Science.gov

Sample records for national family planning

  1. Navajo Nation expands family planning services.

    PubMed

    Haws, J; Crawford, G

    1996-01-01

    An AVSC training program, conducted in cooperation with the Navajo Nation Family Planning Corporation (NNFPC), has the potential to profoundly affect sterilization provision and acceptability on the Navajo Nation reservation. AVSC trained a family physician from the Northern Navajo Medical Center (New Mexico) in the no-scalpel vasectomy technique. This physician expects to provide 30 such sterilizations in the one-year period following the training and is preparing to teach reservation physicians from other health centers to perform the procedure. In addition, a joint AVSC-NNFPC course on sterilization counseling was presented to 30 nursing staff from the New Mexico Center. Central to this training was consideration of the obstacles to sterilization acceptance posed by Navajo cultural beliefs. Sensitivity to some women's desire to keep the procedure private, due to concerns their husbands will abandon them if they can no longer bear children, and to the potential need to include mothers and grandmothers in counseling sessions, is required. Also salient for female counselors and nurses are cultural taboos against a woman discussing sexual matters with a man with whom she is not intimate. In late 1996, AVSC will provide a sterilization counseling update for all NNFPC counselors working at centers throughout the four-state reservation. PMID:12347635

  2. Population and family planning: the particulars of five nations.

    PubMed

    1974-04-01

    Population and family planning in Brazil, Nigeria, the People's Republic of China, Indonesia, and Romania are discussed. Brazil with a population of 100 million and a growth rate of 3% has no explicit population policies. The importation, advertisement, and sale of contraceptives are prohibited, although oral contraceptives and condoms are sold freely over the counter. The Sociedade de Bem Estar Familiar no Brasil (BEMFAM), a private family planning association, provides family planning services. Illegal abortion is a serious health problem in Brazil. Although Nigeria plans to integrate family planning into the overall health and social welfare program of the country, little has been done to implement this policy. There are 80 million people in Nigeria, the population growth rate is 2.5%, and the groos national product per capita is $140. The main responsibility for providing family planning services rests with the private organization, the Family Planning Council of Nigeria (FPCN). Illegal abortion is a serious problem in Nigeria. China's family planning program is 1 of the most comprehensive and effective in the world. Family planning services are delivered through China's extensive health network. There are an estimated 800 million people in China, and its growth rate is between 1.9% and 2.2%. The gross national product per capita is $160. In Indonesia, the government has launched an ambitious and well-organized family planning program with the Indonesian Planning Parenthood Association (IPPA). The government, which has supported family planning since 1968, has allocated $8 million of its own funds, to be matched with $6 million in foreign assistance for 1974. There are 130 million people in Indonesia, the population growth rate is between 2% and 2 1/2%, and the gross national product per capita is $80. Similar to other East European countries, Romania has an explicit policy of encouraging couples to have more children. Its population is 20 million, the growth rate is 1.1%, and the gross national product per capita is $740. In 1966, the government restricted abortion to medical grounds for women already having 4 or more children. The sale of contraceptives is illegal. There are no organized family planning activities, but contraceptive services are available at some hospitals. PMID:12276745

  3. [Family planning. A survey of United Nations around the world].

    PubMed

    1974-01-01

    Responses to the second worldwide survey of 80 nations on their population policy can be divided into 3 categories. First are countries with large official programs of family planning in existence: Egypt, Kenya, Tunisia, Barbados, Colombia, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago, China, India, Iran, Japan, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Republic of Viet-nam, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Turkey, Denmark, Netherlands, United Kingdom, Yugoslavia, Canada, and Fiji. Madagascar and New Zealand are starting programs. The second category is countries that encourage private family planning programs: Tanzania, Mexico, Israel, Cambodia, Bahrain, Jordan, Laos, Syria, Austria, France, West Germany, Finland, and Norway. Third are listed countries that do not officially support, or that forbid contraception: Gabon, Malawi, Zambia, Greece, Italy, and Spain. Thus Asia and North Africa have the most ambitious programs, but Europe and North America practice contraception universally. PMID:12257583

  4. Profile: the National Documentation Centre for Family Planning of India's National Institute of Health and Family Welfare.

    PubMed

    1991-12-01

    In 1974, the National Documentation Centre for Family Planning was founded at India's National Institute of Health and Family Welfare with funds from the government and the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) to provide reliable population information to policy makers, planners, administrators for program development as well as to academics, researchers, students, and social workers engaged in population issues. Data collected from states and districts by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare are disseminated through publications. The Centre receives documents from other Indian research entities and from foreign bodies. The existing collection consists of 40,000 books and monographs, 10,000 periodicals and journals, 450 current journals, 2000 institutional publications, 1000 annual reports, and 5000 fugitive material items. A data base containing this collected material has the purpose of generating various publications, and full copies of originals are provided at request. WHO designated the Centre a resource center for primary health care information. It is a linchpin of the Asia-Pacific POPIN network. Requests are frequent for information on family welfare program management. Dissemination includes information packages, annotated bibliographies, synthesized information, case studies, and field experience reports. The staff includes subject specialists, communication experts, and software and management specialists. 54 health and family welfare training centers have been involved in information activities since 1985. Exchange of information with population research centers has started by means of computer networking. Local area networks are developed with science libraries of major cities. DELNET (Delhi Library Network) launched a resource-sharing effort of health and family planning libraries. The creation of a National Population Information Database is also planned by the establishment of POPIN-India. PMID:12286547

  5. National Needs of Family Planning Among US Men Aged 15 to 44 Years

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Susannah E.; Choiriyyah, Ifta; Sonenstein, Freya L.; Astone, Nan M.; Pleck, Joseph H.; Dariotis, Jacinda K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To estimate national need for family planning services among men in the United States according to background characteristics, access to care, receipt of services, and contraception use. Methods. We used weighted data from the 2006–2010 National Survey of Family Growth to estimate the percentage of men aged 15 to 44 years (n = 10 395) in need of family planning, based on sexual behavior, fecundity, and not trying to get pregnant with his partner. Results. Overall, 60% of men were in need of family planning, defined as those who ever had vaginal sex, were fecund, and had fecund partner(s) who were not trying to get pregnant with partner or partner(s) were not currently pregnant. The greatest need was among young and unmarried men. Most men in need of family planning had access to care, but few reported receiving family planning services (< 19%), consistently using condoms (26%), or having partners consistently using contraception (41%). Conclusions. The need for engaging men aged 15 to 44 years in family planning education and care is substantial and largely unmet despite national public health priorities to include men in reducing unintended pregnancies. PMID:26890180

  6. Measurement and evaluation of national family planning programs.

    PubMed

    Mauldin, W P

    1967-03-01

    RESUMEN: En los últimos quince años diez paises han inaugurado programas nacionales de planeamiento familiar: India, Pakistán, Corea del Sur, Taiwan, Turquía, Malasia, Ceilán, Túez, la República Arabe Unida, y Marruecos. Otros paises, incluyendo Tailandia, Hong Kong, Singapur, Kenya, Barbados, Trinidad y los Estados Unidos, apoyan y/o estimulan actividades de planeamiento familiar. En la mayor parte de los casos la razón fundamental del programa ha sido que si la tasa de crecimiento poblacional disminuyera, aumentaría la tasa de crecimiento económico.Las metas de largo alcance, expresadas típicamente en términos de reducir las tasa.de de natalidad o de crecimiento, tienen su ejemplo en el propósito de Pakistán de reducir su tasa de crecimiento a 26 para 1970; el de Corea de reducir su tasa de natalidad a 20 para 1971; y el de India de reducir su tasa de natalidad a 25 para 1973.Los objectivos intermedios, que cubren diversos aspectos del pro grama, incluyen metas específicas para un determinado mes a año, considerando personal, la adquisición de anticonceptivos, y el número de usarios por método. Las metas específicas anuales de aceptantes de dispositivos intrauterinos (IUD), para Taiwán, Corea, Túnez, Pakistán e India, son comunes, tanto por la naturaleza del artefacto, como por la facilidad de medición de los que continúan utilizándolos. El programa de evaluación en Taiwán, que trata de medir por diversos medios los efectos inmediatos, mediatos y de largo plazo del programa de planeamiento familiar sirve de modelo. El propósito de la evaiuación de un programa de planeamiento familiar es contribuir a la efectividad y eficiencia del programa, midiendo y analizando su progreso. Las áreas a medir pueden ser clasificadas como- (1) conocimiento acerca de; (2) actitudes hacia; (3) práctica de control de natalidad; y (4) nivel de fecundidad.Un buen sistema de evaluación debería incluir: A. Un buen conjunto de estadísticas de servicio presentadas en formularios estandarizados, en las siguienies formas: 1. Informes nensuales por áreas administrativas, sobre los actuales servicios de planeamiento familiar proporcionados en la actualidad, de carácter permanente o de larga duración (al presente, esterilización y IUD de acuerdo a las siguientes características del receptor: residencia, edad, paridad (número de hijos vivos por sexo), y donde se enteró del programa, si es posible "clase";(probablemente educación de la madre, pero posiblemente ocupación del esposo, ingreso, o equivalente); prácticas anticonceptivas anteriores; intervalo; y deseo de tener más hijos. En un programa grande estos datos pueden obtenerse en base a una muestra. 2. Informes mensuales sobre la distribución de suministros anticonceptivos (condones, píldoras, sustancias efervescentes, etc.), los primeros suministros deben ir acompañados de un registro de las características del recipiente, como anteriormente; los suministros subsecuentes se regietrarán sólo en volumen bruto. Esto también se aplicará al ritmo, donde éste método se enseñe a un número considerable de mujeres. 3. Informes regulares sobre las actividades de planeamiento familiar de médicos privados, como una estimación del efecto catalítico del programa del gobierno sobre ci sector privado. 4. Datos generates mensuales, ppr áreas admirtistrativas importantes, sabre: visitas domiciliarias, reuniones, cuñas radiates y televisadas, avisos en los periódicos y personal que trabaja. 5. Para propósitos de seguimiento una entrevi eta de campo cada 6 a 12 meses a cada N mujer de las listas para (1) y (2) arriba, en un total de 300 o 400, para conocer las tasas de continuación y las razones de abandono (ej: desea otro hijo, insatisfecha can ci método, otras). Las mue.stras podrían ser de 300 cada una, con una supuesta experiencia de 6, 12, 18 y 24 meses. B. Un buen conjunto de datos sobre costa (datos sobre cotos actulaes atribuíbles directamente al programa de planeamiento familiar) fraccionados par áreas principales y cinco a seis categorías de costos importantes tales coma: adminietración, personal de campo, publicidad, suministros, etc. C. Un buen conjunto de dates globales sobre la distribución de los suministros comerciales que puedan llegar tan cerca como sea posible del último consumidor, to cual significa probablemente obtener información de los mayoristas. D. Una encuesta de conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas (KAP) para una evaluación general cada dos años. Las preguntas básicas (además de las antes mencionadas y estatus marital y étnico cuando sea pertinente) son: actitud hacia e interés por la anticoncepción, número de niños por sexo, deseo de tener más hijos, prácticas anticonceptivas, experiencia sobre abortos, tal vez historia de embarazo (especialmente si esta producirá una tasa de fecundidad válida), aprobación del programa gubernamental (para uso politico), y si está actualmente embarazada (la única y mejor pregunta cuya respuesta habla del efecto sobre la tasa de natalidad). Administrativamente, la responsabilidad por la evalucion debe estar cerca al director, se debe tomar provisiones para obtener informes regulares (meneulaes) y especiales dirigidos a preguntar sobre política. El corolario es que el jefe de evaluación debe tener la confianza del director y debe estar al día en cuanto a las decisiones sabre la politics a seguir. Su trabajo consiste en extractar los aspectos principales que funcionan bien y los no operantes. En cuanto a costos, la evaluación debe hacerse sobre no más del 10 par ciento del costa del programa en paises pequeños (de menos de 30 milliones) y sabre no más del 5 per ciento en paises más grandes.Para medir en que forma el programa satisface el criterio final-la magnitud en que cambia la fecundidad-se debe realizar un trabajo más elaborado en el centro (Universidades, Consejos de población, etc.) para desarrollar una forma (a formas) segura de traducir las estadísticas de servicio en práticas y tal vez aún datos sobre suministro comercial en datos sabre tasas de natalidad. Esto incluye, par ejemplo, los esfuerzos para consolidar observaciones coma "cinco años-mujer de usa de IUD, a 400 condones equivalen a la prevención de un nacimiento," y esfuerzos como los de Pakistán de calcular tasas coma "años de protección de una pareja contra el embarazo."In the belief that a decrease in the rate of population growth will increase economic development, more than ten countries have inaugurated family planning programs in the past fifteen years. To provide a model for measuring the immediate, intermediate, and long-term effects of any such program, the authors use the Taiwan evaluation.The model suggests that a good system of evaluation should include monthly statistics on (1) participants, who are grouped by characteristics; (2) the distribution of supplies, reported at first by the characteristics of recipients, but after by gross volume only; (3) family planning activities of private physicians to measure the catalytic effect on the private sector; (4) new contacts and amount of advertising in mass media; (5) costs broken down by areas and by cost categories; and (6) distribution of commercial supplies. In addition, the program should conduct 300-400 interviews every 6-12 months to learn the rates of continuation and the rates and reasons for discontinuation. Finally, a KAP survey should be conducted every two years.The administration of the evaluation should be close to the director for policy decisions and for the ultimate work of evaluation-the finding of new ways to measure the main goal of change in fertility by the translation of statistics on Services provided and commercial supplies into birth rate data. PMID:21279762

  7. The National Reporting System for Family Planning Services--a new look.

    PubMed

    Dryfoos, J G

    1980-01-01

    The National Reporting System for Family Planning Services may be dismantled or further weakened, making the program less visible and less accountable. A strengthened, full-count system is needed, making efficient use of the 42 intermediate data systems that are now in place. PMID:7439342

  8. Aiming for quality in Iran's national family planning program - two decades of sustained efforts.

    PubMed

    Eslami, Mohammad; d'Arcangues, Catherine

    2016-03-01

    The Iranian family planning program was relaunched in 1989 to improve maternal and child health. As coverage was extended throughout the country, it had the challenge to achieve harmonization and improve and maintain quality of care. Five strategies were put in place: (1) expand the method mix, (2) standardize provider training through the adoption of national norms and guidelines, (3) facilitate and harmonize service provision, (4) improve integration of family planning in family health services and (5) address myths and misconceptions surrounding contraception in the general population. This was supported by regular monitoring and evaluation. To date, this program is regarded as one of the most successful programs worldwide. While the direct impact of these quality improvements is difficult to evaluate, it is believed to have built the trust that family planning clients place in the program. Challenges remain, particularly facing a total fertility rate below replacement level nationally and providing quality services to an ever-growing peri-urban population. PMID:26593406

  9. Use of Services for Family Planning and Infertility, United States, 1982. (Data from the National Survey of Family Growth, Series 23, No. 13).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Marjorie C.; Mosher, William D.

    1986-01-01

    The National Survey of Family Growth is a periodic survey conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics, and designed to produce national estimates of statistics on fertility, family planning, and aspects of maternal and child health that are closely related to childbearing. This report presents statistics based on data collected in the…

  10. Effective family planning programs.

    PubMed

    Rosenfield, A G

    1973-01-01

    Organizational and content features of various national family planning programs are reviewed. The Thai program is cited as an example of a family planning program organized on a massive unipurpose compaign basis. The Korean and Taiwan programs have utilized special field workers while upgrading the general health care network. 3 major problems with family planning programs are: 1) the lack of experience with such programs; 2) lack of commitment at the highest political levels; and 3) medical conservatism. Utilization of all available contraceptive methods instead of reliance on 1 method would improve most programs. Nursing and auxiliary personnel could be trained to take over the work of physicians in family planning programs. This is already being done with IUD insertion and pill prescription in several programs. The postpartum tubal ligation approach has proven effective and should be extended. There is a place in all national programs for both the private and the commercial sectors. Incentives for clinics, personnel, and acceptors might spread family planning more rapidly. PMID:12309877

  11. A family planning paradigm.

    PubMed

    Meldrum, A

    1994-01-01

    800 government-employed family planning community-based distributors distributed the pill throughout Zimbabwe's rural areas. The door-to-door service is one of the main factors that make Zimbabwe's family planning program successful. Zimbabwe boasts a contraceptive prevalence rate of 43% of adult women, considerably higher than Africa's average of 14%. This has caused Zimbabwe's total fertility rate to decline from 6.7 at Zimbabwe's independence (1980) to 5.3 in 1994. The total fertility rate for sub-Saharan Africa is 6.5. At independence, Zimbabwe's annual population growth rate was more than 3% and now it is down to 2.3%. Through the Zimbabwe National Family Planning Council, the government pays the salaries of the roving rural distributors. It is estimated that the government bears more than half the cost of the family planning council's budget of $2.5 million. During the war to end white minority rule in the 1970s, President Robert Mugabe's Zimbabwe African National Union was adamantly opposed to the population control efforts. However, in 1985, the shift toward encouraging smaller families was endorsed at the national convention of Mugabe's party. In 1981, about 14% of women were using modern contraceptive methods. By 1988, up to 36%, and a new survey shows that 45% are currently using contraceptives. The family planning council has also launched a Male Motivation Campaign enlisting endorsements from Zimbabwe's popular national soccer team. Zimbabwe has seen a dramatic increase in condom use as a protective measure against AIDS. Currently more than 800,000 Zimbabweans are HIV positive. There are some opponents to Zimbabwe's encouragement of family planning, chiefly the Roman Catholic Church, which claims about 1 million adherents in Zimbabwe. A full range of birth control methods is offered by the family planning council, including diaphragms, IUDs, injectables, implants, and surgical tubal ligations. The pill is used by more than 70% of Zimbabwean women overall and about 85% of rural women who use birth control. PMID:12291432

  12. [Family planning in China].

    PubMed

    Suyin, H

    1972-01-01

    Family planning in People's Republic of China between 1956 to 1970 has been marked by rapid change and total interrelation with the political and social developments. Since 1949, the Communist government has taken several measures to protect the mother and child. The campaign for family planning was started in 1956 by public meetings, posters, lectures with films, and an extensive distribution of contraceptive means. However, in 1965 there were still 2 trends among women: 1, based on tradition, supported the idea that a large number of children was a source of honor, prosperity and security; the other taking hold among younger women was in favor of family planning. The rural population was the latest to start practicing family planning. In 1963 a movement of socialist education was launched together with the formation of mobile medical teams to inform and educate people all over the country and to make known the various forms available for family planning. The contraceptive methods used included: male and female sterilisation (vasectomy for men and tube ligation for women), IUD, and condom; abortion, legal for women who already had children or if it was necessary for the mother's health; and oral contraceptives, which were produced in China. Medical services were reorganized and teams of "bare-foot doctors" were sent all over China. They lectured on health measures and fertility regulation. Intellectuals were sent to live in villages and exchange their knowledge with that of the peasants and workers. The tendency has been to limit the number of children to 2 or 3. The young people are recommended to postpone their marriage, women till they are 25, men till later. Nationally produced contraceptive means are being experimented with such as herbs, or a new intrauterine plastic device called "flower". The regions with national minorities like Tibet, the Inner Mongolia and Sinkiang had been under underpopulated and therefore population growth has been encouraged mainly by trying to irradicate diseases. PMID:12306192

  13. Family planning through rural banking.

    PubMed

    Vergara, M

    1976-02-01

    Through the rural banking network, the National Population Program of the Philippines estimates it could reach more than 500,000 clients annually. Rural bankers could be uniquely instrumental in motivating people in their community to become family planning acceptors. The program of one such rural bank family planning program is described in detail. PMID:12334234

  14. [Changing pattern of National Family Planning and Fertility Survey in Korea].

    PubMed

    Kim, S K; Kong, S K

    1991-12-01

    The authors review the evolution since the 1960s of South Korea's family planning and fertility survey programs. "In the 1960s, research was interested in respondents' contraception knowledge and practice rate and in the relationships between contraceptive knowledge and the practice rate....[The] major research emphasis in the 1970s and 1980s was measuring fertility and finding obstacles or problems to family planning projects." Recommendations for future research are made. (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12179747

  15. Family Health and Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This document is made up of a selection of some of the papers distributed to participants in courses on "Family Health and Family Planning" which have been organized each year since 1973 by the International Children's Center and the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. Six courses, held between 1973 and 1978, brought together a

  16. Family Health and Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This document is made up of a selection of some of the papers distributed to participants in courses on "Family Health and Family Planning" which have been organized each year since 1973 by the International Children's Center and the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. Six courses, held between 1973 and 1978, brought together a…

  17. An important family planning programme.

    PubMed

    1995-04-01

    In January 1995, the central government of China endorsed the State Family Planning Commission's National Family Planning Programme (1995-2000). This five-year plan will direct implementation of the program during the 1990s. China is now experiencing unbalanced socioeconomic development, thereby hindering passage of a uniform national family planning law. Still, China is doing much to improve the family planning program and to eliminate harsh, inappropriate, or bad practices at the local level, practices which may go against the principle of voluntary participation. The new National Family Planning Program is a transitional phase that will standardize and direct family planning implementation during the end of the 1990s. It has 10 parts and 40 subpoints. Part one covers current population successes: reducing fertility, slowing population growth, improving the quality of life, diminishing the pressures of population on resources and the environment, and improving women's status. Part two addresses tasks and goals: to lower the rate of natural increase to less than 10/1000 by 2000 and to limit the size of the total population to 1.23 billion by the end of 1995 and to 1.3 billion by 2000. The remaining eight parts are strategies to achieve the goals. A theme that is mentioned more than once among the strategies is dependence on the use of information, education, and communication (IEC) to achieve the goals. Some other themes addressed were rural areas, scientific research, management of population and family planning programs, funding, and training. PMID:12346288

  18. The Progress of Nations: The Nations of the World Ranked Acording to Their Achievements in Health, Nutrition, Education, Family Planning, and Progress for Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Peter, Ed.

    This report documents the progress made in developing and developed nations to improve health, nutrition, education, family planning, and the condition of women over the last 40 years. It presents tables that rank the world's nations and regions on: (1) the mortality rate of children under 5 years of age; (2) the percent of children under 5 years…

  19. [Paper on sterilization in the family planning programs of Colombia: a national debate].

