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Sample records for national family planning

  1. Population and family planning: the particulars of five nations.

    PubMed

    1974-04-01

    Population and family planning in Brazil, Nigeria, the People's Republic of China, Indonesia, and Romania are discussed. Brazil with a population of 100 million and a growth rate of 3% has no explicit population policies. The importation, advertisement, and sale of contraceptives are prohibited, although oral contraceptives and condoms are sold freely over the counter. The Sociedade de Bem Estar Familiar no Brasil (BEMFAM), a private family planning association, provides family planning services. Illegal abortion is a serious health problem in Brazil. Although Nigeria plans to integrate family planning into the overall health and social welfare program of the country, little has been done to implement this policy. There are 80 million people in Nigeria, the population growth rate is 2.5%, and the groos national product per capita is $140. The main responsibility for providing family planning services rests with the private organization, the Family Planning Council of Nigeria (FPCN). Illegal abortion is a serious problem in Nigeria. China's family planning program is 1 of the most comprehensive and effective in the world. Family planning services are delivered through China's extensive health network. There are an estimated 800 million people in China, and its growth rate is between 1.9% and 2.2%. The gross national product per capita is $160. In Indonesia, the government has launched an ambitious and well-organized family planning program with the Indonesian Planning Parenthood Association (IPPA). The government, which has supported family planning since 1968, has allocated $8 million of its own funds, to be matched with $6 million in foreign assistance for 1974. There are 130 million people in Indonesia, the population growth rate is between 2% and 2 1/2%, and the gross national product per capita is $80. Similar to other East European countries, Romania has an explicit policy of encouraging couples to have more children. Its population is 20 million, the growth rate is 1.1%, and the gross national product per capita is $740. In 1966, the government restricted abortion to medical grounds for women already having 4 or more children. The sale of contraceptives is illegal. There are no organized family planning activities, but contraceptive services are available at some hospitals. PMID:12276745

  2. The National Family Planning Program: its impact on perinatal mortality.

    PubMed

    Arshat, H; Kader, H A; Ali, J; Noor Laily Abu Bakar

    1984-12-01

    The aim of this investigation is to study the effect of family planning on declining maternal and infant mortality rates in Malaysia since the National Family Planning Program began operation in May, 1967. Data were derived from the registration of vital events and reports from the Malaysian Family Life Survey conducted in 1978, and demonstrate declines in maternal and infant mortality rates. Although this is a result of a combination of factors (e.g., socioeconomic development, high quality health and medical services) the contribution of family planning is significant. Between 1957 and 1980 the maternal mortality rate declined by 80%. High risk births declined from 10.2% to 8.2% for mothers under age 20, and from 15% to 13.7% for mothers over age 35 during the 1967-1977 decade. From 1955 - 1980 the infant mortality rate declined by 68.2% to a level of 24.9/1000 live births; this may be partly due to the shift to lower order births (and therefore low risk) as a result of better family planning. Perinatal mortality declined 6.7% in the pre-implementation years (1957 - 1967) and 19.8% in the post-implementation years (1967 - 1977). Low birthweight is a significant correlate of infant survival, and data from this study indicate that birthweights increase with maternal age up to 30-34 years, then begin to decrease. Birthweights are also lower (and infant mortality higher) for babies born at birth intervals of less than 15 months. Therefore, concerted efforts in family planning education need to be directed to vulnerable groups such as young mothers (under 19) and older mothers (over 40). PMID:12280343

  3. [The National Conference of Propaganda Work on Family Planning held Beijing].

    PubMed

    Ma, B

    1983-01-29

    The National Conference on Propaganda Work in Family Planning, held in Beijing from November 1-6, 1982, was sponsored by the the Propaganda Department of the Chinese Communist Party Central Committee and the National Family Planning Committee. Among the 136 participants were representatives from various provincial, city, and autonomous region propaganda and family planning units, the General Political Department of the People's Liberation Army, general trade unions, All China Women's Federation, Communist Youth League, and propaganda reporters. The purpose of the conference was to discuss how to organize family planning propaganda in meeting China's goal of limiting the population to 1,200,000,000 by 2000, and how to arrange a Family Planning Propaganda Month for early 1983. The Chairman of the National Family Planning Committee made 3 points: family planning is a basic national policy, greater propaganda efforts must be made towards peasant family planning, and everyone must work hard to create a new situation in family planning work. The Vice Minister of the Propaganda Department remarked that family planning propaganda was foremost among the 12 national propaganda topics; these sentiments were supported totally by the representatives of the women and youth groups. The Vice Chairman of the Advisory Committee of the Central Committee said that family planning work was longterm, and that its success lay in the countryside. Finally, the Vice Chairman of the National Family Planning Committee encouraged all delegates to take the spirit of the conference back to their home. During the conference delegates also met to discuss important points in planning the Family Planning Propaganda Month. PMID:12312938

  4. Measurement and evaluation of national family planning programs.

    PubMed

    Mauldin, W P

    1967-03-01

    RESUMEN: En los últimos quince años diez paises han inaugurado programas nacionales de planeamiento familiar: India, Pakistán, Corea del Sur, Taiwan, Turquía, Malasia, Ceilán, Túez, la República Arabe Unida, y Marruecos. Otros paises, incluyendo Tailandia, Hong Kong, Singapur, Kenya, Barbados, Trinidad y los Estados Unidos, apoyan y/o estimulan actividades de planeamiento familiar. En la mayor parte de los casos la razón fundamental del programa ha sido que si la tasa de crecimiento poblacional disminuyera, aumentaría la tasa de crecimiento económico.Las metas de largo alcance, expresadas típicamente en términos de reducir las tasa.de de natalidad o de crecimiento, tienen su ejemplo en el propósito de Pakistán de reducir su tasa de crecimiento a 26 para 1970; el de Corea de reducir su tasa de natalidad a 20 para 1971; y el de India de reducir su tasa de natalidad a 25 para 1973.Los objectivos intermedios, que cubren diversos aspectos del pro grama, incluyen metas específicas para un determinado mes a año, considerando personal, la adquisición de anticonceptivos, y el número de usarios por método. Las metas específicas anuales de aceptantes de dispositivos intrauterinos (IUD), para Taiwán, Corea, Túnez, Pakistán e India, son comunes, tanto por la naturaleza del artefacto, como por la facilidad de medición de los que continúan utilizándolos. El programa de evaluación en Taiwán, que trata de medir por diversos medios los efectos inmediatos, mediatos y de largo plazo del programa de planeamiento familiar sirve de modelo. El propósito de la evaiuación de un programa de planeamiento familiar es contribuir a la efectividad y eficiencia del programa, midiendo y analizando su progreso. Las áreas a medir pueden ser clasificadas como- (1) conocimiento acerca de; (2) actitudes hacia; (3) práctica de control de natalidad; y (4) nivel de fecundidad.Un buen sistema de evaluación debería incluir: A. Un buen conjunto de estadísticas de servicio presentadas en formularios estandarizados, en las siguienies formas: 1. Informes nensuales por áreas administrativas, sobre los actuales servicios de planeamiento familiar proporcionados en la actualidad, de carácter permanente o de larga duración (al presente, esterilización y IUD de acuerdo a las siguientes características del receptor: residencia, edad, paridad (número de hijos vivos por sexo), y donde se enteró del programa, si es posible "clase";(probablemente educación de la madre, pero posiblemente ocupación del esposo, ingreso, o equivalente); prácticas anticonceptivas anteriores; intervalo; y deseo de tener más hijos. En un programa grande estos datos pueden obtenerse en base a una muestra. 2. Informes mensuales sobre la distribución de suministros anticonceptivos (condones, píldoras, sustancias efervescentes, etc.), los primeros suministros deben ir acompañados de un registro de las características del recipiente, como anteriormente; los suministros subsecuentes se regietrarán sólo en volumen bruto. Esto también se aplicará al ritmo, donde éste método se enseñe a un número considerable de mujeres. 3. Informes regulares sobre las actividades de planeamiento familiar de médicos privados, como una estimación del efecto catalítico del programa del gobierno sobre ci sector privado. 4. Datos generates mensuales, ppr áreas admirtistrativas importantes, sabre: visitas domiciliarias, reuniones, cuñas radiates y televisadas, avisos en los periódicos y personal que trabaja. 5. Para propósitos de seguimiento una entrevi eta de campo cada 6 a 12 meses a cada N mujer de las listas para (1) y (2) arriba, en un total de 300 o 400, para conocer las tasas de continuación y las razones de abandono (ej: desea otro hijo, insatisfecha can ci método, otras). Las mue.stras podrían ser de 300 cada una, con una supuesta experiencia de 6, 12, 18 y 24 meses. B. Un buen conjunto de datos sobre costa (datos sobre cotos actulaes atribuíbles directamente al programa de planeamiento familiar) fraccionados par áreas principales y cinco a seis categorías de costos importantes tales coma: adminietración, personal de campo, publicidad, suministros, etc. C. Un buen conjunto de dates globales sobre la distribución de los suministros comerciales que puedan llegar tan cerca como sea posible del último consumidor, to cual significa probablemente obtener información de los mayoristas. D. Una encuesta de conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas (KAP) para una evaluación general cada dos años. Las preguntas básicas (además de las antes mencionadas y estatus marital y étnico cuando sea pertinente) son: actitud hacia e interés por la anticoncepción, número de niños por sexo, deseo de tener más hijos, prácticas anticonceptivas, experiencia sobre abortos, tal vez historia de embarazo (especialmente si esta producirá una tasa de fecundidad válida), aprobación del programa gubernamental (para uso politico), y si está actualmente embarazada (la única y mejor pregunta cuya respuesta habla del efecto sobre la tasa de natalidad). Administrativamente, la responsabilidad por la evalucion debe estar cerca al director, se debe tomar provisiones para obtener informes regulares (meneulaes) y especiales dirigidos a preguntar sobre política. El corolario es que el jefe de evaluación debe tener la confianza del director y debe estar al día en cuanto a las decisiones sabre la politics a seguir. Su trabajo consiste en extractar los aspectos principales que funcionan bien y los no operantes. En cuanto a costos, la evaluación debe hacerse sobre no más del 10 par ciento del costa del programa en paises pequeños (de menos de 30 milliones) y sabre no más del 5 per ciento en paises más grandes.Para medir en que forma el programa satisface el criterio final-la magnitud en que cambia la fecundidad-se debe realizar un trabajo más elaborado en el centro (Universidades, Consejos de población, etc.) para desarrollar una forma (a formas) segura de traducir las estadísticas de servicio en práticas y tal vez aún datos sobre suministro comercial en datos sabre tasas de natalidad. Esto incluye, par ejemplo, los esfuerzos para consolidar observaciones coma "cinco años-mujer de usa de IUD, a 400 condones equivalen a la prevención de un nacimiento," y esfuerzos como los de Pakistán de calcular tasas coma "años de protección de una pareja contra el embarazo."In the belief that a decrease in the rate of population growth will increase economic development, more than ten countries have inaugurated family planning programs in the past fifteen years. To provide a model for measuring the immediate, intermediate, and long-term effects of any such program, the authors use the Taiwan evaluation.The model suggests that a good system of evaluation should include monthly statistics on (1) participants, who are grouped by characteristics; (2) the distribution of supplies, reported at first by the characteristics of recipients, but after by gross volume only; (3) family planning activities of private physicians to measure the catalytic effect on the private sector; (4) new contacts and amount of advertising in mass media; (5) costs broken down by areas and by cost categories; and (6) distribution of commercial supplies. In addition, the program should conduct 300-400 interviews every 6-12 months to learn the rates of continuation and the rates and reasons for discontinuation. Finally, a KAP survey should be conducted every two years.The administration of the evaluation should be close to the director for policy decisions and for the ultimate work of evaluation-the finding of new ways to measure the main goal of change in fertility by the translation of statistics on Services provided and commercial supplies into birth rate data. PMID:21279762

  5. The National Reporting System for Family Planning Services--a new look.

    PubMed

    Dryfoos, J G

    1980-01-01

    The National Reporting System for Family Planning Services may be dismantled or further weakened, making the program less visible and less accountable. A strengthened, full-count system is needed, making efficient use of the 42 intermediate data systems that are now in place. PMID:7439342

  6. Aiming for quality in Iran's national family planning program - two decades of sustained efforts.

    PubMed

    Eslami, Mohammad; d'Arcangues, Catherine

    2016-03-01

    The Iranian family planning program was relaunched in 1989 to improve maternal and child health. As coverage was extended throughout the country, it had the challenge to achieve harmonization and improve and maintain quality of care. Five strategies were put in place: (1) expand the method mix, (2) standardize provider training through the adoption of national norms and guidelines, (3) facilitate and harmonize service provision, (4) improve integration of family planning in family health services and (5) address myths and misconceptions surrounding contraception in the general population. This was supported by regular monitoring and evaluation. To date, this program is regarded as one of the most successful programs worldwide. While the direct impact of these quality improvements is difficult to evaluate, it is believed to have built the trust that family planning clients place in the program. Challenges remain, particularly facing a total fertility rate below replacement level nationally and providing quality services to an ever-growing peri-urban population. PMID:26593406

  7. Use of Services for Family Planning and Infertility, United States, 1982. (Data from the National Survey of Family Growth, Series 23, No. 13).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Marjorie C.; Mosher, William D.

    1986-01-01

    The National Survey of Family Growth is a periodic survey conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics, and designed to produce national estimates of statistics on fertility, family planning, and aspects of maternal and child health that are closely related to childbearing. This report presents statistics based on data collected in the…

  8. Family planning education.

    PubMed

    Hamburg, M V

    1983-02-01

    17 days were spent devoted to the effort of learning about China's educational approach to family planning in the hope of discovering how they are achieving their remarkable success in reducing population growth. As a member of the 1981 New York University/SIECUS Colloquim in China, it was necessary to rely on the translation provided by the excellent guides. Discussions were focused on questions prepared in advance about the topics that concerned the group. These observations, based on a short and limited exposure, cover the following areas: marriage and family planning policies; the family planning program; school programs; adult education; family planning workers; and unique aspects of the program. China has an official position on marriage and family planning that continues to undergo revisions. The new marriage law sets the minimum ages of marriage at 22 for men and 20 for women. Almost everyone marries, and an unmarried person over age 28 is a rarity. The family planning program in China is carried out by an extensive organizational network at national, provincial, and local government levels. Officials termed it a "propaganda campaign." Hospitals, clinics, and factories invariably displayed posters; a popular set of four presents the advantages of the 1 child family as follows: late marriage is best, for it allows more time to work and study; 1 child is best for the health of the mother; one gets free medical care for his/her child if a family has only 1 child; and there is more time to teach 1 child. The state operated television regularly explains the 1 child policy utilizing special films. According to 1 family planning official, "before marriage there is little sex." There are few abortions for unmarried women. Education about sex is for adults, for those persons who are about to be married. There is little if any sex education in schools. Sexual teaching is not generally acceptable, especially in the rural areas. By contrast, in Shanghai the physiology teaching in the middle school does include sex education and reproduction. Sex information for adults is offered at the time of marriage. Married or about to be married adults are the major target of the state's family planning education effort. The key educators are an extensive network of family planning workers. All hospitals have a family planning office, and there are also family planning workers in the factories. What is unique about the Chinese approach is its use of reward and punishment. PMID:6550674

  9. Effective family planning programs.

    PubMed

    Rosenfield, A G

    1973-01-01

    Organizational and content features of various national family planning programs are reviewed. The Thai program is cited as an example of a family planning program organized on a massive unipurpose compaign basis. The Korean and Taiwan programs have utilized special field workers while upgrading the general health care network. 3 major problems with family planning programs are: 1) the lack of experience with such programs; 2) lack of commitment at the highest political levels; and 3) medical conservatism. Utilization of all available contraceptive methods instead of reliance on 1 method would improve most programs. Nursing and auxiliary personnel could be trained to take over the work of physicians in family planning programs. This is already being done with IUD insertion and pill prescription in several programs. The postpartum tubal ligation approach has proven effective and should be extended. There is a place in all national programs for both the private and the commercial sectors. Incentives for clinics, personnel, and acceptors might spread family planning more rapidly. PMID:12309877

  10. Iowa Family Planning Program.

    PubMed

    Adams, C S

    1982-04-01

    Increasing national acceptance of family planning was reflected in Iowa by the designation of the Iowa State Department of Health as the grantee recipient which would administer the statewide family planning program. In October 1980 6 agencies established a separate umbrella grantee. The Iowa family planning program administered by the State Department of Health covers 60 counties through contracts with 12 local agencies representing 5 organizations: Community Action Programs, Planned Parenthoods, Independent Health Agencies, hospitals and a private social service agency. Each agency provides services to a specific geographic area. The Department allocates funds, establishes the scope of the program, evaluates programs, provides training and technical assistance, and assumes fiscal and programmatic accountability. Funding regulations require the program to provide a broad range of medically approved family planning methods including natural family planning and services including infertility and adolescent services on a voluntary basis. Abortion may not be a method of family planning, and priority must be given to low income individuals with charges to others based on ability to pay. Medical services are under the supervision of physicians trained in family planning. Local agencies have staffing patterns and service delivery mechanisms appropriate for their service areas, but significant standardization in services directed toward establishing cost indicators has occurred since 1977. Each agency collects Title XIX, Title XX, patient fees, and in-kind support; support by the Department from federal funds varied from 19% to 89% of their overall budgets. 25,124 users, 76% low income, were served in 1981. Each full-program patient receives family planning counseling, general medical history, laboratory services, physical exam, and provision of contraceptive supplies or level 1 infertility services. Average cost to the state for seeing each patient is $60. The computerized patient service record system has helped to assess and improve clinic operation. Regional workshops coordinated or provided by the state program have been held in program management, natural family planning, services to the disabled, infertility services, and interpersonal skills counseling. The program was successful in 1980 in regional and national competition for special initiative grants. PMID:7097049

  11. Family Health and Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This document is made up of a selection of some of the papers distributed to participants in courses on "Family Health and Family Planning" which have been organized each year since 1973 by the International Children's Center and the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. Six courses, held between 1973 and 1978, brought together a

  12. Family Health and Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This document is made up of a selection of some of the papers distributed to participants in courses on "Family Health and Family Planning" which have been organized each year since 1973 by the International Children's Center and the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. Six courses, held between 1973 and 1978, brought together a…

  13. [Changing pattern of National Family Planning and Fertility Survey in Korea].

    PubMed

    Kim, S K; Kong, S K

    1991-12-01

    The authors review the evolution since the 1960s of South Korea's family planning and fertility survey programs. "In the 1960s, research was interested in respondents' contraception knowledge and practice rate and in the relationships between contraceptive knowledge and the practice rate....[The] major research emphasis in the 1970s and 1980s was measuring fertility and finding obstacles or problems to family planning projects." Recommendations for future research are made. (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12179747

  14. National program for family planning and primary health care Pakistan: a SWOT analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The National Program for Family Planning and Primary Healthcare was launched in 1994. It is one of the largest community based programs in the world, providing primary healthcare services to about 80 million people, most of which is rural poor. The program has been instrumental in improving health related indicators of maternal and child health in the last two decades. Methods SWOT analysis was used by making recourse to the structure and dynamics of the program as well as searching the literature. SWOT analysis Strengths of the program include: comprehensive design of planning, implementation and supervision mechanisms aided by an MIS, selection and recruitments processes and evidence created through improving health impact indicators. Weaknesses identified are slow progress, poor integration of the program with health services at local levels including MIS, and de-motivational factors such as job insecurity and non-payment of salaries in time. Opportunities include further widening the coverage of services, its potential contribution to health system research, and its use in areas other than health like women empowerment and poverty alleviation. Threats the program may face are: political interference, lack of funds, social threats and implications for professional malpractices. Conclusion Strengthening of the program will necessitate a strong political commitment, sustained funding and a just remuneration to this bare foot doctor of Pakistan, the Lady Health Worker. PMID:24268037

  15. The Progress of Nations: The Nations of the World Ranked Acording to Their Achievements in Health, Nutrition, Education, Family Planning, and Progress for Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Peter, Ed.

    This report documents the progress made in developing and developed nations to improve health, nutrition, education, family planning, and the condition of women over the last 40 years. It presents tables that rank the world's nations and regions on: (1) the mortality rate of children under 5 years of age; (2) the percent of children under 5 years…

  16. State of family planning.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Courtney A; Traxler, Sarah

    2015-06-01

    Family planning and reproductive health services are uniquely impacted by policy and politics in the United States. Recent years have witnessed an unprecedented number of abortion restrictions, and research funding has decreased in related areas. Despite this, both the science and the implementation of improved family planning and abortion methods have progressed in the past decade. This article reviews the current state of family planning, as well as technologies and patient care opportunities for the future. PMID:25860324

  17. Educating Adults in Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mezirow, Jack

    1972-01-01

    The concept of adult education for family planning is examined, and a strategy for program development in developing nations is suggested. Experience suggests that learning in groups is generally the most effective means for changing attitudes and behavior, but the skills necessary for participation in learning groups outside family and

  18. Concepts of family planning.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, C W

    1978-01-01

    Family planning, often equated with birth control consists in the broadest sense of numerous issues and factors. Planning, according to the author entails realistic assessment of ones ability to plan plus recognizing the limitations inherant in planning. The following determinents of parenthood are additional factors one must consider when discussing concepts of family planning: 1) the system of relationships among groups of individuals with differing roles and expectations; 2) values toward family size and parenthood; 3) the concept of parenthood as a career. Successful family planning is often a result of perceiving the goal of planning as either termination of further childbearing or spacing of births; and 4) psychosocial and economic aspects of contraception. The author finally suggests that there are acceptable alternatives to biological parenthood. PMID:255395

  19. Family planning in industrial units.

    PubMed

    1970-01-01

    The Family Planning Association of Pakistan conducted a survey of existing Family Planning Services in industrial units in cooperation with the Government of Pakistan, Family Planning Division. In East Pakistan the Association in cooperation with the Family Planning Council selected 3 areas for this survey, in Khulna a Jute Mill, in Sylhet a Tea Estate, and in Naryangnaj (a suburb of Dacca), a cotton mill. The purpose of the survey was to ascertain the extent of the knowledge, attitude, and practice of family planning in an industrial sample in the context of the national family planning program. A further objective was to explore the possibilities of establishing family planning motivational centers in industrial units. This was the first study of its kind undertaken in Pakistan. Monogamy is the practice among the industrial laborers. 83.99% of the respondents married once only, and 97.4% have 1 wife currently with them. The mean number of years of married life is 12.88 years. The estimated mean age of all respondents is 37.2 years. At present the mean number of living children is 4.08, 2.13 boys and 1.95 girls. The desired number of children is 4.35, 1.76 girls and 2.59 boys. 69.98% of the respondents have knowledge of family planning, and level of education is closely associated. Vasectomy is the best known method followed by tubal ligation. Of the 1349 respondents, 735 or 55.97% were in favor of family planning. Only 54 persons or 4% are currently using family planning methods. It is clear from the survey that a great number of laborers are aware of the family planning program. They are also aware of the family planning methods, their uses, and their necessity. On the basis of the findings the establishment of motivational centers with full family planning services in 3 industrial units is recommended. Registration of the eligible couples for easy identification for giving family planning services and follow-ups is also recommended, and it is suggested that there be continual follow-up studies. PMID:12332197

  20. Singing about family planning.

    PubMed

    Emah, E

    1993-01-01

    The Nigerian Family Health services project teamed up with the Johns Hopkins University's Population Communication Services to produce songs called "Choices" and "Wait for Me." The songs, which were about sexual responsibility, were performed by popular music stars King Sunny Ade and Onyeka Onwenu and appeared under King Sonny Ade's long playing albums in 1989. Teaching sexual responsibility through song was suggested in focus group discussions. Findings indicated that young people were responsive to messages about sexual responsibility, postponing sex or saying "no," male sexual responsibility, and children by informed choice and not chance among married couples. An impact assessment of the songs was conducted in February, 1991. Survey findings revealed that 64% of urban and 22% of rural respondents recalled having heard the songs and seen the videos. 48% of urban youth discussed the songs with friends, and 27% discussed the songs with sexual partners. 90% of respondents reported agreement with the message that couples should have only the number of children that they can care for, and that couples should practice family planning. The target population that was affected most by the songs was aged less than 35 years. The strategy of using songs to teach youth responsible parenting appears to be a reliable strategy for mass education and mobilization. There is mass support from among members of the National Council for Women's Societies, the Planned Parenthood Federation of Nigeria, and Coca Cola Corporation, as well as the public at large. PMID:12318626

  1. Nationalism, race, and gender: the politics of family planning in Zimbabwe, 1957-1990.

    PubMed

    West, M O

    1994-12-01

    In line with a general tendency of nationalists to hold pro-natalist views, African nationalists in Zimbabwe took a hostile position to family planning upon its introduction in 1957, arguing that it was part of a conspiracy to control the black population. However, it was only after the unilateral declaration of independence in 1965 by the white settlers under Ian Smith that an official policy aimed at reducing African fertility emerged. The African nationalists waged a consistent propaganda campaign against this policy, and the facilities that were established under it, as well as their personnel, became military targets during the guerrilla war in the late 1970s. After independence in 1980, the triumphant nationalists tried to maintain their pro-natalist position. But, with a postwar 'baby boom' pushing the birth rate close to four per cent by the mid-1980s, the officials in charge of economic and social development concluded that society could not sustain such a high fertility rate. Consequently, there was a reversal of policy, and by 1990 Zimbabwe had become an internationally recognized leader of family planning among developing countries. For the most part, however, these changes have taken place without any real input by African women, who remained largely excluded from the male-dominated circles in which decisions about family planning were made. PMID:11639476

  2. Why family planning matters.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, U D; Robey, B

    1999-07-01

    This Population Reports issue focuses on family planning and the importance of advocacy in family planning programs. Key evidences supporting family planning programs are summarized. This article presents the importance of advocacy for the improvement of the family planning programs in developing countries. Advocacy for family planning is becoming crucial as demand for reproductive health care grows. As many as 600 million people have used contraception, and millions more would do so with better access to good-quality services. Although fertility levels are falling in much of the world, rapid population growth remains a critical issue in most developing countries. This is where advocacy is very much needed. Through advocacy, many individuals and countries will benefit especially in the area of family planning. The benefits include saving the lives of women and children; offering women more choices; and encouraging adoption of safer sexual behavior. Through effective family planning programs, population growth will also be affected. Slower population growth helps protect the environment and it aids development. PMID:10730298

  3. The Progress of Nations: The Nations of the World Ranked According to Their Achievements in Child Health, Nutrition, Education, Family Planning, and Progress for Women, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Progress of Nations, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This report brings together the latest available statistics on national achievements in child survival, health, nutrition, education, family planning, and progress for women. Each section contains a commentary, a presentation of related statistics, and a discussion on achievement and disparity. The sections are: (1) Introduction, "Social Goals and

  4. The Progress of Nations: The Nations of the World Ranked According to Their Achievements in Child Health, Nutrition, Education, Family Planning, and Progress for Women, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Peter, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This report brings together the latest available statistics to record national achievements in child survival, health, nutrition, education, family planning, and progress for women. Each section contains a commentary and a presentation of related statistics. The commentaries of the report are: (1) Introduction, "One Small Step for a Summit" (Peter…

  5. Estimating family planning coverage from contraceptive prevalence using national household surveys

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Aluisio J. D.; Boerma, Ties; Hosseinpoor, Ahmad R.; Restrepo-Mndez, Mara C.; Wong, Kerry L. M.; Victora, Cesar G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Contraception is one of the most important health interventions currently available and yet, many women and couples still do not have reliable access to modern contraceptives. The best indicator for monitoring family planning is the proportion of women using contraception among those who need it. This indicator is frequently called demand for family planning satisfied and we argue that it should be called family planning coverage (FPC). This indicator is complex to calculate and requires a considerable number of questions to be included in a household survey. Objectives We propose a model that can predict FPC from a much simpler indicator contraceptive use prevalence for situations where it cannot be derived directly. Design Using 197 Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and Demographic and Health Surveys from 82 countries, we explored least-squares regression models that could be used to predict FPC. Non-linearity was expected in this situation and we used a fractional polynomial approach to find the best fitting model. We also explored the effect of calendar time and of wealth on the models explored. Results Given the high correlation between the variables involved in FPC, we managed to derive a relatively simple model that depends only on contraceptive use prevalence but explains 95% of the variability of the outcome, with high precision for the estimated regression line. We also show that the relationship between the two variables has not changed with time. A concordance analysis showed agreement between observed and fitted results within a range of 9 percentage points. Conclusions We show that it is possible to obtain fairly good estimates of FPC using only contraceptive prevalence as a predictor, a strategy that is useful in situations where it is not possible to estimate FPC directly. PMID:26562141

  6. Redefining family planning programs.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The Population Council's issue paper entitled Reconsidering the Rationale, Scope, and Quality of Family Planning Programs calls on family planning programs to focus only on reducing unwanted fertility by helping people meet their own reproductive goals safely and ethically. Many family planning programs have been wrongly handed the extra responsibility of reducing wanted fertility. They have therefore used inappropriate means (e.g., incentives, quotas, and coercion) to boost contraceptive prevalence. If programs do focus on reducing unwanted fertility, they will foster reductions in overall fertility and population growth as well as improvements in clients' health and well-being. A new framework has emerged from this shift in rationale. It sets the stage for expanding the scope, improving the quality, and assessing the impact of family planning programs in terms of client choice, health, and well-being. A program needs to determine the range and quality of family planning services it provides at the local level. Local program managers, policymakers, and consumer interest groups should establish minimum or achievable standards of service based on the local health care capacity. Program items that should be assessed include choice of methods, information for clients, technical competence, interpersonal relations, mechanisms to encourage continuity of care, and appropriate constellation of services. The Population Council has conducted rapid appraisals of the quality of care of family planning services to help local program managers to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of their programs. The HARI (Helping Individuals Achieve their Reproductive Intentions) Index measures a program's success in helping clients safely prevent unwanted or unplanned pregnancy. Program managers can conduct a self-assessment that revolves around answering four questions. Family planning services are an important social investment and are essential to development. PMID:12288915

  7. Field Experiments of Family Planning Incentives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Everett M.

    A review of four quasi-experiments on family planning incentives in three Asian nations is presented, and a multi-national comparative field experiment on family planning incentives is proposed. Experiments include: (1) The Ernakulam vasectomy campaigns, (2) Indian Tea Estates retirement bond incentive program, (3) Taiwan educational bond

  8. [Mobile family planning units].

    PubMed

    1995-12-01

    The family planning organization Profamilia established its mobile clinic program in 1976 with the purpose of reaching remote rural and urban areas with voluntary surgical contraceptive services. The success of the mobile clinical-surgical program depends on surveying the area where the work is to be provided, determining the date of activities to start, providing information and education to motivate the community, selecting the contraceptive method and service, and providing follow-up service after the intervention. Profamilia was founded in September 1965, and 30 years later it provides 70% of family planning services in Colombia. Initially, the mobile programs of Profamilia offered only voluntary surgical contraception for women and men. Clients who were far from a family planning center were reached by the mobile clinic and transported to a nearby center. Since 1992 Profamilia has also begun a mobile program with a wide variety of services: temporary methods of family planning, cervical-uterine cytological tests, gynecological and prenatal consultations, infertility tests, and pregnancy tests. This has allowed the recovery of the costs of the program to increase from 50% when only surgical services were offered to 85% currently. This effort is one of the reasons why Colombia has a contraceptive prevalence rate of 72%, one of the highest in Latin America. PMID:12347403

  9. A family planning miracle.

    PubMed

    Aiyer, M S

    1993-10-01

    1991 data indicate that Tamil Nadu has achieved zero population growth. This feat has been accomplished not through the efforts of a concerned and committed family planning program, but as a side effect of a statewide elementary school lunch program launched by the new Chief Minister in 1977. Anyone attending school was guaranteed at least one nutritious meal per day. Children attended schools, schools proliferated, teachers were hired, and students were educated. Many students ate only part of their meals, and offered the rest to younger siblings at home. The positive nutritional effects of the program therefore filtered to children both in and out of school. In addition to teachers, local women were hired to cook the meals. They were compensated for their work in both monetary terms and by taking some of the excess school food back to their homes for later consumption. Maternal and child nutrition benefitted from this program, while children, especially female children, stayed in school for more years than they may have otherwise. a healthier, better educated cohort of girls matured into young women capable of reading and following the prescriptions of widespread family planning messages disseminated by the Chief Secretary of the state who was obsessed about family planning. A functioning system of elementary education remains in Tamil Nadu which continues to influence fertility. The author believes that the success in reducing population growth in Tamil Nadu can and must be replicated in all states of India. PMID:12288800

  10. A family quarrel? "Developmentalism" or family planning.

    PubMed

    Carder, M

    1974-01-01

    The switch in emphasis in population policies from family planning to the development of socioeconomic policies that would encourage smaller families--summed up in the word "developmentalism"--is charted from a 1967 paper by Kinsley Davis to its culmination at the 1974 World Population Conference, when even as staunch a supporter of family planning as John D. Rockefeller came out in support of placing population policy in the context of economic and social development. The real question is, however: To what extent does developmentalism represent a true shift in policy and how much is simply a more sophisticated rhetoric designed to deflect the growing opposition to population control? On the one hand, the endorsement by a man of Rockefeller's stature indicates a significant change. On the other, the changes which the implementation of developmentalism would entail seem irreconcilable with the present political and economic structures of underdeveloped nations and of relations between them and the more developed countries. Further, developmentalism is neither as progressive as its advocates suggest, nor as threatening as its opponents cry. It is, in fact, a prescription for enhancing the effectiveness of family planning through a form of social engineering from the top; its details--more aid, investment, and trade--would involve an expanded Western role in the Third World. It is even suggested that developmentalism might be a cover for the creation of a more stratified society, where marginal members are restricted to their own quarters in an effort to secure political stability and economic growth. In the end, developmentalism might be shortlived, as pressure to step up birth control programs is felt from many quarters. PMID:12307032

  11. Why family planning matters.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jeffrey T

    2011-06-01

    Family planning is one of the principle tools of human development. Ensuring that all babies are wanted and planned reduces health care and social costs. Human numbers will increase to 11 billion by the end of this century, and human activities are the leading cause of environmental change that threaten our health and happiness. Therefore, the provision of highly effective contraceptive methods represents an important priority of primary medical care. Since women and men with complicated medical problems remain interested in sex, medical and surgical specialists need to understand how contraception and pregnancy will interact with the underlying condition. This paper discusses the interaction between population growth and the environment, and reviews modern methods of contraception. PMID:21559818

  12. Program planning for family planning services.

    PubMed

    Sieverts, S

    1970-03-01

    This exchange of opinions was occasioned by an article which appeared in the October 1969 Perspectives under the title Family Planning Services in the U.S.: a National Overview, 1968. Mr. Sieverts criticizes the article as follows. The ratio of unmet need claimed to available facilities is considered not properly stated in that all indigent girls and women from their midteens through their midforties do not need such services every year and that clinic services do not represent the total of such services available. Many have no such need. The private physician and hospital clinic provide much service. Development of new services should also consider demands, resources, and alternative solutions. Other health services must also be coordinated. Mr. Jaffe's defense follows. The stated need is an approximation by applying the Dryfoos-Pulgar-Varky (DPV) formula to the 1966 census figures. The need figure which results is about 5 million out of a total of over 8 million poor and near-poor women in the age group 15-44. This estimate is considered reasonably accurate. The number included but not in need is partially offset by some below the age of 18 who are also in need. Poor families have relatively less access to private physicians than others. This is shown by the number of women who deliver their babies on the ward service of hospitals without the presence of a private physician. Also, private physicians tend to give less attention to contraception for low income patients than do clinics. Many women depend on nonmedical and unreliable birth control measures. Family planning is not a one-time educational process. Revisits, continuing supervision, and check-up examinations are advocated particularly for IUD users and those taking pills. With current contraceptive technology adequate family planning services contemplates care extending for most of the patient's reproductive years. Resources require allocation. The study rests on the findings that the poor have a higher incidence of unwanted fertility than the nonpoor with significant adverse health and social consequences for both the individual and society. The study was a systematic attempt to achieve a national goal of providing modern family planning services to all who need and want them but cannot afford private care. PMID:5520626

  13. Family planning is reducing abortions.

    PubMed

    Clinton, H R

    1997-01-01

    This news brief presents the US President's wife's statement on the association between use of family planning and a decline in abortions worldwide. Hillary Rodham Clinton attended the Sixth Conference of Wives of Heads of State and Government of the Americas held in La Paz, Bolivia. The conference was suitably located in Bolivia, a country with the highest rates of maternal mortality in South America. Bolivia has responded by launching a national family planning campaign coordinated between government, nongovernmental, and medical organizations. Half of Bolivian women experience pregnancy and childbirth without the support of trained medical staff. Mortality from abortion complications account for about half of all maternal deaths in Bolivia. Voluntary family planning workers teach women about the benefits of child spacing, breast feeding, nutrition, prenatal and postpartum care, and safe deliveries. Bolivia has succeeded in increasing its contraceptive use rates and decreasing the number of safe and unsafe abortions. Bolivia's program effort was supported by USAID. USAID provided technical assistance and funds for the establishment of a network of primary health care clinics. Mrs. Clinton visited one such clinic in a poor neighborhood in La Paz, which in its first six months of operation provided 2200 consultations, delivered 200 babies, registered 700 new family planning users, and immunized 2500 children. Clinics such as this one will be affected by the US Congress's harsh cuts in aid, which reduce funding by 35% and delay program funding by 9 months. These US government cuts in foreign aid are expected to result in an additional 1.6 million abortions, over 8000 maternal deaths, and 134,000 infant deaths in developing countries. An investment in population assistance represents a sensible, cost-effective, and long-term strategy for improving women's health, strengthening families, and reducing abortion. PMID:12293000

  14. Family Planning in Asia.

    PubMed

    Potts, M

    1970-01-01

    In this article the medical director of IPPF, Dr. Malcolm Potts, reviews some new aspects of family planning as discussed in a regional IPPF conference in 1970 in Tokyo and as he gathered impressions from his travels in Asia. Nearly all Asian countries have governmental family planning programs. However, for the most part, bottlenecks have developed in these programs, and the achievements have been disappointing. The population in Asia is biased towards the younger age groups. Migration makes only a marginal difference. Unemployment is a serious social program which will be magnified by additional labor force. Japan has demonstrated that legal abortion can be a relatively safe procedure while in Korea induced abortion is illegal. Conversely, in Korea oral contraceptives have been successfully distributed in the governmental program while in Japan the method is still not approved by the government. A bill to reform the abortion law is before the Indian parliament. In Mainland China, IUDs, oral contraceptives and condoms are in use; sterilization and abortion are available upon request. PMID:12254734

  15. Family planning opinion leadership in Korea, 1971.

    PubMed

    Palmore, J A; Furlong, M J; Buchmeier, F X; Park, I H; Souder, L M

    1976-12-01

    The characteristics of Korean family planning opinion leaders are assessed through a secondary analysis of the 1971 national survey conducted by the Korean Institute for Research in the Behavioral Sciences. In effect, what characterized Korean family planning opinion leaders was a rather national and democratic model. Those who had tried methods, discussed them, and knew a lot about them assumed leadership roles more than others. Place of residence, education, and other such variables mattered relatively little unless a woman had credibility imparted by actual use and knowledge imparted by use or discussions with family planning professionals. PMID:996899

  16. Family planning for travellers.

    PubMed

    Rustom, A

    1990-11-01

    A public health nurse from London describes the customs of nomadic people in the British Isles, known as "travellers," as they affect provision of family planning services. Most are of British or Irish stock, some migrate and others live in caravan sites all year. Their traditions dictate that men work and women are housewives. Early, often arranged, marriage, early childbearing and large families are the norm. Sex and contraception are not considered appropriate for discussion between the sexes, or in the presence of children. Large families and financial hardship force many women to space pregnancies. Women often have to hide contraceptives from their husbands, difficult in conditions without privacy. Therefore they prefer IUDs, but some use oral contraceptives, although sometimes erratically because most are illiterate. Traveller women are usually unwilling to do self-examination, as needed with IUDs. They often have difficulty attending regular Pap smear clinics. Cervical cancer rates are high. They experience discrimination in clinics, and need extra care about modesty. It is worth while to take time to develop trust in the clinical relationship, to deal with the traveller woman's uneasy among outsiders. PMID:2286082

  17. Bound and gagged: America's family planning network.

    PubMed

    Dryfoos, J G

    1992-01-01

    During the past decade, the number of family planning clinics receiving support from the federal government has fallen from 5,000 to 4,000 despite a growing demand for their services among poor women and teenagers. At the same time, family planning providers have been under regulatory attack, forced to fend off a "squeal rule" aimed at teenagers and to stop a "gag rule" preventing abortion referral. With the climate in Washington unlikely to change, family planners should consider integrating other services into their network or press to include family planning in other care networks. A new national commission could help break the logjam on federal legislation. PMID:10116482

  18. Family Planning Handbook for Doctors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinman, Ronald L., Ed.

    The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) believes that all people have the right to family planning information, including premarital and marital counseling, contraception information, and sex education. This physician's handbook is designed to provide all doctors with the necessary instructions on the latest family planning methods

  19. Birth control and family planning

    MedlinePLUS

    Contraception; Family planning and contraception; Coitus interruptus ... and always working? Is preventing infections spread by sexual ... vagina before intercourse. A condom must be worn at all times ...

  20. Population Growth: Family Planning Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doberenz, Alexander R., Ed.; Taylor, N. Burwell G., Ed.

    These proceedings of the second annual symposium on population growth bring together speeches and panel discussions on family planning programs. Titles of speeches delivered are: Communicating Family Planning (Mrs. Jean Hutchinson); Effects of New York's Abortion Law Change (Dr. Walter Rogers); The Law and Birth Control, Sterilization and Abortion…

  1. [Population and family planning programs in Byumba].

    PubMed

    Ntandokorano, M

    1992-04-01

    In Byumba, Rwanda, the Regional ONAP Office identified the principal elements of the population program needing more attention in 1991 to be information, education, and communication; the school program; unschooled youth groups; and integration of family planning programs into health settings. It hoped to increase the operational rate of Umukangurambaga 80%, to lead 50% of teachers to play a educator/promoter role for responsible parenting and family planning programs, and to inform 60% of unschooled youth about family planning and responsible parenting. Direct interventions in management and supervision of the Umukangurambaga increased recruitment of new family planning acceptors 120.9% in Buyoga commune for a contraceptive usage rate of 66.1%. Each school chose a married man and a married woman, both of whom use family planning, to be promoters. They held discussions and distributed educational material. The Regional Office reached 74% of its promoter goal. Only 12.6% of unschooled youth stuck to the program. Obstacles in the program were lack of permanent agents posted to the youth network at the commune level, inadequate knowledge of population and family planning among some youth supporters, and almost no integration of the supporters in daily activities. 12 of 18 health centers, 4 hospitals, 7 registered dispensaries, and a health post with 3 family planning service-oriented nurses had integrated family planning services into their activities. Even though some health facilities closed after the war in October, the number of family planning users increased. In Cyumba commune, the contraceptive use rate increased to more than 18.5%. During 1989-1991, contraceptive prevalence increased from 4.2% to about 16%. Injectables are the most common method used, followed by the pill. Administrative support has emerged in the population and family planning program (e.g., National Seminar on Population). PMID:12290188

  2. Men and family planning in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Vicente, A

    1993-10-01

    Although family planning services in Portugal are open to everybody, male and female, and they are free of charge, it is mostly women who are using the services, since family planning services have integrated maternal health care. Between 1978 and 1981, the Commission for the Portuguese Commission for Equality and Women's Rights implemented a family planning information, education, and communication project under technical and financial aid by the United Nations Population Fund. During a training course for a group of 12 women, which took place in the small town Vialonga near Lisbon in 1992, all women said that their husbands did not play any role in family planning. The choice of the method was their sole responsibility. In 1988, data were gathered by the General Direction of Primary Health Care from the local health services. 17.6% of women used the pill, and 28% practiced coitus interruptus. Condom use amounted to 5.7%. Other methods were the IUD (7.3%), natural methods (3.6%), spermicides (2.6%), the diaphragm (0.3%), and sterilization (female 3.6%; male 0.3%). In 1992, the Commission published a study on family planning, involving 638 men and 882 women, which concluded that the responsibility for family planning was no longer exclusively with women and that young, single people were in favor of family planning information sessions. The Portuguese Constitution states that the state shall promote a wider knowledge of family planning methods and responsible parenthood. The Health Secretary of State ordered the integration of family planning into the National Health Service in 1976. A 1984 law, Sex Education and Family Planning, and a 1985 Government Order constitute the legal framework for the practice of family planning. The Commission for Equality and Women's Rights has been implementing information, education, and communication activities since 1976. One of the members of the Consultative Council is the Association for Family Planning, which has also been disseminating information, training, and counselling since it was founded in 1967. PMID:12222247

  3. Family planning: the unfinished agenda.

    PubMed

    Cleland, John; Bernstein, Stan; Ezeh, Alex; Faundes, Anibal; Glasier, Anna; Innis, Jolene

    2006-11-18

    Promotion of family planning in countries with high birth rates has the potential to reduce poverty and hunger and avert 32% of all maternal deaths and nearly 10% of childhood deaths. It would also contribute substantially to women's empowerment, achievement of universal primary schooling, and long-term environmental sustainability. In the past 40 years, family-planning programmes have played a major part in raising the prevalence of contraceptive practice from less than 10% to 60% and reducing fertility in developing countries from six to about three births per woman. However, in half the 75 larger low-income and lower-middle income countries (mainly in Africa), contraceptive practice remains low and fertility, population growth, and unmet need for family planning are high. The cross-cutting contribution to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals makes greater investment in family planning in these countries compelling. Despite the size of this unfinished agenda, international funding and promotion of family planning has waned in the past decade. A revitalisation of the agenda is urgently needed. Historically, the USA has taken the lead but other governments or agencies are now needed as champions. Based on the sizeable experience of past decades, the key features of effective programmes are clearly established. Most governments of poor countries already have appropriate population and family-planning policies but are receiving too little international encouragement and funding to implement them with vigour. What is currently missing is political willingness to incorporate family planning into the development arena. PMID:17113431

  4. [The press and family planning].

    PubMed

    Abraham De D'ornellas, R

    1987-01-01

    The treatment in the press of family planning hinges on two fundamental factors: the taboo of the leftist groups and the taboo of the Catholic Church, whose head is against abortion under any circumstances. Leftist views insinuate that family planning is the genocidal plan of North American imperialists against the Third World and, in particular, against Latin America. This genocidal plan is supposed to subject poor populations to international schemes. In the press family planning is often treated in a sanctimonious fashion, lumping it together with topics like pornography, sex, and violence. In 1983 the daily newspaper Expreso published a supplement running every week for almost three months about the issue of population, which dealt fairly extensively with such topics as population and housing, education, employment, and urban proliferation, as well as responsible parenthood and child survival. In addition, there was a detailed description of contraceptive methods. In October 1986 another surprising thing happened: the President of Peru talked about the topic of family planning, which at the time was an act of courage. Since then much has changed; the whole world is interested in family planning and certain aspects of population. Since October 1986 more has been published in this domain than during the preceding 20 years. In contrast, the Church reacted differently to this issue: after some initial caution, the conference of Peruvian bishops attacked all methods of modern contraceptives and private institutions of family planning. The information boom in family planning will certainly continue. At the moment this flood of articles and editorials about the issue is an expression of the anxiety of families related to uncontrolled reproduction and the fear of overpopulation in large cities devoid of minimal services. PMID:12281466

  5. Family planning communication research possibilities in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Reed, F W

    1982-06-01

    An attempt is made to offer some ideas and guidelines that would suggest a direction for family planning communication research for the next few years. A psychologically based communication model developed by Donald Bogue provides some practical guides on information which should be collected with regard to communication for family planning. This Bogue model is presented, indicating the kinds of information that is needed in Indonesia. According to Bogue, individuals are likely to adopt family planning if they are well informed about the idea of family planning, about the methods of contraception and the potential side effect of the methods. Information is needed in Indonesia concerning what different audiences know about family planning. Being informed about family planning is important for many groups in addition to the actual users: community leaders, physicians, field workers, government leaders. It is necessary to know how well these groups are informed about family planning methods, places of service, and choices. Bogue indicates that individuals are likely to use family planning methods if they are motivated to get some of the benefits obtainable through having a small family. In Indonesia systematically collected information about the benefits which people associate with having a small family is badly needed. Again, information is needed about the various motives for using family planning among audiences other than only the potential users. If people are going to adopt and continue to use family planning methods, it is important that they have positive attitudes toward the methods available. To develop a scientifically based communication program, it is necessary to know which methods are liked by which kinds of people and why. Bogue argues that adopters must feel that the innovation has legitimacy. Contraceptive use is not likely to continue if the individual feels that the community does not support that activity. Future research must devote attention for a variety of audiences when investigating the legitimacy of using family planning methods. Bogue's evidence indicates that individuals are likely to use family planning to the degree that they believe its use concerns them and that their personal concerns can be taken care of through family planning use. At a practical level, it is important to establish the degree to which various groups in Indonesia are involved in family planning as a solution to their own problems. Learning the ways in which they are involved can help in developing communication approaches to relate them more directly to the family planning program. Also of great potential utility is research directed to learning about the unintended communication done by the national family planning program. Continued development of the program's communication activities will depend upon the development of fundamental research with regard to family planning, sex, influence, village and neighborhood structure. PMID:12339318

  6. More about natural family planning.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, J

    1983-11-01

    When properly taught and practised, natural family planning can be a highly effective form of birth regulation. Recent studies indicate low failure rates of less than three pregnancies per 100 women years for couples with a strong motivation to follow the method. Studies show that pregnancy rates are high when the rules for avoiding pregnancy are not adhered to. Successful natural family planning can lead to heightened self esteem and marital enrichment. PMID:6667188

  7. Family planning methods: new guidance.

    PubMed

    1996-10-01

    Presented in this report are the recommendations of two expert groups, the Technical Guidance/Competence Working Group of the US Agency for International Development's Maximizing Access and Quality Initiative and the World Health Organization's Family Planning and Population Unit, regarding currently available family planning methods. The former group addressed key biomedical questions and formulated recommendations about 11 groups of family planning methods: combined oral contraceptives, progestin-only pills during breast feeding, progestin-only injectables, combined injectable contraceptives, Norplant implants, copper-bearing IUDs, tubal occlusion, vasectomy, lactational amenorrhea method, natural family planning, and barrier methods. A table presents the relative importance, by method, of procedures such as pelvic exam, blood pressure reading, breast exam, and screening for sexually transmitted diseases and cervical cancer. The medical eligibility recommendations for each method are also presented in tabular form, with four categories for temporary methods: 1) no restrictions on use, 2) advantages generally outweigh theoretical or proven risks, 3) theoretical or proven risks usually outweigh the advantages, and 4) unacceptable health risks. Included among the 41 conditions for which eligibility criteria are specified are age, smoking, thromboembolic disorder, headaches, irregular vaginal bleeding, family history of breast cancer, obesity, drug interactions, parity, breast feeding, postpartum, and postabortion. The new guidance presented in this report enables providers to give family planning clients expanded contraceptive choices while ensuring method safety and effectiveness. PMID:9342775

  8. Iran rebuilds family planning services.

    PubMed

    Butta, P

    1993-07-01

    After the revolution, the Islamic Republic of Iran instituted pronatalist policies which included lowering the minimum marriage age for girls to 9 years, abolishing some laws securing women's rights, and limiting availability of family planning (FP) services. By 1983, Iran's population growth rate was 3.9% which was among the highest worldwide. Before the revolution, Iran had 37 million people. About 2 million more people were added each year, resulting in a population size of 60 million by 1992. By the mid-1980s, economic development stood idle, there were not enough houses, children attended schools on 3 shifts, and malnutrition was spreading. In 1989, the government formed a population council and reestablished FP services. It also increased the minimum age of marriage for girls to 13 years, slightly improved women status, and eliminated fertility incentives for couples with at least 4 children. It also significantly increased funding for FP (from 560 million to 13 billion rials between 1990 and 1992). Government spending for FP will likely increase 2% annually until 2011. The government initiated a promotion of FP mass media campaign, emphasizing a 2-child family. Some posters showed a family with 2 girls. The mass media campaign promoted specific contraceptive methods (even tubal occlusion and vasectomy), a practice other Middle Eastern countries not do. 80% of sterilization acceptors claimed to learn about sterilization from the radio or newspapers. The Ministry of Health has invited the Association for Voluntary Surgical Contraception (AVSC) to help with its campaign to update sterilization techniques, including the non scalpel vasectomy technique. AVSC hopes to become even more involved in helping Iran update its national FP program. PMID:12318289

  9. Family planning: the global challenge.

    PubMed

    Loraine, J A

    1985-05-01

    There has been huge growth in the world population during the 20th century, and a factor which must never be forgotten in relation to global population is its inherent dynamic. The momentum of population growth is remarkable and dictates that world numbers are destined to continue growing for decades to come. Stabilization of population at 2 children per family remains a distant goal and depends on fertility on fertility levels and rates of population growth in different parts of the world. Many authorities maintain that family planning will remedy the population explosion. Family planning, most likely, does work, yet its overall success has been modest. Part of the decline in birthrates recorded in some developing countries in Asia and Latin America can be ascribed to spreading birth control practices. Yet, by far the greatest contribution to the overall decline in global population growth has been made through the draconian measures introduced in China. In spite of family planning programs which have been operational for relatively long periods of time, population growth rates in many other developing countries have changed little over the past 2 decades. The limitations of an approach based totally on family planning should be borne constantly in mind, especially in the 3rd world. The main fallacy operating, and many authorities still hold to it, is to equate family planning with a population policy. In 1967, Kingsley Davis, an American demographer, noted the flaw in this argument. He pointed out that the desired family size was often in excess of the 2 children which would be needed to produce eventual stabilization of the population. The litany of family planning assumes that the aggregate of decisions of countless couples on family building will precisely coincide with the needs of the state in terms of population. If this were the case, it would be a coincidence of monumental proportions. Yet, family planning should not be denigrated. It is an integral and essential part of any population policy. To be successful a population policy must be broad in scope and multifactorial in approach. Population education from as early an age as possible is essential as is a commitment to women's rights and female emancipation and a massive program of socioeconomic development together with better health, nutrition, and sanitation. Family planning as an important element of any program designed to curb population growth merits full support. PMID:4011567

  10. Approaching 4 Decades of Legislation in the National Family Planning Program: An Analysis of Title X's History From 1970 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Daley, Ellen M.; Perrin, Kay M.; Mahan, Charles S.; Buhi, Eric R.

