D issues, and the status of the D&D plan.

Brereton, S., LLNL

1998-05-27

141

77 FR 11116 - Draft National Plan To Address Alzheimer's Disease  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Draft National Plan To Address Alzheimer's Disease AGENCY: Office of the...draft National Plan to Address Alzheimer's Disease, which is available at...Obama signed into law the National Alzheimer's Project Act (NAPA),...

2012-02-24

142

[Family planning as a basic tool for development].  

PubMed

The family planning (FP) concept has traditionally been, and is closely related to, sexual and reproductive health. At the International Conference on Population and Development held in Cairo in 1994, FP is recognized as a health strategy that, properly applied, can contribute to the development of nations. Over the past years we have found that the benefits are not only aimed at preventing unwanted pregnancies, there by preventing induced abortions and maternal death, but it also improves child health, facilitating access to education for children in the world, it promotes the empowerment of women not only in the workplace but also in other areas such as politics and thus, the concept of gender; it helps to reduce poverty by stimulating economic development and increasing the standard of living of people . This means that it not only contributes to one but to the eight Millennium Development Goals by 2015. Despite the evidence of its benefits, there are still social, cultural, political or religious barriers that cause an unmet need in Family Planning, which does not respect the right of individuals to choose and decide the number of children they want, and prevent the experience of a healthy sexuality. PMID:24100824

Gutiérrez, Miguel

2013-07-01

143

National Ignition Facility Title II Design Plan  

SciTech Connect

This National Ignition Facility (NIF) Title II Design Plan defines the work to be performed by the NIF Project Team between November 1996, when the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) reviewed Title I design and authorized the initiation of Title H design and specific long-lead procurements, and September 1998, when Title 11 design will be completed.

Kumpan, S

1997-03-01

144

A National Periodicals Center Technical Development Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This technical plan for developing, managing, and operating a national periodicals center (NPC), which was prepared at the request of the Library of Congress, is designed so that it could be used by the Library or any other agency prepared to assume respo...

1978-01-01

145

Description of the National Highway Planning Network  

SciTech Connect

The National Highway Planning Network is a data base of major highways in the continental United States. It is a foundation for analytic studies of highway performance, for vehicle routing and scheduling problems, and for mapping purposes. The network is based on a set of roadways digitized from the National Atlas by the US Geological Survey. It has been enhanced at Oak Ridge National Laboratory by adding additional roads and attribute detail and correcting topological errors to produce a true analytic network. This documentation is intended primarily to assist users of this data base by describing its structure, data elements, and development.

Peterson, B.E.

1990-09-01

146

National Security Technology Incubator Business Plan  

SciTech Connect

This document contains a business plan for the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI), developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP) and performed under a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This business plan describes key features of the NSTI, including the vision and mission, organizational structure and staffing, services, evaluation criteria, marketing strategies, client processes, a budget, incubator evaluation criteria, and a development schedule. The purpose of the NSPP is to promote national security technologies through business incubation, technology demonstration and validation, and workforce development. The NSTI will focus on serving businesses with national security technology applications by nurturing them through critical stages of early development. The vision of the NSTI is to be a successful incubator of technologies and private enterprise that assist the NNSA in meeting new challenges in national safety, security, and protection of the homeland. The NSTI is operated and managed by the Arrowhead Center, responsible for leading the economic development mission of New Mexico State University (NMSU). The Arrowhead Center will recruit business with applications for national security technologies recruited for the NSTI program. The Arrowhead Center and its strategic partners will provide business incubation services, including hands-on mentoring in general business matters, marketing, proposal writing, management, accounting, and finance. Additionally, networking opportunities and technology development assistance will be provided.

None

2007-12-31

147

[Intensifying family planning policy, promoting population control].  

PubMed

Suizhou is a county located in China's western Hubei Province which has 1.3 million inhabitants including 90% living in rural areas. The Family planning (FP) program is not well accepted there. Since 1988, a few measured to promote FP were tried and proved to be effective. These measures include the following. 1) Setting-up a birth control contract system. Couples in child-bearing age sign contracts with their employers or village committees on the practice of birth control and fines in case of violation of birth control regulations. Under the contract, couples who may have a second child according to the FP policy are guaranteed such an opportunity so that they would not rush to have another child for fear of a policy change. Couples with a single child are ensured the special benefits stipulated in the birth control regulations. 2) FP is made a component of the terms of reference of local administrations. Those who fulfill their targets are rewarded, while those who did not are held accountable or penalized. 3) FP workers are evaluated every 6 months on different aspects of program achievements. Both qualitative and quantitative criteria were set for these aspects. Ranking by achievements will be used as the basis for reward or penalty. 4) The emphasis of FP programs became service- oriented. FP, health, and women's affairs workers acted as a team to deliver FP information and contraceptive supplies to people's door steps. At the same time, health check-ups and maternal and child care were also provided. These reforms in FP activities increased acceptability of the program among eligible couples in the country. PMID:12159314

1989-03-01

148

National Security Technology Incubation Strategic Plan  

SciTech Connect

This strategic plan contains information on the vision, mission, business and technology environment, goals, objectives, and incubation process of the National Security Technology Incubation Program (NSTI) at Arrowhead Center. The development of the NSTI is a key goal of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP). Objectives to achieve this goal include developing incubator plans (strategic, business, action, and operations), creating an incubator environment, creating a support and mentor network for companies in the incubator program, attracting security technology businesses to the region, encouraging existing business to expand, initiating business start-ups, evaluating products and processes of the incubator program, and achieving sustainability of the incubator program. With the events of 9/11, the global community faces ever increasing and emerging threats from hostile groups determined to rule by terror. According to the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Strategic Plan, the United States must be able to quickly respond and adapt to unanticipated situations as they relate to protection of our homeland and national security. Technology plays a key role in a strong national security position, and the private business community, along with the national laboratories, academia, defense and homeland security organizations, provide this technology. Fostering innovative ideas, translated into relevant technologies answering the needs of NNSA, is the purpose of the NSTI. Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University is the operator and manager of the NSTI. To develop the NSTI, Arrowhead Center must meet the planning, development, execution, evaluation, and sustainability activities for the program and identify and incubate new technologies to assist the NNSA in meeting its mission and goals. Technology alone does not give a competitive advantage to the country, but the creativity and speed with which it is employed does. For a company to succeed, it must have sustainable competitive advantages in seven key areas: geography, products and businesses, distribution, sales and service culture, efficiency, brand, and most important, people. The four strategic goals of the plan are to: 1. Identify and recruit small businesses with technology applications for national security. 2. Design and implement a national security incubator program that provides incubator services and physical space for the targeted businesses. 3. Provide business assistance and technical leadership to NSTI clients to assist in bringing their products to market. 4. Construct a new multi-tenant facility with dedicated physical space for businesses with technology applications for national security.

None

2007-01-01

149

Family planning in conflict: results of cross-sectional baseline surveys in three African countries  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the serious consequences of conflict for reproductive health, populations affected by conflict and its aftermath face tremendous barriers to accessing reproductive health services, due to insecurity, inadequate numbers of trained personnel and lack of supplies. Family planning is often particularly neglected. Methods In six conflict-affected areas in Sudan, northern Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo, household surveys of married or in-union women of reproductive age were conducted to determine baseline measures of family planning knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding contraception. Health facility assessments were carried out to assess baseline measures of family planning services availability. Data were double-entered into CSPro 3.2 and exported to SAS 9.2, which was used to calculate descriptive statistics. The studies' purposes were to guide program activities and to serve as a baseline against which program accomplishments could be measured. Results Knowledge of modern contraceptive methods was low relative to other sub-Saharan African countries, and use of modern methods was under 4% in four sites; in two sites with prior family planning services it was 12% and 16.2%. From 30% to 40% of women reported they did not want a child within two years, however, and an additional 12% to 35% wanted no additional children, suggesting a clear need for family planning services. The health facilities assessment showed that at most only one-third of the facilities mandated to provide family planning had the necessary staff, equipment and supplies to do so adequately; in some areas, none of the facilities were prepared to offer such services. Conclusions Family planning services are desired by women living in crisis situations when offered in a manner appropriate to their needs, yet services are rarely adequate to meet these needs. Refugee and internally displaced women must be included in national and donors' plans to improve family planning in Africa.

2011-01-01

150

[The family planning program in Rwanda: assessment of ten years (1981-1991) and prospects].  

PubMed

Rwanda's official family planning policy dates back to 1981 and creation of the National Office of Population (ONAPO). Among its other function, ONAPO monitors proper use of family planning methods and studies the integration of family planning services into public health. Pilot family planning programs began in the prefectures of Butare, Kigali, and Ruhengeri and were extended to the other 7 around 1985. The development of family planning services in Rwanda is based on their integration into existing services, especially those devoted to maternal-child health. In 1989, 277 of the 350 health centers of all kinds in Rwanda and 12 secondary posts offered family planning services. The rate of integration was 79.4%. 185 of the 277 health services with family planning services were in the public sector. As of December 1989, the rate of integration in different prefectures varied from a high of 95.5% in Kibungo to a low of 64.9% in Gisenyi. Integration is particularly weak in health facilities administered by the Catholic Church. The 2 strategies to confront this situation are continuing dialogue with Catholic Church officials and creation of secondary family planning posts to improve accessibility to family planning for populations served by Church health services. The number of new and continuing family planning users increased from 1178 and 1368 respectively in 1982 to 66,950 and 104,604 through September 1990. There is wide variation from 1 prefecture to another in recruitment of new acceptors and in the number of acceptors per health facility. Recruitment of new acceptors is greatest in Ruhengeri, followed by Kigali and Byumba. As of September 1990, 28,943 women used pills, 2037 used IUDs, 66,515 used injectables, 3051 used barrier methods, 2888 used auto-observation methods, 343 used implants, and 588 were sterilized. The overall rate of contraceptive prevalence increased from .9% in 1983 to 6.2% in 1989 and 10% in 1990. The strategy for promoting family planning has included training of personnel, improvement of supervision, regular supply of contraceptive equipment and supplies to health supervision, regular supply of contraceptive equipment and supplies to health centers, diversification of available methods, and addition of secondary family planning posts to improve accessibility. Obstacles still affecting Rwanda's family planning program include the pronatalist cultural orientation, which is being confronted by a vigorous IEC program. The reluctance of Catholic-affiliated health services to offer modern family planning methods, the shortage of trained family planning workers, contraceptive supply problems, and geographic inaccessibility of family planning services are other serious problems. To confront these problems, ONAPO plans to begin social marketing program, create more secondary health planning posts, promote integration of family planning services into the vaccination program, strengthen efforts to motivate postpartum women, and undertake a community distribution program for condoms and spermicides. PMID:12283850

Munyakazi, A

1990-12-01

151

78 FR 66617 - National Family Caregivers Month, 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of October 31, 2013 National Family Caregivers Month, 2013 By the...disabilities or illnesses. The role they play in our healthcare...and support. During National Family Caregivers Month, we thank...this law, injured veterans' family caregivers also receive...

2013-11-05

152

Family Functioning and Adolescent Behavior Problems: An Analysis of the National Survey of Families and Households.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used data from the National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH) to explore the relationship between family functioning and adolescent behavior problems. The data covered five family types: married, two-biological parent families (TP); stepfamilies; divorced/separated female-headed families (DSF); never married female-headed…

Brown, Brett V.

153

42 CFR 59.3 - Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant? 59.3 Section 59...AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.3 Who is...

2009-10-01

154

42 CFR 59.3 - Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant? 59.3 Section 59...AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.3 Who is...

2010-10-01

155

On the integration of fighting poverty with family planning work.  

PubMed

New approaches to family planning (FP) are being applied in poor areas of China. Poverty programs are being integrated into FP programs. The current situation reveals that 679 poor counties were helped to increase per capita income. Between 1986 and 1988, per capita income of farmers rose from 245 yuan to 331.1 yuan, or a 14.2% increase. Between 1985-88, the population earning 200 yuan dropped from 64.54 million to 22.565 million, or from 39.5% to 9.9% of the total population. The reason given for poverty is unchecked population growth. Poverty is concentrated in 8 provinces and autonomous regions. This population also has a total fertility rate for married women of childbearing age of 3.0 compared with 2.47 nationally. 7 out of the 8 provinces are known to be ethnic border provinces that are economically and educationally backward. The approach to fighting poverty is to develop production with assistance from the state and society. Difficulties involve a high dependency ratio and the lower accumulation of family wealth. In 32 counties in Sichuan, survey results reveal 15.4% fewer working age persons in poor families, and the dependency ratio in poor families an average of 34.2 higher. A successful integrated program occurred in the mountainous areas of Jinzhai County of Anhui Province. Population had soared from 320,000 in the 1950s to 546,000 in 1978. Children/family varied from 3-5 to 9-10. A policy to require approval of a 2nd birth only after income reaches 300 yuan was implemented. For those practicing FP, economic development is provided. Between 1979-89, the birth rate of Jinzhai County dropped from 17.69/1000 to 12.67/1000, and the natural increase from 11.45/1000 to 7.1/1000. Quality of life had improved such that by 1989 90.1% of poor families had enough food and clothing. The net per capita income was 301 yuan in 1989. The ways in which FP and fighting poverty can be integrated are fourfold. 1) It must be part of the overall strategy of socioeconomic development, with FP in the target management of responsibility system and contract responsibility system. 2) Consistency is required between programs. Family income should be a requirement for additional children and economic support provided for those responding. 3) Measures to prevent additional unplanned births must be provided. 4) Good coordination of departments requires FP officials in poverty programs and vice versa. PMID:12285199

Zhou, H

1991-10-01

156

India's National Action Plan on Climate Change  

PubMed Central

Climate change is one of the most critical global challenges of our times. Recent events have emphatically demonstrated our growing vulnerability to climate change. Climate change impacts will range from affecting agriculture – further endangering food security – to sea-level rise and the accelerated erosion of coastal zones, increasing intensity of natural disasters, species extinction, and the spread of vector-borne diseases. India released its much-awaited National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) to mitigate and adapt to climate change on June 30, 2008, almost a year after it was announced. The NAPCC runs through 2017 and directs ministries to submit detailed implementation plans to the Prime Minister's Council on Climate Change by December 2008. This article briefly reviews the plan and opinion about it from different experts and organizations.

Pandve, Harshal T.

2009-01-01

157

National Conference on Integrated Resource Planning: Proceedings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until recently, state regulators have focused most of their attention on the development of least-cost or integrated resource planning (IRP) processes for electric utilities. A number of commissions are beginning to scrutinize the planning processes of local gas distribution companies (LDCs) because of the increased control that LDCs have over their purchased gas costs (as well as the associated risks) and because of questions surrounding the role and potential of gas end-use efficiency options. Traditionally, resource planning (LDCs) has concentrated on options for purchasing and storing gas. Integrated resource planning involves the creation of a process in which supply-side and demand-side options are integrated to create a resource mix that reliably satisfies customers' short-term and long-term energy service needs at the lowest cost. As applied to gas utilities, an integrated resource plan seeks to balance cost and reliability, and should not be interpreted simply as the search for lowest commodity costs. The National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners' (NARUC) Energy Conservation committee asked Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) to survey state PUCs to determine the extent to which they have undertaken least cost planning for gas utilities. The survey included the following topics: status of state PUC least-cost planning regulations and practices for gas utilities; type and scope of natural gas DSM programs in effect, including fuel substitution; economic tests and analysis methods used to evaluate DSM programs; relationship between prudency reviews of gas utility purchasing practices and integrated resource planning; and key regulatory issues facing gas utilities during the next five years.

158

Gathering the Materials: The Curriculum Guide. Family Futures Planning Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Rhode Island Family Futures Planning Project was funded by the U.S. Administration on Aging (AoA) to develop educational materials to facilitate change in the lives of older caregivers and their relatives with developmental disabilities. Participation...

C. Susa P. G. Clark

1996-01-01

159

Toolkit: A Resource Guide. Family Futures Planning Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Rhode Island Family Futures Planning Project was funded by the U.S. Administration on Aging (AoA) to develop educational materials to facilitate change in the lives of older caregivers and their relatives with developmental disabilities. Participation...

P. G. Clark C. Susa

1996-01-01

160

Metropolitan Cleveland Family Planning Program. January, 1973 through December, 1974.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The activities of the Metropolitan Cleveland Family Planning Program (MCFPP) are described. The relationship of MCFPP components is illustrated in a diagram, and MCFPP clinic sites are shown on a map. The percentage of patients served by MCFPP providers i...

1975-01-01

161

Family Planning Practice Guidelines for HIO Service Providers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Practical guidelines are presented for providing family planning services through polyclinics run by health insurance organizations. Intended for use by clinic medical staff, the report gives instructions on providing the following types of contraceptives...

F. Ali J. Kulmindar K. O'Hanley

1990-01-01

162

Voluntary, human rights-based family planning: a conceptual framework.  

PubMed

At the 2012 Family Planning Summit in London, world leaders committed to providing effective family planning information and services to 120 million additional women and girls by the year 2020. Amid positive response, some expressed concern that the numeric goal could signal a retreat from the human rights-centered approach that underpinned the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. Achieving the FP2020 goal will take concerted and coordinated efforts among diverse stakeholders and a new programmatic approach supported by the public health and human rights communities. This article presents a new conceptual framework designed to serve as a path toward fulfilling the FP2020 goal. This new unifying framework, which incorporates human rights laws and principles within family-planning-program and quality-of-care frameworks, brings what have been parallel lines of thought together in one construct to make human rights issues related to family planning practical. PMID:24615572

Hardee, Karen; Kumar, Jan; Newman, Karen; Bakamjian, Lynn; Harris, Shannon; Rodríguez, Mariela; Brown, Win

2014-03-01

163

Audience Research for Improving Family Planning Communication Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The information-education-communication (IEC) approach to family planning (FP) systematically researches and designs specific mass media messages for targeted subgroups of the population. This manual, part of a 3-part series, describes how to carry out au...

J. T. Bertrand

1980-01-01

164

Perception of and attitudes toward the Nigerian federal population policy, family planning program and family planning in Kaduna State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

This paper discusses the perceptions of the Nigerian population policy, family planning program and family planning using data obtained from a 1995 survey of 600 Atyap women aged 15-49 years, in Nigeria. Additional qualitative data were obtained from married and unmarried women and men, clergymen, government officials, and respected community elders. The predominantly Christian and rural Atyap community generally accepts modern contraception and the need for family size reduction but considers the "four-is-enough" policy to be unacceptable. Religion may be important in determining the success of the federal government to reduce family size to four children by the year 2000. PMID:11000710

Avong, H N

2000-04-01

165

Contraception. Family planning: by whom and for whom?  

PubMed

Many people consider family planning to be the cure for population growth and its consequences (poverty, child mortality, morbidity, depletion of natural resources, and environmental degradation). International organizations support family planning programs and population-political strategies control their operations. Other key players in family planning are the pharmaceutical industry, the churches, and governments. Women tend not be involved in developing population and family planning policies, however, but instead implement the policies. Population planners are generally not interested in family planning methods which give women control over their own bodies, e.g., female-controlled barrier methods. In fact, they distrust them because the planners consider women to be unreliable. Besides, the low effectiveness of these methods means women need to rely on abortion, which is a problem in many developing countries, e.g., Latin America. Further, family planning programs must meet predetermined goals, so their service is lacking, e.g., limited supply of contraceptives and not enough time to provide information to clients. Family planning revolves around women. For example, they encourage them to talk their partners into approving the women's use of contraception, but this is almost always difficult for women in developing countries. Provision of family planning cannot be successful without society accepting and treating women as full citizens. In addition, society needs to realize that women have a sexuality separate from men. Political will is needed for these changes in attitude. The international women's movement does not agree on the degree which women can control contraceptives themselves. Women's groups are working to improve the position and independence of women and contraception is just 1 factor which can help them achieve this goal. The Women's Sexuality and Health Feminist Collective in Sao Paulo, Brazil, is an example of a coalition of women's health groups. PMID:12285430

Stemerding, B

1992-01-01

166

Farmers knew prosperity lies in family planning: Prof. Gao Yuanxiang.  

PubMed

This brief article summarizes a speech given by the Director of Population Studies in Hebei, China, on family planning and sustainable development. Concurrent with the implementation of the family planning policy over the past 20 years was the implementation of development policies in rural areas. Agricultural policy shifted from support of the commune system to a land-leasing system. The land-leasing system is an improvement that inspires farmers to become wealthy and modernized. The new rural administration encourages modernization that releases manpower, and thus, frees farmers to concentrate on improving production and farming techniques rather than on increasing reproduction. Farmers decide on working time allocation and investment. Surplus agricultural laborers are migrating to cities in search of better work opportunities. Legal measures are needed to help migrants adapt to development. Urban living requires a one-child policy, while a two-child policy is acceptable in poor and mountainous rural areas. "The education of family planning must be mandatory." Under the new policies, people must become committed to family planning. Farmers are beginning to discover the benefits of family planning. Farmer's enlightenment occurred as a result of the family planning and poverty alleviation efforts during the late 1980s and 1990s. Farmers appreciate the government assistance and now believe that family planning benefits individuals and enhances their honor and responsibility. The benefits of the policy will continue into the future. "Sustainable population development is an important part of economic development." China is entering the new century with a new type of demographic structure, a new cultural system of family planning, and practical efforts. PMID:12292780

1997-09-01

167

Integrating reproductive health services into family planning programs.  

PubMed

A recent Population Council publication, Reproductive Health Approach to Family Planning, discusses integration of reproductive health into family planning programs in a series of edited presentations that Council staff and colleagues gave at a 1994 meeting of the US Agency for International Development (USAID) cooperating agencies. The presentations reflect the Council's view that family planning programs ought to help individuals achieve their own reproductive goals in a healthful manner. The report discusses four areas of reproductive health: reproductive tract infections (RTIs), including sexually transmitted diseases; prevention and treatment of unsafe abortion; pregnancy, labor, and delivery care; and postpartum care. Christopher Elias (Senior Associate, Programs Division) argued that family planning programs ought to provide services that target RTIs, given that these illnesses afflict a significant proportion of reproductive-age women. The family planning community has an ethical responsibility to provide services to women who experience an unwanted pregnancy. They must have access to high-quality postabortion care, including family planning services. Professional midwives are ideally suited to serve as integrated reproductive health workers trained to combat the five major maternal killers: hemorrhage, sepsis, pregnancy-induced hypertension, obstructed labor, and unsafe abortion. This was demonstrated in a highly successful Life-Saving Skills for Midwives program undertaken in Ghana, Nigeria, and Uganda, and soon to start in Vietnam in conjunction with the Council's Safe Motherhood research program. Family planning services should be viewed as part of a comprehensive set of health services needed by postpartum women, which include appropriate contraception, maternal health checks, well-baby care, and information about breastfeeding, infant care, and nutrition. Family planning programs should incorporate breastfeeding counseling into their services. When programs aim to help individuals meet their own reproductive goals in a healthful manner, this implies that services will not increase clients' risk of morbidity. PMID:12319546

1995-06-01

168

National Ignition Facility project acquisition plan revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this National Ignition Facility Acquisition Plan is to describe the overall procurement strategy planned for the National Ignition Facility M Project. It was prepared for the NIP Prood Office by the NIF Procurement Manager.

Clobes, A.R.

1996-10-01

169

National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan Review  

MedlinePLUS

The National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan, more commonly called the National Contingency Plan or NCP, is the federal government's blueprint for responding to both oil spills ...

170

Family Futures Planning. Final Project Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The FFPP was developed to design and pilot-test an innovative model program to bring together the aging and developmental disabilities service systems in support of families with elderly parents and adult sons or daughter with developmental disabilities. ...

C. Susa

1996-01-01

171

A second look at natural family planning.  

PubMed

There is renewed interest in natural family planning (NFP) as the Philippine Population Program enters the 1980s. Much of this interest is due to the realization that, properly practiced, NFP can be a highly effective means of birth spacing. In 1978 the Special Committee to Review the Philippine Population Program recommended that more efforts be made to promote NFP. The different methods of NFP are reviewed. Sex without intercourse, coitus interruptus, and prolonged nursing are not officially recognized as NFP methods by the Program. The rhythm method was first described independently by Drs. Hermann Knaus of Austria and Kyusaku Ogino of Japan in the 1930s. Ogino's method of calculating a woman's fertile period is based on the lengths of the last 12 menstrual cycles which she recorded on a calendar. The advantages of rhythm are that it is inexpensive, it requires only the cost of charts which may be homemade, there are no physical side effects, control is in the woman's hands, and it is acceptable to people who consider it their duty to follow religious teachings. Disadvantages include: keeping constant, accurate records of cycles for long periods of time; the need for perseverance and correct interpretation of the chart; the possible need for medical advice and help; and the fear that something might upset a woman's cycle and change the time of ovulation. The continuation rates of rhythm acceptors in the Philippines are unimpressive. A study of 142 women revealed a high pregnancy/failure rate--25% for a 12-month period compared to 0 with oral contraception (OC) and the IUD's 2%. The basal body temperature method helps determine the unsafe period with some accuracy. Its premise is that there are slight but detectable changes in a woman's body temperature during her cycle. These changes herald ovulation. A special thermometer must record temperature changes of 0.1 degree Farenheit. This instrument and the charts are the only expenses involved. The reviewers of the Philippine Population Program noted that since the end of the unsafe period can be indicated only by the temperature, the total period of abstinence becomes long, although the basal body temperature method gives more or less 10 successive days for intercourse. The cervical mucus method, also known as the Billings method, takes into account the cervical secretions during the menstrual cycle. Appearance of this mucus is an indication of fertility. All that is required of a practitioner is to learn to distinguish the different sensations of wetness and dryness. The disadvantage is that the method becomes ineffective in areas where there is cervicitis or infection of the cervix. The symptom thermal method is the basal body temperature method combined with other NFP techniques and is widely used. With this method an accurate record of the 6 immediately preceding menstrual cycles is established. The start of the fertile period is set by substracting 20 days plus 1. The woman watches for symptoms like pelvic heaviness, breast softness, and mucus discharge. PMID:12265791

Lolarga, E

1983-01-01

172

Current Literature in Family Planning, November 1972, No. 51.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Abstracts of current publications in the fields of population and family planning are contained in this monthly acquisitions list of the Katherine Dexter McCormick Library, Planned Parenthood, New York. Organized in two parts, Part 1 contains an annotated list of the books most recently acquired by the Library, marked with its Library call number,…

Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.