    PubMed

    Rizo, A; Roper, L

    1986-01-01

    During 1984, family planning became the object of heated public debate in Colombia. In particular, considerable controversy surrounded the practice of sterilization. In Colombia in 1980, 49% of married women were practicing family planning. The main protagonist has been Profamilia, an IPPF affliate, which runs clinics and advisory services throughout Colombia. Sterilization is performed quite extensively on men of at least 28 years and women of 25 with 3 living children. Further activities of Profamilia include community distribution and social marketing programs. Many of the health facilities used are those of the Ministry of Public Health. The Minister of Health responded to criticism levelled by the Catholic church and others by instituting an investigation into alleged practices of mass sterilization. Profamilia declared publicy that sterilization was performed only under certain conditions, after waiting periods, and under no circumstances with coersion. Various groups including medical associations publicy supported Profamilia. Although recognizing the need for families to be limited in size, religious and other commentators suggested that sterilization was often presented as a solution to family ills, and that it represented foreign involvement in Colombian social policy. The opposing opinions were that church-supported natural family planning was not an effective enough strategy. The ministry has resolved to invoke more stringent screening of women desiring sterilization to include natural family planning in its programs, and to deal with international organizations only on the ministry level. The number of sterilizations has diminished. The controversy helped to expose political weaknesses of Profamilia's programs (e.g. the use of monetary incentives; lack of supervision). PMID:12267932

  20. State of family planning.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Courtney A; Traxler, Sarah

    2015-06-01

    Family planning and reproductive health services are uniquely impacted by policy and politics in the United States. Recent years have witnessed an unprecedented number of abortion restrictions, and research funding has decreased in related areas. Despite this, both the science and the implementation of improved family planning and abortion methods have progressed in the past decade. This article reviews the current state of family planning, as well as technologies and patient care opportunities for the future. PMID:25860324

  1. India's misconceived family plan.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, J L

    1991-01-01

    India's goal of reducing the national birth rate by 50% by the year 2000 is destined to failure in the absence of attention to poverty, social inequality, and women's subordination--the factors that serve to perpetuate high fertility. There is a need to shift the emphasis of the population control effort from the obligation of individual women to curtail childbearing to the provision of the resources required for poor women to meet their basic needs. Female children are less likely to be educated or taken for medical care than their male counterparts and receive a lower proportion of the family's food supply. This discrimination stems, in large part, from parents' view that daughters will not be able to remunerate their families in later life for such investments. The myth of female nonproductivity that leads to the biased allocation of family resources overlooks the contribution of adult women's unpaid domestic labor and household production. Although government statistics state that women comprise 46% of India's agricultural labor force (and up to 90% of rural women participate in this sector on some basis), women have been excluded systematically from agricultural development schemes such as irrigation projects, credit, and mechanization. In the field of family planning, the Government's virtually exclusive focus on sterilization has excluded younger women who are not ready to terminate childbearing but would like methods such as condoms, diaphragms, IUDs, and oral contraceptives to space births. More general maternal-child health services are out of reach of the majority of poor rural women due to long distances that must be travelled to clinics India's birth rate could be reduced by 25% by 2000 just by filling the demand for quality voluntary family planning services. Without a sustained political commitment to improve the status of women in India, however, such gains will not be sustainable. PMID:12284385

  2. Family planning services -- what's new.

    PubMed

    Furedi, A

    1993-01-01

    The UK's Department of Health listed the following goals in its Health f the Nation report: reduction in the number of unplanned pregnancies, provision of effective family planning services, and an at least 50% reduction in the number and rate of pregnancies girls younger than 16 by the year 2000. The report did not specify, however, how to achieve these goals. Clinics in many areas provide poor family planning services. For example, in a recent overview, 49.6% of UK clinics had no more than 1 family planning clinic a week. Just 54% had evening clinics. Less than 3% had a session on the weekends. Often women who prefer to go to a family planning clinic for contraceptive advice rather than to a general practitioner (GP) cannot use the family planning clinics. Teenagers often prefer a family planning clinic because they fear that the GP will not guard their confidentiality or they are uncomfortable talking with the physician who managed their childhood conditions. That there are few clinic sessions is particularly a problem in rural areas, where women depend on buses. King's Healthcare's family planning services has lost 1 physician and 2 clinic sessions, even though the abortion rate in the Camberwell area of south London is very high. Further, 5 more clinics will drop family planning sessions. Funding has been cut to the southeast London's family planning training unit, as have staff hours at other clinics. The number of physicians at all sessions, have been reduced from more than 1 physician to just 1. The Department of Health plans on including contraceptives on a list of drugs and devices for which the National Health Services [NHS] will not longer pay. The more expensive oral contraceptives are expected to be on the list. Excluding contraceptives from NHS payment will likely increase the number of unplanned pregnancies. On the positive side, the Department of Health has increased support for youth projects and funding for abortion services. PMID:12222517

  3. Nationalism, race, and gender: the politics of family planning in Zimbabwe, 1957-1990.

    PubMed

    West, M O

    1994-12-01

    In line with a general tendency of nationalists to hold pro-natalist views, African nationalists in Zimbabwe took a hostile position to family planning upon its introduction in 1957, arguing that it was part of a conspiracy to control the black population. However, it was only after the unilateral declaration of independence in 1965 by the white settlers under Ian Smith that an official policy aimed at reducing African fertility emerged. The African nationalists waged a consistent propaganda campaign against this policy, and the facilities that were established under it, as well as their personnel, became military targets during the guerrilla war in the late 1970s. After independence in 1980, the triumphant nationalists tried to maintain their pro-natalist position. But, with a postwar 'baby boom' pushing the birth rate close to four per cent by the mid-1980s, the officials in charge of economic and social development concluded that society could not sustain such a high fertility rate. Consequently, there was a reversal of policy, and by 1990 Zimbabwe had become an internationally recognized leader of family planning among developing countries. For the most part, however, these changes have taken place without any real input by African women, who remained largely excluded from the male-dominated circles in which decisions about family planning were made. PMID:11639476

  4. Family planning in industrial units.

    PubMed

    1970-01-01

    The Family Planning Association of Pakistan conducted a survey of existing Family Planning Services in industrial units in cooperation with the Government of Pakistan, Family Planning Division. In East Pakistan the Association in cooperation with the Family Planning Council selected 3 areas for this survey, in Khulna a Jute Mill, in Sylhet a Tea Estate, and in Naryangnaj (a suburb of Dacca), a cotton mill. The purpose of the survey was to ascertain the extent of the knowledge, attitude, and practice of family planning in an industrial sample in the context of the national family planning program. A further objective was to explore the possibilities of establishing family planning motivational centers in industrial units. This was the first study of its kind undertaken in Pakistan. Monogamy is the practice among the industrial laborers. 83.99% of the respondents married once only, and 97.4% have 1 wife currently with them. The mean number of years of married life is 12.88 years. The estimated mean age of all respondents is 37.2 years. At present the mean number of living children is 4.08, 2.13 boys and 1.95 girls. The desired number of children is 4.35, 1.76 girls and 2.59 boys. 69.98% of the respondents have knowledge of family planning, and level of education is closely associated. Vasectomy is the best known method followed by tubal ligation. Of the 1349 respondents, 735 or 55.97% were in favor of family planning. Only 54 persons or 4% are currently using family planning methods. It is clear from the survey that a great number of laborers are aware of the family planning program. They are also aware of the family planning methods, their uses, and their necessity. On the basis of the findings the establishment of motivational centers with full family planning services in 3 industrial units is recommended. Registration of the eligible couples for easy identification for giving family planning services and follow-ups is also recommended, and it is suggested that there be continual follow-up studies. PMID:12332197

  5. The Progress of Nations, 1996: The Nations of the World Ranked According to Their Achievements in Child Health, Nutrition, Education, Family Planning, and Progress for Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Peter, Ed.

    This report brings together the latest available statistics to record national achievements in child survival, health, nutrition, education, family planning, and progress for women. Each section contains a commentary and a presentation of related statistics. Following an introduction by UNICEF executive director Carol Bellamy, the commentaries…

  6. The Progress of Nations: The Nations of the World Ranked According to Their Achievements in Child Health, Nutrition, Education, Family Planning, and Progress for Women, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Peter, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This report brings together the latest available statistics to record national achievements in child survival, health, nutrition, education, family planning, and progress for women. Each section contains a commentary and a presentation of related statistics. The commentaries of the report are: (1) Introduction, "One Small Step for a Summit" (Peter…

  7. The Progress of Nations: The Nations of the World Ranked According to Their Achievements in Child Health, Nutrition, Education, Family Planning, and Progress for Women, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Progress of Nations, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This report brings together the latest available statistics on national achievements in child survival, health, nutrition, education, family planning, and progress for women. Each section contains a commentary, a presentation of related statistics, and a discussion on achievement and disparity. The sections are: (1) Introduction, "Social Goals and…

  8. [Parliament and the demographic question: a study of the debate over birth control and family planning in the National Congress].

    PubMed

    Da Rocha, M I

    1987-12-01

    The author explores the involvement of Brazil's Chamber of Deputies and Federal Senate in issues of population policy, family planning, and birth control. The focus is on the period 1960-1985, with special attention to actions taken by the Parliamentary Inquiry Commission. The debate within the National Congress on these issues is described, and the opinions of members of Parliament are outlined. Data are from official and other published sources. (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12282744

  9. Singing about family planning.

    PubMed

    Emah, E

    1993-01-01

    The Nigerian Family Health services project teamed up with the Johns Hopkins University's Population Communication Services to produce songs called "Choices" and "Wait for Me." The songs, which were about sexual responsibility, were performed by popular music stars King Sunny Ade and Onyeka Onwenu and appeared under King Sonny Ade's long playing albums in 1989. Teaching sexual responsibility through song was suggested in focus group discussions. Findings indicated that young people were responsive to messages about sexual responsibility, postponing sex or saying "no," male sexual responsibility, and children by informed choice and not chance among married couples. An impact assessment of the songs was conducted in February, 1991. Survey findings revealed that 64% of urban and 22% of rural respondents recalled having heard the songs and seen the videos. 48% of urban youth discussed the songs with friends, and 27% discussed the songs with sexual partners. 90% of respondents reported agreement with the message that couples should have only the number of children that they can care for, and that couples should practice family planning. The target population that was affected most by the songs was aged less than 35 years. The strategy of using songs to teach youth responsible parenting appears to be a reliable strategy for mass education and mobilization. There is mass support from among members of the National Council for Women's Societies, the Planned Parenthood Federation of Nigeria, and Coca Cola Corporation, as well as the public at large. PMID:12318626

  10. Partners in family planning.

    PubMed

    1994-12-01

    Studies of the Africa OR/TA Project and other Cooperating Agencies suggest that support of family planning by traditional health practitioners (THPs), traditional birth attendants (TBAs), Islamic religious leaders, and male opinion leaders (MOLs) can result in an increase in the availability of family planning services in the community. A study in Kenya shows that 100 trained THPs who were actively involved in family planning (i.e., distributors of condoms, oral contraceptives, and primary health care drugs) increased contraceptive use in Siaya and Kakamega districts from 7% to 15% and from 14% to 34%, respectively. Contraceptive use did not change in the 2 control areas. Two years after TBAs underwent training in family planning promotion, the proportion of women who named TBAs as their source of family planning information increased from 2% to 18%. In The Gambia, integration of Islamic religious leaders into family planning promotion activities resulted in an increase of current modern contraceptive method use from 9% to 20% for males and from 9% to 26% for females. Involvement of 69 MOLs has increased knowledge of family planning methods in Nkambe, Cameroon. For example, among males, knowledge about the condom increased from 52% to 81% and knowledge about spermicides increased from 12% to 44%. The corresponding figures for women were 47% to 72% and 17% to 42%, respectively. PMID:12319039

  11. [Family planning in INAMPS].

    PubMed

    1986-02-01

    The article focused on the decision of The Ministry of Social Assistance of Brazil to offer family planning services to its clientele. The act was signed in February, 1986, accepted by leaders of family planning movements all over the country. The decision represents a very important step for the government to offer information and assistance to the population about family planning. 3 important topics are addressed: The right of the person to deliberate about his/her reproductive life, giving priority to poor people who need access to information and methods, and providing education to the population. PMID:12281438

  12. Estimating family planning coverage from contraceptive prevalence using national household surveys

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Aluisio J. D.; Boerma, Ties; Hosseinpoor, Ahmad R.; Restrepo-Méndez, María C.; Wong, Kerry L. M.; Victora, Cesar G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Contraception is one of the most important health interventions currently available and yet, many women and couples still do not have reliable access to modern contraceptives. The best indicator for monitoring family planning is the proportion of women using contraception among those who need it. This indicator is frequently called demand for family planning satisfied and we argue that it should be called family planning coverage (FPC). This indicator is complex to calculate and requires a considerable number of questions to be included in a household survey. Objectives We propose a model that can predict FPC from a much simpler indicator – contraceptive use prevalence – for situations where it cannot be derived directly. Design Using 197 Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and Demographic and Health Surveys from 82 countries, we explored least-squares regression models that could be used to predict FPC. Non-linearity was expected in this situation and we used a fractional polynomial approach to find the best fitting model. We also explored the effect of calendar time and of wealth on the models explored. Results Given the high correlation between the variables involved in FPC, we managed to derive a relatively simple model that depends only on contraceptive use prevalence but explains 95% of the variability of the outcome, with high precision for the estimated regression line. We also show that the relationship between the two variables has not changed with time. A concordance analysis showed agreement between observed and fitted results within a range of ±9 percentage points. Conclusions We show that it is possible to obtain fairly good estimates of FPC using only contraceptive prevalence as a predictor, a strategy that is useful in situations where it is not possible to estimate FPC directly. PMID:26562141

  13. Studies in Family Planning, Number 38. Beyond Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berelson, Bernard

    This paper, published by The Population Council, reviews 29 proposals dealing with population controls beyond the current efforts of national programs of voluntary family planning. The proposals are subsumed under eight descriptive categories which are: (1) Extensions of voluntary fertility control; (2) Establishment of involuntary fertility…

  14. Redefining family planning programs.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The Population Council's issue paper entitled Reconsidering the Rationale, Scope, and Quality of Family Planning Programs calls on family planning programs to focus only on reducing unwanted fertility by helping people meet their own reproductive goals safely and ethically. Many family planning programs have been wrongly handed the extra responsibility of reducing wanted fertility. They have therefore used inappropriate means (e.g., incentives, quotas, and coercion) to boost contraceptive prevalence. If programs do focus on reducing unwanted fertility, they will foster reductions in overall fertility and population growth as well as improvements in clients' health and well-being. A new framework has emerged from this shift in rationale. It sets the stage for expanding the scope, improving the quality, and assessing the impact of family planning programs in terms of client choice, health, and well-being. A program needs to determine the range and quality of family planning services it provides at the local level. Local program managers, policymakers, and consumer interest groups should establish minimum or achievable standards of service based on the local health care capacity. Program items that should be assessed include choice of methods, information for clients, technical competence, interpersonal relations, mechanisms to encourage continuity of care, and appropriate constellation of services. The Population Council has conducted rapid appraisals of the quality of care of family planning services to help local program managers to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of their programs. The HARI (Helping Individuals Achieve their Reproductive Intentions) Index measures a program's success in helping clients safely prevent unwanted or unplanned pregnancy. Program managers can conduct a self-assessment that revolves around answering four questions. Family planning services are an important social investment and are essential to development. PMID:12288915

  15. Field Experiments of Family Planning Incentives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Everett M.

    A review of four quasi-experiments on family planning incentives in three Asian nations is presented, and a multi-national comparative field experiment on family planning incentives is proposed. Experiments include: (1) The Ernakulam vasectomy campaigns, (2) Indian Tea Estates retirement bond incentive program, (3) Taiwan educational bond…

  16. Corporate family planning.

    PubMed

    Kakizaki, J

    1991-03-01

    A forward-looking long-term policy of employment-based family planning and employee health has paid off in lower birth rates, better health indicators as well as significant savings in insurance and medical benefits expenses for Nippon Express Co., Ltd., Japan. Nippon Express is now an international corporation with 48,00 employees. "Nittsu" as it is known, began a family planning program in 1956 by hiring qualified professional family planning nurses and midwives, producing its own educational materials and selling contraceptives at reduced rates. The family planning program was expanded to the extent that it has its own Managing Council with Local Councils run democratically, users employees and their spouses as volunteers with group guidance, and provides services at community health centers in rural areas. Now there are 63,000 households covered, activities encompass recreation and home economics, and the health focus has broadened to family health and to include risk factors for disease of middle age. The program has reduced the birth rate of employees from 19.5% to 8.2%, and the abortion rate to 1/10 the initial level, cut the dependency rate of the work force 50%, lowered absenteeism by 2/3, accidents to 1/10, and improved employee loyalty and morale. PMID:12316852

  17. Balance in family planning.

    PubMed

    Singh, K; Viegas, O A; Ratnam, S S

    1989-01-01

    Family planning has been so effective in Singapore that a risk exists of there being too few young people to sustain the country's economy in the twenty-first century. Relaxation of birth control policies and immigration laws offers hope that this problem will be averted. PMID:2637705

  18. Rethinking postpartum family planning.

    PubMed

    Winikoff, B; Mensch, B

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the rationales for commonly advocated postpartum family planning services and challenges the behavioral and biological assumptions on which they are based. An alternative approach to service delivery is suggested. Services should be designed to incorporate breastfeeding and to increase their acceptability to postpartum women. PMID:1759275

  19. Infertility and family planning.

    PubMed

    Balogh, A; Tomazevic, T; Molitor-pfeffer, M P

    1989-03-01

    The contributions from 3 infertility specialists that comprise this article give an overview of the present situation in terms of infertility and its etiology and look at recent advances in infertility management, the various public health and ethical issues involved, and changes that have occurred in the attitude of family planning clinics toward infertility management. Worldwide, an estimated 60-80 million people are affected by infertility, with sexually transmitted diseases and postabortion and postpartum pelvic infections contributing a growing share of these cases. Despite spectacular advances in infertility management, the investigation and successful treatment of infertility is expensive and remain inaccessible to poor couples in developing countries. This is a key equity issue between rich and poor and between developed and developing countries. Although procedures such as artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, and embryo transfer offer hope to infertile couples, some methods will be unacceptable from a medical or ethical point of view and not every biological development should be introduced into clinical practice. Family planning programs can play a key role in preventing infertility through sex education and encouraging the use of harmless contraceptive methods. In all cases, however, it is important that family planning personnel who work with infertile couples assess the likely psychosocial impact on the family of a child produced by techniques such as artificial insemination or in vitro fertilization. PMID:12222331

  20. Disparities in Family Planning

    PubMed Central

    Dehlendorf, Christine; Rodriguez, Maria Isabel; Levy, Kira; Borrero, Sonya; Steinauer, Jody

    2009-01-01

    Prominent racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in rates of unintended pregnancy, abortion, and unintended births exist in the United States. These disparities can contribute to the cycle of disadvantage experienced by specific demographic groups when women are unable to control their fertility as desired. In this review we consider three factors which contribute to disparities in family planning outcomes: patient preferences and behaviors, health care system factors, and provider related factors. Through addressing barriers to access to family planning services, including abortion and contraception, and working to ensure that all women receive patient-centered reproductive health care, health care providers and policy makers can substantially improve the ability of women from all racial/ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds to make informed decisions about their fertility. PMID:20207237

  1. Natural family planning revisited.

    PubMed

    Al-Ateeg, Fahad A

    2004-03-01

    The article focuses on the role of natural family planning NFP as a component of reproductive health. It distinguishes NFP from the concept of fertility awareness method. Furthermore, the effectiveness of NFP as determined by previous studies is presented and the advantages and disadvantages of NFP are highlighted. Additionally, factors that influence the use of NFP methods are examined. Finally, delivery strategies and options for mainstreaming NFP into reproductive health services are identified and discussed. PMID:15048163

  2. A family planning miracle.

    PubMed

    Aiyer, M S

    1993-10-01

    1991 data indicate that Tamil Nadu has achieved zero population growth. This feat has been accomplished not through the efforts of a concerned and committed family planning program, but as a side effect of a statewide elementary school lunch program launched by the new Chief Minister in 1977. Anyone attending school was guaranteed at least one nutritious meal per day. Children attended schools, schools proliferated, teachers were hired, and students were educated. Many students ate only part of their meals, and offered the rest to younger siblings at home. The positive nutritional effects of the program therefore filtered to children both in and out of school. In addition to teachers, local women were hired to cook the meals. They were compensated for their work in both monetary terms and by taking some of the excess school food back to their homes for later consumption. Maternal and child nutrition benefitted from this program, while children, especially female children, stayed in school for more years than they may have otherwise. a healthier, better educated cohort of girls matured into young women capable of reading and following the prescriptions of widespread family planning messages disseminated by the Chief Secretary of the state who was obsessed about family planning. A functioning system of elementary education remains in Tamil Nadu which continues to influence fertility. The author believes that the success in reducing population growth in Tamil Nadu can and must be replicated in all states of India. PMID:12288800

  3. A family quarrel? "Developmentalism" or family planning.

    PubMed

    Carder, M

    1974-01-01

    The switch in emphasis in population policies from family planning to the development of socioeconomic policies that would encourage smaller families--summed up in the word "developmentalism"--is charted from a 1967 paper by Kinsley Davis to its culmination at the 1974 World Population Conference, when even as staunch a supporter of family planning as John D. Rockefeller came out in support of placing population policy in the context of economic and social development. The real question is, however: To what extent does developmentalism represent a true shift in policy and how much is simply a more sophisticated rhetoric designed to deflect the growing opposition to population control? On the one hand, the endorsement by a man of Rockefeller's stature indicates a significant change. On the other, the changes which the implementation of developmentalism would entail seem irreconcilable with the present political and economic structures of underdeveloped nations and of relations between them and the more developed countries. Further, developmentalism is neither as progressive as its advocates suggest, nor as threatening as its opponents cry. It is, in fact, a prescription for enhancing the effectiveness of family planning through a form of social engineering from the top; its details--more aid, investment, and trade--would involve an expanded Western role in the Third World. It is even suggested that developmentalism might be a cover for the creation of a more stratified society, where marginal members are restricted to their own quarters in an effort to secure political stability and economic growth. In the end, developmentalism might be shortlived, as pressure to step up birth control programs is felt from many quarters. PMID:12307032

  4. Effectiveness of Family Planning Methods

    MedlinePlus

    ... per 100 women in a year Effectiveness of Family Planning Methods Implant Reversible Intrauterine Device (IUD) Permanent Male ... for Communication Programs (CCP). Knowledge for health project. Family planning: a global handbook for providers (2011 update). Baltimore, ...

  5. Family planning: Muslim style.

    PubMed

    Virina, I

    1979-01-01

    Early birth control methods practiced by Muslims included a version of rhythm called takwim. Instead of using a thermometer to determine the safe period, the woman pressed her navel hard. If she felt magnetic sensations she was not in the safe period. Withdrawal, called piil, was also used. Old folks prepared juices extracted from roots like safran, pitawali, and when drunk they contracted the uterus and prevented pregnancy. New methods and programs have not gained popularity because of traditional medicines. Some early methods are still used today. To some Muslims sex is sacred and should not be talked about in polite conversation. If a Muslim discusses sex in front of others he has no delicadeza. Muslims must voluntarily accept family planning. If they are forced they reject the idea entirely. Extensive radio drama series have been broadcast since the establishment of the Provincial Population Office in Jolo in 1977. Muslims still believe in having many children as security in cases of tribal or interfamily feuds. Family planning workers in Stanvac, Zamboanga use the economic approach for motivating people. The financial burden of raising a big family is emphasized. PMID:12261886

  6. Why family planning matters.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jeffrey T

    2011-06-01

    Family planning is one of the principle tools of human development. Ensuring that all babies are wanted and planned reduces health care and social costs. Human numbers will increase to 11 billion by the end of this century, and human activities are the leading cause of environmental change that threaten our health and happiness. Therefore, the provision of highly effective contraceptive methods represents an important priority of primary medical care. Since women and men with complicated medical problems remain interested in sex, medical and surgical specialists need to understand how contraception and pregnancy will interact with the underlying condition. This paper discusses the interaction between population growth and the environment, and reviews modern methods of contraception. PMID:21559818

  7. Family planning is reducing abortions.

    PubMed

    Clinton, H R

    1997-01-01

    This news brief presents the US President's wife's statement on the association between use of family planning and a decline in abortions worldwide. Hillary Rodham Clinton attended the Sixth Conference of Wives of Heads of State and Government of the Americas held in La Paz, Bolivia. The conference was suitably located in Bolivia, a country with the highest rates of maternal mortality in South America. Bolivia has responded by launching a national family planning campaign coordinated between government, nongovernmental, and medical organizations. Half of Bolivian women experience pregnancy and childbirth without the support of trained medical staff. Mortality from abortion complications account for about half of all maternal deaths in Bolivia. Voluntary family planning workers teach women about the benefits of child spacing, breast feeding, nutrition, prenatal and postpartum care, and safe deliveries. Bolivia has succeeded in increasing its contraceptive use rates and decreasing the number of safe and unsafe abortions. Bolivia's program effort was supported by USAID. USAID provided technical assistance and funds for the establishment of a network of primary health care clinics. Mrs. Clinton visited one such clinic in a poor neighborhood in La Paz, which in its first six months of operation provided 2200 consultations, delivered 200 babies, registered 700 new family planning users, and immunized 2500 children. Clinics such as this one will be affected by the US Congress's harsh cuts in aid, which reduce funding by 35% and delay program funding by 9 months. These US government cuts in foreign aid are expected to result in an additional 1.6 million abortions, over 8000 maternal deaths, and 134,000 infant deaths in developing countries. An investment in population assistance represents a sensible, cost-effective, and long-term strategy for improving women's health, strengthening families, and reducing abortion. PMID:12293000

  8. The "planned" families of Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Habchi, M

    1987-07-01

    30 years ago Tunisia achieved independence, and 20 years ago it adopted a family planning policy designed to bring about a balance between demographic and economic growth. Birth control and family planning continue to be a major concern, and services now are provided in over 800 public sector centers -- dispensaries, hospitals, family planning clinics, and mobile teams. 4 out of 10 married women use some form of contraception, and some 30,000 abortions are performed per year by services of the National Office for Family Planning and Population. 2/3 of Tunisians believe that religion has a favorable view of birth control, but there are other sources of resistance to birth control -- sources related to a woman's level of education, her status, and socioeconomic level. The average number of children/woman decreases according to her level of education, from 6.9 among illiterate women to 2.6 among women with a university education. The proportion of illiterate women in Tunisia is close to 50%; the level is as high as 75% among women over age 30. These figures provide the explanation as to why the decline in the birthrate has been so slow. Another major determinant of reproduction rates among Tunisian women is access to employment. Women with jobs have an average of 2 children in contract to women without jobs who normally have more than 4 children. A marked decline occurred in the birthrate between 1966-76, and about 2/3 of Tunisian women now subscribe to the modern family model, i.e., a smaller family oriented toward consumption and comfort. Yet, despite improvements, under the best-case scenario the reproduction rate would be 3.8 children/family at 2000, and a rate of 2.9 would not be achieved until 2020, which is still higher than the rate necessary for simple population replacement -- 2.1. This downward trend would be realized under the combined effects of socioeconomic and cultural changes, i.e., better education, urbanization, declining infant mortality, the gradual integration of the rural community into the national economy, and the popularization of birth control methods. PMID:12269169

  9. Bound and gagged: America's family planning network.

    PubMed

    Dryfoos, J G

    1992-01-01

    During the past decade, the number of family planning clinics receiving support from the federal government has fallen from 5,000 to 4,000 despite a growing demand for their services among poor women and teenagers. At the same time, family planning providers have been under regulatory attack, forced to fend off a "squeal rule" aimed at teenagers and to stop a "gag rule" preventing abortion referral. With the climate in Washington unlikely to change, family planners should consider integrating other services into their network or press to include family planning in other care networks. A new national commission could help break the logjam on federal legislation. PMID:10116482

  10. Family Planning Handbook for Doctors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinman, Ronald L., Ed.

    The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) believes that all people have the right to family planning information, including premarital and marital counseling, contraception information, and sex education. This physician's handbook is designed to provide all doctors with the necessary instructions on the latest family planning methods…

  11. Integration of family planning with national health services. Integration de la planification familiale aux services nationaux de sante.