    2011-01-01

    Family planning is an important public health activity. Title X (Pub L No. 91-572), enacted in 1970, remains the only national family planning program in the United States dedicated to providing voluntary and confidential services to all individuals. We conducted a thematic analysis of Title X's legislative history. Of 293 federal bills included in the legislative history, only 20 (6.8%) were enacted into law. Regardless of the proposed challenges, limited changes have been adopted. Except for technical amendments, bills involving restrictions accounted for the highest percentage of enacted bills, demonstrating efforts to undermine reproductive health rights. Title X requires political will and bipartisan support if it is to continue to protect individuals' reproductive rights. PMID:21940931

  11. Women's experiences with family planning.

    PubMed

    Gupte, M

    1994-06-01

    India's family planning programs target rural women because they do not have political power. Interviews with those in Maharashtra show their lack of choice and low access to resources and their need for safe contraception. In 2 rural villages, for every dead child, a woman bears, on average, 2 more children. When a child dies, villagers first suspect the mother of having performed voodoo or witchcraft. Other suspected women are deserted women, widows, and menstruating women. Health and family planning services are not based on people's perceptions of body, anatomy, illness, and cure. People are not informed about interventions, particularly contraception. Women are not comfortable with contraceptives, and when physician ignore genuine symptoms and sequelae, it reinforces women's suspicions about contraceptives. Sterilizations performed in camps result in more side effects than individually performed sterilizations. During 1975-1977, women were kidnapped and sterilized under very unhygienic conditions. Common complaints after sterilization are menstrual disturbances and lower back pain. Many private physicians treat these complaints by performing hysterectomy. Women rarely are involved in the decision-making process determining whether or not they should undergo sterilization. They are often given false promises, if they accept sterilization. Indian women have little choice in contraceptives. The low biodegradability of condoms poses a disposal problem. Health workers often dispose of IUDs, pills, and condoms which they claim have been accepted. Auxiliary nurse midwives are pressured to meet family planning targets, so they harass women to accept contraception. Village women do not trust them. Health workers often steal cases from each other. Many complain that minorities are responsible for the population explosion, but the minority's family size is basically the same as that of the majority. Low access to general health services and harassment to fulfill family planning quotas create an undesirable climate to introduce injectables and implants into the family planning program. PMID:12345778

  12. Population Control, Family Planning and Planned Parenthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilmar, Norman A.

    Remarks in this article were made as part of a panel discussion presented at the Planned Parenthood-World Population combined Southeast Council and National Board Meeting, Savannah, Georgia, in May 1970. The problems and consequences of an increasing birth rate are indicated along with the need for reducing present rates of population growth and

  13. Family Planning Programmes in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pradervand, Pierre

    The countries discussed in this paper are the francophone countries of West Africa and the Republic of Congo, with comparative references made to North Africa (mainly Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia). Obstacles to the adoption of family planning in the countries of tropical Africa are a very high mortality rate among children; a socioeconomic

  14. A boost for family planning.

    PubMed

    Pearce-Biney, J

    1989-01-01

    In Ghana, pharmacists and sellers of non-prescription medicines are distributing contraceptives and giving family planning advice within the framework of a demonstration programme which, it is hoped, will lead to a significant improvement in the health of rural populations. PMID:2610832

  15. [Why family planning in Africa?].

    PubMed

    Salifou, A

    1993-01-01

    Between 1950 and 1985, Africa's population rose from 225 to 460 million people. The population should double in size from 2010, adversely affecting the quality of life in Africa. In 30 years forests have dwindled, deserts expanded, animal species have been decimated. In effect, the ecological system in Africa has been destroyed. An inevitable result of these conditions is the need for African populations to support family planning (FP) in their daily attitudes ad behavior. Each year thousands of women and millions of children die due to too many births or births spaced too close together, as well as too many young or old women giving birth. More than 50,000 clandestine abortions are performed each day. FP can bring more benefits at less cost than all other technologies existing today. It allows women to choose birth intervals and family size freely. FP allows men and women to engage in sexual intercourse without an unwanted pregnancy. It also allows couples to delay birth of a child until they are financially secure. Africa needs to restore parental responsibility as a necessary condition of family welfare. Political and opinion leaders in Africa, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, sidestep the issue of FP and delay supporting it. In Africa FP rests almost entirely with nongovernmental organizations and FP associations. More and more African States are beginning to consider FP as an essential element of socioeconomic development. The Africa Region of IPPF must awaken the conscience of governments in the interests of family planning. It is important to break their conspiracy of silence on FP and urge the governments to include family planning. Information, education, and communication are needed to overcome the obstacles facing family planning. Africa needs FP services now more than ever. PMID:12318557

  16. Planning national radiotherapy services.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Countries, states, and island nations often need forward planning of their radiotherapy services driven by different motives. Countries without radiotherapy services sponsor patients to receive radiotherapy abroad. They often engage professionals for a feasibility study in order to establish whether it would be more cost-beneficial to establish a radiotherapy facility. Countries where radiotherapy services have developed without any central planning, find themselves in situations where many of the available centers are private and thus inaccessible for a majority of patients with limited resources. Government may decide to plan ahead when a significant exodus of cancer patients travel to another country for treatment, thus exposing the failure of the country to provide this medical service for its citizens. In developed countries, the trigger has been the existence of highly visible waiting lists for radiotherapy revealing a shortage of radiotherapy equipment. This paper suggests that there should be a systematic and comprehensive process of long-term planning of radiotherapy services at the national level, taking into account the regulatory infrastructure for radiation protection, planning of centers, equipment, staff, education programs, quality assurance, and sustainability aspects. Realistic budgetary and cost considerations must also be part of the project proposal or business plan. PMID:25505730

  17. Observations concerning family planning education in China.

    PubMed

    Hamburg, M V

    1981-11-01

    In China, raising the age at marriage is an integral part of the family planning program. The new marriage law sets the minimum age at 22 for men and 20 for women. Marriage is a universal practice, and an unmarried person over 28 is a rarity. For economic purposes, the Central Committee of the People's Republic adopted the 1-child family policy in 1980. Childlessness is not encouraged. An extensive organizational network at the national, provincial, and local governmental levels conducts the family planning program. The media is widely used to publicize the message. Billboards, posters, state-run television, and other media tools regularly promote the virtues of the 1-child family, regardless of the sex of the child. Premarital sex is rare, and sex education, if any, is limited to adults--those about to be married. In Shanghai, physiology education in the middle school does include sex education and reproduction. All hospitals have family planning offices, and services include excellent maternal/child health care and family planning counseling. Family planning services are also found in the workplace. Permission must be obtained from the Production Brigade to marry and to have a child. Inspite of this, the family planning program is not viewed as coercive. When certain segments of the working population want to have more children than have been allocated, adjustments (e.g., delays in marriage or in pregnancy) are made. A unique feature of the program is its use of reward and punishment which varies from province to province, and between rural and urban populations. Economic incentives (monetary subsidies, free education for the children, housing priorities, and pension benefits) are given to those who have 1 child and withheld from those who have 2 children. In some areas, additional economic penalties (payment to state) are required from families with 2 children. Another unique feature is the trend toward later marriage, with 25 or 26 becoming the norm. It appears that China's family planning program is achieving success, but this can only be viewed in its own sociocultural setting and not in the context of other countries. PMID:12337663

  18. The population problem and family planning effort.

    PubMed

    Sekhar, A C

    1972-12-01

    A discussion of any aspect of family planning must include an evaluation of the current demographic situation and the prospects for the future. With the rate of population growth in developing countries between 2-5% per annum and the drastic reduction in mortality accepted as a positive goal under any circumstances, it becomes evident that the only way to contain the population growth is by fertility control. It was the recognition of this need to contain the population by controlling their fertility which brought about India's adoption of family planning as an officially sponsored program as early as 1951. The goals and efforts have increased in each Five Year Plan. The initial emphasis on the "clinical approach" which expected the people to visit the clinics and avail themselves of the family planning services changed to the "extension approach" in 1963 which brought the advice and services to the people. The program now aims at promoting voluntary acceptance by individuals of 1 or more methods of contraception through a process of education and motivation. Regarding the national perspective, a comprehensive Bill liberalizing abortion has already been passed by the Parliament, and efforts are being made to raise the legal age of marriage from 16 to 18 for women. Concerning performance, 9.11 million sterilizations and 3.94 million IUD insertions have been performed since August 1971. A rise in the use of conventional contraceptives has also been noted. The current pressing problem is one of motivating and educating the millions of illiterate rural people towards family planning. Even if this were possible, the subsequent problem of providing them with the family planning services is formidable. Other problems are the continuation of social and psychological barriers which block the efforts of those promoting family planning, and the fact that 2 often conflicting facets of the family planning effort, the national good and the interest of the individual, need to be reconciled. Emphasis must be given to educating and motivating young couples toward birth spacing well before they marry. Voluntary organizations can help in motivating the public, and this help is needed for success depends on how best and how soon the individual can be motivated towards the common goal. PMID:12179385

  19. National Military Family Association

    MedlinePLUS

    ... us as we celebrate the Month of the Military Child and Purple Up with us on April ... Find resources to make filing easier for your military family. More Featured News Improving Child Care for ...

  20. Natural Family Planning: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Derzko, Christine M.

    1986-01-01

    Natural Family Planning (NFP) is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as methods for planning or avoiding pregnancies by observation of the natural signs and symptoms of the fertile and infertile phase of the menstrual cycle. It is implicit in the definition of natural family planning, when used to avoid conception that drugs, devices and surgical procedures are not used, there is abstinence from sexual intercourse during the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle, and the act of intercourse, when it occurs, is complete.1 The fertile period may be determined by using Rhythm, a calculation based on previous cycles, basal body temperature (BBT) charting alone, mucus secretion alone (Billings or Ovulation method), or symptothermal charting (Serena method), which includes observation of both mucus and BBT. The effectiveness of each method is discussed, and the social and psychological profile of couples who use NFP is reviewed. Nfp methods can be used not only to avoid pregnancy, but also to achieve pregnancy and thus are particularly useful in investigating and treating infertility. The function of the Family Life Clinic at St. Michael's Hospital in Toronto is described. PMID:21267296

  1. Hilots make the family planning scene.

    PubMed

    1974-10-01

    A hilot (birth attendant), Aling Melchora, of Roxas, Oriental Mindora, who does motivation work in family planning is typical of hilots who are found in every barrio throughout the Philippines. She is 58 years old and has been a hilot for more than 30 years. She learned birth attendance in a training course at the Pandacan Puericulture Center in 1940. She averages 3 deliveries a month and 8 IUD acceptances a month. The hilots are a possible strong force in family planning motivation because of their influence and the respect with which people in the community regard them. They are older, experienced, always available, and charge very reasonable rates for services highly trained clinic staff would balk at doing. The Institute of Maternal and Child Health (IMCH) has trained 400 such hilots to do motivation work in family planning. It is noted that in the Philippines, the hilot may yet provide the key to reach the people in the barrios, which is the most important and challenging task for the national program on family planning. PMID:12306912

  2. Studies in Family Planning. Volume 2, Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worth, George; And Others

    This year's annual review of family planning in Korea and Taiwan is represented in three articles. The first, "Korea/Taiwan 1970: Report on the National Family Planning Programs," separately views the program administration, budget, personnel, and evaluation, as well as the various methods employed in controlling the number of births, and

  3. National Center on Family Homelessness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... You are here Home National Center on Family Homelessness Center A staggering 2.5 million children are ... raise awareness of the current state of child homelessness in the United States, documents the number of ...

  4. Men and Family Planning. Worldwatch Paper 41.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Bruce

    This monograph focuses on men's potentially positive role in family planning. In addition, it identifies reasons why so few organized family planning programs have targeted men as clients and why men have so often played a peripheral or negative role in family planning. The document is presented in seven chapters. Chapter I introduces the topic

  5. National Highway Planning Network

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-02-02

    NHPN, the National Highway Planning Network, is a database of major highways in the continental United States that is used for national-level analyses of highway transportation issues that require use of a network, such as studies of highway performance, network design, social and environmental impacts of transportation, vehicle routing and scheduling, and mapping. The network is based on a set of roadways digitized by the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) from the 1980 National Atlasmore » and has been enhanced with additional roads, attribute detail, and topological error corrections to produce a true analytic network. All data have been derived from or checked against information obtained from state and Federal governmental agencies. Two files comprise this network: one describing links and the other nodes. This release, NHPN1.0, contains 44,960 links and 28,512 nodes representing approximately 380,000 miles of roadway.« less

  6. Family planning and the controversial contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Dias Saxena, F

    1995-01-01

    India was one of the first countries in the world to launch a national family planning program in an apparent effort to help women gain access to birth control measures and reduce population growth. Family planning acquired a different meaning and emphasis in the 1960s, however, when a clause in the US PL480 wheat import policy demanded that India speed its implementation of birth control measures if the country wanted food aid. Women in India were therefore expected to consume contraceptives with dangerous and unknown side effects in order to quality the country for food aid. Women rejected this stipulation. By the 1980s, it was acknowledged that family planning programs in India had failed to produce a decline in the birth rate and that no sign of change was on the horizon despite the investment of substantial funds to that end, the input of expert assistance, and the establishment of appropriate infrastructure in the country. Experts and policy makers blamed women for having misused the pill and sought alternative methods which would not require user compliance. Norplant and norethisterone enanthate (Net-en) were subsequently developed. Policymakers, experts, and the press have now been clamoring for the right to conduct Norplant trials despite reported side effects. The drug's ability to prevent pregnancy is more important for family planning experts. The author notes that the emphasis has been upon contraceptive methods for women instead of men because men were not expected to take responsibility for family planning. She also notes that feminists are opposed to Norplant and Net-en, and hopes that the government withdraws them from the market. PMID:12289896

  7. Data sheet charts family planning progress.

    PubMed

    1997-06-01

    "Monitoring Family Planning Programs 1996," a wallchart produced by the Carolina Population Center at the University of Chapel Hill in collaboration with the Population Reference Bureau, compiles most of the available data regarding family planning programs in 96 developing countries and presents the evaluation indicators in a comparative overview. Data on government spending, types of services available, facilities, and the number of new contraceptive users served each year are included. Key findings include the following information. Although most governments are concerned about high birth rates (80% of governments in Africa and over 50% of governments in Latin America), West Asian governments (Iraq, Jordan, Yemen, and Syria) consider the high fertility rates there to be satisfactory and have not promoted family planning. In East Asia, where family planning has been established for decades, fertility has decreased below replacement level. In spite of governmental concern, family planning effort lags in many countries; of the 95 countries with family planning effort scores, only 41 received moderate or strong scores (50-92% of the maximum score possible). These included 62% of Latin American countries, 23% of African countries, and just over 50% of Asian countries. National and international spending is often insufficient. The highest annual per capita expenditure by a government on family planning services occurs in Mauritius (US $1.65 per person); Afghanistan, Brazil, the Congo, Honduras, Iran, Paraguay, Uganda, and Zaire spend less than US $0.01 per person. Costa Rica, El Salvador, Mauritius, Tunisia, and Zimbabwe spend a total per capita, from all sources, of US $1 or more. Almost 50% of the married women in developing countries use a modern form of contraception; 17% of married women of reproductive age in Africa do so (11% in sub-Saharan Africa, and 36% in North Africa). Contraceptive prevalence in Latin America is 53%; in Asia it ranges from 34% in South Central Asia to 78% in East Asia. Service providers may be too few in number. The ratio of married women, ages 15-44, per staff member ranges from 111,235 in the Ivory Coast to 109 in Viet Nam. Of the 38 countries that have more than 1000 women per staff member, 16 are in Africa, 12 are in Latin America, and 10 are in Asia. PMID:12320944

  8. Spousal veto over family planning services.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, R J; Maine, D

    1987-01-01

    In many countries a spouse, usually the husband, can veto a partner's use of family planning services. Where spousal veto acts as a barrier to family planning services it represents a serious threat to the lives and health of women and children. Removal of spousal authorization requirements has been shown to increase the use of family planning services. The Family Guidance Association of Ethiopia, for example, removed their requirement in 1982 and clinic utilization increased by 26 per cent within a few months. Courts of several countries have held that spousal veto practices violate principles of personal privacy and autonomy and the right to health care. The effect of such judgements has been to reinforce rights to sexual nondiscrimination found, for example, in national constitutions and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. This article discusses the nature and application of spousal veto practices, explains how such requirements can violate certain human rights, and explores possible remedies to this problem, including ministerial, legislative, and judicial initiatives. PMID:3812842

  9. NATIONAL SURVEY OF FAMILY GROWTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) provides information on childbearing, contraception, and related aspects of maternal and child health. The NSFG is the principal national source of data on trends and group differences in contraceptive use and effectiveness, use of fami...

  10. The role of family planning in poverty reduction.

    PubMed

    Allen, Rebecca H

    2007-11-01

    Family planning plays a pivotal role in population growth, poverty reduction, and human development. Evidence from the United Nations and other governmental and nongovernmental organizations supports this conclusion. Failure to sustain family planning programs, both domestically and abroad, will lead to increased population growth and poorer health worldwide, especially among the poor. However, robust family planning services have a range of benefits, including maternal and infant survival, nutrition, educational attainment, the status of girls and women at home and in society, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention, and environmental conservation efforts. Family planning is a prerequisite for achievement of the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals and for realizing the human right of reproductive choice. Despite this well-documented need, the U.S. contribution to global family planning has declined in recent years. PMID:17978110

  11. Making family planning accessible in resource-poor settings

    PubMed Central

    Prata, Ndola

    2009-01-01

    It is imperative to make family planning more accessible in low resource settings. The poorest couples have the highest fertility, the lowest contraceptive use and the highest unmet need for contraception. It is also in the low resource settings where maternal and child mortality is the highest. Family planning can contribute to improvements in maternal and child health, especially in low resource settings where overall access to health services is limited. Four critical steps should be taken to increase access to family planning in resource-poor settings: (i) increase knowledge about the safety of family planning methods; (ii) ensure contraception is genuinely affordable to the poorest families; (iii) ensure supply of contraceptives by making family planning a permanent line item in healthcare system's budgets and (iv) take immediate action to remove barriers hindering access to family planning methods. In Africa, there are more women with an unmet need for family planning than women currently using modern methods. Making family planning accessible in low resource settings will help decrease the existing inequities in achieving desired fertility at individual and country level. In addition, it could help slow population growth within a human rights framework. The United Nations Population Division projections for the year 2050 vary between a high of 10.6 and a low of 7.4 billion. Given that most of the growth is expected to come from today's resource-poor settings, easy access to family planning could make a difference of billions in the world in 2050. PMID:19770158

  12. Mental health and family planning.

    PubMed

    David, H P

    1971-04-01

    It is known that unwanted pregnancies have damaging consequences. Despite the fact that 97% of fecund U.S. women have used or expect to use contraception, more than 1/2 of the births were reported by married couples in 1965 as unplanned. The circular relationship between excess fertility and conditions of poverty and their relevance for mental health has been studied; results have shown that in large families there is a great likelihood that the last-born child is unwanted. It is also true that in families with 4 or more children, those in the last half of the birth order are more likely to develop mental illness than their older siblings. One way to reduce unwanted pregnancies is to enable couples to have children only with their own informed consent. Induced abortion must be among the available alternatives for the women desiring it. The role of unregulated fertility in the etiology of mental disorder is seldon explored. Systematic observations of the mental health consequences of unwanted pregnancies are rare. Similarly, the appropriateness of applying family planning concepts in preventive mental health programs has received little attention. Sex education and contraceptive information should be introduced when a girl reaches menarche. Closer work between mental health association, medical schools, general practitioners, etc., is needed urgently. The author maintains that the prevalence of unwanted pregnancies and the appalling numbers of unwanted births in the U.S today represent a mental health problem of undefined but clearly immense proportions. PMID:5098783

  13. Family planning, AIDS, and FHI.

    PubMed

    Potts, M

    1991-09-01

    Family Health International's (FHI) research and development activities in improving and developing contraceptives and making them available to the public are presented. While FHI, along with other agencies, has been actively promoting and contributing to ongoing international family planning efforts since its creation in 1971, the period 1971-91 has, nonetheless, witness more births, maternal deaths, induced abortions, and infant deaths than over any 20-year span in history. While family sizes have decreased over the period due to greater contraceptive awareness and use, politicians, civil servants, and theologians are indicted as partly responsible for retarding further positive change. The number of women of reproductive ages in developing countries will increase by almost 30% in the 1990s, and the world's population will at least double over the next century. 95% of new births will stem from developing countries. Concerted efforts and global commitments of policymakers must be forthcoming in the battle against both high fertility and AIDS prevention. Specifically, at least 130 million new contraceptive users must be recruited in the 1990s. Surveys and field experiences indicate a large degree of unmet need for contraceptive services, with 50-80% of married women in developing countries expressing their desire to limit or space future births. Demand for contraception only increases once a program is in place; rapid reductions of total fertility are exemplified in the cases of Thailand, Colombia, South Korea, Sri Lanka, and Indonesia. Given the resources and commitment, the number of users could be doubled within 10 years. PMID:12284276

  14. Thailand Functional Literacy and Family Life Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Education, Inc., New York, NY.

    This document gives details on a current Thai project whose object is to introduce family planning concepts into adult education programs. Complementary objectives are: (1) Educate 200,000 adults through literacy/family planning programs by 1976; (2) Develop appropriate instructional materials; (3) Add and emphasize family life education in the…

  15. Taking family planning to the people.

    PubMed

    Fincancioglu, N

    1984-06-01

    A diversified pattern of family planning service delivery currently exists, one that is considerably extended through the development of a wide range of supply and distribution channels. In most areas, nongovernmental organizations have played a crucial role in the development of innovative approaches to making contraceptives widely available. In many nations the provision of contraceptives through the national health system continues to be the backbone of the family planning program. Changes in the approach to health care have helped increase the acccessibility and acceptability of family planning services. 2 factors necessitate a close link between contraceptive and health services: the need for medical skills and facilities in the provision of surgical contraceptive methods, and the importance of medical supervision in the continuing use of other methods. A widely used approach integrates contraceptive delivery with other development programs, community-based distribution (CBD) of contraceptives, and commercial retail sales. The cornerstone of CBD is extensive use of community networks and of trained community residents. An effective project requires efficient resupply and distribution mechanisms, carefully designed supervision systems, and medical back-up facilities. CBD has spread to over 40 countries, most of them in Asia and Latin America. Wider use of existing commercial retail outlets is being followed in more than 30 countries. Self-sufficiency of these projects has not been realized, and considerable subsidization continues to be required to maintain their efficiency. Efforts to increase the availability of contraceptives have been facilitated by the widening range of service providers. Nurses, midwives, traditional birth attendants, and members of the community are being trained to perform many family planning tasks in clinical and nonclinical settings. Many of these advances have been made possible by the liberalization of laws and regulations governing the distribution, provision, and use of birth control methods. The unmet need for contraceptive advice, services, and supplies is still enormous. The greatest challenge to governments and nongovernmental organizations is to find more effective ways of taking family planning to the people while recognizing that the key to success lies in sensitivity to their needs, perceptions, and priorities. PMID:12339638

  16. Practical Suggestions for Family Planning Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Services Administration (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. Bureau of Community Health Services.

    This manual is designed to address some of the basic problems of those who work in family planning education, and is based on the recurring questions and concerns of participants in a nationwide series of DHEW-sponsored family planning education and communication workshops. The manual proceeds chronologically, dealing first with the planning of a

  17. [Family planning in Benin: what future?].

    PubMed

    Danlodji, R

    1993-01-01

    In Benin, family planning began in the late 1960s, but its activities were not clear or specific. It made small strides in private clinics until a family planning association was formed, later named the Beninese Association to Promote the Family (ABPF). Family planning promoters maintain that reduction in births per couple is necessary for economic development in Africa. Family planning detractors think that a child is a fruit of God and that family planning impedes his or her coming to the world. ABPF has worked much to promote Beninese families, but it is still not well known. Despite the associations efforts and those of many other institutions, contraceptive prevalence is low and the abortion rate and its risks remain high, namely, death, infertility, and contraction of various diseases. Thus, it is important to rethink family planning strategies. All intervening parties should coordinate activities to better reach urban and rural populations. Many rural inhabitants go to cities to escape poverty and the misery evoked by their family size and meager earnings only to find unemployment in the cities. In order for family planning to have an effect in Benin, it is important to begin working with youth. Any family planning strategy must consider their aspirations. The youth are inclined to be more receptive to family planning than the adults who do not want to give up old habits. Yet, contraceptive use in 14-20 year olds is low even though sexual activity is high. Since the youth want a small family size, a small plot of land, a care, and a successful life, it is important to give priority to jobs. We need to educate the youth so they can freely decide their family size. Socioeconomic reasons are the primary factor pushing people to accept family planning, followed by health reasons. Research is needed to learn why contraceptive prevalence is still low. PMID:12318558

  18. Colombia's national plan for sexual education.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    The brief summary of Colombia's government's plan for sex education emphasized the active involvement of all sectors of society and targeted individuals, families, and society. The National Plan for Sex Education (PNES) was established by the Colombian presidential program for youth, women, and the family (PROMOVER). The plan is an evolution of rights and duties laid out in the National Constitution of 1991 on sexuality. The plan has the support of the First Lady of Colombia. The Foundation of Human and Social Development will provide technical support, and activities will be coordinated between the Ministry of Health, Ministry of Education, and the Colombian Institute of Family Welfare. The objectives of PNES are to promote the development of attitudes that value sexuality, value social gender equality, value autonomy, value responsibility, value harmony of interactions and solidarity, and value sexual health. PNES will begin with planning, coordinating between ministries and sectors, and implementing the decentralized and participatory action plan. The plan involves training, research, communication, services, and institutionalization. Training will be the first priority and will be directed to sensitizing officials and officials administering the plan about sexuality and sex education, to case workers involved with therapeutic interventions, and to youth, parents, and sexually active adolescents. The plan includes criteria for selecting legal advisors and staff from nongovernmental organizations, who will administer the training and evaluations. PMID:12290480

  19. National transuranic program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-11

    As a result of various program initiatives, the U.S. generated and will continue to generate waste contaminated with radioactive materials. Because of increased awareness of the risks and special requirements to safely manage long-lived alpha-emitting radionuclides, a new category of radioactive waste, transuranic (TRU) waste, was adopted in 1970. Heads of Field Elements can determine that other alpha-contaminated wastes, peculiar to a specific site, must be managed as transuranic waste{close_quotes}. TRU waste is generated and stored at various DOE sites around the country. In December 1993, the National Transuranic Program Office (NTPO) was established as part of the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) to integrate and coordinate the diverse organizational elements that contribute to the complex-wide management of TRU waste. Numerous sites with small TRU waste inventories are also part of the national TRU waste system. The majority of TRU waste is also contaminated with hazardous materials and is thus considered mixed waste. Mixed waste must be managed in compliance with all federal, state, and local regulations that are applicable to the radioactive and/or hazardous component of the waste. Each generator site is responsible for the management of its respective waste. Sites must plan and implement programs to minimize, characterize, package, treat, store, ship, and dispose of all TRU waste; construct required waste management facilities and equipment; obtain permits; perform site-specific National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) analyses; conduct environmental studies; perform laboratory analyses; and certify that waste meets appropriate disposal facility criteria. Due to the toxicity and long half-lives of TRU radionuclides, TRU waste must be disposed in a manner that offers greater confinement than shallow land burial.

  20. Natural family planning: a review.

    PubMed

    Klaus, H

    1982-02-01

    This review of natural family planning (NFP) focuses on the following: components of the fertile phase; sympto-thermal methods; the history and methodology of NFP (calendar rhythm, basal body temperature, cervical mucus--the Billings Ovulation method); special circumstances--periods of erratic ovulation (puberty, lactation, premenopause, discontinuation of ovulation suppression, cervicitis and vaginitis, ovulation suppression by stress and pharmaceuticals); effectiveness of natural family planning; achieving pregnancy; achieving couple autonomy (confidence in the method, periodic abstinence, dynamics of the learning process, and support systems); problem areas; and delivery systems. The number of users of NFP methods increased from 2.8% of currently married couples in 1973 to 3.4% in 1976. In 1979, 75,000 new clients received training in contemporary NFP, while the number increased to over 100,000 in 1980. NFP is planning for achieving or preventing a pregnancy by the timing of intercourse. A couple can, by observing and recording certain natural symptoms and bodily changes that occur in a woman's menstrual cycle and using the information as a guide, learn to identify fertile and infertile phases in the menstrual cycle. Precise prediction of ovulation forms one of the components of delineation of the fertile phase. Billings pioneered the use of cervical mucus as a single parameter for the prediction of ovulation and its application to NFP. Women are instructed to observe their mucus patterns at the vulva, relying primarily on the sensation of wetness and lubrication, the use of the Kegel exercise, palpation with the finger, a "wipe-through" with toilet paper, or a combination of these observations. In the absence of ovulation, the usual changing mucus pattern is also absent. NFP can be used either to achieve or to avoid pregnancy. When NFP is used to avoid pregnancy, one will encounter method-related pregnancies, teaching-related pregnancies due either to poor teaching or poor learning or both. The major use effectiveness studies are listed in table form, and the results are shown under new headings. To achieve pregnancy, it is the general practice of NFP instructors to teach women to recognize and record their fertility signs and to suggest some months of merely concentrating coitus at the time of maximum fertility. Mastery of NFP calls for both identification of the fertile phase and integration of that knowledge into the couple's sexual decision making and behaviors. Studies are reviewed in terms of the spectre of genetically damaged offspring. NFP instruction is available in nearly every country outside the Soviet bloc. PMID:7033851

  1. Family planning gets a new boost.

    PubMed

    Ponle, B

    1993-01-01

    A workshop on family planning was held during 1993 in Ota, Ogun State Nigeria. An active participant was the Emir of Dass, Alhaji Bilyamini Othman, who helped to develop strategies for the implementation of the Family Health Services Project of the Federal Ministry of Health. His commitment to family planning surprised participants, since most pious Muslims are some of the least sympathetic groups. Alhaji Bilyamini is very enthusiastic about family planning and gives the advice that Allah would not like people to have children who could not be fed. Many men come to him for advice and he suggests that the men allow their wives to adopt family planning. Alhaji Bilyamini was educated at Ahmadu Bello University in business administration and currently is a chairman of the advisory committee for the Planned Parenthood Federation of Nigeria in Bauchi State. The involvement of traditional rulers such as Alhaji Bilyamini has been practiced since 1987, when the USAID approached rulers about family planning. Others who have received family planning messages were the Sultan of Sokoto, the Emirs of Kano and Suleija, and the Shehu of Borno, who also have involved their subordinates. The rulers and subordinates who receive training assist in broadcasting the messages to the people. Because of the authoritative position of the rule in the community, a family planning supporter among rulers means the whole community will be convinced. Future plans include involving the rulers through the first phase. Alhaji Bilyamini recommends continued involvement of traditional rulers, because of their success in changing public perceptions. For example, in Bauchi state, condom discussion was considered taboo, and now condoms are advertised on television. Not all emirs have so enthusiastically embraced the family planning idea. An emir in Ogun state turned away visiting family planning experts days before his daughter died while trying at school to abort a pregnancy. Conference participants were supportive of traditional rulers' involvement in spreading the message of family planning. PMID:12318632

  2. Family planning: a basic development need.

    PubMed

    1994-06-01

    The 1994 Human Development Report from the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) proposes a 20-20 Human Development Compact based on shared responsibilities between poor and rich nations, whereby poor and rich nations would help unmet basic human development needs such as primary education, primary health care, safe drinking water, and family planning over the next 10 years. This would require an additional US $30 to US $40 billion annually. Developing countries would commit 20% of their budgets to human priority concerns instead of the current 10% by reducing military expenditure, selling off unprofitable public enterprises and abandoning wasteful prestige projects. Donor countries would increase foreign aid from the current average of 7% to 20%. The report will propose a new concept of human security at the World Summit for Social Development to be held in March 1995, calling widespread human insecurity a universal problem. On average, poor nations have 19 soldiers for every one doctor. Global military spending has been declining since 1987 at the rate of 3.6% a year, resulting in a cumulative peace dividend of US $935 billion from 1987 to 1994. But this money has not been expended on unmet human needs. India ordered fighter planes at a cost that could have provided basic education to the 15 million Indian girls now out of school. Nigeria bought tanks from the UK at a cost that could have immunized all 2 million unimmunized children while also providing family planning to nearly 17 million couples. UNDP proposes a phasing out of all military assistance, military bases, and subsidies to arms exporters over a 3-year period. It also recommends the major restructuring of existing aid funds, and proposes a serious study on new institutions for global governance in the next century. PMID:12345955

  3. Communication principles in family planning.

    PubMed

    Mercado, C M

    1978-01-01

    In the area of family planning information in the Philippines and other Asian countries, the effectiveness of any communication materials in imparting learning largely depends on the source, presentation, appeal, form, illustration, language and color used in preparing the materials. The effectiveness of communication materials in imparting learning is also dependent upon how and when these materials are used. The amount of participation allowed the audience is another factor influencing the effectiveness of any communication in imparting learning. The effectiveness of any communication effort in imparting learning is strongly influenced by the group to which the audience belongs and wants to belong and by the extent to which opinion is known to others. The effectiveness of any communication is difficult to predict due to some psychological defenses in the audience, but if some characteristics of the target audience are known some amount of accuracy in predicting the effect of communication is possible. The amount of incentive given to a person for doing something he or she does not like to do usually varies inversely with attitude change. Finally, communication is necessary but not sufficient for the success of any developmental campaign. PMID:12309126

  4. Indonesia's family planning story: success and challenge.

    PubMed

    Hull, T H; Hull, V J; Singarimbun, M

    1977-11-01

    A historical overview and descriptions of family planning programs in Indonesia are presented. 85 million of the 135 million inhabitants of the Indonesian archipelago are concentrated on the island of Java, which comprises about 7% of the Indonesian land mass. The Dutch colonial government preferred a policy ("transmigration") which advocated the redistribution of population from Java to the other islands to relieve overpopulation. This policy was also advocated by President Sukarno after the Indonesian Revolution of 1940. The need for family planning was recognized by small groups, and official policy supported national family planning programs to replace transmigration programs only after Sukarno became president in 1966. The focus of the program was on Java and Bali, the 2 most populous islands. Local clinics became the locus for birth control efforts. Fieldworkers affiliated with the clinics were given the job of advocating birth control use door-to-door. Fieldworkers "incentive programs," area "target" (quota) programs, and "special drives" were organized to create new contraceptive "acceptors." A data reporting system and a research program increase the effectiveness of the family planning drive by ascertaining trends in contraceptive use which can determine where and how money and effort can best be applied. "Village Contraception Distribution Centers" bring the contraceptive means closer to the people than do the clinics. Figures from the years 1969-1977 show the great increase in acceptance of contraceptives by the inhabitants of the Java-Bali area. Steps are now being taken to alleviate the large monthly variations in the number of (often temporary) acceptors caused by the "target programs" and "special drives." The average acceptor is 27-years-old, has 2.6 children, has not finished primary school, and has a husband of low social status. Bali has shown the greatest success in family planning. It is a small island with a highly developed system of local clinics. The strong community structures on Bali encourage birth control use. Bali, which is predominantly Hindi, is more receptive to the IUD than Java, which is predominantly Muslim. In East Java, the authoritarian bureaucracy makes efficient use of its money. Central Java is making slow but steady progress in family planning. In West Java, fieldworkers are teamed with paramedics; there, door-to-door contraceptive supply was more effective than the clinic system. In many areas traditional methods, i.e., herbs, massage, total abstinence for long periods of time, etc., were favored. More educated women often do not use contraceptives for fear of side effects. The need for family planning on the outer Indonesian islands is not as great, but programs are being set under way. These programs are the beginning of an attempt to alleviate problems that could be encountered if Indonesia's population growth continues unchecked. PMID:12260296

  5. Family Planning: Bosnian, Russian, Spanish, Nuer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anoka County Community Health and Environmental Services, Coon Rapids, MN.

    This guide provides information in English, Bosnian, Russian, Spanish, and Nuer on family planning. Topics covered include a variety of birth control methods: abstinence, condoms, contraceptive foam, birth control pills, the Depo-Provera shot, the Norplant implant, diaphragms, intrauterine devices, natural family planning, sterilization, and the

  6. Family Planning: Bosnian, Russian, Spanish, Nuer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anoka County Community Health and Environmental Services, Coon Rapids, MN.

    This guide provides information in English, Bosnian, Russian, Spanish, and Nuer on family planning. Topics covered include a variety of birth control methods: abstinence, condoms, contraceptive foam, birth control pills, the Depo-Provera shot, the Norplant implant, diaphragms, intrauterine devices, natural family planning, sterilization, and the…

  7. Family planning program: world review 1974. Introduction.

    PubMed

    Watson, W B; Lapham, R J

    1975-08-01

    The 1974 Population Conference at Bucharest was marked with controversy between developed and developing countries, with the latter strongly critical of aid for population control but less for social and economic development. The Plan of Action which was finally approved emphasized the importance of social and economic factors in relation to population growth while recommending that couples in all nations should have access to family planning information. Different regions of the world, however, have widely divergent population policies and goals. The Asia-Pacific region of the developing world, which has 3/4 of the population of the developing world, has articulated a strong stance in favor of reducing birth rates at Post-Bucharest Consultation. Government-supported family planning programs are seen as a high priority item to reduce rapid population growth. Rapid population growth is not seen as a high-priority problem in most African, Arab, and Latin American countries. Population problems will be solved with economic and social advancement. There is more concern in Latin America for family planning as a "human right" issue than to promote demographic goals. Latin America was also concerned with migration/urbanization issues. All of the Regional Consultations after Bucharest favored a greater emphasis on population in development planning, concern for the problems caused by migration and urbanization, improvement in the status of women, and support for the reduction of mortality levels. Some 74 countries containing 93% of the population of the developing world, supported family planning, with only 4 populous countries -- Burma, Ethiopia, Peru, and North Korea not in support. More than 98% of the population of Asia lives in countries which support family planning; the figures are 94% for Latin America, 90% for the Middle East and North Africa and 64% for Sub-Saharan Africa. The governments of 39 countries with a combined population of 2.3 billion have stated that rapid population growth is detrimental to the rapid attainment of social and economic development; 35 additional developing countries favor family planning as a basic human right, to improve the status of women, and for health reasons. There is a wide range of acceptance rates for contraceptives among the developing countries with gains shown for most countries between 1972 and 1974. There is a strong pattern of fertility decline in 11 East Asian and Latin American countries plus Mauritius. Induced abortion countries to be a major means of birth control even in countries where it is illegal. Legal access to abortion on broad grounds is available in China, North Vietnam, Tunisia, Singapore, India, Zambia, and Hong Kong. It seems likely that liberalization of abortion laws will occur in more developing countries in the near future for health reasons as well as for demographic reasons. PMID:1202672

  8. [Family planning methods based on fertility awareness].

    PubMed

    Haghenbeck-Altamirano, Francisco Javier; Ayala-Yez, Rodrigo; Herrera-Meilln, Hctor

    2012-04-01

    The desire to limit fertility is recognized both by individuals and by nations. The concept of family planning is based on the right of individuals and couples to regulate their fertility and is based in the area of health, human rights and population. Despite the changes in policies and family planning programs worldwide, there are large geographic areas that have not yet met the minimum requirements in this regard, the reasons are multiple, including economic reasons but also ideological or religious. Knowledge on the physiology of the menstrual cycle, specifically ovulation process has been further enhanced due to the advances in reproductive medicine research. The series of events around ovulation are used to detect the "fertile window", this way women will look for the possibility of postponing their pregnancy or actually start looking for it. The aim of this article is to review the current methods of family planning based on fertility awareness, from the historical methods like the core temperature determination and rhythm, to the most popular ones like the Billings ovulation method, the Sympto-thermal method and current methods like the two days, and the standard days method. There are also mentioned methods that require electronic devices or specifically computer designed ones to detect this "window of fertility". The spread and popularity of these methods is low and their knowledge among physicians, including gynecologists, is also quite scarce. The effectiveness of these methods has been difficult to quantify due to the lack of well designed, randomized studies which are affected by small populations of patients using these methods. The publications mention high effectiveness with their proper use, but not with typical use, what indicates the need for increased awareness among medical practitioners and trainers, obtaining a better use and understanding of methods and reducing these discrepancies. PMID:22808858

  9. Approaches to family planning in Muslim communities.

    PubMed

    El Hamri, Najat

    2010-01-01

    Addressing the cultural and religious beliefs around the issue of family planning has been a big challenge for the international development community. The concept of family planning has raised some concerns regarding its acceptability within Muslim populations. While some Muslim states and organisations have adopted a rather cautious approach to the issue, others have gone to the extent of inviting religious leaders to present religiously sound interpretations (fatwa) on the subject. Alongside these deliberations are some alarming statistics on maternal health. The World Health Organization estimates that worldwide 211 million women become pregnant each year and that about two-thirds of them deliver live infants. The remaining one-third of pregnancies end in miscarriage, stillbirth or induced abortion. Some 200 million women in developing countries have an unmet need for effective contraception. These statistics and the ongoing discussion surrounding family planning in the Muslim communities raise legitimate questions. How is family planning perceived within the Muslim community? Does Islam address the issue of family planning? Is it permissible? How should appropriate family planning programmes within Muslim settings be developed and applied? This article seeks to present the ongoing debate on family planning within the Muslim community and offer recommendations to organisations for effective strategy implementation of family planning programmes within Muslim settings. The article provides a brief background on the historical development of family planning in the Muslim community, and outlines Muslim perceptions on this issue. It concludes with recommendations for non-governmental organisations on how to effectively implement acceptable family planning programmes within Muslim settings. PMID:20067669

  10. Evaluating family planning program effectiveness and efficiency.

    PubMed

    Roberto, E L; Gehrz, S L

    1975-02-01

    This article proposes an integrated in-house evaluation model for family planning programs. The model is designed to meet the need of program management for an operational and internal evaluation system suited to the ongoing character of program activities and focused on the feedback of information for program planning. The ideas presented are applied to the context of the Albany County Family Planning Service, Inc., Wyoming. PMID:1118870

  11. Priority strategies for India's family planning programme

    PubMed Central

    Pachauri, Saroj

    2014-01-01

    Strategies to accelerate progress of India's family planning programme are discussed and the importance of improving the quality and reach of services to address unmet contraceptive need by providing method choice is emphasized. Although there is a growing demand for both limiting and spacing births, female sterilisation, is the dominant method in the national programme and use of spacing methods remains very limited. Fertility decline has been slower in the empowered action group (EAG) States which contribute about 40 per cent of population growth to the country and also depict gloomy statistics for other socio-development indicators. It is, therefore, important to intensify efforts to reduce both fertility and mortality in these States. A rationale has been provided for implementing integrated programmes using a gender lens because the lack of women's autonomy in reproductive decision-making, compounded by poor male involvement in sexual and reproductive health matters, is a fundamental issue yet to be addressed. The need for collaboration between scientists developing contraceptive technologies and those implementing family planning services is underscored. If contraceptive technologies are developed with an understanding of the contexts in which they will be delivered and an appreciation of end-users needs and perspectives, they are more likely to be accepted by service providers and used by clients. PMID:25673535

  12. Priority strategies for India's family planning programme.

    PubMed

    Pachauri, Saroj

    2014-11-01

    Strategies to accelerate progress of India's family planning programme are discussed and the importance of improving the quality and reach of services to address unmet contraceptive need by providing method choice is emphasized. Although there is a growing demand for both limiting and spacing births, female sterilisation, is the dominant method in the national programme and use of spacing methods remains very limited. Fertility decline has been slower in the empowered action group (EAG) states which contribute about 40 per cent of population growth to the country and also depict gloomy statistics for other socio-development indicators. It is, therefore, important to intensify efforts to reduce both fertility and mortality in these states. arationale has been provided for implementing integrated programmes using a gender lens because the lack of women's autonomy in reproductive decision-making, compounded by poor male involvement in sexual and reproductive health matters, is a fundamental issue yet to be addressed. The need for collaboration between scientists developing contraceptive technologies and those implementing family planning services is underscored. If contraceptive technologies are developed with an understanding of the contexts in which they will be delivered and an appreciation of end-users' needs and perspectives, they are more likely to be accepted by service providers and used by clients. PMID:25673535

  13. Objective necessity of socialist family planning: a trial discussion.

    PubMed

    Li, R

    1985-07-01

    On the basis of Marx and Engels' prediction and thesis of scientific socialism, socialist China, the most populous nation in the world, is the 1st to have realized the planned management of population reproductive in the history of mankind, thus giving an answer to the problem in practice. This paper makes a tentative exploration of such a necessity in socialist family planning. Engels points out that 1) under private ownership, population reproduction takes class antagonism as the basis, while public ownership of the means of production eradicates it; 2) in capitalist society, the reproduction of the labor force is commodity reproduction--public ownership of the means of production can be divorced from the domain of commodity; and 3) under private ownership, population reproduction is purely the private business of an individual or a family whose economic benefit forms the motive force of population reproduction--public ownership liberates it from one's personal gains making it a public affair. The great significance of family planning to economic development can be recognized as production, consumption, and accumulation. Taking family planning as the basis for the reproduction plan of the labor force is the guarantee of realizing the material production plan. Family planning reflects the trend of the structure and change of consumer requirements and provides the direct and indirect objectives of various items of material production planning; it provides the objective basis for social accumulation and the arrangement of expanding reproduction. 3 conclusions are derived: 1) the building up of the public ownership of the means of production affords man the possibility to regulate the production of matter as well as man, 2) the characteristics of the planned development of a socialist national economy demands the planned production of man, and 3) family planning and the development of a socialist economy demand their mutual congruence. PMID:12314263

  14. Sources of population and family planning assistance.

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    This document assesses the current status of population and family planning assistance throughout the world and provides brief sketches of the available sources including national governments, intergovernmental agencies such as the UNFPA and other UN entities, and nongovernmental funding, technical assistance, or funding and technical assistance organizations. The descriptions of aid-granting organizations describe their purposes, sources of funding, and activities, and give addresses where further information may be sought. At present about $100 million of the US $1 billion spent for family planning in developing countries each year comes from individuals paying for their own supplies and services, over $400 million is spent by national governments on their own programs, and about $450 million comes from developed country governments and private agencies. Over half of external assistance appears to be channeled through international agencies, and only a few countries provide a substantial proportion of aid bilaterally. In the past decade several governments, particularly in Asia, significantly increased the share of program costs they assumed themselves, and the most populous developing countries, China, India, and Indonesia, now contribute most of the funding for their own programs. Although at least 130 countries have provided population aid at some time, most is given by 12 industrialized countries. The US Agency for International Development (USAID) is the largest single donor, but the US share of population assistance has declined to 50% of all assistance in 1981 from 60% in the early 1970s. Governments of Communist bloc countries have made only small contributions to international population assistance. Most governmental asistance is in cash grant form, but loans, grants in kind, and technical assistance are also provided. Private organizations give assistance primarily to other private organizations in developing countries, and have been major innovators in research, training and service delivery. Loan assistance is provided by the World Bank for combined health, nutrition, and population projects as well as poupulation education. Although international population assistance from donor governments and private organizations increased from about $165 million in 1971 to about $445 million in 1980, the increase in constant value was only about 10% after inflation. About 2/3 of international assistance goes to family planning services and contraceptives; other activities receiving support are basic data collection, research, and IEC. Greatly increased expenditures will be needed if population stability is to be achieved. PMID:6840390

  15. Massive drive to reenergize the family planning programme.

    PubMed

    Kakar, V N

    1979-01-01

    A massive drive has been launched throughout India in an effort to reenergize the family planning program. The Prime Minister has made a special appeal to the nation from radio and television networks and through the press to adopt the small family norm as a way of life. The Chief Ministers and the Health Ministers in the States have made similar appeals to the people and the doctors. The current drive was preceded by 18 months of concentrated efforts to vitalize the family planning program. The change in nomenclature from "family planning" to "family welfare" created some misunderstanding regarding the government's own commitment to the program, but it is now widely understood that while family welfare aims at the total welfare of the family, family planning is an essential part of it. The government has tried to involve all sectors of society in program efforts. The mass media is now focusing attention on "family welfare" almost continuously. In villages, a large-scale program of organizing education camps of opinion leaders is now underway. The rural health scheme, initiated in October 1977, promises to bring about increased participation of the people in village programs. 54,000 community health workers have already started serving the rural population in their areas. In 2-3 years there will be 1 trained community health worker in every Indian village. PMID:12309490

  16. Cambodian refugees' family planning knowledge and use.

    PubMed

    Kulig, J C

    1995-07-01

    An ethnographic study was conducted within a Cambodian refugee community to discover information about Cambodian women's and men's knowledge and use of family planning methods. This 18-month study included participant observation at community and calendrical events, and within families' homes. Open-ended interviews were conducted with 53 informants from a variety of educational and socio-economic backgrounds. Both women and men were interviewed through a female bilingual interpreter when the informant lacked proficiency in speaking English. Major findings include a lack of knowledge among the sample about how the family planning methods work in the woman's body, and concerns about side-effects. Implications include the need to include Cambodian women and men in the planning and implementation of family planning programmes. PMID:7560523

  17. A dynamic family planning and health campaign.

    PubMed

    1986-11-01

    Any successful development program that combines family planning, nutrition, and parasite control such as the integrated project, must include effective information, education, and communication (IEC) components. The Population an Community Development Association (PDA), the largest nonprofit organization in Thailand provides a network of family planning service delivery composed of volunteer distributors including midwives, school techers and shopkeepers. Reliability and accessibility are the 2 important elements. A concerted media campaign which exposes people to condoms and other contraceptives helps desensitize an otherwise "too personal" issue. The problem which confronts family planning communication is how to counteract the sensuous messages form advetisers while focusing on mundane topics such as maternal and child health, responsible parenthood, and family budgets. The PDA has tried to use the same attractions to promote family planning. It distributes promotional items such as T-shirts, pens towels and cigarette lighters bearing family planning messages. In addition to the use of television and radio, PDA also utilizes every possible channel of communication. Approaches include: the Youth-to-Youth Program; informational exhibits; video-mobile vans which visit schools and factories; and the holding of PDA's vasectomy festivals. Informational exhibits on family planning and health care use a variety of audio-visual methods. Video is an effective communication medium. The PDA video material ordinarily consists of family dramas illustrating good and bad family planning practices. By holding vasectomy festivals, PDA provides a media-attracting forum to educate the public and promote vasectomey as the most effective birth control method. Mass media campaigns must be linked with fieldwork outreach. PMID:12314464

  18. Family Planning Among Southeast Asian Refugees

    PubMed Central

    Minkler, Donald H.; Korenbrot, Carol; Brindis, Claire

    1988-01-01

    Five different Southeast Asian groups were studied to document family planning knowledge, attitudes, and practices, and to identify current barriers to care. Significant differences exist among ethnic groups in their knowledge and use of effective methods of contraception, as well as variations in the timing of when to adopt family planning practices and in the preferred number of children. Nearly 70% of the sample had experienced barriers to services, including language, transportation, and a lack of awareness of available services. PMID:3363968

  19. A Small Library in Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc., New York, NY.

    This annotated listing of books is intended as a reference for anyone seeking an authoritative introduction to population and family planning information, as a world, family, or individual concern. For each entry, the International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is provided if available. The number preceding each reference represents the…

  20. 1993--Twenty-Fifth Annual National Council on Family Relations Videotape Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Deborah; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Lists and annotates winning entries in 1993 National Council on Family Relations Videotape Competition in categories of substance abuse, aging, social issues, divorce/remarriage, families with special needs, family violence, human development, reproduction and family planning, marital/family issues, mental health, nontraditional families,

  1. National Center for Family Literacy, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NCFL Newsletter, 1994

    1994-01-01

    These four newsletter issues provide information on family literacy and literacy education programs. Each 16-page issue includes several feature articles; descriptions of literacy conferences and seminars; updates on the National Family Literacy Project; descriptions of successful family literacy programs; coming events; a list of National Center

  2. Family planning and social position of women.

    PubMed

    Begum, Hasna

    1993-04-01

    This presentation began with at least three biases: (i) Acceptance of a secular approach to the problem of artificially controlling human reproduction; (ii) acceptance of an absolute egalitarian position in matter of choices and applications of family planning methods; and (iii) acceptance of the view that a small family gives women more opportunities to flourish as humans. The conclusion of the presentation is: though in implementing family planning programmes much deviation from the egalitarian principle could be found, in reality the implementation itself does bring about some opportunities for women to enhance their position in society. Undoubtedly the malpractices in family planning programmes cause death and miseries to women. But, until better methods are invented for both male and female sexes to replace the harmful ones and the male members of the society feel equal responsibility in matters of controlling reproduction, women have now no other choice but to accept the lesser evil. PMID:11651534

  3. Agency leads in family planning assistance.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    The US Agency for International Development (USAID) is the main source of family planning assistance for the developing countries of the world. It accounts for 45% of the funding for population programs worldwide. USAID's policy promotes expanded family planning services, providing a broad range of birth control methods, promotes consumer delivery systems, and urges private sector assistance. Since the program began in the 1960's the number of people in the developing world using family planning increased from 15 million to 200 million. In 1959 there was only 1 country with a population policy, India, now there are 63 developing countries with policies. USAID has brought $567.7 million worth of contraceptives for distribution in 75 countries including 6.9 billion condoms, 1.6 billion cycles of pills, 49.7 million IUD's, and 16.5 vaginal foam tablets. USAID has funded research in contraceptives including the Hulka clip, laparoscopic sterilization, low-estrogen pills, progestin pills, Copper-T IUD, NORPLANT and NORPLANT 2. In addition, funding for a 3-month injectable and a 12 month pellet is being provided. The agency has also worked with the entertainment industry to produce songs to warn of the dangers of early pregnancy. They have also conducted the largest survey research program, using data from 149 surveys in 65 countries to assess the demand for family planning and analyze population dynamics. The number of women of reproductive age will increase 45% by the year 2000 increasing the demand for family planning dramatically. The resources needed by 2000 are estimated to be $5 billion and $7 billion by the year 2010. This will require efforts from government, private industry, and private voluntary organizations. USAID has developed a contraceptive marketing project worldwide to promote birth control sales and family planning. Another program helps private sector companies promote their own family planning services. PMID:12343035

  4. [Socio-medical aspects of family planning].