173

National Ignition Facility Configuration Management Plan  

SciTech Connect

This Configuration Management Plan (CMP) describes the technical and administrative management process for controlling the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Project configuration. The complexity of the NIF Project (i.e., participation by multiple national laboratories and subcontractors involved in the development, fabrication, installation, and testing of NIF hardware and software, as well as construction and testing of Project facilities) requires implementation of the comprehensive configuration management program defined in this plan. A logical schematic illustrating how the plan functions is provided in Figure 1. A summary of the process is provided in Section 4.0, Configuration Change Control. Detailed procedures that make up the overall process are referenced. This CMP is consistent with guidance for managing a project's configuration provided in Department of Energy (DOE) Order 430.1, Guide PMG 10, ''Project Execution and Engineering Management Planning''. Configuration management is a formal discipline comprised of the following four elements: (1) Identification--defines the functional and physical characteristics of a Project and uniquely identifies the defining requirements. This includes selection of components of the end product(s) subject to control and selection of the documents that define the project and components. (2) Change management--provides a systematic method for managing changes to the project and its physical and functional configuration to ensure that all changes are properly identified, assessed, reviewed, approved, implemented, tested, and documented. (3) Data management--ensures that necessary information on the project and its end product(s) is systematically recorded and disseminated for decision-making and other uses. Identifies, stores and controls, tracks status, retrieves, and distributes documents. (4) Assessments and validation--ensures that the planned configuration requirements match actual physical configurations and approved changes are implemented according to the change requirements documents.

Cabral, S G; Moore, T L

2002-10-01

174

Quinault Indian Nation Renewable Energy Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Quinault Indian Nation (Nation) initiated this study on conservation and production of renewable energy because this approach created the opportunity: • To become self-sufficient and gain greater control over the energy the Nation uses; • To generate jobs and businesses for its members; • To better manage, sustain, and protect its resources; • To express the cultural values of the Nation in an important new arena. The Nation has relatively small energy needs. These needs are concentrated at two separate points: the Quinault Beach Resort and Casino (QBRC) and Taholah on the Quinault Indian Reservation (QIR). Except for the town of Queets, energy needs are small and scattered. The needs vary greatly over the season. The small scale, widely dispersed, and variable nature of these needs presents a unique challenge to the Nation. Meeting these needs requires a resource and technology that is flexible, effective, and portable. Conservation is the most cost-effective way to meet any need. It is especially effective in a situation like this where production would leave a high per unit cost. This plan is based on first gaining energy savings through conservation. Major savings are possible through: 1. Upgrading home appliances on the QIR. 2. Weatherizing homes and facilities. 3. Changes in lighting/ventilation in the QBRC pool room. These elements of the plan are already being implemented and promise to save the Nation around a quarter of its present costs. Wood biomass is the best resource available to the QIN for energy production either on-site or for commercial development. It is abundant, flexible and portable. Its harvesting has high job potential and these jobs are a good fit for the present “skill set” of the QIN. This plan focuses on using wood biomass to produce energy and other value-added products. Our study considered various technologies and approaches to using wood for energy. We considered production for both on-site and commercial production. This plan calls for commercial-scale production only, with the QIN being the first “customer” for the product. This plan favors employing the pyrolysis technology to produce bio-oil, heat, and char. We favor this approach and technology because it is the most cost effective way to use the available resource. Its main product, bio-oil, has proven utility for the production of heat and electricity. It has promise for use as an alternative fuel, which is a much higher value than present uses of wood and it meets the QIN need for flexibility, scalability, and portability. Char, the secondary product from the pyrolysis process, has proven value-added uses. In addition to these direct benefits, the use of biomass in pyrolysis technology has significant indirect benefits. These benefits include the fact that the technology is a good fit with the Nation’s cultural values, i.e., environmental protection and the holistic use of a resource. It fits well with current QIN enterprises. For example, char could be processed into a charcoal co-product for QIN fish. Finally, the QIN can become a leader in developing and demonstrating this innovative approach to the use of wood. This plan proposes key organization steps to insure both excellent implementation of the plan and taking the best advantage of the processes and facilities put in place. This plan calls for two new QIN organizations: an energy production/distribution corporation and a community development corporation. The production/distribution corporation can be either a utility or a business enterprise that develops and markets renewable energy. The community development corporation can be a not-for-profit to support the QIN in taking best advantage of its energy opportunities. The production and distribution corporation is the subject of a further business planning effort now underway. This plan envisions a community development corporation that works directly with the Business Committee on research, education, and project development. Specifically, this corporation can seek grant funding to research energy m

Don Hopps, Institute for Washington's Future; Jesse Nelson, Institute for Washington's Future

2006-11-28

175

Oregon Improperly Claims Federal Reimbursement for Medicaid Family Planning Services Provided Under the Family Planning Expansion Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pursuant to section 1905(a)(4)(C) of the Act, States are required to furnish family planning services and supplies to individuals of childbearing age who are eligible under the State plan and desire such services and supplies. Section 1903(a)(5) of the Ac...

2012-01-01

176

Integration of family planning programmes with health services.  

PubMed

Most African countries consider family planning as a necessary policy instrument for the improvement of maternal and child health conditions. 68% of governments have set as a development objective the reduction of mortality, particularly the reduction of maternal and infant mortality. Additionally, 34% of these African governments have adopted an integrated approach of family planning programs with health services. Various reasons can justify the adoption of an integrated approach to the provision of family planning and maternal and child health services. From a political perspective, the integration approach is based on the political sensitivity and increasing the willingness of political authorities and motivating them to accept family planning as an instrument in the battle against maternal and infant mortality. From the organizational point of view, integration allows the establishment of a system of administration common to both programs of family planning and health, and consequently to develop the infrastructure in equipment and personnel that is necessary for the functioning of these programs. Births occurring to women in the 20-30 year age group are associated with low maternal mortality. Birth intervals of more than 1 year and preferably 2 years and more are associated with a low rate of maternal and infant mortality, prenatal mortality, and a low rate of prematurity. The high rate of abortion constitutes a danger against maternal health. A program of family planning integrated with health services will diminish the number of abortions. For integration to respond to its objectives, certain conditions should be met: the establishment of administrative services that allow the integrated functioning of family planning with maternal and infant health services; complete coverage in health services to pregnant women and women who just delivered; and the establishment and proper functioning of population education programs for pregnant and postpartum women and for young women and couples. PMID:12265378

1983-01-01

177

Is the Asian family planning program model suited to Africa?  

PubMed

This paper examines four Asian countries where fertility declines between the early 1960s and early 1980s ranged from 29 to 57 percent and contrasts their situations with seven African countries where fertility either remained constant or rose. It is shown that the difference is not explained by the African countries being at an earlier stage of socioeconomic development nor by the failure to provide family planning programs. The explanation is a lack of African demand for limiting family size, the result of family structures and economies quite different from Asia, and of essentially religious attitudes toward fertility that have an impact both on family economics and the acceptability of various forms of fertility control. These attitudes, together with the nature of the African state, mean that governments could not implement the forceful family planning policies that have at times characterized the programs of China, India, and Indonesia. PMID:3284023

Caldwell, J C; Caldwell, P

1988-01-01

178

Publicity and education on family planning information in Keshan County.  

PubMed

In 1984 the Keshan (Northeast China) County Government and the Family Planning Committee initiated an education campaign to disseminate family planning information to farmers. The team of propagandists consisted primarily of full-time family planning workers. Village cadres, school teachers, and rural physicians, who are properly educated and positive about family planning work, enjoy high prestige among the workers. They were invited to be team members after training and are supported by the villagers because they come from among the local people. All the childbearing women aged 15-49 in each village were classified by the propagandist into 5 groups according to their marital and childbearing status, i.e., women at the age of puberty, women of new marriage, pregnant and lying-in women, women with children to be reared, and middle-age and old women. The women were organized into groups to attend lectures on different subjects such as population policy, relationship between population growth and socioeconomic development on the 1 hand and individuals and environment on the other. Also included were physiology, the health birth and rearing of children, and health care for women and the aged. The publicity effort included broadcasting, films, video aids, and slide shows. Increased classs were during the slack seasons, and lectures were given once a week. By 1986, about 80% of the population at childbearing age in Keshan County had attended the family planning lectures. PMID:12341211

1986-12-01

179

[The pharmacist should play an active role in family planning].  

PubMed

Although pharmacies now dispense primarily modern products originating in large multinational corporations, the community pharmacist has not been replaced by any ultramodern technological advance. Many thousand persons acquire family planning products in pharmacies. The pharmacist works many hours a day, is always available, and provides free advice to his clients. Pharmacists are consulted daily on numerous topics, especially on family planning. Many prsons in rural areas are without the services of a physician and rely on pharmacists all the more. Pharmacists could orient the public on family planning in general, help in choosing the most appropriate of available methods, and refer patients to physicians in case of problems. Participants at the recent International Conference on the Role of Retail Pharmacists in Family Planning, held in Alexandria, Egypt, concluded that pharmacists should cooperate with physicians and other health professionals to provide family planning services and should participate in elaboration of laws regulating the manufacture, storage, prices, and distribution of contraceptives. The prices of contraceptive supplies to the consumer could be reduced if taxes and import duties were removed, if supplies were produced locally, or if supplies were subsidized by some donor organization. PMID:12178199

Portes, M

1983-01-01

180

The National Federation of Families for Children's Mental Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article outlines the mission and vision of the National Federation of Families for Children's Mental Health and its history and accomplishments in the family movement. It gives examples of how the National Federation is leading the way for positive, collaborative, and engaging training; as well as research and advocacy. Five core principles…

Brown, Corey

2011-01-01

181

Third Asian and Pacific Conference perspectives on family planning, population, and development.  

PubMed

Differences between the Report of the UN World Population Conference and the Report of the Third Asian and Pacific Population Conference were discussed in reference to 1) the relative importance placed on family planning and development in lowering fertility levels, 2) the degree to which family planning and development programs should be integrated, and 3) setting family planning targets. The UN conference was held in Bucharest, Hungary, in 1974 and the Asian and Pacific Conference was held in Colomb, Sri Lanka in 1982. The relative importance of family planning and development on fertility was a major issue at the Bucharest conference. The World Population Plan for Action (WPPA) formulated at the Bucharest conference did not recommend family planning as a strategy for reducing fertility; instead, the WPPA recommended that countries interested in reducing fertility should give priority to development programs and urged developed countries to promote international equity in the use of world resources. In contrast, the Asia-Pacific Call for Action on Population and Development as formulated at the Colomb conference, strongly recommended both development and family planning programs as a means to reduce fertility. It urged governments to adopt strong family planning policies, to make family planning services available on a regular basis, and to educate and motivate their populations toward family planning. In regard to integration strategies, the WPPA called for integrating family planning programs and development programs wherever possible, and particularly recommended integrated delivery of family planning and health services. The Asia-Pacific Call for Action supported an integrated approach, but only in those situations where it was proven to be a workable approach, i.e., where it improved the efficiency of family planning services. Combining family planning and maternal and child health programs is known to be an advantageous approach, but the consequences of integrating family planning with other health programs and with development programs needs further study. The WPPA recommended that governments set targets for life expectancy and infant mortality, but it did not mention setting fertility targets or establishing an ideal family size. It did urge governments to create the type of socioeconomic conditions which would permit couples to have the number of children they desired and to space them in the manner they wished. The WPPA noted that substantial national effort would be required to reduce the birthrate to the UN projected rate of 30/1000 population in developing regions by 1985. The Asia-Pacific Call for Action urged countries to set specific targets which would make it possible for them to attain replacement level fertility in the year 2000. It will be interesting to observe the degree to which the Asian and Pacific countries will be able to influence the participants at the upcoming International Conference on Population to their way of thinking on these critical issues. A copy of the Asia-Pacific Call for Action on Population and Development is included in an annex to the article. PMID:12313216

1984-01-01

182

Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Waste Management Program is the protection of workers, the public, and the environment. A vital aspect of this goal is to comply with all applicable state, federal, and DOE requirements. Waste management requirements for DOE radioactive wastes are detailed in DOE Order 5820.2A, and the ORNL Waste Management Program encompasses all elements of this order. The requirements of this DOE order and other appropriate DOE orders, along with applicable Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) rules and regulations, provide the principal source of regulatory guidance for waste management operations at ORNL. The objective of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan is to compile and to consolidate information annually on how the ORNL Waste Management is to compile and to consolidate information annually on how the ORNL Waste Management Program is conducted, which waste management facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, what activities are planned for the forthcoming fiscal year (FY), and how all of the activities are documented.

Not Available

1991-12-01

183

A family planning program that pays for itself.  

PubMed

In Japan, the condom is the method of choice of 82% of all contraceptive users. The Japan Family Planning Association covers about 3% of the total condom market through a well-organized social marketing scheme. Mobile guidance teams, equipped with a vehicle, supply contraceptives to health centers, independent midwives, and maternity hospitals in 17 prefectures and collect payment for condoms distributed after their previous visit. As an incentive, organizations and health institutions receive a commission for the condoms they supply. Japan's largest condom manufacturer provides supplies to the Family Planning Association at a very low price. The contraceptive social marketing program pays for its own promotion, and the Family Planning Association is able to support its other activities from the income it earns. The program was designed to complement rather than compete with commercial marketing channels such as pharmacies, which supply 60% of the 660 million condoms purchased in Japan each year. PMID:12341264

1987-07-01

184

Empowerment and family planning in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

A 1992 survey of 1500 women (1300 married and under age 50 years) was conducted in Bangladesh. Women who participated in 1 of 2 nongovernmental programs which provide small business loans for women (the Grameen Bank and the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee) were compared with women who were not members but lived in villages served by the programs and with women who were eligible but lived in villages where the loans were not available. It was found that Grameen Bank membership had a significant positive effect on the use of contraceptives and on the rate in which the level of contraceptive use increased. The greater economic independence enjoyed by the Grameen Bank members is a factor in the increased contraceptive usage as is the promotion by the Bank of a small family norm. Empowerment indicators for women in Bangladesh include mobility, economic security, the ability to make purchases, freedom from domination and violence within the family, political and legal awareness, and participation in political activities. Women are able to achieve their fertility goals by participating in programs that decrease their social isolation and their economic dependence on men. PMID:12345647

Schuler, S R

1994-08-01

185

Exporting abortion politics: the battle over international family planning assistance.  

PubMed

Congressional legislation seeking to overturn US government restrictions on international family planning assistance face a possible presidential veto. Dating back to the Reagan years, the 1984 Mexico City Policy prohibits foreign nongovernmental organizations (NGO) receiving US money from performing or actively promoting abortion as a family planning method. Even if abortion is legal in that particular country, the agency involved may not even discuss abortion as one of the medical options of a pregnant woman. In line with the Mexico City Policy, the US has withdrawn funding from both the International Planned Parenthood Federation, the largest NGO in the population field, and the Family Planning International Assistance, the international division of the Planned Parenthood federation of America. One of the effects of the Mexico City Policy has been to make family planning more controversial, and to increase opposition to birth control. In addition to the Mexico City Policy, the Reagan years also saw the implementation of a policy that denies funding to the UNFPA, charged by the US of "co-managing" China's population program that engages in coercive abortion and involuntary sterilization. The UNFPA has denied such charges. So far, President George Bush -- previously a supporter of family planning programs -- has sided with opponents of abortion, and has threatened a veto threat may soon be tested, since Congress has drafted a foreign aid appropriations bill that has includes a measure saying that NGOs should be treated in the same manner as their governments, which are exempt from the Mexico City Policy so long as US funds are not used to support abortions. PMID:12178849

Lasher, C

1991-01-01

186

Factors determining family planning in Catalonia. Sources of inequity  

PubMed Central

Introduction In recent decades, the foreign population in Spain has increased significantly, particularly for Catalonia, an autonomous region of Spain (2.90% in 2000 and 15.95% in 2010) and in particular Girona province (6.18% in 2000 and 21.55% in 2010). Several studies have shown a lower use of family planning methods by immigrants. This same trend is observed in Spain. The objective of this paper is to determine the existence of differences and possible sources of inequity in the use of family planning methods among health service users in Catalonia (Spain) by sex, health status, place of birth and socioeconomic conditions. Methods Data were taken from an ad-hoc questionnaire which was compiled following a qualitative stage of individual interviews. Said questionnaire was administered to 1094 Catalan public health service users during 2007. A complete descriptive analysis was carried out for variables related to public health service users’ sociodemographic characteristics and variables indicating knowledge and use of family planning methods, and bivariate relationships were analysed by means of chi-square contrasts. Considering the use (or non-use) of family planning methods as a dependent variable and a set of demographic, socioeconomic and health status variables as explanatory factors, the relationship was modelled using mixed models. Results The analysed sample is comprised of 54.3% women and 45.7% men, with 74.3% natives (or from the EU) and 25.7% economic immigrants. 54.8% use some method of family planning, the condom (46.7%) and the pill (28.0%) being the two most frequently used methods. Statistical modelling indicates that those factors which most influence the use of family planning methods are level of education (30.59% and 39.29% more likelihood) and having children over 14 (35.35% more likelihood). With regard to the origin of the user, we observe that patients from North Africa,sub. Saharan Africa and Asia are less likely to use family planning methods (36.68%, 38.59% and 70.51%, respectively). Conclusions The use of family planning methods is positively related to a higher level of education and having children over 14. Factors such as sex, age, income and self-perceived health do not appear to influence their use. Furthermore, being a native of this country, the European Union or Central/South America represents a greater likelihood of use than being African or Asian. Although no general differences in use were found between sexes, the difference found in the case of Asian women stands out, with a higher likelihood of use.

2012-01-01

187

Family planning for the home, working wives and mothers.  

PubMed

The Indian family planning program is discussed in relation to the home, working wives, and mothers. The major objectives of the program are to learn the reasons for the rapid growth of population, to discover suitable contraceptive techniques, advise, and reduce the birthrate to a level consonant with India's economic well being. Efforts to reach the home are made more difficult by geographic remoteness of some regions, sociological barriers, and the experience of infant mortality. Emphasis must be put on the fact that the fewer the children, the more hopeful the outlook for health and economic security. The trend today is for the middle classes to have fewer children than members of the lower classes. This situation should be reversed if India is to prosper. The hazzards to health of repeated childbirth are especially great to the working wife. Every large-scale industry should begin family planning clinics. By limiting family size, working wives can increase productivity and raise healthier and happier children; middle class wives will be able to respond to their desire to serve their country. Attitudes of working wives toward family planning is increasingly favorable. The most common deterrent to family planning use is fear of losing their children through death. Members of some communities also feel the need to increase the population of their community. PMID:12306150

Gupta, P S

1972-10-01

188

78 FR 67418 - National Plan for Civil Earth Observations; Request for Information  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TECHNOLOGY POLICY National Plan for Civil Earth Observations; Request for Information...development of a National Plan for Civil Earth Observations (``National Plan...Please include ``National Plan for Civil Earth Observations'' in the subject line...

2013-11-12

189

Idaho National Laboratory Cultural Resource Management Plan  

SciTech Connect

As a federal agency, the U.S. Department of Energy has been directed by Congress, the U.S. president, and the American public to provide leadership in the preservation of prehistoric, historic, and other cultural resources on the lands it administers. This mandate to preserve cultural resources in a spirit of stewardship for the future is outlined in various federal preservation laws, regulations, and guidelines such as the National Historic Preservation Act, the Archaeological Resources Protection Act, and the National Environmental Policy Act. The purpose of this Cultural Resource Management Plan is to describe how the Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office will meet these responsibilities at Idaho National Laboratory in southeastern Idaho. The Idaho National Laboratory is home to a wide variety of important cultural resources representing at least 13,500 years of human occupation in the southeastern Idaho area. These resources are nonrenewable, bear valuable physical and intangible legacies, and yield important information about the past, present, and perhaps the future. There are special challenges associated with balancing the preservation of these sites with the management and ongoing operation of an active scientific laboratory. The Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office is committed to a cultural resource management program that accepts these challenges in a manner reflecting both the spirit and intent of the legislative mandates. This document is designed for multiple uses and is intended to be flexible and responsive to future changes in law or mission. Document flexibility and responsiveness will be assured through regular reviews and as-needed updates. Document content includes summaries of Laboratory cultural resource philosophy and overall Department of Energy policy; brief contextual overviews of Laboratory missions, environment, and cultural history; and an overview of cultural resource management practices. A series of appendices provides important details that support the main text.

Julie Braun Williams

2013-02-01

190

Families First: Report of the National Commission on America's Urban Families.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document is the final report of the National Commission on America's Urban Families. The Commission found that many of the most pressing problems of our cities, and of our nation, are substantially attributable to the dissolution of the family. The Co...

1993-01-01

191

5. Photocopy of original plans (from National Archives, Cartographic Division, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Photocopy of original plans (from National Archives, Cartographic Division, Record Group 77, Misc. Forts File, Benicia Barracks) Delineator unknown. Note dated September 27, 1854 PLAN AND ELEVATIONS - Benicia Arsenal, Hospital, Benicia, Solano County, CA

192

6. Photocopy of original plans (from National Archives, Cartographic Division, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Photocopy of original plans (from National Archives, Cartographic Division, Record Group 156) Delineator unknown. Commanding Officer's signature dated May 22, 1871 PLAN, ELEVATION, AND SECTION - Benicia Arsenal, Guard & Engine House, Benicia, Solano County, CA

193

Big Branch Marsh National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Fish and Wildlife Service has prepared this Comprehensive Conservation Plan to guide the management of Big Branch Marsh National Wildlife Refuge in St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana. The plan outlines programs and corresponding resource needs for the next...

2007-01-01

194

Economic aspects of Singapore's selective family planning policy.  

PubMed

In the mid 1980s Singapore instituted a selective family planning policy which encouraged poorly educated women to prevent pregnancy while university graduates were discouraged from using family planning. The intent of this policy was to restructure the population and the economy into a more skill-intensive industrial society and to produce effective leaders for the future governing of the country. Monetary incentives were offered to both groups of women for their compliance with the policy, including grants to poor women agreeing to undergo steriliaztion. This study undertakes a cost benefit analysis of this family planning policy, taking into account parameters of economic growth, marginal value product of labor, and the consumption levels. Results of this analysis suggest that society may benefit more by prevention the birth of a potential university student than by preventing the birth of a potential primary school graduate. However, this study does not take into account the value of educated citizens in technical advancement which would raise the productivity of the uskilled workers in the country, nor some of the real economic conditions in Singapore such as the virtually unlimited availability of labor from other Asian countries (who come without dependents and are expatriated when they become unproductive). Training cost and the timing of benefits are critical to the outcome of this analysis. It is shown that, under some reasonable conditions, the selective family planning policy might not be economically warranted. PMID:12268639

Evans, D B

1987-08-01

195

Parent and Family Attitudes toward Long-Term Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some of the problems facing parents of handicapped children are considered, and the importance of families planning for the future of their children with chronic disabilities is stressed. In addition to the problems encountered by parents who raise non-handicapped children, parents of a handicapped child must cope with community rejection,…

Tyler, J. Larry; And Others

196

Literacy and Family Planning Education in Rural Ghana.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes the need for education on fertility in rural Ghana. Notes the success of the adult literacy group approach which provides family planning information and increases literacy. Discusses the significance and activities of the literacy facilitator (usually a woman) within this system who works with groups and individuals as a member of the…

Fiagbey, Emmanuel D. K.

1998-01-01

197

34 CFR 303.114 - Individualized family service plan (IFSP).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES State Eligibility for a Grant and Requirements...plan (IFSP). Each system must ensure, for each infant or toddler with a disability and his or her family in the State,...

2013-07-01

198

Family Planning and the Burden of Unintended Pregnancies  

PubMed Central

Family planning is hailed as one of the great public health achievements of the last century, and worldwide acceptance has risen to three-fifths of exposed couples. In many countries, however, uptake of modern contraception is constrained by limited access and weak service delivery, and the burden of unintended pregnancy is still large. This review focuses on family planning's efficacy in preventing unintended pregnancies and their health burden. The authors first describe an epidemiologic framework for reproductive behavior and pregnancy intendedness and use it to guide the review of 21 recent, individual-level studies of pregnancy intentions, health outcomes, and contraception. They then review population-level studies of family planning's relation to reproductive, maternal, and newborn health benefits. Family planning is documented to prevent mother-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, contribute to birth spacing, lower infant mortality risk, and reduce the number of abortions, especially unsafe ones. It is also shown to significantly lower maternal mortality and maternal morbidity associated with unintended pregnancy. Still, a new generation of research is needed to investigate the modest correlation between unintended pregnancy and contraceptive use rates to derive the full health benefits of a proven and cost-effective reproductive technology.

Tsui, Amy O.; McDonald-Mosley, Raegan; Burke, Anne E.

2010-01-01

199

Training x Trainee Interactions in a Family Planning Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of introducing a family planning counseling model at clinics of Peru's Ministry of Health. Providers trained in the model presented greater quality of care and longer counseling sessions than did controls. The main effects, however, were misleading. Nearly all of the quality improvements were contributed by 37%…

Leon, Federico, R.; Rios, Alex; Zumaran, Adriana

2005-01-01

200

Effective ways to communicate family planning: cases and strategies.  