    PubMed

    Mandara, N

    1984-09-01

    After independence in the 1960s, most African government inherited health structures that were curative oriented, costly, and directed toward the urban population. Primary health care, oriented toward prevention, promotion, improvement of the environment, cure, and rehabilitation, has since been adopteed as a better approach to health in Africa. This approach aims to integrate health care with thee activities of other seectors and places relicance on available community resources. An unexpected change has been the transformation of social and political attitudes toward family planning as a basic human right, a concomitant to heealth, and an integral part of socioeconomic development. Family planning is gradually being integrated into the maternal and child health services of all countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. In some cases, the government has assumed service delivery responsibilities previously carried out by family planning associations, thereby changing the association's role to that of education and motivation. Other countries have faced duplication of services and wastage of resources as a result of integration. There is a need for an overall evaluation of the integrated family planning-maternal and child heath services to determine future priorities and strategies. Problems so far encountered have included coverage, acceptability, accessibility, quality and continuity of care, data collection, and limited resources. However, cost factors, the shortage of trained manpower, the lack of facilities, and prevailing cultural and religious attitudes suggest the advisibility of integrated rather than vertical health programs in Africa. For both planning and administrative purposes, it is necessary to have a central Maternal and Child Health-Family Planning unit within the Ministry of Health as well as regional and district units. PMID:12266426

  12. Natural family planning.

    PubMed

    Brown, J B; Blackwell, L F; Billings, J J; Conway, B; Cox, R I; Garrett, G; Holmes, J; Smith, M A

    1987-10-01

    It is now well accepted that a woman can conceive from an act of intercourse for a maximum of only about 7 days of her menstrual cycle. The reliability of natural family planning depends on identifying this window of fertility without ambiguity. Several symptomatic markers, cervical mucus and basal body temperature, have been used extensively and with considerable success in most women but failures occur. Ovarian and pituitary hormone production show characteristic patterns during the cycle. Urinary estrogen and pregnanediol measurements yield reliable information concerning the beginning, peak, and end of the fertile period, provided that the assays are accurate and performed on timed specimens of urine. We have developed such enzyme immunoassays for urinary estrogen and pregnanediol glucuronides that can be performed at home. In the early versions of the assays, enzyme reaction rates were measured by eye, but more recently, a simple photoelectronic rate meter has been used. The final problem to be solved is not technologic but whether women are sufficiently motivated to expend the same time and effort each day for 10 days a month, with less cost, on fertility awareness as they spend on making a cup of tea. PMID:3314524

  13. Population Growth: Family Planning Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doberenz, Alexander R., Ed.; Taylor, N. Burwell G., Ed.

    These proceedings of the second annual symposium on population growth bring together speeches and panel discussions on family planning programs. Titles of speeches delivered are: Communicating Family Planning (Mrs. Jean Hutchinson); Effects of New York's Abortion Law Change (Dr. Walter Rogers); The Law and Birth Control, Sterilization and Abortion…

  14. Family planning not against any religion.

    PubMed

    1976-10-01

    The 3-day siminar "Hum Do, Hamare Do," sponsored by Amrita Bazar Patrika and Jugantar, was addressed by President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed and other top-ranking national and state leaders. The purpose of the seminar was to spread the message of family planning and counteract propaganda against it. The President congratulated the Indian press for sponsoring the seminar and proclaimed the duty of the mass media to involve the people in the struggle against poverty. He noted that although agricultural production has doubled and life expectancy has increased 50%, the rising population has negated any national progress. The common people must be convinced that family planning is vital to eradicate poverty and unemployment. It is false propaganda that family planning is not permitted by Islam and that Muslims have not adapted family planning. Nowhere in the Koran, the Hadis, or Jima is there prohibition of family planning. The family planning program, as part of an integrated health service, must be accepted by the people through the creation of an atmosphere where the norm of small families is acceptable to a very large section of the population. PMID:12277577

  15. Family planning: what women say.

    PubMed

    Ibekwe, J

    1992-04-30

    Some interviews with educated women about their thoughts on family planning, birth spacing, and desired family size are provided. There were rumors that Nigerian women wanted birth spacing because the economy was so bad. There was a question about whether women desired family planning for both birth spacing and family limitation without jeopardizing conjugal felicity, or whether the government campaigns for smaller family size were being effective, or whether the economic realities were forcing rethinking. The responses came from a legal assistant in her early 30s; a health consultant, a 27-years old baby wear dealer, a 27-year old nurse, a 54-years old academician, a 44-year old librarian, a 35-year old pharmacist, and a fashion designer. Mrs. Ige, the legal assistant, married at 28 years believed that family planning was essential and the desired family size was around 4, but more importantly family size was based on the parents ability to provide "adequate" care. The health consultant with 4 children considered that a mother had a life after children and living standards were not improving. The baby war dealer with 2 children believed that family planning provided the opportunity to plan for the education of your children; the number of educated children depended on the ability of society to provide adequate jobs. The nurse was not married and planned to seek counseling in family planning after her first child. The academician with 4 children believed individuals had the right to decide the desired number of children, but should be guided by the principle of having no more than they could adequately care for. The librarian with 4 children thought family planning was nice for helping ladies plan their families according to their means; wealthy families could afford 4-5 children, and middle income earners could only afford 2-3 children. The fashion designer with 2 children said that family planning was necessary for spacing the number of children and giving the body a rest. The women were excited to give their views and agreed to teach their daughters about the principles of family planning from the age of 17 years. PMID:12179508

  16. [Natural family planning].

    PubMed

    Odeblad, E

    1992-06-01

    Natural family planning (NFP) is based on the knowledge *largely nonexistent) of a women as to whether she is in her fertile period or not. In contrast to the calendar method, the Billings method consists of observing bodily functions, whereby women learn about the fertile and infertile period during the menstrual cycle. This method is very safe as long as the woman has been instructed thoroughly. The Pearl index (the number of pregnancies/100 woman years) can be 1. In a Swedish province, 7/1000 population used this method and had an abortion rate of .5/1000, a fact contradicting the allegation of mass abortion as a result of the method. Only well-trained NFP instructors can teach women, and at the University of Umea such training has been available for some years. The biological basis of the Billings method rests on the fact that every release of an egg is preceded by a ripening process of a follicle in the ovary. This follicle secretes increasing amounts of estrogen which stimulates the cervix to produce secretions for the sperm. Right before ovulation, the follicle reduces estrogen production and noradrenaline takes over, stimulating the peak-day secretion (P-secretion) for further selection of sperm. Ovulation usually occurs on the peak day, which is the day of maximum fertility and the last day of mucous symptoms. For 3 days after peak day until menstruation, the risk of becoming pregnant diminishes successively until it is as low as after sterilization. The instructor is trained to recognize and overcome certain factors that make it more difficult to identify the mucous symptoms, such as the previous use of oral contraceptives, certain illnesses, drugs, and life styles. NFP can also be used for attaining pregnancy by identifying the peak day; women with premenstrual syndrome can calculate when their symptoms start, and sportswomen can predict the time of their menstruation. NFP is fascinating when it is compared to other methods because of its human dimension, and there is still a great deal to be learned about it. PMID:1618690

  17. [The press and family planning].

    PubMed

    Abraham De D'ornellas, R

    1987-01-01

    The treatment in the press of family planning hinges on two fundamental factors: the taboo of the leftist groups and the taboo of the Catholic Church, whose head is against abortion under any circumstances. Leftist views insinuate that family planning is the genocidal plan of North American imperialists against the Third World and, in particular, against Latin America. This genocidal plan is supposed to subject poor populations to international schemes. In the press family planning is often treated in a sanctimonious fashion, lumping it together with topics like pornography, sex, and violence. In 1983 the daily newspaper Expreso published a supplement running every week for almost three months about the issue of population, which dealt fairly extensively with such topics as population and housing, education, employment, and urban proliferation, as well as responsible parenthood and child survival. In addition, there was a detailed description of contraceptive methods. In October 1986 another surprising thing happened: the President of Peru talked about the topic of family planning, which at the time was an act of courage. Since then much has changed; the whole world is interested in family planning and certain aspects of population. Since October 1986 more has been published in this domain than during the preceding 20 years. In contrast, the Church reacted differently to this issue: after some initial caution, the conference of Peruvian bishops attacked all methods of modern contraceptives and private institutions of family planning. The information boom in family planning will certainly continue. At the moment this flood of articles and editorials about the issue is an expression of the anxiety of families related to uncontrolled reproduction and the fear of overpopulation in large cities devoid of minimal services. PMID:12281466

  18. Family planning communication research possibilities in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Reed, F W

    1982-06-01

    An attempt is made to offer some ideas and guidelines that would suggest a direction for family planning communication research for the next few years. A psychologically based communication model developed by Donald Bogue provides some practical guides on information which should be collected with regard to communication for family planning. This Bogue model is presented, indicating the kinds of information that is needed in Indonesia. According to Bogue, individuals are likely to adopt family planning if they are well informed about the idea of family planning, about the methods of contraception and the potential side effect of the methods. Information is needed in Indonesia concerning what different audiences know about family planning. Being informed about family planning is important for many groups in addition to the actual users: community leaders, physicians, field workers, government leaders. It is necessary to know how well these groups are informed about family planning methods, places of service, and choices. Bogue indicates that individuals are likely to use family planning methods if they are motivated to get some of the benefits obtainable through having a small family. In Indonesia systematically collected information about the benefits which people associate with having a small family is badly needed. Again, information is needed about the various motives for using family planning among audiences other than only the potential users. If people are going to adopt and continue to use family planning methods, it is important that they have positive attitudes toward the methods available. To develop a scientifically based communication program, it is necessary to know which methods are liked by which kinds of people and why. Bogue argues that adopters must feel that the innovation has legitimacy. Contraceptive use is not likely to continue if the individual feels that the community does not support that activity. Future research must devote attention for a variety of audiences when investigating the legitimacy of using family planning methods. Bogue's evidence indicates that individuals are likely to use family planning to the degree that they believe its use concerns them and that their personal concerns can be taken care of through family planning use. At a practical level, it is important to establish the degree to which various groups in Indonesia are involved in family planning as a solution to their own problems. Learning the ways in which they are involved can help in developing communication approaches to relate them more directly to the family planning program. Also of great potential utility is research directed to learning about the unintended communication done by the national family planning program. Continued development of the program's communication activities will depend upon the development of fundamental research with regard to family planning, sex, influence, village and neighborhood structure. PMID:12339318

  19. Population and family planning in Tibet.

    PubMed

    1996-04-01

    This article summarizes findings from a summary report produced by a six-member team sent by the China Population Information and Research Center to Tibet Autonomous Region. The study project aimed to develop a five-year population plan for 1996-2000. Project members toured eight counties and cities in Shannan, Lhasa, Hyingchi, and Xigaze prefectures in 1995. Tibet's total population was an estimated 2.43 million in 1995. 1990 Census findings indicate that 95.5% were Tibetans, 3.7% were Han, and 0.8% were other ethnic groups. The total fertility rate (TFR) in 1989 was 4.2 children/woman. TFR is expected to decline to 3.0 in the year 2000. It is generally accepted that Tibet should maintain a growth rate of around 16.7/1000. Tibet's family planning program began in 1980 with the promotion of the one-child family norm among officials, workers, and urban residents of Han nationality living in Tibet. Urban Tibetans were allowed to have two children with a birth interval of 3 years and a third birth with government approval. Family planning was also promoted among farmers and herdsmen (88% of the total population). Family planning, at present, is practiced predominantly by urban residents (12% of the total population). A study of family planning in Dixin Township revealed that 44% of married reproductive-age women practice family planning. Family planning is under the authority of the Regional Family Planning Office and is affiliated with the Bureau of Public Health. There are 43 full-time family planning officials in all 7 prefectures and 74 counties. Most family planning services are handled by part-time medical and health staff in the public health system. The family planning program has resulted in 150,000 averted births. TFR declined from 5.8 children/woman in 1980 to 3.5 at present. This decline is attributed to women's desire for family planning and the fertility policy. The preferred methods include the IUD and Norplant. Unmet need is great. PMID:12347499

  20. Proceedings of the National Conference on the Delivery of Family Planning Services in Rural America (1st, Atlanta, Georgia, October, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alan Guttmacher Inst., New York, NY.

    Although family planning services in rural America are becoming more accessible to women who need and want them, only one-fourth of low- and marginal-income nonmetropolitan women at risk of unintended pregnancy have been served by organized family planning programs. About 150 participants, generally providers of family planning services in…

  1. Family planning methods: new guidance.

    PubMed

    1996-10-01

    Presented in this report are the recommendations of two expert groups, the Technical Guidance/Competence Working Group of the US Agency for International Development's Maximizing Access and Quality Initiative and the World Health Organization's Family Planning and Population Unit, regarding currently available family planning methods. The former group addressed key biomedical questions and formulated recommendations about 11 groups of family planning methods: combined oral contraceptives, progestin-only pills during breast feeding, progestin-only injectables, combined injectable contraceptives, Norplant implants, copper-bearing IUDs, tubal occlusion, vasectomy, lactational amenorrhea method, natural family planning, and barrier methods. A table presents the relative importance, by method, of procedures such as pelvic exam, blood pressure reading, breast exam, and screening for sexually transmitted diseases and cervical cancer. The medical eligibility recommendations for each method are also presented in tabular form, with four categories for temporary methods: 1) no restrictions on use, 2) advantages generally outweigh theoretical or proven risks, 3) theoretical or proven risks usually outweigh the advantages, and 4) unacceptable health risks. Included among the 41 conditions for which eligibility criteria are specified are age, smoking, thromboembolic disorder, headaches, irregular vaginal bleeding, family history of breast cancer, obesity, drug interactions, parity, breast feeding, postpartum, and postabortion. The new guidance presented in this report enables providers to give family planning clients expanded contraceptive choices while ensuring method safety and effectiveness. PMID:9342775

  2. Iran rebuilds family planning services.

    PubMed

    Butta, P

    1993-07-01

    After the revolution, the Islamic Republic of Iran instituted pronatalist policies which included lowering the minimum marriage age for girls to 9 years, abolishing some laws securing women's rights, and limiting availability of family planning (FP) services. By 1983, Iran's population growth rate was 3.9% which was among the highest worldwide. Before the revolution, Iran had 37 million people. About 2 million more people were added each year, resulting in a population size of 60 million by 1992. By the mid-1980s, economic development stood idle, there were not enough houses, children attended schools on 3 shifts, and malnutrition was spreading. In 1989, the government formed a population council and reestablished FP services. It also increased the minimum age of marriage for girls to 13 years, slightly improved women status, and eliminated fertility incentives for couples with at least 4 children. It also significantly increased funding for FP (from 560 million to 13 billion rials between 1990 and 1992). Government spending for FP will likely increase 2% annually until 2011. The government initiated a promotion of FP mass media campaign, emphasizing a 2-child family. Some posters showed a family with 2 girls. The mass media campaign promoted specific contraceptive methods (even tubal occlusion and vasectomy), a practice other Middle Eastern countries not do. 80% of sterilization acceptors claimed to learn about sterilization from the radio or newspapers. The Ministry of Health has invited the Association for Voluntary Surgical Contraception (AVSC) to help with its campaign to update sterilization techniques, including the non scalpel vasectomy technique. AVSC hopes to become even more involved in helping Iran update its national FP program. PMID:12318289

  3. National Center on Family Homelessness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Events You are here Home National Center on Family Homelessness Center A staggering 2.5 million children ... the impact of homelessness on children, youth, and families. Through research, programs, trainings, and partnerships with the ...

  4. Family planning: the global challenge.

    PubMed

    Loraine, J A

    1985-05-01

    There has been huge growth in the world population during the 20th century, and a factor which must never be forgotten in relation to global population is its inherent dynamic. The momentum of population growth is remarkable and dictates that world numbers are destined to continue growing for decades to come. Stabilization of population at 2 children per family remains a distant goal and depends on fertility on fertility levels and rates of population growth in different parts of the world. Many authorities maintain that family planning will remedy the population explosion. Family planning, most likely, does work, yet its overall success has been modest. Part of the decline in birthrates recorded in some developing countries in Asia and Latin America can be ascribed to spreading birth control practices. Yet, by far the greatest contribution to the overall decline in global population growth has been made through the draconian measures introduced in China. In spite of family planning programs which have been operational for relatively long periods of time, population growth rates in many other developing countries have changed little over the past 2 decades. The limitations of an approach based totally on family planning should be borne constantly in mind, especially in the 3rd world. The main fallacy operating, and many authorities still hold to it, is to equate family planning with a population policy. In 1967, Kingsley Davis, an American demographer, noted the flaw in this argument. He pointed out that the desired family size was often in excess of the 2 children which would be needed to produce eventual stabilization of the population. The litany of family planning assumes that the aggregate of decisions of countless couples on family building will precisely coincide with the needs of the state in terms of population. If this were the case, it would be a coincidence of monumental proportions. Yet, family planning should not be denigrated. It is an integral and essential part of any population policy. To be successful a population policy must be broad in scope and multifactorial in approach. Population education from as early an age as possible is essential as is a commitment to women's rights and female emancipation and a massive program of socioeconomic development together with better health, nutrition, and sanitation. Family planning as an important element of any program designed to curb population growth merits full support. PMID:4011567

  5. Has family planning a future?

    PubMed

    Diczfalusy, E

    1987-01-01

    Population is a subject that touches issues central to the human condition, including personal freedom and the very definition of economic and social progress. Hence it is understandable that people and their governments may have a wide range of views on this and related subjects. Some researchers admit that rapid population growth is more likely to impede progress than to promote it and conclude that, even if the economic grounds for family planning are not as compelling as some maintain, it is amply justified on the basis of individual family health and welfare. It would be naive to think that family planning alone can solve the problems of developing countries. But it would seem to be equally naive to believe that these problems can be solved without some family planning. It cannot be overemphasized that the impact of family planning goes far beyond the issues of population growth and economic development; it is an important tool to improve the health status of populations, especially in developing countries. The logical conclusion seems to be that there is a need for a much wider variety of safe and effective methods of fertility regulation that will suit the individual situation, the socioeconomic condition and the cultural and religious values of different couples. To develop new and safe methods and to provide answers to the questions posed, research is needed. There are 7 cardinal elements negatively affecting greatly needed research and development efforts at present: insufficient funding, hostile philosophies, liability issues, the drug regulatory climate, shortage in manpower, relative paucity of new ideas, and gaps in communication. What is needed now is that mankind shows a little more generosity towards itself and invests a bit more into research in family planning. Experience and history also indicate that research is a cost-effective investment in many areas. To invest in research in family planning means to invest in a brighter future. PMID:3568655

  6. Planning Styles in Single-Parent Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buehler, Cheryl; Hogan, M. Janice

    Although family management scholars have identified family life cycle stages and educational and occupational status as factors that may influence planning in families, the influence of the family's life cycle stage and socioeconomic status on the planning process has not been empirically tested. Planning styles, family characteristics, and…

  7. Incentives to promote family planning

    PubMed Central

    Heil, Sarah H.; Gaalema, Diann E.; Herrmann, Evan S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Over the past 60 years, population control has become an increasingly urgent issue worldwide as a growing population strains already limited resources. The use of financial incentives to promote family planning is an innovative approach that has potential to make a contribution to efforts to better manage population growth. This report reviews eight studies that examined the effect of incentives on family planning. Method Published studies that tested the impact of incentives to promote some aspect of family planning and included an appropriate control or comparison condition were reviewed. Results Incentives have been used to promote attendance at contraceptive education sessions, adoption and continuation of contraceptive methods, sterilization, and to limit family size. All but one of the eight studies reviewed reported positive outcomes, but weaknesses in study design and execution limit the strength of the conclusions that can be drawn. Conclusion Review of this literature suggests that family planning behaviors, like other behaviors, are sensitive to incentives. Given the tremendous need for efficacious interventions in global efforts to manage population growth, further research on this topic using more rigorous experimental methods is warranted. PMID:22743293

  8. Planning National Radiotherapy Services

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblatt, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Countries, states, and island nations often need forward planning of their radiotherapy services driven by different motives. Countries without radiotherapy services sponsor patients to receive radiotherapy abroad. They often engage professionals for a feasibility study in order to establish whether it would be more cost-beneficial to establish a radiotherapy facility. Countries where radiotherapy services have developed without any central planning, find themselves in situations where many of the available centers are private and thus inaccessible for a majority of patients with limited resources. Government may decide to plan ahead when a significant exodus of cancer patients travel to another country for treatment, thus exposing the failure of the country to provide this medical service for its citizens. In developed countries, the trigger has been the existence of highly visible waiting lists for radiotherapy revealing a shortage of radiotherapy equipment. This paper suggests that there should be a systematic and comprehensive process of long-term planning of radiotherapy services at the national level, taking into account the regulatory infrastructure for radiation protection, planning of centers, equipment, staff, education programs, quality assurance, and sustainability aspects. Realistic budgetary and cost considerations must also be part of the project proposal or business plan. PMID:25505730

  9. Planning national radiotherapy services.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Countries, states, and island nations often need forward planning of their radiotherapy services driven by different motives. Countries without radiotherapy services sponsor patients to receive radiotherapy abroad. They often engage professionals for a feasibility study in order to establish whether it would be more cost-beneficial to establish a radiotherapy facility. Countries where radiotherapy services have developed without any central planning, find themselves in situations where many of the available centers are private and thus inaccessible for a majority of patients with limited resources. Government may decide to plan ahead when a significant exodus of cancer patients travel to another country for treatment, thus exposing the failure of the country to provide this medical service for its citizens. In developed countries, the trigger has been the existence of highly visible waiting lists for radiotherapy revealing a shortage of radiotherapy equipment. This paper suggests that there should be a systematic and comprehensive process of long-term planning of radiotherapy services at the national level, taking into account the regulatory infrastructure for radiation protection, planning of centers, equipment, staff, education programs, quality assurance, and sustainability aspects. Realistic budgetary and cost considerations must also be part of the project proposal or business plan. PMID:25505730

  10. Population Control, Family Planning and Planned Parenthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilmar, Norman A.

    Remarks in this article were made as part of a panel discussion presented at the Planned Parenthood-World Population combined Southeast Council and National Board Meeting, Savannah, Georgia, in May 1970. The problems and consequences of an increasing birth rate are indicated along with the need for reducing present rates of population growth and…

  11. Family Planning Programmes in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pradervand, Pierre

    The countries discussed in this paper are the francophone countries of West Africa and the Republic of Congo, with comparative references made to North Africa (mainly Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia). Obstacles to the adoption of family planning in the countries of tropical Africa are a very high mortality rate among children; a socioeconomic…

  12. Adult Education for Family Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labour Education Special Issue, 1971

    1971-01-01

    The article presents the open-end discussion method as the best means for teaching family planning. People do not want an outsider lecturing them on questions of morality and religion, but an outsider, by skillfully formulating questions can direct group discussions toward a pre-determined conclusion. (AS)

  13. National Military Family Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Strengthen the Health of MilFams Are you a military spouse mental health professional? Learn about a new ... Your MilFam! We’re continuing our celebration of military families with a unique giveaway from Fitz Frame! ...

  14. Brazil announces family planning programme in 1981.

    PubMed

    1980-01-16

    The Brazilian Minister of Health, Waldyr Arcoverde, announced in December that the government will implement a national family planning program in 1981. O Globo and Jornal do Brasil, the 2 main national newspapers, report that according to the information given by the Minister, the program will offer all contraceptive methods including male and female sterilizations. Sterilizations will be provided free-of-charge by INAMPS, the national hospital system. Contraceptive services are being provided in order to reduce illegal abortions, the practice of which is widespread throughout the country. PMID:12338043

  15. Observations concerning family planning education in China.

    PubMed

    Hamburg, M V

    1981-11-01

    In China, raising the age at marriage is an integral part of the family planning program. The new marriage law sets the minimum age at 22 for men and 20 for women. Marriage is a universal practice, and an unmarried person over 28 is a rarity. For economic purposes, the Central Committee of the People's Republic adopted the 1-child family policy in 1980. Childlessness is not encouraged. An extensive organizational network at the national, provincial, and local governmental levels conducts the family planning program. The media is widely used to publicize the message. Billboards, posters, state-run television, and other media tools regularly promote the virtues of the 1-child family, regardless of the sex of the child. Premarital sex is rare, and sex education, if any, is limited to adults--those about to be married. In Shanghai, physiology education in the middle school does include sex education and reproduction. All hospitals have family planning offices, and services include excellent maternal/child health care and family planning counseling. Family planning services are also found in the workplace. Permission must be obtained from the Production Brigade to marry and to have a child. Inspite of this, the family planning program is not viewed as coercive. When certain segments of the working population want to have more children than have been allocated, adjustments (e.g., delays in marriage or in pregnancy) are made. A unique feature of the program is its use of reward and punishment which varies from province to province, and between rural and urban populations. Economic incentives (monetary subsidies, free education for the children, housing priorities, and pension benefits) are given to those who have 1 child and withheld from those who have 2 children. In some areas, additional economic penalties (payment to state) are required from families with 2 children. Another unique feature is the trend toward later marriage, with 25 or 26 becoming the norm. It appears that China's family planning program is achieving success, but this can only be viewed in its own sociocultural setting and not in the context of other countries. PMID:12337663

  16. The population problem and family planning effort.

    PubMed

    Sekhar, A C

    1972-12-01

    A discussion of any aspect of family planning must include an evaluation of the current demographic situation and the prospects for the future. With the rate of population growth in developing countries between 2-5% per annum and the drastic reduction in mortality accepted as a positive goal under any circumstances, it becomes evident that the only way to contain the population growth is by fertility control. It was the recognition of this need to contain the population by controlling their fertility which brought about India's adoption of family planning as an officially sponsored program as early as 1951. The goals and efforts have increased in each Five Year Plan. The initial emphasis on the "clinical approach" which expected the people to visit the clinics and avail themselves of the family planning services changed to the "extension approach" in 1963 which brought the advice and services to the people. The program now aims at promoting voluntary acceptance by individuals of 1 or more methods of contraception through a process of education and motivation. Regarding the national perspective, a comprehensive Bill liberalizing abortion has already been passed by the Parliament, and efforts are being made to raise the legal age of marriage from 16 to 18 for women. Concerning performance, 9.11 million sterilizations and 3.94 million IUD insertions have been performed since August 1971. A rise in the use of conventional contraceptives has also been noted. The current pressing problem is one of motivating and educating the millions of illiterate rural people towards family planning. Even if this were possible, the subsequent problem of providing them with the family planning services is formidable. Other problems are the continuation of social and psychological barriers which block the efforts of those promoting family planning, and the fact that 2 often conflicting facets of the family planning effort, the national good and the interest of the individual, need to be reconciled. Emphasis must be given to educating and motivating young couples toward birth spacing well before they marry. Voluntary organizations can help in motivating the public, and this help is needed for success depends on how best and how soon the individual can be motivated towards the common goal. PMID:12179385

  17. National Highway Planning Network

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-02-02

    NHPN, the National Highway Planning Network, is a database of major highways in the continental United States that is used for national-level analyses of highway transportation issues that require use of a network, such as studies of highway performance, network design, social and environmental impacts of transportation, vehicle routing and scheduling, and mapping. The network is based on a set of roadways digitized by the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) from the 1980 National Atlasmore » and has been enhanced with additional roads, attribute detail, and topological error corrections to produce a true analytic network. All data have been derived from or checked against information obtained from state and Federal governmental agencies. Two files comprise this network: one describing links and the other nodes. This release, NHPN1.0, contains 44,960 links and 28,512 nodes representing approximately 380,000 miles of roadway.« less

  18. Knowledge, attitudes, and practice of family planning in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Kee, W F; Swee-Hock, S

    1975-04-01

    The First National Survey on Family Planning in Singapore was designed to gather data that would aid in evaluating the program of the National Family Planning and Population Board and the influence of government population policies on attitudes toward family planning. Interviews with 2,078 currently married women aged 15--44 revealed high levels of contraceptive knowledge and use, satisfaction of clinic users with the Board's services, and attitudes that favor greater acceptance of abortion and sterilization. Continued promotion of the concept of the two-child family appears necessary in light of divided opinions of respondents on this government recommendation. PMID:1145689

  19. Hilots make the family planning scene.

    PubMed

    1974-10-01

    A hilot (birth attendant), Aling Melchora, of Roxas, Oriental Mindora, who does motivation work in family planning is typical of hilots who are found in every barrio throughout the Philippines. She is 58 years old and has been a hilot for more than 30 years. She learned birth attendance in a training course at the Pandacan Puericulture Center in 1940. She averages 3 deliveries a month and 8 IUD acceptances a month. The hilots are a possible strong force in family planning motivation because of their influence and the respect with which people in the community regard them. They are older, experienced, always available, and charge very reasonable rates for services highly trained clinic staff would balk at doing. The Institute of Maternal and Child Health (IMCH) has trained 400 such hilots to do motivation work in family planning. It is noted that in the Philippines, the hilot may yet provide the key to reach the people in the barrios, which is the most important and challenging task for the national program on family planning. PMID:12306912

  20. NATIONAL SURVEY OF FAMILY GROWTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) provides information on childbearing, contraception, and related aspects of maternal and child health. The NSFG is the principal national source of data on trends and group differences in contraceptive use and effectiveness, use of fami...