    PubMed

    Ramos, P

    1974-01-01

    3 social aspects of family planning are discussed: cultural heritage, relations between pathology and parity and the problem of unwanted children. The family as an institution enabled mankind to face successfully the adverse conditions to which it was subjected for thousand of years. Now the role of the family is changing, but this raises the problem of whether to accept a new way of life or follow traditions. No uniform solution is applicable to all places or to all s ocial strata within each country. It is necessary to limit the number of unwanted children that cannot be properly raised, but most women can only resort to abortion, which is unlawful and dangerous. Education in family planning must begin in primary school and promoted among parents. It is necessary to explain that the tradition of early marriage must be stopped, and parents must wait until they are able to p lan their family responsibly and to support and educate their children. PMID:4826046

  5. Filling the Family Planning Gap. Worldwatch Paper 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Bruce

    The author provides a global review of family planning techniques and their impact on national birth rates. Sterilization, the pill, and intrauterine devices are the most popular methods of contraception worldwide. Abortion, where it is legal, is also extremely popular. In countries such as the United States where population control is not an

  6. The Italian Dementia National Plan. Commentary.

    PubMed

    Di Fiandra, Teresa; Canevelli, Marco; Di Pucchio, Alessandra; Vanacore, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    The Italian Dementia National Plan was formulated in October 2014 by the Italian Ministry of Health in close cooperation with the regions, the National Institute of Health and the three major national associations of patients and carers. The main purpose of this strategy was to provide directive indications for promoting and improving interventions in the dementia field, not limiting to specialist and therapeutic actions, but particularly focusing on the support of patients and families throughout the pathways of care. Four main objectives are indicated: 1) promote health- and social-care interventions and policies; 2) create/strengthen the integrated network of services for dementia based on an integrated approach; 3) implement strategies for promoting appropriateness and quality of care; and 4) improve the quality of life of persons with dementia and their families by supporting empowerment and stigma reduction. These objectives and the pertaining actions are described in the present paper. PMID:26783209

  7. Menstrual regulation in family planning services.

    PubMed Central

    Kessel, E; Brenner, W E; Stathes, G H

    1975-01-01

    Menstrual regulation is a safe, effective, and economical method of fertility control. Its increased safety compared to first trimester abortion establishes menstrual regulation by vacuum aspiration for treatment of up to 14 days missed menstrual period as probably better medical practice than waiting to confirm the presence of a pregnancy. Because it is a postcontraceptive method, menstrual regulation has potential in family planning services both as a recruitment service and for the treatment of contraceptive failures. Its use as an only method of fertility control is being studied. The acceptance of this new family planning service will primarily depend on its availability, dissemination of information about the service, and the ability of women freely to avail themselves of the service without delay. Although long term effects of single and repeated use of menstrual regulation are not known, its immediate complications are few and it can be recommended as a useful addition to present fertility control methods in family planning programs. PMID:1147115

  8. Social marketing: the family planning experience.

    PubMed

    El-ansary, A I; Kramer Oe, J

    1973-07-01

    The authors explore social marketing applications in the Louisiana model of statewide program for family planning. The marketing concept has 4 major elements: 1) consumer orientation; 2) social process; 3) integrated effort; 4) profitable operation. Success of program and continued growth are the results of defining services needed by consumer; determining market target; taking services to customer; and emphasizing concept of selling family planning rather than giving free birth control method. Another important facet is the recognition of many participants--community agencies, the church, the American Medical Association, funding sources, and hospitals. This project used anyaltical marketing tools and defined services as human services rather than the narrow family planning services. It also extended activities to multinational environment and adapted the product offering to meet these needs. PMID:12257226

  9. Vanguard family planning acceptors in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Nichols, D; Ndiaye, S; Burton, N; Janowitz, B; Gueye, L; Gueye, M

    1985-01-01

    This study examines contraceptive use among clients at the three clinics providing family planning services in Dakar, Senegal in early 1983. Most clients first became interested in family planning following the birth of a child, and most are interested in spacing future pregnancies, although one-third state that they want no more children. The clinic itself was found to be an important determinant of the type of contraceptive used, with only the government-operated clinic providing a balance between IUDs, oral contraceptives, and barrier methods. Nearly half of the clients interviewed said that a lack of knowledge about contraception is the reason for the low contraceptive prevalence rates among Senegalese women; another frequently cited reason was the opposition of the husband. Most clients reported the broadcast media to be the best means of providing family planning information to potential acceptors. PMID:4060212

  10. Abia mobilises men for family planning.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    In Nigeria, the Commissioner for Health and Social Welfare of Abia State has introduced male mobilization into Abia's Family Planning Programmes. The new program aims to have men in the workplace and the State House Assembly become more sensitive to their responsibility to family welfare and to the improvement of the quality of life for all citizens. Abia State's Ministry of Health and Social Welfare has effectively conducted an IEC (information, education, and communication) campaign for men in 17 local government areas (8000 men so far). The campaign will be expanded to include all major industries in Abia. The ministry expects to bring about an 85% male acceptance rate by the year 2000. The Commissioner stresses the need for men to review their position on family planning and support their partners as they make contraception and planned parenthood decisions together. He hopes that every child in Nigeria be born healthy, wanted, and loved. PMID:12318619

  11. Population and family planning in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, J

    1994-01-01

    As the most populous country of the world, China pursues an integrated programme for socio-economic development with family planning as a vital part of it. The aim is to ensure that population growth does not outpace the economic development, the availability of natural resources and environmental protection efforts. Current policy on family planning includes: the promotion of late marriage and deferred child bearing, advocating the practice of "one couple, one child", to encourage birth spacing for those who want a second child. Technical guidelines are: contraception as the priority; comprehensive use of various contraceptive methods in men and women; induced abortion allowed on request if no contraindications; state provided contraceptives, barrier devices and technical services. The birth rate of 33.34/1000, death rate of 7.6/1000 and natural increase rate of 25.83/1000 in 1970 was brought down to 21.04/1000, 6.7/1000 and 14.26/1000 respectively in 1985. A total fertility for 1950 of 5.87 was gradually brought down to 2.31 in 1990. 260 million births were averted between 1970-1991; the world's "5-billion population day" was postponed for 2 years and Asian "3-billion population day" was postponed for 3 years. The State Family Planning Commission under the State Council was set up in 1981. The China Family Planning Association, the China Population Association and non-governmental organisations promote family planning work in a coordinated way. The current family planning policy is now well accepted in the urban area, and gaining increasing momentum in the rural area. Persistant education is still important to break the millennia old tradition of having more children and more boys. PMID:7892742

  12. Family planning uses traditional theater in Mali.

    PubMed

    Schubert, J

    1988-01-01

    Mali's branch of the International Planned Parenthood Federation has found a vehicle that effectively conveys the idea of family planning through the use of contraception, a method that blends the country's cultural heritage and modern technology. Despite becoming the first sub-Saharan francophone country to promote family planning, Mali only counted 1% of its population using a modern method of contraception. So with the aid of The Johns Hopkins University/Population COmmunication Services (JHU/PCS), the Association Malienne pour la Protection et la Promotion de la Famille (AMPPF) developed several programs to promote contraception, but none were more successful than the Koteba Project, which used Mali's traditional theater form to communicate the message. While comical, the Koteba generally deals with social issues -- it informs and entertains. This particular Koteba told the story of two government employees, one with two wives and many children, the other with one wife and few children. The first one sees nothing but family problems: fighting wives and delinquent children. The second one, who had used family planning, enjoys a peaceful home. Upon hearing of his friend's successes with family planning, the tormented government employee becomes convinced of its needs, and persuades his wives to accompany him to a family planning clinic. Developed at a cost of approximately US $3000 and televised nationwide, the Koteba proved effective. A survey of 500 people attending an AMPPF clinic revealed that 1/4 of them remembered the program. With the success of the Koteba, JHU/PCS and AMPPF are now exploring other traditional channels of communication. PMID:12315793

  13. 42 CFR 441.20 - Family planning services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Family planning services. 441.20 Section 441.20... General Provisions 441.20 Family planning services. For beneficiaries eligible under the plan for family... free to choose the method of family planning to be used....

  14. 42 CFR 441.20 - Family planning services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Family planning services. 441.20 Section 441.20... General Provisions 441.20 Family planning services. For beneficiaries eligible under the plan for family... free to choose the method of family planning to be used....

  15. 42 CFR 441.20 - Family planning services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Family planning services. 441.20 Section 441.20... General Provisions 441.20 Family planning services. For beneficiaries eligible under the plan for family... free to choose the method of family planning to be used....

  16. 42 CFR 441.20 - Family planning services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Family planning services. 441.20 Section 441.20... General Provisions 441.20 Family planning services. For recipients eligible under the plan for family... free to choose the method of family planning to be used....

  17. 42 CFR 441.20 - Family planning services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Family planning services. 441.20 Section 441.20... General Provisions 441.20 Family planning services. For recipients eligible under the plan for family... free to choose the method of family planning to be used....

  18. Systems effects on family planning innovativeness.

    PubMed

    Lee, S B

    1983-12-01

    Data from Korea were used to explore the importance of community level variables in explaining family planning adoption at the individual level. An open system concept was applied, assuming that individual family planning behavior is influenced by both environmental and individual factors. The environmental factors were measured at the village level and designated as community characteristics. The dimension of communication network variables was introduced. Each individual was characterized in terms of the degree of her involvement in family planning communication with others in her village. It was assumed that the nature of the communication network linking individuals with each other effects family planning adoption at the individual level. Specific objectives were to determine 1) the relative importance of the specific independent variables in explaining family planning adoption and 2) the relative importance of the community level variables in comparison with the individual level variables in explaining family planning adoption at the individual level. The data were originally gathered in a 1973 research project on Korea's mothers' clubs. 1047 respondents were interviewed, comprising all married women in 25 sample villages having mothers' clubs. The dependent variable was family planning adoption behavior, defined as current use of any of the modern methods of family planning. The independent variables were defined at 3 levels: individual, community, and at a level intermediate between them involving communication links between individuals. More of the individual level independent variables were significantly correlated with the dependent variables than the community level variables. Among those variables with statistically significant correlations, the correlation coefficients were consistently higher for the individual level than for the community level variables. More of the variance in the dependent variable was explained by individual level than by community level variables. Community level variables accounted for only about 2.5% of the total variance in the dependent variable, in marked contrast to the result showing individual level variables accounting for as much as 19% of the total variance. When both individual and community level variables were entered into a multiple correlation analysis, a multiple correlation coefficient of .4714 was obtained together they explained about 20% of the total variance. The 2 communication network variables--connectedness and integrativeness--were correlated with the dependent variable at much higher levels than most of the individual or community level variables. Connectedness accounted for the greatest amount of the total variance. The communication network variables as a group explained as much of the total variance in the dependent variable as the individual level variables and greatly more that the community level variables. PMID:12339471

  19. Islamic logics, reproductive rationalities: family planning in northern Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Varley, Emma

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the use of Islamic doctrine and jurisprudence by family planning organizations in the Gilgit-Baltistan region of northern Pakistan. It examines how particular interpretations of Islam are promoted in order to encourage fertility reductions, and the ways Muslim clerics, women and their families react to this process. The paper first discusses how Pakistan's demographic crisis, as the world's sixth most populous nation, has been widely blamed on under-funding for reproductive health services and wavering political commitment to family planning. Critics have called for innovative policy and programming to counter 'excessive reproduction' by also addressing socio-cultural and religious barriers to contraceptive uptake. Drawing on two years of ethnographic research, the paper examines how family planning organizations in Gilgit-Baltistan respond to this shift by employing moderate interpretations of Islam that qualifycontraceptive use as a 'rational' reproductive strategy and larger families as 'irrational'. However, the use of Islamic rhetoric to enhance women's health-seeking agency and enable fertility reductions is challenged by conservative Sunni ulema (clergy), who seek to reassert collective control over women's bodies and fertility by deploying Islamic doctrine that honors frequent childbearing. Sunnis' minority status and the losses incurred by regional Shia-Sunni conflicts have further strengthened clerics' pronatalist campaigns. The paper then analyses how Sunni women navigate the multiple reproductive rationalities espoused by 'Islamized' family planning and conservative ulema. Although Islamized family planning legitimizes contraceptive use and facilitates many women's stated desire for smaller families, it frequently positions women against the interests of family, community and conservative Islam. PMID:22889427

  20. China's family planning policies: recent reforms and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Basten, Stuart; Jiang, Quanbao

    2014-12-01

    In November 2013, China announced reforms to its family planning policies whereby couples would be allowed to have a second child if either parent is an only child. The announcement garnered worldwide media coverage, and stimulated academic and popular discussion. We explore the context of the 2013 reforms, including the economic, demographic, and political motivations behind them, and speculate on their likely effect. Noting that the impact of the reforms on China's long-term demographic future is likely to be relatively slight, we consider why more radical reform may have been difficult to implement. We offer observations about possible future directions for Chinese family planning policies and explore the notion of "local pronatalism within nationally prescribed antinatalist limits" and how this suggests that an ideological shift within China's family planning apparatus may be plausible. PMID:25469931

  1. Family planning and protection of human rights.

    PubMed

    1991-12-01

    The discussion of human rights in China is based on the White Paper issued by the Information Office under the State Council on November 1, 1991. China is the most populous country in the world at 1.14 billion in 1990. Annual increases of 17 million are expected even with family planning (FP). The area of cultivated land/capita has dropped to 1.3 mu (16.5% of an acre)/capita, or 25% of the world average. Fresh water resources have also dropped similarly. The amount of grain.person is 22% of that in the US. 25% of additional income to the national income is consumed by newborns annually. Savings have been cut and reinvestment in economic development has been slowed. There are pressures on all social and economic systems. There is acknowledged success in FP. The birth rate has dropped to 21.06.1000 in 1990, the rate of natural increase to 14.39%/1000, and the fertility rate to 2.31. These figures are lower than the averages for other developing countries. The FP policy is to promote deferred marriage and childbearing, fewer but healthier births, and 1 child/couple. Rural families who are having difficulties may after an interval of several years have a 2nd child. Minority nationalities are being encouraged to adopt FP voluntarily. Han requirements are different. The policy has been understood and supported by the masses and has contributed to the drop in 3rd and higher parity births to 19.32% in 1989 from 62.21% in 1970. The government role is one of guidance and persuasion within the law, and cannot be accomplished by administrative decrees alone. The government has given priority to enlightening the masses through publicity and education that birth control has a direct impact on the nation's prosperity and people's happy family life. The China FP Association has set up 600,000 grass roots branches with 32 million members to assist in aiding the masses in self-education, self-management, and self-service. Ideological education has been combined with helping the masses solve practical problems. FP identifies contraception as protection of maternal and child health. 75% of couples of childbearing age practice contraception. Coercive abortions are resolutely opposed. Induced abortion in cases of contraceptive failure are voluntary and safe. The abortion ratio is comparable to world rates, but lower rates are targeted. Policy objectives are to control population growth and improve the quality of human resources. Maternal and child health care is provided. Law forbids infanticide. Policy conforms to item 9 of the UN Mexico City Declaration on Population and Development, 1984, and the UN World Population Plan of Action. PMID:12317280

  2. Can Better National Policy End Family Homelessness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Nan

    2010-01-01

    An understanding of the close link between federal policy and family homelessness is critical for ensuring that one day no child in the United States is homeless. This article discusses the nature of family homelessness, the national policy framework that exists to help vulnerable families, the homeless assistance system that federal policy has

  3. Can Better National Policy End Family Homelessness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Nan

    2010-01-01

    An understanding of the close link between federal policy and family homelessness is critical for ensuring that one day no child in the United States is homeless. This article discusses the nature of family homelessness, the national policy framework that exists to help vulnerable families, the homeless assistance system that federal policy has…

  4. 78 FR 71431 - National Family Week, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ....) [FR Doc. 2013-28734 Filed 11-26-13; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F4 ... November 27, 2013 Part V The President Proclamation 9061--National Family Week, 2013 #0; #0; #0... National Family Week, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Whether...

  5. NATIONAL SURVEY OF FAMILY GROWTH (NSFG)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) provides information on childbearing, contraception, and closely related aspects of maternal and child health from a sample of women in the United States (including Alaska and Hawaii). The National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) was con...

  6. Nursing 572: Principles of Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Marsha

    A description is provided of "Principles of Family Planning," a course designed for graduate nursing students or practicing nurses seeking continuing education credit. The first sections of the course description provide a rationale for the course, information on its curricular placement, scheduling information, and statements of long-range and

  7. Nursing 572: Principles of Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Marsha

    A description is provided of "Principles of Family Planning," a course designed for graduate nursing students or practicing nurses seeking continuing education credit. The first sections of the course description provide a rationale for the course, information on its curricular placement, scheduling information, and statements of long-range and…

  8. National Ignition Facility: Experimental plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    As part of the Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE), and EG&G formed an NIF Target Diagnostics Working Group. The purpose of the Target Diagnostics Working Group is to prepare conceptual designs of target diagnostics for inclusion in the facility CDR and to determine how these specifications impact the CDR. To accomplish this, a subgroup has directed its efforts at constructing an approximate experimental plan for the ignition campaign of the NIF CDR. The results of this effort are contained in this document, the Experimental Plan for achieving fusion ignition in the NIF. This group initially concentrated on the flow-down requirements of the experimental campaign leading to ignition, which will dominate the initial efforts of the NIF. It is envisaged, however, that before ignition, there will be parallel campaigns supporting weapons physics, weapons effects, and other research. This plan was developed by analyzing the sequence of activities required to finally fire the laser at the level of power and precision necessary to achieve the conditions of an ignition hohlraum target, and to then use our experience in activating and running Nova experiments to estimate the rate of completing these activities.

  9. Private sector joins family planning effort.

    PubMed

    1989-12-01

    Projects supported by the Directorate for Population (S&T/POP) of the U.S. Agency for International Development and aimed at increasing for-profit private sector involvement in providing family planning services and products are described. Making products commercially available through social-marketing partnerships with the commercial sector, USAID has saved $1.1 million in commodity costs from Brazil, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Indonesia, and Peru. Active private sector involvement benefits companies, consumers, and donors through increased corporate profits, healthier employees, improved consumer access at lower cost, and the possibility of sustained family planning programs. Moreover, private, for-profit companies will be able to meet service demands over the next 20 years where traditional government and donor agency sources would fail. Using employee surveys and cost-benefit analyses to demonstrate expected financial and health benefits for businesses and work forces, S&T/POP's Technical Information on Population for the Private Sector (TIPPS) project encourages private companies in developing countries to invest in family planning and maternal/child health care for their employees. 36 companies in 9 countries have responded thus far, which examples provided from Peru and Zimbabwe. The Enterprise program's objectives are also to increase the involvement of for-profit companies in delivering family planning services, and to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of private volunteer organizations in providing services. Projects have been started with mines, factories, banks, insurance companies, and parastatals in 27 countries, with examples cited from Ghana and Indonesia. Finally, the Social Marketing for Change project (SOMARC) builds demand and distributes low-cost contraceptives through commercial channels especially to low-income audiences. Partnerships have been initiated with the private sector in 17 developing countries, with examples provided from the Dominican Republic, Liberia and Ecuador. These projects have increased private sector involvement in family planning, thereby promoting service expansion at lower public sector cost. PMID:12343476

  10. Remediation plans in family medicine residency

    PubMed Central

    Audétat, Marie-Claude; Voirol, Christian; Béland, Normand; Fernandez, Nicolas; Sanche, Gilbert

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess use of the remediation instrument that has been implemented in training sites at the University of Montreal in Quebec to support faculty in diagnosing and remediating resident academic difficulties, to examine whether and how this particular remediation instrument improves the remediation process, and to determine its effects on the residents’ subsequent rotation assessments. Design A multimethods approach in which data were collected from different sources: remediation plans developed by faculty, program statistics for the corresponding academic years, and students’ academic records and rotation assessment results. Setting Family medicine residency program at the University of Montreal. Participants Family medicine residents in academic difficulty. Main outcome measures Assessment of the content, process, and quality of remediation plans, and students’ academic and rotation assessment results (successful, below expectations, or failure) both before and after the remediation period. Results The framework that was developed for assessing remediation plans was used to analyze 23 plans produced by 10 teaching sites for 21 residents. All plans documented cognitive problems and implemented numerous remediation measures. Although only 48% of the plans were of good quality, implementation of a remediation plan was positively associated with the resident’s success in rotations following the remediation period. Conclusion The use of remediation plans is well embedded in training sites at the University of Montreal. The residents’ difficulties were mainly cognitive in nature, but this generally related to deficits in clinical reasoning rather than knowledge gaps. The reflection and analysis required to produce a remediation plan helps to correct many academic difficulties and normalize the academic career of most residents in difficulty. Further effort is still needed to improve the quality of plans and to support teachers.

  11. Black Families: A Source of National Strength.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson, Arthur M.

    In this paper, Arthur Jefferson, the Executive Director of the Office of Criminal Justice Plans and Analysis, discusses crime in the black community and its effect on the black family. The literature on the impact of crime on the black family is not extensive; however, there is considerable information concerning crime in the black community in

  12. National Center on Family Homelessness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Children START With Kids Healing Hearts, Promoting Health Domestic Violence and Homelessness TA America's Youngest Outcasts Veterans Veterans ... 6) the ways in which traumatic experiences, especially domestic violence, precede and prolong homelessness for families. Effective solutions ...

  13. Uphold "three stresses" to improve family planning implementation.

    PubMed

    1994-02-01

    Shandong Peninsula, China, includes 24 towns, 4 townships, and 1006 villages with a total 1992 population of 754,000. Due to the family planning program (instituted in the mid 1950s), and its emphasis on the "three stresses" since 1983, the rate of natural increase was maintained for the past decade at 6.59/1000. Marriage and childbirth has been deferred and the annual rate of planned births is 99%. Neonatal mortality is below 10/1000 and life expectancy is 76 years. There have been 260,000 births averted. In 1966, national commendation was given for the achievements in family planning. The city now ranks 12th among the top 100 counties that are the most economically developed. Success was linked with an effective IEC programs. Changing public opinion was accomplished by placing family planning slogans and cards in windows of public places and commercial centers. Contests were held, and performances publicized family planning. There are 1162 population schools in the county which have trained 10,000 family planning publicity workers and about 400,000 others since 1987. Radio and television stations have broadcast regular programs on family planning and population twice a week since 1987. Everyone has radio sets and 90% have televisions. IEC promotion has also been concerned with social security and alleviating poverty. Contraceptive prevalence among reproductive age women is now 91%. After 25 years of family planning operation, the "three stresses" were introduced and popularized in 1983. The goal was no early marriages, no early births, no induced abortions, and no unwanted births. The program strengthened family planning agencies, promoted women's services, oversaw birth quotas, and distributed contraceptives at the grassroots level. By 1991, the city began promoting control of population growth and improvement in human resources. The "four priorities" were formulated by the city for acceptors; housing sites, business licenses, recruitment of only-child parents for work, and nursery and kindergarten admissions for only children and employment of only children. Retirees with-only child certificates will receive an additional 5% pension. PMID:12318710

  14. 76 FR 72601 - National Family Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... two hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-30454 Filed 11-22-11; 11:15 am... November 23, 2011 Part IV The President Proclamation 8756--National Family Week, 2011 Proclamation 8757--National Farm-City Week, 2011 Proclamation 8758--National Child's Day, 2011 Executive Order...

  15. Family planning goes to the people.

    PubMed

    Prucell, C

    1972-01-01

    A brief profile is presented of D. Pai, director of Family Planning and Maternal and Child Health for Greater Bombay. Pai attributes the lower birthrate in Bombay (22 per 1000, compared to 28 per 1000 for all India) to his sterilization program. 3 old buses, equipped with the best medical equipment and manned by trained physicians, tour Bombay. Each has been the site of 10,000 vasectomies. In addition, free condom distribution centers and vasectomy clinics have been set up in Bombay railroad stations. Fear and ignorance are the chief factors deterring people from sterilization--fear of personal injury and reduced sex drive and of group eradication. Pai and his doctors also approach women who have just delivered their second child. Nearly 30% accept tubectomy. Pai works closely with local business organizations in promoting family planning and makes it a point to enlist the help of young interns when conducting family planning surveys in the slums. Some are so shocked by what they see that they later return and volunteer their services to ghetto clinics. PMID:12229784

  16. IMA to conduct training courses in family planning.

    PubMed

    1993-11-15

    For the last six and a half decades, the Indian Medical Association (IMA) has been actively engaged in Public Health issues, ranging from immunization, ORT, maternal and child health care, and has been cooperating with the Government of India in various National Health Programs. Recently, IMA organized a new and exciting program on India's most significantly health issue--family planning. The training is to be competency based and participatory, with the main emphasis on knowledge, attitude and skills required to provide comprehensive child spacing. IMA has developed this multilevel program to train personnel in all methods of family planning, like: participation in basic oral contraceptive training; supplementary training in other methods; clinical practice for providing information on how to select and manage non-clinical family planning services; simulated practice in IUCD; and clinical practice in IUCD training. Training can also be arranged for vasectomy practicum and minilaparotomy. The main purpose of the training program is to realize the Government's goal of 60% contraceptive prevalence usage by the year 2000. In India, less than 2% of the 132.5 million reproductives, couples use oral contraceptives, because of widespread misconceptions regarding the pill among the general populace and the medical community. This program has been designed to counter these misgivings and thus encourage the "use of modern family planning methods" to take on the menace of the population explosion. PMID:12179169

  17. Family Planning: Its Impact on the Health of Women and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine, Deborah

    This document explores risks to the health and lives of women and children that can be avoided or reduced by family planning. Emphasis throughout is on case studies and statistics from developing nations. Data are presented in expository and chart form. Information is presented in four chapters. Chapter I, Child Health and Family Planning,

  18. Worker-Client Relations and Related Policy Issues in the Bangladesh Family Planning Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossain, Mian Bazle

    At the request of the government of Bangladesh the International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh established the Maternal and Child Health-Family Planning (MCH-FP) Extension Project in 1982. This paper discusses: (1) the design of the MCH-FP; (2) the major characteristics of the national health and family planning program under…

  19. Family Planning: Its Impact on the Health of Women and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine, Deborah

    This document explores risks to the health and lives of women and children that can be avoided or reduced by family planning. Emphasis throughout is on case studies and statistics from developing nations. Data are presented in expository and chart form. Information is presented in four chapters. Chapter I, Child Health and Family Planning,…

  20. Tay Sachs and Related Storage Diseases: Family Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneiderman, Gerald; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Based on interviews with 24 families, the article discusses family planning and the choices available to those families in which a child has previously died from Tay-Sachs or related lipid storage diseases. (IM)

  1. National Foreign Language Planning: Practices and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajavaara, Kari, Ed.; And Others

    A selection of essays on foreign language planning at the national level contains articles on the language planning process, language choice, teacher education, testing and assessment, and transnational planning. Essays include the following: "Foreign Language Teaching Policy: Some Planning Issues" (Theo J. M. van Els); "Foreign Language Planning

  2. 34 CFR 300.24 - Individualized family service plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Individualized family service plan. 300.24 Section 300... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part 300.24 Individualized family service plan. Individualized family service plan or IFSP has the meaning given the term in section 636 of...

  3. 34 CFR 300.24 - Individualized family service plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Individualized family service plan. 300.24 Section 300... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part 300.24 Individualized family service plan. Individualized family service plan or IFSP has the meaning given the term in section 636 of...

  4. 34 CFR 300.24 - Individualized family service plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Individualized family service plan. 300.24 Section 300... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part 300.24 Individualized family service plan. Individualized family service plan or IFSP has the meaning given the term in section 636 of...

  5. 34 CFR 300.24 - Individualized family service plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individualized family service plan. 300.24 Section 300... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part 300.24 Individualized family service plan. Individualized family service plan or IFSP has the meaning given the term in section 636 of...

  6. 34 CFR 300.24 - Individualized family service plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Individualized family service plan. 300.24 Section 300... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part 300.24 Individualized family service plan. Individualized family service plan or IFSP has the meaning given the term in section 636 of...

  7. Nursing's Acceptance of the Function of Family Planning Counselor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monteiro, Lois

    1974-01-01

    The changes in family planning methods in the 1960s and the recognition of population control as a public health problem brought to the nursing profession the issue of the nurse's involvement in family planning counseling. The author reviews the literature defining the functions of the nurse with regard to family planning counseling. (Author/RP)

  8. Family Perceptions of Student Centered Planning and IEP Meetings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childre, Amy; Chambers, Cynthia R.

    2005-01-01

    Given the documented benefits of family involvement in educational planning, engaging families throughout the school years is strongly advocated. However, barriers continue to impede families from collaborative partnering in educational planning. In this qualitative study the perceptions of six families were examined prior to and after the…

  9. Family Perceptions of Student Centered Planning and IEP Meetings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childre, Amy; Chambers, Cynthia R.

    2005-01-01

    Given the documented benefits of family involvement in educational planning, engaging families throughout the school years is strongly advocated. However, barriers continue to impede families from collaborative partnering in educational planning. In this qualitative study the perceptions of six families were examined prior to and after the

  10. Bibliography of Family Planning and Population, Volume 1 Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linzell, Dinah, Comp.

    Compiled from the world's research literature, this bi-monthly classified list of references on population and family planning emphasizes recently published material, primarily journal literature. Topics covered include: population and fertility; reproductive behaviour; the family; education in population, family planning, and sex; family

  11. Status and potential of family planning in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, J

    1987-02-01

    Between 1960 and the present, Pakistan has tried a number of strategies to bring down the birth rate. This paper summarizes the various family planning programs which were not as effective as had been hoped. 1) In 1965-69 the target-oriented approach concentrated on promoting IUDs and using indigenous midwives, however at the end contraceptive use was only 6%. 2) In 1970-1973 the continuous motivation system employed male-female teams to visit eligible couples, deliver contraceptives, and encourage family planning; inadequate training and supervision and inadequate supplies of contraceptives resulted in an ineffective program. 3) The contraceptive inundation scheme (1971-1977) provided widespread access to contraceptives through shopkeepers, hospitals, clinics, and field workers, but only 22% of eligible women were aware of the services when polled. 4) The multisector approach (1980-1983) placed the Ministry of Planning and Development in charge of making family planning available. In 1983 the Government initiated the latest national population welfare program. As of July 1983 the crude birth rate (CBR) was 40.3, total fertility rate (TFR) was 5.9, and contraceptive prevalence only 7-10% of women (married) of reproductive age. Goals for 1988 are a CBR of 36.2, a TFR of 5.4, and contraceptive prevalence of 18.6%. PMID:12268248

  12. China's women leaders promote quality and equity in family planning.

    PubMed

    He, S

    1995-08-01

    In China, key policy-makers at the highest levels of government recognize that the success of the family planning (FP) program depends upon improving the status of Chinese women. The highest ranking female government official, Peng Peiyun, a State Councilor and the Minister of the State Family Planning (FP) Commission, has initiated a new policy of improving the quality of service in the FP program. She recognizes that women who are gainfully employed and control their income are less likely to desire large families. One aspect of the effort to improve quality involves training FP personnel in interpersonal communication and counseling skills. The results of a pilot training program show that clients are pleased with the new approach and that use of FP services has increased. The FP Commission is also experimenting with programs which integrate all the needs of women and their families (FP, credit availability, old age support) in rural areas. Traditionally, sons provided for their elderly parents, so families with only one daughter are concerned about old age provision. Thus, national efforts are underway to develop social security systems. In the meantime, women at all levels, from grassroots FP acceptors to FP staff members and researchers are the major contributors to the innovations which will allow China to control its population growth. PMID:12290276

  13. [Family planning in Hungary: past and present].

    PubMed

    Eros, Erika; Hajós, Anett

    2010-11-01

    Periconceptional Care Service begins 3 month before the planned pregnancy and continues until 12th week of pregnancy. Its goal is to prevent congenital abnormalities (CAs) and preterm birth. Nowadays, 20-25% of infant mortality is caused by CAs in industrialized countries and CAs are among the leading causes of death. An important feature of CAs is that they represent a defect condition; therefore it's difficult to achieve a complete recovery. Thus, prevention is considered the only optimal solution in the medical care of cases affected with CA. In the last 25 years, several studies confirmed the possible prevention of CAs mainly neural-tube defects (NTDs) by folic acid supplementation during periconceptional period. Family Planning Service exists in Hungary since 1984. This model is optimal for the introduction of periconceptional folic acid/multivitamin supplementation, thus provide an effective method for primary prevention of birth defects. PMID:20980224

  14. World population growth, family planning, and American foreign policy.

    PubMed

    Sharpless, J

    1995-01-01

    The US decision since the 1960s to link foreign policy with family planning and population control is noteworthy for its intention to change the demographic structure of foreign countries and the magnitude of the initiative. The current population ideologies are part of the legacy of 19th century views on science, morality, and political economy. Strong constraints were placed on US foreign policy since World War II, particularly due to presumptions about the role of developing countries in Cold War ideology. Domestic debates revolved around issues of feminism, birth control, abortion, and family political issues. Since the 1960s, environmental degradation and resource depletion were an added global dimension of US population issues. Between 1935 and 1958 birth control movements evolved from the ideologies of utopian socialists, Malthusians, women's rights activists, civil libertarians, and advocates of sexual freedom. There was a shift from acceptance of birth control to questions about the role of national government in supporting distribution of birth control. Immediately postwar the debates over birth control were outside political circles. The concept of family planning as a middle class family issue shifted the focus from freeing women from the burdens of housework to making women more efficient housewives. Family planning could not be taken as a national policy concern without justification as a major issue, a link to national security, belief in the success of intervention, and a justifiable means of inclusion in public policy. US government involvement began with agricultural education, technological assistance, and economic development that would satisfy the world's growing population. Cold War politics forced population growth as an issue to be considered within the realm of foreign policy and diplomacy. US government sponsored family planning was enthusiastic during 1967-74 but restrained during the 1980s. The 1990s has been an era of redefinition of the issues and increased divisiveness among environmentalists, feminists, and population control advocates. The current justification of US population program assistance is based on concern for the health of women and children. Future changes will be dependent on ideology, theology, and political philosophy. PMID:12346346

  15. Malaysia family-planning centers strive to maintain gains won in 15-year period.

    PubMed

    Roemer, R

    1968-09-12

    Family planning in Malaysia is discussed. Family planning began in Malaysia about 15 years ago through the efforts of voluntary family Planning Associations in the various Malay states. In 1966 the Malaysian Parliament passed the National Family Planning Act setting up the National FAmily Planning Board to formulate policies and methods for the promotion and spread of family planning knowledge and practice on the grounds of health of mothers and children and welfare of the family. In 1967, the board set a target of 40,000 new acceptors of family planning and 90% of the target was reached. This represents 3% of the child-bearing married women aged 15-49. The target for 1968 of 65,000 new acceptors is being achieved. A survey of acceptors is to be carried out from December 1968 to April 1969 to ascertain how many women who accepted family planning continue to practice it. Malaysia's crude birth rate declined from 46.2 in 1957 to 37.3 in 1966 before the government program was instituted. Abortion attempts have been frequent. The main method of contraception used is oral contraceptives. According to a 1957 survey, 31% of the married women in the metropolitan areas and 2% of rural women were using contraception. Presently, in Malaysia there is a need to: 1) train personnel to provide services, 2) inform and motivate families to accept family planning, 3) continue a broad educational program, 4) reform Malaysia's antiquated abortion law, and 5) integrate family planning services more fully into the general health services of the country. PMID:12229348

  16. Knowledge of family planning methods in Bangladesh, 1969-1979: trends and implications.

    PubMed

    Amin, R; Mariam, A G

    1986-12-01

    The changes in levels of knowledge about different contraceptive methods in Bangladesh between 1969-79 were assessed. 2 surveys provided the data: the 1969 National Impact Survey (NIS) of family planning and the 1979 Contraceptive Prevalence Survey (CPS) from Bangladesh. Both surveys were nationally representative and retrospective, containing detailed questions of pregnancy histories, socioeconomic background, family planning knowledge and attitude, and contraceptive practices. The sampling frames for both surveys consisted of all households in Bangladesh from which national probability samples of married women between the ages of 10-50 were selected and stratified by urban-rural residence. Unprompted data were analyzed. Apparently, the National Family Planning Program (NFPP) was successful in communicating general knowledge of family planning among the masses in Bangladesh. In terms of absolute level, the increase in general knowledge of family planning was from 46.3% in 1969 to 82.8% in 1979. With the exception of the oral contraceptive (OC), absolute increase in knowledge of specific family planning methods or a variety of methods was far less than that of general knowledge of family planning. Knowledge of condoms, female sterilization, and male sterilization increased between 1969-79, yet in terms of absolute levels these increases were far less than those of either general knowledge of family planning or knowledge of OCs. The percentages of couples reporting knowledge of the IUD, vaginal methods, rhythm, injection, or induced abortion either decreased or slightly increased between 1969-79. Nearly 40% of couples had knowledge of only 1 method; fewer couples knew of 2 or more methods. There were relative increases in the knowledge of OCs and female sterilization, an 8-fold increase in knowledge of the OC and a 6-fold increase in knowledge of female sterilization between 1969-79. Respondents from the urban areas or those who attended schools were more likely to know about different contraceptive methods. Despite government orders stipulating that each household be visited every month by a family planning worker, face-to-face contact with family planning extension workers continued to be very low. In view of poor field worker performance, the government has made various modifications in the NFPP operation aimed at strengthening information and service delivery programs, yet recent evidence shows their continuing ineffectiveness. The low levels of knowledge about different family planning methods and low level of contact between family planning workers and family planning target couples show that the NFPP, by failing to inform married couples of wider choice of methods, missed many potential new acceptors of family planning methods. PMID:12341026

  17. Marketing family planning services in New Orleans.

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, J T; Proffitt, B J; Bartlett, T L

    1987-01-01

    The health care profession is witnessing a shift in focus from the interests and needs of the service provider to those of the potential consumer in an effort to attract and maintain clients. This study illustrates the role that marketing research can play in the development of program strategies, even for relatively small organizations. The study was conducted for Planned Parenthood of Louisiana, a recently organized affiliate that began offering clinical services in May 1984, to provide information on the four Ps of marketing: product, price, place, and promotion. Data from telephone interviews among a random sample of 1,000 women 15-35 years old in New Orleans before the clinic opened confirmed that the need for family planning services was not entirely satisfied by existing service providers. Moreover, it indicated that clinic hours and the cost of services were in line with client interests. The most useful findings for developing the promotional strategy were the relatively low name recognition of Planned Parenthood and a higher-than-expected level of interest that young, low income blacks expressed in using the service. PMID:3112854

  18. [Changes in midwifery practice. 26. Postwar legislative guideline concerning family planning].

    PubMed

    Obayashi, M

    1987-09-01

    Yoshio Furuya, who authored the 1951 legislative guidelines for family planning in Japan, designated 3 villages to model family planning upon his return from the United States in 1950. The instructors were public health nurses, midwives and regular nurses who had been trained and certified by the National Public Health Institute. They showed film strips and slides, and distributed contraceptives and medication. Population Research Group also embarked on the New Life Style Movement among Japanese industries in 1951. The new life style was said to have 3 pillars: family planning, career planning, and family morals. The idea of family planning was welcomed at the beginning by industries because it would mean less dependents of employees to provide financial aid for. The movement lasted only several years. In 1955, the International Family Planning Federation and the Japan Family Planning Federation co-sponsored the Fifth International Family Planning Conference in Tokyo. 572 participants including Margaret Sanger delivered 91 papers on techniques and practices of family planning. Soon after the conference, the Family Planning Study Committee was organized, and they met once a month to discuss socio-cultural implications of family planning, theory and practice of contraception, maternal and child health. Many of the committee members were idealistic/feminist public health officials but there were no women among them. A post-war family planning movement approved by the Japanese government resulted in the dramatic reduction in the birth rate from 34.3% in 1947 to 17.2% in 1957. Midwives played an important role in enforcing the policy but they were excluded from policy making. PMID:3682331

  19. Barriers and Facilitators to Family Planning Access in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Sheila; Guilbert, Edith; Soon, Judith; Norman, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Background: Contraceptives are underutilized in Canada, and nearly one in three Canadian women will have an abortion in her lifetime. To help delineate a national family planning research agenda, the authors interviewed healthcare providers and organizational stakeholders to explore their perspective on barriers to contraception across regions of Canada. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted based on validated frameworks for assessing family planning access and quality. The authors purposefully selected 14 key stakeholders from government agencies, professional organizations and non-governmental organizations for in-person interviews. Fifty-eight healthcare providers and representatives of stakeholder organizations in reproductive health who self-selected through an online survey were also interviewed. Transcripts were analyzed for repeated and saturated themes. Results: Cost was the most important barrier to contraception. Sexual health education was reported as inconsistent, even within provinces. Regional differences were highlighted, including limited access to family physicians in rural Canada and throughout Quebec. Physician bias and outdated practices were cited as significant barriers to quality. New immigrants, youth, young adults and women in small rural, Northern and Aboriginal communities were all identified as particularly vulnerable. Informants identified multiple opportunities for health policy and system restructuring, including subsidized contraception, and enhancing public and healthcare provider education. Sexual health clinics were viewed as a highly successful model. Task-sharing and expanded scope of practice of nurses, nurse practitioners and pharmacists, alongside telephone and virtual healthcare consultations, were suggested to create multiple points of entry into the system. Conclusion: Results underscore the need for a national strategic approach to family planning health policy and health services delivery in Canada. PMID:25947033

  20. 34 CFR 303.114 - Individualized family service plan (IFSP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Individualized family service plan (IFSP). 303.114... System Minimum Components of A Statewide System 303.114 Individualized family service plan (IFSP). Each system must ensure, for each infant or toddler with a disability and his or her family in the State,...

  1. 34 CFR 303.114 - Individualized family service plan (IFSP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Individualized family service plan (IFSP). 303.114... System Minimum Components of A Statewide System 303.114 Individualized family service plan (IFSP). Each system must ensure, for each infant or toddler with a disability and his or her family in the State,...

  2. 34 CFR 303.114 - Individualized family service plan (IFSP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Individualized family service plan (IFSP). 303.114... System Minimum Components of A Statewide System 303.114 Individualized family service plan (IFSP). Each system must ensure, for each infant or toddler with a disability and his or her family in the State,...

  3. 34 CFR 303.167 - Individualized family service plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Individualized family service plans. 303.167 Section 303... Requirements 303.167 Individualized family service plans. Each application must include (a) An assurance that a current IFSP is in effect and implemented for each eligible child and the child's family;...

  4. Bibliography of Family Planning and Population, Volume 1 Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linzell, Dinah, Comp.

    Compiled from the world's research literature, this bi-monthly classified list of references on population and family planning emphasizes recently published material, primarily journal literature. Topics covered include: population and fertility; reproductive behaviour; the family; education in population, family planning, and sex; family…

  5. A brief introduction to China's family planning programme.

    PubMed

    Shen, G

    1984-08-01

    China's family planning program is described in reference to its goals, approaches, and achievements. Between 1949-83, China's population increased from 541 million to 1,024,950,000. The population has a young age structure, and the median age is 22.9 years. 80% of the population is rural, and 90% of the population lives in the southeastern region of the country. In view of this demographic situation, the government recognizes the need to control population growth. China's goals for the year 2000 are to increase industrial and agricultural input by 400% and to keep population size below 1.2 billion in order to ensure that per capita income increases. In accordance with these goals, the government, in 1979, began advocating a 1-child policy. To ensure the survival of single children, the government also launched a program to upgrade maternal and child health (MCH). In some rural areas and among certain minority groups, the 1-child restriction is not applied. Family size goals will vary with time. These variations will reflect the need to maintain a balance between economic growth and population growth. A variety of incentives are used to promote the 1-child family. For example, single children receive medical and educational benefits, and in some rural areas, the parents of single children can obtain additional land contracts. Economic disincentives are also used. The government seeks to obtain compliance with the policy primarily through educating the public about the consequences of uncontrolled population growth. All channels of the mass media are used to deliver the messages, and the publicity campaign is especially intensive in rural areas. A comprehensive plan to provided family planning and population education for middle school students is currently being implemented. Each local area develops its own fertility control plan. This plan is then incorporated into the nation's overall plan and the overall plan is implemented from above. Family planning workers bring free contraceptives directly to the people, and family planning motivators are found in almost all villages, neighborhood committees, factories, and military units. As a result of these efforts, China made great strides in controlling population growth and improving MCH during the last decade. The birth rate declined from 27.93 to 18.62, and the total fertility rate declined from 4.01 to 2.48. 124 million couples were practicing contraception by the end of 1983. 41% used IUDs, 37.4% relied on tubal ligation, 12.9% relied on vasectomy, 5.1% on oral contraceptives, and 1% on other methods. The quality of maternal and child care also improved. 92.7% of all deliveries are now performed by trained midwifes. Infant and maternal mortality rates declined considerablely in recent years. Currently the respective rates are 35.68/1000 live births and 0.5/1000 live births. In 1983 alone, the gross national agricultural and industrial output increased by 46.1%. Since 1979 per capita income increased annually by 18.3% among rural residents and by 10.7% among urban workers. China controls and operates its own population program, but in recent years, it increased its cooperation with UN Fund for Population Activities, other UN agencies, and nongovernment agencies. China recently completed its 3rd national census, and demographic research institutes have been established in 10 universities. PMID:12266994

  6. 75 FR 71519 - National Family Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-29729 Filed 11-23-10; 8:45 am] Billing code 3195-W1-P ... family unit in helping all Americans reach their dreams. As we confront our challenges as a Nation,...