PubMed

Results of 2 workshops on the improvement of communication and motivational skills of outreach workers using research results and field experiences are presented. General strategies, illustrative cases, and specific IEC strategies geared to the solution of common problems are suggested. General strategies for identifying opportunities for introduction of population and family planning in the community include use of felt needs and problems of the community as vehicles for introduction, coordination with other agencies operating in the community, winning the support of influential and accepted leaders in the community, and establishing credibility with the people before launching population projects. Strategies for breaking through traditional values and beliefs include emphasizing aspects of the population program that do not run counter to religious beliefs, using messages which emphasize qualities highly valued by the people, being careful to respect persons the community looks up to regardless of their opposition, considering the cultural background and preparation of the audience before introducing sensitive subjects, and appealing to people's needs and interests to elicit participation. Rumors and misconceptions on family planning may be counteracted by directing motivational and informational efforts at persons likely to influence potential acceptors as well as the potential acceptors themselves, avoiding antagonizing religious leaders who preach against family planning, presenting only accurate family planning information, and establishing the source of rumors about side effects. Complaints about side effects should be attended promptly, clear and specific instructions on method use should be given, and the worker should present herself as a satisfied user. PMID:12233386

Alberto, C S; Villanueva, C L

1979-01-01

201

Studies in Family Planning, Volume 2 Number 11.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the findings of a study of K. C. Chan, Research Officer of the Family Planning Association of Hong Kong, whose purpose was to determine whether IUD retention rates could be increased by home visits to acceptors. Concern with this problem has mounted in many countries where the IUD is the main contraceptive method offered and…

Population Council, New York, NY.

202

Fertility and family planning in southern and central Africa.  

PubMed

Southern Africa comprises a zone where the total fertility rate is below 6 births per woman. To the north is a ring of countries with higher fertility and relatively low contraceptive prevalence rates. The experience of South Africa, Botswana, and Zimbabwe, which have successful family planning programs, is compared with that of neighboring countries. PMID:1523695

Lucas, D

1992-01-01

203

Family Planning Research in a Developing Area: A Different Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors discuss the difficulties in adapting American methods of field work to the cultural conditions in pre-industrial societies, in this case a pilot study on family planning in a Middle Eastern Moslem country. It is demonstrated that if the researcher is native and has kinship ties in a traditional community, he can use these assets: (1)…

Fathi, Asghar; Watson, Walter B.

204

Current Publications in Population/Family Planning. Number 15.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This generously annotated bibliography of books, reports, and journal articles is divided into the following subject areas: 1) Demography and Social Science; 2) Human Reproduction and Fertility Control; 3) Family Planning Programs; 4) Population Policy; and, 5) General. Throughout these areas are works on demography and population control in…

Population Council, New York, NY.

205

Personal and Family Financial Planning and the Teacher Education Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which personal and family financial planning (PFFP) is taught and/or included in the teacher education programs of institutions affiliated with the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education. Information was sought on the reasons for offering PFFP, where it was located in the…

Murphy, Patricia D.

206

[Chen Muhua, Bo Yibo speak at family planning meeting].  

PubMed

Chen Muhua, the Chinese vice premier in charge of family planning spoke at a forum on the family, marriage, and family planning held in Beijing. She made the point that an attempt will be made to realize the goal of a 1 child family on the part of 95% of the married couples in the cities and 90% of the married couples in the countryside. Chen Muhua pointed out that the population growth rate should be in scale with economic developments, and she called for wide scale propaganda regarding the importance of birth control. The vice premier went on to say that late marriage and late birth should be advocated and that attention should be paid to the well being of women, children, and the aged. More than 200 delegates from Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei Provinces and from the People's Liberation Army attended the forum. 10 representatives spoke of their experience in promoting family planning. Vice Premiers Wang Zhen and Bo Yibo also spoke and noted that birth control was of considerable importance in improving the material and spiritual life of China's future generations. PMID:12338054

1980-02-01

207

[The impact of family planning on reproductive health].  

PubMed

Until relatively recently, sheer survival has been a more pressing concern of most human populations than has control of population growth through contraception. Today family planning with its varied technologies has become an accepted behavior of the majority of fertile couples. Colombia has achieved a satisfactory contraceptive prevalence rate largely due to private institutions. The decline from 6.5 to 3.5 children per woman that required 58 years in the US (1842-1900) required just 15 years in Colombia, according to UN data. Other UN publications demonstrate that family planning prevalence is strongly correlated with quality of life as measured by income, life expectancy, and education, with family planning and quality of life tending to improve simultaneously and coherently. Reproductive health might more appropriately be considered sexual health, since most couples wish to continue sexual relations without fear of unwanted pregnancy. Reproductive health defined as referring to fertile-aged women and children under 15 concerns around 2/3 of the population in developing countries. Although the reproductive health of a country depends in large measure on the physical and mental well-being of its women, discrimination against women in education health, employment, and participation is a serious problem in many countries. Accessibility of family planning is another indicator of women's status. The potential health benefits of avoiding births before age 20 and after 35, high parity births, and closely spaced births are well known. Avoiding all such births would reduce maternal mortality by 20-25% worldwide, saving 100,.000-125,000 maternal lives. Proper spacing would also combat infant mortality. Infant survival programs that omit family planning as a component are short sighted. Family planning has the important benefits of reducing recourse to abortion and of allowing savings in public services including health care, education, and nutrition. In the area of family planning, Colombia's PROFAMILIA continues to prefer a cafeteria approach in which numerous contraceptive options are available. It has been demonstrated that each new method increases the number of acceptors by 6% on average. The especially for women who want to terminate childbearing. Morbidity and mortality rates of the different contraceptive methods, even in the worst conditions, are lower than they would be if contraception were not used. Oral contraceptives, for example, are 4-5 times less risky than nonuse of contraception. PROFAMILIA is currently seeking authorization to use a new combined monthly injectable contraceptive called Cyclofem. The subdermal implant NORPLANT has been well accepted in Colombia. PMID:12318090

Trias, M

1992-06-01

208

Idaho National Laboratory Cultural Resource Management Plan  

SciTech Connect

As a federal agency, the U.S. Department of Energy has been directed by Congress, the U.S. president, and the American public to provide leadership in the preservation of prehistoric, historic, and other cultural resources on the lands it administers. This mandate to preserve cultural resources in a spirit of stewardship for the future is outlined in various federal preservation laws, regulations, and guidelines such as the National Historic Preservation Act, the Archaeological Resources Protection Act, and the National Environmental Policy Act. The purpose of this Cultural Resource Management Plan is to describe how the Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office will meet these responsibilities at the Idaho National Laboratory. This Laboratory, which is located in southeastern Idaho, is home to a wide variety of important cultural resources representing at least 13,500 years of human occupation in the southeastern Idaho area. These resources are nonrenewable; bear valuable physical and intangible legacies; and yield important information about the past, present, and perhaps the future. There are special challenges associated with balancing the preservation of these sites with the management and ongoing operation of an active scientific laboratory. The Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office is committed to a cultural resource management program that accepts these challenges in a manner reflecting both the spirit and intent of the legislative mandates. This document is designed for multiple uses and is intended to be flexible and responsive to future changes in law or mission. Document flexibility and responsiveness will be assured through annual reviews and as-needed updates. Document content includes summaries of Laboratory cultural resource philosophy and overall Department of Energy policy; brief contextual overviews of Laboratory missions, environment, and cultural history; and an overview of cultural resource management practices. A series of appendices provides important details that support the main text.

Lowrey, Diana Lee

2009-02-01

209

Idaho National Laboratory Cultural Resource Management Plan  

SciTech Connect

As a federal agency, the U.S. Department of Energy has been directed by Congress, the U.S. president, and the American public to provide leadership in the preservation of prehistoric, historic, and other cultural resources on the lands it administers. This mandate to preserve cultural resources in a spirit of stewardship for the future is outlined in various federal preservation laws, regulations, and guidelines such as the National Historic Preservation Act, the Archaeological Resources Protection Act, and the National Environmental Policy Act. The purpose of this Cultural Resource Management Plan is to describe how the Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office will meet these responsibilities at the Idaho National Laboratory. This Laboratory, which is located in southeastern Idaho, is home to a wide variety of important cultural resources representing at least 13,500 years of human occupation in the southeastern Idaho area. These resources are nonrenewable; bear valuable physical and intangible legacies; and yield important information about the past, present, and perhaps the future. There are special challenges associated with balancing the preservation of these sites with the management and ongoing operation of an active scientific laboratory. The Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office is committed to a cultural resource management program that accepts these challenges in a manner reflecting both the spirit and intent of the legislative mandates. This document is designed for multiple uses and is intended to be flexible and responsive to future changes in law or mission. Document flexibility and responsiveness will be assured through annual reviews and as-needed updates. Document content includes summaries of Laboratory cultural resource philosophy and overall Department of Energy policy; brief contextual overviews of Laboratory missions, environment, and cultural history; and an overview of cultural resource management practices. A series of appendices provides important details that support the main text.

Lowrey, Diana Lee

2011-02-01

210

Hindrances to family planning program: findings from Banke, Nepal.  

PubMed

Reducing population growth through programs is a high priority for many developing countries. Why particularly in the rural regions of these countries, do these initiatives fail? Using a case study of a recent initiative in rural Nepal between 1998 and 2002 as an example, this opinion piece discusses possible reasons for such failure and recommends that a broader strategic approach is necessary, particularly in relation to empowering women in these communities. Banke district, Nepal, is mainly rural, consisting of 47 villages. Scarcity of family planning provisions is a dominant problem in most parts of the district. District Public Health Office (DPHO), the major family service provider lacks resources and technical capabilities. In recent years, non-government organizations (NGOs) have been collaborating and coordinating their efforts with DPHO in order to cover the larger section of the district population. A local NGO called Banke Mahila Arthick Swawlamban Sangathan (BMASS) provided family planning services in 5 of the 47 villages of Banke district, Nepal, from 1998 through 2002. Outreach activities and clinical services were the two major components of BMASS family planning program. Outreach activities included door-to-door/mass counseling, street drama, and condom distribution. Clinical services that included counseling, testing, temporary sterilization, and referrals for permanent sterilization were provided through a centrally located static clinic and mobile clinics. BMASS family planning program had almost no impact in the target villages. There was no significant increase in contraceptive use, people's motivation to limit fertility, and number of people preferring a smaller family size. The contraceptive prevalence rate increased by less than 2% after 2 years of family planning program intervention. More than 80% of the family planning clients were reported to have discontinued contraceptive use within six months. The mean age of women at the time of first child delivery (16.2 years), total fertility rate (six children per woman), and the birth intervals (13-18 months) were reported to be the same for both periods: before and two years after family planning program intervention. Further assessment of the local factors revealed that women's lack of control over fertility and higher number of desired children could have hindered the community's response to BMASS family planning program. In the target villages a woman's fertility is dependent upon the preference of husbands and in-laws. The women in general are not empowered to voice their opinion with regards to delaying fertility, spacing child-births, and limiting the number of children to be born to them. Higher number of desired children in the target villages is the outcome of low cost of child rearing and high benefits from the children. Children not only contribute significantly in household economy and provide old age security to their parents, but also consume less. To be effective, family planning programs need to be integrated into broader societal reforms that address rural economic development and the role of women in society. PMID:15882098

Rimal, N

2003-01-01

211

Ideally suited. Looking at the prospects of natural family planning in the Philippines today.  

PubMed

The Government of the Philippines and the Catholic Church have debated for years about family planning, specifically, artificial contraception. The Catholic Church considers natural family planning (NFP) to be the only moral way to plan families. This debate should end, now that the new government under President Ramos has included NFP in its official policy. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) promoting NFP praise this move, especially since it is the best way to reach the majority of the population which is catholic. Nevertheless, most NFP acceptors do not report the Church being their reason for choosing NFP. Medical, cultural, and intellectual reasons predominate. The Secretary of Health has hosted a conference on NFP addressing advocacy, training, service delivery, research, program coordination/management, and funding to show these NGOs that the government does indeed intend to support NGO involvement in the national family planning program. He dismisses criticism of including NFP in the program, because population growth is considerable and exclusion of any scientifically approved method is unwise. He intends for the government not to be a regulator but a facilitator of family planning programs. The government is going to accord equal weight to artificial and natural family planning methods and to provide a menu of options. Acceptors, not government, will determine the most used methods. Case studies show that well trained, qualified teachers who follow acceptors for the first few months are key to NFP effectiveness and acceptance. Projections indicate that acceptance of NFP will grow more than common artificial methods between 1992 and 1994 (increase of 1% vs. .1% for condoms and .4% for pills). NFP methods include the cervical mucus method, basal body temperature method, sympto-thermal method, and the lactational amenorrhea method. PMID:12286381

Sheniak, D; Feleo, A

1993-03-01

212

Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks Action Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As participants in the Climate Friendly Parks program, Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks belong to a network of parks that are putting climate friendly behavior at the forefront of sustainability planning in national parks. By conducting an emission...

2013-01-01

213

[Nursing intervention in the family treatment plan for anorexia nervosa].  

PubMed

One of the main nursing interventions in the treatment of eating disorders is family psycho-education, an essential aspect of mental health treatment. This article describes and analyses the difficulties families expressed in the performance of a treatment plan for patients hospitalised for anorexia nervosa (AN) in the adolescent Day Hospital of Mental Health, of the Corporació Sanitària Parc Taulí, during 2009. Data was also collected data on professional interventions, performed by the nurse assigned to this unit, in order to group and categorise them, and as an aid to nursing intervention. A total of 10 families of the 10 patients admitted with a diagnosis of AN were included in the study period. In all cases, the patients were young women who had received treatment before in an Outpatient Unit, with partial or no response to the treatment. The difficulties expressed by the families were grouped into five categories from content analysis: problems in preparing a balanced diet, problems as they are unable to handle the behaviour and emotions of the patient, problems because as there are no previous family eating habits, problems because there is no family control or supervision, and problems with the established guidelines. Specific individualised interventions are proposed for developing and promoting a nursing care plan, and assessing the results. PMID:22104194

Torralbas-Ortega, Jordi; Puntí-Vidal, Joaquim; Arias-Núñez, Eloisa; Naranjo-Díaz, M Carmen; Palomino-Escrivá, Jezabel; Lorenzo-Capilla, Angel

2011-01-01

214

75 FR 67903 - National Family Caregivers Month, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...By offering flexible work arrangements and paid leave...require employees to miss work, employers can enable...caregiver responsibilities to balance work and family obligations...efforts impact countless lives across our Nation,...

2010-11-04

215

Zero to Three: National Center for Infants, Toddlers and Families  

MedlinePLUS

... CARE & EDUCATION PUBLIC POLICY ABOUT US ZERO TO THREE is a national, nonprofit organization that provides parents, ... Click here to learn more about ZERO TO THREE. Learn how to promote good health , strong families , ...

216

Fresh impetus to family planning programmes planned in India. APPN interviews Mr. B. Shankaranand Union Minister for Health and Family Welfare, India.  

PubMed

Mr. B. Shankaranand, Union Minister for Health and Family Welfare in India, speaking on new policy measures planned to give family planning a major boost, stated that programs related to population and family welfare should be interwoven with the minimum needs program so that the message of the small family norm becomes attractive to acceptors. The new incentive measures, outlined by Shankaranand, are based on the understanding that the existing infrastructure for service delivery must be fully utilized. The new package of incentives places equal emphasis on state level campaigns which will be suitably dovetailed with services and supplies. Monetary rewards in the form of community assets will be given to organized and identifiable groups actively engaged in the implementation of the Family Welfare Program. Cash awards will be given to the best performing states. A new incentive scheme will be introduced for industrial labor groups in the organized sector. Innovative publicity campaigns in selected areas will be conducted. Reorganization of the service delivery outreach system will include establishing health posts staffed by nurse midwives and health workers in urban slums and congested areas. A scheme is in preparation to issue green cards to acceptors of terminal methods after 2 children. The card holders will be entitled to priority attention and preferential treatment in schemes where such practices are feasible. Currently, there are 5000 Primary Health Centers and 50,000 subcenters offering integrated health services. Family planning statistics provide supportive evidence of programmatic response to the achievement of longterm goals of population stabilization. During the 1st 10 months of the current financial year 2,800,000 sterilizations were performed, a 43% higher achievement rate than the corresponding period last year. The number is likely to rise to 4,000,000 by the end of this financial year. Similarly, the number of IUD acceptors is 760,000, 35% higher than last year. Another encouraging sign has been the formulation of a National Health Policy. PMID:12312721

1983-01-01

217

State Family Planning Service Delivery: Administrators' Perspectives on Service Delivery and Options for Future Family Planning Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report details family planning service delivery at the state level and presents state administrators' views about service delivery and policy options for the 1990s. Data for the report were obtained from telephone surveys of 109 State Administrators from the Title X, Maternal and Child Health Block Grant, Social Services Block Grant, and…

Sugland, Barbara W.; Moore, Kristin A.; Blumenthal, Connie

218

Results of the 2005 National Resident Matching Program: Family Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of the 2005 National Resident Matching Program (NRMP) reflect a currently stable level of student interest in family medicine residency training in the United States. Compared with the 2004 Match, 19 more positions (66 fewer US seniors) were filled in family medicine residency programs through the NRMP in 2005, at the same time as four fewer (18 fewer

Perry A. Pugno; Gordon T. Schmittling; Gerald T. Fetter; Norman B. Kahn

219

77 FR 66525 - National Family Caregivers Month, 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Support Program and the Lifespan Respite Care Program, and through new initiatives like the National Plan to Address Alzheimer's Disease. These efforts help caregivers access services, provide quality support, and reinforce their support...

2012-11-06

220

Male concepts: on masculinity, parenthood and family planning.  

PubMed

A 1980 study on "Masculinity/Femininity Concepts and their Bearing on the Population Program" conducted by the Manila-based Psychological Assessment and Development Corporation revealed that a man's macho image is no longer dependent on the number of children he sires but on the quality of life he provides them regardless of their number. Having many children but not being able to provide for them properly is in fact viewed as a sign of irresponsibility rather than a sign of manliness. The man is still considered the sole breadwinner of the family. Most of the male respondents are unwilling to allow their wives to work unless there is real economic need for it. Most of the men also preferred late rather than early marriage, preferably between the ages of 25 and 30. It is hoped that by this time, a man would have a steady job and a more mature outlook in life. Male respondents considered children to be essential in marriage. Their ideal family size is 4, 2 boys and 2 girls, spaced 2-3 years apart for the sake of the mother's health. Although the men acknowledged the importance of joint decision making in family planning, the fact that they place importance on family and children shows that they have a greater say on matters relating to number and spacing of children. This suggest that men should be the more important target of future family planning campaigns. The study also showed that contraceptive methods used and considered for future use are chosen solely on the basis of lack of side effects and ease of use and availability of the methods; rhythm is the most popular method, followed by the condom, the pill, and withdrawal. Future family planning campaigns should emphasize the lack of harmful effects of contraceptive methods. There were also misconceptions regarding the effects of vasectomy and ligation on sexual identity, suggesting the need for more information dissemination regarding these methods. PMID:12263978

Nolasco, A D

1981-01-01

221

Fertility, development, and family planning, 1970-1980: an analysis of cases weighted by population.  

PubMed

A series of related studies (Freedman and Berelson, 1976; Mauldin and Berelson, 1978; and Tsui and Bogue, 1978) have presented empirical findings based on multiple regression analysis which indicated that family planning program effort (FP), as measured by an index developed by Lapham and Mauldin (1972), was the single most important predictor of (or influence on) fertility reduction in less-developed countries (LDCs). The basic results have been confirmed repeatedly. A more extensive data set was used to extend the analysis to a comparison of results of corss-sectional models circa 1970 and 1980. The study builds upon the results of past studies yet differs from them in several ways. All the variables in the present study were measured at 2 points in time: circa 1970 and circa 1980, allowing a comparison between cross-sectional models for 1970 and 1980. Among the cases included in this multivariate analysis was China, a country usually excluded for lack of data. The analysis was extend to 85 countries. Cases were weighted by population, having the effect of increasing the impact of larger countries such as India and China on the outcome of the analysis. Total fertility rate (TFR) was used as an indicator of fertility. For 1970, family planning program effort had the strongest direct influence on fertility (a result consistent with previous studies). Life expectancy at birth was the other direct influence. The direct influence of life expectancy at birth was less than that of family planning, but the total influence was greater. After life expectancy and family planning, school enrollment and relative educational status of women had the strongest indirect and total influences. The other variables all had a positive influence on fertility. When the total variance attributable was considered, directly and indirectly to each of the independent variables, urbanization, carlorie supply, and per capita gross national product all accounted for less than 5% of the variance in fertility, all of it indirect. Life expectancy, family planning, and school enrollment each explained (directly plus indirectly) more than 10% of the variance in fertility. The pattern differed somewhat for 1980. Calorie supply, per capita gross national product, and relative educational status of women had no influence, direct or indirect on fertility. Also for 1980, life expectancy had a stronger direct influence on fertility than family planning. Overall, life expectancy at birth, family planning program effort, and total school enrollment emerged as the principal influences on fertility. PMID:12280901

Menard, S

1987-01-01

222

Education for All: National Plan of Action, 2003-2015  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR) Education for All National Plan of Action (EFA NPA) for 2003-2015 seeks to accomplish three major tasks: equitable access, improved quality and relevance and strengthened education management. Purpose: To design a National Education For All Action Plan for basic education in Lao PDR which…

Online Submission, 2005

2005-01-01

223

Career-Life Planning with First Nations People.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Career-Life Planning Model for First Nations People (1997) was created by Drs. Rod McCormick and Norm Admundson to address the need for more culturally sensitive career planning with First Nations people. The most unique thing about this model is the inclusion of many cultural practices, such as: opening and closing prayers, the invitation to…

Offet-Gartner, Kathy

224

Redwood National and State Parks Lassen Volcanic National Park Whiskeytown - Shasta - Trinity National Recreation Area: Museum Management Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Redwood National and State Parks (REDW), Lassen Volcanic National Park (LAVO), and Whiskeytown National Recreation Area (WHIS) have museum and archive collections that reflect their rich heritage and biodiversity. This Museum Management Plan describes an ...

J. Bayless J. OBarr K. Kvam M. Benterou S. Floray

2008-01-01

225

Communicating bioastronautics research to students, families and the nation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) is supporting the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) education mission through a comprehensive Education and Public Outreach Program (EPOP) that communicates the excitement and significance of space biology to schools, families, and lay audiences. The EPOP is comprised of eight academic institutions: Baylor College of Medicine, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Morehouse School

Marlene Y. MacLeish; Nancy P. Moreno; William A. Thomson; Dava J. Newman; Patrick J. Gannon; Roland B. Smith; Jon J. Denton; Robert K. James; Craig Wilson; Marguerite Sognier; Deborah L. Illman

2005-01-01

226

Wildland Fire Management Plan for Brookhaven National Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Wildland Fire Management Plan (FMP) for Brookhaven National Lab (BNL) updates the 2003 plan incorporating changes necessary to comply with DOE Order 450.1 and DOE P 450.4, Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy and Program Review; Wildland and Prescribed Fire Management Policy and implementation Procedures Reference Guide. This current plan incorporates changes since the original draft of the FMP that

2009-01-01

227

National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Emergency Planning in Athletics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a position statement by the National Athletic Trainers' Association on emergency planning in athletics, examining the professional and legal importance of emergency plans and looking at components of emergency plans, which include implementation, personnel, equipment, communication, transportation, venue location, emergency care…

Andersen, J. C.; Courson, Ronald W.; Kleiner, Douglas M.; McLoda, Todd A.

2002-01-01

228

Enhancing The National Map Through Tactical Planning and Performance Monitoring  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tactical planning and performance monitoring are initial steps toward improving 'the way The National Map works' and supporting the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Science Strategy. This Tactical Performance Planning Summary for The National Map combines information from The National Map 2.0 Tactical Plan and The National Map Performance Milestone Matrix. The National Map 2.0 Tactical Plan is primarily a working document to guide The National Map program's execution, production, and metrics monitoring for fiscal years (FY) 2008 and 2009. The Tactical Plan addresses data, products, and services, as well as supporting and enabling activities. The National Map's 2-year goal for FY 2008 and FY 2009 is to provide a range of geospatial products and services that further the National Spatial Data Infrastructure and underpin USGS science. To do this, the National Geospatial Program will develop a renewed understanding during FY 2008 of key customer needs and requirements, develop the infrastructure to support The National Map business model, modernize its business processes, and reengineer its workforce. Priorities for The National Map will be adjusted if necessary to respond to changes to the project that may impact resources, constrain timeframes, or change customer needs. The supporting and enabling activities that make it possible to produce the products and services of The National Map will include partnership activities, improved compatibility of systems, outreach, and integration of data themes.

Geological Survey (U.S.)

2008-01-01

229

75 FR 71519 - National Family Week, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...security and raise their standard of living. And the continued success of the...reforms. This landmark law allows young adults to stay on their parents' health...who keep our loved ones safe here at home and abroad. This National...

2010-11-24

230

Mum's the word: the Supreme Court and family planning.  

PubMed Central

On May 23, 1991, the US Supreme Court upheld federal regulations that prohibit federally funded family planning programs from counseling about or referring for abortion. As a result, government benefits may now entail substantial costs. The regulations changed the nature of government-assisted family planning from comprehensive care and counseling to limited services and government-prescribed information. The reasoning in Rust v Sullivan allows government to limit freedom of speech in federally funded programs. The decision may have been influenced by antiabortion sentiment, but it does not affect the legality of abortion. Instead, it sets a precedent for government control of whether and how health care can be discussed wherever government pays some of the bills.

Mariner, W K

1992-01-01

231

Statutory coherence and policy implementation: the case of family planning.  

PubMed

Policy theory suggests that coherent statutes--those with precise, clear goals, supported by an adequate causal theory, with clear administrative responsibilities, clear implementation rules, and assigned to committed agencies--are more likely to have their intended impact. This paper examines US family planning policies with a pooled time series analysis from 1982-88 using the Mazmanian and Sabatier policy implementation framework. Of the four family planning statutes (Title V, Title X, Title XIX, and Title XX), only Title X, the categorical grant program, meets the criteria of a coherent statute. The study reveals that a dollar spent through Title X has a much greater impact on births, abortion rates, late prenatal care, and infant neonatal mortality than does a dollar spent through other programs. The findings are strong evidence in support of designing policies with coherent statutes. PMID:12295809

Meier, K J; Mcfarlane, D R

1996-01-01

232

Fertility and family planning in rural northern Thailand.  