  1. Men and Family Planning. Worldwatch Paper 41.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Bruce

    This monograph focuses on men's potentially positive role in family planning. In addition, it identifies reasons why so few organized family planning programs have targeted men as clients and why men have so often played a peripheral or negative role in family planning. The document is presented in seven chapters. Chapter I introduces the topic…

  2. Men and Family Planning. Worldwatch Paper 41.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Bruce

    This monograph focuses on men's potentially positive role in family planning. In addition, it identifies reasons why so few organized family planning programs have targeted men as clients and why men have so often played a peripheral or negative role in family planning. The document is presented in seven chapters. Chapter I introduces the topic

  3. Data sheet charts family planning progress.

    PubMed

    1997-06-01

    "Monitoring Family Planning Programs 1996," a wallchart produced by the Carolina Population Center at the University of Chapel Hill in collaboration with the Population Reference Bureau, compiles most of the available data regarding family planning programs in 96 developing countries and presents the evaluation indicators in a comparative overview. Data on government spending, types of services available, facilities, and the number of new contraceptive users served each year are included. Key findings include the following information. Although most governments are concerned about high birth rates (80% of governments in Africa and over 50% of governments in Latin America), West Asian governments (Iraq, Jordan, Yemen, and Syria) consider the high fertility rates there to be satisfactory and have not promoted family planning. In East Asia, where family planning has been established for decades, fertility has decreased below replacement level. In spite of governmental concern, family planning effort lags in many countries; of the 95 countries with family planning effort scores, only 41 received moderate or strong scores (50-92% of the maximum score possible). These included 62% of Latin American countries, 23% of African countries, and just over 50% of Asian countries. National and international spending is often insufficient. The highest annual per capita expenditure by a government on family planning services occurs in Mauritius (US $1.65 per person); Afghanistan, Brazil, the Congo, Honduras, Iran, Paraguay, Uganda, and Zaire spend less than US $0.01 per person. Costa Rica, El Salvador, Mauritius, Tunisia, and Zimbabwe spend a total per capita, from all sources, of US $1 or more. Almost 50% of the married women in developing countries use a modern form of contraception; 17% of married women of reproductive age in Africa do so (11% in sub-Saharan Africa, and 36% in North Africa). Contraceptive prevalence in Latin America is 53%; in Asia it ranges from 34% in South Central Asia to 78% in East Asia. Service providers may be too few in number. The ratio of married women, ages 15-44, per staff member ranges from 111,235 in the Ivory Coast to 109 in Viet Nam. Of the 38 countries that have more than 1000 women per staff member, 16 are in Africa, 12 are in Latin America, and 10 are in Asia. PMID:12320944

  4. Spousal veto over family planning services.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, R J; Maine, D

    1987-01-01

    In many countries a spouse, usually the husband, can veto a partner's use of family planning services. Where spousal veto acts as a barrier to family planning services it represents a serious threat to the lives and health of women and children. Removal of spousal authorization requirements has been shown to increase the use of family planning services. The Family Guidance Association of Ethiopia, for example, removed their requirement in 1982 and clinic utilization increased by 26 per cent within a few months. Courts of several countries have held that spousal veto practices violate principles of personal privacy and autonomy and the right to health care. The effect of such judgements has been to reinforce rights to sexual nondiscrimination found, for example, in national constitutions and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. This article discusses the nature and application of spousal veto practices, explains how such requirements can violate certain human rights, and explores possible remedies to this problem, including ministerial, legislative, and judicial initiatives. PMID:3812842

  5. Making family planning accessible in resource-poor settings

    PubMed Central

    Prata, Ndola

    2009-01-01

    It is imperative to make family planning more accessible in low resource settings. The poorest couples have the highest fertility, the lowest contraceptive use and the highest unmet need for contraception. It is also in the low resource settings where maternal and child mortality is the highest. Family planning can contribute to improvements in maternal and child health, especially in low resource settings where overall access to health services is limited. Four critical steps should be taken to increase access to family planning in resource-poor settings: (i) increase knowledge about the safety of family planning methods; (ii) ensure contraception is genuinely affordable to the poorest families; (iii) ensure supply of contraceptives by making family planning a permanent line item in healthcare system's budgets and (iv) take immediate action to remove barriers hindering access to family planning methods. In Africa, there are more women with an unmet need for family planning than women currently using modern methods. Making family planning accessible in low resource settings will help decrease the existing inequities in achieving desired fertility at individual and country level. In addition, it could help slow population growth within a human rights framework. The United Nations Population Division projections for the year 2050 vary between a high of 10.6 and a low of 7.4 billion. Given that most of the growth is expected to come from today's resource-poor settings, easy access to family planning could make a difference of billions in the world in 2050. PMID:19770158

  6. Studies in family planning. 6. Singapore.

    PubMed

    Kee, W F; Lee, A S

    1973-05-01

    Family planning progress in Singapore during 1972 is reviewed. The Singapore Family Planning and Population Board launched its most intensive family planning campaign in July 1972. A primary objective of the campaign was to promote both male and female sterilizations. Stronger social disincentives to discourage large family size (higher delivery fees, reduction of income tax deductions, reduction of allowable maternity leaves, and housing priority for small families) have been read in Parliament and will take effect August 1, 1973. The 1972 crude birth rate was estimated at 22.6 per 1000, compared with 22.3 in 1971. The crude death rate remains constant at an estimated 5.4 per 1000. The rate of natural increase has risen to an estimated 17.2 per 1000, compared with 16.9 in 1971. The Second Five-Year Plan (1971-1975) sets a target of 80,000 new acceptors to be recruited evenly throughout the period. In 1972, the Board recruited 17,666 new acceptors. The main method used continued to be the pill, but the number of new pill users dropped from 19,000 in 1968 to 10,000 in 1971 and 1972. The number of condom acceptors dropped from 10,076 in 1968 to 7343 in 1972. IUD insertions were 3703 in 1968, and in 1972 there were only 177 IUDs inserted. Female sterilizations rose from 477 in 1966 to 3848 in 1971 to over 5700 in 1972. Abortions rose from 2929 in 1969 to 5943 in 1972. The Board approved the establishment of a Research and Evaluation Committee at the close of 1972. An Information, Education, and Communication Unit and a Training Center financed by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) were established in 1972. The Family Planning Campaign is being evaluated by pre- and postcampaign KAP-type surveys. During 1972, clinical trials were initiated on the Dalkon Shield and the Copper 7 with encouraging preliminary results. The average desired family size among Singapore families is 3.6, and there are problems in trying to reduce this figure. The informational aspects of the communications program have reached a "saturation" stage. Future emphasis must be on persuasion and motivation. PMID:4710480

  7. Family planning and population policy in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sanders, T G

    1984-08-01

    Attitudes toward population growth and family planning in Brazil were discussed from a historical perspective and reasons for the government's failure to institute an efective family planning program were examined. During the colonial period, Portugal encouraged population growth in order to exert firm control over Brazil's vast and sparsely populated regions. A large number of African slaves were introduced, and the country's expanding population became recially mixed. Following independence in 1822, Brazilian governments continued to stress the need to expand the population. European immigration was vigorously promoted in order to dilute the population's African ancestry. During the 1900s, population growth became increasingly identified with the nation's destiny. In the 1950s and 1960s, despite the continuing pronatalist attitudes of the government, Brazil's middle and upper classes began to practice family planning. By 1965, the fertility rate began to decline. Between 1970-78 the total fertility rate declined from 4.911-3.983; however, the rate among the poor remained high. In 1965, the medical profession established the Brazilian Society of Family Welfare (BEMFAM) to promote and provide family planning services, especially for the poor. The organization provides these services through the existing network of private and municipal health facilities and works in cooperation with many local and state governments. BEMFAM's goal is to promote individual and family well-being, and BEMFAM strongly believes that the national government should assume responsibility for providing these services to the Brazilian population. In 1974 the Brazilian government presented a statement at the World Population Conference in Bucharest that lead many to believe that government's attitude toward population growth had changed. The statement recognized the right of all couples to have the number of children they wanted and the responsibility of the government to ensure that the poor also had this right. Futhermore, in 1978, President Geisel expressed fear of the consequences of continued population growth, and the current president, Figueiredo, recently noted that progress in family planning was a prerequisite for the continued social and economic development of the country. Despite these public statements, the government faled to implement effective population policies. The government now provides limited family planning services through the exisiting network of private hospitals and clinics. These servies are provided in the context of the government's maternal and child health program. The program is understaffed and underfinanced. As a result, the family planning component is frequently ignored. The programs lack of support stems from the pronatalist views still held by many government officials. The program is also resisted by national level officials of the Catholic Church. Brazil's population was 119 million in 1980 and is expected to increase to 185 million by the year 2000. If raid population continues, Brazil will not attain its desired status as a major developed country in the near future. PMID:12313401

  8. Market research and family planning.

    PubMed

    Smith, W

    1979-04-01

    Market research into contraceptive distribution (especially condoms) has been carried out in Britain by private manufacturers, but the results of this research are generally unavailable. Academics have not used the techniques of market research, preferring their own forms of sociological research and being hampered by limited resources. Attempts to design programs to introduce the provision of free family planning services proved unsuccessful, even though the programs offered supplies, sympathetic personnel, and publicity. Part of this failure is attributed to the lack of any baseline research on the demand for and acceptability of these services in the project areas. These failures are contrasted to a very successful commercial marketing campaign for a brand of condom, and with a commercially designed Dutch program aimed at teenagers. The author urges that those who have a message of social importance to deliver look into the techniques of market research used by industry to alter people's attitudes and buying habits. This will require the provision by local and central government of adequate funds for research into attitudes and needs, which ought to be essential before any family planning campaigns are launched. PMID:12336067

  9. Family planning, AIDS, and FHI.

    PubMed

    Potts, M

    1991-09-01

    Family Health International's (FHI) research and development activities in improving and developing contraceptives and making them available to the public are presented. While FHI, along with other agencies, has been actively promoting and contributing to ongoing international family planning efforts since its creation in 1971, the period 1971-91 has, nonetheless, witness more births, maternal deaths, induced abortions, and infant deaths than over any 20-year span in history. While family sizes have decreased over the period due to greater contraceptive awareness and use, politicians, civil servants, and theologians are indicted as partly responsible for retarding further positive change. The number of women of reproductive ages in developing countries will increase by almost 30% in the 1990s, and the world's population will at least double over the next century. 95% of new births will stem from developing countries. Concerted efforts and global commitments of policymakers must be forthcoming in the battle against both high fertility and AIDS prevention. Specifically, at least 130 million new contraceptive users must be recruited in the 1990s. Surveys and field experiences indicate a large degree of unmet need for contraceptive services, with 50-80% of married women in developing countries expressing their desire to limit or space future births. Demand for contraception only increases once a program is in place; rapid reductions of total fertility are exemplified in the cases of Thailand, Colombia, South Korea, Sri Lanka, and Indonesia. Given the resources and commitment, the number of users could be doubled within 10 years. PMID:12284276

  10. Video: useful tool for delivering family planning messages.

    PubMed

    Sumarsono, S K

    1985-10-01

    In 1969, the Government of Indonesia declared that the population explosion was a national problem. The National Family Planning Program was consequently launched to encourage adoption of the ideal of a small, happy and prosperous family norm. Micro-approach messages are composed of the following: physiology of menstruation; reproductive process; healthy pregnancy; rational family planning; rational application of contraceptives; infant and child care; nutrition improvement; increase in breastfeeding; increase in family income; education in family life; family health; and deferred marriage age. Macro-approach messages include: the population problem and its impact on socioeconomic aspects; efforts to cope with the population problem; and improvement of women's lot. In utilizing the media and communication channels, the program encourages the implementation of units and working units of IEC to produce IEC materials; utilizes all possible existing media and IEC channels; maintains the consistent linkage between the activity of mass media and the IEC activities in the field; and encourages the private sector to participate in the production of IEC media and materials. A media production center was set up and carries out the following activities: producing video cassettes for tv broadcasts of family planning drama, family planning news, and tv spots; producing duplicates of the video cassettes for distribution to provinces in support of the video network; producing teaching materials for family planning workers; and transfering family planning films into video cassettes. A video network was developed and includes video monitors in family planning service points such as hospitals, family planning clinics and public places like bus stations. In 1985, the program will be expanded by 50 mobile information units equipped with video monitors. Video has potentials to increase the productivity and effectiveness of the family planning program. The video production process is cheaper and simpler than film production. Video will be very helpful as a communication aid in group meetings. It can also be used as a teaching aid for training. PMID:12313886

  11. National transuranic program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-11

    As a result of various program initiatives, the U.S. generated and will continue to generate waste contaminated with radioactive materials. Because of increased awareness of the risks and special requirements to safely manage long-lived alpha-emitting radionuclides, a new category of radioactive waste, transuranic (TRU) waste, was adopted in 1970. Heads of Field Elements can determine that other alpha-contaminated wastes, peculiar to a specific site, must be managed as transuranic waste{close_quotes}. TRU waste is generated and stored at various DOE sites around the country. In December 1993, the National Transuranic Program Office (NTPO) was established as part of the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) to integrate and coordinate the diverse organizational elements that contribute to the complex-wide management of TRU waste. Numerous sites with small TRU waste inventories are also part of the national TRU waste system. The majority of TRU waste is also contaminated with hazardous materials and is thus considered mixed waste. Mixed waste must be managed in compliance with all federal, state, and local regulations that are applicable to the radioactive and/or hazardous component of the waste. Each generator site is responsible for the management of its respective waste. Sites must plan and implement programs to minimize, characterize, package, treat, store, ship, and dispose of all TRU waste; construct required waste management facilities and equipment; obtain permits; perform site-specific National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) analyses; conduct environmental studies; perform laboratory analyses; and certify that waste meets appropriate disposal facility criteria. Due to the toxicity and long half-lives of TRU radionuclides, TRU waste must be disposed in a manner that offers greater confinement than shallow land burial.

  12. Thailand Functional Literacy and Family Life Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Education, Inc., New York, NY.

    This document gives details on a current Thai project whose object is to introduce family planning concepts into adult education programs. Complementary objectives are: (1) Educate 200,000 adults through literacy/family planning programs by 1976; (2) Develop appropriate instructional materials; (3) Add and emphasize family life education in the…

  13. Taking family planning to the people.

    PubMed

    Fincancioglu, N

    1984-06-01

    A diversified pattern of family planning service delivery currently exists, one that is considerably extended through the development of a wide range of supply and distribution channels. In most areas, nongovernmental organizations have played a crucial role in the development of innovative approaches to making contraceptives widely available. In many nations the provision of contraceptives through the national health system continues to be the backbone of the family planning program. Changes in the approach to health care have helped increase the acccessibility and acceptability of family planning services. 2 factors necessitate a close link between contraceptive and health services: the need for medical skills and facilities in the provision of surgical contraceptive methods, and the importance of medical supervision in the continuing use of other methods. A widely used approach integrates contraceptive delivery with other development programs, community-based distribution (CBD) of contraceptives, and commercial retail sales. The cornerstone of CBD is extensive use of community networks and of trained community residents. An effective project requires efficient resupply and distribution mechanisms, carefully designed supervision systems, and medical back-up facilities. CBD has spread to over 40 countries, most of them in Asia and Latin America. Wider use of existing commercial retail outlets is being followed in more than 30 countries. Self-sufficiency of these projects has not been realized, and considerable subsidization continues to be required to maintain their efficiency. Efforts to increase the availability of contraceptives have been facilitated by the widening range of service providers. Nurses, midwives, traditional birth attendants, and members of the community are being trained to perform many family planning tasks in clinical and nonclinical settings. Many of these advances have been made possible by the liberalization of laws and regulations governing the distribution, provision, and use of birth control methods. The unmet need for contraceptive advice, services, and supplies is still enormous. The greatest challenge to governments and nongovernmental organizations is to find more effective ways of taking family planning to the people while recognizing that the key to success lies in sensitivity to their needs, perceptions, and priorities. PMID:12339638

  14. Who attends family planning clinics?

    PubMed

    Chick, P; Nixon, J

    1984-08-01

    Data were obtained from 1,810 consecutive women who attended a central metropolitan (Brisbane) Family Planning Clinic during a 5 week period in 1982. Young women in particular formed the major client group with 32% being under 20 years of age. The client population was skewed towards women of upper socioeconomic status (SES). There was no SES disproportion in the use of oral contraceptives or IUD's. However, diaphragm use occurred disproportionately in women of upper SES groups; postcoital contraception was sought by and limited to, women of SES classes A and B only. The clinic satisfied a need for women with a history of failed or absent contraception and 15% had already had a termination of pregnancy by the time they first presented at the clinic. PMID:6596088

  15. Drawing attention to family planning.

    PubMed

    1990-03-01

    In February 1990, the Mexican award winning director and animator, Carlos Carrera, went to Tokyo to oversee the photographing of the color frames (brought from Mexico) of the sex education animated film "Music for Two". The film begins with a warning that it should be shown as part of a sex education program. Further, a trained advisor guides the audience during the recommended discussion following the film. "Music for Two" is set in a large city and features a young female teen who daydreams about imaginary lovers. She soon discovers that her young male next door neighbor is interested in her. The moral of the story is that, once a woman is an adolescent, she must consider her future and have lifelong goals. In order for her to do so, however, she must know her mind and body, appreciate them, and not renounce them. This animated short feature includes both English and Spanish versions targeted to adolescents in their mid to late teens, especially females, in Latin America and the Caribbean. Mr. Carrera predicted that conservative older individuals will most likely not approve of "Music for Two". The Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning (JOICFP) and the UNFPA sponsored this animated film and the Mexican Family Planning Foundation (MEXFAM) participated in its production. The Sakura Motion Picture Company in Japan and Kinam SCL International in Mexico coproduced it. The Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs underwrote the English version and the UNFPA and IPPF underwrote the Spanish version. Further, in 1989, Mr. Carrera played a major role in a successful sex education animated feature titled "Blue Pigeon". This film was geared to youth in their early to mid teens, however. PMID:12283080

  16. The natural way. Family planning.

    PubMed

    Castel, A

    1998-01-01

    The Philippine Federation for Natural Family Planning (PFNFP) teaches men and women about their fertility, emphasizing the notion that women can control their own fertility. Women should know the normal physiological processes of their reproductive system such as the appearance of cervical mucus or other fertility indicators, the menstrual cycle, and others. To that end, PFNFP provides NFP services through its 50 "people's organizations" throughout the Philippines. PFNFP's approach is pragmatic, family-centered, and community-based, allowing local culture and tradition to integrate themselves into the organizational system. PFNFP is also networking with interested nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and has recently received a partnership contract with the Department of Health (DOH) to train the local service providers and barangay health workers of 18 local government units in the delivery of NFP services. The contract also covers the installation and testing of the DOH NFP training design and self-instruction manuals. The author describes the contents of the PFNFP's Fertility Orientation Session, an initial fertility awareness approach. Most NFP acceptors are using the ovulation or sympto-thermal methods, methods which can also help women screen themselves for reproductive tract infections and sexually transmitted diseases. PFNFP's future goals are described. PMID:12294066

  17. Natural family planning: a review.

    PubMed

    Klaus, H

    1982-02-01

    This review of natural family planning (NFP) focuses on the following: components of the fertile phase; sympto-thermal methods; the history and methodology of NFP (calendar rhythm, basal body temperature, cervical mucus--the Billings Ovulation method); special circumstances--periods of erratic ovulation (puberty, lactation, premenopause, discontinuation of ovulation suppression, cervicitis and vaginitis, ovulation suppression by stress and pharmaceuticals); effectiveness of natural family planning; achieving pregnancy; achieving couple autonomy (confidence in the method, periodic abstinence, dynamics of the learning process, and support systems); problem areas; and delivery systems. The number of users of NFP methods increased from 2.8% of currently married couples in 1973 to 3.4% in 1976. In 1979, 75,000 new clients received training in contemporary NFP, while the number increased to over 100,000 in 1980. NFP is planning for achieving or preventing a pregnancy by the timing of intercourse. A couple can, by observing and recording certain natural symptoms and bodily changes that occur in a woman's menstrual cycle and using the information as a guide, learn to identify fertile and infertile phases in the menstrual cycle. Precise prediction of ovulation forms one of the components of delineation of the fertile phase. Billings pioneered the use of cervical mucus as a single parameter for the prediction of ovulation and its application to NFP. Women are instructed to observe their mucus patterns at the vulva, relying primarily on the sensation of wetness and lubrication, the use of the Kegel exercise, palpation with the finger, a "wipe-through" with toilet paper, or a combination of these observations. In the absence of ovulation, the usual changing mucus pattern is also absent. NFP can be used either to achieve or to avoid pregnancy. When NFP is used to avoid pregnancy, one will encounter method-related pregnancies, teaching-related pregnancies due either to poor teaching or poor learning or both. The major use effectiveness studies are listed in table form, and the results are shown under new headings. To achieve pregnancy, it is the general practice of NFP instructors to teach women to recognize and record their fertility signs and to suggest some months of merely concentrating coitus at the time of maximum fertility. Mastery of NFP calls for both identification of the fertile phase and integration of that knowledge into the couple's sexual decision making and behaviors. Studies are reviewed in terms of the spectre of genetically damaged offspring. NFP instruction is available in nearly every country outside the Soviet bloc. PMID:7033851

  18. Family planning gets a new boost.

    PubMed

    Ponle, B

    1993-01-01

    A workshop on family planning was held during 1993 in Ota, Ogun State Nigeria. An active participant was the Emir of Dass, Alhaji Bilyamini Othman, who helped to develop strategies for the implementation of the Family Health Services Project of the Federal Ministry of Health. His commitment to family planning surprised participants, since most pious Muslims are some of the least sympathetic groups. Alhaji Bilyamini is very enthusiastic about family planning and gives the advice that Allah would not like people to have children who could not be fed. Many men come to him for advice and he suggests that the men allow their wives to adopt family planning. Alhaji Bilyamini was educated at Ahmadu Bello University in business administration and currently is a chairman of the advisory committee for the Planned Parenthood Federation of Nigeria in Bauchi State. The involvement of traditional rulers such as Alhaji Bilyamini has been practiced since 1987, when the USAID approached rulers about family planning. Others who have received family planning messages were the Sultan of Sokoto, the Emirs of Kano and Suleija, and the Shehu of Borno, who also have involved their subordinates. The rulers and subordinates who receive training assist in broadcasting the messages to the people. Because of the authoritative position of the rule in the community, a family planning supporter among rulers means the whole community will be convinced. Future plans include involving the rulers through the first phase. Alhaji Bilyamini recommends continued involvement of traditional rulers, because of their success in changing public perceptions. For example, in Bauchi state, condom discussion was considered taboo, and now condoms are advertised on television. Not all emirs have so enthusiastically embraced the family planning idea. An emir in Ogun state turned away visiting family planning experts days before his daughter died while trying at school to abort a pregnancy. Conference participants were supportive of traditional rulers' involvement in spreading the message of family planning. PMID:12318632