  7. Couple Communication and Sexual Attitudes in Natural Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shivanandan, Mary; Borkman, Thomasina

    Natural family planning (NFP) refers to techniques for planning or preventing pregnancy by observation of natural signs of fertility. In using natural family planning to avoid pregnancy, there is abstinence from sexual intercourse during the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle. Social values which are incorporated into the method include couples…

  8. Teenagers Who Use Organized Family Planning Services: United States, 1978. Data on Health Resources Utilization Series 13, No. 57.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckard, Eugenia

    Adolescent childbearing is a major concern because of the associated negative health, social, and economic consequences. To determine whether teenagers are using organized family services to prevent unwanted pregnancies, the National Reporting System for Family Planning Services began in 1972 to collect information on family planning clinic

  9. Workshop on promotion of reproductive health and family planning held.

    PubMed

    1997-09-01

    Two reproductive health advocacy networks have been established in two districts in eastern Africa to help promote family planning and reproductive health among the people in this area. The districts are the Suhum-Kraboa-Coaltar and the New Juaben Municipality. To enhance the performance of the network, a 4-day workshop was held at Koforidua for the members to prepare an action plan for their advocacy and map out areas of collaboration between the public and the private sector group. The workshop, organized by the Futures Group International based in the US with support from the USAID, was attended by 30 participants from nongovernmental organizations and public offices. In an address, Ms. Patience Adow, the Regional Minister observed that through the idea of family planning has been promoted in the country over the past two decades, the country continues to experience a population growth rate of about 2.8%. She expressed the hope that the workshop will equip the participants with the relevant skills to develop and implement their advocacy strategy effectively. Dr. J. E. Taylor, Medical Administrator of the Koforidua Central Hospital, who chaired the function in a bid to improve the health of women and the quality of life of the people. The Ministry of Health as part of its medium term strategic plan has developed the national reproductive health and service policy. PMID:12295519

  10. Ethiopia: an emerging family planning success story.

    PubMed

    Olson, David J; Piller, Andrew

    2013-12-01

    From 1990 to 2011, contraceptive use in Ethiopia increased ninefold and the total fertility rate fell from 7.0 to 4.8. These are two dramatic illustrations of a family planning success story that has emerged over the last two decades and is still emerging. What are the main elements of this success? We posit that the four most significant factors are: political will, generous donor support, nongovernmental and public-private partnerships, and the government's establishment of a network of health extension workers. In this study, we look at these factors and how their interaction increased the proportion of women having both the desire to use and ability to access contraceptives. Also highlighted are some of the key lessons learned in Ethiopia that are relevant to other African countries interested in emulating the country's success. PMID:24323662

  11. Target community foundations to fund family planning.

    PubMed

    1994-04-01

    Practical advice was given on how to secure funding for privately sponsored US family planning programs in local communities. The first step is in identifying community foundations that are directly involved in social service delivery in the local area. For example, Norplant kits were made available to low-income women through a grant from the Baltimore-based Abell Foundation. Another example is that local funds were used to produce a Norplant video, which was needed for outreach programs and for explaining the pros and cons of Norplant use. The short video was designed for multiple audiences, even though it was locally produced and funded in Baltimore. Sometimes the health department can create a consortium of providers for applying for a group grant. The Foundation Center in New York provides information on foundations, including state-by-state analysis of foundations and family planning funded projects. The Foundation Directory and Grants Index publishes by subject a list of foundations funding such areas. These publications are available in network or local libraries. Background information needs to be obtained on the guidelines required for applying for a specific foundation's grant; guidelines may vary widely between foundations and have strict or loose restrictions on form and substance. An important initial step is writing a very brief synthesis of your proposal (2 pages), if there is no prior knowledge of the receptivity of the foundation to the proposed program. If the project is within the scope of the foundation, a larger formal proposal is the next step. Foundations want to see well through out projects, budgeted carefully, with evaluation components. Examples of successful projects conducted elsewhere are good testimonials to the potential success of the proposed venture. Cultural acceptance in the community, pilot projects replicable in other areas, and target populations are important considerations to be included in the proposal. PMID:12318752

  12. Family planning / sex education / teenage pregnancy.

    PubMed

    1993-05-01

    The Alan Guttmacher Institute's "State Reproductive Health Monitor: Legislative Proposals and Actions" provides US legislative information on family planning, sex education, and teenage pregnancy. The listing contains information on legislation including the state, the identifying legislative number, the sponsor, the committee, the date the bill was introduced, a description of the bill, and the bill's status. The bills cover: 1) family planning services and programs, e.g., requiring the Department of Human Services to provide written information concerning the availability of the Norplant contraceptive implant through the Medicaid program adding chlamydia screening to the existing law, or requesting a study assessing the social and financial impact of mandatory health insurance for contraceptive devices; 2) parental consent and notice for contraception legislation; 3) school-based clinics and school health services, e.g., establishing health screening programs in public schools, allowing school-based health centers to dispense drug prescriptions; 4) sex and health education, e.g., urging all school boards to require all public elementary, middle, and high schools that teach sex education to emphasize abstinence from sexual intercourse as the only effective protection against pregnancy or sexually transmitted diseases and to require that information about sexual assault by an acquaintance and related issues be included in sex education courses in public schools; 5) teenage pregnancy prevention and care programs, e.g., requesting the public health, welfare, and labor committee to conduct a study of efforts to reduce infant mortality, teen pregnancy, and related problems as well as establishing and maintaining pregnancy and parenting education programs in secondary schools; and 6) infertility legislation on assisted reproductive technologies, including issues such as clarifying the status of children and adults born from donated eggs or preembryos, relinquishment of rights by the donors of eggs, sperms, or preembryos, allowable compensation for such donations, and the granting of legal status to fertilized ex utero embryos. PMID:12286572

  13. Prospects and problems of integration of family planning with health services in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Khan, M R

    1986-06-01

    Family planning has been functionally integrated with health in Bangladesh since the Second Five-Year Plan was launched (1980-85). The integration was resented by both health and family planning functionaries at the upazila level and below, and, except on paper, there is no integration of any form in practice. There are separate budgets, and, consequently, the Upazila Health and Family Planning Officer (UHFPO) as the authority of the grassroots level functionaries of the Health Wing and the Family Planning Officer (FPO) as the authority of the grassroots level functionaries of Population Control and Family Planning (PCFP) Wing maintain separate and parallel administration and delivery systems. Problems of integration include: no accountability, i.e., as the UHFPO has no administrative control of the FPO, the FPO can bypass the UHFPO; differential pay scales; discrimination in the allocation of office rooms and in the provision of residential accommodations and fees for sterilization operations; noncompliance of functional responsibilities on the part of grassroots level functionaries; anarchy in the subcenters; and the neglect of maternal and child health services. To improve the operational efficiency of the health care and family planning programs, it is recommended that the PCFP Wing be separated totally from the Health Wing, that the total responsibility of the action program for health and family planning be vested in the Ministry of Health, and that the National Family Planning Control Board working under the President's Secretariat be headed by an Executive Director with the rank and status of a Minister. PMID:12281031

  14. Work-Family Planning Attitudes among Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basuil, Dynah A.; Casper, Wendy J.

    2012-01-01

    Using social learning theory as a framework, we explore two sets of antecedents to work and family role planning attitudes among emerging adults: their work-family balance self-efficacy and their perceptions of their parents' work-to-family conflict. A total of 187 college students completed a questionnaire concerning their work-family balance

  15. Work-Family Planning Attitudes among Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basuil, Dynah A.; Casper, Wendy J.

    2012-01-01

    Using social learning theory as a framework, we explore two sets of antecedents to work and family role planning attitudes among emerging adults: their work-family balance self-efficacy and their perceptions of their parents' work-to-family conflict. A total of 187 college students completed a questionnaire concerning their work-family balance…

  16. Family planning in Georgia: a continuing struggle.

    PubMed

    Khomassuridze, A

    1994-03-01

    In the former Soviet Union, abortion has been the main method of family planning (FP) since its initial legalization in 1922. When legal access to abortion was restricted in 1936 because the government wanted to encourage population growth, women had to resort to traditional methods of FP or illegal procedures. In 1955, abortion was legalized again, but contraception was an illegal subject (abortionists were organized "like the Mafia" and did not want to lose their monopoly). In 1985, the advent of Perestroika paved the way for efforts to replace abortion with modern methods of contraception. In the Republic of Georgia, a Planned Parenthood Federation was established in 1993, and a new strategy was adopted to promote contraception. The provision of contraceptives through 20 branches of the Zhordania Institute of Human Reproduction has managed to respond to the FP needs of the different regions of the country. Activities of the Institute include performing voluntary sterilization and improving methods of abortion to include the use of RU-486 and vacuum aspiration procedures. These activities have combined to reduce the abortion rate, although the level of illegal abortion is reported to have increased. This gradual shift from a reliance on abortion to use of contraceptives has taken more than a decade and may be doomed to failure by a reduction in the contraceptive imports upon which Georgia entirely depends. PMID:12288983

  17. Experimental plan for the Single-Family Study

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, L.G.; Brown, M.A.; Wright, T.; White, D.L.

    1991-09-01

    The national evaluation of the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) consists of five separate studies. The Single-Family Study is one of three studies that will estimate program energy savings and cost effectiveness in principal WAP submarkets. This report presents the experimental plan for the Single-Family Study, which will be implemented over the next three years (1991--1993). The Single-Family Study will directly estimate energy savings for a nationally representative sample of single-family and small multifamily homes weatherized in the 1989 program year. Savings will be estimated from gas and electric utility billing records using the Princeton Scorekeeping Method (PRISM). The study will also assess nonenergy impacts (e.g., health, comfort, safety, and housing affordability), estimate cost effectiveness, and analyze factors influencing these outcomes. For homes using fuels such as wood, coal, fuel oil, kerosene, and propane as the primary source of space conditioning, energy savings will be studied indirectly. The study will assemble a large nationally representative data base. A cluster sampling approach will be used, in which about 400 subgrantees are selected in a first stage and weatherized homes are selected in a second range. To ensure that the Single-Family Study is able to identify promising opportunities for future program development, two purposively selected groups of subgrantees will be included: (1) subgrantees that install cooling measures (such as more efficient air conditioning equipment or radiant barriers), and (2) exemplary subgrantees that use state-of-the-art technologies and service delivery procedures (such as advanced audit techniques, blower door tests, infrared scanners, extensive client education, etc.). These two groups of subgrantees will be analyzed to identify the most effective program elements in specific circumstances. 14 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. A family planning study in Kuala Pilah, Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Vimala Thambypillai

    1982-12-01

    Realizing that family planning is not making a sufficient impact on the rural people as it is on the urban population, it was decided that the authors would study the attitude and knowledge of a rural community towards family planning. The study sample consisted of 200 Malay married women--100 acceptors and 100 nonacceptors from the Kuala Pilah District. The study went from December 4-22, 1978. A healthy climate of knowledge and attitude exist among rural Malay women. Only 2% of the nonacceptors had not heard of any family planning method; 99% of acceptors and 85% of nonacceptors had discussed family planning with their husbands. There was also evidence to show that the birthrate does decrease as literacy increases. On the other hand, however, only 19% of the respondents approved of family planning practices prior to the birth of the 1st child. Also, there is a dearth of information on family planning in the rural areas and not much has been done in utilizing the 2 popular forms of mass media--radio and television as a means of disseminating information on family planning. The study concludes with a recommendation that there is a need for a sustained effort at improving knowledge and disseminating information as well as for developing the proper attitude towards family planning. It is suggested that community leaders, women's clubs, and private organizations be mobilized to participate more fully in the promotion of family planning. PMID:7167084

  19. Using mass transit public service advertising to market family planning.

    PubMed

    Blonna, R; McNally, K; Grasso, C

    1990-03-01

    To increase public awareness of family planning services in New Jersey, the Family Planning Program of the State Department of Health conducted an intermediary marketing campaign using free public service advertising on mass transit. In 1986, the year of the campaign, 237 calls were made to the advertised hotline, resulting in a like number of referrals to family planning service providers. Also, 2664 new patients examined in the state's family planning agencies in 1986 cited exposure to the media campaign as the reason for their visits. The results of the campaign and their implications for other public service agencies are discussed. PMID:10104014

  20. Family planning: cultural and religious perspectives.

    PubMed

    Schenker, J G; Rabenou, V

    1993-06-01

    The world population explosion has caused political leaders to look upon national and regional birth control projects as vital. Support for regulation of individual fertility has been evident in all cultures, and at all times, even in those societies in which social and religious rules have favoured the abundant production of children. As the secularization of Western society and scientific enquiry gained momentum during the modern period, knowledge of reproduction increased and was applied to control human population growth. The various methods of contraception and their development through the years from the ancient ideas to the modern era are presented. Each approach to fertility control has its advantages and disadvantages. No one method is perfect for everyone, for every clinical setting, and in every culture. Higher levels of fertility have been associated with 'traditional', religious prohibitions on some forms of birth control, 'traditional' values about the importance of children and the priority of family, and 'traditional' family and gender roles reinforced by religion. The attitude of the main religious groups to contraceptive practice is discussed. PMID:8345093

  1. [Journalism and family planning in Guinea-Bissau. Putting the accent on birth spacing].

    PubMed

    Vaz, C

    1989-05-01

    A conference on awareness in the mass media of the problems of family planning was held in March 1989 at Bissau by the Guinean Association for Education and Promotion of Family Health (AGEPSF). Representatives of radio, a daily newspaper, and the national press agency discussed the objectives of AGEPSF and the benefits of family planning with specialists in different sectors of national life. The secretary general of AGEPSF affirmed the interest of the government in creating a health organization to coordinate national policy in family planning and to diffuse information on family planning. The family planning objective of the AGEPSF is not limitation of births but rather spacing to promote maternal and child health. AGEPSF is a member of the International Planned Parenthood Federation and maintains relations with similar organizations throughout the world. According to the director of the national maternity hospital, family planning is a sensitive topic but it has become accepted in numerous countries as marriage in rural areas and abortions in urban areas are widespread practices in Africa with potentially grave consequences. The general director of the National Institute for Studies and Research placed the theme of family planning in the context of Guinea-Bissau by citing the low level of education, the almost insignificant number of literate women, and the lack of health services in rural areas as the principal causes of increasing infant mortality in the country. African countries should create favorable conditions, elevate the level of living of their populations, and develop concrete health actions to reduce infant and maternal mortality. PMID:12282452

  2. Family planning offered in local welfare offices.

    PubMed

    1998-04-01

    This article describes expanded access to family planning (FP) services through community welfare offices in Washington state, US. The government aim is to decrease unintended pregnancies and to help families achieve self-sufficiency. The staff must be sensitive and respectful of clients served. The team effort includes contacting clients in other community locations to offer FP education. The approach is characterized as "1-stop shopping" that includes FP, welfare, access to jobs, training, and medical coupons. Preventing unintended pregnancies is cost effective. A state (90%) investment of $40/person for contraceptives is good business compared to $400/person as a 50/50 state/federal investment in prenatal and delivery costs. The program began in 1992, by educating staff members in community services offices (CSOs) about FP issues. In 1994, the program hired registered nurses and nurse practitioners at CSOs to provide FP services. Almost all CSOs now have nurses, and there are 8 full exam clinics. A resource handbook for CSO workers and FP nurses was compiled by state and local FP personnel. CSOs typically assign 1 staff member to FP, usually on a part time basis. Close collaboration between nurses and CSO workers usually involves more creative strategies and outreach projects. For example, in 1 CSO in Washington, the FP worker offers contraceptive counseling, pregnancy tests, and sexually transmitted disease prevention. Contraceptives are provided at a separate time with local private providers or at health department clinics. CSOs continue to provide counseling regardless of referrals to private clinics. The project is growing and forming collaborations with other FP groups. These 1-stop sites offer accessible, familiar, and comfortable services. PMID:12293169

  3. Family planning at heart of political debate.

    PubMed

    Kaeser, L

    1998-09-01

    In the US, the efforts of Chris Smith, a Republican member of the House of Representatives from New Jersey, have led to Congressional approval of two restrictions on US aid to foreign family planning (FP) programs. The first restriction prohibits the US from funding any organization that performs abortion with its own funds, even in countries where abortion is legal (except in cases of life endangerment, rape, or incest). The bill specifies that President Clinton can waive this prohibition only at a cost of $44 million to the already reduced FP funding. The second restriction prohibits US funding of any group that engages in abortion-related lobbying and is, in effect, a "gag rule" that would punish organizations for engaging in activities that would be protected in the US by the First Amendment of the Constitution. Clinton has threatened to veto the legislation even though this means that he will risk losing his ability to pay dues owed to the UN or to provide backing to the International Monetary Fund. Smith's actions reflect efforts to eliminate federal funding of domestic and international FP programs despite the fact that polls continually demonstrate the widespread approval of the US public for such programs. PMID:12348706

  4. Family planning in the workplace in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    1987-08-01

    The Jamaica Family Planning Association started holding presentations and discussions in the workplace in January 1986, now reaching 8000 people in 32 companies. The firms are primarily manufacturers (21) and hotels(7), but also include publishing, construction, printing and supermarket businessess. In these companies as well as many of the 480 members of the Jamaica Chamber of Commerce, employees are usually women of reproductive age who cannot afford to take time off to attend a clinic. There is a great demand for information and discussion on sexually transmitted diseases and clarification of the contraindications of various contraceptive methods. At the end of the discussions, educators offer pills, condoms and neo-sampoon, and may refer people for clinical services. Almost new acceptors have been recruited. The success of the project depends heavily on cooperation of management, supervisors and union representatives. In some cases union representives or company nurses act as distributors of contraceptives. This project has been so successful that some companies expressed an interest in participating in the Associations's resource development program. PMID:12179837

  5. Search is on for most outstanding family planning workers and clinics.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    The JSI Research and Training Institute, Inc, sponsored a national wide search in the Philippines commencing March 15, 1994, and ending July 7, 1994, for commendable family planning workers. The winners of the competition were selected from five categories: the best family planning volunteer worker, government family planning service worker, nongovernment family planning service worker, a government family planning clinic or center, and a nongovernment family planning clinic or center. Winners in each category were selected at the provincial or chartered city level, regional level, and national level. Nomination forms were made available in Provincial Health Offices or City Health Offices. Nomination criteria involved a worker who must have worked for at least 18 months for a family planning service agency and a volunteer who must have worked at least a year a family planning service agency in referring cases. Clinics or centers must have been in operation for at least 18 months and preferably accredited by the government. Winner selection criteria was based on the number of clients served, the commitment to family planning, and the quality of their work. Nominations were disqualified if workers were involved with performing abortions, coercing clients to practice family planning, or discriminating against any legally acceptable methods of contraception. Provincial selection of the winner occurred on July 15, 1994, and these winners were entered in the regional competition, which was set for August 1 and September 15, 1994. Regional winners competed in the national competition in November 1994. The award for each provincial winner will be a certificate, an aneroid sphygmomanometer, and a stethoscope. Provincial clinics will receive a certificate and a wall clock. Regional winners will receive a certificate and wrist watches. Regional clinics will receive a certificate and an examining table or karaoke sound system. The five national winners will receive a plaque of appreciation, a three day stay in Manila, and a round trip ticket to award ceremonies. Personnel will receive a complete medical kit, while the center will get a refrigerator. An opportunity to visit a family planning program in an Asian country will be provided to national winners. PMID:12290569

  6. Differences in Counseling Men and Women: Family Planning in Kenya.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young Mi; Kols, Adrienne; Mwarogo, Peter; Awasum, David

    2000-01-01

    Comparisions of family planning sessions in Kenya found distinct gender differences in reasons for visiting the clinics and communication styles of both the clients and the counselors. These communication patterns may be a result of Kenyan gender roles and men's and women's different reasons for seeking family planning services. Implications of

  7. Family Planning and Integration. IPPF Bibliography Series. November 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    This document is a bibliography of materials that present family planning in comprehensive programs for the alleviation of poverty and deprivation. It contains 141 entries. Some of the items describe projects or approaches in which family planning is combined with a single function such as midwifery. The other entries cover programs of varying…

  8. Studies in Family Planning, Volume 2 Number 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Council, New York, NY.

    A typology of incentives and the general effects of incentives for family planning are discussed in "Incentives in the Diffusion of Family Planning Innovations," the first of three studies in this monthly publication of The Population Council. A brief review of the history of incentives and their present status in the fields is given, together

  9. Current Publications in Population/Family Planning, Number 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Council, New York, NY.

    Abstracts of current publications in the fields of population and family planning are presented in this pamphlet. Topical areas include: demography and social science, human reproduction and fertility control, family planning programs, population policy, and general publications. Research studies, monthly reports, journal articles, and general

  10. Current Publications in Population/Family Planning, Number 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Council, New York, NY.

    Abstracts of current publications in the fields of population and family planning are presented in this pamphlet. Topical areas include: demography and social science, human reproduction and fertility control, family planning programs, population policy, and general publications. Research studies, monthly reports, journal articles, and general

  11. Current Publications in Population/Family Planning Number 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Council, New York, NY.

    Abstracts of current publications in the fields of population and family planning are presented in this pamphlet. Topical areas include: demography and social science, human reproduction and fertility control, family planning program, population policy, and general publications. Research studies, monthly reports, journal articles, and general

  12. Current Publications in Population/Family Planning, Number 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Council, New York, NY.

    Abstracts of current publications in the fields of population and family planning are presented in this pamphlet. Topical areas include: demography and social science, human reproduction and fertility control, family planning programs, population policy, and general publications. Research studies, monthly reports, journal articles, and general

  13. Current Publications in Population/Family Planning, Number 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Council, New York, NY.

    Abstracts of current publications in the fields of population and family planning are presented in this pamphlet. Topical areas include: demography and social science, human reproduction and fertility control, family planning programs, population policy, and general publications. Research studies, monthly reports, journal articles, and general

  14. 34 CFR 303.167 - Individualized family service plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individualized family service plans. 303.167 Section...-Application Requirements 303.167 Individualized family service plans. Each application must include (a) An assurance that a current IFSP is in effect and implemented for each eligible child and the child's...

  15. Studies in Family Planning, Volume 3 Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Council, New York, NY.

    A new design for government family planning programs is proposed in "Family Planning Programs: An Economic Approach," the principal article in this monthly publication of The Population Council. The design is intended primarily for low-income countries that seek large and rapid reductions in fertility. Thirteen elements of the proposed system of

  16. Family Planning Training: A Network Program and Sample Instructional Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finseth, Katherine; Wuerscher, Anne

    1978-01-01

    To fulfill the purposes of a family planning training network for the state of Connecticut, a variety of courses and educational exercises have been developed since 1974. Special educational needs of family planning organizations are discussed, as well as the training network, and a description of a course in medical interviewing is appended.

  17. Achievements of the Iranian family planning programmes 1956-2006.

    PubMed

    Simbar, M

    2012-03-01

    Family planning programmes initiated in the Islamic Republic of Iran from 1966 met with limited success. Following the 1986 census family planning was considered a priority and was supported by the country's leaders. Appropriate strategies based on the principles of health promotion led to an increase in the contraceptive prevalence rate among married women from 49.0% in 1989 to 73.8% in 2006. This paper reviews the family planning programmes in the Islamic Republic of Iran and their achievements during the last 4 decades and discusses the principles of health promotion and theories of behaviour change which may explain these achievements. Successful strategies included: creation of a supportive environment, reorientation of family planning services, expanding of coverage of family planning services, training skilled personnel, providing free contraceptives as well as vasectomy and tubectomy services, involvement of volunteers and nongovernmental organizations and promotion of male participation. PMID:22574484

  18. Key Statistics from the National Survey of Family Growth: Vasectomy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . National Survey of Family Growth NCHS Home Surveys and Data ... Systems Share Compartir Key Statistics from the National Survey of Family Growth V Listing Vasectomy Prevalence Main ...

  19. Language, videos and family planning in the South Pacific.

    PubMed

    Winn, M; Lucas, D

    1993-12-01

    In 1984, women in Fiji, Kiribati, the Solomon Islands, and Tonga wanted culture-specific, educational resources on sexuality, family planning, contraception, reproduction, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Family Planning Australia [FPA] found video to be the most appropriate means to present information on these topics, since video continues the story-telling tradition of the Pacific. Women worked with FPA to produce videos addressing these topics. They were filmed in Fiji, which has a broad cross-section of South Pacific people. FPA took into account women's concerns and cultural and religious sensitivities. The English language videos were Better Safe, a story about STDs, condom use, and male sexual responsibility; Taboo Talk, a documentary about women's attitudes on menstruation, sex education, and family planning; AIDS and the South Pacific, about AIDS transmission and prevention; a d Down There, an animated documentary on reproduction and contraceptive methods. A project evaluation revealed that the videos would have received wider acceptance had they been in local languages. Local men and women debated each work of a translation of the list of reproductive health terms, eventually resulting in 20 culturally and linguistically appropriate video translations. A cross section of national language speakers modified and improved the draft translation of the 4 scripts. This whole process resulted in incorporation of the 88 reproductive health terms into the Booklet of South Pacific Reproductive Health Words and Phrases. The project showed that Pacific women were able to compile a booklet of culturally and linguistically acceptable terms and to successfully translate the scripts of health videos. In conclusions, people tend to be more willing to accept sexuality information and frank and explicit material than is usually believed if they are allowed to determine the context in which they receive it. PMID:12318840

  20. The role of research and training in family planning programmes.

    PubMed

    Hefnawi, F

    1983-01-01

    The slow progress of family planning in Egypt is not due to the insufficiency of human and material resources. The problem lies in the distribution, management, and improvement of these resources. Research and personnel training are critical to directing efforts along the right course and towards the right objectives. The Population Council (USA), at the end of 1972, identified all findings of major significance from international research on family planning programs. Of the 322 studies, not 1 was carried out in Egypt or was based on 2ndary data from Egypt. Since 1972, though, Egyptian social and medical scientists have become actively involved in demographic themes and human reproduction. These are mainly personal iniatives, often limited by a scarcity of funds. Findings of population studies are not as transferable from 1 population to another. Also, there is a diversity of research needs. Many Muslims believe that their religion outlaws birth control. Religious objection appears the most widely shared reason for nonuse. This objection suggests a series of questions on what can be done to influence religious attitudes relating to contraception. A permanent and adequately managed institution for training in family planning and related aspects of maternal education has not been set up in Egypt. Training requirements of different levels and categories of personnel must be carefully identified. The impact of training on the quality of performance must be monitored. Training should not be limited to conventional groups of trainees. Al-Azhar's Islamic Centre for Population Studies and Research was built 5 years ago with initial aid from the United Nations Fund for Population Activities. It was an attempt to create an intellectual focus on population issues, concerning how the quality of life and Islamic standards of its quality affect each other. During the 1st 5 years, the Centre devoted itself to research activities. 44 studies were conducted. PMID:12279871

  1. Population Growth and Family Planning. IN Visitors' Information Special Report. SO 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heisse, Thomas

    The rapid and still-accelerating increase in the world's population, especially in developing nations, will have a number of serious economic, social, and ecological consequences for the whole world. Germany is attempting to help solve these problems by providing family planning and poverty alleviation assistance to developing nations. German…

  2. National Security Technology Incubation Project Continuation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    2008-09-30

    This document contains a project continuation plan for the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI). The plan was developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP) funded by a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This continuation plan describes the current status of NSTI (staffing and clients), long-term goals, strategies, and long-term financial solvency goals.The Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University (NMSU) is the operator and manager of the NSTI. To realize the NSTI, Arrowhead Center must meet several performance objectives related to planning, development, execution, evaluation, and sustainability. This continuation plan is critical to the success of NSTI in its mission of incubating businesses with security technology products and services.

  3. BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT PLAN.

    SciTech Connect

    NAIDU,J.R.

    2002-10-22

    The purpose of the Wildlife Management Plan (WMP) is to promote stewardship of the natural resources found at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), and to integrate their protection with pursuit of the Laboratory's mission.

  4. National Security Technology Incubator Action Plan

    SciTech Connect

    2008-02-28

    This report documents the action plan for developing the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) program for southern New Mexico. The NSTI program is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). This action plan serves as a tool in measuring progress in the development process and delivery of services for the NSTI program. Continuous review and evaluation of the action plan is necessary in the development process of the NSTI. The action plan includes detailed steps in developing the NSTI program based on recommended best practices in incubator development by the National Business Incubation Association (NBIA). Included are tasks required to implement the NSTI, developed within a work breakdown structure. In addition, a timeline is identified for each task.

  5. Prenatal birth planning for families of the imperiled newborn.

    PubMed

    English, Nancy K; Hessler, Karen L

    2013-01-01

    Guidelines have not been established to address the needs of parents with imperiled newborns due to the infrequency of this obstetric situation. In this article we offer an approach to prenatal care planning for imperiled newborns and their families. Use of an interdisciplinary team and family involvement are the foci of the care planning process, which result in a perinatal birth plan that reflects parental values and ethical guidelines. PMID:23600485

  6. Petersburg National Battlefield Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    This collection of eight lesson plans deals with the Petersburg (Virginia) U.S. Civil War battlefield. The lessons tell about slave life and plantation life in the U.S. south, and how the Civil War forever changed this structure. To do the lessons, students read primary source documents that tell the stories of three different soldiers who

  7. Maintaining technical excellence requires a national plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, T. F.

    1991-01-01

    To meet the challenge of technical excellence, AIA established a rocket propulsion committee to develop the National Rocket Propulsion Strategic Plan. Developing such a plan required a broad spectrum of experience and disciplines. The Strategic Plan team needed the participation of industry, government, and academia. The plan provides, if followed, a means for the U.S. to maintain technical excellence and world leadership in rocket propulsion. To implement the National Rocket Propulsion Strategic Plan is to invest in the social, economic, and technological futures of America. The plan lays the basis for upgrading existing propulsion systems and a firm base for future full scale development, production, and operation of rocket propulsion systems for space, defense, and commercial applications.

  8. [Familial choices and procreative behavior of the clientele of familial planning centers].

    PubMed

    Texier, G

    1972-01-01

    This is the final article in a series on a survey of 710 couples who consulted for family planning in Lyons and Paris in 1968, Agreement before marriage on planned family size was correlated with success in achieving this plan, especially in the young, well educated, and in rightists. The number of children was directly related to desired family size, but a large proportion of those without a plan had uuplanned children. Factors tending toward larger desired family size were religious practice, higher education, and income. Factors associated with larger existing families were lower education and income, religous practice, female unemployment, longer duration of marriage, and use of traditional contrceptive methods. Among those with only elementary education, the proportion with 3 or more children remained constant with rising income, but among those with postsecondary education the proportion of large families was closely correlated with income. Couples who considered their families complete or who considered their family planning successful were overrepresented by the well educated, while couples with incomplete families or characterized by imperfect planning were more often secondary school graduates. Success in family planning was only apparent in many cases, since these results were often achieved by abortion. PMID:4636768

  9. Connecting America: The National Broadband Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In early 2009, Congress directed the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to develop a National Broadband Plan to ensure every American has "access to broadband capability." Congress also required that this plan include a detailed strategy for achieving affordability and maximizing use of broadband to advance "consumer welfare, civic…

  10. National Security Technology Incubator Operations Plan

    SciTech Connect

    2008-04-30

    This report documents the operations plan for developing the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) program for southern New Mexico. The NSTI program will focus on serving businesses with national security technology applications by nurturing them through critical stages of early development. The NSTI program is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The operation plan includes detailed descriptions of the structure and organization, policies and procedures, scope, tactics, and logistics involved in sustainable functioning of the NSTI program. Additionally, the operations plan will provide detailed descriptions of continuous quality assurance measures based on recommended best practices in incubator development by the National Business Incubation Association (NBIA). Forms that assist in operations of NSTI have been drafted and can be found as an attachment to the document.

  11. The contribution of social science research to population policy and family planning program effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Freedman, R

    1987-01-01

    Social science research has made important contributions to population policy and to the effectiveness of family planning programs. Social science concepts, theories, and methods potentially are relevant to all aspects of reproductive behavior, including actual fertility, proximate variables, and desired family size. Social science research also contributes to the understanding of the social, economic, and political institutions that potentially affect, either directly or indirectly, the whole biosocial reproductive system and family planning programs. At least as important as its specific theories and findings is the role of social science in testing how to adapt such knowledge to distinctive national and local cultural circumstances of family planning programs. A central point is that carefully monitored pilot projects are desirable before launching full-scale national programs, as well as being continuing resources for program development. The research on early programs in Asia has been important, because those programs encountered and overcame some of the presumed obstacles to new programs. PMID:3590266

  12. Emerging challenges in family planning programme in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, D R; Shrestha, A; Ghimire, J

    2012-05-01

    Family planning is a priority program of the Government of Nepal. Despite political instability in the last two decades, Nepal has achieved remarkable progress in the overall status of reproductive health, including family planning. Married women of reproductive age have been increasingly using contraceptive from 1980s to 2006. However, Nepal Demographic Health Survey 2011 has shown unexpected results on contraceptive prevalence rate. There had been a notable decline in the prevalence rate between 2006 and 2011, creating concerns among various stakeholders working in family planning programs. This paper analyzes this situation and identifies possible reasons for the stagnated contraceptive prevalence rate in Nepal. High proportion of spousal separation, an increased use of traditional methods, abortion, emergency contraception, and a lack of innovative approaches to cater services to difficult-to-reach or special sub-groups are possible reasons. To improve the contraceptive prevalence, the family planning program should be implemented more strategically. Further data analysis, initiation of best practices to fulfill family planning needs of special groups, functional integration of family planning services into general health services, effective counseling and behavior change communication to prevent unwanted pregnancies, and increased access to modern family planning methods could be the stepping stones to improve contraceptive prevalence rate and the overall FP program in Nepal. PMID:23034371

  13. Family planning training: a network program and sample instructional materials.

    PubMed

    Finseth, K; Wuerscher, A

    1978-01-01

    Because of the absence of educational programs for family planning service providers, there is an ongoing need for staff training. In Connecticut, this training is provided statewide by a training network that develops and teaches courses to meet the training needs identified by family planning clinics and related health and social service agencies. This training is offered at the times and locations most convenient to the staff to be trained. A library of courses is being developed for use in the training network -- currently included are Basic Family Planning, Reproductive Health Care, Counseling Skills, Human Sexuality, Pregnancy Counselling, Common Medical Problems in Family Planning, Training Parents as Sex Educators, Family Planning for the Mentally Retarded, Values Clarification, Natural Family Planning, and Medical Interviewing. Each course is based on behavioral objectives, includes pretest and posttest, and is followed up after a 3-month interval by a supervisor's assessment of changes in trainees' job performance. Results show good transfer of skills and knowledge to the work situation. Posttest results in the Basic Family Planning course showed an overall gain of 35 percentage points, reflecting a high level of competency. PMID:12278130

  14. Family planning in the reorganized N.H.S. (e) Community family planning services.

    PubMed

    Macqueen, I A

    1974-06-01

    Recommendations on community family planning services are made by an Aberdeen Medical Health Officer. It is noted that: 1) both GPs and clinics have their value in contraceptive treatment; 2) clinics should be conveniently located and might be set up in buildings which are used for other health purposes at other times; 3) most women work so there should be evening sessions; 4) arrangements should be made which include both an appointments system and emergency visits; 5) reception at the clinic should be courteous and without moral judgements; 6) domiciliary services should be used only as a last resort; and 7) payment of prescription charges is now required, but there might be advantages in changing this to a free service. The ideal person for motivating people to use the service is the health visitor. More health visitors are needed, salaries and promotions must be raised, and enrolled nurses should be recruited to act as assistants to health visitors. Benefits of the Aberdeen community family planning services are described. Such services increase the happiness of the community and save the community a considerable amount of money. PMID:4428028

  15. Reducing discontinuation in family planning programs.

    PubMed

    Roberts, D; Panitchpakdi, P; Loevinsohn, B

    1993-01-01

    Management strategies for reducing discontinuation in family planning programs are summarized; the strategies are practical and show how to analyze data for women who stop using contraception. Common factors that are associated with high levels of discontinuation are identified. Recommendations are made for how program managers can change service delivery in order to improve client continuation. Understanding the size and nature of discontinuation is an important precursor to a solution. Data collection on discontinuation could be combined with a system for tracking and follow-up of individual clients. The reasons that women stop using contraception are identified as those which clinics can or cannot control. A clinic discontinues is one who is a "no show" within a reasonable period of time. Decisions need to be made about the type of discontinues to be tracked, e.g. all new acceptors or pill users only. How to identify no shows, how to use the daily register tracking system, and how to calculate discontinuation rates are described. A special daily record tracking system can be used to track clients over years and does not replace the client medical and reproductive history record. The advantages are that client forms to not have to be redesigned and staff training is simple. The disadvantages apply to large clinics and the need for ample filing areas and proper management. An example is given of a working solution in Kenya for a community-based distribution program. Discontinuation rates may be calculated in various ways; a more exact measure tends to be the most useful. Recalculating discontinuation rates at regular intervals can provide an effective way to check standards of care. A tally sheet can be used to track characteristics of discontinues; a sample is given and analyzed to show interpretations which point the way to program changes. Comparisons may be made by age, method type, length of use. An example is given of the Rwanda service delivery system and the management improvements resulting from data analysis. Emphasis is placed on clinics with established medical standards of care and protocols, and improvements in training and in counseling. Suggestions are made for clinics with few resources. A checklist is provided for clinic managers, supervisor,s and senior level managers for reducing discontinuation. PMID:12286670

  16. Attitudes of 110 married men towards family planning.

    PubMed

    Arokiasamy, J T

    1980-09-01

    A study was conducted at the Army Garrison Hospital at Port Dickson in Peninsular Malaysia to determine the attitudes of 110 married men towards family planning. The sample included 80 Malays and 30 Indians who are army personnel attending the hospital either for medical treatment or a check-up. The study instrument was a pre-tested questionnarie administered by 2 male nurses during the November-December 1975 period. 76 of the respondents were between the ages of 20-34 years. 81 of the respondents had been married for a duration of up to 11 years. A breakdown by religion showed that 80 were Muslims, 25 were Hindus, and 5 were Christians, the latter being all Roman Catholics. All of the respondents were able to read and write in at least 1 language, 36 had had schooling varying from standard 1-6, 40 had had schooling varying between Form 1-Form 3, and 34 had had schooling varying from Form 4-to either Malaysian Certificate of Education Level or Higher School Certificate Level. 103 of the respondents approved of family planning, and of these 63 had always felt this way in the past. 6 respondents indicated that they had not thought about family planning in the past. 87 respondents did not approve of the practice of family planning before having the 1st child. Only 7 of 80 Malays in contrast to 16 of 30 Indian respondents -- a significant difference -- approved of family planning before the 1st child. 89 of the 110 respondents had discussed family planning with their wives; 21 respondents had not. 93 respondents disapproved of induced abortion; 17 approved of it. Only 3 of 80 Malay respondents approved induced abortion, but 14 of 30 Indian respondents indicated approval. 98 of the respondents indicated that they were interested in learning more about family planning, and 96 approved of their wife practicing family planning. 56 respondents were practicing family planning, and 20 indicated that they would do so in the future. 6 said they would not practice family planning, and 28 were uncertain as to whether they would practice family planning. It appears that the better educated approve as well as practice family planning more than those with less education. PMID:7253993

  17. Family Functioning and Adolescent Behavior Problems: An Analysis of the National Survey of Families and Households.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Brett V.

    This study used data from the National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH) to explore the relationship between family functioning and adolescent behavior problems. The data covered five family types: married, two-biological parent families (TP); stepfamilies; divorced/separated female-headed families (DSF); never married female-headed

  18. Contraceptive Use, United States, 1982. Vital & Health Statistics. Data from the National Survey of Family Growth, Series 23, No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosher, William D.; Bachrach, Christine A.

    The National Survey of Family Growth is a periodic survey administered to women between the ages of 15 and 44 years and designed to produce national estimates of statistics on fertility, family planning, and aspects of maternal and child health that are closely related to childbearing. This report describes findings from the 1982 National Survey

  19. Towards healthy family planning attitude: a self persuasion approach.

    PubMed

    Balogun, S K

    1990-07-01

    The potential usefulness of improvisational techniques in changing deeply embedded pronatalist attitudes was assessed in an exercise involving University of Ibadan students. The students were instructed to write an essay in support of family planning. To assist them, 4 statements were provided to the students as guidelines: 1) birth control is the best way to create a happy family; 2) family planning can reduce the burden created by overly large family size; 3) family planning has the potential to raise the standard of living of African families; and 4) overpopulation is at a critical point in Nigeria. It was hypothesized that these arguments, which are counter to those prevalent in Nigeria, would force students to critically examine their thinking and lead to some attitudinal conversion. In addition, some students were given a pretest before and/or after writing the essay that asked their opinion on 5 items: 1) family planning is alien to African culture; 2) excessive childbearing is unhealthy for families and the society; 3) the government should enact antinatalist legislation; 4) there is no present need for large families; and 5) family planning is essential to provide children with a good education. Although students who wrote the essays developed stronger support for all items except number 3, the change in attitudes was not statistically significant. The attitude changes were greatest among the subset of students who took the test before writing the essay and thus were sensitized to the issues. Males, Christians, and older students were more likely to be supportive of family planning than their counterparts. Although this technique was not very effective in this study, its evaluation in other populations is suggested. PMID:12343207

  20. China: women benefit from the family planning programme.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Z

    1995-08-01

    This statement was made by the director of CPIRC in China. Opening remarks focused on the admirable achievement in the reduction of births over 20 years by about 300 million, which is more than the combined populations of Canada and the USA. Family planning programs are considered as providing the means for couples to have fewer children and as promoting social progress and the advancement of women. IEC programming for family planning is extensive and country wide. Home visitation for family planning is part of programming within the All China Women's Federation and the China Family Planning Association. IEC programs include information about population, reproductive health, and family planning for millions of families. The opportunity is available for Chinese women to acquire knowledge and make decisions that balance individual needs with social responsibility and to have access to information on modern methods, on healthy childrearing patterns, and on maternal health. Chinese women are considered able to have an equal say with their husbands in determining the size and spacing of children. The maternal and child health (MCH) and family planning network is described as including 374 MCH hospitals, over 2800 MCH clinics and stations, 2300 county family planning service stations, and millions of medical professionals in mobile medical teams. Jiangsu is identified as a particularly successful province in achievement of health and family planning. State family planning policy and related regulations are understood within the context of integrated programs combining family planning with economic development, poverty alleviation, popularization of modern scientific knowledge, and betterment of social security systems. The example is given of Henan province where girls are enthusiastic about learning and bring productive skills as a form of dowry to the marriage. Rural women are encouraged to participate in training, and urban women are encouraged to serve as public role models. Family planning acceptance has not occurred evenly across the country, and some old social traditions of son preference still prevail. China is described as committed to programs for sustainable development, the protection of women's rights, and the enhancement of women's status. PMID:12290277

  1. National Seismic Systems science plan

    SciTech Connect

    Heaton, T.H.; Anderson, D.L.; Arabasz, W.J.; Buland, R.; Ellsworth, W.L.; Hartzell, S.H.; Lay, T.; Squdich, P.

    1988-01-01

    Recent developments in digital communication and seismometry enable scientists to propose revolutionary new ways to reduce vulnerability from earthquakes, volcanoes, and tsunamis, to understand such phenomena, and to study the basic structure and dynamics of the earth. The authors describe new ways that critical problems can be addressed using modern digital seismic networks, provide an overview of existing seismic networks, and suggest ways to integrate them into a National Seismic System. Such a system might significantly reduce societal risk from earthquake losses and open new areas of fundamental basic research.

  2. 75 FR 57820 - National Credit Union Administration Restoration Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION National Credit Union Administration Restoration Plan AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA). ACTION: Approval of National Credit Union Administration restoration plan. On September 16,...

  3. National mirror fusion program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Experiments are under way in the Tandem Mirror Experiment (TMX) facility at Livermore, which was built to test the principles of the new tandem-mirror concept. Recently this idea has been greatly improved by incorporating a new element called the thermal barrier, a concept that promises a higher power gain factor (Q = 10 to 20) with much less demanding neutral-beam and magnet technology and a higher fusion power density in the reactor. In addition to the tandem-mirror experiments in TMX, a new attempt will be made in the Beta II facility during FY 1980 to create and sustain a field-reversed mirror configuration, which is a different mirror fusion approach that could lead to early commercialization of small reactors. The plan presented here is designed to exploit the results of these and other mirror experiments and theoretical developments toward a variety of applications. The main objective is electric power generation. Other applications being studied include a hybrid fusion reactor that breeds fuel for fission reactors and a reactor for producing synthetic fuel (H/sub 2/) by means of thermochemical processes.

  4. A second look at natural family planning.

    PubMed

    Lolarga, E

    1983-01-01

    There is renewed interest in natural family planning (NFP) as the Philippine Population Program enters the 1980s. Much of this interest is due to the realization that, properly practiced, NFP can be a highly effective means of birth spacing. In 1978 the Special Committee to Review the Philippine Population Program recommended that more efforts be made to promote NFP. The different methods of NFP are reviewed. Sex without intercourse, coitus interruptus, and prolonged nursing are not officially recognized as NFP methods by the Program. The rhythm method was first described independently by Drs. Hermann Knaus of Austria and Kyusaku Ogino of Japan in the 1930s. Ogino's method of calculating a woman's fertile period is based on the lengths of the last 12 menstrual cycles which she recorded on a calendar. The advantages of rhythm are that it is inexpensive, it requires only the cost of charts which may be homemade, there are no physical side effects, control is in the woman's hands, and it is acceptable to people who consider it their duty to follow religious teachings. Disadvantages include: keeping constant, accurate records of cycles for long periods of time; the need for perseverance and correct interpretation of the chart; the possible need for medical advice and help; and the fear that something might upset a woman's cycle and change the time of ovulation. The continuation rates of rhythm acceptors in the Philippines are unimpressive. A study of 142 women revealed a high pregnancy/failure rate--25% for a 12-month period compared to 0 with oral contraception (OC) and the IUD's 2%. The basal body temperature method helps determine the unsafe period with some accuracy. Its premise is that there are slight but detectable changes in a woman's body temperature during her cycle. These changes herald ovulation. A special thermometer must record temperature changes of 0.1 degree Farenheit. This instrument and the charts are the only expenses involved. The reviewers of the Philippine Population Program noted that since the end of the unsafe period can be indicated only by the temperature, the total period of abstinence becomes long, although the basal body temperature method gives more or less 10 successive days for intercourse. The cervical mucus method, also known as the Billings method, takes into account the cervical secretions during the menstrual cycle. Appearance of this mucus is an indication of fertility. All that is required of a practitioner is to learn to distinguish the different sensations of wetness and dryness. The disadvantage is that the method becomes ineffective in areas where there is cervicitis or infection of the cervix. The symptom thermal method is the basal body temperature method combined with other NFP techniques and is widely used. With this method an accurate record of the 6 immediately preceding menstrual cycles is established. The start of the fertile period is set by substracting 20 days plus 1. The woman watches for symptoms like pelvic heaviness, breast softness, and mucus discharge. PMID:12265791

  5. Family planning in South Africa: Missing essentials and desirables.

    PubMed

    Goldstuck, Norman D

    2015-11-01

    South Africa has a rapidly growing population. At the same time, our family planning options are somewhat limited compared with those available elsewhere. Adherence to reliable methods of family planning can only be successful if the individual has the correct method for her or his needs. We need to make sure that we have as wide an array of methods available as possible. PMID:26632314

  6. Family planning clinic services in the United States, 1983.

    PubMed

    Torres, A; Forrest, J D

    1985-01-01

    Almost five million women were enrolled in family planning clinics in the United States in 1983, eight percent more than in 1981. The number of family planning provider agencies declined slightly, from 2,504 to 2,462, but the number of clinic sites that could be identified increased slightly, from 5,124 to 5,174. Family planning clinics operate in three-quarters of U.S. counties; in 1975, the last time county coverage was checked, four-fifths of the counties had clinics. About one in 20 women who are exposed to the risk of unintended pregnancy and live in unserved counties are teenagers or low-income women. Nonmetropolitan counties are more likely to be without clinics than are metropolitan counties. Overall, there are 417,000 low-income women and 249,000 teenagers at risk of unintended pregnancy living in counties where there are no family planning clinics. In 1983, health departments constituted six in 10 of all family planning agencies and served two-fifths of all family planning clinic patients; Planned Parenthood affiliates accounted for fewer than one in 10 agencies and served more than one-quarter of all patients. Hospitals and all other agencies served about one-third of the total 1983 caseload. These patterns were similar to those reported for 1981. Family planning clinics continue to serve primarily low-income women: Four-fifths of the nearly five million clinic patients in 1983 had family incomes below 150 percent of the federally defined poverty level. About 1.6 million women aged 19 and younger were served, representing one-third of all clinic patients in 1983.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3979525

  7. [The family planning program in Rwanda: assessment of ten years (1981-1991) and prospects].

    PubMed

    Munyakazi, A

    1990-12-01

    Rwanda's official family planning policy dates back to 1981 and creation of the National Office of Population (ONAPO). Among its other function, ONAPO monitors proper use of family planning methods and studies the integration of family planning services into public health. Pilot family planning programs began in the prefectures of Butare, Kigali, and Ruhengeri and were extended to the other 7 around 1985. The development of family planning services in Rwanda is based on their integration into existing services, especially those devoted to maternal-child health. In 1989, 277 of the 350 health centers of all kinds in Rwanda and 12 secondary posts offered family planning services. The rate of integration was 79.4%. 185 of the 277 health services with family planning services were in the public sector. As of December 1989, the rate of integration in different prefectures varied from a high of 95.5% in Kibungo to a low of 64.9% in Gisenyi. Integration is particularly weak in health facilities administered by the Catholic Church. The 2 strategies to confront this situation are continuing dialogue with Catholic Church officials and creation of secondary family planning posts to improve accessibility to family planning for populations served by Church health services. The number of new and continuing family planning users increased from 1178 and 1368 respectively in 1982 to 66,950 and 104,604 through September 1990. There is wide variation from 1 prefecture to another in recruitment of new acceptors and in the number of acceptors per health facility. Recruitment of new acceptors is greatest in Ruhengeri, followed by Kigali and Byumba. As of September 1990, 28,943 women used pills, 2037 used IUDs, 66,515 used injectables, 3051 used barrier methods, 2888 used auto-observation methods, 343 used implants, and 588 were sterilized. The overall rate of contraceptive prevalence increased from .9% in 1983 to 6.2% in 1989 and 10% in 1990. The strategy for promoting family planning has included training of personnel, improvement of supervision, regular supply of contraceptive equipment and supplies to health supervision, regular supply of contraceptive equipment and supplies to health centers, diversification of available methods, and addition of secondary family planning posts to improve accessibility. Obstacles still affecting Rwanda's family planning program include the pronatalist cultural orientation, which is being confronted by a vigorous IEC program. The reluctance of Catholic-affiliated health services to offer modern family planning methods, the shortage of trained family planning workers, contraceptive supply problems, and geographic inaccessibility of family planning services are other serious problems. To confront these problems, ONAPO plans to begin social marketing program, create more secondary health planning posts, promote integration of family planning services into the vaccination program, strengthen efforts to motivate postpartum women, and undertake a community distribution program for condoms and spermicides. PMID:12283850

  8. Family planning in conflict: results of cross-sectional baseline surveys in three African countries

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite the serious consequences of conflict for reproductive health, populations affected by conflict and its aftermath face tremendous barriers to accessing reproductive health services, due to insecurity, inadequate numbers of trained personnel and lack of supplies. Family planning is often particularly neglected. Methods In six conflict-affected areas in Sudan, northern Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo, household surveys of married or in-union women of reproductive age were conducted to determine baseline measures of family planning knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding contraception. Health facility assessments were carried out to assess baseline measures of family planning services availability. Data were double-entered into CSPro 3.2 and exported to SAS 9.2, which was used to calculate descriptive statistics. The studies' purposes were to guide program activities and to serve as a baseline against which program accomplishments could be measured. Results Knowledge of modern contraceptive methods was low relative to other sub-Saharan African countries, and use of modern methods was under 4% in four sites; in two sites with prior family planning services it was 12% and 16.2%. From 30% to 40% of women reported they did not want a child within two years, however, and an additional 12% to 35% wanted no additional children, suggesting a clear need for family planning services. The health facilities assessment showed that at most only one-third of the facilities mandated to provide family planning had the necessary staff, equipment and supplies to do so adequately; in some areas, none of the facilities were prepared to offer such services. Conclusions Family planning services are desired by women living in crisis situations when offered in a manner appropriate to their needs, yet services are rarely adequate to meet these needs. Refugee and internally displaced women must be included in national and donors' plans to improve family planning in Africa. PMID:21752241

  9. The agenda for family planning in the USSR.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, H

    1991-09-01

    Concerned over a high rate of abortions that could be undermining the health Soviet women, the USSR has begun developing a family planning agenda designed to improve maternal and child health. Compared to industrialized countries, the USSR's infant mortality is high. This fact may be explained by the extremely high rate of abortions -- an annual 12 million induced abortions in a country with 70 million women of fertile age. The average Soviet woman of fertile age has had between 4 and 6 abortions (some have had as many as 20 abortions performed in their lifetime). About 1/2 of all the country's gynecologists do nothing but perform abortions. The heavy reliance on abortion is due to shortages in any other birth control methods. When abortion was legalized in 1955, the government did not promote family planning. Many Soviet people, however, had become concerned over the dangers of abortion. With the changes brought on by Glasnost and Perestroika, a movement to develop a family planning agenda began growing. As a result, the Soviet government has begun promoting family planning programs in an effort to improve maternal health and reduce the number of abortions. And in 1989, the Soviet Family Health Association (SFHA), a self-financing nongovernmental organization dedicated to family planning, started operating. Furthermore, in 1990, an appeal by President Mikhail Gorbachev led the Supreme Soviet to create the Committee on Problems of Women, Family and Maternal and Child Health Care. PMID:12284285

  10. Need for integration of gender equity in family planning services

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Suneela; Singh, Ritesh

    2014-01-01

    The family planning programme of India has shown many significant changes since its inception five decades back. The programme has made the contraceptives easily accessible and affordable to the people. Devices with very low failure rate are provided free of cost to those who need it. Despite these significant improvements in service delivery related to family planning the programme cannot be said to achieve success at all levels. There are many issues with the family planning services available through the public health facilities in India. Failure to adopt the latest technology is one of these. But the most serious drawback of the programme is that it has never been able to bridge the gap between the two genders related to contraceptives. The programme gave emphasis to women-centric contraceptive and thus women were seen as their clients. The choice to adopt a contraceptive though is cafeteria approach in family planning lexicon; it is the choice of the husband that is ultimately practiced. There is not enough dialogue between husband and wife and husband and health worker to discuss the use of one contraceptive over another. The male gender needs to be taken in confidence while promoting the family planning practice. The integration of gender equity is to be done carefully so as not to make dominant gender more powerful. Only when there is equity between genders while using family planning services the programme will achieve success. PMID:25673536

  11. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The objective of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan is to compile and to consolidate information annually on how the ORNL Waste Management Program is conducted, which waste management facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, what activities are planned for the forthcoming fiscal year (FY), and how all of the activities are documented.

  12. National energy planning for developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Wilbanks, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper is a summary of what has been learned from the experience with national energy planning in developing countries. It considers lessons learned about the roles of data, analysis, and modeling in this enterprise, because of the connections between these components and our common interest in research to advance the state of the art; but it concludes that the most important needs at this time are institutional rather than analytical, which suggests a somewhat different set of priorities for scholarship related to national energy planning in the developing world.