PubMed

From the mid-1960s to the mid-1970s, when fertility was declining in Thailand as a whole, especially rapid declines occurred in Northern Thailand, but they did not occur uniformly in all the region's provinces. The Northern Thailand Fertility Study, initiated in 1975 to study the reported fertility changes, gathered data in two provinces: Chiang Mai, where fertility decline has been quite rapid, and Chiang Rai, which experienced relatively little decline until 1974. This preliminary report discusses fertility levels and trends in the two provinces, fertility experience and expectations of respondents, attitudes toward and knowledge of family planning, and contraceptive practice. The results suggest that most of the difference in fertility decline is related to the different level of family planning program activity in the two provinces. PMID:715832

Shevasunt, S; Hogan, D P; Thaithong, K

1978-08-01

233

"Civil Unrest Does Not Stop Ovulation": Women's Prenatal and Family Planning Services in a 1960s Detroit Neighborhood Clinic.  

PubMed

In 1965, Nancy Milio established a prenatal and family planning clinic in Detroit, Michigan, to address health disparities and limited access to care among low-income, African American, urban women. Women's health disparities persist today nationally and internationally. Using historical methods, this research analyzes how Milio provided women's health services in the context of the social and political environment. Milio empowered neighborhood women to direct, plan, and participate in the care they received. Successful methods to address disparities in access to family and planning and prenatal care should include empowered participation from the women these programs are intending to serve. PMID:24892860

DeGuzman, Pamela B; Schminkey, Donna L; Koyen, Emily A

2014-01-01

234

The Impact of an Integrated Family Planning Program in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1995, the U.S. Agency for International Development implemented an integrated program of family planning education and services in six Russian cities to increase physicians’and women’s contraceptive knowledge and change current contraceptive use. Large population-based surveys of women ages 15-44 were carried out at the beginning of project implementation (in 1996) and 3 years later in two project sites and

Liese Sherwood-Fabre; Howard Goldberg; Valentina Bodrova

2002-01-01

235

Fertility and family planning in Papua New Guinea.  

PubMed

This paper examines some of the data on fertility, family size and family planning from a survey conducted between November 1979 and March 1980 in 8 provinces both in rural and urban areas of Papua New Guinea (PNG). The sample consisted of 6283 male and female respondents; a total of 3986 females in the age group 15-49 and 2297 males between the ages of 20 and 54 were interviewed. About 9% of the rural and 5.4% of the urban female respondents were pregnant at the time of the interview. The higher number of pregnancies recorded for the rural population, compared to the urban, is due to longer duration of marriage and higher mean age. Both rural and urban respondents have similar attitudes to the ideal number of children. 4 and 6 children were indicated as an ideal number for the urban and rural population, respectively. The results indicate that economic pressures are being felt within the family in both urban and rural areas, and that the costs of raising children are clearly perceived, at least among the educated. Nonetheless, the majority of the population desires large numbers of children, the main reason being economic security in old age. It is also evident that the people have a negative attitude to modern methods of contraception because they are not well informed about them. The most frequently stated reason, the harmful effects on the health of the mother and future offspring, is probably one of the obstacles to their more widespread use. Though there is physical accessibility to family planning services for most urban and about 1/2 of the rural dwellers, the problems of non-use are mainly of a sociological and psychological nature. The problems include the attitude of husbands to their wives' use of contraceptives, reinforcement of culturally acceptable behavior by the extended family and community members, and the desire for more children. Although the levels of contraceptive awareness are relatively high, the overall impression is that the practice of modern contraception in both the rural and urban areas is low. Despite the rural-urban differences in educational and income levels, living conditions, and the availability of family planning services, awareness and current use are only slightly higher among the urban respondents. For family planning programs to have more impact in reducing the high fertility levels, a much more intensive program of activites is needed for the country at large. PMID:6470015

Agyei, W K

1984-07-01

236

Nutrition and Family Planning: Concepts and Approaches for Home Economics Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article's three focal points are: the role nutrition can play in enhancing family planning goals; nutrition, family planning, and the adolescent; and potential approaches for home economics educators. (Author)

Rand, Catherine

1976-01-01

237

42 CFR 59.4 - How does one apply for a family planning services grant?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... How does one apply for a family planning services grant? 59.4 Section 59.4 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for...

2012-10-01

238

42 CFR 59.3 - Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant? 59.3 Section 59.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for...

2012-10-01

239

Integrated approach to family planning: Minister Peng Peiyun stresses transitions.  

PubMed

This article on the Integrated Approach to family planning in China defines the concept, states the aims, and discusses the nature of implementation. Major achievements and future challenges due to population growth are identified. The government aims in the 1996-2000 five-year plan to improve socioeconomic conditions in China. The preceding five-year plan was successful in checking rapid population growth and achieving replacement level fertility. In order to achieve continued socioeconomic development, it is argued that population must remain below 1.3 billion people by the year 2000 and 1.4 billion by the year 2010. Without a check on population growth, it is expected that environmental conditions will decline and the quality of life for rural workers will be "severely retarded." Presently there are about 65 million farmers who are impoverished and living in remote and backward areas without sufficient food and clothing. The family planning program agenda for 1995-2000 includes the integration of population issues in the general strategy for socioeconomic development. Minister Peng credits the past international conferences on women, social development, and population with providing valuable documents for working out a more comprehensive strategy for handling population issues. Family planning programs must strive to reduce fertility, focus on economic development, remove poverty, protect the balance between population and the environment, protect the environment and establish reasonable use patterns of natural resources, provide universal education, develop health services, and improve social security. Women's status should be improved. Greater attention must be paid to maternal and child health, economic development, farmer's survival needs, and agricultural problems. PMID:12291339

1996-02-01

240

A cost analysis of family planning in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

This article presents a step-down cost analysis using secondary data sources from 26 Bangladesh non-government organizations (NGOs) providing family planning services under a US Agency for International Development-funded umbrella organization. The unit costs of the NGOs' Maternal-Child Health (MCH) clinics and community-based distribution (CBD) systems were calculated and found to be minimally different. Several simulations were conducted to investigate the impact of alternative cost-reduction measures. The more general financial analysis proved more insightful than the unit cost analysis in terms of identifying means by which to improve the efficiency of the family planning operations of these NGOs. The analysis revealed that 56 per cent of total expenditures in the two-tiered umbrella's organizational structure are incurred in management operations and overheads. Of the remaining 44 per cent of project expenditures, 39 per cent is spent on the CBD program and 5 per cent on the MCH clinics. Within the CBD program, most resources are spent providing 4 million contacts (two-thirds of the annual total) which do not involve contraceptive re-supply. The clinics devote more resources to providing MCH services than to providing family planning services. The findings suggest that significant savings could be generated by containing administrative costs, improving operational efficiency, and reducing unnecessary or redundant fieldworker contacts. The magnitude of the potential savings raises a fundamental question about the continued viability and sustainability of this supply-driven CBD strategy. PMID:10177415

Fiedler, J L; Day, L M

1997-01-01

241

Philippines. Church vs. state: Fidel Ramos and family planning face "Catholic Power".  

PubMed

Catholic groups and individuals united in a public rally in Manila's Rizal Park to decry a "cultural dictatorship," which promotes abortion, homosexuality, lesbianism, sexual perversion, condoms, and artificial contraception. Government spokesmen responded that condoms and contraception were part of government policy to spread family planning knowledge and informed choices among the population. Cardinal Jaime Sin and former president Corazon Aquino joined forces to lead the movement against the national family planning program in the largest demonstration since the ouster of Ferdinand Marcos in 1986. Also criticized was the 85-page draft action plan for the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) scheduled for September 1994. Cardinal Sin accused President Clinton of using the action plan to promote worldwide abortion. Under the administration of President Fidel Ramos, family planning funding has quintupled and the number of family planning workers has increased from 200 to 8000. President Ramos has gone the farthest of any administration in opposing the Church's positions on contraception and abortion, although years ago Fidel Ramos and Cardinal Sin were allies in the effort to push out Ferdinand Marcos. The population of the Philippines is 85% Catholic, and laws reflect the Church's doctrine against divorce and abortion. The current growth rate is 2.3%, and the goal is to reduce growth to 2.0% by 1998, the end of Ramos's term in office. The population target is in accord with demographic goals proposed in the UN draft action plan. The Vatican has opposed the language in the plan and may have encouraged other religious leaders to join those opposed to the "war against our babies and children." Sin said that contraceptive distribution was "intrinsically evil" and should be stopped now. Ramos's administration stated that their policies and programs are not "in the hands of the devil" and there is support for the Church on family values and abortion. Health minister Flavier has indicated that illegal abortion has become very common, and control of abortion is through family planning. The Protestant president will oppose abortion at ICDP. PMID:12345705

1994-08-24

242

Year 6 Planning Exemplification. National Literacy Strategy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

First in a series, this booklet contains suggestions for planning literacy in Year 6. This Year 6 plan for 2001-2002 and the short-term unit plan for narrative writing are a distillation of the work of a representative group of Year 6 teachers. It contains the Year 6 Term 1 Units 2 and 5 on Narrative Writing. It begins with an outline of the basic…

Department for Education and Skills, London (England).

243

Ethical issues in U.S. family planning policy.  

PubMed

2 concepts are central to the ethics of government family planning policies in the US: the goal of equality for women depends on control over their reproductive lives; and the Constitution protects liberty and privacy. Both of these considerations are grounded on constitutional principles that recognize the primacy of individual decision making, particularly when that decision making involves religious, ethical, or moral choices about private areas of one's life. The guarantee of individual liberty requires that both privacy and personal choice prevail over the mandatory imposition of a family planning policy for either demographic, religious, or ideological reasons. The Supreme Court, when it overturned restrictive abortion laws in 1973, based its decision on the constitutional right of privacy. Poor women and minors are particularly vulnerable to restrictions in the areas of family planning and reproductive health. For both of these classes of women, the ability to make choices has been diminished by such legal requirements as mandatory parental involvement or by the withdrawal of public funds for contraceptive or abortion services. For those persons who must depend on public assistance for medical care, legal restrictions on how public money is spent can be as effective as outright prohibitions. Nor are physicians exempt from financial restrictions. If doctors who counseled patients about family planning or provided them with contraceptives were rendered ineligible from government benefits, the effect would be similar to that of making the activities illegal. In 1976 Congress virtually ended public funding for abortion services, although it continues to fund all other legal and medically necessary services. Through financial restrictions, the US family planning policy treats poor women in a discriminatory manner. Although the Supreme Court has stated that minors have a right to both contraceptives and abortion, minors as a class enjoy less constitutional protection than adult women. Consequently, minors' rights to confidential reproductive health care are increasingly being limited. The articulated purpose of laws restricting minors' confidentiality is to involve parents and thus somehow enhance the "wisdom" of a minor's decision, but such laws have an impact that is punitive. In June 1983 the Supreme Court reaffirmed its 1973 decision when it ruled that the government cannot interfere with a woman's "fundamental right to the highly personal choice whether or not to terminate her pregnancy." PMID:12338973

Benshoof, J

1983-08-01

244

Factors affecting unmet need for family planning in Eastern Sudan  

PubMed Central

Background In the developing countries millions of women in the reproductive age who don’t use contraceptives prefer to postpone or limit their birth. This indicates their failure to take necessary decision to prevent and avoid unwanted pregnancy. Methods A community-based cross sectional household survey was conducted to investigate unmet need for family planning and associated factors and total demand for family planning in Kassala, Eastern Sudan between 1st May and 31st July 2012. Results A total of 812 married women were enrolled in this study. Their mean age and parity was 31.8 (7.3) and 3.4 (1.8) respectively. Ever use of contraception was 25.4% (206/812) and 26.2% (213/812) were currently using contraception. Unmet need for spacing was 15.1% while unmet need for limiting was 0.7%. The pregnant and amenorrheic women whose the pregnancy or birth was unwanted and mistimed were 105 (13%) and 130 (16%) respectively. Using Westoff model the total unmet need was estimated as 44.8%. The total demand for family planning was 71%. In logistic regression model, while age, age at marriage, parity, residence and experience of child death were not associated with total unmet need for family planning, women education < secondary level (OR=7.8; CI=5.6-10.9; P=0.00), husband education < secondary level (OR=1.9; CI=1.3-2.6, P = 0.00) and woman’s occupation; housewife (OR=4.3; CI=2.5-7.2; P=0.00) were associated with the total unmet need. Conclusions Unmet need for family planning in Eastern Sudan was significantly higher among women with less than secondary education. Also; it is influenced by couple’s educational status and woman’s occupation. The results of this study necessitate the need for the programme managers to take into account the concept of reproductive health education.

2013-01-01

245

National Action Plan for the Prevention of Playground Injuries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognizing the need for a nationally coordinated effort to reduce playground injuries, the National Program for Playground Safety was created in 1995. This booklet describes the national action plan for prevention of playground injuries. Designed for use by parents, teachers, recreation and park personnel, and caregivers involved in providing…

Thompson, Donna; Hudson, Susan

246

Education's Role in National Development Plans: Ten Country Cases.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The place education has been assigned in the national development programs of 10 nations is discussed, the problems that these countries have encountered in managing education are examined, and the measures adopted to solve educational problems are assessed. Included are the following papers: (1) "The Nature of National Development Planning" (R.…

Thomas, R. Murray, Ed.

247

Assessing the Impact of a Family Planning Nurse Training Program in Egypt.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study of the impact of a nurse training program for family planning that stresses the development of nurses' counseling skills. Found an association between improved family planning training for nurses and positive changes in family planning knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among women attending Egyptian Ministry of Health clinics.…

Halawa, M.; And Others

1995-01-01

248

42 CFR 59.4 - How does one apply for a family planning services grant?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false How does one apply for a family planning services grant? 59.4 Section 59...AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.4 How does one...

2010-10-01

249

42 CFR 59.4 - How does one apply for a family planning services grant?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false How does one apply for a family planning services grant? 59.4 Section 59...AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.4 How does one...

2009-10-01

250

42 CFR 59.3 - Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant? 59.3 Section...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.3 Who is...

2013-10-01

251

Changing fortunes: analysis of fluctuating policy space for family planning in Kenya  

PubMed Central

Policies relating to contraceptive services (population, family planning and reproductive health policies) often receive weak or fluctuating levels of commitment from national policy elites in Southern countries, leading to slow policy evolution and undermining implementation. This is true of Kenya, despite the government's early progress in committing to population and reproductive health policies, and its success in implementing them during the 1980s. This key informant study on family planning policy in Kenya found that policy space contracted, and then began to expand, because of shifts in contextual factors, and because of the actions of different actors. Policy space contracted during the mid-1990s in the context of weakening prioritization of reproductive health in national and international policy agendas, undermining access to contraceptive services and contributing to the stalling of the country's fertility rates. However, during the mid-2000s, champions of family planning within the Kenyan Government bureaucracy played an important role in expanding the policy space through both public and hidden advocacy activities. The case study demonstrates that policy space analysis can provide useful insights into the dynamics of routine policy and programme evolution and the challenge of sustaining support for issues even after they have reached the policy agenda.

Crichton, Joanna

2008-01-01

252

"Wait a while, my love" -- an Indonesian popular song with a family planning message.  

PubMed

"Wait a While, My Love," recorded by pop singer Irianti Emingpraja, was the first Indonesian rock sock to contain a family planning message. The album including the song has sold over 100,000 copies. The song has also been packaged as a 60-second video that can be used as an opening theme for radio and television programs. The song, aimed at encouraging Indonesian youth to postpone marriage, has the following lyrics: "Flying free like a seagull/I'll cover many places 'round the world/Give me time for study and reflection, to grow as a mature wise woman/Oh, wait a while, my love/Don't buy me a ring, reflection of your inner love/I'll climb my way up to the top of the world/And reaching our rainbow of hope." The song was produced with support from the United Nations Fund for Population Activities and the Indonesian National Family Planning Coordinating Board. Key factors to be examined in producing a popular song with a family planning message include the specific message desired, the target audience, type of music, the singer, the producer, marketing, a multimedia campaign strategy, and distribution outlets. PMID:12315970

Pekerti, R; Musa, R

1989-10-01

253

National Joint Planning for Reliable Emergency Communications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

National security telecommunications policy and emergency mobilization preparedness policy require preparedness of telecommunications to support continuity of government and recovery of the nation during and after nuclear war or natural disaster. Technica...

1983-01-01

254

Workshop Planning Manual for Teacher Inservice Education in Personal and Family Financial Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The inservice training of secondary teachers in the consumer economics areas of personal and family financial planning has been identified as a prime need. Responsibility for providing inservice programs in both content and methods of teaching consumer education rests, in part, on colleges of education. This manual was developed to be a guide for…

Lloyd, Janice Holm; Gunther, Marilyn

255

45 CFR 286.70 - Who submits a Tribal Family Assistance Plan?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2012-10-01 true Who submits a Tribal Family Assistance Plan? 286.70 Section 286.70 Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

2013-10-01

256

45 CFR 286.165 - How is a Tribal Family Assistance Plan amended?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2012-10-01 true How is a Tribal Family Assistance Plan amended? 286.165...286.165 Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

2013-10-01

257

77 FR 38296 - Draft Public Health Action Plan-A National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Prevention [Docket No. CDC-2012-0004] Draft Public Health Action Plan--A National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection, Prevention...requesting public comment on the draft National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection,...

2012-06-27

258

77 FR 28883 - Draft Public Health Action Plan-A National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Prevention [Docket No. CDC-2012-0004] Draft Public Health Action Plan--A National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection, Prevention...requesting public comment on the draft National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection,...

2012-05-16

259

North Cascades National Park Service Complex. Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve. Museum Management Planning Team.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Museum Management Plan for North Cascades National Park Service Complex (NOCA) and Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve (EBLA) identifies the museum management issues facing the parks, and presents recommendations to address them. A team of muse...

2009-01-01

260

Constructing the practice of 'spatial planning': a national spatial planning framework for Wales  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Assembly for Wales is engaged in the preparation of a national spatial planning framework to provide a context for sustainable development and environmental quality. This paper reports on research undertaken for the Assembly on the preparation of the spatial planning framework and identifies the initial stages in that process. The research itself draws upon a study of policy

Neil Harris; Alan Hooper; Kevin Bishop

2002-01-01

261

Urban men and their participation in family planning.  

PubMed

The study explores the issues relating to family planning method use by males in urban areas. Key informant interviews were held with men and women residing in selected wards of four randomly chosen zones in the Dhaka City Corporation, representing both slum and non-slum areas. Ward commissioners and a sample of health and family planning service providers in the Government, NGOs, and private sector in these wards were also interviewed in two phases in June-July 1995 and October 1995. The urban population in Dhaka seemed supportive of male contraceptive use in general. However, certain factors interplay that prevent men from assuming responsibility toward actual male method use, even when they approve and support spacing and limiting family size. The discomfort associated with the use of condoms, their unreliability in providing protection from pregnancy, together with misconceptions and perceptions relating to the fear of losing energy and productivity from using condoms and from being vasectomized, were reported. Recommendations to use the media for motivation and to provide privacy and individual counseling measures were given. The perspectives of the key respondents highlight the need to understand urban men and their attitudes, which may pave the way toward developing motivational strategies. An informed public in urban areas represents a setting conducive toward motivating men to improve achievements of a program that largely attributes its past and present success to targeting women. The findings justify exploring ways to expand choices for the urban couple to achieve reproductive health goals. PMID:12291501

Jahan, S A; Thwin, A A; Nasreen, S; Ahsan, R I

1996-01-01

262

Family Relationships and Advance Care Planning: Do Supportive and Critical Relations Encourage or Hinder Planning?  

PubMed Central

Objectives. The effectiveness of advance care planning (ACP) may depend on family members’ understanding of patient preferences. However, we know of no studies that explore the association between family relationship dynamics and ACP. ACP includes a living will, durable power of attorney for health care (DPAHC) appointment, and discussions. We evaluated the effects of three aspects of family relations—general family functioning, support and criticism from spouse, and support and criticism from children—on both overall ACP and specific DPAHC designations. Method. Using multinomial logistic regression models and data from a sample of 293 older adults, we estimated the effects of family relationship quality on the likelihood of completing ACP and appointing a spouse or adult child as DPAHC. Analyses controlled for demographic and health characteristics. Results. Better overall family functioning increased the odds of ACP. Higher levels of spousal support increased the odds of holding informal discussions, whereas spousal criticism reduced the odds of naming one’s spouse as DPAHC. Both criticism and emotional support from children increased the odds that a child was named as DPAHC. Discussion. Family dynamics affect ACP in complex ways and should be considered when patients and their families discuss end-of-life care and make DPAHC designations.

2013-01-01

263

National Hurricane Operations Plan, June 1972.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is the 11th edition of the Interdepartmental Plan. It presents the procedures and agreements reached at the annual Interdepartmental Hurricane Warning Conference and outlines the responsibilities of cooperating agencies. Following a chapter on ...

1972-01-01

264

Everglades National Park Business Plan, 2001.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Business Plan will help Everglades to allocate resources with greater efficiency and effectiveness, will improve decision-making capabilities and will help keep us focused on doing the most important activities well. The primary goal of this Business...

2001-01-01

265

Samish Indian Nation Long-Term Strategic Energy Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Tribes strategic energy planning effort is divided into three phases: (1) Completing an Energy Resource Assessment; (2) Developing a Long-Term Strategic Energy Plan; and (3) Preparing a Strategic Energy Implementation Plan for the Samish Homelands. The Samish Indian Nation developed a comprehensive Strategic Energy plan to set policy for future development on tribal land that consists of a long-term, integrated, systems approach to providing a framework under which the Samish Community can use resources efficiently, create energy-efficient infrastructures, and protect and enhance quality of life. Development of the Strategic Energy plan will help the Samish Nation create a healthy community that will sustain current and future generations by addressing economic, environmental, and social issues while respecting the Samish Indian Nation culture and traditions.

Christine Woodward; B. Beckley; K. Hagen

2005-06-30

266

Introductory Guide for National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Planning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Overview of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA); Reclamation's Commitment to NEPA Compliance; NEPA and Planning; What Actions Require NEPA Compliance; When to Begin NEPA Compliance; Levels of NEPA Compliance Documentation; NEPA as an Um...

1992-01-01

267

National Energy Plan: Energy Conservation in Appliances. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The energy savings to the U.S. that could result from compliance with minimum efficiency standards for household appliances, as set forth in the National Energy Plan, selected current appliance technologies, and federal programs related to appliance energ...

1977-01-01

268

Bayou Sauvage National Wildlife Refuge. Comprehensive Conservation Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) has prepared this Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) to guide the management of Bayou Sauvage National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in Orleans Parish, Louisiana. The CCP outlines programs and corresponding resource...

2009-01-01

269

National Energy Information System: Implementation Plan. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An implementation plan to develop and operate the initial increment (module 1) of the National Energy Information System (NEIS) is described. Module 1 implementation must satisfy two partially contradictory objectives. First, it must be carried out as rap...

M. Fiorello J. Farquhar M. Lutz M. Shaw

1978-01-01

270

Adolescent fertility and family planning in East Asia and the Pacific: a review of DHS reports  

PubMed Central

Background Adolescent pregnancy has significant health and socio-economic consequences for women, their families and communities. Efforts to prevent too-early pregnancy rely on accurate information about adolescents' knowledge, behaviours and access to family planning, however available data are limited in some settings. Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) reports are recognised as providing nationally representative data that are accessible to policymakers and programmers. This paper reviews DHS reports for low and lower middle income countries in East Asia and the Pacific to determine what information regarding adolescent fertility and family planning is available, and summarises key findings. Methods The most recent DHS reports were sought for the 33 low and lower middle income countries in the East Asia and Pacific region as defined by UNICEF and World Bank. Age-disaggregated data for all indicators relevant to fertility and current use, knowledge and access to family planning information and services were sought to identify accessible information. Reported data were analysed using an Excel database to determine outcomes for adolescents and compare with adult women. Results DHS reports were available for eleven countries: Cambodia, Indonesia, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Timor-Leste, Tuvalu and Vietnam. Twenty seven of 40 relevant DHS indicators reported outcomes for adolescent women aged 15-19 years. There were limited data for unmarried adolescents. A significant proportion of women commence sexual activity and childbearing during adolescence in the context of low contraceptive prevalence and high unmet need for contraception. Adolescent women have lower use of contraception, poorer knowledge of family planning and less access to information and services than adult women. Conclusion DHS reports provide useful and accessible data, however, they are limited by the failure to report data for unmarried adolescents and report age-disaggregated data for some indicators. Further research is required to better understand the barriers that both married and unmarried adolescents face accessing reproductive health information and services, and their information and service delivery preferences.

2011-01-01

271

75 FR 21650 - Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, Biscayne National...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR National Park Service Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Draft Programmatic Environmental...Impact Statement for the Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Biscayne National Park...Statement (DEIS) for the Coral Reef Restoration Plan for Biscayne National Park,...

2010-04-26

272

76 FR 35467 - Deer and Vegetation Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Fire Island National Seashore...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Fire Island National Seashore, New York AGENCY...a Deer and Vegetation Management Plan, Fire Island National Seashore, New York...Deer and Vegetation Management Plan at Fire Island National Seashore, New York....

2011-06-17

273

75 FR 70712 - General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan; Reestablishment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan; Reestablishment AGENCY...General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan (Committee) for a 2-year...Rhorer, Senior Coordinator, National Poultry Improvement Plan, VS, APHIS,...

2010-11-18

274

77 FR 46374 - National Poultry Improvement Plan; General Conference Committee Meeting and 41st Biennial Conference  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. APHIS-2012-0044] National Poultry Improvement Plan; General Conference...General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan (NPIP) and the NPIP's...Roney, Senior Coordinator, National Poultry Improvement Plan, VS, APHIS, 1506...

2012-08-03

275

77 FR 3435 - General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan; Cancellation of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan; Cancellation of Meeting...General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan scheduled for January...Roney, Senior Coordinator, National Poultry Improvement Plan, VS, APHIS, 1506...

2012-01-24

276

77 FR 59888 - General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan AGENCY: Animal and Plant...General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan (Committee) for a 2year...Roney, Senior Coordinator, National Poultry Improvement Plan, VS, APHIS,...

2012-10-01

277

76 FR 1592 - National Poultry Improvement Plan; General Conference Committee Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. APHIS-2010-0039] National Poultry Improvement Plan; General Conference...General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan. DATES: The General...Rhorer, Senior Coordinator, National Poultry Improvement Plan, VS, APHIS, 1498...