  19. Research needs in family planning program promotion.

    PubMed

    Cernada, G P

    1984-09-01

    Areas of family planning promotion which need to be further researched are identified. The effectiveness of diverse information, education, and communication approaches needs to be evaluated, feasible ways to increase contraceptive continuation rates must be identified, the relative merits of providing fieldworkers with salaries or incentives should be assessed, different styles of interactions between providers and clients should be identified and evaluated and research directed toward improving training programs, field supervision, and supply logistics should be undertaken. A number of more detailed research suggestions with special reference to Taiwan and other Asian and Pacific countries are also provided. Little is known, for example, about provider and user interaction patterns in Asia, and the impact of these patterns on contraceptive acceptance and continuance. These patterns could be analyzed using diverse research techniques ranging from observation to experimental manipulation. Despite the fact that approximately 50% of all acceptors discontinue use within 2 years, researchers tend to focus on identifying acceptor characteristics while ignoring the discontinuation process. Researcher should 1) identify the best time for providing postacceptance followup services, 2) identify training strategies which provide fieldworkers with the highest level of confidence in specific contraceptive methods, 3) experiment with the use of newspaper columns and telephone advisory services to provide users with information about side effects, 4) assess the merits of involving both partners in the contraceptive counseling process, 5) develop and evaluate postacceptance educational materials, and 6) assess the impact of various supply systems on contraceptive continuance. Another neglected area of research is the public's attitude toward different contraceptive knowledge sources. For example, receptivity to family planning messages may vary depending on wether the message is delivered by a physician or by a local trained worker. Research is also needed to assess the feasibility of using advertising approaches to encourage acceptors to switch to more effective methods of contraception. The psychosocial needs of acceptors and cultural differences in response to family planning promotional activities should also be explored. Research barriers include a lack of field-trained researchers, limited interest in family planning among scholars, inadequate government and donor support and funding, a failure to provide funds for longterm research, and inadequate communication between researchers. In Taiwan there is a need to 1) conduct more operations research; 2) make more use of previous research findings; 3) focus attention on research aimed at increasing contraceptive use among young people, improving fieldworker and client communication, and expanding the role of nongovernment agencies in family planning; and 4) develop a national population research institute. PMID:12266922

  20. China intensifies IEC programme for family planning.

    PubMed

    She, W

    1997-10-01

    This article describes the aims of family planning (FP) departments to strengthen IEC for the control of population growth and effective improvement in the quality of human resources in China. The IEC directive was promoted by Madam Peng Peiyun of the State Family Planning Commission in May 1997. In 1996, the birth rate was 16.98/1000. The total fertility rate was below replacement level in 1996. These achievements were accomplished with effective IEC over the past 30 years. The Ninth Five Year Plan for 1996-2000 offers many challenges for the national FP program. The aim is to continue to strictly control population growth in order to keep population below 1.3 billion by the year 2000, and below 1.4 billion by the year 2010. The aim is to improve the quality of life, to improve population structure, to meet the needs of reproductive-age women for services, and to promote socioeconomic and sustainable development. IEC needs to be intensified and to use improved techniques. IEC funding should be increased. Information should be promoted about the importance of educating people about the basic national conditions and the state's basic policies. People need to be informed about the need for a balanced population and socioeconomic development at all cadre levels. FP workers need to be encouraged to serve the people's needs "wholeheartedly." The aim is to provide quality services. People need to be informed that the advantages of fewer births are greater prosperity and comfortable living. FP is an integral part of poverty alleviation. The State Commission plans to conduct a new round of training for cadres. PMID:12293433

  1. Family planning programme and management tools.

    PubMed

    Agarwala, S N

    1974-01-01

    India's family planning program is not improving. The performance in 1973-1974 was about 1/3 of the 1972-1973 performance. It is the opinion of some experts that the family planning program is not being managed well and that greater success can be realized if the standard management tools, with appropriate modifications, are utilized. Management is the process of planning, organizing, directing, coordinating, and controlling people, materials, machines and money in order to realize the optimum achievement of the program objectives. The family planning program should be reviewed as a system. Decisions made in the various sub-systems of the family planning system should be made in such a way that the various sub-systems act in a coordinated manner to achieve the overall program objective. The approach of the current family planning program is trial and error. In order to make the family planning workers more committed and motivated, the program should be planned at the micro level on the basis of 2 management principles -- participation and decentralization. Various management principles may be used to plan a family planning system. The principles of marketing can be effectively utilized. Evaluation should be a built-in process of the program. An effective Management Information and Evaluation System (MIES) should be devised because such a system furnishes relevant data in a useful form to the right person at the right time, for use in policy decision. PMID:4466802

  2. Family planning: a basic development need.

    PubMed

    1994-06-01

    The 1994 Human Development Report from the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) proposes a 20-20 Human Development Compact based on shared responsibilities between poor and rich nations, whereby poor and rich nations would help unmet basic human development needs such as primary education, primary health care, safe drinking water, and family planning over the next 10 years. This would require an additional US $30 to US $40 billion annually. Developing countries would commit 20% of their budgets to human priority concerns instead of the current 10% by reducing military expenditure, selling off unprofitable public enterprises and abandoning wasteful prestige projects. Donor countries would increase foreign aid from the current average of 7% to 20%. The report will propose a new concept of human security at the World Summit for Social Development to be held in March 1995, calling widespread human insecurity a universal problem. On average, poor nations have 19 soldiers for every one doctor. Global military spending has been declining since 1987 at the rate of 3.6% a year, resulting in a cumulative peace dividend of US $935 billion from 1987 to 1994. But this money has not been expended on unmet human needs. India ordered fighter planes at a cost that could have provided basic education to the 15 million Indian girls now out of school. Nigeria bought tanks from the UK at a cost that could have immunized all 2 million unimmunized children while also providing family planning to nearly 17 million couples. UNDP proposes a phasing out of all military assistance, military bases, and subsidies to arms exporters over a 3-year period. It also recommends the major restructuring of existing aid funds, and proposes a serious study on new institutions for global governance in the next century. PMID:12345955

  3. Indonesia's family planning story: success and challenge.

    PubMed

    Hull, T H; Hull, V J; Singarimbun, M

    1977-11-01

    A historical overview and descriptions of family planning programs in Indonesia are presented. 85 million of the 135 million inhabitants of the Indonesian archipelago are concentrated on the island of Java, which comprises about 7% of the Indonesian land mass. The Dutch colonial government preferred a policy ("transmigration") which advocated the redistribution of population from Java to the other islands to relieve overpopulation. This policy was also advocated by President Sukarno after the Indonesian Revolution of 1940. The need for family planning was recognized by small groups, and official policy supported national family planning programs to replace transmigration programs only after Sukarno became president in 1966. The focus of the program was on Java and Bali, the 2 most populous islands. Local clinics became the locus for birth control efforts. Fieldworkers affiliated with the clinics were given the job of advocating birth control use door-to-door. Fieldworkers "incentive programs," area "target" (quota) programs, and "special drives" were organized to create new contraceptive "acceptors." A data reporting system and a research program increase the effectiveness of the family planning drive by ascertaining trends in contraceptive use which can determine where and how money and effort can best be applied. "Village Contraception Distribution Centers" bring the contraceptive means closer to the people than do the clinics. Figures from the years 1969-1977 show the great increase in acceptance of contraceptives by the inhabitants of the Java-Bali area. Steps are now being taken to alleviate the large monthly variations in the number of (often temporary) acceptors caused by the "target programs" and "special drives." The average acceptor is 27-years-old, has 2.6 children, has not finished primary school, and has a husband of low social status. Bali has shown the greatest success in family planning. It is a small island with a highly developed system of local clinics. The strong community structures on Bali encourage birth control use. Bali, which is predominantly Hindi, is more receptive to the IUD than Java, which is predominantly Muslim. In East Java, the authoritarian bureaucracy makes efficient use of its money. Central Java is making slow but steady progress in family planning. In West Java, fieldworkers are teamed with paramedics; there, door-to-door contraceptive supply was more effective than the clinic system. In many areas traditional methods, i.e., herbs, massage, total abstinence for long periods of time, etc., were favored. More educated women often do not use contraceptives for fear of side effects. The need for family planning on the outer Indonesian islands is not as great, but programs are being set under way. These programs are the beginning of an attempt to alleviate problems that could be encountered if Indonesia's population growth continues unchecked. PMID:12260296

  4. Family planning program: world review 1974. Introduction.

    PubMed

    Watson, W B; Lapham, R J

    1975-08-01

    The 1974 Population Conference at Bucharest was marked with controversy between developed and developing countries, with the latter strongly critical of aid for population control but less for social and economic development. The Plan of Action which was finally approved emphasized the importance of social and economic factors in relation to population growth while recommending that couples in all nations should have access to family planning information. Different regions of the world, however, have widely divergent population policies and goals. The Asia-Pacific region of the developing world, which has 3/4 of the population of the developing world, has articulated a strong stance in favor of reducing birth rates at Post-Bucharest Consultation. Government-supported family planning programs are seen as a high priority item to reduce rapid population growth. Rapid population growth is not seen as a high-priority problem in most African, Arab, and Latin American countries. Population problems will be solved with economic and social advancement. There is more concern in Latin America for family planning as a "human right" issue than to promote demographic goals. Latin America was also concerned with migration/urbanization issues. All of the Regional Consultations after Bucharest favored a greater emphasis on population in development planning, concern for the problems caused by migration and urbanization, improvement in the status of women, and support for the reduction of mortality levels. Some 74 countries containing 93% of the population of the developing world, supported family planning, with only 4 populous countries -- Burma, Ethiopia, Peru, and North Korea not in support. More than 98% of the population of Asia lives in countries which support family planning; the figures are 94% for Latin America, 90% for the Middle East and North Africa and 64% for Sub-Saharan Africa. The governments of 39 countries with a combined population of 2.3 billion have stated that rapid population growth is detrimental to the rapid attainment of social and economic development; 35 additional developing countries favor family planning as a basic human right, to improve the status of women, and for health reasons. There is a wide range of acceptance rates for contraceptives among the developing countries with gains shown for most countries between 1972 and 1974. There is a strong pattern of fertility decline in 11 East Asian and Latin American countries plus Mauritius. Induced abortion countries to be a major means of birth control even in countries where it is illegal. Legal access to abortion on broad grounds is available in China, North Vietnam, Tunisia, Singapore, India, Zambia, and Hong Kong. It seems likely that liberalization of abortion laws will occur in more developing countries in the near future for health reasons as well as for demographic reasons. PMID:1202672

  5. Family Planning: Bosnian, Russian, Spanish, Nuer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anoka County Community Health and Environmental Services, Coon Rapids, MN.

    This guide provides information in English, Bosnian, Russian, Spanish, and Nuer on family planning. Topics covered include a variety of birth control methods: abstinence, condoms, contraceptive foam, birth control pills, the Depo-Provera shot, the Norplant implant, diaphragms, intrauterine devices, natural family planning, sterilization, and the…

  6. Family-Directed Transition Planning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver. Div. of Special Education Services.

    This guide to family-directed transition planning is intended to help parents and students with disabilities take leading roles in the process of transition from school to post-school activities. First, a letter to families examines the challenge of change and the transition process. Section 2 examines regulations that affect transition planning,…

  7. Family Planning: Extension Aides See Need

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Jean

    1972-01-01

    Study of nutrition program aides shows that most (1) see a need for family planning education among clientele, (2) strongly favor family planning and birth control, and (3) would be willing to teach homemakers about these subjects if they had training.'' (Author)

  8. [Family planning methods based on fertility awareness].

    PubMed

    Haghenbeck-Altamirano, Francisco Javier; Ayala-Yáñez, Rodrigo; Herrera-Meillón, Héctor

    2012-04-01

    The desire to limit fertility is recognized both by individuals and by nations. The concept of family planning is based on the right of individuals and couples to regulate their fertility and is based in the area of health, human rights and population. Despite the changes in policies and family planning programs worldwide, there are large geographic areas that have not yet met the minimum requirements in this regard, the reasons are multiple, including economic reasons but also ideological or religious. Knowledge on the physiology of the menstrual cycle, specifically ovulation process has been further enhanced due to the advances in reproductive medicine research. The series of events around ovulation are used to detect the "fertile window", this way women will look for the possibility of postponing their pregnancy or actually start looking for it. The aim of this article is to review the current methods of family planning based on fertility awareness, from the historical methods like the core temperature determination and rhythm, to the most popular ones like the Billings ovulation method, the Sympto-thermal method and current methods like the two days, and the standard days method. There are also mentioned methods that require electronic devices or specifically computer designed ones to detect this "window of fertility". The spread and popularity of these methods is low and their knowledge among physicians, including gynecologists, is also quite scarce. The effectiveness of these methods has been difficult to quantify due to the lack of well designed, randomized studies which are affected by small populations of patients using these methods. The publications mention high effectiveness with their proper use, but not with typical use, what indicates the need for increased awareness among medical practitioners and trainers, obtaining a better use and understanding of methods and reducing these discrepancies. PMID:22808858

  9. Improving the urban family planning programme.

    PubMed

    1997-10-01

    This report presents the directives on improving urban family planning (FP) programs issued by various Chinese departments in March 1997. The departments included the State Family Planning Commission, State Economic and Trade Commission, Ministry of Public Security, Ministry of Personnel, Ministry of Labor, Ministry of Public Health, and the National Industrial and Commercial Administration. The directives related to time frame, objectives, management, local level operations, IEC, the floating population's needs, the responsibility system, and a well-trained staff. It was stated that urban FP improvements will take some time, due to expansion of urban population, the increase in floating population, and the demand for quality services. The guiding principles support Deng Xiaoping's theory of building socialism with Chinese characteristics and balancing population with socioeconomic and sustainable development. The aim is to improve IEC and services and achieve low fertility as a way of creating favorable demographics for modernization. Leaders must be held responsible for the practice of FP in their unit. Subdistrict offices are a key link for managing FP in all units and neighborhood committees in their territory. Efforts need to be increased to spread IEC on population and FP and to reduce abortion. Every department registry should make an effort to provide comprehensive FP to floating populations. Urban centers should concentrate on improving the quality of FP services. Staff should be carefully chosen. PMID:12293432

  10. Family planning reaches Mongolia's spacious steppes.

    PubMed

    Davaasuren, L; Naranchimeg, J

    1997-01-01

    In 1995, Mr. Bolooj organized a branch of the Mongolian Family Welfare Association (MFWA), an affiliate of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), in the smallest administrative district in western Mongolia. Most of the people are nomadic shepherds, and there are 10 times as many domestic animals as humans in the sparsely population country. In rural areas, the idea of family planning is alien, and Mongolia's mass media also has a difficult time understanding population concerns. Mr. Bolooj began by using the media to explain the goals of the IPPF and the MFWA. He then recruited and trained volunteer medical workers to provide reproductive health services. In its first six months of operation, the MFWA branch created 38 hours of reproductive health lessons for use in local schools. These lessons included information on the importance of good hygiene despite the scarcity of water for bathing. The population is so scattered, however, that it is very expensive to reach individual households. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, maternal health services have deteriorated, and maternal mortality has increased. The new National Reproductive Health Program seeks to provide delivery rooms in remote areas. The MFWA branch is also working to help women who are heading households. A course on contraceptive choices organized for 50 women of childbearing age resulted in 12 acceptors of the IUD, 15 of oral contraceptives, and six of injectables. PMID:12293466

  11. Priority strategies for India's family planning programme

    PubMed Central

    Pachauri, Saroj

    2014-01-01

    Strategies to accelerate progress of India's family planning programme are discussed and the importance of improving the quality and reach of services to address unmet contraceptive need by providing method choice is emphasized. Although there is a growing demand for both limiting and spacing births, female sterilisation, is the dominant method in the national programme and use of spacing methods remains very limited. Fertility decline has been slower in the empowered action group (EAG) States which contribute about 40 per cent of population growth to the country and also depict gloomy statistics for other socio-development indicators. It is, therefore, important to intensify efforts to reduce both fertility and mortality in these States. A rationale has been provided for implementing integrated programmes using a gender lens because the lack of women's autonomy in reproductive decision-making, compounded by poor male involvement in sexual and reproductive health matters, is a fundamental issue yet to be addressed. The need for collaboration between scientists developing contraceptive technologies and those implementing family planning services is underscored. If contraceptive technologies are developed with an understanding of the contexts in which they will be delivered and an appreciation of end-users’ needs and perspectives, they are more likely to be accepted by service providers and used by clients. PMID:25673535

  12. [Some psychological problems in family planning work].

    PubMed

    Chen, J

    1983-11-29

    Psychology has significance in family planning work, because it may promote the scientific nature of family planning work and thus increase its effectiveness. Since people have some common aspects in their psychological process, family planning workers should master some common rules of the people's psychological process in order to understand psychological trends and possible behavior. Through this method, family planning workers may find how to adjust to problems they may encounter in their daily work, such as the worries about a single child being too lonely, spoiled, and hard to handle for the parents, the traditional belief that more children represent good fortune, and more male children may provide security for one's old age. Traditionally, the Chinese people believed that only male children can carry on the family line and that more children will provide a larger labor force, which is beneficial to a family's financial situation. In family planning work, all such incorrect ways of thinking should be corrected and revised. Studies of children's psychology should also be developed so that children may develop a healthy mentality. All these are crucial to the success of family planning work and the promotion of population quality. PMID:12159333

  13. Planning for Impact: A Guide to Planning Effective Family Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, James M.

    A document intended to provide program planning guidelines for Young Men's Christian Associations (YMCAs) desirous of working with families, recommends adherence to eight principles and following of five steps. The principles involve planning before action, fact finding and analysis, clear delineation of operational objectives, planning at all…

  14. Objective necessity of socialist family planning: a trial discussion.

    PubMed

    Li, R

    1985-07-01

    On the basis of Marx and Engels' prediction and thesis of scientific socialism, socialist China, the most populous nation in the world, is the 1st to have realized the planned management of population reproductive in the history of mankind, thus giving an answer to the problem in practice. This paper makes a tentative exploration of such a necessity in socialist family planning. Engels points out that 1) under private ownership, population reproduction takes class antagonism as the basis, while public ownership of the means of production eradicates it; 2) in capitalist society, the reproduction of the labor force is commodity reproduction--public ownership of the means of production can be divorced from the domain of commodity; and 3) under private ownership, population reproduction is purely the private business of an individual or a family whose economic benefit forms the motive force of population reproduction--public ownership liberates it from one's personal gains making it a public affair. The great significance of family planning to economic development can be recognized as production, consumption, and accumulation. Taking family planning as the basis for the reproduction plan of the labor force is the guarantee of realizing the material production plan. Family planning reflects the trend of the structure and change of consumer requirements and provides the direct and indirect objectives of various items of material production planning; it provides the objective basis for social accumulation and the arrangement of expanding reproduction. 3 conclusions are derived: 1) the building up of the public ownership of the means of production affords man the possibility to regulate the production of matter as well as man, 2) the characteristics of the planned development of a socialist national economy demands the planned production of man, and 3) family planning and the development of a socialist economy demand their mutual congruence. PMID:12314263

  15. Old and new ways: family planning in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Antarsh, L

    1989-04-01

    Kenya has the highest fertility rate in the world. The average woman has 8 children. Further, urban areas attract people from rural areas leaving fewer people to farm the finite land or raise cattle. Therefore a reduced need for children to partake in agricultural activities exists. Nevertheless many barriers to family planning continue in Kenya. Family planning services are scarce especially in rural areas. Husbands must agree to their wives undergoing voluntary sterilization by going to the clinic to sign a consent form. Children are highly valued. Succession of the generations is important. The higher a woman's fertility the more valuable she is to husband. The continuance of legal polygamy fosters competition among a man's wives to have many sons with the 1 having the most being his most prized wife. In spite of these obstacles, the president of Kenya promotes family planning through his speeches and requires the Ministry of Health (MOH) to provide family planning services at all government hospitals. Moreover, church hospitals also provide family planning services. Additionally, articles that cover teenage pregnancy and family planning programs appear in daily newspapers. The MOH and the National Council on Population and Development are organizing a network of government and nongovernment organizations that provide family planning services to the public. A sample of these organizations include the Family Planning Association of Kenya, an influential women's organization (Mandeleo ya Wanawake), and several church organizations. The Association for Voluntary Surgical Contraception's regional office has promoted minilaparotomies under local anesthesia since 1986. They are now used in maternal and child health programs in government hospitals, mission hospitals, and in several family planning clinics. PMID:12315714

  16. Sources of population and family planning assistance.

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    This document assesses the current status of population and family planning assistance throughout the world and provides brief sketches of the available sources including national governments, intergovernmental agencies such as the UNFPA and other UN entities, and nongovernmental funding, technical assistance, or funding and technical assistance organizations. The descriptions of aid-granting organizations describe their purposes, sources of funding, and activities, and give addresses where further information may be sought. At present about $100 million of the US $1 billion spent for family planning in developing countries each year comes from individuals paying for their own supplies and services, over $400 million is spent by national governments on their own programs, and about $450 million comes from developed country governments and private agencies. Over half of external assistance appears to be channeled through international agencies, and only a few countries provide a substantial proportion of aid bilaterally. In the past decade several governments, particularly in Asia, significantly increased the share of program costs they assumed themselves, and the most populous developing countries, China, India, and Indonesia, now contribute most of the funding for their own programs. Although at least 130 countries have provided population aid at some time, most is given by 12 industrialized countries. The US Agency for International Development (USAID) is the largest single donor, but the US share of population assistance has declined to 50% of all assistance in 1981 from 60% in the early 1970s. Governments of Communist bloc countries have made only small contributions to international population assistance. Most governmental asistance is in cash grant form, but loans, grants in kind, and technical assistance are also provided. Private organizations give assistance primarily to other private organizations in developing countries, and have been major innovators in research, training and service delivery. Loan assistance is provided by the World Bank for combined health, nutrition, and population projects as well as poupulation education. Although international population assistance from donor governments and private organizations increased from about $165 million in 1971 to about $445 million in 1980, the increase in constant value was only about 10% after inflation. About 2/3 of international assistance goes to family planning services and contraceptives; other activities receiving support are basic data collection, research, and IEC. Greatly increased expenditures will be needed if population stability is to be achieved. PMID:6840390

  17. Massive drive to reenergize the family planning programme.

    PubMed

    Kakar, V N

    1979-01-01

    A massive drive has been launched throughout India in an effort to reenergize the family planning program. The Prime Minister has made a special appeal to the nation from radio and television networks and through the press to adopt the small family norm as a way of life. The Chief Ministers and the Health Ministers in the States have made similar appeals to the people and the doctors. The current drive was preceded by 18 months of concentrated efforts to vitalize the family planning program. The change in nomenclature from "family planning" to "family welfare" created some misunderstanding regarding the government's own commitment to the program, but it is now widely understood that while family welfare aims at the total welfare of the family, family planning is an essential part of it. The government has tried to involve all sectors of society in program efforts. The mass media is now focusing attention on "family welfare" almost continuously. In villages, a large-scale program of organizing education camps of opinion leaders is now underway. The rural health scheme, initiated in October 1977, promises to bring about increased participation of the people in village programs. 54,000 community health workers have already started serving the rural population in their areas. In 2-3 years there will be 1 trained community health worker in every Indian village. PMID:12309490

  18. National Center for Family Literacy, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NCFL Newsletter, 1994

    1994-01-01

    These four newsletter issues provide information on family literacy and literacy education programs. Each 16-page issue includes several feature articles; descriptions of literacy conferences and seminars; updates on the National Family Literacy Project; descriptions of successful family literacy programs; coming events; a list of National Center…

  19. Cambodian refugees' family planning knowledge and use.

    PubMed

    Kulig, J C

    1995-07-01

    An ethnographic study was conducted within a Cambodian refugee community to discover information about Cambodian women's and men's knowledge and use of family planning methods. This 18-month study included participant observation at community and calendrical events, and within families' homes. Open-ended interviews were conducted with 53 informants from a variety of educational and socio-economic backgrounds. Both women and men were interviewed through a female bilingual interpreter when the informant lacked proficiency in speaking English. Major findings include a lack of knowledge among the sample about how the family planning methods work in the woman's body, and concerns about side-effects. Implications include the need to include Cambodian women and men in the planning and implementation of family planning programmes. PMID:7560523

  20. Africa: the new family planning frontier.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, John C; Caldwell, Pat

    2002-03-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa will be the family planning frontier of the twenty-first century. Fertility levels and population growth rates are still high, and family planning programs suited to the region are still being developed. Nevertheless, by the end of the twentieth century, fertility transition was under way in Southern Africa and a few countries elsewhere. Successful regional family planning in the twenty-first century will depend upon stronger political leadership, the development of family planning programs that meet the needs of all segments of society and not only currently married women, assistance to the market, and a recognition of the central importance of hormonal methods, especially injectables. Problems include stagnation in economic growth and in child mortality decline, as well as the persistence of the AIDS epidemic. PMID:11974421

  1. A dynamic family planning and health campaign.

    PubMed

    1986-11-01

    Any successful development program that combines family planning, nutrition, and parasite control such as the integrated project, must include effective information, education, and communication (IEC) components. The Population an Community Development Association (PDA), the largest nonprofit organization in Thailand provides a network of family planning service delivery composed of volunteer distributors including midwives, school techers and shopkeepers. Reliability and accessibility are the 2 important elements. A concerted media campaign which exposes people to condoms and other contraceptives helps desensitize an otherwise "too personal" issue. The problem which confronts family planning communication is how to counteract the sensuous messages form advetisers while focusing on mundane topics such as maternal and child health, responsible parenthood, and family budgets. The PDA has tried to use the same attractions to promote family planning. It distributes promotional items such as T-shirts, pens towels and cigarette lighters bearing family planning messages. In addition to the use of television and radio, PDA also utilizes every possible channel of communication. Approaches include: the Youth-to-Youth Program; informational exhibits; video-mobile vans which visit schools and factories; and the holding of PDA's vasectomy festivals. Informational exhibits on family planning and health care use a variety of audio-visual methods. Video is an effective communication medium. The PDA video material ordinarily consists of family dramas illustrating good and bad family planning practices. By holding vasectomy festivals, PDA provides a media-attracting forum to educate the public and promote vasectomey as the most effective birth control method. Mass media campaigns must be linked with fieldwork outreach. PMID:12314464

  2. Family Planning Among Southeast Asian Refugees

    PubMed Central

    Minkler, Donald H.; Korenbrot, Carol; Brindis, Claire

    1988-01-01

    Five different Southeast Asian groups were studied to document family planning knowledge, attitudes, and practices, and to identify current barriers to care. Significant differences exist among ethnic groups in their knowledge and use of effective methods of contraception, as well as variations in the timing of when to adopt family planning practices and in the preferred number of children. Nearly 70% of the sample had experienced barriers to services, including language, transportation, and a lack of awareness of available services. PMID:3363968

  3. [Grasping economic reform and family planning simultaneously].