  13. National Ignition Facility project acquisition plan

    SciTech Connect

    Callaghan, R.W.

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this National Ignition Facility Acquisition Plan is to describe the overall procurement strategy planned for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Project. The scope of the plan describes the procurement activities and acquisition strategy for the following phases of the NIF Project, each of which receives either plant and capital equipment (PACE) or other project cost (OPC) funds: Title 1 and 2 design and Title 3 engineering (PACE); Optics manufacturing facilitization and pilot production (OPC); Convention facility construction (PACE); Procurement, installation, and acceptance testing of equipment (PACE); and Start-up (OPC). Activities that are part of the base Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program are not included in this plan. The University of California (UC), operating Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Lockheed-Martin, which operates Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR-LLE), will conduct the acquisition of needed products and services in support of their assigned responsibilities within the NIF Project structure in accordance with their prime contracts with the Department of Energy (DOE). LLNL, designated as the lead Laboratory, will have responsibility for all procurements required for construction, installation, activation, and startup of the NIF.

  14. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory site development plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This plan briefly describes the 20-year outlook for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Missions, workloads, worker populations, facilities, land, and other resources necessary to fulfill the 20-year site development vision for the INEL are addressed. In addition, the plan examines factors that could enhance or deter new or expanded missions at the INEL. And finally, the plan discusses specific site development issues facing the INEL, possible solutions, resources required to resolve these issues, and the anticipated impacts if these issues remain unresolved.

  15. Current Literature in Family Planning, November 1972, No. 51.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.

    Abstracts of current publications in the fields of population and family planning are contained in this monthly acquisitions list of the Katherine Dexter McCormick Library, Planned Parenthood, New York. Organized in two parts, Part 1 contains an annotated list of the books most recently acquired by the Library, marked with its Library call number,…

  16. Population and Family Planning in Latin America. Report Number 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrow, Phyllis T., Ed.

    Analysis of Latin America's demographic situation has led many to believe that the present rapid rates of population growth, the highest anywhere in the world, must be reduced in order to prevent catastrophe. Family planning associations, affiliated with the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), have been organized in 29 Latin

  17. Idaho National Laboratory Site Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Jenifer Nordstrom

    2014-02-01

    This plan provides a high-level summary of environmental monitoring performed by various organizations within and around the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site as required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and DOE Order 458.1, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, Guide DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance, and in accordance with 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. The purpose of these orders is to 1) implement sound stewardship practices that protect the air, water, land, and other natural and cultural resources that may be impacted by DOE operations, and 2) to establish standards and requirements for the operations of DOE and DOE contractors with respect to protection of the environment and members of the public against undue risk from radiation. This plan describes the organizations responsible for conducting environmental monitoring across the INL Site, the rationale for monitoring, the types of media being monitored, where the monitoring is conducted, and where monitoring results can be obtained. Detailed monitoring procedures, program plans, or other governing documents used by contractors or agencies to implement requirements are referenced in this plan. This plan covers all planned monitoring and environmental surveillance. Nonroutine activities such as special research studies and characterization of individual sites for environmental restoration are outside the scope of this plan.

  18. Family planning: personal and political perspectives from Choiseul Province, Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Rowling, D; Hartley, D; Owen, J; Strachan, J

    1995-12-01

    Rapid population growth has put family planning on personal and political agendas in the Solomon Islands. With the release of a population policy in 1988, national leaders sanctioned the concept of family planning as a key strategy in reducing the rate of population growth. On a personal level, Solomon Islanders share their government's concern about population problems. There is a shortage of arable land, health services are stretched, and there are limited places in school for children. A study in Choiseul Province, a rural area in Solomon Islands, suggests that people want smaller families but have limited means to control their fertility. Meagre resources and infrastructure, compounded by geography, climate, culture and religion, constrain the development of family planning services. PMID:8616203

  19. National Biofuels Action Plan, October 2008

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2008-10-01

    To help industry achieve the aggressive national goals, Federal agencies will need to continue to enhance their collaboration. The Biomass Research and Development (R&D) Board was created by Congress in the Biomass Research and Development Act of 2000. The National Biofuels Action Plan outlines areas where interagency cooperation will help to evolve bio-based fuel production technologies from promising ideas to competitive solutions.

  20. Pakistan: family planning expands in non-governmental organizations.

    PubMed

    1977-01-01

    The Family Planning Association of Pakistan has begun a program of integration of family planning activities with other voluntary welfare agencies. 1 of the more successful projects has been in cooperation with the Family Welfare Cooperative Society of Lahore. Volunteers have provided facilities to very low-income women to help supplement income. At 1st it was knitting, embroidery, and cloth manufacture, but over several years it developed into a complex of several buildings with a comprehensive vocational training center, a showroom, schools for the children of mothers in training, a secretarial school, and a hostel for homeless women there. There is a medical unit, a full-time doctor, and family planning services. PMID:12260386

  1. A National Periodicals Center Technical Development Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Library Resources, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This technical plan for developing, managing, and operating a national periodicals center (NPC), which was prepared at the request of the Library of Congress, is designed so that it could be used by the Library or any other agency prepared to assume responsibility for the creation of a major periodicals facility. The overall goal of the NPC is to

  2. National Ignition Facility Title II Design Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kumpan, S

    1997-03-01

    This National Ignition Facility (NIF) Title II Design Plan defines the work to be performed by the NIF Project Team between November 1996, when the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) reviewed Title I design and authorized the initiation of Title H design and specific long-lead procurements, and September 1998, when Title 11 design will be completed.

  3. Description of the National Highway Planning Network

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, B.E.

    1990-09-01

    The National Highway Planning Network is a data base of major highways in the continental United States. It is a foundation for analytic studies of highway performance, for vehicle routing and scheduling problems, and for mapping purposes. The network is based on a set of roadways digitized from the National Atlas by the US Geological Survey. It has been enhanced at Oak Ridge National Laboratory by adding additional roads and attribute detail and correcting topological errors to produce a true analytic network. This documentation is intended primarily to assist users of this data base by describing its structure, data elements, and development.

  4. IEC strategy in support of family planning evaluated.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    A final project evaluation report was released in April 1994 as PHI/89/PO9, Strengthening IEC Management among Thailand Family Planning Programs. The project is described as a function of the Department of Health's five year plan. The project aim is to increase the capacity for planning, supervising, and implementing IEC activities, designing and evaluating an evaluation system, developing and producing IEC materials, and training and mobilizing workers in IEC. The evaluation reveals that objectives have been met and teams are set up at all levels. Recommendations are made to develop an integrated and comprehensive family planning plan with major IEC components, to subcontract out activities where personnel skills are inadequate, to introduce operations research and integrate the results into operations, to strengthen staff capability, and to test the viability of and expand IEC teams at the local level. The report also indicates that there is a need for centrally produced IEC materials. Materials were needed on methods and how to handle misconceptions about methods. There is a need to secure the services of a private agency for production of materials. Family planning and IEC distribution systems need to be strengthened at the local government level. A training skills session is necessary for development of interpersonal communication skills on how to use and maximize use of IEC materials. Communications training in general required a longer investment in training time. Communications training methods would be improved through use of videos on family planning counseling and practical field exercises. PMID:12318973

  5. A Decade of Family Planning Progress. Draper Fund Report No. 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper World Population Fund, Washington, DC.

    World population growth and family planning progress in developing nations are discussed. The Draper Fund, established within the Population Crisis Committee (PCC) in 1975 to honor PCC's principal founder, encourages and funds activities which promise the greatest impact in slowing world population growth. There are 10 articles and an editorial.

  6. Knowledge into Action: The Use of Research in Taiwan's Family Planning Program. Paper No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cernada, George; Sun, T. H.

    Focusing on the effects that research on the Taiwan family planning program has had on social change, both in the intergration of research findings into national action programs and in the dissemination of these ideas to other Asian countries, this report discusses five individual case studies and presents a summary and analysis of the research

  7. Providing quality family planning and MCH services in the urban areas: the YKB experience.

    PubMed

    1986-06-01

    In Indonesia, the provision of family planning services to the community for a fee through a privately operated clinic is a relatively new concept. The idea to charge patients for family planning services came up during several meetings sponsored by the National Family Planning Coordinating Board (NFPCB) in its effort to increase family planning acceptance in urban areas. NFPCB realized that while the village family planning program was very effective, the urban family planning program was lagging behind for several reasons: while its services were free, most government-run clinics were open only in the morning, making it inconvenient for working mothers to avail themselves of the services; government operated clinics were crowded; since the services were free, they were perceived to be not of good quality; and there was a limited range of contraceptives and drugs available in the government operated clinics. In 1980, the Yayasan Kusuma Buana (YKB), a private nonprofit health and family planning organization in Jakarta, was asked by the Badan Koordenasi Keluarga Berencana Nasional (BKKBN) to set up a semi-commercial, urban family planning clinic as a pilot project. The clinic was established in an area where most of the residents belonged to the lower middle income group. After almost 3 years, the clinic became self-reliant and was used by the YKB as a basis for expanding the project. Currently, there are 9 such clinics in Jakarta and YKB is helping 10 other Indonesian cities to set up their own clinics. This paper considers the main components of YKB's strategy for planning and managing the clinic and and provides an analysis of the YKB experience in operating a successful family planning and maternal and child health program in the urban areas. To become self-reliant and at the same time have a successful family planning and health program, clinics should have the following characteristics: integrated services; competent and attractive clinic personnel; a strategic location; longer clinic hours; and a reasonable fee structure. A variety of outreach activities have been found to be useful in generating communiting interest in the YKB clinics, including inviting mothers groups to hold their meetings on the clinic premises. Information/education/communication materials in the form of posters, leaflets, booklets, flipcharts, and magnetic boards are needed to support community outreach and promotional activities. Those who plan to undertake the creation of a private clinic should keep in mind the following points if success is to be realized: community outreach is critical; clinic services should be adapted to community needs; adequate staff training and support should be provided; services should be expanded; and ties with government organizations, medical organizations, and community groups should be established and maintained. PMID:12340743

  8. National Security Technology Incubator Business Plan

    SciTech Connect

    2007-12-31

    This document contains a business plan for the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI), developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP) and performed under a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This business plan describes key features of the NSTI, including the vision and mission, organizational structure and staffing, services, evaluation criteria, marketing strategies, client processes, a budget, incubator evaluation criteria, and a development schedule. The purpose of the NSPP is to promote national security technologies through business incubation, technology demonstration and validation, and workforce development. The NSTI will focus on serving businesses with national security technology applications by nurturing them through critical stages of early development. The vision of the NSTI is to be a successful incubator of technologies and private enterprise that assist the NNSA in meeting new challenges in national safety, security, and protection of the homeland. The NSTI is operated and managed by the Arrowhead Center, responsible for leading the economic development mission of New Mexico State University (NMSU). The Arrowhead Center will recruit business with applications for national security technologies recruited for the NSTI program. The Arrowhead Center and its strategic partners will provide business incubation services, including hands-on mentoring in general business matters, marketing, proposal writing, management, accounting, and finance. Additionally, networking opportunities and technology development assistance will be provided.

  9. Is family planning an economic decision?

    PubMed

    Wunderink, S R

    1995-09-01

    This study examines economic models of household choice and the role of economic factors in determining the timing of births. A static economic model is presented and tested with data from the Netherlands. After the availability of contraceptives, the family size variable shifted from being an exogenous to an endogenous one, because births could be regulated. Costs of childbearing were construed to have maintenance costs for parents and society, attendance costs of care, and intangible costs such as anxiety or personal freedom. Benefits were intangible ones, such as joy and happiness; income; public benefits; and attendance benefits. Intangible benefits enlarged the utility of children, but maintenance costs diminished resources available for consumption. Child quality was a product of market goods purchased by parents and others and household labor. Household time allocation varied with child's age. Private responsibility for children varied by country. Quality of child care varied between countries and over time. Quality was dependent upon economies of scale, variable costs by the age of the child, variable time commitments by age of the child, and market substitutes for private child care. Higher income families spent more money but less time on children. It is pointed out that Becker's model explained number of children, but not timing of births. Postponement of birth was unlikely for those with a limited education, an unpleasant job, and low wages. When the advantages and disadvantages of having a baby were positive, spouses or single women with a high subjective preference were expected to bear a child as soon as possible. Government policy can affect the average family size by increasing or decreasing the financial and/or time burden of children. Postponement may be chosen based on long term analysis of a couple's future, the formation and use of capital, and/or high subjective time preference. Before and after first birth are different frames of reference for couples. Before the birth, the future may be vague. After the birth, life without a child becomes unimaginable. PMID:12291178

  10. Family planning in China: out of control?

    PubMed Central

    Bogg, L

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined sex ratios in 6 counties in China. METHODS: Data from a household survey (n = 5756) were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: A normal sex ratio was found for children less than 18 years of age. Significant differences in sex ratios and family size were observed between the household survey data and population registers. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate a high number of unregistered female births and are consistent with calls for a rethinking of Chinese population policies in the direction of a more collaborative policy based on female education and participation. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:9551011

  11. Idaho National Laboratory Site Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Joanne L. Knight

    2010-10-01

    This plan describes environmental monitoring as required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, “Environmental Protection Program,” and additional environmental monitoring currently performed by other organizations in and around the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The objective of DOE Order 450.1 is to implement sound stewardship practices that protect the air, water, land, and other natural and cultural resources that may be impacted by DOE operations. This plan describes the organizations responsible for conducting environmental monitoring across the INL, the rationale for monitoring, the types of media being monitored, where the monitoring is conducted, and where monitoring results can be obtained. This plan presents a summary of the overall environmental monitoring performed in and around the INL without duplicating detailed information in the various monitoring procedures and program plans currently used to conduct monitoring.

  12. Idaho National Laboratory Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Joanne L. Knight

    2008-04-01

    This plan describes environmental monitoring as required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, “Environmental Protection Program,” and additional environmental monitoring currently performed by other organizations in and around the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The objective of DOE Order 450.1 is to implement sound stewardship practices that protect the air, water, land, and other natural and cultural resources that may be impacted by DOE operations. This plan describes the organizations responsible for conducting environmental monitoring across the INL, the rationale for monitoring, the types of media being monitored, where the monitoring is conducted, and where monitoring results can be obtained. This plan presents a summary of the overall environmental monitoring performed in and around the INL without duplicating detailed information in the various monitoring procedures and program plans currently used to conduct monitoring.

  13. Idaho National Laboratory Site Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Joanne L. Knight

    2012-08-01

    This plan describes environmental monitoring as required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, “Environmental Protection Program,” and additional environmental monitoring currently performed by other organizations in and around the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The objective of DOE Order 450.1 is to implement sound stewardship practices that protect the air, water, land, and other natural and cultural resources that may be impacted by DOE operations. This plan describes the organizations responsible for conducting environmental monitoring across the INL, the rationale for monitoring, the types of media being monitored, where the monitoring is conducted, and where monitoring results can be obtained. This plan presents a summary of the overall environmental monitoring performed in and around the INL without duplicating detailed information in the various monitoring procedures and program plans currently used to conduct monitoring.

  14. National Security Technology Incubation Strategic Plan

    SciTech Connect

    2007-01-01

    This strategic plan contains information on the vision, mission, business and technology environment, goals, objectives, and incubation process of the National Security Technology Incubation Program (NSTI) at Arrowhead Center. The development of the NSTI is a key goal of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP). Objectives to achieve this goal include developing incubator plans (strategic, business, action, and operations), creating an incubator environment, creating a support and mentor network for companies in the incubator program, attracting security technology businesses to the region, encouraging existing business to expand, initiating business start-ups, evaluating products and processes of the incubator program, and achieving sustainability of the incubator program. With the events of 9/11, the global community faces ever increasing and emerging threats from hostile groups determined to rule by terror. According to the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Strategic Plan, the United States must be able to quickly respond and adapt to unanticipated situations as they relate to protection of our homeland and national security. Technology plays a key role in a strong national security position, and the private business community, along with the national laboratories, academia, defense and homeland security organizations, provide this technology. Fostering innovative ideas, translated into relevant technologies answering the needs of NNSA, is the purpose of the NSTI. Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University is the operator and manager of the NSTI. To develop the NSTI, Arrowhead Center must meet the planning, development, execution, evaluation, and sustainability activities for the program and identify and incubate new technologies to assist the NNSA in meeting its mission and goals. Technology alone does not give a competitive advantage to the country, but the creativity and speed with which it is employed does. For a company to succeed, it must have sustainable competitive advantages in seven key areas: geography, products and businesses, distribution, sales and service culture, efficiency, brand, and most important, people. The four strategic goals of the plan are to: 1. Identify and recruit small businesses with technology applications for national security. 2. Design and implement a national security incubator program that provides incubator services and physical space for the targeted businesses. 3. Provide business assistance and technical leadership to NSTI clients to assist in bringing their products to market. 4. Construct a new multi-tenant facility with dedicated physical space for businesses with technology applications for national security.

  15. [What is a family? And who plans it?].

    PubMed

    Lloyd, C

    1993-12-01

    This work questions the view of the family as a closed physical, economic, and emotional unit with longterm stability that has been the usual basis of demographic data collection and analysis, population policy formulation, and family planning program implementation. Simple models of the family assume that the parents and children live in the same household and function in a unified family economy, in which childbearing decisions reflect a longterm view of costs and benefits. But in reality, parents often live apart due to labor migration, polygamy, divorce, remarriage, or extramarital procreation. The hypothesis that family members share a household is valid only in some places, as Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data have demonstrated. In families separated by migration for economic reasons, distance often loosens economic ties, especially with the passage of time. Financial exchanges are precarious when the father and mother are not united by marriage. It is frequently assumed that satisfaction of the family planning needs of couples is equivalent to satisfying the needs of men and women separately, but this assumption may be erroneous for nonmonogamous individuals. Recent research demonstrates that single women and their partners are a potentially important group of family planning users. The assumption that increasing costs of children in developing countries will discourage parents from having large families may overlook parental efforts to have some of the cost assumed by other relatives or the older children, or to invest in only some of their children. As new proofs of the limitations of the conventional view of the family are found, the need becomes clear for research including men, adding an individual perspective to the attention usually focused on couples, and establishing a more realistic perspective on the family in all its manifestations. PMID:12287887

  16. Phase Transitions in Planning Problems: Design and Analysis of Parameterized Families of Hard Planning Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hen, Itay; Rieffel, Eleanor G.; Do, Minh; Venturelli, Davide

    2014-01-01

    There are two common ways to evaluate algorithms: performance on benchmark problems derived from real applications and analysis of performance on parametrized families of problems. The two approaches complement each other, each having its advantages and disadvantages. The planning community has concentrated on the first approach, with few ways of generating parametrized families of hard problems known prior to this work. Our group's main interest is in comparing approaches to solving planning problems using a novel type of computational device - a quantum annealer - to existing state-of-the-art planning algorithms. Because only small-scale quantum annealers are available, we must compare on small problem sizes. Small problems are primarily useful for comparison only if they are instances of parametrized families of problems for which scaling analysis can be done. In this technical report, we discuss our approach to the generation of hard planning problems from classes of well-studied NP-complete problems that map naturally to planning problems or to aspects of planning problems that many practical planning problems share. These problem classes exhibit a phase transition between easy-to-solve and easy-to-show-unsolvable planning problems. The parametrized families of hard planning problems lie at the phase transition. The exponential scaling of hardness with problem size is apparent in these families even at very small problem sizes, thus enabling us to characterize even very small problems as hard. The families we developed will prove generally useful to the planning community in analyzing the performance of planning algorithms, providing a complementary approach to existing evaluation methods. We illustrate the hardness of these problems and their scaling with results on four state-of-the-art planners, observing significant differences between these planners on these problem families. Finally, we describe two general, and quite different, mappings of planning problems to QUBOs, the form of input required for a quantum annealing machine such as the D-Wave II.

  17. Watch out for the blue circle: a breakthrough in family planning promotional strategy.

    PubMed

    Sumarsono

    1989-07-01

    Realizing the potential of commercial marketing in changing the attitude and behavior of the target audience in the early years of the 4th 5-year development plan, the National Family Planning Program tried to develop new ventures in communicating the concept of the small family norm to the people. The condom was chosen as the 1st product to be sold through the social marketing project because male awareness about family planning was still low. Based on audience research, the pricing, packaging, and branding of the product was developed. The most accepted brand name was Dua Lima because it has a neutral meaning, is easily remembered, and can be described in sign language. The last reason is very important because most consumers have difficulty communicating about condoms in the sales outlet. Social marketing has proved effective because of strong public relations activities and the involvement of formal and informal leaders. This experiment has convinced family planning management that social marketing is workable for promoting the small family norm. In 1987, under the new program of self-sufficiency in family planning, the private sector is invited to participate by providing family planning services for target audiences, using the principles of self-sufficiency and self-support. There are 2 principal activities; 1) the IEC campaign, and 2) product (contraceptive) selling. IEC activities include a media campaign public relations work. Product selling is done through commercial channels such as pharmaceutical firms, drug stores, private doctors, and midwives. It was decided that the campaign would be aided by a name and logo. The blue circle was chosen because it is unique, communicative, and simple. The social marketing of contraceptives in Indonesia can be considered a breakthrough in communication strategy for a national development program. PMID:12282138

  18. Family planning: implications for marital stability.

    PubMed

    Johnson, F C; Johnson, M R

    1980-01-01

    In Spring, 1977, a random sample of divorced persons (N=165) in Spokane County was compared to a matched group of people who had not divorced (N=102). It was found that it was not possible to predict marital stability from knowledge of number of children, presence or absence of children, or timing of childbirth in relationship to marriage date. A significant predictor of marital stability was found to be whether or not children were planned. In the past 2 decades, several fertility variables have been shown to have an effect on marital stability: presence or absence of children, child spacing, birth timing, and total number of children. Only 1 paper directly implicates the planning component of fertility, and then only from a theoretical perspective. Over 20% of the North American population will experience at least 1 divorce during their lifetime. Hurley and Palonen (1967) found that the higher the ratio of children per years of marriage, the less satisfactory the marital experience will be. Another study by Luckey (1966) found no relationship between the number of children and marital satisfaction. This study found that there was an effect on the stability of womens' marriages if there was a child from a previous marriage in the home. It also found that men did not regard paternity as critical to their marital happiness whereas women often depend on maternity for theirs. PMID:12336546

  19. 78 FR 69462 - National Nanotechnology Initiative Strategic Plan; National Science and Technology Council...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... TECHNOLOGY POLICY OFFICE National Nanotechnology Initiative Strategic Plan; National Science and Technology Council; National Nanotechnology Coordination Office AGENCY: Executive Office of the President, Office of... requests public comments on the draft 2014 National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Strategic Plan....

  20. A family planning program that pays for itself.

    PubMed

    1987-07-01

    In Japan, the condom is the method of choice of 82% of all contraceptive users. The Japan Family Planning Association covers about 3% of the total condom market through a well-organized social marketing scheme. Mobile guidance teams, equipped with a vehicle, supply contraceptives to health centers, independent midwives, and maternity hospitals in 17 prefectures and collect payment for condoms distributed after their previous visit. As an incentive, organizations and health institutions receive a commission for the condoms they supply. Japan's largest condom manufacturer provides supplies to the Family Planning Association at a very low price. The contraceptive social marketing program pays for its own promotion, and the Family Planning Association is able to support its other activities from the income it earns. The program was designed to complement rather than compete with commercial marketing channels such as pharmacies, which supply 60% of the 660 million condoms purchased in Japan each year. PMID:12341264

  1. [A gold key to initiate a new situation in family planning work].

    PubMed

    Du, S; Yuan, Z; Fang, X

    1983-05-29

    Because of the popularization of a responsible agricultural production system, the livilihood of peasants has been improving greatly, while the demands and needs of the general public are also increasing at the same time. Still under the influence of the traditional belief of carrying on one's family line and emphasis on having male children, married people prefer to have more childre, and the birth rate is now rising again. In order to solve this new problem, we need to teach the peasants national policies on population, land utilization, and food supply. In order to initiate a new situation in family planning work, we need to control this "gold key" of ideological education and propaganda. The emphasis should be placed on ideological education for cadres at all levels as well as the general public in order that they may understand the Party's strategy. Education on the national strategy should be combined with material interests of the peasants, and reward and punishment in production should also be linked up with that of family planning. Social measures are needed to reduce economic burdens of the peasants, offer better treatment for single-child households, and provide adequate care for old and retired people. Family planning projects should be consolidated and improved. Scientific management, facilities and techniques for birth control, compensation for working personnel in family planning, and other practical problems deserve immediate attention and solution. PMID:12159355

  2. Population reports. Community-based health and family planning.

    PubMed

    Kols, A J; Wawer, M J; Quillin, W; Kinsey, J

    1982-01-01

    This publication examines existing community-based distribution (CBD) programs for family planning and other health care measures and discusses some principles of organization and management. CBD programs have 4 essential features: community residents who are not health professionals deliver supplies and services, services are delivered to communities or households rather than to clinics, CBD workers operate without day-to-day supervision, and many record keeping, diagnostic, and screening procedures are omitted because they are not practical for community workers. CBD overcomes geographic, cost, bureaucratic, and cultural barriers to health care. The more than 70 existing CBD programs differ in services offered, fees charged, means of delivery, presence of research components, and in whether they are single purpose, integrated, government-sponsored, or private. In designing or expanding CBD programs, the health problems of the community, availability of effective remedies, and ease and safety of services and supplies must be considered. 6 aspects of CBD programs which are likely to be most difficult are discussed: recruiting effective workers, training workers in new skills, providing continued training and supervision, coordinating backup with the existing medical system, keeping supplies flowing, and establishing an evaluation system. Experience in integrated family planning and CBD health programs is inconclusive, but a few lessons are clear: CBD projects should avoid a service overload, new activities should be phased in step-by-step, community participation is desirable, combining family planning with other services is not necessary to make family planning acceptable although it may help meet other primary health care needs, and research on design and implementation of CBD programs is needed. Experiences and problems with CBD programs for health measures in addition to family planning are described, including oral rehydration therapy for diarrhea, malaria treatment, intestinal parasite treatment, nutrition education and supplements, and immunization. A table listing characteristics of selected community-based integrated family planning and health projects is included. PMID:6761676

  3. 42 CFR 59.4 - How does one apply for a family planning services grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How does one apply for a family planning services... GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services 59.4 How does one apply for a family planning services grant? (a) Application for a grant under this subpart...

  4. 42 CFR 59.4 - How does one apply for a family planning services grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How does one apply for a family planning services... GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services 59.4 How does one apply for a family planning services grant? (a) Application for a grant under this subpart...

  5. 42 CFR 59.3 - Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who is eligible to apply for a family planning... SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services 59.3 Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant? Any public or nonprofit private entity...

  6. 42 CFR 59.4 - How does one apply for a family planning services grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How does one apply for a family planning services... GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services 59.4 How does one apply for a family planning services grant? (a) Application for a grant under this subpart...

  7. 42 CFR 59.4 - How does one apply for a family planning services grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How does one apply for a family planning services... GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services 59.4 How does one apply for a family planning services grant? (a) Application for a grant under this subpart...

  8. 42 CFR 59.3 - Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Who is eligible to apply for a family planning... SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services 59.3 Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant? Any public or nonprofit private entity...

  9. 42 CFR 59.3 - Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Who is eligible to apply for a family planning... SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services 59.3 Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant? Any public or nonprofit private entity...

  10. 42 CFR 59.3 - Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Who is eligible to apply for a family planning... SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services 59.3 Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant? Any public or nonprofit private entity...

  11. Highlights of the National Family Day Care Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Nancy, Ed.

    The National Council of Jewish Women's National Family Day Care Project (NFDCP) is a 3-year initiative which is intended to pioneer effective roles for community groups in increasing the quality, supply, and visibility of family day care. This publication provides: (1) a statement on the importance of the NFDCP by Edward Zigler; (2) a paper called

  12. The National Federation of Families for Children's Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Corey

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines the mission and vision of the National Federation of Families for Children's Mental Health and its history and accomplishments in the family movement. It gives examples of how the National Federation is leading the way for positive, collaborative, and engaging training; as well as research and advocacy. Five core principles

  13. Factors determining family planning in Catalonia. Sources of inequity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In recent decades, the foreign population in Spain has increased significantly, particularly for Catalonia, an autonomous region of Spain (2.90% in 2000 and 15.95% in 2010) and in particular Girona province (6.18% in 2000 and 21.55% in 2010). Several studies have shown a lower use of family planning methods by immigrants. This same trend is observed in Spain. The objective of this paper is to determine the existence of differences and possible sources of inequity in the use of family planning methods among health service users in Catalonia (Spain) by sex, health status, place of birth and socioeconomic conditions. Methods Data were taken from an ad-hoc questionnaire which was compiled following a qualitative stage of individual interviews. Said questionnaire was administered to 1094 Catalan public health service users during 2007. A complete descriptive analysis was carried out for variables related to public health service users’ sociodemographic characteristics and variables indicating knowledge and use of family planning methods, and bivariate relationships were analysed by means of chi-square contrasts. Considering the use (or non-use) of family planning methods as a dependent variable and a set of demographic, socioeconomic and health status variables as explanatory factors, the relationship was modelled using mixed models. Results The analysed sample is comprised of 54.3% women and 45.7% men, with 74.3% natives (or from the EU) and 25.7% economic immigrants. 54.8% use some method of family planning, the condom (46.7%) and the pill (28.0%) being the two most frequently used methods. Statistical modelling indicates that those factors which most influence the use of family planning methods are level of education (30.59% and 39.29% more likelihood) and having children over 14 (35.35% more likelihood). With regard to the origin of the user, we observe that patients from North Africa,sub. Saharan Africa and Asia are less likely to use family planning methods (36.68%, 38.59% and 70.51%, respectively). Conclusions The use of family planning methods is positively related to a higher level of education and having children over 14. Factors such as sex, age, income and self-perceived health do not appear to influence their use. Furthermore, being a native of this country, the European Union or Central/South America represents a greater likelihood of use than being African or Asian. Although no general differences in use were found between sexes, the difference found in the case of Asian women stands out, with a higher likelihood of use. PMID:22818829

  14. Natural family planning works in a Bukidnon town.

    PubMed

    Toledo, R

    1983-01-01

    Natural family planning is being actively promoted in a pineapple plantation of the Philippine Packing Corporation (PPC) located in northern Bukidnon province. Prospective acceptors attend 4 seminars which cover sex education and instruction on natural family planning methods. The goal of the program is family life and marriage enrichment rather than family size limitation. Thus, there is no target number of acceptors. Early acceptors used the basal body temperature method, but this was subsequently replaced by the sympto-thermal method. Participants report that the close observation of physical changes required by the natural family planning method has enabled them to be more aware of their bodies and more appreciative of themselves. Laypersons work closely with acceptor couples. There are 6 fulltime grassroots motivators and 23 camp motivators. Affiliated with the Family Life Commission of the Catholic Bishops Conference of the Philippines, the program is also supported by the Phillips Memorial Hospital and is part of the PPC's barrio assistance program. The corporation actively supports self-help projects in the plantation areas. PMID:12265792

  15. National conference on integrated resource planning: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Until recently, state regulators have focused most of their attention on the development of least-cost or integrated resource planning (IRP) processes for electric utilities. A number of commissions are beginning to scrutinize the planning processes of local gas distribution companies (LDCs) because of the increased control that LDCs have over their purchased gas costs (as well as the associated risks) and because of questions surrounding the role and potential of gas end-use efficiency options. Traditionally, resource planning (LDCs) has concentrated on options for purchasing and storing gas. Integrated resource planning involves the creation of a process in which supply-side and demand-side options are integrated to create a resource mix that reliably satisfies customers' short-term and long-term energy service needs at the lowest cost. As applied to gas utilities, an integrated resource plan seeks to balance cost and reliability, and should not be interpreted simply as the search for lowest commodity costs. The National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners' (NARUC) Energy Conservation committee asked Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) to survey state PUCs to determine the extent to which they have undertaken least cost planning for gas utilities. The survey included the following topics: status of state PUC least-cost planning regulations and practices for gas utilities; type and scope of natural gas DSM programs in effect, including fuel substitution; economic tests and analysis methods used to evaluate DSM programs; relationship between prudency reviews of gas utility purchasing practices and integrated resource planning; key regulatory issued facing gas utilities during the next five years.

  16. National conference on integrated resource planning: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    Until recently, state regulators have focused most of their attention on the development of least-cost or integrated resource planning (IRP) processes for electric utilities. A number of commissions are beginning to scrutinize the planning processes of local gas distribution companies (LDCs) because of the increased control that LDCs have over their purchased gas costs (as well as the associated risks) and because of questions surrounding the role and potential of gas end-use efficiency options. Traditionally, resource planning (LDCs) has concentrated on options for purchasing and storing gas. Integrated resource planning involves the creation of a process in which supply-side and demand-side options are integrated to create a resource mix that reliably satisfies customers` short-term and long-term energy service needs at the lowest cost. As applied to gas utilities, an integrated resource plan seeks to balance cost and reliability, and should not be interpreted simply as the search for lowest commodity costs. The National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners` (NARUC) Energy Conservation committee asked Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) to survey state PUCs to determine the extent to which they have undertaken least cost planning for gas utilities. The survey included the following topics: status of state PUC least-cost planning regulations and practices for gas utilities; type and scope of natural gas DSM programs in effect, including fuel substitution; economic tests and analysis methods used to evaluate DSM programs; relationship between prudency reviews of gas utility purchasing practices and integrated resource planning; key regulatory issued facing gas utilities during the next five years.

  17. India's National Action Plan on Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Pandve, Harshal T

    2009-04-01

    Climate change is one of the most critical global challenges of our times. Recent events have emphatically demonstrated our growing vulnerability to climate change. Climate change impacts will range from affecting agriculture - further endangering food security - to sea-level rise and the accelerated erosion of coastal zones, increasing intensity of natural disasters, species extinction, and the spread of vector-borne diseases. India released its much-awaited National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) to mitigate and adapt to climate change on June 30, 2008, almost a year after it was announced. The NAPCC runs through 2017 and directs ministries to submit detailed implementation plans to the Prime Minister's Council on Climate Change by December 2008. This article briefly reviews the plan and opinion about it from different experts and organizations. PMID:20165607

  18. A national contingency plan for hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    Deland, M.R.

    1982-05-01

    Lack of progress in the promulgation of the National Contingency Plan (NCP) and Superfund for cleanup of hazardous waste is discussed. EPA's revised NCP has drawn criticism from government agencies, environmentalists and the author of Superfund, Rep. James Florio of New Jersey. Issues of concern are the use of the Hazard Ranking System to determine priorities for responses to releases of hazardous substances, the lack of specific guidelines or regulations, and the lack of enforcement initiatives. (JMT)

  19. Progress report on a multi-service family planning mobile unit September, 1981.

    PubMed

    1981-12-01

    In 1979, the National Family Planning Program's (NFPP) multiservice mobile unit pilot project was implemented to deliver a full complement of clinical and nonclinical family planning services to remote Thai villages by transporting nurses, physicians, and supplies by van. 15 provinces with the lowest family planning achievement in 1978 were selected to participate in the project for 1 year; one refused. Funding was allocated for mobile unit trips and promotional billboards. Implementation at the time of data analysis averaged 9.8 province-months, sufficient to reveal trends in project achievement. 9579 new acceptors were reported after 805 mobile trips in the 14 provinces, an average of 12 new acceptors/trip. New acceptor recruitment costs were estimated at $6.20/client. Based on Thai data for continuation rates, an estimated 18,238 couples years of protection (CYP) were achieved by the mobile unit. In comparison to other family planning services' mobile units, the multiservice unit had the lowest operating costs, but the most expensive cost/CYP. The effectiveness of the promotional billboards was assessed by comparing acceptor rates in provinces with and without billboards. Overall, the provinces with billboards showed less of an increase in new acceptors. When months of project implementation are controlled, a positive effect of the billboards is suggested. While demonstrating that all modern contraception can be delivered via mobile units to remote villages, there is inadequate acceptance of the highly effective family planning methods to justify the cost of transporting staff and equipment. PMID:12311584

  20. NATIONAL SURVEY OF FAMILIES AND HOUSEHOLDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a longitudinal population-based survey of families and households in the United States that was designed to look at the causes and consequences of changes in American family and household structure. The first wave of the NSFH consists of interviews conducted during 1987-1...

  1. [Family planning. Regional differences in contraceptive practice].

    PubMed

    Palma Cabrera, Y; Suarez Morales, J

    1994-01-01

    Great efforts have been made to measure contraceptive prevalence in Mexico and to assess various aspects of differential usage. At present, 63.1% of fertile aged women in union are estimated to use a method. State prevalence rates ranged from 77.2% of couples in Baja California Sub to 46.3% in Oaxaca. In general, northern states and Mexico City had the highest prevalence rates and states in the center and south had the lowest. Results of the 1988 Survey of Determinants of Contraceptive Prevalence permit identification of sociocultural variables related to contraceptive usage. The data show that residents of the northwestern states have a considerably higher educational level and proportion urban than do those of the center or southeast. The southeast lagged the center in indicators of household characteristics and services, income, and infant mortality, and also had a higher rate of female labor force participation. The states of the center had a lower rate of contraceptive usage at 54.8% than did those of the southeast at 56.4%. The rate for the northwest states was 71.8%. Knowledge of contraceptive methods in the northwest and center was nearly universal, but almost one-fourth of rural women in the southeast reported not knowing a method. Reasons for not using a method varied in the three regions. Problems of access, lack of knowledge, and fear of side effects were the principal factors in the southeast. Opposition of the woman or spouse or religious beliefs were the main factors in the center. No significant barriers of culture or access were identified in the northwest. The average ideal family size was around 3.5 children in all three regions. The survey results demonstrate that having children was highly valued in all three regions. Children were more highly valued in the southeast for companionship, aid, and economic contribution; in the center as sources of affective relations; and in the northwest for satisfaction or personal fulfillment of the woman. PMID:12158062

  2. Association of Access to Publicly Funded Family Planning Services With Adolescent Birthrates in California Counties

    PubMed Central

    Chabot, Marina J.; Navarro, Sandy; Swann, Diane; Darney, Philip; Thiel de Bocanegra, Heike

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the association of adolescent birthrates (ABRs) with access to and receipt of publicly funded family planning services in California counties provided through 2 state programs: Medi-Cal, Californias Medicaid program, and the Family Planning, Access, Care, and Treatment (Family PACT) program. Methods. Our key data sources included the California Health Interview Survey and California Womens Health Survey, Medi-Cal and Family PACT claims data, and the Birth Statistical Master File. We constructed a linear regression analysis measuring the relationship of access to and receipt of family planning services with ABRs when controlling for counties select covariates. Results. The regression analysis indicated that a higher access rate to Family PACT in a county was associated with a lower ABR (B?=??0.19; P?nation. Family PACT played a crucial role in helping adolescents avoid unintended and early childbearing. PMID:24354841

  3. Urban family physician plan in Iran: challenges of implementation in Kerman

    PubMed Central

    Dehnavieh, Reza; Kalantari, Ali Reza; Jafari Sirizi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Family Physician Plan has recently been implemented in three provinces of Iran on a pilot basis and is going to be implemented throughout Iran in the future. Through a qualitative design, this study aims to determine probable implementation challenges of Family Physician Plan in Kerman. Methods: This study was conducted in Kerman in 2013. Data were collected through interviews with 21 experts in the field. Sampling continued until data saturation level was achieved. All interviews were recorded and then analyzed, and main themes and subgroups were extracted from them based on a framework analysis model. Results: most prevalent establishment challenges of Family Physician Plan were classified into policy-making, financial supply, laws and resources. Conclusion: The urban Family Physician Plan can be carried out more effectively by implementing this plan step by step, highlighting the relationships between the related organizations, using new payment mechanisms e.g Per Capita, DRG, make national commitment and proper educational programs for providers, development the health electronic Record, justifying providers and community about advantages of this plan, clarifying regulatory status about providers' Duties and most importantly considering a specific funding source. PMID:26913266

  4. A Blueprint for Empowering Families: The National Standards for Family-School Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Sherri

    2012-01-01

    The six National Standards for Family-School Partnerships provide a research-based framework for strengthening family engagement programs, activities, and policies by shifting the focus from what schools should do to involve parents, to what parents, schools, and communities can do together to support student success. An adjunct to the National

  5. Yard Plan of the Brundage, Parish, Simmons Families et al. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Yard Plan of the Brundage, Parish, Simmons Families et al. Circa 1940s - The Smokey Hollow Community, Informal boundaries by street name: North to South: East Jefferson Street to East Van Buren Street. West to East: South Gadsden Street to Marvin Street., Tallahassee, Leon County, FL

  6. Training x Trainee Interactions in a Family Planning Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leon, Federico, R.; Rios, Alex; Zumaran, Adriana

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of introducing a family planning counseling model at clinics of Peru's Ministry of Health. Providers trained in the model presented greater quality of care and longer counseling sessions than did controls. The main effects, however, were misleading. Nearly all of the quality improvements were contributed by 37%

  7. A Holistic Approach to Family Planning Counseling and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaves, Lushanhya Coutinho; And Others

    A family planning clinic which was part of a large public maternity hospital in Salvador Bahia, Brazil received a grant to expand its services and to evaluate a service model focusing on client counseling and education. The counseling, education, and service provision process included individual pre-consultation with a nurse, group education and

  8. 34 CFR 303.20 - Individualized family service plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Individualized family service plan. 303.20 Section 303.20 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS...

  9. Family Planning for Inner-City Adolescent Males: Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Janet; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Describes a pilot family planning program in an inner-city pediatric practice. Male adolescents were more likely to accept contraceptives if the provider first raised the topic of birth control to them. Identified a desire for anonymity/confidentiality and embarrassment or discomfort as the key reasons for not seeking contraceptives. Emphasizes

  10. Current Publications in Population/Family Planning. Number 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Council, New York, NY.

    This generously annotated bibliography of books, reports, and journal articles is divided into the following subject areas: 1) Demography and Social Science; 2) Human Reproduction and Fertility Control; 3) Family Planning Programs; 4) Population Policy; and, 5) General. Throughout these areas are works on demography and population control in

  11. Attitudes Toward Family Planning Programs for the Black Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenman, Martin F.

    A pilot survey, administered in 1972, was designed to assess a rough cross section of attitudes toward birth control in both black and white neighborhoods. A survey of 41 male and 39 female white residents of Decatur, Georgia, was conducted primarily to get an indication of how attitudes held by whites relate to feelings about family planning

  12. Studies in Family Planning, Volume 3, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Council, New York, NY.

    Presented in the principal article, "Planning, Starting, and Operating an Educational Incentives Project," is a summary of activities to date in an educational savings project in Taiwan. The incentive project is designed to reward those couples who limit their family size, by providing funds for their children's secondary and higher education. To

  13. GEMS: A Flipchart Nutrition Reference for Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Gurp, Janet

    1985-01-01

    A flipchart reference booklet with nutrition information related to family planning is described. Users can assess information on a variety of topics by selecting tabbed headings, including possible nutritional implications of each of the major contraceptive methods, nutritional risks, and the four basic food groups. (JN)

  14. Studies in Family Planning, Volume 2 Number 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Council, New York, NY.

    This paper presents the findings of a study of K. C. Chan, Research Officer of the Family Planning Association of Hong Kong, whose purpose was to determine whether IUD retention rates could be increased by home visits to acceptors. Concern with this problem has mounted in many countries where the IUD is the main contraceptive method offered and

  15. A Crucial New Direction for International Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosken, Fran P.

    1984-01-01

    Repressive attitudes toward female sexuality by Third World men and ignorance of the basic biology of the female reproductive system by Third World women have led to the failure of family planning efforts. Use of the "Universal Childbirth Picture Book," which illustrates the female reproductive system, is recommended. (IS)

  16. Personal and Family Financial Planning: Perspectives on Community College Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leo, Robert J.; And Others

    After a brief summary of the findings of a 1979 study of Personal and Family Financial Planning (PFFP) programs at member institutions of the League for Innovation in the Community College (LICC), this two-part monograph provides information on selected PFFP programs. Part I presents in-depth descriptions of the implementation, subject coverage,…

  17. Family Planning and the Burden of Unintended Pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, Amy O.; McDonald-Mosley, Raegan; Burke, Anne E.

    2010-01-01

    Family planning is hailed as one of the great public health achievements of the last century, and worldwide acceptance has risen to three-fifths of exposed couples. In many countries, however, uptake of modern contraception is constrained by limited access and weak service delivery, and the burden of unintended pregnancy is still large. This review focuses on family planning's efficacy in preventing unintended pregnancies and their health burden. The authors first describe an epidemiologic framework for reproductive behavior and pregnancy intendedness and use it to guide the review of 21 recent, individual-level studies of pregnancy intentions, health outcomes, and contraception. They then review population-level studies of family planning's relation to reproductive, maternal, and newborn health benefits. Family planning is documented to prevent mother-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, contribute to birth spacing, lower infant mortality risk, and reduce the number of abortions, especially unsafe ones. It is also shown to significantly lower maternal mortality and maternal morbidity associated with unintended pregnancy. Still, a new generation of research is needed to investigate the modest correlation between unintended pregnancy and contraceptive use rates to derive the full health benefits of a proven and cost-effective reproductive technology. PMID:20570955

  18. Family Planning Attitudes of Traditional and Acculturated Navajo Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Alan; And Others

    To determine whether various indices of "acculturation" would predict attitudes towards family planning was the major purpose of a survey conducted among a highly educated group of Navajo people at Navajo Community College (NCC). Owned and operated by the Navajo Tribe, NCC served as a target survey model due to its 90% population of Navajo

  19. Assessing the wraparound process during family planning meetings.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Michael H; Nordness, Philip D; Kutash, Krista; Duchnowski, Al; Schrepf, Sheryl; Benner, Greg J; Nelson, J Ron

    2003-01-01

    Research and evaluation of the wraparound process has typically focused on outcomes, service providers, and costs. While many of these studies describe a process that is consistent with the wraparound approach, few studies have reported attempts to monitor or measure the treatment fidelity of the wraparound process. The purpose of this study was to assess the fidelity of the wraparound process in a community-based system of care using the Wraparound Observation Form-Second Version. Results from 112 family planning meetings indicated some strengths and weaknesses within the current system. Families and professionals were frequently involved in the planning and implementation of the wraparound process. However, informal supports and natural family supports were not present in a majority of the meetings. Given the significant number of youth served in wraparound programs, the benefits of using the Wraparound Observation Form-Second Version as an instrument to monitor the fidelity of the wraparound approach should not be ignored. PMID:12875102

  20. [Some reflections on the introduction of family planning into businesses in Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Ngambi Kunga

    1990-01-01

    Cameroon has announced that it favors family planning as a means of improving family welfare. In the local context, family planning would refer to spacing and to a lesser extent limiting births, as well as combatting infertility. This work argues that, at a time of deep economic and financial crisis for Cameroon and of growing need and demand for family planning services, the introduction of employment-based family planning services could reinforce the family planning activities of the government and private agencies. The work broadly outlines national family planning policy, identifies weaknesses of proposed family planning strategies, and points out the advantages of employment-based services. Cameroon's infant mortality rate of 90/1000 live births and maternal mortality of 420/100,000 are partly related to its very high fertility rate, closely spaced births, and early pregnancy. The national family planning program goal is to promote health and wellbeing by preventing early and unwanted pregnancies and illnesses in high-risk groups. A decline in unwanted births would be achieved through voluntary use of contraception. The main strategy would be an ambitious IEC program to inform the population of the advantages of family planning using mass media, print materials, and interpersonal communication. The general objectives of the IEC program would be to reduce maternal mortality to 300/100,000 and infant mortality from 90 to 70/1000 and increase contraceptive prevalence from 3 to 20% by 1994. Family planning services and commercial distribution centers would be created, taking advantage of existing health facilities wherever possible as well as community based systems of service delivery for the population not yet served by the traditional distribution system. Experience with the IEC strategy in other countries demonstrates that there is a great disproportion between the population touched by IEC and contraceptive prevalence. The strategy would probably be more effective if it were oriented toward a more limited population group. Interpersonal communication is often a more effective medium for IEC than is communication based on the mass media, and the place of work constitutes an ideal arena for interpersonal communication. An IEC strategy would have more impact in difficult-to-reach rural population if it were reinforced by an employment-based program. Workers as a group are more disposed to conscious decision making about family sizes than are other categories of persons. Employment-based services could benefit workers, their spouses, and perhaps the neighboring population. Employers would benefit from the improved health of the workers, from the greater continuity of employment of female workers not requiring maternity leaves, and from lessened expenditures related to the family size of the workforce, such as health care costs. A cost-benefit analysis of an employment-based family planning would demonstrate the savings to be realized by the program, especially over time. PMID:12178537

  1. National Ignition Facility project acquisition plan revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Clobes, A.R.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this National Ignition Facility Acquisition Plan is to describe the overall procurement strategy planned for the National Ignition Facility M Project. It was prepared for the NIP Prood Office by the NIF Procurement Manager.

  2. Quinault Indian Nation Renewable Energy Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Don Hopps, Institute for Washington's Future; Jesse Nelson, Institute for Washington's Future

    2006-11-28

    The Quinault Indian Nation (Nation) initiated this study on conservation and production of renewable energy because this approach created the opportunity: • To become self-sufficient and gain greater control over the energy the Nation uses; • To generate jobs and businesses for its members; • To better manage, sustain, and protect its resources; • To express the cultural values of the Nation in an important new arena. The Nation has relatively small energy needs. These needs are concentrated at two separate points: the Quinault Beach Resort and Casino (QBRC) and Taholah on the Quinault Indian Reservation (QIR). Except for the town of Queets, energy needs are small and scattered. The needs vary greatly over the season. The small scale, widely dispersed, and variable nature of these needs presents a unique challenge to the Nation. Meeting these needs requires a resource and technology that is flexible, effective, and portable. Conservation is the most cost-effective way to meet any need. It is especially effective in a situation like this where production would leave a high per unit cost. This plan is based on first gaining energy savings through conservation. Major savings are possible through: 1. Upgrading home appliances on the QIR. 2. Weatherizing homes and facilities. 3. Changes in lighting/ventilation in the QBRC pool room. These elements of the plan are already being implemented and promise to save the Nation around a quarter of its present costs. Wood biomass is the best resource available to the QIN for energy production either on-site or for commercial development. It is abundant, flexible and portable. Its harvesting has high job potential and these jobs are a good fit for the present “skill set” of the QIN. This plan focuses on using wood biomass to produce energy and other value-added products. Our study considered various technologies and approaches to using wood for energy. We considered production for both on-site and commercial production. This plan calls for commercial-scale production only, with the QIN being the first “customer” for the product. This plan favors employing the pyrolysis technology to produce bio-oil, heat, and char. We favor this approach and technology because it is the most cost effective way to use the available resource. Its main product, bio-oil, has proven utility for the production of heat and electricity. It has promise for use as an alternative fuel, which is a much higher value than present uses of wood and it meets the QIN need for flexibility, scalability, and portability. Char, the secondary product from the pyrolysis process, has proven value-added uses. In addition to these direct benefits, the use of biomass in pyrolysis technology has significant indirect benefits. These benefits include the fact that the technology is a good fit with the Nation’s cultural values, i.e., environmental protection and the holistic use of a resource. It fits well with current QIN enterprises. For example, char could be processed into a charcoal co-product for QIN fish. Finally, the QIN can become a leader in developing and demonstrating this innovative approach to the use of wood. This plan proposes key organization steps to insure both excellent implementation of the plan and taking the best advantage of the processes and facilities put in place. This plan calls for two new QIN organizations: an energy production/distribution corporation and a community development corporation. The production/distribution corporation can be either a utility or a business enterprise that develops and markets renewable energy. The community development corporation can be a not-for-profit to support the QIN in taking best advantage of its energy opportunities. The production and distribution corporation is the subject of a further business planning effort now underway. This plan envisions a community development corporation that works directly with the Business Committee on research, education, and project development. Specifically, this corporation can seek grant funding to research energy matters such as the BPA direct sale of energy proposal, identify key business opportunities like charcoal production and train QIN members in business building, and establish a renewable energy education program and center to enhance the education of QIN youth and market to schools and community colleges in Western Washington. Overall, this final report includes the final Renewable Energy Plan for the QIN, the final Financial Analysis, and appendices. The two final plans are the culmination of research and planning represented by the appendices.

  3. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan FY 2004-2008

    SciTech Connect

    Quadrel, Marilyn J.