2011-01-11

278

National Plan to Address Alzheimer's Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On January 4, 2011, President Barack Obama signed into law the National Alzheimers Project Act (NAPA), requiring the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) to establish the National Alzheimers Project to: Create and maintain a...

2012-01-01

279

Sewing machines and bank loans, farming and family planning.  

PubMed

Half of a $10,000 grant was given by the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) to finance the rural development project activities of Danfa, a village of about 835 people in Ghana. In this community the women are hard working but doubly disadvantaged. Along with a high illiteracy rate, the women are limited by inadequate income due to underemployment, under productivity, unfavorable farming conditions, and a lack of resources. Large families, frequent pregnancies, poor mother and child health, and high infant mortality all make matters worse for both the rural farm wife and her family. The project began with a nucleus of women that soon grew to between 24-30. Members soon formed small groups according to their occupational interests. The women grasped the self-help idea immediately. Once or twice a month there were demonstrations and the group worked together in such activities as making soap and pomade, preparing meals, and sewing. Meetings generally ended with a general group brainstorming and then members gathered in smaller groups to review their activities and plan for the future. During the 1st year of the project the men in the group rarely attended meetings. The group gave priority attention to their community's urgent need for working capital. 15 women farmers who met the criteria determined by the group received loans in the 1st round; only 8 satisfied the criteria in the 2nd round. At the beginning of the small loans scheme, the group decided to seek bigger loans from the bank if members proved credit worthy. This requirement was satisfied, and the group began negotiations for a loan with the Agricultural Development Bank. The group received the total group loan. The Ghana Home Science Association considers the project to be successful in several respects. Team spirit has developed the group, and the women play important and respected roles. Family planning problems are regularly presented for discussion, but it is difficult to correlate these ideas with practice. The ability of members to discuss these problems comfortably is an indication of their acceptance of family planning as an important topic in their lives. PMID:12311875

Sai, F A; Nsarkoh, J D

1980-03-01

280

Medicaid family planning expansions and related preventive care.  

PubMed

I examined the impact of state expansions in eligibility for Medicaid family planning services on the utilization of Papanicolaou (Pap) tests, clinical breast examinations, HIV testing, and routine doctor check-ups among women aged 21 to 44 years using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (1993-2009). Using a natural experiment approach, I found significant increases in Pap tests and clinical breast examinations among women eligible for services under the expansions but no significant change in HIV testing or routine doctor check-ups. PMID:23865669

Wherry, Laura R

2013-09-01

281

Family planning in Brazil: why not tubal sterilisation during childbirth?  

PubMed

Sterilisation is the most desired method of contraception worldwide. In 1996, the Brazilian Congress approved a family planning law that legitimised female and male sterilisation, but forbade sterilisation during childbirth. As a result of this law, procedures currently occur in a clandestine nature upon payment. Despite the law, sterilisations continue to be performed during caesarean sections. The permanence of the method is an important consideration; therefore, information about other methods must be made available. Tubal sterilisation must not be the only choice. We argue that review of this restriction will not contribute to the increase in caesarean sections but will allow for greater sterilisation choice for men and women. PMID:23362330

Soares, Leila Cristina; Brollo, Jorge Luiz Alves

2013-11-01

282

Reproductive rights, family planning: a cornerstone of control.  

PubMed

The main objective of the action plan for the International Conference on Population and Development is to assure access to high quality information and reproductive health care services in a manner that is affordable, acceptable, and convenient. Informed choice should be voluntary for childbearing and fertility control decisions. Services must be sensitive to the cultural, economic, and demographic diversity of local communities. The target date for countries to implement family planning (FP) and reproductive health programs that are available to all is 2015. Programs must involve women in all phases of planning, management, and delivery of services; outreach programs must be developed to involve men. Public and private FP programs should be directed to removing all obstacles to method use by the year 2005 by redesigning and expanding information and services. IEC (information, education, and communication) should also focus on sexually transmitted diseases, including AIDS. Programs should provide high quality condoms from stock on hand. About 55% of couples in developing countries use some form of contraception. The increase in contraceptive use has contributed to the decline in total fertility from 6.1 children per woman in the 1950s to 3.7 in the 1990s. At least 350 million couples still lack access to modern FP methods. The draft plan emphasizes that couples must be given the freedom and responsibility to decide on the number and spacing of their children. PMID:12289933

1994-09-01

283

National Ignition Facility Cryogenic Target Systems Interim Management Plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restricted availability of funding has had an adverse impact, unforeseen at the time of the original decision to projectize the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Cryogenic Target Handling Systems (NCTS) Program, on the planning and initiation of these efforts. The purpose of this document is to provide an interim project management plan describing the organizational structure and management processes currently in

2002-01-01

284

The National Legislative Network for Libraries: A Master Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet proposes a plan for synthesizing practices which will afford an intensive and systematical approach to the achievement of beneficial library legislation nationwide. The goal of the plan is to bring maximum constituent effort to bear upon the Congress, the several state legislatures, national and state administrations, and appropriate…

American Library Association, Chicago, IL. Legislation Committee.

285

National Ignition Facility risk management plan, rev. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The initial release of the National Ignition Facility (AUF) Risk Management Plan (LLNL, 1997a) was prepared in accordance with the DOE Life Cycle Asset Management Good Practice Guide (DOE, 1996a) and supported Critical Decision 3 (CD3), Approval to Initiate Construction (DOE, 1997a). The objectives of the plan were to: (1) Identify the risks to the completion of the Project in

S J Brereton

1998-01-01

286

National Ignition Facility Risk Management Plan, Revision 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Ignition Facility (NIF) Risk Management Plan (LLNL, 1997a) was originally prepared in 1997 in accordance with the Department of Energy (DOE) Life Cycle Asset Management Good Practice Guide (DOE, 1996a) and supported NIF Critical Decision 3, approval to initiate construction (DOE, 1997a). The plan was updated in 1998 to reflect realized risks such as the finding and successful

Brereton

2002-01-01

287

Year 6 Planning Exemplification 3. National Literacy Strategy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Third in a series of booklets designed to assist Year 6 teachers with planning instruction to meet objectives of the National Literacy Strategy, this booklet contains Summer Term planning exemplification for three "revision" units (Narrative, Poetry and Non-fiction) prior to the Key Stage 2 tests and one unit after the tests (Extended narrative…

Department for Education and Skills, London (England).

288

Bureaucratic Power: Security and the National Response Plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Response Plan was created by the Department of Homeland Security for the purpose of organizing disaster relief services by coordinating activities of cabinet departments and independent agencies. A case study of the Plan's creation shows that the Department has skillfully used its sources of administrative power to build a latent control network with little or no oversight, raising

Barbara L. Neuby

2006-01-01

289

National Standards for Family and Consumer Sciences Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document presents a new set of standards for family and consumer sciences (FACS) education. Section 1 is a three-chapter overview. Chapter 1 addresses the rationale for change and the FACS vision and mission. Chapter 2 describes the approach to develop the national standards, FACS format, and components of the standards. Chapter 3 provides…

National Association of State Administrators for Family and Consumer Sciences.

290

A National Survey of Graduate Family Nursing Educators  

Microsoft Academic Search

A descriptive study was undertaken to explore the philosophical and educational beliefs of graduate faculty teaching advanced nursing with families. Data from 177 faculty representing 107 graduate nursing programs accredited by the National LeagueforNursingwere used in the analyses. Descriptive data were gathered on program and faculty demographics, conceptual frameworks that faculty identified as influencing their teaching offamily content, and faculty

Eleanor Richards; Carolyn R. Lansberry

1995-01-01

291

National Quality Initiative Long-Range Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A unique partnership--termed the 'National Quality Initiative' (NQI)--was formed in 1992 by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), and various industry associations to fo...

1997-01-01

292

National Health Interview Survey: Future Plans  

Cancer.gov

NCI plans to continue collaborating with the CDC Division of Cancer Prevention and Control to monitor health behaviors and use of cancer prevention services included in the Healthy People Objectives. The NHIS Cancer Control Supplement (CCS) is administered every 5 years. The most recent data available from the CCS are 2010. The next CCS will be fielded in 2015.

293

National Civil Applications Program: strategic plan vision for 2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The National Mapping Division (NMD) has developed this comprehensive strategic plan to chart the course of the National Civil Applications Program (NCAP) over the next 5 years. To meet the challenges of the future, the NCAP is changing its program emphases, methods of responding to customer needs, and business practices. The NCAP Strategic Plan identifies the new direction for the program through a series of strategic thrusts and goals for managers to use in formulating plans, establishing program emphases, and determining resource needs and allocations.

U.S. Geological Survey

2004-01-01

294

Seneca Nation of Indians Strategic Energy Resource Planning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

By awarding the Seneca Nation of Indians with a First Steps grant, the Department of Energy enabled us to establish a solid footing for the Seneca Strategic Energy Plan. The Nation now has a clearly defined vision and objectives for its energy program, an...

G. C. Paradis

2006-01-01

295

Proposed Master Plan, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Park Service proposes a plan to conserve and protect the unique resources of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park for expanded public use and for continued volcanic research by the U.S. Geological Survey. This includes acquisition of new lands, con...

1973-01-01

296

Training of opinion leaders in family planning in India: does it serve any purpose?  

PubMed

Community leaders are known to play a crucial role in the diffusion of innovations. The government of India started an ambitious programme for the training of opinion leaders in family planning, so as to provide a boost to its National Family Planning (Welfare) Programme. The present study attempts to analyse the knowledge, attitudes and practices of opinion leaders who had been trained in such Orientation Training Camps, vis a vis their untrained counterparts from the same geopolitical region. There was a highly significant difference between the knowledge of the two groups (p < 0.001) and a minor difference in their attitudes towards family planning (p = 0.18), but the practices of opinion leaders from both the groups were identical, thus pointing to a significant KAP-gap in the trained group. Opinion leaders from both the groups were engaged in minimal or negligible motivational work among their followers for acceptance of contraception, and only a very limited few from both the groups had themselves adopted any method of modern contraception. PMID:8693174

Sharma, V; Sharma, A

1996-04-01

297

The effect of infant death on subsequent fertility in Korea and the role of family planning.  

PubMed Central

This paper studies the effect of infant death on subsequent fertility in a developing country, examining spacing of children and additional births following the survival or death of the preceding infant. The material is provided by the 1971 National Fertility Survey of Korea, 23,635 retrospective birth records of 6,285 women. The findings suggest that prior to the introduction of a national family planning program, the influence of infant death was limited to the biological effect resulting from a shortened lactational period. Since fertility regulation methods have been made available throughout the country, motivational effects to replace the lost child appeared to emerge. The proportion of excess births attributable to infant deaths has increased in recent years. However, because of the lowered infant mortality, the overall impact of infant death on the national fertility level appears to be small.

Park, C B; Han, S H; Choe, M K

1979-01-01

298

Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmenal, Safety, and Health Management Plan  

SciTech Connect

The 1990 Tiger Team Appraisal of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) revealed that neither Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) nor ORNL had a strategic plan for Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES H) activities. There were no detailed plans describing ORNL's mission, objectives, and strategies for ES H activities. A number of plans do exist that cover various aspects of ES H. Their scope ranges from multiyear program plans to annual audit schedules to compliance plans to action plans from specific audits. However, there is not a single document that identifies the plans and the objectives they are to address. This document describes the strategic plan for ORNL and provides the linkage among existing plans. It gives a brief description of the organization and management of ES H activities at ORNL. The plan identifies the general strategies to be taken by ORNL, using the overall guidance from Energy Systems in its corporate ES H Strategic Plan. It also identifies more detailed plans for implementation of these strategies, where appropriate.

Not Available

1991-12-01

299

Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmenal, Safety, and Health Management Plan  

SciTech Connect

The 1990 Tiger Team Appraisal of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) revealed that neither Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) nor ORNL had a strategic plan for Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES&H) activities. There were no detailed plans describing ORNL`s mission, objectives, and strategies for ES&H activities. A number of plans do exist that cover various aspects of ES&H. Their scope ranges from multiyear program plans to annual audit schedules to compliance plans to action plans from specific audits. However, there is not a single document that identifies the plans and the objectives they are to address. This document describes the strategic plan for ORNL and provides the linkage among existing plans. It gives a brief description of the organization and management of ES&H activities at ORNL. The plan identifies the general strategies to be taken by ORNL, using the overall guidance from Energy Systems in its corporate ES&H Strategic Plan. It also identifies more detailed plans for implementation of these strategies, where appropriate.

Not Available

1991-12-01

300

Looking at the formulation of national biosecurity education action plans.  

PubMed

In order for states to be assured of their compliance with the requirements of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, it is necessary that all those science and policy stakeholders working within that state should be aware of their responsibilities under the Convention. This can only be achieved through a comprehensive national biosecurity education programme. We propose that each state should produce a national biosecurity action plan, with accompanying resources and materials to achieve this. A number of resources are already available online to support states in this challenge. We present a model for a national biosecurity action plan and propose a number of ways in which this may be achieved. PMID:22606763

Sture, J; Minehata, M; Shinomiya, N

2012-01-01

301

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan FY 2001-2005  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan for FY 2001-2005 sets forth the laboratory's mission, roles, technical capabilities, and laboratory strategic plan. In the plan, major initiatives also are proposed and the transitioning initiatives are discussed. The Programmatic Strategy section details our strategic intent, roles, and research thrusts in each of the U.S. Department of Energy's mission areas. The Operations/Infrastructure Strategic Plan section includes information on the laboratory's human resources; environment, safety, and health management; safeguards and security; site and facilities management; information resources management; managaement procatices and standards; and communications and trust.

Fisher, Darrell R.; Pearson, Erik W.

2000-12-29

302

National NIF Diagnostic Program Interim Management Plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Ignition Facility (NIF) has the mission of supporting Stockpile Stewardship and Basic Science research in high-energy-density plasmas. To execute those missions, the facility must provide diagnostic instrumentation capable of observing and resolving in time events and radiation emissions characteristic of the plasmas of interest. The diagnostic instrumentation must conform to high standards of operability and reliability within the

2002-01-01

303

Forest Health Monitoring: A National Strategic Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) is a national program designed to determine the status, changes, and trends in indicators of forest health. From its inception in 1990 in the New England states, the FHM program has expanded to encompass all the forested lan...

2003-01-01

304

Planning for Life. A Compendium of Nationally Recognized Career Planning Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This compendium, which is designed to provide readers with a variety of career planning (CP) program ideas, contains abstracts summarizing 10 elementary, middle, and high school CP programs identified as exemplary by a national review team. Explained in chapter 1 are the primary objectives of the Planning for Life program, which is jointly…

National Consortium of State Career Guidance Supervisors, Columbus, OH.

305

[Marital and sex counseling in a family planning center].  

PubMed

The activities and organization of a Geneva family planning and counseling center are described. People consult this center most commonly about the following subjects: contraception, unwanted pregnancies, marital conflicts and sexual dysfunction. 3 aspects of the center's activities may be distinguished: information, mostly provided through the telephone, counseling, and sex therapy. This article describes the 1st 2 aspects of the centre's work, with examples of counseling. Information is provided with the help of diagrams; models; books which may be borrowed for free; plus films; slides; and various types of audio-visual equipment. The number of couples who come to the center with sexual problems is increasing. In most cases, the sexual problem is mainly due to an interpersonal relationship problem. On the other hand, questions on fertility often reveal the existence of a sexual problem. PMID:1006004

Coulondre, P; Hope, H; Imfeld, E; Pasini, W

1976-04-01

306

The National Global Change Research Plan: 2012-2021  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Released in April 2012, the National Global Change Research Plan 2012-2021 serves as the guiding document of the United States Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) for the next ten years. The plan is built around four broad strategic goals: advance science, inform decisions, conduct sustained assessments, and communicate and educate. The plan builds on the program's basic strengths in integrated observations, modeling, and information services for sciences that serve societal needs. The publication of this document fulfills one aspect of the Global Change Research Act of 1990 which says that the USGCRP will "assist the Nation and the world to understand, assess, predict, and respond to human-induced and natural processes of global change." Visitors looking for a brief overview of the plan can also click on the fact sheet, which offers a nice overview of this lengthy document.

2012-01-01

307

Groundwork: A Report from the Hennepin County Family Violence Planning Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the development of a community - based model for coordinated family violence services by the Family Violence Planning Project in Hennepin County, Minn. Funded by a Law Enforcement Assistance Administration grant, the project conducte...

1980-01-01

308

Strategic Plan for Colorado's Families and Children: A Draft for Review and Comment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1989, the state of Colorado participated in a policy academy on families and children at risk. The intent of the policy academy was to enable states to develop a strategic plan for families and children that would be family focused with an emphasis on family self-sufficiency, and to begin to create a service delivery system integrated across…

Colorado Governor's Office, Denver. Policy Academy Team.

309

CULTURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cultural Resource Management Plan (CRMP) for Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) provides an organized guide that describes or references all facets and interrelationships of cultural resources at BNL. This document specifically follows, where applicable, the format of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Guidelines for Development of Cultural Resource Management Plans, DOE G 450.1-3 (9-22-04[m1]). Management strategies included within

2005-01-01

310

[Understanding and implementing the Party's policies on family planning accurately in an all-around way].  

PubMed

Recently, the Party's Central Committee held numerous meetings to study the problem of family planning. The main goal of these meetings was to find a correct family planning policy, which should be based on common sense, support from the people, and reasonable work from the cadres. Family planning policies and regulations should be realistic and creative. In the implementation of policies, different methods should be adopted for varied situations, and there should also be appropriate guiding principles for different categories. To cope with a new situation, creative methods and approaches should be chosen in order to implement the family planning policy. The correct method will ensure complete implementation of the policy. In family planning work, the first step is the improvement of ideological education, so that the people may have a correct understanding of the need for family planning. In the technical management work of family planning, a constant improvement in the quality of service should be the goal. Through practical working experience in family planning, some rules and regulations will be found, and they should be used to promote the management level and the level of family planning work in general. PMID:12159337

Liang, J; Peng, Z

1984-05-29

311

Women's experience regarding the role of health centers in empowering them for family planning  

PubMed Central

Background: Nowadays, the concept of family planning has been detached from the population control and it is expressed as an essential element in women’s reproductive rights, empowering them and promoting their status in society. Family planning services have an important role in fertility decisions using contraception methods in women. This study was carried out to explore the experience of women from the role of health centers in empowering them for family planning. Materials and Methods: This qualitative study was performed on 37 married women who were volunteer and eligible for contraception as well as 8 staffs and directors of family planning services. They were selected useing purposeful sampling method in Isfahan, Iran. Data were collected by recording discussions of focused group in 7 sessions and 5 individual interviews. Conventional content analysis was used for coding and classification of data. Findings: Participants descriptions about the role of health centers in empowering the family planning was classified into 4 main categories including: encouraging male’s participation in family planning, providing comprehensive reproductive health services, expanding free services for family planning and appropriate technology for public awareness. Conclusions: Accessibility to health centers and offering free services for family planning are not sufficient for empowering women in terms of their fertility desires. The health centers should offer comprehensive reproductive health services and provide family planning services with a new approach for helping women and men to consciously and freely make a responsible decision in order to have more control over their fertility.

Kohan, Shahnaz; Simbar, Masoumeh; Taleghani, Fariba

2012-01-01

312

77 FR 33237 - Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Death Valley National...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Death Valley National Park, Inyo County, CA...Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan, Death Valley National Park...Valley Warm Springs Management Plan for Death Valley [[Page 33238

2012-06-05

313

WILDLAND FIRE MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY.  

SciTech Connect

This Wildland Fire Management Plan (FMP) for Brookhaven National Lab (BNL) and the Upton Ecological and Research Reserve (Upton Reserve) is based on the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (FWS) fire management planning procedures and was developed in cooperation with the Department of Energy (DOE) by Brookhaven Science Associates. As the Upton Reserve is contained within the BNL 5,265-acre site, it is logical that the plan applies to both the Upton Reserve and BNL. The Department of the Interior policy for managing wildland fires requires that all areas managed by FWS that can sustain fire must have an FMP that details fire management guidelines for operational procedures and specifies values to be protected or enhanced. Fire management plans provide guidance on fire preparedness, fire prevention, wildfire suppression, and the use of controlled, ''prescribed'' fires and mechanical means to control the amount of available combustible material. Values reflected in the BNL/Upton Reserve Wildland FMP include protecting life and public safety; Lab properties, structures and improvements; cultural and historical sites; neighboring private and public properties; and endangered and threatened species and species of concern. Other values supported by the plan include the enhancement of fire-dependent ecosystems at BNL and the Upton Reserve. This FMP will be reviewed periodically to ensure the fire program advances and evolves with the missions of FWS, BNL, and the Upton Reserve. This Fire Management Plan is a modified version of the Long Island National Wildlife Refuge Complex Fire plan (updated in 2000), which contains all FWS fire plan requirements and is presented in the format specified by the national template for fire management plans adopted under the National Fire Plan. The DOE is one of the signatory agencies on the National Fire Plan. FWS shall be, through an Interagency Agreement dated November 2000 (Appendix C), responsible for coordinating and implementing prescribed burns and fuel reduction projects in the Upton Reserve. Prescribed fire and fuel reduction in locations outside the Upton Reserve will be coordinated through the Natural Resource Management Program at BNL, and done in consultation with FWS. This FMP is to be used and implemented for the entire BNL site including the Upton Reserve and has been reviewed by FWS, The Nature Conservancy, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Forest Rangers, and DOE, as well as appropriate BNL emergency services personnel.

ENVIRONMENTAL AND WASTE MANAGEMENT SERVICES DIVISION

2003-09-01

314

78 FR 60809 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Contingency Plan; National Priorities List: Deletion of the Ludlow Sand & Gravel Superfund Site AGENCY: United States Environmental...Region 2 is issuing a Notice of Intent to Delete the Ludlow Sand & Gravel Superfund Site (Site), located in Paris, New...

2013-10-02

315

76 FR 77457 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Contingency Plan; National Priorities List: Deletion of the Hiteman Leather Superfund Site AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA...Region 2, is issuing a Notice of Intent to Delete the Hiteman Leather Superfund Site (Site), located in West Winfield, New...

2011-12-13

316

Sandia National Laboratories Institutional Plan FY1994--1999  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a five year plan for the laboratory. This plan takes advantage of the technical strengths of the lab and its staff to address issues of concern to the nation on a scope much broader than Sandia`s original mission, while maintaining the general integrity of the laboratory. The plan proposes initiatives in a number of technologies which overlap the needs of its customers and the strengths of its staff. They include: advanced manufacturing technology; electronics; information and computational technology; transportation energy technology and infrastructure; environmental technology; energy research and technology development; biomedical systems engineering; and post-cold war defense imperatives.

Not Available

1993-10-01

317

National health planning in the United States: prospects and portents.  

PubMed

The National Health Planning and Resources Development Act of 1974 in the United States demonstrates a growing determination in Congress to motivate the system of health services toward greater efficiency in utilization of resources. The Act was designed to overcome some of the weaknesses in earlier planning legislation. More complete coverage and more functional local jurisdictions for planning should result. The Act provides better financial support, and more effective incentives and inducements to assure adherence to plans. Concern is expressed about aspects of the legislation which the authors feel may deserve consideration. The principle of delegating responsibility to voluntary agencies for disbursement of public funds is questioned, and the authors suggest that local public health authorities apply for designation as planning agencies. Reservation is expressed about the adequacy of regional organization as provided by the Act to accomplish its purposes, and the authors recommend demonstrations of regional administrative agencies to implement plans developed by Health Systems Agencies. Failure to incorporate the provision of the House planning bill to set up a national health policy council in the Act is considered unfortunate. Persistence in pursuing the course outlined in the Act is urged. PMID:1205650

Rosenfeld, L S; Rosenfeld, I

1975-01-01

318

31 CFR 500.565 - Family remittances to nationals of Vietnam and Cambodia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Family remittances to nationals of Vietnam and Cambodia...Licenses, Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 500.565 Family remittances to nationals of Vietnam and...

2010-07-01

319

The Cambodian National Oral Health Plan 1992-2000.  

PubMed

The reconstruction of dental services and training in Cambodia following the devastation of the country during the reign of the Khmer Rouge has been limited by minimal help from other countries for political reasons. Following the recent signing of a peace treaty, a National Conference on Oral Health has been held, and a National Oral Health Plan formulated, outlining goals for the year 2000, and strategies to improve the oral health status in the country. PMID:8406952

Durward, C S; Todd, R V

1993-06-01

320

3 CFR 8321 - Proclamation 8321 of November 20, 2008. National Family Week, 2008  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...deeply held commitment to supporting America's families by signing laws that respect the sanctity...development by keeping children connected to family, school, and community. National Family Week is also a time to show our...

2009-01-01

321

On-the-job training through follow-up visits to improve the quality of family planning services.  

PubMed

As part of a broader set of activities to strengthen family planning training and improve the quality of family planning services in Turkey, follow-up visits were performed at different family planning sites across the country in order to conduct on-the-job training. The objective of on-the-job training was to refresh and improve family planning counselling skills for all methods as well as to refresh and improve intrauterine device insertion/removal skills and also some determinants of quality care. It was also aimed at transferring up-to-date information to family planning practitioners, identifying frequently encountered problems and helping with solution approaches for problems both at the individual and programmatic levels. The results of the follow-up visits reflect issues about both the staff and the clinical facility itself in terms of conforming with the standards of the 'National Family Planning Guidelines' set forth by the Ministry of Health. The follow-up team consisted of nine members who were specially trained. They represented different sectors such as a non-governmental organization, a medical school and the Ministry of Health. The follow-up team performed 90 visits to 16 clinics in 11 provinces between 1995 and 1998. Methods used were structured observations via standard checklists, meetings with the clinic staff, self-assessment, role plays, demonstration, coaching and the provision of feedback. During this period, a total of 130 health professionals working in 16 clinics were trained on-the-job. A significant improvement was observed in the performance of the family planning practitioners and the quality of care provided in clinics. While none of the service providers were found to have a standard skill level in general counselling during the first visit, at the end of the fifth visit all were capable of providing counselling services according to the national standards. Intrauterine device insertion skills were high at the beginning of the visits, and 16 of the 17 observed service providers (94%) were assessed as conforming to the standards. At the fifth visit, all of the 42 service providers (100%) were found to be adequate. At the facility level, all 16 clinics established separate counselling rooms in the follow-up period. Additionally, the number of clinics conforming to infection prevention standards increased from two clinics in 15 at the first visit to all 16 clinics at the fifth visit. This study showed that the ultimate success of family planning programs depend on structured and well-supervised on-the-job training through follow-up visits to the sites. PMID:10036603

Ozek, B; Saat, Z; Temiz, A T; Kinzie, B

1998-12-01

322

76 FR 68503 - Ungulate Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Great Sand Dunes National Park and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Environmental Impact Statement, Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, CO AGENCY...for the Ungulate Management Plan, Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve...for the Ungulate Management Plan, Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve,...