    PubMed

    Hou, W

    1985-07-29

    This report aims at proposing ways the Chinese government can raise productivity levels and living standards while promoting the objectives of family planning. During the 1970's, family planning was heavily emphasized. Every factory, commune, and government agency had a specialized group of personnel responsible for family planning. Since the time of economic reform, this group has been vastly minimized because of the central government's demands for reduction of "unproductive" personnel. Thus, with economic reform came a sizeable obstacle to the family planning campaign. The report takes Hong Lai County as an example of recent undertakings to balance the new reforms and the family planning objectives. Hong Lai County, one of the poorest counties in the Sichuan Province, located in western central Chna, has seen a growth in GNP of 100% since the economic reform of 1979. At the same time, the government of the county has had to work extremely hard to promote family planning, especially in rural areas where these objectives are more difficult to reinforce. The county government, in an effort to encourage these objectives, has set up programs of compensation in the form of special allowances and bonuses. Moreover, eucational programs have proven effective in this area. The report indicates that much success has been achieved in the areas of education through promotional campaigns and vocational training which have, in turn, increased productivity levels and living standards. PMID:12159346

  4. Readability Levels of Individualized Family Service Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pizur-Barnekow, Kris; Patrick, Timothy; Rhyner, Paula M.; Folk, Lillian; Anderson, Kara

    2010-01-01

    This descriptive study examined the readability levels of Individualized Family Service Plans (IFSPs). The readability of 85 de-identified IFSP documents developed by seven agencies that serve families and children enrolled in a county early intervention program was analyzed using Flesch Kincaid grade levels and Flesch reading ease scores. The…

  5. A Small Library in Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc., New York, NY.

    This annotated listing of books is intended as a reference for anyone seeking an authoritative introduction to population and family planning information, as a world, family, or individual concern. For each entry, the International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is provided if available. The number preceding each reference represents the…

  6. The Italian Dementia National Plan. Commentary.

    PubMed

    Di Fiandra, Teresa; Canevelli, Marco; Di Pucchio, Alessandra; Vanacore, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    The Italian Dementia National Plan was formulated in October 2014 by the Italian Ministry of Health in close cooperation with the regions, the National Institute of Health and the three major national associations of patients and carers. The main purpose of this strategy was to provide directive indications for promoting and improving interventions in the dementia field, not limiting to specialist and therapeutic actions, but particularly focusing on the support of patients and families throughout the pathways of care. Four main objectives are indicated: 1) promote health- and social-care interventions and policies; 2) create/strengthen the integrated network of services for dementia based on an integrated approach; 3) implement strategies for promoting appropriateness and quality of care; and 4) improve the quality of life of persons with dementia and their families by supporting empowerment and stigma reduction. These objectives and the pertaining actions are described in the present paper. PMID:26783209

  7. Filling the Family Planning Gap. Worldwatch Paper 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Bruce

    The author provides a global review of family planning techniques and their impact on national birth rates. Sterilization, the pill, and intrauterine devices are the most popular methods of contraception worldwide. Abortion, where it is legal, is also extremely popular. In countries such as the United States where population control is not an…

  8. [Medical and social considerations of family planning].

    PubMed

    Slocker De Arce, C

    1983-01-01

    The motivations which led to creation of a family planning specialty within social medicine are discussed and currently available contraceptive methods are reviewed. Among considerations which lead to family planning are the universal worry about uncontrolled population growth and limited resources, especially in the 3rd World: the earth's population is expected to reach 6.5 billion in the year 2000, but already 2.2 billion persons lack adequate resources. Health education and family planning are needed to promote safe conditions for pregnancy and to avoid pregnancy in cases of genetic deficiency. Family planning is a purely medical problem when the woman has a medical problem that would be life threatening to her or her child in case of pregnancy. Illnesses that may be aggravated by pregnancy include cardiopathy, diabetes, nephropathies, thyroid disease, and tuberculosis. Family planning involves provision of information and counseling for patients suffering such disorders as well as for patients who are infertile. Among psychosocial indications for family planning are 2 major problems of modern society: the quality of life and abortion. Family planning has given women the possibility of becoming sexual companions, but the fact that they and not men must submit themselves to contraceptive methods is a negative psychological factor for the stability of the couple. A great change has occurred in Spanish society, in that marriage used to be the only legitimate context for sexual activity and, for Catholics, the only legitimate sexual activity was that oriented toward procreation. Promiscuity, pornography, and sexual liberties and abuses promote undesired pregnancies and abortions. In addition, premarital and extramarital sexual relations have become more frequent. Some 300,000 abortions occur annually in Spain, but abortion can never be a valued family planning method because of its associated morbidity and mortality, and high costs of hospitalization in cases of complications. There is no better prophylactic for abortion than state supported family planning and coeducation as the maximum exponent of respect between the sexes. Contraception has been legal in Spain for about a dozen years, although various methods were in use prior to that time. The choice of a contraceptive method depends largely on motivation and the couple's marital status, number of children living and desired, unconscious psychological motivations, and other factors. The most common methods in Spain in 1982 in order of frequency were coitus interruptus, combined oral contraceptive, barrier methods, IUDs, Ogino-Knaus, temperature rhythm, injectables, female sterilization, and male sterilization. PMID:12339900

  9. Family planning programs and fertility decline.

    PubMed

    Cuca, R

    1980-01-01

    A recently completed World Bank statistical study of family planning in 63 developing countries indicated that countries which experienced a large decline in birth rates between 1960-1977 were more likely to have a family planning program, an official population policy aimed at decreasing the birth rate, and a relatively high level of development than countries which experienced smaller or no decline in birth rates. The 65 countries represented 95% of the population of the developing world. Birth rate declines of 10% or more between 1960-1977 were experienced by: 1) 10 of the 26 countries which had a family planning program and a policy aimed at reducing the birth rate; 2) 6 of the 19 countries which had a family planning program but lacked clearly defined population objectives; and 3) 2 of the 18 countries without any population policy or program. Furthermore, the implementation of a family planning program and the adoption of a population policy were directly related to the development level of the country. This finding suggested that countries need to reach a certain level of development before they have the capacity to develop population programs and policies. When a country is sufficiently advanced to collect population data, awareness of population problems increases and they are more likely to adopt a population policy. In addition, government efficiency increases as development proceeds and governments must have a certain level of efficiency before they can implement effective programs. PMID:12310337

  10. Can Better National Policy End Family Homelessness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Nan

    2010-01-01

    An understanding of the close link between federal policy and family homelessness is critical for ensuring that one day no child in the United States is homeless. This article discusses the nature of family homelessness, the national policy framework that exists to help vulnerable families, the homeless assistance system that federal policy has…

  11. Social marketing: the family planning experience.

    PubMed

    El-ansary, A I; Kramer Oe, J

    1973-07-01

    The authors explore social marketing applications in the Louisiana model of statewide program for family planning. The marketing concept has 4 major elements: 1) consumer orientation; 2) social process; 3) integrated effort; 4) profitable operation. Success of program and continued growth are the results of defining services needed by consumer; determining market target; taking services to customer; and emphasizing concept of selling family planning rather than giving free birth control method. Another important facet is the recognition of many participants--community agencies, the church, the American Medical Association, funding sources, and hospitals. This project used anyaltical marketing tools and defined services as human services rather than the narrow family planning services. It also extended activities to multinational environment and adapted the product offering to meet these needs. PMID:12257226

  12. Family planning for women with learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Taylor, G; Pearson, J; Cook, H

    An outreach program developed in England by the Merton and Sutton Community and Family Planning Services is effectively addressing the unmet reproductive health needs of women with learning disabilities. A specially trained community health nurse visits prospective clients at their residence and, through use of teaching aids, demonstrates breast self-examination and condom use and explains what will take place at the upcoming clinic visit. Of the 125 learning disabled women who used this program during its first 18 months of operation, only three had previously accessed the community's family planning services. 50% of services provided to this population were annual well-woman checks, 20% related to contraception, and 30% were for counseling on concerns such as domestic violence. Most of these women required a specialized approach that would not have been forthcoming from a generic family planning service or a general practitioner. PMID:9866586

  13. Vanguard family planning acceptors in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Nichols, D; Ndiaye, S; Burton, N; Janowitz, B; Gueye, L; Gueye, M

    1985-01-01

    This study examines contraceptive use among clients at the three clinics providing family planning services in Dakar, Senegal in early 1983. Most clients first became interested in family planning following the birth of a child, and most are interested in spacing future pregnancies, although one-third state that they want no more children. The clinic itself was found to be an important determinant of the type of contraceptive used, with only the government-operated clinic providing a balance between IUDs, oral contraceptives, and barrier methods. Nearly half of the clients interviewed said that a lack of knowledge about contraception is the reason for the low contraceptive prevalence rates among Senegalese women; another frequently cited reason was the opposition of the husband. Most clients reported the broadcast media to be the best means of providing family planning information to potential acceptors. PMID:4060212

  14. NATIONAL SURVEY OF FAMILY GROWTH (NSFG)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) provides information on childbearing, contraception, and closely related aspects of maternal and child health from a sample of women in the United States (including Alaska and Hawaii). The National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) was con...

  15. National Ignition Facility: Experimental plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    As part of the Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE), and EG&G formed an NIF Target Diagnostics Working Group. The purpose of the Target Diagnostics Working Group is to prepare conceptual designs of target diagnostics for inclusion in the facility CDR and to determine how these specifications impact the CDR. To accomplish this, a subgroup has directed its efforts at constructing an approximate experimental plan for the ignition campaign of the NIF CDR. The results of this effort are contained in this document, the Experimental Plan for achieving fusion ignition in the NIF. This group initially concentrated on the flow-down requirements of the experimental campaign leading to ignition, which will dominate the initial efforts of the NIF. It is envisaged, however, that before ignition, there will be parallel campaigns supporting weapons physics, weapons effects, and other research. This plan was developed by analyzing the sequence of activities required to finally fire the laser at the level of power and precision necessary to achieve the conditions of an ignition hohlraum target, and to then use our experience in activating and running Nova experiments to estimate the rate of completing these activities.

  16. Family planning uses traditional theater in Mali.

    PubMed

    Schubert, J

    1988-01-01

    Mali's branch of the International Planned Parenthood Federation has found a vehicle that effectively conveys the idea of family planning through the use of contraception, a method that blends the country's cultural heritage and modern technology. Despite becoming the first sub-Saharan francophone country to promote family planning, Mali only counted 1% of its population using a modern method of contraception. So with the aid of The Johns Hopkins University/Population COmmunication Services (JHU/PCS), the Association Malienne pour la Protection et la Promotion de la Famille (AMPPF) developed several programs to promote contraception, but none were more successful than the Koteba Project, which used Mali's traditional theater form to communicate the message. While comical, the Koteba generally deals with social issues -- it informs and entertains. This particular Koteba told the story of two government employees, one with two wives and many children, the other with one wife and few children. The first one sees nothing but family problems: fighting wives and delinquent children. The second one, who had used family planning, enjoys a peaceful home. Upon hearing of his friend's successes with family planning, the tormented government employee becomes convinced of its needs, and persuades his wives to accompany him to a family planning clinic. Developed at a cost of approximately US $3000 and televised nationwide, the Koteba proved effective. A survey of 500 people attending an AMPPF clinic revealed that 1/4 of them remembered the program. With the success of the Koteba, JHU/PCS and AMPPF are now exploring other traditional channels of communication. PMID:12315793

  17. 42 CFR 441.20 - Family planning services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Family planning services. 441.20 Section 441.20... General Provisions § 441.20 Family planning services. For recipients eligible under the plan for family... free to choose the method of family planning to be used....

  18. 42 CFR 441.20 - Family planning services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Family planning services. 441.20 Section 441.20... General Provisions § 441.20 Family planning services. For beneficiaries eligible under the plan for family... free to choose the method of family planning to be used....

  19. 42 CFR 441.20 - Family planning services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Family planning services. 441.20 Section 441.20... General Provisions § 441.20 Family planning services. For beneficiaries eligible under the plan for family... free to choose the method of family planning to be used....

  20. 42 CFR 441.20 - Family planning services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Family planning services. 441.20 Section 441.20... General Provisions § 441.20 Family planning services. For beneficiaries eligible under the plan for family... free to choose the method of family planning to be used....

  1. 42 CFR 441.20 - Family planning services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Family planning services. 441.20 Section 441.20... General Provisions § 441.20 Family planning services. For recipients eligible under the plan for family... free to choose the method of family planning to be used....

  2. Islamic logics, reproductive rationalities: family planning in northern Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Varley, Emma

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the use of Islamic doctrine and jurisprudence by family planning organizations in the Gilgit-Baltistan region of northern Pakistan. It examines how particular interpretations of Islam are promoted in order to encourage fertility reductions, and the ways Muslim clerics, women and their families react to this process. The paper first discusses how Pakistan's demographic crisis, as the world's sixth most populous nation, has been widely blamed on under-funding for reproductive health services and wavering political commitment to family planning. Critics have called for innovative policy and programming to counter 'excessive reproduction' by also addressing socio-cultural and religious barriers to contraceptive uptake. Drawing on two years of ethnographic research, the paper examines how family planning organizations in Gilgit-Baltistan respond to this shift by employing moderate interpretations of Islam that qualify contraceptive use as a 'rational' reproductive strategy and larger families as 'irrational'. However, the use of Islamic rhetoric to enhance women's health-seeking agency and enable fertility reductions is challenged by conservative Sunni ulema (clergy), who seek to reassert collective control over women's bodies and fertility by deploying Islamic doctrine that honors frequent childbearing. Sunnis' minority status and the losses incurred by regional Shia-Sunni conflicts have further strengthened clerics' pronatalist campaigns. The paper then analyses how Sunni women navigate the multiple reproductive rationalities espoused by 'Islamized' family planning and conservative ulema. Although Islamized family planning legitimizes contraceptive use and facilitates many women's stated desire for smaller families, it frequently positions women against the interests of family, community and conservative Islam. PMID:22889427

  3. Family planning and protection of human rights.

    PubMed

    1991-12-01

    The discussion of human rights in China is based on the White Paper issued by the Information Office under the State Council on November 1, 1991. China is the most populous country in the world at 1.14 billion in 1990. Annual increases of 17 million are expected even with family planning (FP). The area of cultivated land/capita has dropped to 1.3 mu (16.5% of an acre)/capita, or 25% of the world average. Fresh water resources have also dropped similarly. The amount of grain.person is 22% of that in the US. 25% of additional income to the national income is consumed by newborns annually. Savings have been cut and reinvestment in economic development has been slowed. There are pressures on all social and economic systems. There is acknowledged success in FP. The birth rate has dropped to 21.06.1000 in 1990, the rate of natural increase to 14.39%/1000, and the fertility rate to 2.31. These figures are lower than the averages for other developing countries. The FP policy is to promote deferred marriage and childbearing, fewer but healthier births, and 1 child/couple. Rural families who are having difficulties may after an interval of several years have a 2nd child. Minority nationalities are being encouraged to adopt FP voluntarily. Han requirements are different. The policy has been understood and supported by the masses and has contributed to the drop in 3rd and higher parity births to 19.32% in 1989 from 62.21% in 1970. The government role is one of guidance and persuasion within the law, and cannot be accomplished by administrative decrees alone. The government has given priority to enlightening the masses through publicity and education that birth control has a direct impact on the nation's prosperity and people's happy family life. The China FP Association has set up 600,000 grass roots branches with 32 million members to assist in aiding the masses in self-education, self-management, and self-service. Ideological education has been combined with helping the masses solve practical problems. FP identifies contraception as protection of maternal and child health. 75% of couples of childbearing age practice contraception. Coercive abortions are resolutely opposed. Induced abortion in cases of contraceptive failure are voluntary and safe. The abortion ratio is comparable to world rates, but lower rates are targeted. Policy objectives are to control population growth and improve the quality of human resources. Maternal and child health care is provided. Law forbids infanticide. Policy conforms to item 9 of the UN Mexico City Declaration on Population and Development, 1984, and the UN World Population Plan of Action. PMID:12317280

  4. Disparities in access to family planning services in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Bailey, W; Wynter, H H; Lee, A; Jackson, J; Oliver, P; Munroe, J; Lyew-Ayee, A; Smith, S; Clyde, M

    1996-03-01

    In order to improve the effectiveness and subtainability of the family planning programme, the National Family Planning Board has devised a strategy to shift users to longer-acting methods and increase the role of the private sector. To design interventions, a better understanding of existing services was thought to be necessary. This study examines the distribution of family planning service delivery points in Jamaica and the services offered by the public and private sectors through an examination of records and questionnaire interviews. The study found that, because of the concentration of private sector providers-the main outlets for longer-acting methods-in urban areas, rural areas had poor access to these methods. Because rural areas are not attractive to private sector providers, the public sector should recognize the need to continue to serve these areas. PMID:8693732

  5. China's family planning policies: recent reforms and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Basten, Stuart; Jiang, Quanbao

    2014-12-01

    In November 2013, China announced reforms to its family planning policies whereby couples would be allowed to have a second child if either parent is an only child. The announcement garnered worldwide media coverage, and stimulated academic and popular discussion. We explore the context of the 2013 reforms, including the economic, demographic, and political motivations behind them, and speculate on their likely effect. Noting that the impact of the reforms on China's long-term demographic future is likely to be relatively slight, we consider why more radical reform may have been difficult to implement. We offer observations about possible future directions for Chinese family planning policies and explore the notion of "local pronatalism within nationally prescribed antinatalist limits" and how this suggests that an ideological shift within China's family planning apparatus may be plausible. PMID:25469931

  6. Systems effects on family planning innovativeness.

    PubMed

    Lee, S B

    1983-12-01

    Data from Korea were used to explore the importance of community level variables in explaining family planning adoption at the individual level. An open system concept was applied, assuming that individual family planning behavior is influenced by both environmental and individual factors. The environmental factors were measured at the village level and designated as community characteristics. The dimension of communication network variables was introduced. Each individual was characterized in terms of the degree of her involvement in family planning communication with others in her village. It was assumed that the nature of the communication network linking individuals with each other effects family planning adoption at the individual level. Specific objectives were to determine 1) the relative importance of the specific independent variables in explaining family planning adoption and 2) the relative importance of the community level variables in comparison with the individual level variables in explaining family planning adoption at the individual level. The data were originally gathered in a 1973 research project on Korea's mothers' clubs. 1047 respondents were interviewed, comprising all married women in 25 sample villages having mothers' clubs. The dependent variable was family planning adoption behavior, defined as current use of any of the modern methods of family planning. The independent variables were defined at 3 levels: individual, community, and at a level intermediate between them involving communication links between individuals. More of the individual level independent variables were significantly correlated with the dependent variables than the community level variables. Among those variables with statistically significant correlations, the correlation coefficients were consistently higher for the individual level than for the community level variables. More of the variance in the dependent variable was explained by individual level than by community level variables. Community level variables accounted for only about 2.5% of the total variance in the dependent variable, in marked contrast to the result showing individual level variables accounting for as much as 19% of the total variance. When both individual and community level variables were entered into a multiple correlation analysis, a multiple correlation coefficient of .4714 was obtained together they explained about 20% of the total variance. The 2 communication network variables--connectedness and integrativeness--were correlated with the dependent variable at much higher levels than most of the individual or community level variables. Connectedness accounted for the greatest amount of the total variance. The communication network variables as a group explained as much of the total variance in the dependent variable as the individual level variables and greatly more that the community level variables. PMID:12339471

  7. Fertility awareness-based methods: another option for family planning.

    PubMed

    Pallone, Stephen R; Bergus, George R

    2009-01-01

    Modern fertility awareness-based methods (FABMs) of family planning have been offered as alternative methods of family planning. Billings Ovulation Method, the Creighton Model, and the Symptothermal Method are the more widely used FABMs and can be more narrowly defined as natural family planning. The first 2 methods are based on the examination of cervical secretions to assess fertility. The Symptothermal Method combines characteristics of cervical secretions, basal body temperature, and historical cycle data to determine fertility. FABMs also include the more recently developed Standard Days Method and TwoDays Method. All are distinct from the more traditional rhythm and basal body temperature methods alone. Although these older methods are not highly effective, modern FABMs have typical-use unintended pregnancy rates of 1% to 3% in both industrialized and nonindustrialized nations. Studies suggest that in the United States physician knowledge of FABMs is frequently incomplete. We review the available evidence about the effectiveness for preventing unintended pregnancy, prognostic social demographics of users of the methods, and social outcomes related to FABMs, all of which suggest that family physicians can offer modern FABMs as effective means of family planning. We also provide suggestions about useful educational and instructional resources for family physicians and their patients. PMID:19264938

  8. Nursing 572: Principles of Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Marsha

    A description is provided of "Principles of Family Planning," a course designed for graduate nursing students or practicing nurses seeking continuing education credit. The first sections of the course description provide a rationale for the course, information on its curricular placement, scheduling information, and statements of long-range and…

  9. New family planning priorities in Russia.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, F

    1994-01-01

    October 1991 to May 1994 in Russia was a period of significant political, social, and economic change. Over this period, however, administrators recognized the importance of sexual health issues in the health and fertility of women and decided to encourage family planning. Family planning services are organized at the city level by the Ministry of Health and are generally managed by gynecologists. Doctors are taught by lecture. Further, contraceptive supplies are extremely limited in many areas. The first priority of the country's family planning program is to improve the availability of reliable, safe contraceptives. Sex education must then be provided to young people and adults, the media should be used to disseminate information, the role of nurses in family planning should be expanded, and practitioners should be made more aware of methods of postcoital birth control. Much has been achieved over the three years. Donors and foreign advisors must continue to provide support in training and ideas, share experiences, and provide necessary supplies until Russia's contraception production capacity and industry can go it alone. PMID:12318920

  10. Nursing 572: Principles of Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Marsha

    A description is provided of "Principles of Family Planning," a course designed for graduate nursing students or practicing nurses seeking continuing education credit. The first sections of the course description provide a rationale for the course, information on its curricular placement, scheduling information, and statements of long-range and

  11. [Family planning is beneficial to prosperity].

    PubMed

    Liu, G

    1985-09-29

    The economic growth and development of 2 Chinese towns, once virtually identical in every way except for their radically different family planning practices, are compared and studied. The villages of Xiangjiaduan and Bainiduan, Hunan province, once formed a single production brigade; the 2 villages were split into 2 production brigades in 1961, at which time the population (48 vs 47), land (13.3 acres vs 13.0 acres), number of farm workers (18 vs 17) and amount of farming equipment were divided equally. In 1971 when the populations of the 2 towns were 73 and 79, respectively, the people in Xiangjiaduan decided to strictly follow China's family planning policy, while many of those in Bainiduan disregarded family planning altogether. 12 years later in 1983, per capita net grain production for Xiangjiaduan was 591 kg; the figure for Bainiduan was 379 kg. 1983 per capita incomes were 397 and 293 yuan, respectively. Other advantages of family planning and its economic impact on rural farm life are discussed. PMID:12159409

  12. [Toward a predictive model of family planning].

    PubMed

    Pick De Weiss, S

    1980-01-01

    A study of 1200 women aged 15-45 in Mexico City was conducted with the object of discovering the factors that have the greatest predictive value for attitudes, beliefs, intentions, and behavior in reference to family planning. Information was solicited by questionnaire with respect to 6 groups of variables: 1) independent variables (age, education, occupation and education of spouse, and whether the woman worked before marriage); 2) perceived value of children and family planning; 3) peer group norms; 4) marital relationship; 5) modernization; and 6) motivation. Factor analysis was applied to each of the groups ofvariables to determine which factors had the greatest impact within the group; then multiple regression analysis was applied to determine which factors had the greatest predictive value. A predictive model of family planning according to the results is illustrated and the various aspects discussed. It was found that the intention to use contraceptives and a good marital relationship (one with open communication and shared decision making) were the best predictors of effective family planning behavior. PMID:12309982

  13. National Center on Family Homelessness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children START With Kids Healing Hearts, Promoting Health Domestic Violence and Homelessness TA America's Youngest Outcasts Veterans Veterans ... 6) the ways in which traumatic experiences, especially domestic violence, precede and prolong homelessness for families. Effective solutions ...

  14. 76 FR 72601 - National Family Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... two hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-30454 Filed 11-22-11; 11:15 am... November 23, 2011 Part IV The President Proclamation 8756--National Family Week, 2011 Proclamation 8757--National Farm-City Week, 2011 Proclamation 8758--National Child's Day, 2011 Executive Order...