    2004-04-15

    This Institutional Plan for FY 2004-2008 is the principal annual planning document submitted to the Department of Energy's Office of Science by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Washington. This plan describes the Laboratory's mission, roles, and technical capabilities in support of Department of Energy priorities, missions, and plans. It also describes the Laboratory strategic plan, key planning assumptions, major research initiatives, and program strategy for fundamental science, energy resources, environmental quality, and national security.

  4. Men should take part in family planning. An interview with the Grand Mufti.

    PubMed

    Hata, K

    1994-09-01

    For Muslims the Koran provides the infallible rules of conduct fundamental to their way of life. In the past, conservative religious leaders represented a force opposing changes in the traditional status of women and large family norms in Egypt. However, the Grand Mufti has openly expressed his support for responsible parenthood and family planning. The total fertility rate would not have dropped to 3.9 in Egypt without his strong support for family planning. The Grand Mufti expressed his views on family planning in an interview. Family planning is compatible with the teaching of the Koran. There is no problem in promoting family planning according to the Koran. Family planning is the independent and voluntary decision and right of each couple. The Grand Mufti encourages practice family planning through TV, radio, and newspapers. Among Islamic countries, Egypt is one of the few countries where family planning has been well accepted. Religious leaders, medical doctors, and mass media people recognize that the Koran's teachings harmonize with family planning, therefore the promotion of family planning has been successful. More and more people in other Islamic countries will come to practice family planning as they comprehend the Koran's teachings accurately. However, it will take some time before people in these countries will be able to benefit from family planning, since many countries face economic problems thwarting the development of family planning services. The fact that most of the family planning users are women is immaterial, as family planning is the joint responsibility of the married couple. Men should definitely participate in family planning. Men's participation in family planning fits in with the Koran. At the International Conference on Population and Development to be held in the September, 1994, the Grand Mufti is going to speak on men's responsibility for family planning. PMID:12288252

  5. 20 CFR 632.18 - Regional and national planning meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Regional and national planning meetings. 632... Modification Procedures 632.18 Regional and national planning meetings. Grant funds may be used for holding regional and national planning meetings, subject to restrictions of allowable costs....

  6. 20 CFR 632.18 - Regional and national planning meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Regional and national planning meetings. 632... Modification Procedures 632.18 Regional and national planning meetings. Grant funds may be used for holding regional and national planning meetings, subject to restrictions of allowable costs....

  7. 47 CFR 90.16 - Public Safety National Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public Safety National Plan. 90.16 Section 90.16 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Public Safety Radio Pool 90.16 Public Safety National Plan. The Commission has established a National Plan...

  8. [Circular on census and family planning of 1990].

    PubMed

    1990-04-17

    In 1990 the Census Leading Group under the State Council, the State Family Planning Commission, and the Ministry of Public Security issued a circular on census and family planning calling for various localities to do a good job in registering children who were born beyond the state target. The circular provides the following: "1. To strictly enforce the policy for family planning and allow no children who were born beyond the state target to register themselves for residence, it is necessary to clarify issues to the local cadres. While acknowledging their enthusiasm in implementing the state policy for family planning, we must ask them to allow some children who were born beyond the state target to register themselves for the census and residence on the basis of the relevant regulations of the State Council. 2. It is necessary to carry out ideological work well among those cadres who did not report the number of children who were born beyond the state plan because of political reasons or material benefits, so that they will report childbirths and have those children registered. In general, no further investigation will be made as long as the children born beyond the state target have truthfully registered themselves during this census. However, those who continuously refuse to tell the truth will be severely dealt with when they are caught. 3. It is necessary to strengthen propaganda and education work among the masses who dare not report the births of children beyond the state target for fear of possible punishment, and make them understand that the census is aimed at managing state affairs and providing scientific data for working out various policies for social and economic developments. Therefore, it is necessary to report things as they are." The circular also provides that "Family planning is China's basic state policy. It is wrong to give birth to any child beyond the state target. It is impermissable to do so. From now on, we still need to enforce the policy of family planning." PMID:12343815

  9. 34 CFR 303.340 - Individualized family service plan-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Individualized family service plan-general. 303.340... INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES Child Find, Evaluations and Assessments, and Individualized Family Service Plans Individualized Family Service Plan (ifsp) 303.340 Individualized family service...

  10. 34 CFR 303.340 - Individualized family service plan-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Individualized family service plan-general. 303.340... INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES Child Find, Evaluations and Assessments, and Individualized Family Service Plans Individualized Family Service Plan (ifsp) 303.340 Individualized family service...

  11. 34 CFR 303.340 - Individualized family service plan-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Individualized family service plan-general. 303.340... INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES Child Find, Evaluations and Assessments, and Individualized Family Service Plans Individualized Family Service Plan (ifsp) 303.340 Individualized family service...

  12. Levels, trends and reasons for unmet need for family planning among married women in Botswana: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Letamo, Gobopamang

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study are: (1) to estimate the prevalence of unmet need for family planning among married women using Botswana Family Health Survey 2007 data and (2) to identify risk factors for unmet need for family planning among married women. Design This study used secondary data from a cross-sectional survey that was conducted to provide a snapshot of health issues in Botswana. Setting Nationally representative population survey data. Participants 2601 married or in union women aged 15–49 years who participated in the 2007 Botswana Family Health Survey were included in the analysis. Primary outcome Unmet need for family planning, which was defined as the percentage of all fecund married women who are not using a method of contraception even though they do not want to get pregnant. Results Married women who had unmet need for family planning were 9.6% in 2007. Most of the unmet need was for limiting (6.7%) compared to spacing (2.9%). Unmet need for family planning was more likely to be among women whose partners disapproved of family planning, non-Christians, had one partner and had never discussed family planning with their partner. Women of low parity, aged 25–34 years, and greater exposure to mass media, were less likely to have experienced unmet need. The patterns and magnitude of covariates differed between unmet need for limiting and for spacing. Conclusions The prevalence of unmet need for family planning was low in Botswana compared to other sub-Saharan African countries. The findings from this study reemphasise the importance of women's empowerment and men's involvement in women's sexual and reproductive healthcare needs and services. Different approaches are needed to satisfy the demand for family planning for spacing and limiting. PMID:25829370

  13. Fresh impetus to family planning programmes planned in India. APPN interviews Mr. B. Shankaranand Union Minister for Health and Family Welfare, India.

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    Mr. B. Shankaranand, Union Minister for Health and Family Welfare in India, speaking on new policy measures planned to give family planning a major boost, stated that programs related to population and family welfare should be interwoven with the minimum needs program so that the message of the small family norm becomes attractive to acceptors. The new incentive measures, outlined by Shankaranand, are based on the understanding that the existing infrastructure for service delivery must be fully utilized. The new package of incentives places equal emphasis on state level campaigns which will be suitably dovetailed with services and supplies. Monetary rewards in the form of community assets will be given to organized and identifiable groups actively engaged in the implementation of the Family Welfare Program. Cash awards will be given to the best performing states. A new incentive scheme will be introduced for industrial labor groups in the organized sector. Innovative publicity campaigns in selected areas will be conducted. Reorganization of the service delivery outreach system will include establishing health posts staffed by nurse midwives and health workers in urban slums and congested areas. A scheme is in preparation to issue green cards to acceptors of terminal methods after 2 children. The card holders will be entitled to priority attention and preferential treatment in schemes where such practices are feasible. Currently, there are 5000 Primary Health Centers and 50,000 subcenters offering integrated health services. Family planning statistics provide supportive evidence of programmatic response to the achievement of longterm goals of population stabilization. During the 1st 10 months of the current financial year 2,800,000 sterilizations were performed, a 43% higher achievement rate than the corresponding period last year. The number is likely to rise to 4,000,000 by the end of this financial year. Similarly, the number of IUD acceptors is 760,000, 35% higher than last year. Another encouraging sign has been the formulation of a National Health Policy. PMID:12312721

  14. [Family planning in the rural governorate of Mahdia].

    PubMed

    Baraket, M

    1986-01-01

    This report describes the general population, use of contraception, and suggestions for initiating a family planning program in the rural sections of the Gouvernorat of Mahdia, Tunisia. The locales examined are Chorbane, D'Essouassi and D'Ouled Chamakh, which make up 81,000 people, out of a total of 260,000 in the Gouvernorat. The population is growing at 3.1% yearly, with a mean age of 23 (median 17), or 45% under 15 years old. The density is 50 persons/sq km. About 17% of men and 2% of women are literate. Many men emigrate to find work. 75% of the people work in agriculture, the rest as laborers or textile workers. Housing is primitive, 97% with no facilities and 4 persons per room. There are a total of 12 health centers in the area, including 1 field hospital, 2 centers with family planning clinics. Data from 1981 showed that family planning acceptors in the region comprised 330 women sterilized; 612 who had abortions; 3400 on pills; 1366 with IUDs; and 830 using other methods. The contraception data were collected from records of mobile teams only. Recent data suggests that 50% of women currently covered were sterilized in campaigns 5 years ago. Their mean age is 40 years and they have 7-8 children. Pill or IUD users average 33 years with 5.5 children. Women cite hostility of their husbands toward contraception, especially in the common situation where spouses are away 6 months of the year working. There is also a fear of losing a child, since half of women interviewed have lost 1 or 2 children. On the other hand, 50% of women who have 7 or more children do not want any more pregnancies. This information suggests several opportunities for introducing family planning, such as spacing methods, especially for lactating women and educating husbands on the value of planning. PMID:12314868

  15. [National Issues Relating to Children and Families].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cranston, Alan

    This speech by the chairman of the Child and Human Development Subcommittee of the Senate Labor and Human Resources Committee focuses on issues relating to the needs and problems of children and families. Programs under the jurisdiction of the Subcommittee include child abuse, child care, domestic violence, aspects of adoption and foster care

  16. How can family planning programs delay repeat teenage pregnancies?

    PubMed

    Furstenberg, F F; Masnick, G S; Ricketts, S A

    1972-07-01

    The Adolescent Family Clinic of Sinai Hospital in Baltimore which opened in 1965 and which provides family planning services to pregnant adolescents and teenage parents in the hope of preventing early repeat pregnancies is partially evaluated. Evaluation of family planning programs working with teenage mothers is complicated by the variability and instability both to the critical socioeconomic contingencies associated with the young woman's motivations to have or avoid having children and in their ongoing exposure to the risk of pregnancy. The problem is to determine how the experiences of these young women who receive family planning services affect those circumstances that alter the timing of subsequent pregnancies. A life table approach in studying the factors related to the onset of the 2nd pregnancy has been used. This technique is designed specifically to study the temporal pattern of events in the fertility process, and its modification allows the tracing of the probability that a 2nd pregnancy has occurred at various durations into the postpartum period. All pregnant women under age 18 who entered the hospital were eligible to participate in the special program; however, because of staff limitations, 40% of 404 women were assigned on a random basis to the hospital's regular prenatal program. The difference in the 2 programs was the degree of education and encouragement offered. Most of the women were seen during their 2nd trimester. After a 1st visit they were closely supervised through the early months of the postpartum period. In all respects the 2 groups of women were identical. All the young women were interviewed shortly after they registered for prenatal care. A year after delivery, over 95% were interviewed again. 2 years later 90% of the original 404 were reinterviewed. The results are from all 3 interviews. The Adolescent Family Clinic program had limited success in preventing unwanted 2nd pregnancies. 3 years after the 1st delivery approximately 50% of both groups had become pregnant again. Analysis of the data reveals that the risk of pregnancy alters markedly as marital situations, motivation to avoid pregnancy, and use of contraception change. A family planning program must deal with these changes. Most young women want to postpone a 2nd pregnancy and are willing to use birth control. However, when frightening or disturbing side effects occur, they often stop using their method. If they are not offered reassurance when problems arise, they may choose to leave matters to chance. Long-term programs offering initial and ongoing family planning services have the best chance of achieving long-term results with teenagers. PMID:5040827

  17. [Family planning as a determinant of individual and community health].

    PubMed

    Trias, M

    1991-06-01

    The most recent contraceptive prevalence survey in Colombia indicated that over 2/3 of couples at risk of conception used some contraceptive method in 1990. This figure is close to the 80% or over common in developed countries and far exceeds the rates of 10% or even less in sub-Saharan African countries. Colombia's prevalence rate of around 15% in 1965, the 1st year of institutionalized family planning programs, included many users of ineffective traditional methods. Family planning, the possibility of determining the number and spacing of children, can be analyzed from various perspectives including its legal foundation as a human right and the demographic benefits of reproductive moderation. A stable population size would substantially simplify the problems of health, education, housing, and employment faced by developing countries. From a humanitarian perspective, family planning satisfies the ancient desire of human beings to separate reproduction and sex and also opens the door to different techniques of medically assisted conception. Some of the most significant benefits of family planning are those in the area of health. The positive effects on maternal and infant health and survival of avoiding pregnancy at the extremes of the reproductive period as well as pregnancies that are too numerous or closely spaced are now recognized. Colombia's infant mortality rate has fallen from 100/1000 live births in 1965 to 24 in 1990. Many factors besides family planning were involved, and the exact contribution of higher educational levels of mothers, use of oral rehydration therapy, promotion of breastfeedings, greater availability of potable water, and vaccination programs as well as of family planning are difficult to assess. But it is clear that child survival programs that neglect to include modern contraception as a principal component are shortsighted. Infants of adolescent mothers face mortality rates that are 15-40% higher than those of mothers over 20. Beyond 35 years, the risk of producing offspring with genetic disorders or other serious pathologies begins to rise sharply. The mortality risk of these infants is 20% higher than among those of younger mothers. Too close spacing of infants increases the risk of mortality through 2 principal mechanisms; the mother's body has insufficient time to recover from the 1st birth, consequently increasing the risk of low-birth weight and associated morbidity and mortality, and the older child is prematurely weaned and otherwise displaced by the younger child. The maternal risk of death in developing countries is estimated to increase by 30% with each succeeding pregnancy. Simply avoiding births before 20 years and after 35 would lead to decline of 20-25% in the maternal death rate. PMID:12284194

  18. Planning parenthood: Health care providers' perspectives on pregnancy intention, readiness, and family planning.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Lindsay M

    2015-08-01

    A major health care goal in the United States is increasing the proportion of pregnancies that are planned. While many studies examine family planning from the perspective of individual women or couples, few investigate the perceptions and practices of health care providers, who are gatekeepers to medicalized fertility control. In this paper, I draw on 24 in-depth interviews with providers to investigate how they interpret and enact the objective to "plan parenthood" and analyze their perspectives in the context of broader discourses about reproduction, family planning, and motherhood. Interviews reveal two central discourses: one defines pregnancy planning as an individual choice, that is as patients setting their own pregnancy intentions; the second incorporates normative expectations about what it means to be ready to have a baby that exclude poor, single, and young women. In the latter discourse, planning is a broader process of achieving middle-class life markers like a long-term relationship, a good job, and financial stability, before having children. Especially illuminating are cases where a patient's pregnancy intention and the normative expectations of "readiness" do not align. With these, I demonstrate that providers may prioritize normative notions of readiness over a patient's own intentions. I argue that these negotiations of intention and readiness reflect broader tensions in family planning and demonstrate that at times the seemingly neutral notion of "planned parenthood" can mask a source of stratification in reproductive health care. PMID:26151389

  19. 78 FR 66617 - National Family Caregivers Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ... thirty- eighth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-26675 Filed 11-4-13; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F4 ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 9053 of October 31, 2013 National Family Caregivers Month, 2013 By the... Family Caregivers Month, we thank these tireless heroes for the long, challenging work they...

  20. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    The goal of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Waste Management Program is the protection of workers, the public, and the environment. A vital aspect of this goal is to comply with all applicable state, federal, and DOE requirements. Waste management requirements for DOE radioactive wastes are detailed in DOE Order 5820.2A, and the ORNL Waste Management Program encompasses all elements of this order. The requirements of this DOE order and other appropriate DOE orders, along with applicable Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) rules and regulations, provide the principal source of regulatory guidance for waste management operations at ORNL. The objective of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan is to compile and to consolidate information annually on how the ORNL Waste Management is to compile and to consolidate information annually on how the ORNL Waste Management Program is conducted, which waste management facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, what activities are planned for the forthcoming fiscal year (FY), and how all of the activities are documented.

  1. Career Planning in Harmony with Family Values and Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, Archana

    2008-03-01

    Balancing career and family! Balancing what you love and who you love!! It is such an attention getting topic. And yet, if you really think about it, people have been doing it for ages. What makes it challenging in today's world is the dual income families that throw off-balance of traditional style of balancing family and profession. Balancing family and career is not as difficult. The question is more meaningful when you ask how do you find the right balance, and in fact, what is the right balance? How do you know you are there? Happiness at home and self esteem due to work is genderless issue however, it is essentially talked more in the context of women. Some of the things that could be helpful in achieving the right balance, are time management, proper prioritization, asking for help, a caring family, friends, and most importantly colleagues. In the portfolio of professional passions, it is important to identify the areas that are conducive to possibilities of changing family needs, international families, spouse's career and job relocation, etc. So, the bottom line question is whether it is possible to find a right balance between family and career? I would submit to you that with passion, courage, open- mindedness, and proper career planning, it is definitely possible. We just need to utilize the same techniques in choosing and sustaining the right balance that we use in identifying research topics and executing it. This discussion will look into further details of the challenges of balancing family and career from the perspective of also an immigrant, and possible ways of overcoming them.

  2. Black Family Basic Facts Handbook: A Resource for YMCAs Planning to Work with Black Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Elsie, Ed.

    This handbook is a resource tool designed to assist Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) staff and lay leaders of local communities in planning and developing programs for their constituents. Materials included consist of excerpted information from various sources. An attempt has been made to present a total family concept that provides a

  3. Family planning: choices and challenges for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Mbizvo, Michael T; Phillips, Sharon J

    2014-08-01

    While slow and uneven progress has been made on maternal health, attaining the 1994 Cairo International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) goal for achieving universal access to reproductive health remains elusive for many developing countries. Assuring access to sexual and reproductive health services, including integrated family planning services, remains a critical strategy for improving the health and well-being of women and alleviating poverty. Family planning not only prevents maternal, infant, and child deaths, but also empowers women to engage fully in socioeconomic development and provides them with reproductive choices. This paper will discuss the current landscape of contraception in developing countries, including options available to women and couples, as well as the challenges to its provision. Finally, we review suggestions to improve access and promising strategies to ensure all people have universal access to reproductive health options. PMID:24957693

  4. The economic consequences of reproductive health and family planning.

    PubMed

    Canning, David; Schultz, T Paul

    2012-07-14

    We consider the evidence for the effect of access to reproductive health services on the achievement of Millennium Development Goals 1, 2, and 3, which aim to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, achieve universal primary education, and promote gender equality and empower women. At the household level, controlled trials in Matlab, Bangladesh, and Navrongo, Ghana, have shown that increasing access to family planning services reduces fertility and improves birth spacing. In the Matlab study, findings from long-term follow-up showed that women's earnings, assets, and body-mass indexes, and children's schooling and body-mass indexes, substantially improved in areas with improved access to family planning services compared with outcomes in control areas. At the macroeconomic level, reductions in fertility enhance economic growth as a result of reduced youth dependency and an increased number of women participating in paid labour. PMID:22784535

  5. Study and introduction of family planning methods in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Rivera, R

    1993-02-01

    Research in developing countries is essential for the evaluation of the safety, efficacy and acceptability of both new and already available contraceptives. Research conducted by scientists in developing countries has also played an essential role in the development of new contraceptives. The continuous delivery of progestin at a low dose, copper IUDs, contraceptive implants, monthly injectables and vaginal rings are examples of new methods developed with the input of research conducted largely in developing countries. When research in developing countries is funded or coordinated by international agencies, local scientists have to be involved not only in its implementation, but in the planning, analysis and dissemination of such research. The World Health Organization, the Population Council and Family Health International have played an important role in supporting collaborative studies for the development, introduction and evaluation of family planning methods in developing countries. PMID:8435190

  6. Sexuality, reproduction, and family planning in women with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Miller, L J

    1997-01-01

    This article reviews data about how schizophrenia affects sexuality, pregnancy, the puerperium, parenting, and family planning. Women with schizophrenia have high rates of coerced sex, sexual risk behavior, and unwanted pregnancies. High rates of obstetric complications and custody loss increase morbidity for women and their offspring. Since untreated psychosis increases these problems, the risks of withholding pharmacotherapy must be weighed against the risks of prescribing medications during pregnancy. The puerperium is a time when women are especially vulnerable to exacerbations of schizophrenia. Mothers with schizophrenia may have a reduced ability to read children's cues, and they often have weak social support networks. Their children may be more difficult to raise than other children. Parenting rehabilitation can address some of these problems. Often, women with schizophrenia who are sexually active and do not wish to become pregnant do not use contraception. Incorporating family planning measures into mental health care delivery systems may reduce unwanted pregnancies. PMID:9365999

  7. Motivations and Constraints to Family Planning: A Qualitative Study in Rwanda’s Southern Kayonza District

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Didi Bertrand; Berman, Leslie; Ryan, Grace; Habumugisha, Lameck; Basinga, Paulin; Nutt, Cameron; Kamali, Francois; Ngizwenayo, Elias; Fleur, Jacklin St; Niyigena, Peter; Ngabo, Fidele; Farmer, Paul E; Rich, Michael L

    2015-01-01

    Background: While Rwanda has achieved impressive gains in contraceptive coverage, unmet need for family planning is high, and barriers to accessing quality reproductive health services remain. Few studies in Rwanda have qualitatively investigated factors that contribute to family planning use, barriers to care, and quality of services from the community perspective. Methods: We undertook a qualitative study of community perceptions of reproductive health and family planning in Rwanda’s southern Kayonza district, which has the country’s highest total fertility rate. From October 2011 to December 2012, we conducted interviews with randomly selected male and female community members (n = 96), community health workers (n = 48), and health facility nurses (n = 15), representing all 8 health centers’ catchment areas in the overall catchment area of the district’s Rwinkwavu Hospital. We then carried out a directed content analysis to identify key themes and triangulate findings across methods and informant groups. Results: Key themes emerged across interviews surrounding: (1) fertility beliefs: participants recognized the benefits of family planning but often desired larger families for cultural and historical reasons; (2) social pressures and gender roles: young and unmarried women faced significant stigma and husbands exerted decision-making power, but many husbands did not have a good understanding of family planning because they perceived it as a woman’s matter; (3) barriers to accessing high-quality services: out-of-pocket costs, stock-outs, limited method choice, and long waiting times but short consultations at facilities were common complaints; (4) side effects: poor management and rumors and fears of side effects affected contraceptive use. These themes recurred throughout many participant narratives and influenced reproductive health decision making, including enrollment and retention in family planning programs. Conclusions: As Rwanda continues to refine its family planning policies and programs, it will be critical to address community perceptions around fertility and desired family size, health worker shortages, and stock-outs, as well as to engage men and boys, improve training and mentorship of health workers to provide quality services, and clarify and enforce national policies about payment for services at the local level. PMID:26085021

  8. [Desire for pregnancy, refusal of pregnancy, ambivalence in family planning].

    PubMed

    Coulondre, P; Hopf, H; Imfeld, E

    1982-12-01

    Clinical experience at the Center for Family Information and Fertility Regulation in Geneva suggests that the ready availability of contraception has not reduced ambivalence about childbearing. Various symptoms seen in family planning centers are believed to indicate ambivalent desires for pregnancy: failure or forgetting of contraception, accidental pregnancy followed by abortion, sterility of psychogenic origin, marital conflicts, sexual symptoms, and others. Some of these conditions have always existed, but with fertility control today seemingly assured, the symptoms may have another explanation. Society, through contraceptive use, encourages programmed children who arrive at the optimal moment. The underlying myth supports consumption, discarding, and replacement of desired objects according to the tastes of the moment and the near future. The individual stresses self-realization in the here and now. Often lacking reflection on a past which is repressed and a future which may be too frightening to contemplate, with unemployment, nuclear peril, or other horrors, the individual can only validate the present moment with the fantasy of a marvelous infant, which is a reflection of himself. Family planning centers see more and more individuals shocked by personal and social contradictions. Observed symptoms seem frequently to arise from a common difficulty related to the limitation of desire to those of the present moment. The individual of today has difficulty integrating the present and the past. If this hypothesis is correct, family planning centers will be increasingly required to help clients reflect on contradictions within themselves, their relationships, and their societies regarding the desire for children. In 1980, the Center for Family Information and Fertility Regulation conducted 2781 consultations for 1502 cases. 38.4% were for contraception, 17.9% for induced abortion. 17.4% for marriage counseling, 7.9% for psychological problems, 6.7% for sexual problem, 5.7% for medical problems, 2% for legal problems, 1% for sterility and adoption, and 2.9% for others. PMID:12281320

  9. Could Family Planning Clients Benefit From More Nutrition Counselling?

    PubMed Central

    Bonds, Charlotte A.; Powell, Marion G.; Yurkiw, Mary Anne

    1978-01-01

    The nutritional concerns of females prior to conception and while practicing birth control have often been given less emphasis than the importance of nutrition to pregnant women. This article indicates ways of ensuring that family planning clients are not frustrated in practicing their chosen method of birth control because physicians are unaware that they may have a special need for nutrition counselling and services. PMID:20469290

  10. Values clarification as a technique for family planning education.

    PubMed

    Toohey, J V; Valenzuela, G J

    1983-02-01

    A Spanish language family planning education program utilizing the dynamics of values clarification has been designed and implemented in the state of Oaxaca, Mexico. The design of the program features three basic personality identification activities to help individuals identify other dimensions of adult life expression than child rearing. In addition, a series of simple and precise scenarios specifically related to family planning are presented. Each scenario is accompanied by a set of valuing questions that direct the learner to respond to the scenario. The activity booklet is entitled, "Clarification De Valores En La Planificacion Familar." The booklet requires the learner to make responses to the learning materials. Responses are then used as a basis for inferring that people are comprehending and above all personalizing knowledge about themselves and their culture and family planning. The program is cross cultural and can be used in Spanish speaking communities in the U.S. Its English language form can be used with English speaking target populations. Statistical analysis of seven critical categories of the program indicated that the shifts in attitudes from pre-to post-values, whether positive or negative (desirable or undesirable), were not significant at the .05 level of confidence. It should, however, be noted that small shifts in the rate of natural increase, or rate of natural decrease for population growth can have a dramatic effect on population growth when multiplied by time. PMID:6550677

  11. Condom promotion and use: family planning versus HIV protection.

    PubMed

    Mundigo, A I

    1989-12-01

    Condoms have been used since the 16th century as a prophylactic agent against sexually transmitted diseases. With regards to family planning, condoms are used for spacing and prevention of pregnancy. However, after the invention of more reliable contraceptives, condoms lost their popularity as a contraceptive agent, only to regain it in the wake of the AIDS epidemic. The main concern in using condoms has always been the high failure rate, which tends to be a complicated issue given that it's efficacy is affected by the motivation and characteristic of the user. Irrespective of the numerous advantages of the condom, at present there is little incentive to use them on a routine basis. Reasons for this objection include the fact that condoms not only interfere with sex, but are unnatural and leave the man very unsatisfied. Promoting condoms in developing countries is both a cultural and political issue, stemming from the misleading preconception of the man's role in family planning. For instance, condoms are infamous for their use in illicit sex, and as such cannot be used on a relatively respectable individual. The challenge in condom promotion is the creation of a new image based on family planning, reliability aspects of condoms, noninterference with pleasure concept and the added value of protection against STD's. PMID:12316117

  12. How family planning can save lives in Africa.

    PubMed

    Sai, F

    1992-03-01

    A pregnant woman in subSaharan Africa is 75 times more likely to die as a result of her pregnancy than a woman in western Europe. Most African doctors probably concentrate upon preventing and treating the medical causes of maternal mortality such as hemorrhage, toxemia, difficult and prolonged labor, incomplete abortion, and puerperal infection, but give less attention to non-medical factors such as multiparity, nutritional deficiencies, socioeconomic conditions, or whether women want children or not. Evidence from around the world shows that the risk of maternal or infant illness and death is highest in pregnancies before age 18 and after age 35 years, pregnancies after four births, and pregnancies spaced less than two years apart. Approximately 5.6 million infant deaths and 200,000 maternal deaths could thus be avoided annually if women chose to have their children within the safest years, with adequate spacing between births, and had completed families of moderate size. Good availability and use of effective and safe contraception could help reduce the number of women dying in childbirth from high-risk pregnancies and botched abortions. The author, president of the International Planned Parenthood Federation, urges doctors to promote family planning and recommends re-educating all health workers in family skills and the vital importance of contraceptive services for family health. The importance of reaching rural women and applying community-based distribution and social marketing approaches is stressed. PMID:12288906

  13. Integration of poverty alleviation with family planning: an interview with SFPC Vice Minister Yang Kuifu.

    PubMed

    Zhu, H Z

    1996-08-01

    The Chinese Government, through its 1994-2000 National Program for Poverty Alleviation, plans to eradicate poverty for its 65 million impoverished citizens by 2000. Program strategies include providing tangible financial incentives to couples who accept the use of family planning. For example, family planning acceptors with per capita annual incomes of less than 530 yuan are given priority to obtain low-interest loans from local banks or credit cooperatives to launch and manage income-generating schemes. They also have priority over nonacceptors in being recruited to work in township and village enterprises, in purchasing farm supplies, and in obtaining land from village and township authorities upon which to build housing. Farm families need to be made to understand that family planning is in their own best interest. Providing children and adolescents in impoverished areas with more education is also important. The author notes how leaders in some impoverished areas do not understand the difference between poverty alleviation and poverty relief. PMID:12320583

  14. Idaho National Laboratory Cultural Resource Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Julie Braun Williams

    2013-02-01

    As a federal agency, the U.S. Department of Energy has been directed by Congress, the U.S. president, and the American public to provide leadership in the preservation of prehistoric, historic, and other cultural resources on the lands it administers. This mandate to preserve cultural resources in a spirit of stewardship for the future is outlined in various federal preservation laws, regulations, and guidelines such as the National Historic Preservation Act, the Archaeological Resources Protection Act, and the National Environmental Policy Act. The purpose of this Cultural Resource Management Plan is to describe how the Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office will meet these responsibilities at Idaho National Laboratory in southeastern Idaho. The Idaho National Laboratory is home to a wide variety of important cultural resources representing at least 13,500 years of human occupation in the southeastern Idaho area. These resources are nonrenewable, bear valuable physical and intangible legacies, and yield important information about the past, present, and perhaps the future. There are special challenges associated with balancing the preservation of these sites with the management and ongoing operation of an active scientific laboratory. The Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office is committed to a cultural resource management program that accepts these challenges in a manner reflecting both the spirit and intent of the legislative mandates. This document is designed for multiple uses and is intended to be flexible and responsive to future changes in law or mission. Document flexibility and responsiveness will be assured through regular reviews and as-needed updates. Document content includes summaries of Laboratory cultural resource philosophy and overall Department of Energy policy; brief contextual overviews of Laboratory missions, environment, and cultural history; and an overview of cultural resource management practices. A series of appendices provides important details that support the main text.

  15. The Use of Traditional Media in Family Planning Programs in Rural Java. Cornell University, Current Papers in the Communication Arts #2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Robert H.; Adhikarya, Ronny

    Java's present national family planning program is hampered not only by a serious lack of formal communication media, but also by cultural, social and economic barriers that impede the communication effort. To reach the predominantly rural population, family planning programs could utilize Java's traditional mass media: the folk operas, comedies,

  16. Idaho National Laboratory Site Pollution Prevention Plan

    SciTech Connect

    E. D. Sellers

    2007-03-01

    It is the policy of the Department of Energy (DOE) that pollution prevention and sustainable environmental stewardship will be integrated into DOE operations as a good business practice to reduce environmental hazards, protect environmental resources, avoid pollution control costs, and improve operational efficiency and mission sustainability. In furtherance of this policy, DOE established five strategic, performance-based Pollution Prevention (P2) and Sustainable Environmental Stewardship goals and included them as an attachment to DOE O 450.1, Environmental Protection Program. These goals and accompanying strategies are to be implemented by DOE sites through the integration of Pollution Prevention into each site's Environmental Management System (EMS). This document presents a P2 and Sustainability Program and corresponding plan pursuant to DOE Order 450.1 and DOE O 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. This plan is also required by the state of Idaho, pursuant to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) partial permit. The objective of this document is to describe the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site P2 and Sustainability Program. The purpose of the program is to decrease the environmental footprint of the INL Site while providing enhanced support of its mission. The success of the program is dependent on financial and management support. The signatures on the previous page indicate INL, ICP, and AMWTP Contractor management support and dedication to the program. P2 requirements have been integrated into working procedures to ensure an effective EMS as part of an Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS). This plan focuses on programmatic functions which include environmentally preferable procurement, sustainable design, P2 and Sustainability awareness, waste generation and reduction, source reduction and recycling, energy management, and pollution prevention opportunity assessments. The INL Site P2 and Sustainability Program is administratively managed by the INL Site P2 Coordinator. Development and maintenance of this overall INL Site plan is ultimately the responsibility of DOE-ID. This plan is applicable to all INL Site contractors except those at the Naval Reactors Facility.

  17. Men and family planning: toward a policy of male involvement.

    PubMed

    Pillai, V K; Kelley, A C

    1994-01-01

    The stated aim of this discussion is to examine the extent of male use of family planning and the nature of men's role in family planning in developing countries. Case studies are presented which are successful examples of strategies for involving men in family planning. Policies that aim to increase male involvement must be sensitive to cultural values, apply to a decentralized government approach toward information and supplies, include adequate political will, and consider the costs and benefits of changing values. A male family planning policy would not always be compatible with all fertility values in developing countries or traditional values of the older population. A policy should stress the value of male individuals contributing as much as possible for their own and others' welfare. Community participation is considered important in order to create a feeling of mutual support. A sizeable investment will be required for mass distribution of contraceptive information. Schools are viewed as an ideal place for educating youth about the problems of high fertility and about use of family planning methods, such as the condom. Religious organizations should be used to educate people about responsible parenthood and to minimize barriers to use of modern contraception. Comic books on how to use condoms are suggested as a good source. Local authorities who are trusted are useful in influencing acceptance among local populations. Local personnel may be trained as information disseminators. Adequate contraceptive information needs to be supplied to a wide audience. Lack of supply and inadequate information are given as two key reasons for insufficient use of male contraception. Condoms should be priced to be affordable to the average person and free to those with no income. Program strategies that proved successful are cited for Thailand's Mechai Viravaidya program and Bali's grass-roots program. The vasectomy program in Bangladesh is also noted for its success. Low levels of condom use are attributed to factors such as price, education, availability, accessibility, culture, religion, and economic conditions. Male sterilization levels can be enhanced with wider availability of clinics and provision of correct information for challenging beliefs that vasectomy is a form of castration. PMID:12290097

  18. Malaysia: where big is still better. For Malays, large families are part of the plan.

    PubMed

    1993-11-01

    The benefits of various-sized families in Malaysia were discussed by several women and supplemented with official statements on family planning (FP). The Director of the National Population and Family Development, Dr. Raj Karim, advised that maternal health is jeopardized when women have more than five children. About 30% of reproductive age women in Malaysia have five or more children. A Federation of FP Associations spokesperson agreed that women should be advised of the dangers of bearing over five children, of the importance of spacing births two to four years apart, and of the ideal age of childbearing (21-39 years). The government lacks an official policy on family size. The government position is, however, compatible with Islamic teachings on spacing in order to protect the health of the mother and child. Islamic law does not permit sterilization or abortion. The "fatwas" of Islamic teaching may have been misconstrued by those not using any form of contraception. Dr. Karim, who has five children, reported that having a large family can be difficult for a woman with a job, a career, and a husband or when both parents work. Most Malays desire large families. The average Malay family size was 4.1 children in 1990; Malaysian Chinese have fertility of 2.3 children and Malaysian Indians have 2.6 children. People say that the benefits outweigh the hardships of a large family. PMID:12287219

  19. Family Planning Supply Environment in Kinshasa, DRC: Survey Findings and Their Value in Advancing Family Planning Programming

    PubMed Central

    Kayembe, Patrick; Babazadeh, Saleh; Dikamba, Nelly; Akilimali, Pierre; Hernandez, Julie; Binanga, Arsene; Bertrand, Jane T

    2015-01-01

    Background: Modern contraceptive prevalence was 14.1% in 2007 in Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Yet virtually nothing was known about the family planning supply environment. Methods: Three surveys of health facilities were conducted in 2012, 2013, and 2014 to determine the number, spatial distribution, and attributes of sites providing family planning services. The 2012 and 2013 surveys aimed to identify the universe of family planning facilities while obtaining a limited set of data on “readiness” to provide family planning services (defined as having at least 3 modern methods, at least 1 person training in family planning in the last 3 years, and an information system to track distribution of products to clients) and output (measured by couple-years of protection, or CYP). In contrast, the 2014 survey, conducted under the umbrella of the Performance Monitoring and Accountability 2020 (PMA2020) project, was based on 2-stage cluster sampling. This article provides detailed analysis of the 2012 and 2013 surveys, including bivariate and multivariate analysis of correlates of readiness to provide services and of output. Results: We identified 184 health facilities that reported providing at least 1 contraceptive method in 2012 and 395 facilities in 2013. The percentage of sites defined as “ready” to provide services increased from 44.1% in 2012 to 63.3% in 2013. For the 3-month period between January and March 2013, facilities distributed between 0 and 879.2 CYP (mean, 39.7). Nearly half (49%) of the CYP was attributable to implants, followed by IUDs (24%), CycleBeads (11%), and injectables (8%). In 2013, facilities supported by PEPFAR (n = 121) were more likely than other facilities to be rated as ready to provide services (P<.0001); however, PEPFAR-supported sites generated less CYP on average than sites supported by family planning implementing agencies (P<.0001). Multivariate analysis showed 3 variables were associated with CYP: type of health facility, length of time in operation, and number of contraceptive methods available. Clinics generated higher (3-month) CYP than hospitals and health centers by 65.3 and 61.5 units, respectively (P<.01). The mean CYP for facilities in operation for 4–6 years was 26.9 units higher (P<.05), and 50.2 units higher for those operating 7+ years (P<.01), than the reference group of facilities in operation for 1 year or less. For each additional method available at a facility, CYP increased by almost 8 units (P<.01). Conclusions: Findings from these surveys suggest that lack of physical access is not the defining reason for low contraceptive use in Kinshasa, although it is highly likely that other service-related factors contribute to low service utilization. The results contributed to increasing the momentum for family planning in the DRC in many ways, including mobilizing partners to increase contraceptive access and increasing donor investment in family planning in the DRC. PMID:26681709

  20. 47 CFR 90.16 - Public Safety National Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public Safety National Plan. 90.16 Section 90.16 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES.... The National plan establishes planning regions covering all parts of the United States, Puerto...

  1. Family joint activities in a cross-national perspective

    PubMed Central

    Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Zemaitiene, Nida; Borup, Ina; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Moreno, Carmen

    2007-01-01

    Background Parents and children joint activities are considered to be an important factor on healthy lifestyle development throughout adolescence. This study is a part of the Cross-National Survey on Health Behaviour in School-aged Children World Health Organization Collaborative Study (HBSC). It aims to describe family time in joint activities and to clarify the role of social and structural family profile in a cross-national perspective. Methods The research was carried out according to the methodology of the HBSC study using the anonymous standardized questionnaire. In total, 17,761 students (8,649 boys and 9,112 girls) aged 13 and 15 years from 6 European countries (Czech Republic, Finland, Greenland, Lithuania, Spain, and Ukraine) were surveyed in the 20012002 school-year. The evaluation of joint family activity is based on 8 items: (1) watching TV or a video, (2) playing indoor games, (3) eating meals, (4) going for a walk, (5) going places, (6) visiting friends or relatives, (7) playing sports, (8) sitting and talking about things (chatting). Results Students from Spain and Ukraine reported spending the most time together with their families in almost all kinds of joint activities, whereas students from Greenland and Finland reported spending the least of this time. Boys were more likely than girls to be spending time together with family. Joint family activity goes into decline in age from 13 to 15 years. Variability of family time in a cross-national perspective was relatively small and related to children age category. Considering national, gender and age differences of studied population groups, we found that the distribution of joint family activities tends to be dispersed significantly by family structure (intact/restructured family) and family wealth. Conclusion Our study compares children and parent joint activities in European countries and reveals differences and similarities in these patterns between countries. The findings underline the role of family structure (intact/restructured family) and family wealth in the distribution of time spent in joint family activities, which should be considered by health promoters. PMID:17537247

  2. Snapshots of America's Families II: A View of the Nation and 13 States from the National Survey of America's Families, 1997-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppelman, Jane, Ed.

    This collection of snapshots examines the well-being of America's children and adults through the lens of the 1999 National Survey of America's Families. Snapshots include: "Foreword: Snapshots of America's Families II: A View of the Nation and 13 States from the National Survey of America's Families" (Alyssa Wigton and Alan Weil); "Family

  3. Adverse outcomes of planned and unplanned pregnancies among users of natural family planning: a prospective study.

    PubMed Central

    Bitto, A; Gray, R H; Simpson, J L; Queenan, J T; Kambic, R T; Perez, A; Mena, P; Barbato, M; Li, C; Jennings, V

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine prospectively whether unplanned pregnancies are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes among users of natural family planning. METHODS: Women who became pregnant while using natural family planning were identified in five centers worldwide: there were 373 unplanned and 367 planned pregnancies in this cohort. The subjects were followed up at 16 and 32 weeks' gestation and after delivery. The risks of spontaneous abortion, low birth-weight, and preterm birth were estimated after adjustment by logistic regression. RESULTS: The women with unplanned pregnancies were more likely to be at the extremes of age, to report more medical problems before and during the index pregnancy, and to seek antenatal care later in gestation than the women with planned pregnancies. However, women with planned pregnancies reported a higher rate of spontaneous abortion in previous pregnancies (28.8%) than did women with unplanned pregnancies (12.9%). There were no significant differences in the rates of spontaneous abortion, low birthweight, or preterm birth between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: No increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes was observed among women who experienced an unplanned pregnancy while using natural family planning. PMID:9096531

  4. 42 CFR 59.4 - How does one apply for a family planning services grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How does one apply for a family planning services grant? 59.4 Section 59.4 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services 59.4 How does one apply for a family planning services...

  5. Philippines. Church vs. state: Fidel Ramos and family planning face "Catholic Power".

    PubMed

    1994-08-24

    Catholic groups and individuals united in a public rally in Manila's Rizal Park to decry a "cultural dictatorship," which promotes abortion, homosexuality, lesbianism, sexual perversion, condoms, and artificial contraception. Government spokesmen responded that condoms and contraception were part of government policy to spread family planning knowledge and informed choices among the population. Cardinal Jaime Sin and former president Corazon Aquino joined forces to lead the movement against the national family planning program in the largest demonstration since the ouster of Ferdinand Marcos in 1986. Also criticized was the 85-page draft action plan for the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) scheduled for September 1994. Cardinal Sin accused President Clinton of using the action plan to promote worldwide abortion. Under the administration of President Fidel Ramos, family planning funding has quintupled and the number of family planning workers has increased from 200 to 8000. President Ramos has gone the farthest of any administration in opposing the Church's positions on contraception and abortion, although years ago Fidel Ramos and Cardinal Sin were allies in the effort to push out Ferdinand Marcos. The population of the Philippines is 85% Catholic, and laws reflect the Church's doctrine against divorce and abortion. The current growth rate is 2.3%, and the goal is to reduce growth to 2.0% by 1998, the end of Ramos's term in office. The population target is in accord with demographic goals proposed in the UN draft action plan. The Vatican has opposed the language in the plan and may have encouraged other religious leaders to join those opposed to the "war against our babies and children." Sin said that contraceptive distribution was "intrinsically evil" and should be stopped now. Ramos's administration stated that their policies and programs are not "in the hands of the devil" and there is support for the Church on family values and abortion. Health minister Flavier has indicated that illegal abortion has become very common, and control of abortion is through family planning. The Protestant president will oppose abortion at ICDP. PMID:12345705

  6. Family Planning Legislation. Report on a Survey. EURO Reports and Studies 85.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Barbara

    This study reviews and analyzes family planning legislation in seven countries of the Mediterranean region: Greece, Italy, Morocco, Portugal, Spain, Tunisia, and Turkey. Part 1, a general review, specifically focuses on the role of religion in the development of family planning programs, laws with an indirect effect on family planning (minumum age…

  7. Family Planning Legislation. Report on a Survey. EURO Reports and Studies 85.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Barbara

    This study reviews and analyzes family planning legislation in seven countries of the Mediterranean region: Greece, Italy, Morocco, Portugal, Spain, Tunisia, and Turkey. Part 1, a general review, specifically focuses on the role of religion in the development of family planning programs, laws with an indirect effect on family planning (minumum age

  8. Family Planning in Five Continents: Africa, America, Asia, Europe, Oceania. November 1975 Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    This document gives highlights of the family planning situation in countries of the world, together with basic demographic statistics. Its purpose is to provide a quick reference source for those who work in family planning, population, and other related fields. Following a brief history of the pioneering work in family planning, population

  9. Assessing the Impact of a Family Planning Nurse Training Program in Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halawa, M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a study of the impact of a nurse training program for family planning that stresses the development of nurses' counseling skills. Found an association between improved family planning training for nurses and positive changes in family planning knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among women attending Egyptian Ministry of Health clinics.

  10. An examination of the problem of unwanted population growth in Africa and the existing facilities for training family planning personnel.

    PubMed

    Kumekpor, M L; Kumekpor, T

    1970-02-01

    Population planning is as important as economic planning and should be applied both at the national and personal levels. Population control and socioeconomic development are intrinsic to each other. Proverty, illiteracy, political instability, and social retardation are found in the countries with high birth rates. Most African nations tend to think of the population in terms of density rather than growth potential. Family planning programs should be accorded the same priority as maternal-child health, but African countries are often not equipped financially or professionally to support family planning workers under the same conditions as other medical personnel could be accomplished locally rather than overseas, thus saving about $204,000 in the East African Region and $213,000 in the West African Region. The success of the trainees' program will depend on the degree to whichf amily planning programs are integrated with other medical services; insight into traditiona l sexual patterns, and tact and skill of personnel. PMID:12308047

  11. National Energy Audit Tool for Multifamily Buildings Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Malhotra, Mini; MacDonald, Michael; Accawi, Gina K; New, Joshua Ryan; Im, Piljae

    2012-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) enables low-income families to reduce their energy costs by providing funds to make their homes more energy efficient. In addition, the program funds Weatherization Training and Technical Assistance (T and TA) activities to support a range of program operations. These activities include measuring and documenting performance, monitoring programs, promoting advanced techniques and collaborations to further improve program effectiveness, and training, including developing tools and information resources. The T and TA plan outlines the tasks, activities, and milestones to support the weatherization network with the program implementation ramp up efforts. Weatherization of multifamily buildings has been recognized as an effective way to ramp up weatherization efforts. To support this effort, the 2009 National Weatherization T and TA plan includes the task of expanding the functionality of the Weatherization Assistant, a DOE-sponsored family of energy audit computer programs, to perform audits for large and small multifamily buildings This report describes the planning effort for a new multifamily energy audit tool for DOE's WAP. The functionality of the Weatherization Assistant is being expanded to also perform energy audits of small multifamily and large multifamily buildings. The process covers an assessment of needs that includes input from national experts during two national Web conferences. The assessment of needs is then translated into capability and performance descriptions for the proposed new multifamily energy audit, with some description of what might or should be provided in the new tool. The assessment of needs is combined with our best judgment to lay out a strategy for development of the multifamily tool that proceeds in stages, with features of an initial tool (version 1) and a more capable version 2 handled with currently available resources. Additional development in the future is expected to be needed if more capabilities are to be added. A rough schedule for development of the version 1 tool is presented. The components and capabilities described in this plan will serve as the starting point for development of the proposed new multifamily energy audit tool for WAP.

  12. Idaho National Laboratory Cultural Resource Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Lowrey, Diana Lee

    2009-02-01

    As a federal agency, the U.S. Department of Energy has been directed by Congress, the U.S. president, and the American public to provide leadership in the preservation of prehistoric, historic, and other cultural resources on the lands it administers. This mandate to preserve cultural resources in a spirit of stewardship for the future is outlined in various federal preservation laws, regulations, and guidelines such as the National Historic Preservation Act, the Archaeological Resources Protection Act, and the National Environmental Policy Act. The purpose of this Cultural Resource Management Plan is to describe how the Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office will meet these responsibilities at the Idaho National Laboratory. This Laboratory, which is located in southeastern Idaho, is home to a wide variety of important cultural resources representing at least 13,500 years of human occupation in the southeastern Idaho area. These resources are nonrenewable; bear valuable physical and intangible legacies; and yield important information about the past, present, and perhaps the future. There are special challenges associated with balancing the preservation of these sites with the management and ongoing operation of an active scientific laboratory. The Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office is committed to a cultural resource management program that accepts these challenges in a manner reflecting both the spirit and intent of the legislative mandates. This document is designed for multiple uses and is intended to be flexible and responsive to future changes in law or mission. Document flexibility and responsiveness will be assured through annual reviews and as-needed updates. Document content includes summaries of Laboratory cultural resource philosophy and overall Department of Energy policy; brief contextual overviews of Laboratory missions, environment, and cultural history; and an overview of cultural resource management practices. A series of appendices provides important details that support the main text.

  13. Idaho National Laboratory Cultural Resource Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Lowrey, Diana Lee

    2011-02-01

    As a federal agency, the U.S. Department of Energy has been directed by Congress, the U.S. president, and the American public to provide leadership in the preservation of prehistoric, historic, and other cultural resources on the lands it administers. This mandate to preserve cultural resources in a spirit of stewardship for the future is outlined in various federal preservation laws, regulations, and guidelines such as the National Historic Preservation Act, the Archaeological Resources Protection Act, and the National Environmental Policy Act. The purpose of this Cultural Resource Management Plan is to describe how the Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office will meet these responsibilities at the Idaho National Laboratory. This Laboratory, which is located in southeastern Idaho, is home to a wide variety of important cultural resources representing at least 13,500 years of human occupation in the southeastern Idaho area. These resources are nonrenewable; bear valuable physical and intangible legacies; and yield important information about the past, present, and perhaps the future. There are special challenges associated with balancing the preservation of these sites with the management and ongoing operation of an active scientific laboratory. The Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office is committed to a cultural resource management program that accepts these challenges in a manner reflecting both the spirit and intent of the legislative mandates. This document is designed for multiple uses and is intended to be flexible and responsive to future changes in law or mission. Document flexibility and responsiveness will be assured through annual reviews and as-needed updates. Document content includes summaries of Laboratory cultural resource philosophy and overall Department of Energy policy; brief contextual overviews of Laboratory missions, environment, and cultural history; and an overview of cultural resource management practices. A series of appendices provides important details that support the main text.

  14. "Civil unrest does not stop ovulation": women's prenatal and family planning services in a 1960s Detroit neighborhood clinic.

    PubMed

    DeGuzman, Pamela B; Schminkey, Donna L; Koyen, Emily A

    2014-01-01

    In 1965, Nancy Milio established a prenatal and family planning clinic in Detroit, Michigan, to address health disparities and limited access to care among low-income, African American, urban women. Women's health disparities persist today nationally and internationally. Using historical methods, this research analyzes how Milio provided women's health services in the context of the social and political environment. Milio empowered neighborhood women to direct, plan, and participate in the care they received. Successful methods to address disparities in access to family and planning and prenatal care should include empowered participation from the women these programs are intending to serve. PMID:24892860

  15. Urban men and their participation in family planning.

    PubMed

    Jahan, S A; Thwin, A A; Nasreen, S; Ahsan, R I

    1996-01-01

    The study explores the issues relating to family planning method use by males in urban areas. Key informant interviews were held with men and women residing in selected wards of four randomly chosen zones in the Dhaka City Corporation, representing both slum and non-slum areas. Ward commissioners and a sample of health and family planning service providers in the Government, NGOs, and private sector in these wards were also interviewed in two phases in June-July 1995 and October 1995. The urban population in Dhaka seemed supportive of male contraceptive use in general. However, certain factors interplay that prevent men from assuming responsibility toward actual male method use, even when they approve and support spacing and limiting family size. The discomfort associated with the use of condoms, their unreliability in providing protection from pregnancy, together with misconceptions and perceptions relating to the fear of losing energy and productivity from using condoms and from being vasectomized, were reported. Recommendations to use the media for motivation and to provide privacy and individual counseling measures were given. The perspectives of the key respondents highlight the need to understand urban men and their attitudes, which may pave the way toward developing motivational strategies. An informed public in urban areas represents a setting conducive toward motivating men to improve achievements of a program that largely attributes its past and present success to targeting women. The findings justify exploring ways to expand choices for the urban couple to achieve reproductive health goals. PMID:12291501

  16. 5. Photocopy of original plans (from National Archives, Cartographic Division, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopy of original plans (from National Archives, Cartographic Division, Record Group 77, Misc. Forts File, Benicia Barracks) Delineator unknown. Note dated September 27, 1854 PLAN AND ELEVATIONS - Benicia Arsenal, Hospital, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  17. 6. Photocopy of original plans (from National Archives, Cartographic Division, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopy of original plans (from National Archives, Cartographic Division, Record Group 156) Delineator unknown. Commanding Officer's signature dated May 22, 1871 PLAN, ELEVATION, AND SECTION - Benicia Arsenal, Guard & Engine House, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  18. 77 FR 66525 - National Family Caregivers Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ... Respite Care Program, and through new initiatives like the National Plan to Address Alzheimer's Disease... President of the United States of America A Proclamation Our Nation's health care professionals provide... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR...