2011-11-04

323

36 CFR 221.3 - Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...3 Disposal of national forest timber according to management...Management plans for national forest timber resources shall be...revised, as needed, for working circles or other practicable units of national forest. Such plans shall:...

2010-07-01

324

36 CFR 221.3 - Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...3 Disposal of national forest timber according to management...Management plans for national forest timber resources shall be...revised, as needed, for working circles or other practicable units of national forest. Such plans shall:...

2013-07-01

325

36 CFR 221.3 - Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...3 Disposal of national forest timber according to management...Management plans for national forest timber resources shall be...revised, as needed, for working circles or other practicable units of national forest. Such plans shall:...

2009-07-01

326

75 FR 67149 - Request for Public Comment on the Draft 2010 National Nanotechnology Initiative Strategic Plan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Comment on the Draft 2010 National Nanotechnology Initiative Strategic Plan AGENCY...regarding the draft 2010 National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Strategic Plan...information. Overview: The National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Strategic...

2010-11-01

327

76 FR 81962 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for General Management Plan, Ross Lake National Recreation...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Impact Statement for General Management Plan, Ross Lake National Recreation Area, North Cascades National...for the proposed General Management Plan for Ross Lake National Recreation Area (Ross Lake NRA) in Washington State. This Final EIS...

2011-12-29

328

17 CFR 242.608 - Filing and amendment of national market system plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Filing and amendment of national market system plans. 242.608 Section 242...Regulation Nms-Regulation of the National Market System § 242.608 Filing and amendment of national market system plans. (a) Filing of...

2009-04-01

329

17 CFR 242.608 - Filing and amendment of national market system plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Filing and amendment of national market system plans. 242.608 Section 242...Regulation Nms-Regulation of the National Market System § 242.608 Filing and amendment of national market system plans. (a) Filing of...

2010-04-01

330

Family planning is the first and most important step for rural development.  

PubMed

Mahasarakham province in Thailand has adopted family planning as its primary development policy. Although not a new issue, family planning until now has been largely ignored by most government sectors. Most consider family planning to be the sole responsibility of the Ministry of Public Ealth (MOPH), and this is why family planning has not been as successful as it should be. Discussion covers the general problem (rapid population increase, limited arable land, productivity, social and economic development, and deforestation), problems of family planning in the past (trained personnel and accessibility and government sectors ignoring or hindering family planning programs), integrated rural development (motivation, mobilizing teamwork, the integrated approach, mobile medical team, family planning for both the rich and the poor, and emphasis on vasectomy and IUD), objectives of the family planning program, and implementation. Mahasarakham uses an integrated rural development approach that emphasizes 9 development components: family planning, fisheries development, vegetable growing, water purification, rice banks, soy beans, using anchovies for natural fish sauce, insect extermination by electricity, and fuel from rice banks. All of these components contribute to the development of a better quality of rural life. The major problem is population growth, which at 1.8% remains high. Mahasarakham will promote the family planning program as the top priority, and this service will be brought to the people. The objectives of the family planning program are: to reduce the population growth rate Mahasarakham to zero growth within 2-3 years: to provide access to family planning services to all people in Mahasarakham; to educate people about family planning to increase its acceptance: to initiate a proper rural development program in Mahasarakham; and to promote intergovernmental cooperation by means of the integrated approach, which will have good results in later rural development programs. In fiscal year 1963 family planning in Mahasarakham will place new emphasis on vasectomy and IUD insertion. The program expects to reach a target of not less than 30,000 acceptors. A monthly family planning service in each district must have a minimum of 300 IUD acceptors. All government sectors will be involved in and responsible for this rural development program. PMID:12266147

Mokarapong, T

1983-12-01

331

76 FR 24050 - Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, Biscayne National...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Service [2310-0003-422] Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Final Programmatic Environmental...Impact Statement for the Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Biscayne National Park...Impact Statement for the Coral Reef Restoration Plan (Plan/FEIS) for Biscayne...

2011-04-29

332

Invisible and Visible Language Planning: Ideological Factors in the Family Language Policy of Chinese Immigrant Families in Quebec  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This ethnographic inquiry examines how family languages policies are planned and developed in ten Chinese immigrant families in Quebec, Canada, with regard to their children's language and literacy education in three languages, Chinese, English, and French. The focus is on how multilingualism is perceived and valued, and how these three languages…

Curdt-Christiansen, Xiao Lan

2009-01-01

333

Incorporating Family Assessment and Individualized Family Service Plans into Early Intervention Programs: A Developmental, Decision Making Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The monograph presents essential components of a decision making sequence used to incorporate formalized family assessment and service planning procedures into two existing early intervention programs in Massachusetts. The 1-year effort used a consultant to: (1) redefine screening and assessment processes to include both child and family centered…

Kochanek, Thomas T.; Friedman, Donna Haig

334

Institutional Plan, FY 1993--1998, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the plans and goals of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for FY 1993--1998. Areas discussed in this document include: INEL strategic view; initiatives; scientific and technical programs; environmental, safety, and health management, technology transfer, science and math education, and community affairs; human resources; site and facilities; and resource projections.

Not Available

1993-04-01

335

Institutional Plan, FY 1993--1998, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the plans and goals of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for FY 1993--1998. Areas discussed in this document include: INEL strategic view; initiatives; scientific and technical programs; environmental, safety, and health management, technology transfer, science and math education, and community affairs; human resources; site and facilities; and resource projections.

Not Available

1993-01-01

336

NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is located near the geographic center of Long Island, New York. The Laboratory is situated on 5,265 acres of land composed of Pine Barrens habitat with a central area developed for Laboratory work. In the mid-1990s BNL began developing a wildlife management program. This program was guided by the Wildlife Management Plan (WMP), which was reviewed

2003-01-01

337

Proposed Timber Management Plan for Tonto National Forest, Arizona.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project proposes an allowable timber cut on the Tonto National Forest that is compatible with the other resources, uses and activities that are associated with and could be affected by timber harvest. A Timber Management Plan will be prepared establis...

1972-01-01

338

76 FR 22295 - National Poultry Improvement Plan and Auxiliary Provisions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection 9 CFR Part 145 [Docket No. APHIS-2009-0031] RIN 0579-AD21 National Poultry Improvement Plan and Auxiliary Provisions Correction In rule document 2011-6539 appearing on pages 15791-15798 in the...

2011-04-21

339

Theodore Roosevelt National Wildlife Refuge. Comprehensive Conservation Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) developed this Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) to provide a foundation for the management and use of refuges in the Theodore Roosevelt National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) Complex (Complex) over the next 15 yea...

T. Wilkens

2006-01-01

340

National Risk Management Research Laboratory Strategic plan and Implementation - Overview  

EPA Science Inventory

This publication provides an overview of the strategic plan recently developed by the National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL). It includes a description of NRMRL's mission and goals and their alignment with Agency goals. Additionally, the overview contains a brief se...

341

San Francisco Maritime National Historical Park, California, General Management Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This General Management Plan for San Francisco Maritime National Historical Park guides the management of resources, visitor use, and general development at the park over the next 15 to 20 years. It summarizes the final actions that were approved in the p...

1997-01-01

342

Shock Timing Plan for the National Ignition Campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report progress on the design of the shock timing tuning procedure for the 2010 ignition campaign at the National Ignition Facility. Our keyhole target design provides adequate drive surrogacy for us to time the first three shocks empirically. The major risk to our plan is hard x-ray preheat, which can cause the diagnostic window to become opaque.

Munro, D. H.; Robey, H. F.; Spears, B. K.; Boehly, T. R.

2006-10-01

343

Liquid Waste Certification Plan for Pacific Northwest National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of research and development (R&D) facilities for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on the Hanford Site's 300 Area (see Figure 1). Process wastewater from these facilities is treated by the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) and discharged to the Columbia River via a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System-permitted outfall. The NPDES permit specifies limits of chemical constituents and requires proper operation and maintenance of the TEDF. To meet permit requirements, Fluor Hanford, operator of the TEDF, requires generators who discharge to the 300 Area TEDF to submit a Liquid Waste Certification Plan. This plan is the second revision to PNNL's plan.

Ballinger, Marcel Y.

2002-09-23

344

A Study of Individualized Family Service Planning in California: Benefits and Costs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated costs associated with implementation of Individualized Family Service Plans (IFSP) for infants and young children with disabilities at four California sites. Specifically the study examined: (1) IFSP and existing service planning process costs in time and dollars; (2) the impact of IFSP processes on agencies and families; and…

Montgomery, Deborah L.; And Others

1993-01-01

345

Family and Consumer Sciences: A Facility Planning and Design Guide for School Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents design concepts and considerations for planning and developing middle and high school family and consumer sciences education facilities. It includes discussions on family and consumer sciences education trends and the facility planning process. Design concepts explore multipurpose laboratories and spaces for food/nutrition…

Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.

346

Title X (Public Health Service Act) Family Planning Program. CRS Report for Congress.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The federal government provides grants for voluntary family planning services through the Family Planning Program, Title X of the Public Health Service Act, codified at 42 U.S.C. SC 300 to SC 300a-6. The program, enacted in 1970, is the only domestic fede...

A. Napili

2008-01-01

347

Utilizing grassroots workers in family planning programs in India: prospects and problems.  

PubMed

In order to rapidly expand the network of delivery systems and speed up the process of acceptance of family planning messages and methods, a shift took place in the Indian family planning program from the bureaucratic "clinical" approach to the people oriented "extension" approach. As a result, there is an increasing emphasis on moving the family planning efforts closer to the grassroots level. A key methodological issue centers on the proper selection, cultural acceptability, and the effectiveness of the grassroots workers who are to be trained and through whom family planning motivational messages and methods are to be introduced. The Indian government, from time to time, has trained and utilized different groups of grassroots workers in its family planning promotional efforts. Anthropological field studies were conducted in two different regions in India to examine the potential and actual roles of two groups of grassroots workers--opinion leaders and traditional birth attendants--in the delivery of family planning services in the rural areas. These studies revealed that while the traditional birth attendants can be trained and utilized to a limited extent in promoting family planning efforts, especially to the eligible female clients, the role of the opinion leaders in such efforts is at best questionable. Based on these field studies, cultural and technical (including bureaucratic) problems in training and utilizing opinion leaders and traditional birth attendants are explored in detail. Modifications in the training program strategies are suggested to improve and expand the family planning delivery system in rural India. PMID:12290156

Mani, S B

1991-01-01

348

Population and Family Planning Education, Report of a Seminar (Holte, Denmark, July 3-28, 1972).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In July 1972, DANIDA and the Danish Family Planning Association provided delegations from selected countries the opportunity to devise teaching programs on population and family planning topics for 9-to 11-year-olds. Participants from the Arab Republic of Egypt, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, and the Philippines attended the meeting with Danish…

1972

349

Fertility Modification Thesaurus with Focus on Evaluation of Family Planning Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Division of Social and Administrative Sciences of the International Institute for the Study of Human Reproduction at Columbia University has compiled this list of terms used in indexing the literature for family planning program evaluation. This thesaurus should prove of direct use to the indexer of documents describing family planning program…

Speert, Kathryn H.; Wishik, Samuel M.

350

Non-Participation in a Public Family Planning Program After a Commitment to Participate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to ascertain reasons for non-participation in a public family planning program following a commitment to participate. A sample of 650 women who had made appointments at a public family planning clinic were divided into four groups: Post-Partum Kept (PPK), Post-Partum Missed (PPM), Supply Kept (SK), and Supply Missed…

Greer, Candyce D.; Cole, Steven G.

351

Successful Family Planning Programs. Draper World Population Fund Report, No. 4, Summer 1977.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication describes successful family planning programs throughout the world. Discussed in detail are programs in Colombia, Mauritius, Maharashtra, the People's Republic of China, Sri Lanka, and the United States. Photographs illustrate the articles and, in some cases, family planning vital statistics are given. The Draper World Population…

Piotrow, Phyllis T., Ed.

352

Regulations on family planning management of the floating population.  

PubMed

This document reprints China's "Regulations on Family Planning (FP) Management of the Floating Population" that went into effect on January 1, 1999. The regulations, which apply to married labor migrants of reproductive age, call on all levels of the government to include FP management of this group in the target population of each administrative area. In addition to assigning governmental responsibilities, the regulations require adults to acquire certificates of marriage and childbearing at their local FP departments before they migrate. The adults should present these certificates to the proper authorities upon arrival at their destination. Efforts should be made to educate migrants about population and FP requirements; reach migrants with contraceptive services; and link approval of temporary residence permits, business licenses, and work permits with proper certification of marriage and childbearing. Employers will be responsible for the FP management of labor migrants, and landlords should assist local officials in this FP management. Incentives for adhering to the one child policy will be awarded by the migrants' place of household registration, but the cost of contraceptive operations will be born by employers if applicable or by the place of household registration. Penalties for violating the FP regulations will be meted out by the government of the place of current residence or of household registration (with only one penalty given for a single violation). Fines will be instituted for fabricating, selling, or acquiring fake certificates of marriage and childbearing or for failing to follow these regulations. PMID:12321927

1998-12-01

353

Communicating bioastronautics research to students, families and the nation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) is supporting the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) education mission through a comprehensive Education and Public Outreach Program (EPOP) that communicates the excitement and significance of space biology to schools, families, and lay audiences. The EPOP is comprised of eight academic institutions: Baylor College of Medicine, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Morehouse School of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Texas A&M University, University of Texas Medical Branch Galveston, Rice University, and the University of Washington. This paper describes the programs and products created by the EPOP to promote space life science education in schools and among the general public. To date, these activities have reached thousands of teachers and students around the US and have been rated very highly.

MacLeish, Marlene Y.; Moreno, Nancy P.; Thomson, William A.; Newman, Dava J.; Gannon, Patrick J.; Smith, Roland B.; Denton, Jon J.; James, Robert K.; Wilson, Craig; Sognier, Marguerite; Illman, Deborah L.

2005-05-01

354

Communicating bioastronautics research to students, families and the nation.  

PubMed

The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) is supporting the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) education mission through a comprehensive Education and Public Outreach Program (EPOP) that communicates the excitement and significance of space biology to schools, families, and lay audiences. The EPOP is comprised of eight academic institutions: Baylor College of Medicine, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Morehouse School of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Texas A&M University, University of Texas Medical Branch Galveston, Rice University, and the University of Washington. This paper describes the programs and products created by the EPOP to promote space life science education in schools and among the general public. To date, these activities have reached thousands of teachers and students around the US and have been rated very highly. PMID:15834996

MacLeish, Marlene Y; Moreno, Nancy P; Thomson, William A; Newman, Dava J; Gannon, Patrick J; Smith, Roland B; Denton, Jon J; James, Robert K; Wilson, Craig; Sognier, Marguerite; Illman, Deborah L

2005-01-01

355

Medical education and family planning: developing future leaders and improving global health.  

PubMed

Well-trained medical professionals are key to improving global reproductive health and reducing rates of unsafe abortion, but medical training often fails to prepare practitioners to provide essential family planning services. The field of medical education is currently undergoing reformation to better meet the needs of a global population, and comprehensive, integrated family planning training will be an important part of those reforms. Family planning training is not only vital to address global reproductive healthcare demand, but integrates effectively with cornerstones of current medical education reform: competency-based education, leadership development, collaboration with practitioners of all levels, and global health context. Examples of successful integration of family planning education are outlined, and recommendations for integrating family planning into medical education detailed at the 2012 FIGO World Congress are discussed. PMID:23497747

Landy, Uta; Blodgett, Madeline; Darney, Philip

2013-05-01

356

The Timmons Savings Plan: A Working Document on a Plan to Encourage Families to Save for College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Timmons Savings Plan, which encourages families to save toward college costs, is analyzed. This plan allows for periodic (non-tax deductible) contributions to an account administered by the U.S. Department of the Treasury. The amount deposited would be matched by the federal government in exchange for the government's earning the interest on…

Tierney, Michael L.

357

Steps toward a national disaster plan for obstetrics.  

PubMed

Hospitals play a central role in disasters by receiving an influx of casualties and coordinating medical efforts to manage resources. However, plans have not been fully developed in the event the hospital itself is severely damaged, either from natural disasters like earthquakes or tornados or manmade events such as a massive electrical failure or terrorist attacks. Of particular concern is the limited awareness of the obstetric units' specialized needs in the world of disaster planning. Within the same footprint of any obstetric unit, there exists a large variety of patient acuity and needs including laboring women, postoperative patients, and healthy postpartum patients with their newborns. An obstetric-specific triage method is paramount to accurately assess and rapidly triage patients during a disaster. An example is presented here called OB TRAIN (Obstetric Triage by Resource Allocation for Inpatient). To accomplish a comprehensive obstetric disaster plan, there must be 1) national adoption of a common triage and evacuation language including an effective patient tracking system to avoid maternal-neonatal separation; 2) a stratification of maternity hospital levels of care; and 3) a collaborative network of obstetric hospitals, both regionally and nationally. However, obstetric disaster planning goes beyond evacuation and must include plans for shelter-in-place and surge capacity, all uniquely designed for the obstetric patient. Disasters, manmade or natural, are neither predictable nor preventable, but we can and should prepare for them. PMID:24901273

Daniels, Kay; Oakeson, Ann Marie; Hilton, Gillian

2014-07-01

358

Transition to Adulthood for Students with Severe Intellectual Disabilities: Shifting toward Person-Family Interdependent Planning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The transition from high school to adulthood is a major life change for most young adults and their families, and generally it is depicted as an especially stressful time for young people with disabilities and their families. Adequate planning is required to address the challenging impact of this stage of life on families. The purposes of this…

Kim, Kyeong-Hwa; Turnbull, Ann

2004-01-01

359

Climate change and family planning: least-developed countries define the agenda  

PubMed Central

Abstract The links between rapid population growth and concerns regarding climate change have received little attention. Some commentators have argued that slowing population growth is necessary to reduce further rises in carbon emissions. Others have objected that this would give rise to dehumanizing “population control” programmes in developing countries. Yet the perspective of the developing countries that will be worst affected by climate change has been almost completely ignored by the scientific literature. This deficit is addressed by this paper, which analyses the first 40 National Adaptation Programmes of Action reports submitted by governments of least-developed countries to the Global Environment Facility for funding. Of these documents, 93% identified at least one of three ways in which demographic trends interact with the effects of climate change: (i) faster degradation of the sources of natural resources; (ii) increased demand for scarce resources; and (iii) heightened human vulnerability to extreme weather events. These findings suggest that voluntary access to family planning services should be made more available to poor communities in least-developed countries. We stress the distinction between this approach, which prioritizes the welfare of poor communities affected by climate change, and the argument that population growth should be slowed to limit increases in global carbon emissions. The paper concludes by calling for increased support for rights-based family planning services, including those integrated with HIV/AIDS services, as an important complementary measure to climate change adaptation programmes in developing countries.

Carver, Louise; Butler, Colin D; Anage, Ababu

2009-01-01

360

National Transonic Facility: A review of the operational plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proposed National Transonic Facility (NTF) operational plan is reviewed. The NTF will provide an aerodynamic test capability significantly exceeding that of other transonic regime wind tunnels now available. A limited number of academic research program that might use the NTF are suggested. It is concluded that the NTF operational plan is useful for management, technical, instrumentation, and model building techniques available in the specialized field of aerodynamic analysis and simulation. It is also suggested that NASA hold an annual conference to discuss wind tunnel research results and to report on developments that will further improve the utilization and cost effectiveness of the NTF and other wind tunnels.

Liepmann, H. W.; Black, R. E.; Dietz, R. O.; Kirchner, M. E.; Sears, W. R.

1980-01-01

361

Family Perceptions of Participation in Educational Planning for Children Receiving Mental Health Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family participation in educational planning for children with disabilities is believed to result in plans that are more responsive to the child's needs and that lead to better social, emotional, and educational outcomes. Participation in educational planning is also a fundamental right of parents and a cornerstone of special education…

Jivanjee, Pauline; Kruzich, Jean M.; Friesen, Barbara J.; Robinson, Adjoa

2007-01-01

362

Transition Planning: How Well Does It Work for Young People with Learning Disabilities and Their Families?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study involving 27 young people with learning disabilities and 27 parents found many left school without any transition planning. Where transition planning had occurred, there was a stark mismatch between topics families wanted covered and those addressed. Many students who received transition planning had little if any involvement. (Contains 9…

Ward, Linda; Mallett, Robina; Heslop, Pauline; Simons, Ken

2003-01-01

363

Personal and Family Financial Planning. A Staff Development Workshop for Secondary School Trainers and Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual for teacher trainers and staff development specialists contains information and materials for an 18-hour personal and financial planning workshop for secondary teachers. Part A is a guide for workshop directors. It defines personal and family financial planning, provides background information on financial planning education, and…

Bannister, Rosella; And Others

364

75 FR 43929 - National Weather Service (NWS) Strategic Plan, 2011-2020  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...100706289-0289-01] National Weather Service (NWS) Strategic Plan, 2011-2020 AGENCY: National Weather Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric...SUMMARY: The National Weather Service's (NWS) Strategic...

2010-07-27

365

Patrilineal family values, family planning and variation in stature among Taiwanese six-year-olds.  

PubMed

It has been argued that patrilineal joint family systems tend to bias family planning decisions in favour of sons. A simple model suggests that in such societies, any given son will be more highly valued by his parents (1) the fewer his brothers and (2) the earlier his birth is in the brother series. A daughter's value will be greater (1) the fewer brothers she has and (2) the earlier her birth is relative to other sisters. This study first addresses the extent of son preference as inferred from family composition data for 772 Taiwanese first-graders born in the mid-1970s in two socioeconomically distinct communities in Taipei, Taiwan. It then uses linear regression to consider whether the model criteria help account for statural variation among children in each study area when controlling for differences in measurement age, parental education and housing. With respect to family composition and gender preference, available evidence was consistent with previous surveys. While better-educated parents in the more affluent study area had significantly fewer children (p < 0.0005) and were more willing to stop without a son, girls there, as in the less affluent area, were still significantly more likely than boys to belong to large sibships (p < or = 0.005). Evidence from mean height of males and females partially accords with hypothetical predictions. In the less affluent area, the interaction effect of male birth order and the presence of younger siblings was significantly associated with mean stature (p = 0.002). Males without brothers were 2.0 cm taller than males with either an older or a younger brother (116.3 +/- 0.5 cm vs 114.3 +/- 0.4 cm). Males who had both younger and older brothers, but often no sisters, were about as tall, however, as those without brothers. A similar, but less pronounced, pattern was found among males in the more affluent area, but only among those who had sisters. These boys were also consistently shorter than boys without sisters (115.6 +/- 0.6 cm vs 117.7 +/- 0.6 cm; p = 0.001). Patterns of mean female stature did not clearly support the hypothesis. Girls in the more affluent area were relatively tall and did not show significant variation. Results among less affluent girls showed significant contrasts, but not necessarily in the predicted direction. PMID:12887219

Floyd, B

2003-07-01

366

Resource assessments in national planning - Pupua New Guinea case studies  

SciTech Connect

The nation of Papua New Guinea, encompassing 462,000 square miles of land area and a population of approximately 3 million individuals, occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and includes the Bismarck Archipelago and Bougainville Island. The diversity and complexity of Papua New Guinea's geology, coupled with the large number of known mineral occurrences of various deposit types, leads to the inescapable conclusion that the resource potential of Papua New Guinea is very large. In recognition of this potential, a resource assessment of Papua New Guinea was undertaken for the stated purpose of integrating the results of such an assessment into the nation's planning activities.

Pintz, W.S.; Clark, A.L.

1984-01-01

367

Effects of state welfare, abortion and family planning policies on premarital childbearing among white adolescents.  

PubMed

This study develops an empirical model that measures the influence of state welfare, abortion and family planning policies on decisions concerning premarital pregnancy, abortion and single parenthood. Data are based on the fertility and marital experiences of white females from the three youngest cohorts of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, for 1979-1986. The results show that laws restricting contraceptive availability are associated with a higher risk of pregnancy. Restrictive policies on public funding of abortions reduce the likelihood of abortion, while greater availability of abortion services is associated with a higher likelihood that adolescents will obtain abortions. Finally, the estimates indicate that higher welfare benefits reduce the probability that pregnant adolescents will marry before bearing their children. PMID:2289541

Lundberg, S; Plotnick, R D

1990-01-01

368

Leadership for Change: National Standards for Family and Consumer Sciences Education. Family and Consumer Sciences Teacher Education. Yearbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 27 papers on the development of national standards for family and consumer sciences (FACS) education. The following papers are included: "Leadership for Change: Developing the National Standards" (Peggy Wild); "National Standards Model" (Wanda S. Fox); "Reasoning for Action" (Wanda S. Fox, Janet F. Laster); "Career, Community,…

Vail, Ann, Ed.; Fox, Wanda S., Ed.; Wild, Peggy, Ed.

369

Maritime Commerce Security Plan for The National Strategy for Maritime Security.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Maritime Commerce Security Plan contains recommendations to promote international supply chain security. The Maritime Commerce Security Plan is a component of the National Strategy for Maritime Security. The National Strategy for Maritime Security was...

2005-01-01

370

National Program Plan for the Thermal Performance of Building-Envelope Systems and Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is a revision of the initial National Energy Plan issued in January 1979. The objective of the National Energy Plan is to describe the research, development, and verification activities required to produce the technical data, test procedures, ...

P. R. Achenbach

1982-01-01

371

[Psychobiology of human fertility in Mexico. I. Educational aspects of the universitary campaign on family planning].  