  15. Private sector joins family planning effort.

    PubMed

    1989-12-01

    Projects supported by the Directorate for Population (S&T/POP) of the U.S. Agency for International Development and aimed at increasing for-profit private sector involvement in providing family planning services and products are described. Making products commercially available through social-marketing partnerships with the commercial sector, USAID has saved $1.1 million in commodity costs from Brazil, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Indonesia, and Peru. Active private sector involvement benefits companies, consumers, and donors through increased corporate profits, healthier employees, improved consumer access at lower cost, and the possibility of sustained family planning programs. Moreover, private, for-profit companies will be able to meet service demands over the next 20 years where traditional government and donor agency sources would fail. Using employee surveys and cost-benefit analyses to demonstrate expected financial and health benefits for businesses and work forces, S&T/POP's Technical Information on Population for the Private Sector (TIPPS) project encourages private companies in developing countries to invest in family planning and maternal/child health care for their employees. 36 companies in 9 countries have responded thus far, which examples provided from Peru and Zimbabwe. The Enterprise program's objectives are also to increase the involvement of for-profit companies in delivering family planning services, and to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of private volunteer organizations in providing services. Projects have been started with mines, factories, banks, insurance companies, and parastatals in 27 countries, with examples cited from Ghana and Indonesia. Finally, the Social Marketing for Change project (SOMARC) builds demand and distributes low-cost contraceptives through commercial channels especially to low-income audiences. Partnerships have been initiated with the private sector in 17 developing countries, with examples provided from the Dominican Republic, Liberia and Ecuador. These projects have increased private sector involvement in family planning, thereby promoting service expansion at lower public sector cost. PMID:12343476

  16. Remediation plans in family medicine residency

    PubMed Central

    Audétat, Marie-Claude; Voirol, Christian; Béland, Normand; Fernandez, Nicolas; Sanche, Gilbert

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess use of the remediation instrument that has been implemented in training sites at the University of Montreal in Quebec to support faculty in diagnosing and remediating resident academic difficulties, to examine whether and how this particular remediation instrument improves the remediation process, and to determine its effects on the residents’ subsequent rotation assessments. Design A multimethods approach in which data were collected from different sources: remediation plans developed by faculty, program statistics for the corresponding academic years, and students’ academic records and rotation assessment results. Setting Family medicine residency program at the University of Montreal. Participants Family medicine residents in academic difficulty. Main outcome measures Assessment of the content, process, and quality of remediation plans, and students’ academic and rotation assessment results (successful, below expectations, or failure) both before and after the remediation period. Results The framework that was developed for assessing remediation plans was used to analyze 23 plans produced by 10 teaching sites for 21 residents. All plans documented cognitive problems and implemented numerous remediation measures. Although only 48% of the plans were of good quality, implementation of a remediation plan was positively associated with the resident’s success in rotations following the remediation period. Conclusion The use of remediation plans is well embedded in training sites at the University of Montreal. The residents’ difficulties were mainly cognitive in nature, but this generally related to deficits in clinical reasoning rather than knowledge gaps. The reflection and analysis required to produce a remediation plan helps to correct many academic difficulties and normalize the academic career of most residents in difficulty. Further effort is still needed to improve the quality of plans and to support teachers.

  17. 34 CFR 303.20 - Individualized family service plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Individualized family service plan. 303.20 Section 303... TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.20 Individualized family service plan. Individualized family service plan or IFSP means a written plan for providing early...

  18. 34 CFR 303.20 - Individualized family service plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Individualized family service plan. 303.20 Section 303... TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.20 Individualized family service plan. Individualized family service plan or IFSP means a written plan for providing early...

  19. 34 CFR 303.20 - Individualized family service plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Individualized family service plan. 303.20 Section 303... TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.20 Individualized family service plan. Individualized family service plan or IFSP means a written plan for providing early...

  20. National Foreign Language Planning: Practices and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajavaara, Kari, Ed.; And Others

    A selection of essays on foreign language planning at the national level contains articles on the language planning process, language choice, teacher education, testing and assessment, and transnational planning. Essays include the following: "Foreign Language Teaching Policy: Some Planning Issues" (Theo J. M. van Els); "Foreign Language Planning

  1. Fertility and family planning behavior linked to residence in Egypt.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The 1992 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), implemented by the National Population Council and including a national sample of 9864 ever-married women aged 15-49 and 2466 husbands, yields data indicative of major changes in fertility and family planning behavior in the country, albeit with marked differentials by place of residence. The rate of total fertility has declined to 3.9 births per woman from more than 5 births in 1980, corresponding with an increase in the proportion of couples currently using family planning over the period from 24% in 1980 to 47% in 1992. Almost all couples know about family planning, about 66% have used a method of contraception at some time, and almost all users of family planning employ modern methods, mainly the IUD at 28% and the pill at 13%. There is, however, large variation in levels of fertility and family planning use by residence. A rural woman currently will have an average of 4.9 children, two more than the typical urban woman, while almost 60% of urban women use contraception compared to less than 40% of rural women. Regional differences are also great, with total fertility at 6 births per woman in Upper Egypt and only 2.7 in the Urban Governorates. The use of family planning varies from only 31% in Upper Egypt to 59% in the Urban Governorates. At current levels, despite declines in fertility, the average Egyptian woman has 1.2 births more than she wants; overall, 20% of married women are thought to be in need of family planning. With regard to maternal and child health, estimates suggest that infant mortality was cut in half over the period 1972-92 and tetanus toxoid coverage among mothers increased from 11% in 1988 to 57% in 1992. Many Egyptian women are not, however, receiving adequate maternity care, with approximately 50% of mothers not receiving any antenatal care during pregnancy and only 40% of births assisted by a doctor or nurse. Only two-thirds of children aged 12-23 months are fully immunized. Finally, 24% of children under age five are stunted, indicating the existence of chronic undernutrition. PMID:12319375

  2. IMA to conduct training courses in family planning.

    PubMed

    1993-11-15

    For the last six and a half decades, the Indian Medical Association (IMA) has been actively engaged in Public Health issues, ranging from immunization, ORT, maternal and child health care, and has been cooperating with the Government of India in various National Health Programs. Recently, IMA organized a new and exciting program on India's most significantly health issue--family planning. The training is to be competency based and participatory, with the main emphasis on knowledge, attitude and skills required to provide comprehensive child spacing. IMA has developed this multilevel program to train personnel in all methods of family planning, like: participation in basic oral contraceptive training; supplementary training in other methods; clinical practice for providing information on how to select and manage non-clinical family planning services; simulated practice in IUCD; and clinical practice in IUCD training. Training can also be arranged for vasectomy practicum and minilaparotomy. The main purpose of the training program is to realize the Government's goal of 60% contraceptive prevalence usage by the year 2000. In India, less than 2% of the 132.5 million reproductives, couples use oral contraceptives, because of widespread misconceptions regarding the pill among the general populace and the medical community. This program has been designed to counter these misgivings and thus encourage the "use of modern family planning methods" to take on the menace of the population explosion. PMID:12179169

  3. [Population and family planning of minority groups].

    PubMed

    Yang, Y

    1984-07-29

    The population of minority groups has been increasing rapidly in recent years, but the rate of increase is different depending on the region, for various reasons: 1) Population increase rates are high in flat, low regions with warm weather, a good natural environment, and good transportation systems. Productivity is beginning to lag behind population growth (population increased by 90% from 1953 to 1982). 2) Population is increasing at a slower rate in high regions with cool weather and an average natural environment. The productivity growth rate in these regions is about the same (the population increased by 37.5% from 1949 to 1980). 3) Population is increasing at a lower, or even negative, rate in mountainous regions with little flat land and poor transportation service. 4) In some regions, large families are predominant because of tradition and/or religion. In some minority groups, where large extended families are the rule, increases are low because of health problems. People in minority groups are willing to practice family planning, but it is impossible to make one general family planning policy because people in different regions face different problems. PMID:12159403

  4. Family Planning: Its Impact on the Health of Women and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine, Deborah

    This document explores risks to the health and lives of women and children that can be avoided or reduced by family planning. Emphasis throughout is on case studies and statistics from developing nations. Data are presented in expository and chart form. Information is presented in four chapters. Chapter I, Child Health and Family Planning,…

  5. Worker-Client Relations and Related Policy Issues in the Bangladesh Family Planning Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossain, Mian Bazle

    At the request of the government of Bangladesh the International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh established the Maternal and Child Health-Family Planning (MCH-FP) Extension Project in 1982. This paper discusses: (1) the design of the MCH-FP; (2) the major characteristics of the national health and family planning program under

  6. Worker-Client Relations and Related Policy Issues in the Bangladesh Family Planning Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossain, Mian Bazle

    At the request of the government of Bangladesh the International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh established the Maternal and Child Health-Family Planning (MCH-FP) Extension Project in 1982. This paper discusses: (1) the design of the MCH-FP; (2) the major characteristics of the national health and family planning program under…

  7. Tay Sachs and Related Storage Diseases: Family Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneiderman, Gerald; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Based on interviews with 24 families, the article discusses family planning and the choices available to those families in which a child has previously died from Tay-Sachs or related lipid storage diseases. (IM)

  8. Nursing's Acceptance of the Function of Family Planning Counselor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monteiro, Lois

    1974-01-01

    The changes in family planning methods in the 1960s and the recognition of population control as a public health problem brought to the nursing profession the issue of the nurse's involvement in family planning counseling. The author reviews the literature defining the functions of the nurse with regard to family planning counseling. (Author/RP)

  9. 34 CFR 300.24 - Individualized family service plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Individualized family service plan. 300.24 Section 300... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.24 Individualized family service plan. Individualized family service plan or IFSP has the meaning given the term in section 636 of...

  10. 34 CFR 300.24 - Individualized family service plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Individualized family service plan. 300.24 Section 300... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.24 Individualized family service plan. Individualized family service plan or IFSP has the meaning given the term in section 636 of...

  11. 34 CFR 300.24 - Individualized family service plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Individualized family service plan. 300.24 Section 300... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.24 Individualized family service plan. Individualized family service plan or IFSP has the meaning given the term in section 636 of...

  12. 34 CFR 300.24 - Individualized family service plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Individualized family service plan. 300.24 Section 300... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.24 Individualized family service plan. Individualized family service plan or IFSP has the meaning given the term in section 636 of...

  13. 34 CFR 300.24 - Individualized family service plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individualized family service plan. 300.24 Section 300... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.24 Individualized family service plan. Individualized family service plan or IFSP has the meaning given the term in section 636 of...

  14. Bibliography of Family Planning and Population, Volume 1 Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linzell, Dinah, Comp.

    Compiled from the world's research literature, this bi-monthly classified list of references on population and family planning emphasizes recently published material, primarily journal literature. Topics covered include: population and fertility; reproductive behaviour; the family; education in population, family planning, and sex; family

  15. Family Perceptions of Student Centered Planning and IEP Meetings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childre, Amy; Chambers, Cynthia R.

    2005-01-01

    Given the documented benefits of family involvement in educational planning, engaging families throughout the school years is strongly advocated. However, barriers continue to impede families from collaborative partnering in educational planning. In this qualitative study the perceptions of six families were examined prior to and after the…

  16. Thai royalty honours four for family planning.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    A committee of health specialists selected four physicians and scientists out of 66 candidates to receive the distinguished Prince Mahidol Award. The Thai Royal Family awarded each of them medals, certificates, and US$50,000 for their exceptional contributions to family planning. Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn presented the awards to each recipient on January 31, 1996. UNFPA's Executive Director, Dr. Nafis Sadik, was recognized for her leadership at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. IPPF President, Dr. Frederick Sai, who also serves as a public health professor at the University of Ghana, received honors for promoting family planning in Africa. Dr. Carl Djerassi, an organic chemistry professor at Stanford University in California, was selected for his research in developing oral contraceptives. Dr. Egon Diczfalusy, a retired professor of the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden, was honored for his reproductive endocrinology research, especially his work on the reproductive system's steroid hormones. The Prince Mahidol Foundation serves to celebrate the birth of Prince Mahidol of Songkhla, the father of the King of Thailand and the Father of Thai Medicine. PMID:12320160

  17. National Foreign Language Planning: Practices and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajavaara, Kari, Ed.; And Others

    A selection of essays on foreign language planning at the national level contains articles on the language planning process, language choice, teacher education, testing and assessment, and transnational planning. Essays include the following: "Foreign Language Teaching Policy: Some Planning Issues" (Theo J. M. van Els); "Foreign Language Planning…

  18. [Family planning in Hungary: past and present].

    PubMed

    Eros, Erika; Hajós, Anett

    2010-11-01

    Periconceptional Care Service begins 3 month before the planned pregnancy and continues until 12th week of pregnancy. Its goal is to prevent congenital abnormalities (CAs) and preterm birth. Nowadays, 20-25% of infant mortality is caused by CAs in industrialized countries and CAs are among the leading causes of death. An important feature of CAs is that they represent a defect condition; therefore it's difficult to achieve a complete recovery. Thus, prevention is considered the only optimal solution in the medical care of cases affected with CA. In the last 25 years, several studies confirmed the possible prevention of CAs mainly neural-tube defects (NTDs) by folic acid supplementation during periconceptional period. Family Planning Service exists in Hungary since 1984. This model is optimal for the introduction of periconceptional folic acid/multivitamin supplementation, thus provide an effective method for primary prevention of birth defects. PMID:20980224

  19. World population growth, family planning, and American foreign policy.

    PubMed

    Sharpless, J

    1995-01-01

    The US decision since the 1960s to link foreign policy with family planning and population control is noteworthy for its intention to change the demographic structure of foreign countries and the magnitude of the initiative. The current population ideologies are part of the legacy of 19th century views on science, morality, and political economy. Strong constraints were placed on US foreign policy since World War II, particularly due to presumptions about the role of developing countries in Cold War ideology. Domestic debates revolved around issues of feminism, birth control, abortion, and family political issues. Since the 1960s, environmental degradation and resource depletion were an added global dimension of US population issues. Between 1935 and 1958 birth control movements evolved from the ideologies of utopian socialists, Malthusians, women's rights activists, civil libertarians, and advocates of sexual freedom. There was a shift from acceptance of birth control to questions about the role of national government in supporting distribution of birth control. Immediately postwar the debates over birth control were outside political circles. The concept of family planning as a middle class family issue shifted the focus from freeing women from the burdens of housework to making women more efficient housewives. Family planning could not be taken as a national policy concern without justification as a major issue, a link to national security, belief in the success of intervention, and a justifiable means of inclusion in public policy. US government involvement began with agricultural education, technological assistance, and economic development that would satisfy the world's growing population. Cold War politics forced population growth as an issue to be considered within the realm of foreign policy and diplomacy. US government sponsored family planning was enthusiastic during 1967-74 but restrained during the 1980s. The 1990s has been an era of redefinition of the issues and increased divisiveness among environmentalists, feminists, and population control advocates. The current justification of US population program assistance is based on concern for the health of women and children. Future changes will be dependent on ideology, theology, and political philosophy. PMID:12346346

  20. 75 FR 57820 - National Credit Union Administration Restoration Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... ADMINISTRATION National Credit Union Administration Restoration Plan AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA). ACTION: Approval of National Credit Union Administration restoration plan. On September 16, 2010, the National Credit Union Administration (NCUA) implemented a Restoration Plan for the National...

  1. Family planning, sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Mati, J K

    1996-12-01

    Integration of sexually transmitted disease (STD) and HIV/AIDS control efforts into family planning programs in sub-Saharan Africa offers the potential to reach women of childbearing age when the risk of exposure to STDs and HIV is greatest. Such a strategy is especially important now that the AIDS epidemic has come to involve women from lower risk groups infected as a result of their partner's contact with women from high-risk groups (e.g., commercial sex workers). In particular, there is a need to promote the concept of dual contraceptive method use to provide protection against both STDs and pregnancy. Integration of these services also permits maximization of the limited resources available in developing countries. An obvious disadvantage of integration is that such services may not reach men directly, necessitating family planning program reorientation to permit more interaction with men. This paper reviews the available evidence on the magnitude of the STD/HIV problem in sub-Saharan Africa, advantages and disadvantages of an integrated service strategy, dual method use, the effect of various contraceptives on HIV risk, and breast feeding and HIV. This review supports continuation of both oral contraceptive use and breast feeding in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:12321194

  2. Five Weekend National Family Medicine Fellowship

    PubMed Central

    Talbot, Yves; Batty, Helen; Rosser, Walter W.

    1997-01-01

    PROBLEM ADDRESSED Many faculty development programs are thought time-consuming and inaccessible to academic family physicians or physicians wanting to move into academic positions. This is largely due to difficulty in leaving their practices for extended periods. Canadian family medicine needs trained leaders who can work in teams and are well grounded in the principles of their discipline as they relate to education, management, research, and policy making. OBJECTIVE OF PROGRAM To develop a team of leaders in family medicine. MAIN COMPONENTS OF PROGRAM The Five Weekend National Family Medicine Fellowship Program focuses on the essentials of education, management, communication, critical appraisal skills, and the principles of family medicine to develop leadership and team-building skills for faculty and community-based family physicians entering academic careers. This unique 1-year program combines intensive weekend seminars with small-group projects between weekends. It emphasizes a broader set of skills than just teaching, has regional representation, and focuses on leadership and teamwork using a time-efficient format. CONCLUSION The program has graduated 34 Fellows over the last 3 years. More than 90% of the 35 projects developed through course work have been presented in national or provincial peer-reviewed settings. Quantitative ratings of program structure, course content, and course outcomes have been positive. PMID:9426934

  3. 75 FR 71519 - National Family Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-29729 Filed 11-23-10; 8:45 am] Billing code 3195-W1-P ..., today's American families rely on their love and care for each other to face challenges. During National... Reinvestment Act has created more jobs, as well as housing, educational, and child care support for...

  4. Knowledge of family planning methods in Bangladesh, 1969-1979: trends and implications.

    PubMed

    Amin, R; Mariam, A G

    1986-12-01

    The changes in levels of knowledge about different contraceptive methods in Bangladesh between 1969-79 were assessed. 2 surveys provided the data: the 1969 National Impact Survey (NIS) of family planning and the 1979 Contraceptive Prevalence Survey (CPS) from Bangladesh. Both surveys were nationally representative and retrospective, containing detailed questions of pregnancy histories, socioeconomic background, family planning knowledge and attitude, and contraceptive practices. The sampling frames for both surveys consisted of all households in Bangladesh from which national probability samples of married women between the ages of 10-50 were selected and stratified by urban-rural residence. Unprompted data were analyzed. Apparently, the National Family Planning Program (NFPP) was successful in communicating general knowledge of family planning among the masses in Bangladesh. In terms of absolute level, the increase in general knowledge of family planning was from 46.3% in 1969 to 82.8% in 1979. With the exception of the oral contraceptive (OC), absolute increase in knowledge of specific family planning methods or a variety of methods was far less than that of general knowledge of family planning. Knowledge of condoms, female sterilization, and male sterilization increased between 1969-79, yet in terms of absolute levels these increases were far less than those of either general knowledge of family planning or knowledge of OCs. The percentages of couples reporting knowledge of the IUD, vaginal methods, rhythm, injection, or induced abortion either decreased or slightly increased between 1969-79. Nearly 40% of couples had knowledge of only 1 method; fewer couples knew of 2 or more methods. There were relative increases in the knowledge of OCs and female sterilization, an 8-fold increase in knowledge of the OC and a 6-fold increase in knowledge of female sterilization between 1969-79. Respondents from the urban areas or those who attended schools were more likely to know about different contraceptive methods. Despite government orders stipulating that each household be visited every month by a family planning worker, face-to-face contact with family planning extension workers continued to be very low. In view of poor field worker performance, the government has made various modifications in the NFPP operation aimed at strengthening information and service delivery programs, yet recent evidence shows their continuing ineffectiveness. The low levels of knowledge about different family planning methods and low level of contact between family planning workers and family planning target couples show that the NFPP, by failing to inform married couples of wider choice of methods, missed many potential new acceptors of family planning methods. PMID:12341026

  5. Malaysia family-planning centers strive to maintain gains won in 15-year period.

    PubMed

    Roemer, R

    1968-09-12

    Family planning in Malaysia is discussed. Family planning began in Malaysia about 15 years ago through the efforts of voluntary family Planning Associations in the various Malay states. In 1966 the Malaysian Parliament passed the National Family Planning Act setting up the National FAmily Planning Board to formulate policies and methods for the promotion and spread of family planning knowledge and practice on the grounds of health of mothers and children and welfare of the family. In 1967, the board set a target of 40,000 new acceptors of family planning and 90% of the target was reached. This represents 3% of the child-bearing married women aged 15-49. The target for 1968 of 65,000 new acceptors is being achieved. A survey of acceptors is to be carried out from December 1968 to April 1969 to ascertain how many women who accepted family planning continue to practice it. Malaysia's crude birth rate declined from 46.2 in 1957 to 37.3 in 1966 before the government program was instituted. Abortion attempts have been frequent. The main method of contraception used is oral contraceptives. According to a 1957 survey, 31% of the married women in the metropolitan areas and 2% of rural women were using contraception. Presently, in Malaysia there is a need to: 1) train personnel to provide services, 2) inform and motivate families to accept family planning, 3) continue a broad educational program, 4) reform Malaysia's antiquated abortion law, and 5) integrate family planning services more fully into the general health services of the country. PMID:12229348

  6. When high schools offer family planning.

    PubMed

    Adams, J

    1986-06-01

    Over 40 school-based health clinics, which provide general medical services as well as family planning services and counseling to high school students, have been established to date in the US. These clinics, generally located in low income areas where adolescent pregnancy is a serious problem, have generated significant controversy. Proponents of school-based services argue that schools are an ideal place to reach teenagers, especially since teens who seek care related to family planning do not experience the embarrassment that might accompany a visit to a Planned Parenthood facility. They stress the benefits of inexpensive, comprehensive health care for adolescents who might not otherwise have access to medical care and the need for a pragmatic approach to rising rates of adolescent pregnancy. Opponents of the clinics argue that providing contraceptives in the schools condones adolescent sexual activity and constitutes an abdication of moral authority. They believe that parents, not schools, should be the agent responsible for providing young people with information about contraception and sexuality. The cost of school-based medical care has been estimated at US$100-125 per year of student use. Existing facilities are funded through a mixture of federal, state, local, and private monies. Although few effectiveness studies have been carried out in this area, data from a St. Paul, Minnesota, clinic indicated that the fertility rate among high school students dropped from 79 to 35/1000, the dropout rate among girls who delivered and kept their babies declined from 45% to 10%, and the use of contraception by these adolescent mothers doubled during the 3 years the program was in operation. PMID:12314335

  7. Marketing family planning services in New Orleans.

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, J T; Proffitt, B J; Bartlett, T L

    1987-01-01

    The health care profession is witnessing a shift in focus from the interests and needs of the service provider to those of the potential consumer in an effort to attract and maintain clients. This study illustrates the role that marketing research can play in the development of program strategies, even for relatively small organizations. The study was conducted for Planned Parenthood of Louisiana, a recently organized affiliate that began offering clinical services in May 1984, to provide information on the four Ps of marketing: product, price, place, and promotion. Data from telephone interviews among a random sample of 1,000 women 15-35 years old in New Orleans before the clinic opened confirmed that the need for family planning services was not entirely satisfied by existing service providers. Moreover, it indicated that clinic hours and the cost of services were in line with client interests. The most useful findings for developing the promotional strategy were the relatively low name recognition of Planned Parenthood and a higher-than-expected level of interest that young, low income blacks expressed in using the service. PMID:3112854

  8. Barriers and Facilitators to Family Planning Access in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Sheila; Guilbert, Edith; Soon, Judith; Norman, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Background: Contraceptives are underutilized in Canada, and nearly one in three Canadian women will have an abortion in her lifetime. To help delineate a national family planning research agenda, the authors interviewed healthcare providers and organizational stakeholders to explore their perspective on barriers to contraception across regions of Canada. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted based on validated frameworks for assessing family planning access and quality. The authors purposefully selected 14 key stakeholders from government agencies, professional organizations and non-governmental organizations for in-person interviews. Fifty-eight healthcare providers and representatives of stakeholder organizations in reproductive health who self-selected through an online survey were also interviewed. Transcripts were analyzed for repeated and saturated themes. Results: Cost was the most important barrier to contraception. Sexual health education was reported as inconsistent, even within provinces. Regional differences were highlighted, including limited access to family physicians in rural Canada and throughout Quebec. Physician bias and outdated practices were cited as significant barriers to quality. New immigrants, youth, young adults and women in small rural, Northern and Aboriginal communities were all identified as particularly vulnerable. Informants identified multiple opportunities for health policy and system restructuring, including subsidized contraception, and enhancing public and healthcare provider education. Sexual health clinics were viewed as a highly successful model. Task-sharing and expanded scope of practice of nurses, nurse practitioners and pharmacists, alongside telephone and virtual healthcare consultations, were suggested to create multiple points of entry into the system. Conclusion: Results underscore the need for a national strategic approach to family planning health policy and health services delivery in Canada. PMID:25947033

  9. 34 CFR 303.167 - Individualized family service plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Individualized family service plans. 303.167 Section 303... Requirements § 303.167 Individualized family service plans. Each application must include— (a) An assurance that a current IFSP is in effect and implemented for each eligible child and the child's family;...

  10. 34 CFR 303.114 - Individualized family service plan (IFSP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Individualized family service plan (IFSP). 303.114... System Minimum Components of A Statewide System § 303.114 Individualized family service plan (IFSP). Each system must ensure, for each infant or toddler with a disability and his or her family in the State,...

  11. 34 CFR 303.114 - Individualized family service plan (IFSP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Individualized family service plan (IFSP). 303.114... System Minimum Components of A Statewide System § 303.114 Individualized family service plan (IFSP). Each system must ensure, for each infant or toddler with a disability and his or her family in the State,...

  12. 34 CFR 303.114 - Individualized family service plan (IFSP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Individualized family service plan (IFSP). 303.114... System Minimum Components of A Statewide System § 303.114 Individualized family service plan (IFSP). Each system must ensure, for each infant or toddler with a disability and his or her family in the State,...