  19. Changing fortunes: analysis of fluctuating policy space for family planning in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Crichton, Joanna

    2008-01-01

    Policies relating to contraceptive services (population, family planning and reproductive health policies) often receive weak or fluctuating levels of commitment from national policy elites in Southern countries, leading to slow policy evolution and undermining implementation. This is true of Kenya, despite the government's early progress in committing to population and reproductive health policies, and its success in implementing them during the 1980s. This key informant study on family planning policy in Kenya found that policy space contracted, and then began to expand, because of shifts in contextual factors, and because of the actions of different actors. Policy space contracted during the mid-1990s in the context of weakening prioritization of reproductive health in national and international policy agendas, undermining access to contraceptive services and contributing to the stalling of the country's fertility rates. However, during the mid-2000s, champions of family planning within the Kenyan Government bureaucracy played an important role in expanding the policy space through both public and hidden advocacy activities. The case study demonstrates that policy space analysis can provide useful insights into the dynamics of routine policy and programme evolution and the challenge of sustaining support for issues even after they have reached the policy agenda. PMID:18653676

  20. "Wait a while, my love" -- an Indonesian popular song with a family planning message.

    PubMed

    Pekerti, R; Musa, R

    1989-10-01

    "Wait a While, My Love," recorded by pop singer Irianti Emingpraja, was the first Indonesian rock sock to contain a family planning message. The album including the song has sold over 100,000 copies. The song has also been packaged as a 60-second video that can be used as an opening theme for radio and television programs. The song, aimed at encouraging Indonesian youth to postpone marriage, has the following lyrics: "Flying free like a seagull/I'll cover many places 'round the world/Give me time for study and reflection, to grow as a mature wise woman/Oh, wait a while, my love/Don't buy me a ring, reflection of your inner love/I'll climb my way up to the top of the world/And reaching our rainbow of hope." The song was produced with support from the United Nations Fund for Population Activities and the Indonesian National Family Planning Coordinating Board. Key factors to be examined in producing a popular song with a family planning message include the specific message desired, the target audience, type of music, the singer, the producer, marketing, a multimedia campaign strategy, and distribution outlets. PMID:12315970

  1. Individualized Transition Plans (ITP): A National Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repetto, Jeanne B.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Information concerning implementation of Individualized Transition Plans (ITP) was collected from 46 states and analyzed to determine documentation used in transition planning, relationship between the ITP and Individualized Education Programs, age for beginning transition planning, individuals involved in transition planning, and issues addressed

  2. [Hungarian national plan and strategy for rare diseases].

    PubMed

    Kosztolnyi, Gyrgy

    2014-03-01

    The rarity of low prevalence diseases and the lack of information, research, diagnosis, treatment and expert availability may mean that the people affected do not benefit from the health resources and services they need. Rare diseases are considered to have little impact on society as a whole, yet they pose serious difficulties for sufferers and their families. By the end of the last century, two robust achievements in science and technology, i.e. the biotechnological and informatics revolutions, have created a real base for global approach to rare diseases by coordinating the capacities for health care, biomedical research and drug development and pooling the very limited resources available both nationally and transnationally. The European Commission has taken a number of actions which help patients and professionals to share expertise and information across borders with the objective of reducing the number of people suffering from these types of diseases. These actions together form the legal basis of the European Union policy on rare diseases. Orphan or rare diseases are now one of the priorities in the public health programmes in European Union. In 2009, the document "European Union Council Recommendation on an action in the field of rare diseases" was released with the main goal to provide national health authorities with supporting tools for the development and implementation of national plans and strategies for rare diseases by the end of 2013. This recommendation adopted by European Union Member States, allows common policy guidelines to be shared everywhere in Europe. By September 2013 the Hungarian National Plan for Rare Diseases, a health policy strategy until 2020 was finalized. The present report gives a short view on the document. PMID:24566695

  3. Family planning through private practitioners: characteristics of Kenyan contraceptive acceptors.

    PubMed

    Rogo, K O

    1990-01-01

    Kenya has one of the highest population growth rates in the world. Innovative programs are therefore called for to help curb the fast population growth rate. The Kenya Medical Association started a new program of involving private physicians in the active provision of family planning services. A preliminary analysis shows that the program serves generally young, better educated women of low parity. Sixty-one percent of the clients are new acceptors and the oral contraceptive pill the most popular method. The level of education of the clients had marked influence on family size. Age, parity and marital status also influenced the pattern of contraceptive use. These preliminary results are discussed against the background of the 1984 Kenya Contraceptive Prevalence Survey findings and possible areas of improvement suggested. PMID:1968018

  4. A sensitive approach to family planning motivation in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    1978-01-01

    The goals of the Malaysian Family Planning Program are not only to reduce population growth from 3% to 2% by 1985 and to bring the crude birth rate to 28.2 from 30.3, but to generally improve the health of the family, and to enhance the government's efforts to raise the per capita income. The work program is divided into the Creative Unit, the Media Unit, the Production Unit, and the Field Diffusion Unit. The objectives are to build up strong support from political, community, and opinion leaders, and to run educational campaigns aimed at motivating potential acceptors. The program also runs centers training medical and paramedical personnel. The program is combined with development programs for women, especially useful among the rural population. PMID:12277967

  5. Links between Cairo and Kyoto: addressing global warming through voluntary family planning.

    PubMed

    Skeer, Jeffrey

    2002-02-01

    Over the past three decades, with a combination of new technology, rising female literacy rates, and strengthened family planning programs, the world has seen dramatic increases in the use of contraception, with corresponding declines in fertility and population growth rates. At the International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo in 1994, parties pledged a tripling of funding for reproductive health programs in developing countries. Many demographers believe that making such programs more widely available to women would extend the decline in birth rates and shift the world towards the low scenario of United Nations population projections over the next century and a half. By examining the costs and impacts of such programs, in view of the links between population and carbon emissions, this paper shows that extension of voluntary family planning could make a large and cost-effective contribution to the greenhouse gas limitation goals of the Kyoto Protocol that was negotiated in 1997. PMID:11928354

  6. Can girls also carry on the family lineage? Six contributors' views. Family planning forum.

    PubMed

    Gao, M; He, S; Zhang, F; Lu, C; Liao, J; Wei, L; Cheng, R

    1996-06-01

    This document discusses the clash between traditional concepts about fertility in China and goals which seek to reduce fertility and promote equality between the sexes. The traditional emphasis on having a son to carry on the family line and support his elders is seen as a practical necessity by many rural dwellers. During a 6-month period starting in April 1992, therefore, "China Population News" published commentaries on this subject written by people from all walks of life and all areas of China. Six of these commentaries are presented in this article. In the first, a family planning (FP) worker notes that farmers without sons currently have an economic and social disadvantage, which may be mitigated if daughters can carry on family lines and have an equal right of inheritance. Another FP worker also urges women to affirm that they can carry on the family name. A farmer, however, believes that every man should have a son to carry on their family line because daughters become members of their husband's families upon marriage. A third FP worker finds feudal ideas of male superiority still at work in small towns and feels that education and socioeconomic development will be required to encourage farmers to abandon this outmoded concept. Another farmer then relays that her family's response to having a single daughter was to have her son-in-law become a member of her family, with the first child having her surname and the second child his. The final account is from a government worker whose only brother was killed. Despair killed her mother and almost killed her father until he understood that his daughter and son-in-law would care for him in his old age. This woman's first child was given both surnames. PMID:12291697

  7. Sewing machines and bank loans, farming and family planning.

    PubMed

    Sai, F A; Nsarkoh, J D

    1980-03-01

    Half of a $10,000 grant was given by the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) to finance the rural development project activities of Danfa, a village of about 835 people in Ghana. In this community the women are hard working but doubly disadvantaged. Along with a high illiteracy rate, the women are limited by inadequate income due to underemployment, under productivity, unfavorable farming conditions, and a lack of resources. Large families, frequent pregnancies, poor mother and child health, and high infant mortality all make matters worse for both the rural farm wife and her family. The project began with a nucleus of women that soon grew to between 24-30. Members soon formed small groups according to their occupational interests. The women grasped the self-help idea immediately. Once or twice a month there were demonstrations and the group worked together in such activities as making soap and pomade, preparing meals, and sewing. Meetings generally ended with a general group brainstorming and then members gathered in smaller groups to review their activities and plan for the future. During the 1st year of the project the men in the group rarely attended meetings. The group gave priority attention to their community's urgent need for working capital. 15 women farmers who met the criteria determined by the group received loans in the 1st round; only 8 satisfied the criteria in the 2nd round. At the beginning of the small loans scheme, the group decided to seek bigger loans from the bank if members proved credit worthy. This requirement was satisfied, and the group began negotiations for a loan with the Agricultural Development Bank. The group received the total group loan. The Ghana Home Science Association considers the project to be successful in several respects. Team spirit has developed the group, and the women play important and respected roles. Family planning problems are regularly presented for discussion, but it is difficult to correlate these ideas with practice. The ability of members to discuss these problems comfortably is an indication of their acceptance of family planning as an important topic in their lives. PMID:12311875

  8. Changing men's involvement in reproductive health and family planning.

    PubMed

    Bustamante-Forest, Rosa; Giarratano, Gloria

    2004-06-01

    The shift in focus on men's reproductive health was influenced by the 1994 Cairo (ICPD) Action Plan to promote gender equality and equity, empower women, and improve family health in society. Changing and improving the way in which men are involved in reproductive health can only have a positive impact on women's, men's, and children's health. Educating and counseling men about contraceptive choices is essential if they are to be supportive of women's reproductive health. Research on new male contraceptive methods must continue if the bias of women shouldering the major responsibility for contraception is to be eliminated. PMID:15159181

  9. Programming the body, planning reproduction, governing life: the '(ir-) rationality' of family planning and the embodiment of social inequalities in Salvador da Bahia (Brazil).

    PubMed

    De Zordo, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines family planning in Brazil as biopolitics and explores how the democratization of the State and of reproductive health services after two decades of military dictatorship (1964-1984) has influenced health professionals' and family planning users' discourses and practices. Do health professionals envisage family planning as a 'right' or do they conceive it, following the old neo-Malthusian rationale, as a 'moral duty' of poor people, whose 'irrational' reproduction jeopardizes the family's and the nation's well being? And how do their patients conceptualize and embody family planning? To answer these questions, this paper draws on 13 months of multi-sited ethnographic research undertaken between 2003 and 2005 in two public family planning services in Salvador da Bahia, where participant observation was undertaken and unstructured interviews were conducted with 11 health professionals and 70 family planning users, mostly low income black women. The paper examines how different bio-political rationalities operate in these services and argues that the old neo-Malthusian rationale and the current, dominant discourse on reproductive rights, gender equality and citizenship coexist. The coalescence of different biopolitical rationalities leads to the double stigmatization of family planning users as 'victims' of social and gender inequalities and as 'irrational' patients, 'irresponsible' mothers and 'bad' citizens if they do not embody the neo-Malthusian and biomedical rationales shaping medical practice. However, these women do not behave as 'docile bodies': they tactically use medical and non-medical contraceptives not only to be good mothers and citizens, but also to enhance themselves and to attain their own goals. PMID:22889428

  10. 78 FR 72060 - Chimney Rock National Monument Management Plan; San Juan National Forest; Colorado

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Chimney Rock National Monument Management Plan; San Juan National...) to establish management direction for the land and resources within Chimney Rock National Monument... establishing Chimney Rock National Monument (the Monument) requires preparation of a management plan....

  11. Family Interaction Patterns, Career Planning Attitudes, and Vocational Identity of High School Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargrove, Byron K.; Inman, Arpana G.; Crane, Randy L.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine how perceptions of family interaction patterns as defined along three dimensions of family environment (quality of family relationships, family goal-orientations, and degree of organization and control within the family system) predict vocational identity and career planning attitudes among male and

  12. The National Survey of America's Families: an overview of the health policy component.

    PubMed

    Kenney, G; Zuckerman, S; Rajan, S; Brennan, N; Holahan, J

    1999-01-01

    This report describes one aspect of "Assessing the New Federalism," a multi-year research project, started by the Urban Institute in 1996, to analyze the devolution of responsibility for social programs from the federal government to the states. The project combines case studies in 13 diverse states with analyses of data drawn from a wide range of sources, including a new household survey--the National Survey of America's Families (NSAF). The NSAF, which contains nationally representative data from almost 45,000 families, was fielded in 1997 and 1999, and is planned for 2001 and again at subsequent two-year intervals. In this paper, we provide an overview of the NSAF's purpose; the sampling approach and methods; the questionnaire content, with particular emphasis on questions of interest to health policy researchers; health policy research planned by Urban Institute staff; and the timetable for public release of the NSAF data. PMID:10570667

  13. 42 CFR 59.3 - Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant? 59.3 Section 59.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services 59.3 Who is eligible to apply for a family...

  14. Abortion in the framework of family planning in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Karro, H

    1997-01-01

    A post-independence (1992-93) decree issued by the Estonian Ministry of Social Affairs permits abortion on request up to 12 weeks of gestation and, on medical grounds, up to 20 weeks. According to reports received by the Estonian Medical Statistical Bureau, the 1994 abortion rate was 53.8/1000 women of reproductive age. Among women under 20 years of age, the abortion rate declined from 55.5/1000 in 1992 to 41.5/1000 in 1994. Only mini-abortions and abortions performed for medical reasons are free of charge; women with health insurance pay 50% of the cost of most procedures. Funds from abortion fees are used to subsidize contraception for full-time students, women in the first postpartum year, and women who had an induced abortion in the past three months. All other women must pay the full price of contraception. In 1994, only 234 out of every 1000 fertile women were using effective forms of contraception (IUDs and hormonal methods). However, the birth rate has been declining rapidly since 1990 and the rate of natural increase became negative in 1993 (-4.0). The fact that abortion but not contraception is subsidized has facilitated reliance on abortion as a family planning method. Recommended, to reduce the abortion rate and improve the family planning situation in Estonia, are improved contraceptive counseling, including pre- and post-abortion services, and school-based sex education. PMID:9225637

  15. Assessing family planning service-delivery skills in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Valadez, J J; Transgrud, R; Mbugua, M; Smith, T

    1997-06-01

    This report demonstrates the use of Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) to evaluate the technical competence of two cohorts of family planning service providers in Kenya trained with a new curriculum. One cohort had just finished training within two months of the study. The other cohort was the first group trained with the new curriculum about one year before the study. LQAS was adapted from industrial and other public health applications to assess both the individual competence of 30 service providers and the competence of each cohort. Results show that Cohorts One and Two did not differ markedly in the number of tasks needing improvement. However, both cohorts exhibited more tasks needing improvement in counseling skills as compared with physical examination skills or with all other skills. Care-givers who were not currently providing services accounted for most service-delivery problems. This result suggests that providers' use of their skills explains their ability to retain service-delivery skills learned in training to a greater degree than does the amount of time elapsed since they were trained. LQAS proved to be a rapid, easy-to-use empirical method for management decisionmaking for improvement of a family planning training curriculum and services. PMID:9216034

  16. Child abuse as an inhibiting factor for family planning.

    PubMed

    Fahim, H I; Faris, R

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the magnitude of the problem of using children as an economic asset to the family thus, in one way increasing the prevalence of child abuse in Egypt and also hindering the family planning program. Two focus-group interviews were conducted in urban & rural areas for 10 women with the same age range and socioeconomic background. All were non-users of any contraception. Subsequently an interview was conducted for all women who attended the Ob. & Gyn. Clinic at Ain Shams University Hospital in the period from June to August 1991, their ages ranged from 30-35 years and they never used contraception. Another group of women with the same characteristics were interviewed from a rural area at Fayoum Governorate. A questionnaire was filled for each interviewed woman. The total women interviewed in urban area is 340 while in the rural area they were 400 women. Sixty percent of urban women and 80% of rural women are illiterate, 70% of the urban & 100% of rural women are housewives. Their years of marriage ranged between 10-20 years and all of them have more than five children. A percentage of 73.5% of urban women and 85% of rural women stated that children are used as an economic asset to their families, they work in urban areas as assistants in motor repairs, hair-dressers, beggars, bakeries, shops, restaurants and factories while in rural areas they work as agricultural workers. PMID:1295939

  17. Sustainable development needs family planning: Mr. Wang Guoging.

    PubMed

    1997-09-01

    This brief article refers to the comments of the Director of Policy and Regulation for the State Family Planning Committee in China on the need for family planning and control of population growth for the sake of sustainable development. Population growth varies between regions in China. Growth should be equalized and brought to a level that will sustain development. A representative of the Institute of Population Research at the People's University stated that the problem was in coordinating population with resources, the environment, and the socioeconomy. Population factors are not the problem. Control of population size has been effective in alleviating pressure on resources, the environment, and socioeconomic development. The population structure, with increased number of elderly and nuclear families, is becoming a problem. China's population of 5.84 billion in mid-1997 accounts for 21.2% of world total population. The growth of world population, which has accelerated since 1950, is currently concentrated in less developed countries. An important factor limiting human and other life is the supply of water. A professor at the China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research indicated that the basic water needs for a Chinese population size of 1.6 billion must increase. China already has water shortage and water pollution problems that reduce the supply of water. The solution is integrated management of water resources and comprehensive effective countermeasures at all links of development, use, protection, and management of water resources. There is a need to promote efficient use of water resources that will result in water savings. Researchers need to develop new water resources, promote water reuse and wastewater reclamation, and coordinate the relationship between water supplies and development. The economy must be based on water conservation. PMID:12292781

  18. 76 FR 68621 - National Family Caregivers Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-28843 Filed 11-3-11; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F2-P ... health and well-being of their relatives and loved ones. Many of our Nation's family caregivers assist... year, I signed the Caregivers and Veterans Omnibus Health Services Act, which helps fulfill...

  19. National Standards for Family and Consumer Sciences Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Administrators for Family and Consumer Sciences.

    The document presents a new set of standards for family and consumer sciences (FACS) education. Section 1 is a three-chapter overview. Chapter 1 addresses the rationale for change and the FACS vision and mission. Chapter 2 describes the approach to develop the national standards, FACS format, and components of the standards. Chapter 3 provides…

  20. Career-Life Planning with First Nations People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offet-Gartner, Kathy

    The Career-Life Planning Model for First Nations People (1997) was created by Drs. Rod McCormick and Norm Admundson to address the need for more culturally sensitive career planning with First Nations people. The most unique thing about this model is the inclusion of many cultural practices, such as: opening and closing prayers, the invitation to

  1. 14 CFR 151.3 - National Airport Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false National Airport Plan. 151.3 Section 151.3 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS General Requirements 151.3 National Airport Plan. (a) Under the Federal...

  2. 47 CFR 90.16 - Public Safety National Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... National Plan is contained in the Report and Order in General Docket No. 87-112. The principal spectrum... (border regions). In the border regions, the principal spectrum for the National Plan may be different..., and the U.S. Virgin Islands. No assignments will be made in the spectrum designated for the...

  3. Education for All: National Plan of Action, 2003-2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Background: The Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR) Education for All National Plan of Action (EFA NPA) for 2003-2015 seeks to accomplish three major tasks: equitable access, improved quality and relevance and strengthened education management. Purpose: To design a National Education For All Action Plan for basic education in Lao PDR which…

  4. 77 FR 11116 - Draft National Plan To Address Alzheimer's Disease

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Draft National Plan To Address Alzheimer's Disease AGENCY: Office of the Assistant.... SUMMARY: HHS is soliciting public input on the draft National Plan to Address Alzheimer's Disease, which... Alzheimer's disease. Coordinate Alzheimer's disease research and services across all federal......

  5. The strong commitment. The government of Vietnam has invested nearly 30% of its budget for all the social programs such as education, health, population and family planning.

    PubMed

    Nguyen Phuong Lan

    1995-01-01

    Population and family planning activities first came into being in Vietnam in 1963 after a decree on fertility control was issued by the Council of Government on December 26, 1961. The Ministry of Health (MOH) was in charge of such activities, using its own network to provide services and mass organizations to garner public support for the acceptance of family planning. On May 13, 1979, the council transferred family planning activities to the new Committee for Maternal and Child Protection. However, that committee was soon disbanded, and family planning activities were returned to the auspices of the MOH. The National Committee for Population and Family Planning was created in 1984 under the MOH with the goal of mobilizing all social forces in population and family planning activities. Decrees of October 1988 and March 1989, and in 1991 and 1993, strengthened measures to reduce population growth and ensure that adequate family planning methods were available to couples. Vietnam's Population and Family Planning Program has strong political support. Indeed, the government of Vietnam has invested almost 30% of its budget into education, health, and population and family planning programs. PMID:12320332

  6. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Emergency Planning in Athletics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, J. C.; Courson, Ronald W.; Kleiner, Douglas M.; McLoda, Todd A.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a position statement by the National Athletic Trainers' Association on emergency planning in athletics, examining the professional and legal importance of emergency plans and looking at components of emergency plans, which include implementation, personnel, equipment, communication, transportation, venue location, emergency care…

  7. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Institutional Plan, FY 1995--FY 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    This report discusses the institutional plan for Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the next five years (1995-2000). Included in this report are the: laboratory director`s statement; laboratory mission, vision, and core competencies; laboratory plan; major laboratory initiatives; scientific and technical programs; critical success factors; summaries of other plans; and resource projections.

  8. 76 FR 8479 - National Forest System Land Management Planning

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... transition provisions to be in effect until a new planning rule is issued (74 FR 67062). While the 2000... Land Management Planning; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76 , No. 30 / Monday, February 14... National Forest System Land Management Planning AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of...

  9. Enhancing The National Map Through Tactical Planning and Performance Monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2008-01-01

    Tactical planning and performance monitoring are initial steps toward improving 'the way The National Map works' and supporting the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Science Strategy. This Tactical Performance Planning Summary for The National Map combines information from The National Map 2.0 Tactical Plan and The National Map Performance Milestone Matrix. The National Map 2.0 Tactical Plan is primarily a working document to guide The National Map program's execution, production, and metrics monitoring for fiscal years (FY) 2008 and 2009. The Tactical Plan addresses data, products, and services, as well as supporting and enabling activities. The National Map's 2-year goal for FY 2008 and FY 2009 is to provide a range of geospatial products and services that further the National Spatial Data Infrastructure and underpin USGS science. To do this, the National Geospatial Program will develop a renewed understanding during FY 2008 of key customer needs and requirements, develop the infrastructure to support The National Map business model, modernize its business processes, and reengineer its workforce. Priorities for The National Map will be adjusted if necessary to respond to changes to the project that may impact resources, constrain timeframes, or change customer needs. The supporting and enabling activities that make it possible to produce the products and services of The National Map will include partnership activities, improved compatibility of systems, outreach, and integration of data themes.

  10. Structural Determinants in Family Planning Service Utilization in Ethiopia: EDHS 2011 Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gizachew Balew, Jembere; Cho, Yongtae; Tammy Kim, Clara; Ko, Woorim

    2015-01-01

    Family planning coverage has improved in Ethiopia in the last decade, though fertility is still about 5.8 in the rural setup. In this paper, the major structural determinants of family planning service were analyzed using a multilevel model from 8906 individual women observation in the 2011 EDHS data. The results show that there is a big variation in family planning use both at the individual and between group levels. More than 39% of the variation in FP use is explained by contextual cluster level differences. Most of the socioeconomic predictors; respondent's education, ethnicity, and partners' education as well as employment status and urbanization were found to be significant factors that affect FP use. Similarly health extension visit and media access were found to be strong factors that affect FP service at both individual and cluster levels. This evidence concludes that addressing these contextual factors is very crucial to strengthen FP use and fertility reduction in the nation, beyond individual behavioral changes. PMID:26783520

  11. Year 6 Planning Exemplification. National Literacy Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department for Education and Skills, London (England).

    First in a series, this booklet contains suggestions for planning literacy in Year 6. This Year 6 plan for 2001-2002 and the short-term unit plan for narrative writing are a distillation of the work of a representative group of Year 6 teachers. It contains the Year 6 Term 1 Units 2 and 5 on Narrative Writing. It begins with an outline of the basic

  12. Teaching of Family Planning at Medical Nursing and Midwifery Schools in Certain Countries of the Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    A review is given of the status of family planning education at medical, nursing, and midwifery schools in seven European countries. The report is presented in 11 sections. Section one, an introduction, explains the scope of the study and defines family planning to include birth control, pregnancy and delivery, problems of adolescents, family life…

  13. National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency Report

    SciTech Connect

    National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency

    2006-07-01

    Summarizes recommendations, key barriers, and methods for energy efficiency in utility ratemaking as well as revenue requirements, resource planning processes, rate design, and program best practices.

  14. Family planning education helps build self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, P

    1993-10-01

    I got married at the age of 20. In our community, generally girls are married off at 15 or 16, but my marriage was delayed according to my father's and my wishes. I did not desire to have my first child immediately. My husband and I are very young and I did not want to assume maternal responsibilities so early in life. Picking up courage, I spoke to my husband. On learning that he had similar views, I was very relieved. I belong to a middle-class family. Due to an absence of a high school in the village. I was forced to drop out of school. Young girls in our community are not allowed to move freely within the village, much less the outside world. But when I was 19, I got the opportunity to gain a lot of information on family planning, health, personal hygiene and good nutrition as part of the Better Life Project. I also learned beauty skills, embroidery, knitting and video film-making. Often I share the information and skills I learned with others. I have even advised my brother's wives about proper child care and immunization. Now that I have a good relationship with the unmarried sister of my husband, I sometimes tell her whatever I have learned. I have felt a great change in myself. My earlier inhibitions in talking to people have dropped, and I can entertain and speak freely with guests who come home. I am more confident about traveling outside my village to other places alone or with company. Learning to operate a video camera and producing a film was my favorite experience. I discovered that I can do what is normally said to be the work of boys only. Sometimes I think that if I had not learned new skills, I would not have been able to share my feelings about family planning with my husband. My mother-in-law is also agreeable to our decision about waiting to have children because both my brothers-in-law have large families. However, I have to face my sisters-in-law who taunt me about my childless status. The problem now is that my husband is not satisfied using condoms. I have decided to consult the doctor at the mobile clinic about taking pills or other methods of contraception. PMID:12287152

  15. Minister Peng Peiyun stresses improved management and services. Urban family planning programme.

    PubMed

    1997-02-01

    This article gives a summary of the main points of an address by Minister Peng Peiyun of the State Family Planning Commission at the National Conference on China's Urban Family Planning Program (December 1996). Minister Peng says that China made considerable progress in reducing fertility and increasing life expectancy in urban areas. The changes are attributed to the family planning (FP) program, urban socioeconomic development, improvements in education and medical and health care services, a sound social security system, effective IEC, and the contraceptive service network. Minister Peng characterizes the urban FP program as having a long-term, stable policy for promoting one child per couple. Units at all levels are required to practice family planning. Urban FP programs have effective IEC, a contraceptive service system, and scientific management within a community service system. The FP program targets the floating population of migrants. Urban populations pose may challenges that the FP program has partially met. The aim is population development balanced with socioeconomic development and sustainable development. There is a need to increase public awareness of public services. The FP program recognizes the need to implement the "two transitions" in urban areas: to shift to a policy of FP integrated with socioeconomic development and to shift to an interest-oriented program integrated with social constraints. The aim is to improve the quality of life for the urban population and to sustain low fertility levels. FP programs are still weak in dealing with the floating population, unplanned and unintended pregnancies, abortions, and maternal health. IEC should be strengthened and include topics on women's rights, reproductive health, sex education, environmental protection, and sustainable development. PMID:12320704

  16. Quality of care in family planning services in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Brown, L; Tyane, M; Bertrand, J; Lauro, D; Abou-ouakil, M; deMaria, L

    1995-01-01

    This study was conducted to heighten awareness of quality of care as a programmatic issue in the Moroccan governmental family planning program and to test modified Situation Analysis instruments for measuring quality of care. Data were collected from 50 service-delivery points in five provinces to measure six elements of quality in accordance with the Bruce/Jain framework. A procedure for calculating quality-indicator scores is presented. Although facilities varied by province and within provinces, most had the equipment and supplies needed to deliver services; service personnel were trained and regularly supervised; the service-delivery points scored well on mechanisms to ensure continuity of use. Notable shortcomings included a dearth of materials for counseling and a widespread unavailability of the Ovrette pill. This study raises issues regarding the complexity of measuring quality, the ownership of results, and the appropriateness of a centralized study of quality in a decentralized program. PMID:7570765

  17. Assessing and improving family planning within reproductive health services.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    Before new contraceptive options are introduced to a family planning program, administrators must ensure that the methods are needed and that the service delivery system can provide them with appropriate quality of care. The UNDP/UNFPA/WHO/World Bank Special Program of Research, Development, and Research Training in Human Reproduction has devised a three-stage research approach to the introduction of fertility regulation methods. This model allows for consideration of factors such as the total mix of methods available, sociocultural factors that influence contraceptive acceptance and use, provider skills and capabilities, and the managerial and logistic systems required for service delivery. Moreover, it calls for the participation of all those affected by method introduction, including policymakers, program managers, women's groups, and young people. Finally. the introduction of a contraceptive method is conceptualized as an opportunity to improve the quality of care associated with the provision of all available methods. PMID:12320516

  18. Expert Group Meeting on Family Planning, Health and Family Well-Being.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    As part of the preparations for the 1994 UN International Conference on Population and Development, an expert group meeting on family planning (FP), health, and family well-being was held in India on October 26-30, 1992. The group focused on the following issues: 1) society and FP, a review of existing FP programs, and the implementation of FP programs (including quality of services and human resources development, unreached populations, adolescent fertility, diffusion of innovative activities, community-based distribution systems and social marketing, and future contraceptive requirements and logistics management needs); 2) FP and health (including safe motherhood and child survival, the interdependence of services, sexually transmitted diseases [STDs], and AIDS); 3) FP and family well-being (including family size, family structure, child development, fertility decline, and family support systems); and 4) the involvement of people in FP programs (community participation, cost of supplies and service, contraceptive research and development, and a reexamination of the roles of various agencies). Both developed and developing countries were considered, with an emphasis on the latter. After reviewing the progress made in implementing the World Population Plan of Action adopted in Bucharest in 1974, the expert group drafted 35 recommendations to governments, donors, and other agencies. Governments are asked to support FP programs as a cost-effective component of a development strategy, to provide opportunities for women to participate in public policy processes, to support the family through public policies and programs, to increase investments in FP and reproductive and maternal and child health, to increase support to the health and education sectors to achieve basic human rights, to provide safe access to counseling and abortion services, and to include STD/HIV education and prevention in the work of FP programs. FP programs should receive support and funding and should involve nongovernment groups in advocacy efforts. They should help individuals achieve their reproductive goals in a voluntary, informed manner. Governments should attempt to set up programs to meet unmet needs and programs should be evaluated periodically. FP programs should respond to community needs and incorporate the user's perspective in the broadest range of services possible. The special needs of adolescents should be served through special confidential programs. Social marketing of contraception should be encouraged to create demand. The involvement and responsibility of men should be encouraged. Information, education, and communication activities should be supported, and population and family life education should be extended and strengthened in formal settings. Nongovernmental organizations should receive support from governments and the international community and should coordinate activities at these levels. Barriers to private sector involvement in FP should be removed, and public/private partnerships should be encouraged. Forecasting of contraceptive requirements should be improved, and the role of the commercial sector in meeting needs should be strengthened. Funding for programs should be increased, and costs should be made as effective as possible. Technical and social service research should receive funding. Utilization of data for program planning should be given higher priority. PMID:12287717

  19. Education's Role in National Development Plans: Ten Country Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, R. Murray, Ed.

    The place education has been assigned in the national development programs of 10 nations is discussed, the problems that these countries have encountered in managing education are examined, and the measures adopted to solve educational problems are assessed. Included are the following papers: (1) "The Nature of National Development Planning" (R.

  20. Education's Role in National Development Plans: Ten Country Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, R. Murray, Ed.

    The place education has been assigned in the national development programs of 10 nations is discussed, the problems that these countries have encountered in managing education are examined, and the measures adopted to solve educational problems are assessed. Included are the following papers: (1) "The Nature of National Development Planning" (R.…

  1. Defining motivational intensity of need for family planning in Africa.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Bernice; Ross, John; Madsen, Elizabeth Leahy

    2014-09-01

    Non-users of contraception differ greatly in their likely motivation to adopt a method or resume use. This study presents a new approach to defining high and low motivation groups by stated intention to use, past use, and unmet need, to determine how these groups differ in characteristics and in region of residence. Data come from 23 DHS surveys in sub-Saharan countries, with representation from the eastern/southern region and western/central region. The low motivation non-users, with less past use and less intention to use in the future, are more rural, less educated, and closer to poverty. Motivational intensity is lower in the western/central region, which contains far fewer intenders than the eastern/southern region and where many more report no past use and no unmet need. When used to guide planning, unmet need should be augmented with motivation, since the two classifications do not entirely overlap. Between 10 and 17% of current non-users of family planning are likely highly motivated to use, but are not captured in the unmet need classification. Program implications for these non-using groups are discussed. PMID:25438510

  2. Family Planning and Preconception Health Among Men in Their Mid-30s: Developing Indicators and Describing Need.

    PubMed

    Casey, Frances E; Sonenstein, Freya L; Astone, Nan M; Pleck, Joseph H; Dariotis, Jacinda K; Marcell, Arik V

    2016-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Healthy People 2020 call for improvements in meeting men's reproductive health needs but little is known about the proportion of men in need. This study describes men aged 35 to 39 in need of family planning and preconception care, demographic correlates of these needs, and contraception use among men in need of family planning. Using data from Wave 4 (2008-2010) of the National Survey of Adolescent Males, men were classified in need of family planning and preconception care if they reported sex with a female in the last year and believed that they and their partner were fecund; the former included men who were neither intentionally pregnant nor intending future children and the latter included men intending future children. Men were classified as being in need of both if they reported multiple sex partners in the past year. About 40% of men aged 35 to 39 were in need of family planning and about 33% in need of preconception care with 12% in need of both. Current partner's age, current union type, and sexually transmitted infection health risk differentiated men in need of family planning and preconception care (all ps < .01) and participants' race/ethnicity further differentiated men in need of preconception care (p < .01). More than half of men in need of family planning reported none of the time current partner hormonal use (55%) or condom use (52%) during the past year. This study identified that many men in their mid-30s are in need of family planning or preconception care. PMID:25389215

  3. Placing Families in Context: Challenges for Cross-National Family Research

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wei-hsin

    2015-01-01

    Cross-national comparisons constitute a valuable strategy to assess how broader cultural, political, and institutional contexts shape family outcomes. One typical approach of cross-national family research is to use comparable data from a limited number of countries, fit similar regression models for each country, and compare results across country-specific models. Increasingly, researchers are adopting a second approach, which requires merging data from many more societies and testing multilevel models using the pooled sample. Although the second approach has the advantage of allowing direct estimates of the effects of nation-level characteristics, it is more likely to suffer from the problems of omitted-variable bias, influential cases, and measurement and construct nonequivalence. I discuss ways to improve the first approach's ability to infer macrolevel influences, as well as how to deal with challenges associated with the second one. I also suggest choosing analytical strategies according to whether the data meet multilevel models’ assumptions. PMID:25999603

  4. The simulated client method: evaluating client-provider interactions in family planning clinics.

    PubMed

    Huntington, D; Schuler, S R

    1993-01-01

    The "simulated client" method was first detailed in the family planning literature in 1985, but it has not been extensively covered since. As used by the authors to study client-provider interactions in family planning programs, this method essentially consists of sending women to a family planning service provider to request information, and interviewing them after the encounter. The women do not reveal to service providers they are participating in the study. This report describes the method; reviews some of the theoretical, ethical, and methodological issues related to it; and underlines its usefulness as a tool for examining quality-of-care issues in family planning programs. PMID:8351699

  5. Meeting demand for family planning within a generation: prospects and implications at country level

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoonjoung; Fabic, Madeleine Short; Hounton, Sennen; Koroma, Desmond

    2015-01-01

    Background In order to track progress towards the target of universal access to sexual and reproductive health care services of the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), a measure (demand for family planning satisfied with modern contraceptive methods) and a benchmark (at least 75% by 2030 in all countries) have been recommended. Objectives The goal of this study was to assess the prospects of reaching the benchmark at the country level. Such information can facilitate strategic planning, including resource allocation at global and country levels. Design We selected 63 countries based on their status as least developed according to the United Nations or as a priority country in global family planning initiatives. Using United Nations estimates and projections of family planning indicators between 1970 and 2030, we calculated percent demand for family planning satisfied with modern contraceptive methods for each year and country. We then calculated the annual percentage point changes between 2014 and 2030 required to meet the benchmark. The required rates of change were compared to current projections as well as estimates between 1970 and 2010. Results To reach the benchmark on average across the 63 countries, demand satisfied with modern methods must increase by 2.2 percentage points per year between 2014 and 2030 – more than double current projections. Between 1970 and 2010, such rapid progress was observed in 24 study countries but typically spanning 5–10 years. At currently projected rates, only 9 of the 63 study countries will reach the benchmark. Meanwhile, the gap between projected and required changes is largest in the Central and West African regions, 0.9 and 3.0 percentage points per year, respectively. If the benchmark is achieved, 334 million women across the study countries will use a modern contraceptive method in 2030, compared to 226 million women in 2014. Conclusions In order to achieve the component of the SDGs calling for universal access to sexual and reproductive health services, substantial effort is needed to accelerate rates of progress by a factor of 2 in most study countries and by a factor of 3 in Central and West African countries. PMID:26562140

  6. 75 FR 43929 - National Weather Service (NWS) Strategic Plan, 2011-2020

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Weather Service (NWS) Strategic Plan, 2011-2020 AGENCY: National Weather Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: The National Weather Service's (NWS) Strategic Plan...

  7. Samish Indian Nation Long-Term Strategic Energy Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Christine Woodward; B. Beckley; K. Hagen

    2005-06-30

    The Tribes strategic energy planning effort is divided into three phases: (1) Completing an Energy Resource Assessment; (2) Developing a Long-Term Strategic Energy Plan; and (3) Preparing a Strategic Energy Implementation Plan for the Samish Homelands. The Samish Indian Nation developed a comprehensive Strategic Energy plan to set policy for future development on tribal land that consists of a long-term, integrated, systems approach to providing a framework under which the Samish Community can use resources efficiently, create energy-efficient infrastructures, and protect and enhance quality of life. Development of the Strategic Energy plan will help the Samish Nation create a healthy community that will sustain current and future generations by addressing economic, environmental, and social issues while respecting the Samish Indian Nation culture and traditions.

  8. Criticality emergency planning at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Green, J.H.; Cain, G.C.

    1983-01-01

    A plan to protect personnel and control the spread of contamination in the event of a radiation accident at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is outlined. Procedures and personnel are presented. (ACK)

  9. Invisible and Visible Language Planning: Ideological Factors in the Family Language Policy of Chinese Immigrant Families in Quebec

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curdt-Christiansen, Xiao Lan

    2009-01-01

    This ethnographic inquiry examines how family languages policies are planned and developed in ten Chinese immigrant families in Quebec, Canada, with regard to their children's language and literacy education in three languages, Chinese, English, and French. The focus is on how multilingualism is perceived and valued, and how these three languages

  10. Yugoslavia: Death of a Nation. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemberger, Beth

    Based on "Zlata's Diary: A Child's Life in Sarajevo" by Zlata Filipovic, this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that historical drama, like other historical fiction, is rooted in history but contains imaginary elements as well; and that the author describes in her diary what it was like to be a teenager in…

  11. Plans for national flood frequency by microcomputer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jennings, M.E.; Cookmeyer, E.N.

    1989-01-01

    Work is underway on a planned microcomputer program that will include about 1500 prediction equations for 214 flood regions of the United States and Puerto Rico. The program will include calculation routines for rural and urban flood frequency and hydrograph characteristics and will have links to a detention-pond routing model.

  12. Book Development in National Communications and Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thapar, Romesh

    In the developing countries of South and Southeast Asia where advancing technologies threaten the stability of traditional societies, books should be used to increase understanding and provide for a smooth transition into a modernized culture. The planning and coordinating of publishing that would serve this purpose demands changes in authorship,

  13. Polish family planning in crisis: the Roman Catholic influence.

    PubMed

    Mrugala, G

    1991-09-01

    Poland is a country that, according to official sources, is 95% Catholic. The Catholic Church (CC) has a great deal of political power for 3 main reasons: 1) a strong Catholic tradition among Polish families, 2) the role of the Polish CC as the main supporter of the political opposition during the communist dictatorship, 3) the Polish Pope serves as an important authority for many Polish people. When democratic freedoms were won 10 years ago, the CC was poised and ready to exercise its considerable influences to further its own agenda. This can be seen in may areas: since last autumn, children receive religious instruction in state run schools, masses from St. Peter's are broadcast each week on state television, scientific congresses are being opened with High Mass and blessings, the armed forces make pilgrimages to the shrine of the Black Madonna of Czestochowa, and there was High Mass and Christmas blessing in the Polish Parliament. The Church is calling for an end of the separation of church and state. The current 1956 abortion law allows free abortions in state funded hospitals in cases of rape, socio-economic, or medical grounds in the 1st trimester. A current senate bill would allow abortion only to save the mother's life. The CC is currently trying to associate this law with the old communist totalitarian dictatorship and likens it to the Nazi Holocaust. In Poland there are 39 million people, and 600,000 abortions with a ratio of 70-100 abortions/100 live births. The main factors influencing this high rate are: 1) no sex education, 2) very low contraceptive use rates, 3) easy access to abortion, 4) CC opposition to contraception. Family planning in Poland is in a crisis that it may not come out of. Abortion, divorce, sex education, and contraception are all opposed by the CC which means that it will use its powerful influence to criminalize these practices. PMID:12284553

  14. National Center for Combating Terrorism Strategic Plan, September 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    2003-09-01

    National Center for Combating Terrorism Strategic Plan is to document the mission, vision, and goals for success; define the build plan; and describe initiatives that support the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Department of Defense, U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Department of Justice, intelligence community, National Governors Association, and other organizations or departments with combating terrorism training, testing, and technology responsibilities.

  15. Learning about the population problem: children's attitudes toward family planning in India.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, S

    1979-03-01

    This research seeks to measure children's awareness of and support for family planning in India, on the premise that they are indications of future fertility behavior. The survey was conducted in June-August 1975 in 6 districts of Andhra Pradesh State, including schools in cities, small towns and villages. The 863 respondents included Hindus and Muslims, various caste groups, 3 language groups, and students in the 6th to 12th classes. Children's awareness of family planning was operationalized through 2 questions: "Have you heard about family planning?" and "Which is better, a big family or a small family?". Results show that 70% had heard of family planning and that approval of family planning is extensive, with only 14% of the sample expressing a preference for large families. Awareness of family planning is clearly correlated in the expected direction with exposure to a modernizing environment, particularly education. Exposure to media and political involvement are also correlated with awareness. Support for family planning is most highly correlated with religion, with Muslim children less approving than Hindu. Party identification and political knowledge are both associated with higher approval. Education and the index of modernity are the only indicators of modernization that correlate with approval. PMID:12156350

  16. Family planning in Santiageo, Chile: the male viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Hall, M F

    1971-07-01

    To obtain the male viewpoint toward family planning in the Chilean population, 561 men (aged 18-54) in Santiago from upper, middle, and lower socioeconomic levels were interviewed on their birth control attitudes and practices and compared with a random probability sample of 240 men from a nearby rural village. Tabulation of the interviews showed that a majority of both unmarried and married men identified themselves as active participants in birth control discussions. Younger husbands tended to have had more experience with contraception than older husbands, and respondents in higher socioeconomic levels showed a greater use of contraception (75%) than men in the lower class or village sample (35%). 23% of those in the village sample who did not use contraception cited reasons such as lack of knowledge and money or fear of harmful effects, while only 2% of the upper class in the urban sample cited such reasons. Approval of abortion for their wives was expressed by around 40% of all respondents. Approval of abortion in general ranged from 81% in cases of probable fetal deformity to 31% in single girls. Questions on sexual relations revealed that the median age for the first sexual intercourse was 16 years. 91% of the unmarried men were sexually active at a median frequence of once every 2 weeks, and contraception, if used, was most frequently oral or male devices. Among married men, sexual relations occurred at a median frequency of once every 4 days, with contraception, if used, most likely being an intrauterine device. All of the respondents tended to favor dissemination of contraceptive information more readily to men than women. Approval of providing this information to single girls was directly related to economic status. The schools were readily accepted as a forum for contraceptive discussion. The father was by far the preferred principal source of information for a son (44%) rather than friends (6%), but the respondents themselves got their information from friends (41%) rather than their fathers (2%). Including single and married men in family planning counseling programs may increase contraceptive use and lower the abortion rate. PMID:5164354

  17. 75 FR 57200 - National Poultry Improvement Plan and Auxiliary Provisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ... regulations in an interim rule effective and published in the Federal Register on September 26, 2006 (71 FR... Poultry Improvement Plan and Auxiliary Provisions AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: We are proposing to amend the National Poultry Improvement Plan (the...

  18. From Physical Activity Guidelines to a National Activity Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Daniel B.; Pate, Russell R.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. National Physical Activity Plan (NPAP) is a comprehensive strategic plan aimed at increasing physical activity levels in all segments of the American population. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the development of the NPAP, provide an update on the status of the NPAP, and comment on the future of the NPAP. The NPAP was released

  19. QUALITY MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR THE NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has taken the lead, in consort with NIH, in developing the Quality Management Plan (QMP) for the National Children's Study (NCS); the QMP will delineate a systematic planning process for the implementation of the NCS. The QMP will state the goals and objectives of the NCS, th...

  20. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory institutional plan: FY 1996--2001

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This report contains the operation and direction plan for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory of the US Department of Energy. The topics of the plan include the laboratory mission and core competencies, the laboratory strategic plan; the laboratory initiatives in molecular sciences, microbial biotechnology, global environmental change, complex modeling of physical systems, advanced processing technology, energy technology development, and medical technologies and systems; core business areas, critical success factors, and resource projections.

  1. Oak Ridge National Laboratory institutional plan, FY 1996--FY 2001

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    This report discusses the institutional plan for Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the next five years. Included in the report are: laboratory director`s statement; laboratory mission, vision, and core competencies; laboratory strategic plan; major laboratory initiatives; scientific and technical programs; critical success factors; summaries of other plans; resource projections; appendix which contains data for site and facilities, user facility, science and mathematic education and human resources; and laboratory organization chart.

  2. Developmental needs and individualized family service plans among infants and toddlers in the child welfare system.

    PubMed

    Casanueva, Cecilia E; Cross, Theodore P; Ringeisen, Heather

    2008-08-01

    This study examines levels of developmental need in young children investigated by child protective services, estimates early intervention service use, and examines need and service use variations during the 5-6 years after investigation on the basis of maltreatment substantiation status. Data were from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, the first nationally representative study of children investigated for maltreatment. The sample comprised 1,845 children aged 0 to 36 months at baseline. Logistic regression with covariate adjustment was used to examine the relationship between having an Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP; a proxy and marker of early intervention services through Part C of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act) and substantiation status. A high prevalence of developmental problems was found among children with substantiated cases and children with unsubstantiated cases. Few children with developmental needs had an IFSP. Substantiation status and level of child welfare system involvement were significantly associated with having an IFSP. PMID:18495948

  3. National Ignition Facility Risk Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Brereton, S.J.

    1997-02-01

    The NIF Risk Management Plan has been prepared in accordance with the DOE Life Cycle Asset Management Good Practice Guide to support Critical Decision 3 of the NIF Project. The objectives of the plan are to: 1) identify the risks to the completion of the Project in terms of meeting technical and regulatory requirements, cost, and schedule, 2) assess the risks in terms of likelihood of occurrence and their impact potential relative to technical performance, ES&H (environment, safety and health), costs, and schedule, and 3) address each identified risk in terms of suitable risk mitigation measures. The documents that form the basis for this risk assessment are as follows: 1. Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Stockpile Stewardship and Management (DOE, 1996a) and Record of Decision (DOE, 1996b), 2. Preliminary Hazards Analysis (Brereton, 1993), 3. Fire Hazards Analysis (Jensen, 1997), 4. Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (LLNL, 1996a), 5. Reliability, Availability and Maintainability Report, 6. Radiation Protection Evaluation, 7. Primary Criteria and Functional Requirements (LLNL, 1996b), 8. Project Execution Plan (DOE, 1996c), 9. Schedule Risk Assessment, 10. Construction Safety Program (LLNL, 1997), 11. Title I Design Media, 12. Congressional Data Sheet. The process used in developing this plan was to form a Risk Assessment team of knowledgeable project personnel. This included: Assurances Manager, Systems Integration Manager, Project Control Manager, a Risk Management consultant, Deputy Associate Project Engineer for Activation and Start-up (Co-chairperson), and Lead Engineer for Safety Analysis (Co-chairperson). They were familiar with the risk basis documents and developed a list of the key risk elements. A methodology for assigning likelihoods, consequences, and risks was developed. Risk elements were then reviewed, and likelihoods, consequences, and risks were assigned. Risk mitigation measures were then developed. Comments were obtained, resolved and incorporated, and this document presents the results of the assessment.

  4. 77 FR 15052 - National Ocean Council-National Ocean Policy Draft Implementation Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ... will inform the preparation of the final plan. Per our prior notice, which was published at 77 FR 2514... QUALITY National Ocean Council--National Ocean Policy Draft Implementation Plan AGENCY: Council on Environmental Quality. ACTION: Extension of comment period. SUMMARY: On July 19, 2010, President Obama...

  5. Family planning for new mothers in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Kantner, A; Westley, S B

    1998-10-01

    From November 1997 to February 1998, a survey was conducted to evaluate postpartum family planning (FP) services in the Philippines. Data were gathered from records at 86 clinics in 28 provinces and from interviews with 338 FP providers and 3452 clients who began to use FP within 6 months of delivery. Only 7% of women began using FP within 6 months of delivery, and most postpartum attention was devoted to child care issues. Among the women surveyed, most resumed sexual intercourse at 2.4 months postpartum and experienced a return of menses at 4.4 months postpartum despite breast feeding for 6.2 months. The most commonly recommended method to space births was the IUD followed by the injectable contraceptive. Very few providers recommended use of barrier methods. The results indicate that many breast-feeding women are receiving hormonal contraceptives too soon and that IUD insertion may not be occurring at the ideal time postpartum. While a significant percentage of providers recommended use of the lactational amenorrhea method (LAM) and 16% of the women relied on it, the providers lacked sufficient understanding of LAM. In addition, many women switched or discontinued methods. The study led to the recommendations that postpartum FP services be promoted as an essential part of maternal-child health care and that FP providers receive improved training about contraception and LAM. PMID:12295250

  6. Reassessing Unmet Need for Family Planning in the Postpartum Period.

    PubMed

    Rossier, Clémentine; Bradley, Sarah E K; Ross, John; Winfrey, William

    2015-12-01

    Despite renewed interest in postpartum family planning programs, the question of the time at which women should be expected to start contraception after a birth remains unanswered. Three indicators of postpartum unmet need consider women to be fully exposed to the risk of pregnancy at different times: right after delivery (prospective indicator), after six months of amenorrhea (intermediate indicator), and at the end of amenorrhea (classic indicator). DHS data from 57 countries in 2005-13 indicate that 62 percent (prospective), 43 percent (intermediate), and 32 percent (classic) of women in the first year after a birth have an unmet need for contraception (40 percent when including abstinence). While the protection afforded by postpartum abstinence and lactational amenorrhea lowers unmet need, further analysis shows that women also often rely on these methods without being actually protected. Programs should acknowledge these methods' widespread use and inform women about their limits. Also, the respective advantages of targeting the postnatal period, the end of six months of amenorrhea/exclusive breastfeeding, or the resumption of sexual intercourse to offer contraceptive services should be tested. PMID:26643487

  7. 78 FR 69127 - Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement/General Management Plan, Biscayne National Park...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ... National Park Service Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement/General Management Plan, Biscayne... Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the General Management Plan, Biscayne National Park... Impact Statement/General Management Plan (Supplemental Draft EIS) for Biscayne National Park...