PubMed

In view of the scarce information about family planning among the Mexican population, audiovisual material was prepared to promote the mehtods and benefits of family planning. The material consists of 22 slides, recorded explanation, and music. Psychological factors, such as sensory perception, image symbiolism, language, education, sex, attention span, motivation, and identification, and social factors, such as status and recognition, were taken into consideration. The program is presently shown to an average of 120 persons daily, including outpatients and hospital patients. Its use led to a considerable increase in the number of patients who voluntarily attend the family planning clinic for medical advice on fertility control. PMID:56290

García Flores, R F; Ita Cruz, R A

1976-01-01

372

[How to expand and improve the coverage of family planning services: a Latin American viewpoint].  

PubMed

It is probably not possible to implant a family planning program that will have a reasonable demographic impact in areas lacking awareness of the disadvantages of overly high fertility. Rural-urban migration, increasing educational levels, women's labor force participation, and declining infant mortality are all factors that have been found to correlate with demand for family planning services. It has been recognized since the Bucharest World Population Conference in 1974 that development and family planning are both required for the fertility transition to begin. Where these conditions exist, a family planning program appropriate to the needs, limitations, preferences, and expectations of the target population has an excellent chance of success. Expanded and improved coverage results from tailoring programs to the specific groups served. Most programs are directed toward women. It has been found most effective to provide services for men in separate sessions. It is also useful to distinguish between services for adolescents, who require more information and fewer services, for mature women who require more services than information, and for premenopausal women whose needs for information and services are both declining. Contraceptive preferences vary with social class, but family planning programs in developing countries should concentrate on the lower middle and lower classes which comprise 80% of the population. Rural areas and marginal urban areas require special attention. In order to provide services that will attract all potential users, the maximum possible variety of methods should be available. A family planning program offering a variety of methods throughout the country and financially accessible to the population should be successful. Family planning programs, whether public or private, require adequate financial resources and the support or at least tolerance of the government. Knowledge of contraception is now almost universal. A major challenge of family planning programs is to prompt women who say they want to limit their reproduction but who do not practice family planning to adopt a method. Program leadership and interpersonal relations with clients should be competent. The experience of PROFAMILIA in Colombia suggests that charging fees for all services offered by the family planning program is a positive feature allowing the client to avoid feeling like a charity recipient and the program to account for materials and services more easily. Goals and objective indicators stimulate performance and allow progress to be assessed. It is recommended that client education focus on a synthesis of information concerning available methods and provision of somewhat greater detail on the method chosen. Integration of services is usually an enemy of family planning because, despite theoretical advantages, it usually means neglect of family planning in favor of curative care. PMID:12286385

Trias, M

1992-12-01

373

Oak Ridge National Laboratory Facilities Revitalization Project - Project Management Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Facilities Revitalization Project (FRP) has been established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide new and/or refurbished research and support facilities for the Laboratory's science mission. The FRP vision is to provide ORNL staff with world-class facilities, consolidated at the X-10 site, with the first phase of construction to be completed within five years. The project will utilize a combination of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), State of Tennessee, and private-sector funds to accomplish the new construction, with the facilities requirements to be focused on support of the ORNL Institutional Plan. This FRP Project Management Plan has been developed to provide the framework under which the project will be conducted. It is intended that the FRP will be managed as a programmatic office, with primary resources for execution of the project to be obtained from the responsible organizations within ORNL (Engineering, Procurement, Strategic Planning, etc.). The FRP Project Management Plan includes a definition of the project scope, the organizational responsibilities, and project approach, including detailed Work Breakdown Structure (WBS), followed by more detailed discussions of each of the main WBS elements: Project Planning Basis, Facility Deactivation and Consolidation, and New Facilities Development. Finally, a general discussion of the overall project schedule and cost tracking approach is provided.

Myrick, T.E.

2000-06-06

374

National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency. Vision for 2025: Developing a Framework for Change. A Resource of the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Vision for the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency (Action Plan) establishes a goal of achieving all cost-effective energy efficiency by 2025, presents ten implementation goals for states, utilities, and other stakeholders to consider to achie...

2007-01-01

375

National action plan for response to poliovirus importation.  

PubMed

The Division of Vaccine-Preventable Disease Control and National Immunization Program of the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has prepared a plan of action as a guide for key actions that will be taken if a poliovirus outbreak occurs in the Republic of Korea. The history of poliomyelitis and vaccination against poliovirus in the nation was reviewed and the routine surveillance procedures that are currently in place were described. The principles and specific actions for an effective response to a poliovirus outbreak were prepared. The guidelines clearly outline the actions to be taken in case of a polio outbreak. When a suspected case of poliovirus infection is reported, an immediate epidemiological investigation is to be conducted. The response to a poliovirus outbreak includes case isolation, management of potential contacts and immunization. All stakeholders are to be made aware of what key actions should be taken at each stage of the response to a poliovirus outbreak in the nation. PMID:24159453

Song, Kyung Min; Choe, Young June; Cho, Heeyeon; Bae, Geun-Ryang; Lee, Jong-Koo

2011-06-01

376

Maritime Infrastructure Recovery Plan for the National Strategy for Maritime Security.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In addition to being an integral part of Homeland Security Presidential Directive 13 (HSPD-13) plans, the strategic guidance in the Maritime Infrastructure Recovery Plan (MIRP) is reflected in the provisions of the National Maritime Security Plan (NMSP). ...

2006-01-01

377

Combating Violence and Delinquency: The National Juvenile Justice Action Plan. Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Summary of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Preventions National Juvenile Justice Action Plan (Action Plan) presents innovative and effective strategies designed to reduce violence and victimization. The Action Plan descri...

1996-01-01

378

Combating Violence and Delinquency: The National Juvenile Justice Action Plan. Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Preventions National Juvenile Justice Action Plan (Action Plan) presents innovative and effective strategies designed to reduce violence and victimization. The Action Plan describes how communit...

1996-01-01

379

78 FR 16296 - Record of Decision for the Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Biscayne National Park, FL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Record of Decision for the Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Biscayne National Park, FL AGENCY...Decision (ROD) for the Coral Reef Restoration Plan (Plan) for Biscayne National...submerged resources. The goal of coral reef restoration actions in Biscayne National Park...

2013-03-14

380

45 CFR 286.160 - What are the applicable time frames and procedures for submitting a Tribal Family Assistance Plan?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and procedures for submitting a Tribal Family Assistance Plan? 286.160 Section 286.160 Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

2013-10-01

381

Challenges in Managing a Family Business. Management and Planning Series.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

When you put up your own money and operate your own business, you prize your independence. It's my business, you can tell yourself, in good times and in bad. In a family company, however, it's our business. When family members work together, emotions may ...

2009-01-01

382

Drafting a Blueprint for Change: The Coordinators' Manual. Family Futures Planning Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Rhode Island Family Futures Planning Project was funded by the U.S. Administration on Aging (AoA) to develop educational materials to facilitate change in the lives of older caregivers and their relatives with developmental disabilities. Participation...

C. Susa P. G. Clark

1996-01-01

383

Audit of USAID's Effectiveness in Complying with Tiahrt Voluntary Family Planning Requirements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

USAIDs Bureau for Global Health, Office of Population and Reproductive Health provides support to more than 50 country programs for family planning throughout the world, and provides technical assistance and training to missions and performs country progr...

2008-01-01

384

Topical Investigation and Analysis of Nutritional Supplements in Family Planning Programs in India and Pakistan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The theory that improving the nutritional status of mothers and infants lowers fertility rates has been divided into several hypotheses concerning the effects on fertility of nutrition interventions in family planning programs. This report uses a modified...

M. E. Rulison

1970-01-01

385

Utilization of Family Planning Services en Peru. Small Applied Research Paper No. 9.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Our research is focused on the study of four types of interventions: family planning, birth control, birth services, and the pap smear. Despite obvious differences in analysis due to the very characteristics of these interventions, it has been possible fo...

A. Beltran

1999-01-01

386

Women, microcredit and family planning practices: a case study from rural Ghana.  

PubMed

This paper examines the influence of informal banking club participation on family planning practices in rural Ghana. Research from Asia suggests that family planning practices are improved by club participation. This study examines this thesis in an African context, using rural Ghana as a case study. A sample of 204 women (19 years and older) was drawn from Abokobi village, Ghana. Multivariate analyses of direct, mediating and moderating effects of women’s demographic background characteristics, membership status and length, and women’s empowerment status as predictors of family planning practices are assessed. Findings suggest that club membership and membership length is not associated with family planning practices; however, age, education level, number of children and empowerment status are. PMID:21901899

Norwood, Carolette

2011-01-01

387

Couple communication in family planning decision-making in Zahedan, Islamic Republic of Iran.  

PubMed

A qualitative study in Zahedan, Islamic Republic of Iran, used focus group discussions with 120 people in 8 main groups to understand more about couple's decision-making and the role of men in family planning. The study included men and women from Sunni and Shia sects as well as theologians from both sects. Shiites, lay people and theologians, believed that both husband and wife play a major role in decision-making about family planning, while Sunnis believed that men are the main decision-makers. All participants believed that men have an important role in family planning, but also that men do not like attending family planning clinics. Religious tenets were important in couple's decision-making about using contraceptives but there were confusions over different teachings. PMID:16700372

Rakhshani, F; Niknami, S; Ansari Moghaddam, A R

2005-07-01

388

Fertility Modification Thesaurus with Focus on Evaluation of Family Planning Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Division of Social and Administrative Sciences of the International Institute for the Study of Human Reproduction at Columbia University has compiled this list of terms used in indexing the literature for family planning program evaluation. This thesa...

K. H. Speert S. M. Wishik

1973-01-01

389

Reproductive health services for refugees by refugees in Guinea I: family planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Comprehensive studies of family planning (FP) in refugee camps are relatively uncommon. This paper examines gender and age differences in family planning knowledge, attitudes, and practices among Sierra Leonean and Liberian refugees living in Guinea. METHODS: In 1999, a cross-sectional survey was conducted of 889 reproductive-age men and women refugees from 48 camps served by the refugee-organised Reproductive Health

Natasha Howard; Sarah Kollie; Yaya Souare; Anna von Roenne; David Blankhart; Claire Newey; Mark I Chen; Matthias Borchert

2008-01-01

390

CULTURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY.  

SciTech Connect

The Cultural Resource Management Plan (CRMP) for Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) provides an organized guide that describes or references all facets and interrelationships of cultural resources at BNL. This document specifically follows, where applicable, the format of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Guidelines for Development of Cultural Resource Management Plans, DOE G 450.1-3 (9-22-04[m1]). Management strategies included within this CRMP are designed to adequately identify the cultural resources that BNL and DOE consider significant and to acknowledge associated management actions. A principal objective of the CRMP is to reduce the need for additional regulatory documents and to serve as the basis for a formal agreement between the DOE and the New York State Historic Preservation Officer (NYSHPO). The BNL CRMP is designed to be a ''living document.'' Each section includes identified gaps in the management plan, with proposed goals and actions for addressing each gap. The plan will be periodically revised to incorporate new documentation.

DAVIS, M.

2005-04-01

391

1990: Twenty-Second Annual National Council on Family Relations Media Awards Competition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes winning videotapes and films of Media Competition in 12 categories: Human Development across the Life Span; Parenting Issues; Nontraditional Family Systems; Marital and Family Issues and Communication; Sexuality and Sex Role Development; Substance Abuse/Addiction; Human Reproduction and Family Planning; Stress, Transition, and Crisis…

Anson, Julie; And Others

1991-01-01

392

National transonic facility shakedown test results and calibration plans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the shakedown tests and the calibration plan of the National Transonic Facility (NTF) are presented. The facility is designed to operate in both air and nitrogen modes, cover Mach numbers from 0.2 to 1.2, pressures up to 8.8 atm and temperatures between 77 and 339 K. The facility data system is built around four 16-bit minicomputers with a total memory of three megabytes. A portable cryogenic chamber is available. The tunnel systems were operated in a series of tests in Mach number range of 0.2 to 1.17, pressures up to 8.5 atm, and temperatures down to 100 K. The calibration plan includes steady-state and dynamic calibration, as well as wall interference studies. The facility underwent the checkout of the model attitude, plenum isolation, and model access systems, followed by aerodynamic calibration in 1984. Schematic drawings and diagrams are included.

Bruce, W. E., Jr.; Fuller, D. E.; Igoe, W. B.

1984-01-01

393

National rf technology research and development program plan  

SciTech Connect

This plan was prepared by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of the Office of Fusion Energy, Division of Development and Technology, to define the technology development needs and priorities. The US rf research and development community, with a wide representation from universities, laboratories and industries, participated in many discussions, meetings and in a three-day workshop in developing the needs and priorities definition. This very active and effective involvement of the rf leaders from all of these groups was an essential feature of the activity and results in the plan representing a broad consensus from the magnetic fusion energy development community. In addition, a number of scientists from Japan and Europe participated by providing data.

Not Available

1983-05-01

394

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Waste Minimization Program Plan  

SciTech Connect

This Program Plan document describes the background of the Waste Minimization field at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and refers to the significant studies that have impacted on legislative efforts, both at the federal and state levels. A short history of formal LLNL waste minimization efforts is provided. Also included are general findings from analysis of work to date, with emphasis on source reduction findings. A short summary is provided on current regulations and probable future legislation which may impact on waste minimization methodology. The LLN Waste Minimization Program Plan is designed to be dynamic and flexible so as to meet current regulations, and yet is able to respond to an everchanging regulatory environment. 19 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs.

Heckman, R.A. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Tang, W.R. (Bechtel National, Inc., San Francisco, CA (USA))

1989-08-04

395

The impact of a family planning multimedia campaign in Bamako, Mali.  

PubMed

An integrated multimedia campaign featuring family planning messages saturated the 900,000-person city of Bamako, Mali, for three months during the spring of 1993. With traditional theater and music, family planning messages were repeatedly broadcast on radio and television that conveyed information about modern contraceptive methods, the need for male sexual responsibility, the health and economic advantages of family planning, the need for communication between spouses, and that Islam, the predominant faith of Mali, does not oppose family planning. A separate sample pretest-post-test quasi-experimental research design was used to evaluate the effects of the campaign and exposure to specific messages on changes in contraceptive knowledge, attitudes, and practice. Results indicate a high level of exposure to and agreement with the messages. A dramatic drop was found in the proportion of men and women who believe that Islam opposes family planning. Logistic regression results indicate that contraceptive knowledge and use and more favorable attitudes toward family planning are positively associated with intensity of exposure to the project interventions, after controlling for relevant variables. PMID:9789324

Kane, T T; Gueye, M; Speizer, I; Pacque-Margolis, S; Baron, D

1998-09-01

396

Unmet Need for Family Planning in Nepal during the First Two Years Postpartum  

PubMed Central

Contraceptive use during the postpartum period is critical for maternal and child health. However, little is known about the use of family planning and the determinants in Nepal during this period. This study explored pregnancy spacing, unmet need, family planning use, and fertility behaviour among postpartum women in Nepal using child level data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys 2011. More than one-quarter of women who gave birth in the last five years became pregnant within 24 months of giving birth and 52% had an unmet need for family planning within 24 months postpartum. Significantly higher rates of unmet need were found among rural and hill residents, the poorest quintile, and Muslims. Despite wanting to space or limit pregnancies, nonuse of modern family planning methods by women and returned fertility increased the risk of unintended pregnancy. High unmet need for family planning in Nepal, especially in high risk groups, indicates the need for more equitable and higher quality postpartum family planning services, including availability of range of methods and counselling which will help to further reduce maternal, perinatal, and neonatal morbidity and mortality in Nepal.

Dariang, Maureen

2014-01-01

397

Risk management plan for the National Ignition Facility  

SciTech Connect

The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a U.S. Department of Energy inertial confinement laser fusion facility, currently under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). NIF is a critical tool for the Department of Energy (DOE) science- based Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program. In addition, it represents a major step towards realizing inertial confinement fusion as a source of energy. The NIF will focus 192 laser beams onto spherical targets containing a mixture of deuterium and tritium, causing them to implode. This will create the high temperatures and pressures necessary for these targets to undergo fusion. The plan is for NIF to achieve ignition (i.e., self-heating of the fuel) and energy gain (i.e., more fusion energy produced than laser energy deposited) in the laboratory for the first time. A Risk Management Plan was prepared for the NIF design and construction Project. The plan was prepared in accordance with the DOE Life Cycle Asset Management Good Practice Guide. The objectives of the plan were to: (1) identify the risks to the completion of the Project in terms of meeting technical and regulatory requirements, cost, and schedule, (2) assess the risks in terms of likelihood of occurrence and their impact potential relative to technical performance, ES&H (environment, safety and health), costs, and schedule, and (3) address each risk in terms of suitable risk management measures. Major risk elements were identified for the NIF Project. A risk assessment methodology was developed, which was utilized to rank the Project risks with respect to one another. Those elements presenting greater risk were readily identified by this process. This paper describes that methodology and the results.

Brereton, S.; Lane, M.; Smith, C.; Yatabe, J.

1998-04-02

398

Sandia National Laboratories Institutional Plan: FY 1996--2001  

SciTech Connect

Sandia`s Institutional Plan is by necessity a large document. As their missions have grown and diversified over the past decades, the variety of technical and site activities has increased. The programs and activities described here cover an enormous breadth of scientific and technological effort--from the creation of new materials to the development of a Sandia-wide electronic communications system. Today, there are three major themes that greatly influence this work. First, every federally funded institution is being challenged to find ways to become more cost effective, as the US seeks to reduce the deficit and achieve a balanced federal spending plan. Sandia is evaluating its business and operational processes to reduce the overall costs. Second, in response to the Galvin Task Force`s report ``Alternative Futures for the Department of Energy National Laboratories``, Sandia and the Department of Energy are working jointly to reduce the burden of administrative and compliance activities in order to devote more of the total effort to their principal research and development missions. Third, they are reevaluating the match between their missions and the programs they will emphasize in the future. They must demonstrate that Sandia`s roles--in national security, energy security, environmental integrity, and national scientific and technology agenda support--fit their special capabilities and skills and thus ensure their place in these missions for the longer planning horizon. The following areas are covered here: Sandia`s mission; laboratory directives; programmatic activities; technology partnerships and commercialization; Sandia`s resources; and protecting resources and the community.

NONE

1995-12-31

399

Hospital Discharge Planning: A Guide for Families and Caregivers  

MedlinePLUS

... of your family member both before and after hospitalization; details of the types of care that will be needed; and whether discharge will be to a facility or home. It also should include information on ...

400

34 CFR 303.20 - Individualized family service plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions...early intervention services to an infant or toddler with a disability under this part and the infant's or toddler's family thatâ (a) Is based...

2013-07-01

401

Family Partnership in Transition Planning Packet. Bridging Early Services Transition Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This packet of handouts focuses on the role of the family in easing their child with disabilities from one early childhood educational program to another. Typical items include: reasons for involving families in transition; questions parents ask about "appropriate" placement; planned conversations with parents during the transition process; parent…

Rosenkoetter, Sharon; Shotts, Cynthia

402

The Influence of Parental Socialization Factors on Family Farming Plans of Preadolescent Children: An Exploratory Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous scholarship on farm families emphasizes the importance of socializing children to become farmers. This study is the first to focus on the parental socialization factors that are associated with preadolescent children's attachment to, and plans to take over, the family farm. Forty-seven 7- to 12-year-old children and their farming parents…

Wiley, Angela R.; Bogg, Timothy; Ringo Ho, Moon-Ho

2005-01-01

403

Family Planning Services Available to Migratory Farm Workers in the Mid-Continent Streams.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The information in this directory is designed to promote continuity in family planning services for migrant families in mid-continent streams. It provides professional personnel with a new tool to help meet the distinctive needs of individual migrants. Names, addresses, schedules, methods, and fee information of service agencies (health…

Planned Parenthood--World Population, Austin, TX. Southwest Region.

404

The implementation of integrated mother and child health and family planning services.  

PubMed

Attempts to implement the integration of maternal-child health and family planning programs require careful attention to potential national and international obstacles to such a change. A major constraint is overcoming staff resistance to the simple organizational changes required for integration. Health workers must be convinced that an integrated service will not only benefit patients, but also simplify and systematize clinical procedures. Patient flow plans, outreach services, case records, and supervisory forms must be modified and health staff will require training on maternal-child health care components that are not being provided adequately. The community must be consulted on when and where outreach clinics should be held and intersectoral coordination must be initiated to maximize opportunities for health promotion. Also required is attention to the structure, systems, and priorities of the Ministry of Health and relevant international agencies. Strategies must be devised for utilizing their technical expertise and support without upsetting vested interests. In some cases, programs are given attention based on the availability of international resources rather than recognition of district-level needs. Implementation of pilot health facilities helps to identify feasible approaches and provides a focus for staff training. PMID:9133783

Walley, J

1997-04-01

405

78 FR 26067 - General Management Plan, Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Big Thicket National Preserve, Texas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Big Thicket National Preserve, Texas AGENCY...Statement for the General Management Plan, Big Thicket National Preserve, Texas. DATES...CONTACT: Doug Neighbor, Superintendent, Big Thicket National Preserve, 6044 FM...

2013-05-03

406

75 FR 43528 - Seeking Public Comment on Draft National Health Security Strategy Biennial Implementation Plan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Health Security Strategy Biennial Implementation Plan AGENCY: Department...National Health Security Strategy (NHSS) of the United...upon the NHSS Interim Implementation Guide for the National Health Security Strategy of the United...

2010-07-26

407

75 FR 9924 - Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan for the Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, MT  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Comprehensive Conservation Plan for the Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, MT...no significant impact (FONSI) for the Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife Refuge is available...e-mail). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife Refuge is...

2010-03-04

408

National ignition facility environment, safety, and health management plan  

SciTech Connect

The ES&H Management Plan describes all of the environmental, safety, and health evaluations and reviews that must be carried out in support of the implementation of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Project. It describes the policy, organizational responsibilities and interfaces, activities, and ES&H documents that will be prepared by the Laboratory Project Office for the DOE. The only activity not described is the preparation of the NIF Project Specific Assessment (PSA), which is to be incorporated into the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Stockpile Stewardship and Management (PEIS). This PSA is being prepared by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) with input from the Laboratory participants. As the independent NEPA document preparers ANL is directly contracted by the DOE, and its deliverables and schedule are agreed to separately with DOE/OAK.

NONE

1995-11-01

409

Variables of the Theory of Planned Behavior Are Associated with Family Meal Frequency among Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine associations between Theory of Planned Behavior variables and the family meal frequency. Methods: Fifth-through seventh-grade students (n = 236) completed a self-administered questionnaire in their classrooms. The relationships between Theory of Planned Behavior variables (intention, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived…

Eto, Kumi; Koch, Pamela; Contento, Isobel R.; Adachi, Miyuki

2011-01-01

410

National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) and Planned Research  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. fusion energy sciences program began in 1996 to increase emphasis on confinement concept innovation. The NSTX is being built at PPPL as a national fusion science research facility in response to this emphasis. NSTX is to test fusion science principles of the Spherical Torus (ST) plasmas, which include: (1) High plasma pressure in low magnetic field for high fusion power density, (2) Good energy confinement is a small-size plasma, (3) Nearly fully self-driven (bootstrap) plasma current, (4) Dispersed heat and particle fluxes, and (5) Plasma startup without complicated in board solenoid magnet. These properties of the ST plasma, if verified, would lead to possible future fusion devices of high fusion performance, small size, feasible power handling, and improved economy. The design of NSTX is depicted in a figure. The vessel will be covered fully with graphite tiles and can be baked to 350 C. Other wall condition techniques are also planned. The NSTX facilty extensively utilizes the equipment at PPPL and other reasearch institutions in collaboration. These include 6-MW High Harmonic Fast Wave (HHFW) power at {approx}30 MHz for 5 s, which will be the primary heating and current drive system following the first plasma planned for April 1999, and small ECH systems to assist breakdown for initiation. A plethora of diagnostics from TFTR and collaborators are planned. A NBI system from TFTR capable of delivering 5 MW at 80 keV for 5 s, and more powerful ECH systems are also planned for installation in 2000. The baseline plan for diagnostics systems are laid out in a figure and include: (1) Rogowski coils to measure total plasma and halo curents.

Peng, Yueng Kay Martin [ORNL; Ono, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Kaye, S. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Neumeyer, C. L. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL)

1998-01-01

411

China: the strengthening of family planning at grass-roots level.  

PubMed

An integrated family planning center, i.e., guidance center, was established in 1983 in the Qingbaijiang District of Chengdu to provide family planning publicity and education, contraceptive guidance, effective contraceptive distribution, and family planning training for village workers. The center serves a predominantly rural population of 355,788. The center's staff of 6 medical workers utilizes a variety of educational materials to popularize family planning, healthy births, and to inform the residents about the government's family planning policies, e.g. "Travels of Monkey King to Huanjin Production Brigade," is shown throughout the countryside. Some medical workers remain at the center and furnish medical and contraceptive services on an outpatient basis. Other medical workers travel throughout the countryside delivering family planning and medical services. During the 1st 6 months of operation the traveling medical workers visited 11 towns and 47 villages. They furnished the IUDs to 994 women who currently had 1 child and performed 492 vasectomies on fathers with 2 or more children. Traveling medical workers also trained village workers to distribute contraceptives on a regular basis to all users in their village, to follow-up IUD acceptors, and to provide prenatal care. Combining all these components into 1 program provided an effective, intensive, and inexpensive approach to family planning. Due to the efforts of the center, 91.52% of the 55,869 married fertile couples in the area have accepted birth control. Presently, the center consists of an outpatient office, an information office, and a patient room. There are plans to further strengthen the center by using it as a facility for training technical personnel at the grassroots level in collection and analysis of population information. Eventually the center will be equipped to provide more technically advanced contraceptive services. PMID:12313217

Zhang, Q

1984-01-01

412

Chlamydia Positivity Trends Among Women Attending Family Planning Clinics: United States, 2004-2008  

PubMed Central

Background Annual chlamydia screening is recommended for all sexually active women aged <25 years. Substantial limitations exist in ascertaining chlamydia trends. Reported case rates have increased likely due to increased screening and improved test technology. Other data suggest that prevalence has decreased. Methods Data from the Infertility Prevention Project (IPP), a national chlamydia screening program, were used to assess trends in chlamydia positivity from 2004 to 2008 among women aged 15 to 24 years who were tested in family planning clinics reporting data to IPP. Using the clinic as the unit of analysis, a correlated, longitudinal data analysis with a random intercept was conducted among clinics reporting ?3 years of data during the analysis time-frame. Sensitivity analyses were performed to address the impact of various clinic participation levels in addition to the assessment of various correlation structures. Results Over 5 million chlamydia tests were reported to IPP family planning clinics from 2004 to 2008. A majority of tests were conducted among white women (clinic-specific mean: 63.2%, inter-quartile range: 37.6%–91.5%); the clinic-specific mean percent of tests conducted among black women was 17.9% (interquartile range: 0.8%–25.7%). Overall chlamydia positivity from 2004 to 2008 was 7.0%. The odds ratio associated with a single year change (1.00; 95% confidence interval: 0.99, 1.00) suggested that chlamydia positivity did not change from 2004 to 2008, after controlling for clinic-specific population factors (age, race, test usage, and geography). Conclusions Findings support previous analyses suggesting that chlamydia prevalence is not increasing despite apparent increasing rates based on case reports.

Satterwhite, Catherine Lindsey; Grier, LaZetta; Patzer, Rachel; Weinstock, Hillard; Howards, Penelope P.; Kleinbaum, David

2014-01-01

413

Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in women attending a family planning clinic in Papua New Guinea.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women attending a family planning clinic in Papua New Guinea, in the period between April and June 1991. SETTING--The outpatient department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Port Moresby General Hospital, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea, the departments of Dermato-Venereology and Clinical Microbiology of the Erasmus University, Rotterdam, The Netherlands and the National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven, The Netherlands. PATIENTS--A total of 254 consecutive women who attended the family planning clinic at Port Moresby General Hospital, Papua New Guinea were enrolled into this study. METHODS--Cervical infections with C trachomatis were diagnosed using the direct immunofluorescent assay (DFA) and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Serum IgM and IgG antibodies directed against C trachomatis were detected using the enzyme-linked fluorescent assay (ELFA). RESULTS--The prevalence of C trachomatis was 14.6% using the PCR, 9.1% using the DFA and 17.3% when the results of the PCR and the DFA were combined. An elevated IgM titre was observed in 14.2% of the women, whereas 44.1% had an elevated IgG titre. The titres of IgM or IgG were significantly higher in women who were positive using the PCR or the DFA than in those who were negative in both the PCR and the DFA (p = 0.032 and p = 0.0046, respectively). CONCLUSION--Cervical infection by C trachomatis can be considered a major health problem in at least the studied population in Papua New Guinea. The prevalence of C trachomatis infection is at least comparable with that in groups with a high prevalence in industrialized countries. Effective screening and treatment programmes are imperative to combat this problem.

Theunissen, J J; Kariwiga, G; Ossewaarde, J M; van Rijsoort-Vos, J H; Stolz, E; van der Meijden, W I

1995-01-01

414

Local Participation in Development Planning; A Preliminary Study of the Relationship of Community Development to National Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The central issue of this document is the question of how the nation's human resources can be helped to play their most effective role in development and of the extent to which this role includes some share in decision making, both in the preparation of plans and in their implementation. Emphasis is placed on the use of national planning

United Nations, New York, NY. Dept. of Economic and Social Affairs.

415

Family Strengthening Writ Large: On becoming a Nation that Promotes Strong Families and Successful Youth. Policy Brief No. 24  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Culture and systemic change are paramount to achieving significant and long-lasting gains in child and youth wellbeing and, in time, securing the future of our nation. This brief, based on a high-level synthesis of eight years of experience and research in place-based family strengthening, makes the case for a national transformation to a society…

Online Submission, 2007

2007-01-01

416

Group action planning as a support strategy for Hispanic families: parent and professional perspectives.  

PubMed

Focus group interviews were conducted to obtain participants' preliminary reactions to the responsiveness of group action planning, a person-centered planning approach, as a support strategy for Hispanic families of individuals with disabilities. Focus group participants were 38 Hispanic parents of youth/young adults with developmental disabilities and 22 professionals who provided support services to Hispanic youth/young adults with developmental disabilities and their families. Both constituency groups identified advantages and disadvantages of group action planning. We focus our key recommendations on the implications of this information for education and human service systems as well as directions for future research. PMID:10900934

Blue-Banning, M J; Turnbull, A P; Pereira, L

2000-06-01

417

Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Waste Management Program is the protection of workers, the public, and the environment. A vital aspect of this goal is to comply with all applicable state, federal, and DOE requirements. Waste management requirements for DOE radioactive wastes are detailed in DOE Order 5820.2A, and the ORNL Waste Management Program encompasses all elements of this order. The requirements of this DOE order and other appropriate DOE orders, along with applicable Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) rules and regulations, provide the principal source of regulatory guidance for waste management operations at ORNL. The objective of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan is to compile and to consolidate information annually on how the ORNL Waste Management is to compile and to consolidate information annually on how the ORNL Waste Management Program is conducted, which waste management facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, what activities are planned for the forthcoming fiscal year (FY), and how all of the activities are documented.

Not Available

1991-12-01

418

National Program Plan Fuel Cells in Transportation. Executive Summary  

SciTech Connect

Fuel cells are being developed for application in the transportation sector because they will convert hydrogen to electric power at high efficiencies with virtually no detrimental environmental impact. To realize these energy, environmental, and economic benefits, developers of FCVs need to (1) reduce the size and weight of current designs, (2) develop fuel cell propulsion systems with rapid start-up and greater load-following capability, (3) reduce system cost and/or improve performance, and (4) utilize alternative fuels to a large extent. This Plan addresses the FCV-related requirements of the Energy Act, describing a development program for light- and heavy-duty propulsion systems, a basic R&D program on fuel cell technology that is separate from, but feeds into, the system development activities, and supporting analyses. Implementation of the Program Plan by means of industry/government alliances will accelerate the commercialization of FCVs. In the long term, the successful deployment of large numbers of FCVs promises to eliminate the transportation sector as a major contributor to the nation`s environmental problems.

Not Available

1993-02-01

419

Control System Development Plan for the National Spherical Torus Experiment  

SciTech Connect

The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has as one of its primary goals the demonstration of the attractiveness of the spherical torus concept as a fusion power plant. Central to this goal is the achievement of high plasma {beta} ( = 2{micro}{sub 0}

/B{sup 2} a measure of the efficiency of a magnetic plasma confinement system). It has been demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally that the maximum achievable {beta} is a strong function of both local and global plasma parameters. It is therefore important to optimize control of the plasma. To this end a phased development plan for digital plasma control on NSTX is presented. The relative level of sophistication of the control system software and hardware will be increased according to the demands of the experimental program in a three phase plan. During Day 0 (first plasma), a simple coil current control algorithm will initiate plasma operations. During the second phase (Day 1) of plasma operations the control system will continue to use the preprogrammed algorithm to initiate plasma breakdown but will then change over to a rudimentary plasma control scheme based on linear combinations of measured plasma fields and fluxes. The third phase of NSTX plasma control system development will utilize the rtEFIT code, first used on DIII-D, to determine, in real-time, the full plasma equilibrium by inverting the Grad-Shafranov equation. The details of the development plan, including a description of the proposed hardware will be presented.

C. Neumeyer; D. Mueller; D.A. Gates; J.R. Ferron

1999-06-01

420

Project responder: a national technology plan for emergency response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emergency responders are the front line of defense against catastrophic terrorist attacks on US soil. Advanced systems and cutting-edge technologies can increase responders' capabilities, or make their resources go farther in time of crisis, but there is a disconnection of understanding between those who produce the systems and technologies, and those who need them at the local level. Local jurisdictions rarely have a budget to support or influence technology development and acquisition. The laboratories, agencies, universities, or industries that develop these emerging technologies are responding to requirements from different markets (usually larger) than individual local jurisdictions. Indeed, responders may not even know of new technology development, availability, or relevance to responders" needs. Consequently, technology developers have limited insight into what technologies responders need. Local, and even state, budgets by themselves are not sufficiently large or coordinated to influence technology development towards the needs of responders, without the assistance of federal direction and funding. If federal direction and funding of technology is to produce and deliver useful capabilities for local responders, federal technology planners must understand the needs of responders, and develop technology plans to meet those needs. Project Responder's National Technology Plan for Emergency Response provides a foundation and building blocks for technology planning, to focus federal research and development investments toward improving the capabilities of state and local emergency responders.

Pollard, Neal A.; Tuohy, Robert V.; Garwin, Thomas M.; Powell, Maria E.; Royal, Michelle; Singley, George T., III

2004-09-01

421

National Science Foundation Postdoctoral Research Mentoring Plan Requirement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Science Foundation (NSF) Grant Proposal Guide (NSF 09-29) contains new guidance regarding compliance with the mentoring requirement of the America COMPETES Act. NSF Program Staff will review the Postdoctoral Researcher Mentoring Plan Requirement with regard to NSF proposal submissions. Each NSF proposal that requests funding to support postdoctoral researchers must include, as a supplementary document, a description of the mentoring activities that will be provided for such individuals. In no more than one page, the mentoring plan must describe the mentoring that will be provided to all postdoctoral researchers supported by the project, irrespective of whether they reside at the submitting organization, any subawardee organization, or at any organization participating in a simultaneously submitted collaborative project. Examples of mentoring activities include, but are not limited to: career counseling; training in preparation of grant proposals, publications and presentations; guidance on ways to improve teaching and mentoring skills; guidance on how to effectively collaborate with researchers from diverse backgrounds and disciplinary areas; and training in responsible professional practices. The proposed mentoring activities will be evaluated as part of the merit review process under the Foundation's broader impacts merit review criterion. Proposals that include funding to support postdoctoral researchers, and, do not include the requisite mentoring plan will be returned without review.

Lehr, Dana

2010-01-01

422

Family Engagement. National Dropout Prevention Center/Network Newsletter. Volume 20, Number 2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "National Dropout Prevention Newsletter" is published quarterly by the National Dropout Prevention Center/Network. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Family/School Relationships: Relationships That Matter; (2) Program Profile; (3) Engaging Families in the Pathway to College: Lessons From Schools That Are Beating the Odds (Anne T.…

Duckenfield, Marty, Ed.

2008-01-01

423

The National Map 2.0 Tactical Plan: "Toward the (Integrated) National Map"  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The National Map's 2-year goal, as described in this plan, is to provide a range of geospatial products and services that meet the basic goals of the original vision for The National Map while furthering the National Spatial Data Infrastructure that underpins U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) science. To accomplish this goal, the National Geospatial Program (NGP) will acquire, store, maintain, and distribute base map data. The management team for the NGP sets priorities for The National Map in three areas: Data and Products, Services, and Management. Priorities for fiscal years 2008 and 2009 (October 1, 2007 through September 30, 2009), involving the current data inventory, data acquisition, and the integration of data, are (1) incorporating current data from Federal, State, and local organizations into The National Map to the degree possible, given data availability and program resources; (2) collaborating with other USGS programs to incorporate data that support the USGS Science Strategy; (3) supporting the Department of the Interior (DOI) high-priority geospatial information needs; (4) emergency response; (5) homeland security, natural hazards; and (6) graphics products delivery. The management team identified known constraints, enablers, and drivers for the acquisition and integration of data. The NGP management team also identified customer-focused products and services of The National Map. Ongoing planning and management activities direct the development and delivery of these products and services. Management of work flow processes to support The National Map priorities are identified and established through a business-driven prioritization process. This tactical plan is primarily for use as a document to guide The National Map program for the next two fiscal years. The document is available to the public because of widespread interest in The National Map. The USGS collaborates with a broad range of customers and partners who are essential to the success of The National Map, including the science community, State and Federal agencies involved in homeland security, planners and emergency responders at the local level, and private companies. Partner contributions and data remain a primary input and foundation of The National Map. Partnership strategies for each of The National Map's component data themes are outlined in this plan. Because of the importance of The National Map customers, a reassessment of customer needs will be completed during 2008. Results of the assessment will be incorporated into future decisions and priorities. A performance milestone matrix has been developed that contains the full list of milestones, major deliverables, and major tasks. The matrix forms the basis for reporting on accomplishments and issues. However, a number of risks, dependencies, and issues have been identified that could affect meeting milestones in the matrix, such as: the USGS is not the Circular A-16 lead for boundaries, transportation, and structures; availability of sufficient and sustainable funding; availability of Federal workforce and contractors with necessary skills, and numerous competing customer and stakeholder requirements.

Zulick, Carl A.

2008-01-01

424

Estate Planning for Retarded Persons and Their Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for parents and legal guardians of mentally retarded persons, the manual provides guidelines for estate planning. An overview of definitions, causes, and prevalence factors in retardation is followed by reviews of the major financial assistance governmental programs such as Medicare, and Supplemental Security Income, and of legal…

Fruge, Don L.; Green, Karen O.

425

An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of National Park Service Interpretive Planning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2005-2006, the National Park Service Office of Interpretive Planning at Harpers Ferry Center, in collaboration with the author, conducted an evaluation project to (a) assess the appropriateness and quality of specific elements of National Park Service (NPS) interpretive plans, (b) determine where improvements in planning might be made, and (c)…

Wells, Marcella

2008-01-01

426

Nigeria: Selected Studies. Social Science Research for Population and Family Planning Policies and Programme. Research for Action No. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review of Nigerian population and family planning surveys is the first in a series intended to assist social scientists and program personnel in identifying research that can be used in program planning. Twenty-five studies have been selected from a comprehensive bibliography on population and family planning in Nigeria. The selection was…

McWilliam, John; Uche, Chukwudum

427

Family planning management of the floating population in Xi'an city.  

PubMed

This article describes the population of migrants living in Xincheng District of Xi'an City, China. Xincheng district is a commercial center that includes the largest wholesale market in northwest China, Kangfulu Market in Sanfuwan village. The resident population of the district amounts to about 450,000 people. 72,000 additional population are the floating population of migrants, of whom about 50% are women of childbearing age. The district established stringent family planning policies in order to limit unplanned childbearing. Family planning policies were the collaborative work among staff members from departments of industry and commerce, labor, education, finance, public health, civil affairs, family planning, and other related agencies. Management of family planning is based on subdistrict committees, resident committees, and local permanent population. These individuals and groups provide registration for temporary residence, verify birth certificates, establish contraceptive status, and encourage landlords to disseminate birth control information among their tenants. The population around Kangfulu Market includes about 800 permanent residents and about 3000- 6000 migrants. The village authorities provide family planning and medical services free of charge to migrants. Villagers register migrant children in schools and offer business help to the newcomers. These efforts have contributed to fewer births among migrants. PMID:12320649

1996-12-01

428

Awareness, use, and unmet need for family planning in rural northern Nigeria.  

PubMed

Access to quality reproductive health and family planning services remain poor in Nigeria. We present results on family planning awareness and use from a survey of 3,080 women (age 15-49 years) in Jigawa, Katsina, Yobe, and Zamfara States. About 43.0% had heard of any method of contraception whereas 36.6% had heard of any modern method. Overall, 7.0% of all currently married women reported ever using a method of contraception; 4.4% used a modern method and 2.9% used a traditional method. Only 1.3% of women in union (currently married or cohabiting) used modern contraception methods at the time of the survey; 1.3% of women in union used traditional methods. Unmet need for family planning was 10.3%. Low family planning use in the presence of low awareness and low felt need suggests, among other things, a need to increase awareness and uptake and make family planning commodities available. PMID:24558787

Doctor, Henry V; Findley, Sally E; Afenyadu, Godwin Y; Uzondu, Charles; Ashir, Garba M

2013-12-01

429

Unmet Family Planning Need: Differences and Levels of Agreement Between Husband-Wife, Haryana, India  

PubMed Central

Research question: Is there agreement between husbands and wives regarding unmet need of family planning? Hypothesis: The unmet need of family planning is perceived more by women then their husbands. Objective: 1) To ascertain the unmet needs of family planning for husbands and wives. 2) To ascertain the level of agreement between husbands and wives regarding unmet needs of family planning. Design: A cross-sectional survey Setting: Dayalpur village in Intensive field practice area of Comprehensive Rural Health Services project (CRHSP), Ballabgarh, Haryana. Study Period: July 2003- June 2005. Participants included 200 married couples selected by simple random sampling. Statistical Analysis: Level of agreement between husbands and wives was analyzed using Kappa statistics. Results: Unmet need for family planning was 11% (22 out of 200) for husbands and 17.5% (35 out of 200) for wives. The difference was seen both in unmet need for spacing (M-3.5% vs. F-6%) as well as limiting family size (M-7.5% vs. F-11.5%). Overall, 93.5% concordance was observed amongst husbands and wives. In all the cases where disagreement was seen (6.5%), wives reported having unmet need for contraception whereas their husbands perceived none. The unadjusted Kappa statistic was 0.73 and prevalence adjusted Kappa was 0.88. Conclusion: Unmet need for family planning was significantly higher for wives compared to husbands. Despite high degrees of agreement amongst the couples, the nature of disconcordance reinforces the need for policy makers to take into account the perspective of men.

Yadav, Kapil; Singh, Bir; Goswami, Kiran

2009-01-01

430

An integration programme of poverty alleviation and development with family planning.  

PubMed

The State Council (the central government) recently issued a Circular for Speeding Up the Integration of Poverty Alleviation and Development with the Family Planning Programme during the Ninth Five-year Plan (1996-2000). The Circular was jointly submitted by the State Family Planning Commission and the Leading Group for Poverty Alleviation and Development. The document sets the two major tasks as solving the basic needs for food and clothing of the rural destitute and the control of over-rapid growth of China's population. Practice indicates that a close Integration Programme is the best way for impoverished farmers to alleviate poverty and become better-off. Overpopulation and low educational attainments and poor health quality of population in backward areas are the major factors retarding socioeconomic development. Therefore, it is inevitable to integrate poverty alleviation with family planning. It is a path with Chinese characteristics for a balanced population and sustainable socioeconomic development. The targets of the Integration Programme are as follows: The first is that preferential policies should be worked out to guarantee family planning acceptors, especially households with an only daughter or two daughters, are the first to be helped to eradicate poverty and become well-off. They should become good examples for other rural poor in practicing fewer but healthier births, and generating family income. The second target is that the population plans for the poor counties identified by the central government and provincial governments must be fulfilled. This should contribute to breaking the vicious circle of poverty leading to more children, in turn generating more poverty. The circular demands that more efforts should focus on the training of cadres for the Integrated Programme and on services for poor family planning acceptors. PMID:12347920

1997-04-01

431

17 CFR 242.608 - Filing and amendment of national market system plans.  

...and complete version of the plan is posted on a plan Web site or on a Web site designated by plan participants within two business...effective national market system plan shall ensure that such Web site is updated to reflect amendments to such...

2014-04-01

432

Single-Mother Families and Air Pollution: A National Study.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: This study uses tract-level demographic data and toxicity-weighted air pollutant concentration estimates for the continental United States to determine whether (1) single-mother families are overrepresented in environmentally hazardous Census tracts and (2) the percentage of single-mother families in a Census tract is a significant predictor of tract-level toxic concentration estimates. METHODS: After calculating tract-level toxic concentration estimates for the average female-headed family, male-headed family, and married-couple family with and without children, we use fixed-effects regression models to determine whether the percentage of single-mother families in a tract is a significant predictor of tract-level toxic concentration estimates. RESULTS: Single-mother families are overrepresented in environmentally hazardous Census tracts, and the percentage of single-mother families in a tract remains a significant predictor of estimated toxic concentration levels even after controlling for many of the most commonly used variables in the literature. CONCLUSION: Environmental inequality researchers need to broaden their focus beyond race and income to include groups such as single-mother families in their research. PMID:19347054

Downey, Liam; Hawkins, Brian

2008-01-01

433

Diagnostics Plan for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment  

SciTech Connect

The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) is a stellarator-tokamak hybrid seeking to combine the good confinement, high beta and moderate aspect ratio of the tokamak with the quasi-steady-state operation and good stability properties of the stellarator. A preliminary list of measurement requirements, intended to satisfy the needs of the phased research plan, provides the basis for a full complement of plasma diagnostics. It is important to consider this full set, even at this early stage, to assess the adequacy of the stellarator design for diagnostic port access. The 3-D nature of the plasma is a measurement challenge, as is the necessity for high spatial resolution to assess the quality of magnetic surfaces. Other diagnostic requirements include the need for re-entrant views that penetrate the cryostat, for a convenient e-beam probe for field line mapping, and for a diagnostic neutral beam for active spectroscopy.

D. Johnson; T. Brown; H. Neilson; G. Schilling; H. Takahashi; M. Zarnstorff; M. Cole; E. Lazarus; and M. Fenstermacher

2002-07-12

434

National Council of Teachers of English: Lesson Plans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE) has created these classroom-tested lesson plans for teachers working in grades K-12. On the left-hand side of the page, visitors will note four tabs: Elementary, Middle, Secondary, and College. In each section, visitors will find announcements about grants, issue briefs, and information about joining email discussion lists. Visitors won't want to miss the Back to School Ideas area, as it features helpful fact sheets, discussion activities, and information about introducing students to more difficult reading material. There is a great Back to School Booklist in this section as well. Focus on 21st Century Literacies is a key section as it includes activities designed to address teaching in this new millennium such as ââ¬ÃÂOn a Musical Note: Exploring Reading Strategies by Creating a Soundtrack" and "A Collaboration of Sites and Sounds: Using Wikis to Catalog Protest Songs."

2012-01-01

435

USGS: A Plan for a Comprehensive National Coastal Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 30-page plan for a comprehensive national coastal program was crafted by the U.S. Geological Survey and it addresses how to best develop "effective solutions to coastal problems." The executive summary here is a tightly written synopsis of the many issues and goals related to the broad pattern of coastal change across the country, including shoreline erosion, declines in living marine resources, and problems surrounding chemical contamination. Moving on, the document contains regional maps of the United States that identify critical issues for each geographic region, along with proposed study projects. Additionally, the document provides some more detailed information on projects in the San Francisco, Tampa, and Chesapeake Bays. Near the conclusion of the document, visitors can learn about proposed timelines for these various research activities.

436

Comprehensive Conservation Plan: Currituck National Wildlife Refuge, Currituck County, North Carolina.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service prepared this Comprehensive Conservation Plan to guide the management of Currituck National Wildlife Refuge in Currituck County, North Carolina. The plan outlines programs and corresponding resource needs for the next 15...

J. Andrew M. Bryant P. Jerome S. Hamilton T. Cooper

2008-01-01

437

Environmental Assessment/Assessment of Effect: Fire Management Plan, George Washington Carver National Monument, Missouri, 2004.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

National Park Service (NPS) policy requires that any NPS area with combustible vegetation prepare a Fire Management Plan. Four alternatives were considered for the Fire Management Plan: a no-action alternative, two action alternatives, and a no management...

2004-01-01

438

Manual for Assessment and Planning of National ORT (Oral Rehydration Therapy) Programs (1st Edition).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Methods for assessing national oral rehydration therapy (ORT) programs and planning assistance to countries are presented. An outline and rationale for a strategy assessment and development of a PRITECH technical assistance plan are presented first, follo...

J. LeSar P. Harrison A. Buxbaum

1985-01-01

439

Integrating the Lactational Amenorrhea Method into a family planning program in Ecuador.  

PubMed

This paper reports the results of a 12-month implementation study documenting the process of integrating the Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM) into a multiple-method family planning service-delivery organization, the Céntro Médico de Orientación y Planificación Familiar (CEMOPLAF), in Ecuador. LAM was introduced as a family planning option in four CEMOPLAF clinics. LAM was accepted by 133 breastfeeding women during the program's first five months, representing about one-third of postpartum clients. Seventy-three percent of LAM acceptors were new to any family planning method. Follow-up interviews with a systematic sample of 67 LAM users revealed that the method was generally used correctly. Three pregnancies were reported, none by women who were following LAM as recommended. Service providers' knowledge of LAM resulted in earlier IUD insertions among breastfeeding women. Relationships with other maternal and child health organizations and programs were also established. PMID:7940621

Wade, K B; Sevilla, F; Labbok, M H

1994-01-01

440

As the planning for a memorial to Eisenhower moves forward, members of his family raise concerns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Eisenhower as a Barefoot Boy? Family Objects to a Memorial http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/07/arts/design/eisenhower-memorial-by-frank-gehry-draws-objections-from-family.htmlGehry's design for Eisenhower memorial misses the markhttp://www.washingtonpost.com/realestate/gehrys-design-for-eisenhower-memorial-misses-the-mark/2012/01/23/gIQAy22jVQ_story.htmlA Q&A With Susan Eisenhower About the Fight Over Her Grandfather's Memorialhttp://www.washingtonian.com/blogarticles/people/capitalcomment/22381.htmlIn Defense of Frank Gehryhttp://www.washingtonian.com/blogarticles/people/capitalcomment/22617.htmlDwight D. Eisenhower Memorial Commissionhttp://eisenhowermemorial.org/U.S. Commission of Fine Artshttp://www.cfa.gov/Memorials to great men and women can be controversial affairs, and the recent dispute over the Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial in Washington, DC serves as a reminder of such issues. Another planned memorial is coming under close scrutiny, and once again, the proverbial battleground is in the United States capital. Over the past couple of years, the noted designer and architect Frank Gehry has been working on the design for the memorial to President Dwight D. Eisenhower, and the groundbreaking is scheduled to take place this year on the Washington Mall. The current design features Eisenhower as a young boy in Kansas looking at some of his later accomplishments, with a backdrop of the plains of the Sunflower State. These proposed plans do not sit well with some, including his granddaughter, Susan Eisenhower, and the National Civic Art Society, which remarked that "The statue of Ike as a Kansas farmer-boy mocks the president as cornpone in chief, the supreme allied bumpkin." In January, members of the Eisenhower family made their concerns about the design public, and it remains to be seen whether there might be an extension of the comment period regarding the memorial. The preliminary design has already been approved by the United States Commission of Fine Arts, but it must also be approved by the Nati