  8. 76 FR 27344 - Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Mojave National Preserve, San...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... National Park Service Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Mojave National... Prepare a Water Resources Management Plan/ Environmental Impact Statement for Mojave National Preserve... to inform preparation of a Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement...

  9. Planning for the National Electronic Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Brian L.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the idea of a national electronic library as a possible solution to current economic trends in the information industry. Topics addressed include commercial entertainment ventures; the decreasing buying power of library acquisition budgets; the need for free access; government's role; cooperation; serials publications; licensing

  10. Plans for a National Physics Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alt, Franz L.; Herschman, Arthur

    Against a background of widespread interest in national information systems, the American Institute of Physics is developing such a system for physics. This program pivots on the design of a new classification system for physics which is to be used, in conjunction with free-language index terms, for the intellectual organization of the physics…

  11. An Example of National Literacy Strategy Medium-Term Planning. The National Literacy Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department for Education and Skills, London (England).

    These medium-term plans have been produced to support, but not prescribe, teachers' planning. They exemplify ways in which England's National Literacy Strategy (NLS) Framework objectives (and the Early Learning Goals) can be clustered. The Key Stage 1 and Key Stage 2 medium term plans cluster the NLS text, sentence and word level objectives into

  12. National Civil Applications Program: strategic plan vision for 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2004-01-01

    The National Mapping Division (NMD) has developed this comprehensive strategic plan to chart the course of the National Civil Applications Program (NCAP) over the next 5 years. To meet the challenges of the future, the NCAP is changing its program emphases, methods of responding to customer needs, and business practices. The NCAP Strategic Plan identifies the new direction for the program through a series of strategic thrusts and goals for managers to use in formulating plans, establishing program emphases, and determining resource needs and allocations.

  13. Islam and family planning: changing perceptions of health care providers and medical faculty in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Mir, Ali Mohammad; Shaikh, Gul Rashida

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT A USAID-sponsored family planning project called “FALAH” (Family Advancement for Life and Health), implemented in 20 districts of Pakistan, aimed to lower unmet need for family planning by improving access to services. To enhance the quality of care offered by the public health system, the FALAH project trained 10,534 facility-based health care providers, managers, and medical college faculty members to offer client-centered family planning services, which included a module to explain the Islamic viewpoint on family planning developed through an iterative process involving religious scholars and public health experts. At the end of the FALAH project, we conducted a situation analysis of health facilities including interviews with providers to measure family planning knowledge of trained and untrained providers; interviewed faculty to obtain their feedback about the training module; and measured changes in women's contraceptive use through baseline and endline surveys. Trained providers had a better understanding of family planning concepts than untrained providers. In addition, discussions with trained providers indicated that the training module on Islam and family planning helped them to become advocates for family planning. Faculty indicated that the module enhanced their confidence about the topic of family planning and Islam, making it easier to introduce and discuss the issue with their students. Over the 3.5-year project period, which included several components in addition to the training activity, we found an overall increase of 9 percentage points in contraceptive prevalence in the project implementation districts—from 29% to 38%. The Islam and family planning module has now been included in the teaching program of major public-sector medical universities and the Regional Training Institutes of the Population Welfare Department. Other countries with sizeable Muslim populations and low contraceptive prevalence could benefit from this module. PMID:25276535

  14. National Infrastructure Protection Plan: Partnering to Enhance Protection and Resiliency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Homeland Security, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The overarching goal of the National Infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP) is to build a safer, more secure, and more resilient America by preventing, deterring, neutralizing, or mitigating the effects of deliberate efforts by terrorists to destroy, incapacitate, or exploit elements of our Nation's critical infrastructure and key resources (CIKR)…

  15. 76 FR 41273 - National Emergency Communications Plan (NECP) Tribal Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... Register on April 20, 2011, at 76 FR 22114, for a 60-day public comment period. DHS received no comments... SECURITY National Emergency Communications Plan (NECP) Tribal Report AGENCY: National Protection and... Directorate (NPPD), Office of Cybersecurity and Communications (CS&C), Office of Emergency Communications...

  16. Successful Family Planning Programs. Draper World Population Fund Report, No. 4, Summer 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrow, Phyllis T., Ed.

    This publication describes successful family planning programs throughout the world. Discussed in detail are programs in Colombia, Mauritius, Maharashtra, the People's Republic of China, Sri Lanka, and the United States. Photographs illustrate the articles and, in some cases, family planning vital statistics are given. The Draper World Population

  17. Utilizing grassroots workers in family planning programs in India: prospects and problems.

    PubMed

    Mani, S B

    1991-01-01

    In order to rapidly expand the network of delivery systems and speed up the process of acceptance of family planning messages and methods, a shift took place in the Indian family planning program from the bureaucratic "clinical" approach to the people oriented "extension" approach. As a result, there is an increasing emphasis on moving the family planning efforts closer to the grassroots level. A key methodological issue centers on the proper selection, cultural acceptability, and the effectiveness of the grassroots workers who are to be trained and through whom family planning motivational messages and methods are to be introduced. The Indian government, from time to time, has trained and utilized different groups of grassroots workers in its family planning promotional efforts. Anthropological field studies were conducted in two different regions in India to examine the potential and actual roles of two groups of grassroots workers--opinion leaders and traditional birth attendants--in the delivery of family planning services in the rural areas. These studies revealed that while the traditional birth attendants can be trained and utilized to a limited extent in promoting family planning efforts, especially to the eligible female clients, the role of the opinion leaders in such efforts is at best questionable. Based on these field studies, cultural and technical (including bureaucratic) problems in training and utilizing opinion leaders and traditional birth attendants are explored in detail. Modifications in the training program strategies are suggested to improve and expand the family planning delivery system in rural India. PMID:12290156

  18. Concurrent Planning and beyond: Family-Centered Services for Children in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Lucy; Almeida, Connie; Bentley, Dawn; Brown, Josie; Harlin, Daria; Norris, Judy

    2008-01-01

    Family reunification is not always possible for children who have been removed from the care of their biological parents because of abuse or neglect. Concurrent planning puts into place a secondary plan for a permanent home should family reunification prove to be impossible. Working in four diverse communities around the country in an innovative

  19. Mass media exposure and its impact on family planning in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Islam, M M; Hasan, A H

    2000-10-01

    This paper analyses mass media exposure and its effect on family planning in Bangladesh using data from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 1993-94. The findings indicate that radio and television are two important mass media for disseminating family planning information in Bangladesh. However, access to them and exposure to family planning through them are still limited. Slightly more than 40% (42.1%) of respondents reported that they had heard family planning messages via radio, while 17.2% said television, 8.4% said poster and 5.4% said billboard. Respondent's place of residence, education, economic status, geographical region and number of living children appeared to be the most important variable determining mass media exposure to family planning. Multivariate analysis shows that both radio and TV exposure to family planning messages and ownership of a radio and TV have a significant effect on current use of family planning methods. These factors remain significant determinants of contraceptive use, even after controlling socioeconomic and demographic factors. The study reveals that both socioeconomic development policies and family planning programmes with a special emphasis on mass media, especially radio, may have a significant effect on contraceptive use in Bangladesh. The principal policy challenge is to design communications strategies that will reach the less privileged, rural and illiterate people who are by far the majority in Bangladesh. PMID:11075643

  20. Interpretations and Explanations in Discourse: Modes of Advising in Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candlin, C.; Lucas, J.

    A study investigates the roles and frames of reference of a family planning counselor as she offers information and counsel to her client and examines the implications for the training of counselors. First, the ideology of family planning counseling is discussed, focusing on the counselor's need to find an appropriate place on the counseling

  1. Personal and Family Financial Planning: A Resource Manual for Community College Instructors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dettman, Norb; And Others

    This resource manual was designed to improve community college instructors' understanding of personal and family financial planning (PFFP) and to provide them with guidelines for developing and implementing PFFP programs. After introductory material, the manual presents a five-part teaching guide, "Teaching Personal and Family Financial Planning

  2. Non-Participation in a Public Family Planning Program After a Commitment to Participate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Candyce D.; Cole, Steven G.

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain reasons for non-participation in a public family planning program following a commitment to participate. A sample of 650 women who had made appointments at a public family planning clinic were divided into four groups: Post-Partum Kept (PPK), Post-Partum Missed (PPM), Supply Kept (SK), and Supply Missed

  3. Family Planning in Five Continents: Africa, America, Asia, Europe, Oceania. December 1976 Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    This document gives highlights of the family planning situation in many countries of the world. Its purpose is to provide a quick reference source for those who work in family planning. Population statistics are included for five continents and many countries. Data for the continents include population in 1976, projected population in 2000,

  4. Family and Consumer Sciences: A Facility Planning and Design Guide for School Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.

    This document presents design concepts and considerations for planning and developing middle and high school family and consumer sciences education facilities. It includes discussions on family and consumer sciences education trends and the facility planning process. Design concepts explore multipurpose laboratories and spaces for food/nutrition

  5. Looking at the formulation of national biosecurity education action plans

    PubMed Central

    Sture, J.; Minehata, M.; Shinomiya, N.

    2015-01-01

    In order for states to be assured of their compliance with the requirements of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, it is necessary that all those science and policy stakeholders working within that state should be aware of their responsibilities under the Convention. This can only be achieved through a comprehensive national biosecurity education programme. We propose that each state should produce a national biosecurity action plan, with accompanying resources and materials to achieve this. A number of resources are already available online to support states in this challenge. We present a model for a national biosecurity action plan and propose a number of ways in which this may be achieved. PMID:22606763

  6. Determinants of modern family planning use among women of reproductive age in the Nkwanta district of Ghana: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Average contraceptive prevalence rate in the Nkwanta district of Ghana was estimated to be 6.2% relative to the national average at the time, of 19%. While several efforts had been made to improve family planning in the country, the district still had very low use of modern family planning methods. This study sought to determine the factors that influenced modern family planning use in general and specifically, the factors that determined the consistently low use of modern family planning methods in the district. Methods A case–control study was conducted in the Nkwanta district of Ghana to determine socio-economic, socio-cultural and service delivery factors influencing family planning usage. One hundred and thirty cases and 260 controls made up of women aged 15–49 years were interviewed using structured questionnaires. A logistic regression was fitted. Results Awareness and knowledge of modern family planning methods were high among cases and controls (over 90%). Lack of formal education among women, socio-cultural beliefs and spousal communication were found to influence modern family planning use. Furthermore, favourable opening hours of the facilities and distance to health facilities influenced the use of modern contraceptives. Conclusion While modern family planning seemed to be common knowledge among these women, actual use of such contraceptives was limited. There is need to improve use of modern family planning methods in the district. In addition to providing health facilities and consolidating close-to-client service initiatives in the district, policies directed towards improving modern family planning method use need to consider the influence of formal education. Promoting basic education, especially among females, will be a crucial step as the district is faced with high levels of school dropout and illiteracy rates. PMID:25117887

  7. Medical education and family planning: developing future leaders and improving global health.

    PubMed

    Landy, Uta; Blodgett, Madeline; Darney, Philip

    2013-05-01

    Well-trained medical professionals are key to improving global reproductive health and reducing rates of unsafe abortion, but medical training often fails to prepare practitioners to provide essential family planning services. The field of medical education is currently undergoing reformation to better meet the needs of a global population, and comprehensive, integrated family planning training will be an important part of those reforms. Family planning training is not only vital to address global reproductive healthcare demand, but integrates effectively with cornerstones of current medical education reform: competency-based education, leadership development, collaboration with practitioners of all levels, and global health context. Examples of successful integration of family planning education are outlined, and recommendations for integrating family planning into medical education detailed at the 2012 FIGO World Congress are discussed. PMID:23497747

  8. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan FY 2001-2005

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Darrell R.; Pearson, Erik W.

    2000-12-29

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan for FY 2001-2005 sets forth the laboratory's mission, roles, technical capabilities, and laboratory strategic plan. In the plan, major initiatives also are proposed and the transitioning initiatives are discussed. The Programmatic Strategy section details our strategic intent, roles, and research thrusts in each of the U.S. Department of Energy's mission areas. The Operations/Infrastructure Strategic Plan section includes information on the laboratory's human resources; environment, safety, and health management; safeguards and security; site and facilities management; information resources management; managaement procatices and standards; and communications and trust.

  9. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan FY 2000-2004

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, Erik W.

    2000-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan for FY 2000-2004 sets forth the laboratory's mission, roles, technical capabilities, and laboratory strategic plan. In the plan, major initiatives also are proposed and the transitioning initiatives are discussed. The Programmatic Strategy section details our strategic intent, roles, and research thrusts in each of the U.S. Department of Energy's mission areas. The Operations/Infrastructure Strategic Plan section includes information on the laboratory's human resources; environment, safety, and health management; safeguards and security; site and facilities management; information resources management; management practices and standards; and communications and trust.

  10. Curriculum Helps Families Discuss and Plan for Future of Their Woodland or Farm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Withrow-Robinson, Brad; Sisock, Mary; Watkins, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Succession planning is an important step for families owning woodlands and farms that wish to maintain the character of the land and continue the families' connection to it. We introduce Ties to the Land, an educational curriculum that helps families communicate more effectively about the fate of their land and how to transition to future

  11. Transition to Adulthood for Students with Severe Intellectual Disabilities: Shifting toward Person-Family Interdependent Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kyeong-Hwa; Turnbull, Ann

    2004-01-01

    The transition from high school to adulthood is a major life change for most young adults and their families, and generally it is depicted as an especially stressful time for young people with disabilities and their families. Adequate planning is required to address the challenging impact of this stage of life on families. The purposes of this

  12. 45 CFR 286.165 - How is a Tribal Family Assistance Plan amended?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How is a Tribal Family Assistance Plan amended? 286.165 Section 286.165 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL TANF PROVISIONS Tribal TANF...

  13. 45 CFR 286.70 - Who submits a Tribal Family Assistance Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Who submits a Tribal Family Assistance Plan? 286.70 Section 286.70 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  14. 45 CFR 286.70 - Who submits a Tribal Family Assistance Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who submits a Tribal Family Assistance Plan? 286.70 Section 286.70 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  15. Curriculum Helps Families Discuss and Plan for Future of Their Woodland or Farm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Withrow-Robinson, Brad; Sisock, Mary; Watkins, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Succession planning is an important step for families owning woodlands and farms that wish to maintain the character of the land and continue the families' connection to it. We introduce Ties to the Land, an educational curriculum that helps families communicate more effectively about the fate of their land and how to transition to future…

  16. Domestic violence, marital control, and family planning, maternal, and birth outcomes in timor-leste.

    PubMed

    Meiksin, Rebecca; Meekers, Dominique; Thompson, Susan; Hagopian, Amy; Mercer, Mary Anne

    2015-06-01

    Patriarchal traditions and a history of armed conflict in Timor-Leste provide a context that facilitates violence against women. More than a third of ever-married Timorese women report physical and/or sexual domestic violence (DV) perpetrated by their most recent partner. DV violates women's rights and may threaten their reproductive health. Marital control may also limit women's reproductive control and healthcare access. Our study investigated relationships between DV and marital control and subsequent family planning, maternal healthcare, and birth outcomes in Timor-Leste. Using logistic regression, we examined 2009-2010 Demographic and Health Survey data from a nationally representative sample of 2,951 women in Timor-Leste. We controlled for age, education, and wealth. We limited our analyses of pregnancy- and birth-related outcomes to those from the 6 months preceding the survey. Rural women with controlling husbands were less likely than other rural women to have an unmet need for family planning (Adj. OR 0.6; 95 % CI 0.4-0.9). Rural women who experienced DV were more likely than other rural women to have an unplanned pregnancy (Adj. OR 2.6; 95 % CI 1.4-4.8), fewer than four antenatal visits (Adj. OR 2.3; 95 % CI 1.1-4.9), or a baby born smaller than average (Adj. OR 3.1; 95 % CI 1.4-6.7). DV and marital control were not associated with the tested outcomes among urban women. Given high rates of DV internationally, our findings have important implications. Preventing DV may benefit both women and future generations. Furthermore, rural women who experience DV may benefit from targeted interventions that mediate associated risks of negative family planning, maternal healthcare, and birth outcomes. PMID:25480470

  17. Communicating bioastronautics research to students, families and the nation.

    PubMed

    MacLeish, Marlene Y; Moreno, Nancy P; Thomson, William A; Newman, Dava J; Gannon, Patrick J; Smith, Roland B; Denton, Jon J; James, Robert K; Wilson, Craig; Sognier, Marguerite; Illman, Deborah L

    2005-01-01

    The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) is supporting the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) education mission through a comprehensive Education and Public Outreach Program (EPOP) that communicates the excitement and significance of space biology to schools, families, and lay audiences. The EPOP is comprised of eight academic institutions: Baylor College of Medicine, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Morehouse School of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Texas A&M University, University of Texas Medical Branch Galveston, Rice University, and the University of Washington. This paper describes the programs and products created by the EPOP to promote space life science education in schools and among the general public. To date, these activities have reached thousands of teachers and students around the US and have been rated very highly. PMID:15834996

  18. 77 FR 6581 - Winter Use Plan, Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National Park, Idaho...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... National Park Service Winter Use Plan, Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National... prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Winter Use Plan, Yellowstone National Park... 168, Yellowstone National Park, WY 82190, (307) 344-2035. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In January...

  19. Provider Counseling to Young Women Seeking Family Planning Services

    PubMed Central

    Minnis, Alexandra M.; Mavedzenge, Sue Napierala; Luecke, Ellen; Dehlendorf, Christine

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT Contraceptive nonuse and misuse contribute to rates of unintended pregnancy and STDs among young women in the United States. Clinical providers assume an important role in guiding youths contraceptive method choices. METHODS Sixty-seven women aged 1621 were recruited as part of a cohort study, conducted in 20092012, that examined provider-patient interactions during family planning visits at six San Francisco clinics. Interactions between patients and providers were audio-recorded. Participants completed questionnaires about method preference immediately before seeing the provider; they reported on method choice immediately after the visit and by telephone three and six months later. Transcripts were analyzed to examine providers strategies for guiding decision making and addressing youths contraceptive concerns. Missed opportunities for promoting young women's reproductive health were identified. RESULTS Twenty-one percent of young women who did not report desiring a hormonal or long-acting reversible method (IUD or implant) before seeing their provider chose one after counseling. Use of a highly effective (hormonal or long-acting reversible) method at follow-up was more common among women who had received interactive counseling by providers who guided them to consider contextual influences than among those who had not received such counseling. Attention to relationship characteristics, sexual behavior patterns and STD risk was largely absent from contraceptive counseling. CONCLUSION High-quality strategies used by providers to guide contraceptive decision-making were tailored to adolescents developmental and environmental needs. Several areas of counseling require increased attention and seem vital to providing comprehensive reproductive health care to adolescents. PMID:24786186

  20. Association between women's autonomy and family planning outcome in couples residing in Isfahan

    PubMed Central

    Kohan, Shahnaz; Talebian, Ferdos; Ehsanpour, Soheila

    2014-01-01

    Background: One of the important factors in the prediction of family planning outcome is paying attention to women's role in decision making concerning fertility and household affairs. With the improvement of women's status and autonomy, their control over fertility is expected to increase. The present study aimed to investigate the association between women's autonomy and family planning outcome of the couples residing in Isfahan. Materials and Methods: This is cross-sectional study. Two hundred and seventy women of childbearing age, eligible for family planning and residing in Isfahan, were selected through random cluster sampling and they filled a researcher-made questionnaire. Women's autonomy was measured with the questions on their decision-making autonomy concerning household affairs and physical mobility autonomy. The association between women's autonomy and family planning outcome was analyzed through statistical methods. Results: The results showed that the mean of women's decision-making, physical mobility, and general autonomy was 50. Women's autonomy had a direct significant association with the type of contraception method (P = 0.01) and the length of usage of their present contraception method (P = 0.04) as well as where they received family planning services (P = 0.02). Conclusions: Analysis of data revealed women with higher autonomy used a more efficient contraception method and continued their contraception method for a longer time, which leads to improvement of couples family planning outcome. Therefore, family planning services should be planned and provided with women's autonomy under consideration. PMID:25400671

  1. [Family planning programs and birth control in the third world].

    PubMed

    Wohlschlagl, H

    1991-01-01

    The population explosion has been abating since the 2nd half of the 1960s. The birth rate of the 3rd World dropped from 45/1000 during 1950-55 to 31/1000 during 1985-90. From the 1st half of the 1960s to the 1st half of the 1980s the total fertility of such countries dropped from 6.1 to 4.2 children/woman. In Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, and Malaysia living standards improved as a result of industrialization, and fertility decreased significantly. In Sri Lanka, China, North Vietnam, and Thailand the drop of fertility is explained by cultural and religious factors. In 1982 about 78% of the population of developing countries lived in 39 states that followed an official policy aimed at reducing the population. Another 16% lived in countries supporting the concept of a desired family size. However, World Bank data showed that in the mid-1980s in 27 developing countries no state family planning (FP) programs existed. India adopted an official FP program in 1952, Pakistan followed suit in 1960, South Korea in 1961, and China in 1962. In Latin America a split policy manifested itself: in Brazil birth control was rejected, only Colombia had a FP policy. In 1986 the governments of 68 of 131 developing countries representing 3.1 billion people considered the number of children per woman too high. 31 of these countries followed concrete population control policies. On the other hand, in 1986 24 countries of Africa with 40% of the continent's population took no measures to influence population growth. In Latin America and the Caribbean 18 of 33 countries were idle, except for Mexico that had a massive state FP program. These programs also improve maternal and child health with birth spacing of at least 2 years, and the prevention of pregnancies of too young women or those over 40. The evaluation of rapidly spreading FP programs in the 1970s was carried out by the World Fertility Survey in 41 countries. The impact of FP programs was more substantial than socioeconomic factors. Contraceptive use increased in Mexico from 13% in 1973 to 41% in 1978 among women of fertile age. According to 1984 and 1988 UN data modern methods of contraception were used by 70% of women in China, 60-65% in Southeast Asia, Costa Rica, and Puerto Rico. In contrast, less than 5% used them in most countries of Africa, 15-20% in West Asia, 25-30% in South Asia, and 40% in Latin America. The pill was the most popular method. From the early 1980s in South and East Asia 1/5 of women got sterilized after attaining the desired family size. Less than 10% of women used IUDs in developing countries. FP programs have benefited from higher education levels and economic incentives and sanctions and exemplified in Singapore, China, South Korea, Thailand, and Taiwan. PMID:12343122

  2. 77 FR 31215 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ..., Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Dated: May 8... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National..., as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency...

  3. 75 FR 67682 - Sequoia National Forest, California; Sequoia National Forest Plan Amendment, Giant Sequoia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ... Notice of Availability of the Draft EIS (75 FR 47592) for more detailed information related to the Giant...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Sequoia National Forest, California; Sequoia National Forest Plan Amendment, Giant Sequoia National Monument Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Comprehensive...

  4. 77 FR 2514 - National Ocean Council-National Ocean Policy Draft Implementation Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ...; Resiliency and Adaptation to Climate Change and Ocean Acidification: Strengthen resiliency of coastal... QUALITY National Ocean Council--National Ocean Policy Draft Implementation Plan AGENCY: Council on..., President Obama signed Executive Order 13547 establishing a National Policy for the Stewardship of the...

  5. National Biological Service Research Supports Watershed Planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Craig D.

    1996-01-01

    The National Biological Service's Leetown Science Center is investigating how human impacts on watershed, riparian, and in-stream habitats affect fish communities. The research will provide the basis for a Ridge and Valley model that will allow resource managers to accurately predict and effectively mitigate human impacts on water quality. The study takes place in the Opequon Creek drainage basin of West Virginia. A fourth-order tributary of the Potomac, the basin falls within the Ridge and Valley. The study will identify biological components sensitive to land use patterns and the condition of the riparian zone; the effect of stream size, location, and other characteristics on fish communities; the extent to which remote sensing can reliable measure the riparian zone; and the relationship between the rate of landscape change and the structure of fish communities.

  6. Planning for Life. A Compendium of Nationally Recognized Career Planning Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Consortium of State Career Guidance Supervisors, Columbus, OH.

    This compendium, which is designed to provide readers with a variety of career planning (CP) program ideas, contains abstracts summarizing 10 elementary, middle, and high school CP programs identified as exemplary by a national review team. Explained in chapter 1 are the primary objectives of the Planning for Life program, which is jointly

  7. Climate change and family planning: least-developed countries define the agenda

    PubMed Central

    Carver, Louise; Butler, Colin D; Anage, Ababu

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The links between rapid population growth and concerns regarding climate change have received little attention. Some commentators have argued that slowing population growth is necessary to reduce further rises in carbon emissions. Others have objected that this would give rise to dehumanizing “population control” programmes in developing countries. Yet the perspective of the developing countries that will be worst affected by climate change has been almost completely ignored by the scientific literature. This deficit is addressed by this paper, which analyses the first 40 National Adaptation Programmes of Action reports submitted by governments of least-developed countries to the Global Environment Facility for funding. Of these documents, 93% identified at least one of three ways in which demographic trends interact with the effects of climate change: (i) faster degradation of the sources of natural resources; (ii) increased demand for scarce resources; and (iii) heightened human vulnerability to extreme weather events. These findings suggest that voluntary access to family planning services should be made more available to poor communities in least-developed countries. We stress the distinction between this approach, which prioritizes the welfare of poor communities affected by climate change, and the argument that population growth should be slowed to limit increases in global carbon emissions. The paper concludes by calling for increased support for rights-based family planning services, including those integrated with HIV/AIDS services, as an important complementary measure to climate change adaptation programmes in developing countries. PMID:20072771

  8. Unmet Need for Family Planning: Implication for Under-five Mortality in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Odimegwu, Clifford; Imasiku, Eunice Ntwala; Ononokpono, Dorothy Ngozi

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT There are gaps in evidence on whether unmet need for family planning has any implication for under-five mortality in Nigeria. This study utilized 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey data to examine the effect of unmet need on under-five mortality. Cox regression analysis was performed on 28,647 children born by a nationally-representative sample of 18,028 women within the five years preceding the survey. Findings indicated elevated risks of under-five death for children whose mothers had unmet need for spacing [Hazard ratio (HR): 1.60, confidence interval (CI) 1.37-1.86, p<0.001] and children whose mothers had unmet need for limiting (HR: 1.78, CI 1.48-2.15, p<0.001) compared to children whose mothers had met need. These findings were consistent after adjusting for the effects of factors that could confound the association. Findings of this study underscore the need to address the present level of unmet need for family planning in Nigeria, if the country would achieve meaningful reduction in under-five mortality. PMID:25995735

  9. Family Perceptions of Participation in Educational Planning for Children Receiving Mental Health Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jivanjee, Pauline; Kruzich, Jean M.; Friesen, Barbara J.; Robinson, Adjoa

    2007-01-01

    Family participation in educational planning for children with disabilities is believed to result in plans that are more responsive to the child's needs and that lead to better social, emotional, and educational outcomes. Participation in educational planning is also a fundamental right of parents and a cornerstone of special education…

  10. Family Perceptions of Participation in Educational Planning for Children Receiving Mental Health Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jivanjee, Pauline; Kruzich, Jean M.; Friesen, Barbara J.; Robinson, Adjoa

    2007-01-01

    Family participation in educational planning for children with disabilities is believed to result in plans that are more responsive to the child's needs and that lead to better social, emotional, and educational outcomes. Participation in educational planning is also a fundamental right of parents and a cornerstone of special education

  11. Nevada National Security Site Integrated Groundwater Sampling Plan, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Marutzky, Sam; Farnham, Irene

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Integrated Sampling Plan (referred to herein as the Plan) is to provide a comprehensive, integrated approach for collecting and analyzing groundwater samples to meet the needs and objectives of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity. Implementation of this Plan will provide high-quality data required by the UGTA Activity for ensuring public protection in an efficient and cost-effective manner. The Plan is designed to ensure compliance with the UGTA Quality Assurance Plan (QAP). The Plan’s scope comprises sample collection and analysis requirements relevant to assessing the extent of groundwater contamination from underground nuclear testing. This Plan identifies locations to be sampled by corrective action unit (CAU) and location type, sampling frequencies, sample collection methodologies, and the constituents to be analyzed. In addition, the Plan defines data collection criteria such as well-purging requirements, detection levels, and accuracy requirements; identifies reporting and data management requirements; and provides a process to ensure coordination between NNSS groundwater sampling programs for sampling of interest to UGTA. This Plan does not address compliance with requirements for wells that supply the NNSS public water system or wells involved in a permitted activity.

  12. Family Strengths and Youth Behavior Problems: Analyses of Three National Survey Data Bases. Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristin A.

    This document summarizes research on the utility of family strength constructs to predict adolescent behavior problems. Three national survey and interview databases were analyzed for this study, the National Longitudinal Study of Youth-Child Supplement (NLSY-CS), the National Survey of Children (NSC), and the National Survey of Families and…

  13. 3 CFR 8900 - Proclamation 8900 of November 1, 2012. National Family Caregivers Month, 2012

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., and through new initiatives like the National Plan to Address Alzheimer's Disease. These efforts help... United States of America A Proclamation Our Nation's health care professionals provide essential...

  14. Climate adaptation planning in practice: an evaluation of adaptation plans from three developed nations

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, Benjamin L; Westaway, Richard M.; Yuen, Emma J.

    2011-04-01

    Formal planning for climate change adaptation is emerging rapidly at a range of geo-political scales. This first generation of adaptation plans provides useful information regarding how institutions are framing the issue of adaptation and the range of processes that are recognized as being part of an adaptation response. To better understand adaptation planning among developed nations, a set of 57 adaptation plans from Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States was evaluated against a suite of 19 planning processes identified from existing guidance instruments for adaptation planning. Total scores among evaluated plans ranged from 16% of the maximum possible score to 61%, with an average of 37%. These results suggest adaptation plans are largely under-developed. Critical weaknesses in adaptation planning are related to limited consideration for non-climatic factors as well as neglect for issues of adaptive capacity including entitlements to various forms of capital needed for effective adaptation. Such gaps in planning suggest there are opportunities for institutions to make better use of existing guidance for adaptation planning and the need to consider the broader governance context in which adaptation will occur. In addition, the adaptation options prescribed by adaptation plans reflect a preferential bias toward low-risk capacity-building (72% of identified options) over the delivery of specific actions to reduce vulnerability. To the extent these findings are representative of the state of developed nation adaptation planning, there appear to be significant deficiencies in climate change preparedness, even among those nations often assumed to have the greatest adaptive capacity.

  15. Argonne National Laboratory institutional plan FY 2001--FY 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Beggs, S.D.

    2000-12-07

    This Institutional Plan describes what Argonne management regards as the optimal future development of Laboratory activities. The document outlines the development of both research programs and support operations in the context of the nation's R and D priorities, the missions of the Department of Energy (DOE) and Argonne, and expected resource constraints. The Draft Institutional Plan is the product of many discussions between DOE and Argonne program managers, and it also reflects programmatic priorities developed during Argonne's summer strategic planning process. That process serves additionally to identify new areas of strategic value to DOE and Argonne, to which Laboratory Directed Research and Development funds may be applied. The Draft Plan is provided to the Department before Argonne's On-Site Review. Issuance of the final Institutional Plan in the fall, after further comment and discussion, marks the culmination of the Laboratory's annual planning cycle. Chapter II of this Institutional Plan describes Argonne's missions and roles within the DOE laboratory system, its underlying core competencies in science and technology, and six broad planning objectives whose achievement is considered critical to the future of the Laboratory. Chapter III presents the Laboratory's ''Science and Technology Strategic Plan,'' which summarizes key features of the external environment, presents Argonne's vision, and describes how Argonne's strategic goals and objectives support DOE's four business lines. The balance of Chapter III comprises strategic plans for 23 areas of science and technology at Argonne, grouped according to the four DOE business lines. The Laboratory's 14 major initiatives, presented in Chapter IV, propose important advances in key areas of fundamental science and technology development. The ''Operations and Infrastructure Strategic Plan'' in Chapter V includes strategic plans for human resources; environmental protection, safety, and health; site and facilities; security, export control, and counterintelligence; information management; communications, outreach, and community affairs; performance-based management; and productivity improvement and overhead cost reduction. Finally, Chapter VI provides resource projections that are a reasonable baseline for planning the Laboratory's future.

  16. The United States national volcanic ash operations plan for aviation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albersheim, Steven; Guffanti, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    Volcanic-ash clouds are a known hazard to aviation, requiring that aircraft be warned away from ash-contaminated airspace. The exposure of aviation to potential hazards from volcanoes in the United States is significant. In support of existing interagency operations to detect and track volcanic-ash clouds, the United States has prepared a National Volcanic Ash Operations Plan for Aviation to strengthen the warning process in its airspace. The US National Plan documents the responsibilities, communication protocols, and prescribed hazard messages of the Federal Aviation Administration, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, US Geological Survey, and Air Force Weather Agency. The plan introduces a new message format, a Volcano Observatory Notice for Aviation, to provide clear, concise information about volcanic activity, including precursory unrest, to air-traffic controllers (for use in Notices to Airmen) and other aviation users. The plan is online at http://www.ofcm.gov/p35-nvaopa/pdf/FCM-P35-2007-NVAOPA.pdf. While the plan provides general operational practices, it remains the responsibility of the federal agencies involved to implement the described procedures through orders, directives, etc. Since the plan mirrors global guidelines of the International Civil Aviation Organization, it also provides an example that could be adapted by other countries.

  17. The U.S. National Physical Activity Plan

    PubMed Central

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Brownson, Ross C.; Satinsky, Sara B.; Eyler, Amy A.; Kohl, Harold W.

    2016-01-01

    Background The 2010 U.S. National Physical Activity Plan contains a comprehensive set of policies, programs, and initiatives to increase physical activity. Purpose To determine the early awareness, use, diffusion, and implementation of the plan among members of the National Society of Physical Activity Practitioners in Public Health. Methods The web-based survey was conducted in 2011 and analyzed in 20112012. The survey was guided by the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework and Diffusion of Innovations theory. Of 492 professional members, 291 responded. Results Overall, 79% reported awareness of the plan, with higher odds among state practitioners compared to other practitioners and among those with state partnerships to address physical activity compared to those without. Among those who were aware (n=230), 15% reported using the plan ?6 times, while 28% had never used it. For those who referred to the plan at least once in their work (n=165), the most commonly reported uses were for brainstorming and discussion (73%); development and implementation of activities (55%); and state-level goal-setting (34%). Related to diffusion principles, many respondents reported that the plan fit their organizations goals (85%) and was easy to understand (81%), yet fewer agreed that changes made after the plan were easy to observe (32%); easy to implement (28%), and low-cost (25%). Conclusions This theory-based evaluation found that the National Physical Activity Plan has been broadly disseminated to physical activity practitioners working in public health. Opportunities exist for public health practitioners and others to more fully integrate the plan into their work. PMID:23597804

  18. WILDLAND FIRE MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY.

    SciTech Connect

    ENVIRONMENTAL AND WASTE MANAGEMENT SERVICES DIVISION

    2003-09-01

    This Wildland Fire Management Plan (FMP) for Brookhaven National Lab (BNL) and the Upton Ecological and Research Reserve (Upton Reserve) is based on the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (FWS) fire management planning procedures and was developed in cooperation with the Department of Energy (DOE) by Brookhaven Science Associates. As the Upton Reserve is contained within the BNL 5,265-acre site, it is logical that the plan applies to both the Upton Reserve and BNL. The Department of the Interior policy for managing wildland fires requires that all areas managed by FWS that can sustain fire must have an FMP that details fire management guidelines for operational procedures and specifies values to be protected or enhanced. Fire management plans provide guidance on fire preparedness, fire prevention, wildfire suppression, and the use of controlled, ''prescribed'' fires and mechanical means to control the amount of available combustible material. Values reflected in the BNL/Upton Reserve Wildland FMP include protecting life and public safety; Lab properties, structures and improvements; cultural and historical sites; neighboring private and public properties; and endangered and threatened species and species of concern. Other values supported by the plan include the enhancement of fire-dependent ecosystems at BNL and the Upton Reserve. This FMP will be reviewed periodically to ensure the fire program advances and evolves with the missions of FWS, BNL, and the Upton Reserve. This Fire Management Plan is a modified version of the Long Island National Wildlife Refuge Complex Fire plan (updated in 2000), which contains all FWS fire plan requirements and is presented in the format specified by the national template for fire management plans adopted under the National Fire Plan. The DOE is one of the signatory agencies on the National Fire Plan. FWS shall be, through an Interagency Agreement dated November 2000 (Appendix C), responsible for coordinating and implementing prescribed burns and fuel reduction projects in the Upton Reserve. Prescribed fire and fuel reduction in locations outside the Upton Reserve will be coordinated through the Natural Resource Management Program at BNL, and done in consultation with FWS. This FMP is to be used and implemented for the entire BNL site including the Upton Reserve and has been reviewed by FWS, The Nature Conservancy, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Forest Rangers, and DOE, as well as appropriate BNL emergency services personnel.

  19. Planning Now for College Costs: A Guide for Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coopers & Lybrand, Washington, DC.

    Guidance on how to make college affordable, especially for middle-income families, is provided. Although college tuition and fees have more than doubled over the past 10 years and will continue to increase, traditional student aid programs have not kept pace with inflation and are earmarked chiefly for students from low-income families. The

  20. Contraceptive method-mix and family planning program in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hardjanti, K

    1995-01-01

    In Vietnam between 1989 and 1993, the modern contraceptive prevalence rate stopped at 38%. In 1984, the government implemented economic renovation (Doi Moi). This closed agricultural cooperatives which had supported commune health centers. Health workers received either low or no wages, resulting in low morale, absenteeism, and moving to the private sector or agriculture. Most women began using the IUD because it was low cost and easy to monitor, provided long-term protection against pregnancy, and there was a limited supply of oral contraceptives (OCs) and condoms. Condom use fell from 13% in 1984 to 1.4% in 1993. More than 80% of contraceptive users used the IUD. The IUD is not appropriate for many women because of health problems: 60-70% of pregnant women and 80% of parturient women have anemia, 40-60% of women have reproductive tract infections, and sexually transmitted diseases are rising. Vietnam's Prime Minister and the Communist Party are committed to expanding the range of the contraceptive method-mix and choice. Limited method choice is especially a problem in rural areas. It increases the abortion rate. About 38% of abortions supplant modern and traditional family planning methods. Improper counseling, insufficient knowledge, and low promotion of OCs account for the low use of OCs. Inferior quality, aversion by couples, and inaccessibility in most rural areas limit condom use. Women's fear and husband's objection outweigh the government's promotion of sterilization. Providers have limited comprehensive accurate and current knowledge of contraceptives. Health service facilities are concentrated in urban and semiurban areas. The quality of care in rural areas, where there is no clean water supply, is inferior. An annual target used to forecast contraceptive needs risks contraceptive stocks expiring during storage and/or disruptions in supply of users. Consecutive actions to eliminate constraints to use of other methods, developing a community level service delivery system to provide a wide range of methods, and developing specific service delivery systems for specific methods are optional strategies to expand method choice in Vietnam. PMID:12288574

  1. Sandia National Laboratories Institutional Plan FY1994--1999

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This report presents a five year plan for the laboratory. This plan takes advantage of the technical strengths of the lab and its staff to address issues of concern to the nation on a scope much broader than Sandia`s original mission, while maintaining the general integrity of the laboratory. The plan proposes initiatives in a number of technologies which overlap the needs of its customers and the strengths of its staff. They include: advanced manufacturing technology; electronics; information and computational technology; transportation energy technology and infrastructure; environmental technology; energy research and technology development; biomedical systems engineering; and post-cold war defense imperatives.

  2. Marketing Plan for the National Security Technology Incubator

    SciTech Connect

    2008-03-31

    This marketing plan was developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project by the Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University. The vision of the National Security Technology Incubator program is to be a successful incubator of technologies and private enterprise that assist the NNSA in meeting new challenges in national safety and security. The plan defines important aspects of developing the incubator, such as defining the target market, marketing goals, and creating strategies to reach the target market while meeting those goals. The three main marketing goals of the incubator are: 1) developing marketing materials for the incubator program; 2) attracting businesses to become incubator participants; and 3) increasing name recognition of the incubator program on a national level.

  3. DO FAMILY PLANNING PROGRAMS DECREASE POVERTY? EVIDENCE FROM PUBLIC CENSUS DATA

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Martha J.; Malkova, Olga; Norling, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides new evidence that family planning programs are associated with a decrease in the share of children and adults living in poverty. Our research design exploits the county roll-out of U.S. family planning programs in the late 1960s and early 1970s and examines their relationship with poverty rates in the short and longer-term in public census data. We find that cohorts born after federal family planning programs began were less likely to live in poverty in childhood and that these same cohorts were less likely to live in poverty as adults. PMID:25346655

  4. Leadership for Change: National Standards for Family and Consumer Sciences Education. Family and Consumer Sciences Teacher Education. Yearbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, Ann, Ed.; Fox, Wanda S., Ed.; Wild, Peggy, Ed.

    This book contains 27 papers on the development of national standards for family and consumer sciences (FACS) education. The following papers are included: "Leadership for Change: Developing the National Standards" (Peggy Wild); "National Standards Model" (Wanda S. Fox); "Reasoning for Action" (Wanda S. Fox, Janet F. Laster); "Career, Community,

  5. Leadership for Change: National Standards for Family and Consumer Sciences Education. Family and Consumer Sciences Teacher Education. Yearbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, Ann, Ed.; Fox, Wanda S., Ed.; Wild, Peggy, Ed.

    This book contains 27 papers on the development of national standards for family and consumer sciences (FACS) education. The following papers are included: "Leadership for Change: Developing the National Standards" (Peggy Wild); "National Standards Model" (Wanda S. Fox); "Reasoning for Action" (Wanda S. Fox, Janet F. Laster); "Career, Community,…

  6. 3 CFR 8603 - Proclamation 8603 of November 18, 2010. National Family Week, 2010

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... families and their role in building vibrant communities and a strong Nation. My Administration remains... of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act has created more jobs, as well as housing, educational... families will determine our success as a Nation. Families of all kinds can provide a supportive and...

  7. 75 FR 21650 - Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, Biscayne National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... National Park Service Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement... Availability of the Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Coral Reef Restoration Plan... Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the Coral Reef Restoration Plan for Biscayne National Park,...

  8. 78 FR 47003 - Draft National Spatial Data Infrastructure Strategic Plan; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ....S. Geological Survey Draft National Spatial Data Infrastructure Strategic Plan; Comment Request... Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) is soliciting public comments on the draft strategic plan for the National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI). The draft strategic plan, along with instructions for...

  9. Patterns and trends of postpartum family planning in Ethiopia, Malawi, and Nigeria: evidence of missed opportunities for integration

    PubMed Central

    Hounton, Sennen; Winfrey, William; Barros, Aluisio J. D.; Askew, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Background The first 12 months following childbirth are a period when a subsequent pregnancy holds the greatest risk for mother and baby, but also when there are numerous contacts with the healthcare system for postnatal care for mother and baby (immunisation, nutrition, etc.). The benefits and importance of postpartum family planning are well documented. They include a reduction in risk of miscarriage, as well as mitigation of (or protection against) low birth weight, neonatal and maternal death, preterm birth, and anaemia. Objectives The objectives of this paper are to assess patterns and trends in the use of postpartum family planning at the country level, to determine whether postpartum family planning is associated with birth interval and parity, and to identify the health services most closely associated with postpartum family planning after adjusting for socio-economic characteristics. Design Data were used from Demographic and Health Surveys that contain a reproductive calendar, carried out within the last 10 years, from Ethiopia, Malawi, and Nigeria. All women for whom the calendar was completed and who gave birth between 57 and 60 months prior to data collection were included in the analysis. For each of the births, we merged the reproductive calendar with the birth record into a survey for each country reflecting the previous 60 months. The definition of the postpartum period in this paper is based on a period of 3 months postpartum. We used this definition to assess early adoption of postpartum family planning. We assessed variations in postpartum family planning according to demographic and socio-economic variables, as well as its association with various contact opportunities with the health system [antenatal care (ANC), childbirth in facilities, immunisation, etc.]. We did simple descriptive analysis with tabular, graphic, and equiplot displays and a logistic regression controlling for important background characteristics. Results Overall, variation in postpartum use of modern contraception was not affected over the years by age or marital status. One contrast to this is in Ethiopia, where the data show a significant increase in uptake of postpartum contraception among adolescents from 2005 to 2011. There are systematic and pervasive equity issues in the use of modern postpartum family planning by education level, place of residence, and wealth quintile, especially in Ethiopia where the gaps are very large. Disaggregation of data also point to significant sub-national variations. After adjusting for socio-economic variables, the most consistent health sector services associated with modern postpartum contraception are institutional childbirth and child immunisation. ANC is less likely to be associated with the use of modern postpartum family planning. Conclusion Postpartum use of modern family planning has remained very low over the years, including for childbearing adolescents. Our results indicate that improving postpartum family planning requires policies and strategies to address the inequalities caused by socio-economic factors and the integration of family planning with maternal and newborn health services, particularly with childbirth in facilities and child immunisation. Scaling up systematic screening, training of providers, and generation of demand are some possible ways forward. PMID:26562144

  10. The U.S. National Plan for Civil Earth Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stryker, T.; Clavin, C.; Gallo, J.

    2014-12-01

    Globally, the United Sates Government is one of the largest providers of environmental and Earth-system data. As the nation's Earth observation capacity has grown, so have the complexity and challenges associated with managing Earth observation systems and related data holdings. In July 2014, the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy released the first-ever National Plan for Civil Earth Observations to address these challenges. The Plan provides a portfolio management-based framework for maximizing the value of Federal Earth observations. The Plan identifies Federal priorities for Earth observations and improved management of their data. Through routine assessments, expanding data management efforts, interagency planning, and international collaboration, OSTP and its partner agencies will seek ensure the continued provision of and access to key Earth observation data, which support a broad range of public services and research programs. The presenters will provide a detailed review of the components of the National Plan, its impacts across the Federal agencies involved in Earth observations, and associated efforts to enable interagency coordination.

  11. National Risk Management Research Laboratory Strategic plan and Implementation - Overview

    EPA Science Inventory

    This publication provides an overview of the strategic plan recently developed by the National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL). It includes a description of NRMRL's mission and goals and their alignment with Agency goals. Additionally, the overview contains a brief se...

  12. Shock Timing Plan for the National Ignition Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munro, D. H.; Robey, H. F.; Spears, B. K.; Boehly, T. R.

    2006-10-01

    We report progress on the design of the shock timing tuning procedure for the 2010 ignition campaign at the National Ignition Facility. Our keyhole target design provides adequate drive surrogacy for us to time the first three shocks empirically. The major risk to our plan is hard x-ray preheat, which can cause the diagnostic window to become opaque.

  13. 76 FR 22295 - National Poultry Improvement Plan and Auxiliary Provisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection 9 CFR Part 145 RIN 0579-AD21 National Poultry Improvement Plan and Auxiliary Provisions Correction In rule document 2011-6539 appearing on pages 15791-15798 in the issue...

  14. 78 FR 13316 - National Forest System Land Management Planning Directives

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ...The Forest Service has issued proposed directives to Forest Service Handbook (FSH 1909.12) and Manual (FSM 1920) establishing procedures and responsibilities for implementing the National Forest System (NFS) land management planning regulation. Issuance of these proposed directives will provide consistent overall guidance to Forest Service Line Officers and Agency employees in developing,......

  15. 78 FR 23491 - National Forest System Land Management Planning; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... Forest Service 36 CFR Part 219 RIN 0596-AB86 National Forest System Land Management Planning; Correction... Register, on April 9, 2012 (77 FR 21162). DATES: These corrections are effective April 19, 2013. ADDRESSES... Register, page 21162, April 9, 2012, (77 FR 21162) the United States Department of Agriculture...

  16. SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT PLAN FOR A NATIONAL CHEMICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Information Management, Inc., Burlington, MA.

    THE DOCUMENT IDENTIFIES POLICY DECISIONS WHICH MUST BE MADE, SUGGESTS METHODS OF FUNDING, DESCRIBES WORK TO BE DONE, PROVIDES COSTS OF MANPOWER AND EQUIPMENT, AND DELINEATES STEPS FOR IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL CHEMICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM. ONE OF THE FIRST STEPS REQUIRED IS THE APPROVAL OR MODIFICATION OF THIS PLAN. IT THEN BECOMES A GUIDELINE FOR

  17. Wildland Fire Management Plan for Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Green,T.

    2009-10-23

    This Wildland Fire Management Plan (FMP) for Brookhaven National Lab (BNL) updates the 2003 plan incorporating changes necessary to comply with DOE Order 450.1 and DOE P 450.4, Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy and Program Review; Wildland and Prescribed Fire Management Policy and implementation Procedures Reference Guide. This current plan incorporates changes since the original draft of the FMP that result from new policies on the national level. This update also removes references and dependence on the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service and Department of the Interior, fully transitioning Wildland Fire Management responsibilities to BNL. The Department of Energy policy for managing wildland fires requires that all areas, managed by the DOE and/or its various contractors, that can sustain fire must have a FMP that details fire management guidelines for operational procedures associated with wild fire, operational, and prescribed fires. Fire management plans provide guidance on fire preparedness, fire prevention, wildfire suppression, and the use of controlled, 'prescribed' fires and mechanical means to control the amount of available combustible material. Values reflected in the BNL Wildland FMP include protecting life and public safety; Lab properties, structures and improvements; cultural and historical sites; neighboring private and public properties; and endangered, threatened, and species of concern. Other values supported by the plan include the enhancement of fire-dependent ecosystems at BNL. This FMP will be reviewed periodically to ensure the fire program advances and evolves with the missions of the DOE and BNL. This Fire Management Plan is presented in a format that coverers all aspects specified by DOE guidance documents which are based on the national template for fire management plans adopted under the National Fire Plan. The DOE is one of the signatory agencies on the National Fire Plan. This FMP is to be used and implemented for the entire BNL site including the Upton Reserve and has been reviewed by, The Nature Conservancy, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Forest Rangers, and DOE, as well as appropriate BNL emergency services personnel. The BNL Fire Department is the lead on wildfire suppression. However, the BNL Natural Resource Manager will be assigned to all wildland fires as technical resource advisor.

  18. Brookhaven National Laboratory Institutional Plan FY2001--FY2005

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, S.

    2000-10-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory is a multidisciplinary laboratory in the Department of Energy National Laboratory system and plays a lead role in the DOE Science and Technology mission. The Laboratory also contributes to the DOE missions in Energy Resources, Environmental Quality, and National Security. Brookhaven strives for excellence in its science research and in facility operations and manages its activities with particular sensitivity to environmental and community issues. The Laboratory's programs are aligned continuously with the goals and objectives of the DOE through an Integrated Planning Process. This Institutional Plan summarizes the portfolio of research and capabilities that will assure success in the Laboratory's mission in the future. It also sets forth BNL strategies for our programs and for management of the Laboratory. The Department of Energy national laboratory system provides extensive capabilities in both world class research expertise and unique facilities that cannot exist without federal support. Through these national resources, which are available to researchers from industry, universities, other government agencies and other nations, the Department advances the energy, environmental, economic and national security well being of the US, provides for the international advancement of science, and educates future scientists and engineers.

  19. 76 FR 56362 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National... Register. DATES: The proposed rule published on July 15, 2011 (76 FR 41751) is withdrawn as of September 13...-9657; E.O. 12777, 56 FR 54757, 3 CFR, 1991 Comp., p. 351; E.O. 12580, 52 FR 2923; 3 CFR, 1987 Comp.,...

  20. 76 FR 56294 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National... of the direct final action (76 FR 41719) is effective as of September 13, 2011. ADDRESSES.... 12777, 56 FR 54757, 3 CFR, 1991 Comp., p. 351; E.O. 12580, 52 FR 2923; 3 CFR, 1987 Comp., p. 193....