  13. Bibliography of Family Planning and Population, Volume 1 Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linzell, Dinah, Comp.

    Compiled from the world's research literature, this bi-monthly classified list of references on population and family planning emphasizes recently published material, primarily journal literature. Topics covered include: population and fertility; reproductive behaviour; the family; education in population, family planning, and sex; family…

  14. Fifth national conference on integrated resource planning

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Presentations at the Fifth National Conference on Integrated Resource Planning, sponsored by the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners, are presented in this volume. Topics cover gas and electric utilities, demand side management programs, assessment of the value of externalities, integrated resource planning implementation, economic analyses, regulatory problems with IRP, etc.

  15. Study findings on evaluation of integrated family planning programme performance.

    PubMed

    1980-01-01

    In 1976 the United Nations's Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific launched a comparative study on integrated family planning programs in a number of countries in the region. In November 1979 the study directors from the participating countries meet in Bangkok to discuss the current status of the studies in their countries. The Korean and Malaysian studies were completed, the Bangladesh study was in the data collecting phase, and the Pakistani research design phase was completed. The meeting participants focused their attention on the findings and policy implications of the 2 completed studies and also discussed a number of theorectical and methodological issues which grew out of their research experience. The Malaysian study indicated that group structure, financial resources, and the frequency and quality of worker-client contact were the most significant variables determining program effectiveness. In the Korean Study, leadership, financial resources, and the frequency and quality of contact between agencies were the key variables in determining program effectiveness. In the Malaysian study there was a positive correlation between maternal and child health service performance measures and family planning service performance measures. This finding supported the contention that these 2 types of service provision are not in conflict with each other but instead serve to reinforce each other. Policy implications of the Korean study were 1) family planning should be an integral part of all community activities; 2) family planning workers should be adequately supported by financial and supply allocations; and 3) adequate record keeping and information exchange procedures should be incorporated in the programs. PMID:12262020

  16. Couple Communication and Sexual Attitudes in Natural Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shivanandan, Mary; Borkman, Thomasina

    Natural family planning (NFP) refers to techniques for planning or preventing pregnancy by observation of natural signs of fertility. In using natural family planning to avoid pregnancy, there is abstinence from sexual intercourse during the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle. Social values which are incorporated into the method include couples…

  17. Workshop on promotion of reproductive health and family planning held.

    PubMed

    1997-09-01

    Two reproductive health advocacy networks have been established in two districts in eastern Africa to help promote family planning and reproductive health among the people in this area. The districts are the Suhum-Kraboa-Coaltar and the New Juaben Municipality. To enhance the performance of the network, a 4-day workshop was held at Koforidua for the members to prepare an action plan for their advocacy and map out areas of collaboration between the public and the private sector group. The workshop, organized by the Futures Group International based in the US with support from the USAID, was attended by 30 participants from nongovernmental organizations and public offices. In an address, Ms. Patience Adow, the Regional Minister observed that through the idea of family planning has been promoted in the country over the past two decades, the country continues to experience a population growth rate of about 2.8%. She expressed the hope that the workshop will equip the participants with the relevant skills to develop and implement their advocacy strategy effectively. Dr. J. E. Taylor, Medical Administrator of the Koforidua Central Hospital, who chaired the function in a bid to improve the health of women and the quality of life of the people. The Ministry of Health as part of its medium term strategic plan has developed the national reproductive health and service policy. PMID:12295519

  18. Ethiopia: an emerging family planning success story.

    PubMed

    Olson, David J; Piller, Andrew

    2013-12-01

    From 1990 to 2011, contraceptive use in Ethiopia increased ninefold and the total fertility rate fell from 7.0 to 4.8. These are two dramatic illustrations of a family planning success story that has emerged over the last two decades and is still emerging. What are the main elements of this success? We posit that the four most significant factors are: political will, generous donor support, nongovernmental and public-private partnerships, and the government's establishment of a network of health extension workers. In this study, we look at these factors and how their interaction increased the proportion of women having both the desire to use and ability to access contraceptives. Also highlighted are some of the key lessons learned in Ethiopia that are relevant to other African countries interested in emulating the country's success. PMID:24323662

  19. Target community foundations to fund family planning.

    PubMed

    1994-04-01

    Practical advice was given on how to secure funding for privately sponsored US family planning programs in local communities. The first step is in identifying community foundations that are directly involved in social service delivery in the local area. For example, Norplant kits were made available to low-income women through a grant from the Baltimore-based Abell Foundation. Another example is that local funds were used to produce a Norplant video, which was needed for outreach programs and for explaining the pros and cons of Norplant use. The short video was designed for multiple audiences, even though it was locally produced and funded in Baltimore. Sometimes the health department can create a consortium of providers for applying for a group grant. The Foundation Center in New York provides information on foundations, including state-by-state analysis of foundations and family planning funded projects. The Foundation Directory and Grants Index publishes by subject a list of foundations funding such areas. These publications are available in network or local libraries. Background information needs to be obtained on the guidelines required for applying for a specific foundation's grant; guidelines may vary widely between foundations and have strict or loose restrictions on form and substance. An important initial step is writing a very brief synthesis of your proposal (2 pages), if there is no prior knowledge of the receptivity of the foundation to the proposed program. If the project is within the scope of the foundation, a larger formal proposal is the next step. Foundations want to see well through out projects, budgeted carefully, with evaluation components. Examples of successful projects conducted elsewhere are good testimonials to the potential success of the proposed venture. Cultural acceptance in the community, pilot projects replicable in other areas, and target populations are important considerations to be included in the proposal. PMID:12318752

  20. Family planning / sex education / teenage pregnancy.

    PubMed

    1993-05-01

    The Alan Guttmacher Institute's "State Reproductive Health Monitor: Legislative Proposals and Actions" provides US legislative information on family planning, sex education, and teenage pregnancy. The listing contains information on legislation including the state, the identifying legislative number, the sponsor, the committee, the date the bill was introduced, a description of the bill, and the bill's status. The bills cover: 1) family planning services and programs, e.g., requiring the Department of Human Services to provide written information concerning the availability of the Norplant contraceptive implant through the Medicaid program adding chlamydia screening to the existing law, or requesting a study assessing the social and financial impact of mandatory health insurance for contraceptive devices; 2) parental consent and notice for contraception legislation; 3) school-based clinics and school health services, e.g., establishing health screening programs in public schools, allowing school-based health centers to dispense drug prescriptions; 4) sex and health education, e.g., urging all school boards to require all public elementary, middle, and high schools that teach sex education to emphasize abstinence from sexual intercourse as the only effective protection against pregnancy or sexually transmitted diseases and to require that information about sexual assault by an acquaintance and related issues be included in sex education courses in public schools; 5) teenage pregnancy prevention and care programs, e.g., requesting the public health, welfare, and labor committee to conduct a study of efforts to reduce infant mortality, teen pregnancy, and related problems as well as establishing and maintaining pregnancy and parenting education programs in secondary schools; and 6) infertility legislation on assisted reproductive technologies, including issues such as clarifying the status of children and adults born from donated eggs or preembryos, relinquishment of rights by the donors of eggs, sperms, or preembryos, allowable compensation for such donations, and the granting of legal status to fertilized ex utero embryos. PMID:12286572

  1. Prospects and problems of integration of family planning with health services in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Khan, M R

    1986-06-01

    Family planning has been functionally integrated with health in Bangladesh since the Second Five-Year Plan was launched (1980-85). The integration was resented by both health and family planning functionaries at the upazila level and below, and, except on paper, there is no integration of any form in practice. There are separate budgets, and, consequently, the Upazila Health and Family Planning Officer (UHFPO) as the authority of the grassroots level functionaries of the Health Wing and the Family Planning Officer (FPO) as the authority of the grassroots level functionaries of Population Control and Family Planning (PCFP) Wing maintain separate and parallel administration and delivery systems. Problems of integration include: no accountability, i.e., as the UHFPO has no administrative control of the FPO, the FPO can bypass the UHFPO; differential pay scales; discrimination in the allocation of office rooms and in the provision of residential accommodations and fees for sterilization operations; noncompliance of functional responsibilities on the part of grassroots level functionaries; anarchy in the subcenters; and the neglect of maternal and child health services. To improve the operational efficiency of the health care and family planning programs, it is recommended that the PCFP Wing be separated totally from the Health Wing, that the total responsibility of the action program for health and family planning be vested in the Ministry of Health, and that the National Family Planning Control Board working under the President's Secretariat be headed by an Executive Director with the rank and status of a Minister. PMID:12281031

  2. High-Deductible Health Plans: Are Vulnerable Families Enrolled?

    PubMed Central

    Galbraith, Alison A.; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Soumerai, Stephen B.; Miroshnik, Irina; Wharam, J. Frank; Kleinman, Kenneth; Lieu, Tracy A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE There is concern that high-deductible health plans may have negative effects on vulnerable groups. The objective of this study was to compare the characteristics of families who have children and switch to high-deductible health plans with those who stay in traditional plans. METHODS This double-cohort study included families who had children aged <18 years and were enrolled in a Massachusetts health plan through employers who did not offer a choice of health plans. We identified families who had traditional health maintenance organization plans for a 12-month baseline period between 2001 and 2004 and compared families whose coverage was then switched to a high-deductible health plan by their employers with similar families whose employer chose to remain in the traditional plan (controls). Data came from health plan enrollment and claims datasets and census data. We used multivariate logistic regression models to compare the characteristics of families who were switched to high-deductible health plans with controls. RESULTS We identified 839 families who had children and whose employer switched them to high-deductible health plans and 5133 controls. Among families with large employers, the adjusted odds of the employer switching to a high-deductible health plan were higher for families living in high-poverty neighborhoods. Among families with small employers, the adjusted odds of the employer switching to a high-deductible health plan were lower for families with more children, above-average family morbidity, and baseline total expenditures >$7000. CONCLUSIONS Among families with large employers offering a single health plan, those from low-income neighborhoods are more likely to be switched to high-deductible health plans. In contrast, families with small employers offering a single plan are more likely to be switched to high-deductible health plans if they are healthier and have lower baseline costs. These findings suggest that families with children in high-deductible plans may represent two distinct groups, one with higher-risk characteristics and another with lower-risk characteristics compared with those in traditional plans. PMID:19336350

  3. Experimental plan for the Single-Family Study

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, L.G.; Brown, M.A.; Wright, T.; White, D.L.

    1991-09-01

    The national evaluation of the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) consists of five separate studies. The Single-Family Study is one of three studies that will estimate program energy savings and cost effectiveness in principal WAP submarkets. This report presents the experimental plan for the Single-Family Study, which will be implemented over the next three years (1991--1993). The Single-Family Study will directly estimate energy savings for a nationally representative sample of single-family and small multifamily homes weatherized in the 1989 program year. Savings will be estimated from gas and electric utility billing records using the Princeton Scorekeeping Method (PRISM). The study will also assess nonenergy impacts (e.g., health, comfort, safety, and housing affordability), estimate cost effectiveness, and analyze factors influencing these outcomes. For homes using fuels such as wood, coal, fuel oil, kerosene, and propane as the primary source of space conditioning, energy savings will be studied indirectly. The study will assemble a large nationally representative data base. A cluster sampling approach will be used, in which about 400 subgrantees are selected in a first stage and weatherized homes are selected in a second range. To ensure that the Single-Family Study is able to identify promising opportunities for future program development, two purposively selected groups of subgrantees will be included: (1) subgrantees that install cooling measures (such as more efficient air conditioning equipment or radiant barriers), and (2) exemplary subgrantees that use state-of-the-art technologies and service delivery procedures (such as advanced audit techniques, blower door tests, infrared scanners, extensive client education, etc.). These two groups of subgrantees will be analyzed to identify the most effective program elements in specific circumstances. 14 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Work-Family Planning Attitudes among Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basuil, Dynah A.; Casper, Wendy J.

    2012-01-01

    Using social learning theory as a framework, we explore two sets of antecedents to work and family role planning attitudes among emerging adults: their work-family balance self-efficacy and their perceptions of their parents' work-to-family conflict. A total of 187 college students completed a questionnaire concerning their work-family balance…

  5. Family planning in Georgia: a continuing struggle.

    PubMed

    Khomassuridze, A

    1994-03-01

    In the former Soviet Union, abortion has been the main method of family planning (FP) since its initial legalization in 1922. When legal access to abortion was restricted in 1936 because the government wanted to encourage population growth, women had to resort to traditional methods of FP or illegal procedures. In 1955, abortion was legalized again, but contraception was an illegal subject (abortionists were organized "like the Mafia" and did not want to lose their monopoly). In 1985, the advent of Perestroika paved the way for efforts to replace abortion with modern methods of contraception. In the Republic of Georgia, a Planned Parenthood Federation was established in 1993, and a new strategy was adopted to promote contraception. The provision of contraceptives through 20 branches of the Zhordania Institute of Human Reproduction has managed to respond to the FP needs of the different regions of the country. Activities of the Institute include performing voluntary sterilization and improving methods of abortion to include the use of RU-486 and vacuum aspiration procedures. These activities have combined to reduce the abortion rate, although the level of illegal abortion is reported to have increased. This gradual shift from a reliance on abortion to use of contraceptives has taken more than a decade and may be doomed to failure by a reduction in the contraceptive imports upon which Georgia entirely depends. PMID:12288983

  6. [Journalism and family planning in Guinea-Bissau. Putting the accent on birth spacing].

    PubMed

    Vaz, C

    1989-05-01

    A conference on awareness in the mass media of the problems of family planning was held in March 1989 at Bissau by the Guinean Association for Education and Promotion of Family Health (AGEPSF). Representatives of radio, a daily newspaper, and the national press agency discussed the objectives of AGEPSF and the benefits of family planning with specialists in different sectors of national life. The secretary general of AGEPSF affirmed the interest of the government in creating a health organization to coordinate national policy in family planning and to diffuse information on family planning. The family planning objective of the AGEPSF is not limitation of births but rather spacing to promote maternal and child health. AGEPSF is a member of the International Planned Parenthood Federation and maintains relations with similar organizations throughout the world. According to the director of the national maternity hospital, family planning is a sensitive topic but it has become accepted in numerous countries as marriage in rural areas and abortions in urban areas are widespread practices in Africa with potentially grave consequences. The general director of the National Institute for Studies and Research placed the theme of family planning in the context of Guinea-Bissau by citing the low level of education, the almost insignificant number of literate women, and the lack of health services in rural areas as the principal causes of increasing infant mortality in the country. African countries should create favorable conditions, elevate the level of living of their populations, and develop concrete health actions to reduce infant and maternal mortality. PMID:12282452

  7. Using mass transit public service advertising to market family planning.

    PubMed

    Blonna, R; McNally, K; Grasso, C

    1990-03-01

    To increase public awareness of family planning services in New Jersey, the Family Planning Program of the State Department of Health conducted an intermediary marketing campaign using free public service advertising on mass transit. In 1986, the year of the campaign, 237 calls were made to the advertised hotline, resulting in a like number of referrals to family planning service providers. Also, 2664 new patients examined in the state's family planning agencies in 1986 cited exposure to the media campaign as the reason for their visits. The results of the campaign and their implications for other public service agencies are discussed. PMID:10104014

  8. The current family planning debate in Soviet Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Watters, K

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the debate that occurred in the press of the Soviet Central Asian republics during 1988 and 1989 on the issue of family planning. The author identifies three basic opinion groups, those in favor of family planning, those in favor of family planning with certain reservations, and those opposed to family planning. The role this debate has played in bringing into the open a number of political, cultural, economic, and social issues, together with data to support the positions taken that are now possible with glasnost, is noted. PMID:12343037

  9. President Mubarak, Turkish Family Planning Foundation receive UN population award.

    PubMed

    1994-07-01

    On June 14, 1994, President Hosni Mubarak of Egypt and Vehbi Koc, President of the Turkish Family Health and Planning Foundation (TFHPF) received 1994 UN Population Awards for outstanding work in increasing public awareness of population problems and their solutions. Mubarak was chosen for his national and international leadership in population issues, and the TFHPF was chosen for its achievements in improving the quality of family planning services in Turkey. In his presentation address, UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali noted that the awards not only honor the individual recipients but also signal the continuing concern of the UN about achieving a peaceful balance among concerns of population, the environment, and development. Thus, the 20-year International Conference on Population and Development Programme of Action will seek to integrate population concerns into every area of development. Mubarak accepted the award as recognition of Egypt's success in confronting population problems by striving for comprehensive development and by introducing policies to persuade people to participate freely in population programs. Koc reported that the TFHPF supports alternative and innovative solutions to the social and economic problems caused by rapid population growth and constructively influences national population programs and policies. PMID:12179003

  10. Seminars offer key to better family planning.

    PubMed

    Townsend, S

    1993-03-01

    Current scientific information on health and contraception is in demand in Francophone countries of Africa. Contraceptive technology updates (CTU) have been held in Senegal, Niger, and Togo in order to provide family planning (FP) experts, program managers, providers, and government officials with the opportunity to exchange information and gather new materials. Family Health International's CTUs in Senegal in 1990 were useful in changing policy. Routine blood testing, as a requirement for oral contraceptives, was eliminated. In Niger, there was resistance to changing the policy requiring pelvic examinations and laboratory tests before oral pill distribution. After CTU seminars were held, the attending physicians were gradually convinced by the medical experts that these procedures interfered with and were not necessary for oral pill dispensing. Other changes that came about due to the workshops were the use of licensed practical nurses as FP providers, and the use of village health workers as oral contraceptive providers after an initial prescription. Age and parity requirements for injectables were also changed to a lower age due to the efforts of CTUs. In Togo, a CTU seminar was held with leaders from Togo and nine other African countries. In the final declaration, policies were recommended for authorizing adolescent FP services and promoting non-clinic service delivery approaches. Prior to the seminars, information on local country conditions was gathered; this information was useful in showing how changes in local barriers to contraception use and continuation could be affected. The use of international information was helpful in Togo for understanding the importance of using injectables and providing pill access through rural outlets. The participation of a delivery of professions and people involved in FP has been important for policy and service providers. Follow-up training at the service delivery level is needed, where changing habits and attitudes is necessary. The first step is convincing health workers of their important contribution to FP, and then, working to change non-medical barriers. PMID:12318095

  11. Family planning offered in local welfare offices.

    PubMed

    1998-04-01

    This article describes expanded access to family planning (FP) services through community welfare offices in Washington state, US. The government aim is to decrease unintended pregnancies and to help families achieve self-sufficiency. The staff must be sensitive and respectful of clients served. The team effort includes contacting clients in other community locations to offer FP education. The approach is characterized as "1-stop shopping" that includes FP, welfare, access to jobs, training, and medical coupons. Preventing unintended pregnancies is cost effective. A state (90%) investment of $40/person for contraceptives is good business compared to $400/person as a 50/50 state/federal investment in prenatal and delivery costs. The program began in 1992, by educating staff members in community services offices (CSOs) about FP issues. In 1994, the program hired registered nurses and nurse practitioners at CSOs to provide FP services. Almost all CSOs now have nurses, and there are 8 full exam clinics. A resource handbook for CSO workers and FP nurses was compiled by state and local FP personnel. CSOs typically assign 1 staff member to FP, usually on a part time basis. Close collaboration between nurses and CSO workers usually involves more creative strategies and outreach projects. For example, in 1 CSO in Washington, the FP worker offers contraceptive counseling, pregnancy tests, and sexually transmitted disease prevention. Contraceptives are provided at a separate time with local private providers or at health department clinics. CSOs continue to provide counseling regardless of referrals to private clinics. The project is growing and forming collaborations with other FP groups. These 1-stop sites offer accessible, familiar, and comfortable services. PMID:12293169

  12. My university. What I learned from the Productive Cooperative Movement to Promotion of Humanistic Family Planning.

    PubMed

    Kunii, C

    1990-07-01

    Based on experiences with the Productive Cooperative Movement and the Parasite Control Movement in Japan, the Japanese Family Planning Movement began in April 1954. The resultant private and nonprofit Japan Family Planning Association (JFPA) followed and it served to help Japan achieve its goal of reducing fertility by promoting family planning. It did so by publishing a monthly newsletter on family planning, hosting meetings and national conventions, spreading information via the mass media, and selling contraceptives and educational materials. JFPA earned funding from these sales with no support from the government thereby establishing self dependence and freedom to speak candidly to the government. The JFPA learned that families wanted to improve their standard of living and were willing to limit family size to 2 children. After the birth rate peaked in 1955, the birth rate and the number of illegal abortions decreased. In the 1950s, JFPA joined the International Planned Parenthood Federation and subsequently learned of the problems faced by developing countries. Based on the successful reduction of fertility in Japan and a strong economic base, JFPA and the government were in a position to organize an international cooperation program for family planning. Therefore, the leader of JFPA resigned to found the Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning which promotes family planning in developing countries via its integrated family planning, nutrition, and parasite control program. A steering committee composed of leaders from government, universities, and private organizations sets the policies for the program in each country. It is to the Japanese government's advantage to work with private organizations instead of providing all social services because they are flexible and provide administrative stability and national expenses are minimized. PMID:12316428

  13. National Security Technology Incubation Project Continuation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    2008-09-30

    This document contains a project continuation plan for the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI). The plan was developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP) funded by a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This continuation plan describes the current status of NSTI (staffing and clients), long-term goals, strategies, and long-term financial solvency goals.The Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University (NMSU) is the operator and manager of the NSTI. To realize the NSTI, Arrowhead Center must meet several performance objectives related to planning, development, execution, evaluation, and sustainability. This continuation plan is critical to the success of NSTI in its mission of incubating businesses with security technology products and services.

  14. BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT PLAN.

    SciTech Connect

    NAIDU,J.R.

    2002-10-22

    The purpose of the Wildlife Management Plan (WMP) is to promote stewardship of the natural resources found at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), and to integrate their protection with pursuit of the Laboratory's mission.

  15. National Security Technology Incubator Action Plan

    SciTech Connect

    2008-02-28

    This report documents the action plan for developing the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) program for southern New Mexico. The NSTI program is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). This action plan serves as a tool in measuring progress in the development process and delivery of services for the NSTI program. Continuous review and evaluation of the action plan is necessary in the development process of the NSTI. The action plan includes detailed steps in developing the NSTI program based on recommended best practices in incubator development by the National Business Incubation Association (NBIA). Included are tasks required to implement the NSTI, developed within a work breakdown structure. In addition, a timeline is identified for each task.

  16. Petersburg National Battlefield Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    This collection of eight lesson plans deals with the Petersburg (Virginia) U.S. Civil War battlefield. The lessons tell about slave life and plantation life in the U.S. south, and how the Civil War forever changed this structure. To do the lessons, students read primary source documents that tell the stories of three different soldiers who…

  17. Family planning in the workplace in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    1987-08-01

    The Jamaica Family Planning Association started holding presentations and discussions in the workplace in January 1986, now reaching 8000 people in 32 companies. The firms are primarily manufacturers (21) and hotels(7), but also include publishing, construction, printing and supermarket businessess. In these companies as well as many of the 480 members of the Jamaica Chamber of Commerce, employees are usually women of reproductive age who cannot afford to take time off to attend a clinic. There is a great demand for information and discussion on sexually transmitted diseases and clarification of the contraindications of various contraceptive methods. At the end of the discussions, educators offer pills, condoms and neo-sampoon, and may refer people for clinical services. Almost new acceptors have been recruited. The success of the project depends heavily on cooperation of management, supervisors and union representatives. In some cases union representives or company nurses act as distributors of contraceptives. This project has been so successful that some companies expressed an interest in participating in the Associations's resource development program. PMID:12179837

  18. [Contraception as an aspect of family planning].

    PubMed

    Krzaklewski, S

    1979-01-01

    In Poland, contraception is not a politically and economically important as in the 3rd world. However, it is one of the major issues of preventive medicine and a very important aspect of family planning. This work deals with 2 modern contraceptive methods: hormonal pills and IUDs. It makes use of the Pearl failure index to evaluate the reliability of some domestic and imported contraceptives. The evaluation is based on observations and research by the Wroclaw Academy of Medicine. The Academy's research program is working to develop Polish contraceptives. An analysis of data collected over 12 years of research and development indicates that Poland could become independent of imported contraceptives. To achieve this goal, Poland should begin production of the Spiran W as a standard IUD which can be done once technological modifications and improvements are made. The Spide Cu should be made available as a universal IUD, with the functional parameters of the best 2nd-generation contraceptive devices. Flover Cu should replace the imported Copper T-200 as an IUD for women who have never given birth. Due to their advanced design, the Spider Cu and Flover Cu can also be exported to foreign countries. The Institute of Gynecology and Obstetrics affiliated with the Wroclaw Academy of Medicine can provide all of the documentation and technical service needed to organize the manufacture of these IUDs. PMID:12314828

  19. Congressional cuts threaten family planning programs.

    PubMed

    Van Hoogstraat, A

    1996-01-01

    In the spring of 1996, the US government's omnibus spending bill reduced support for international family planning (FP) programs by 35%. The bill also prohibited the US Agency for International Development (USAID) from spending any of the money allocated until July 1 and limited USAID allocations to 6.7% per month for 15 months, which meant that only $72 million could be spent in fiscal year 1996, as compared to $547 in fiscal year 1995. While some observers attributed the cut in spending to anti-abortion forces, Senator Mark Hatfield, an opponent of abortion, campaigned hard to keep the appropriations as a means of reducing the need for abortion. In 1995, the US spent less than 1% of its budget on foreign aid, and most Americans support foreign aid assistance for FP programs. The ability of opponents of international FP programs to continue to restrict the program for fiscal year 1997 will depend in large measure on the results of the November 1996 elections. PMID:12347633

  20. Maintaining technical excellence requires a national plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, T. F.

    1991-01-01

    To meet the challenge of technical excellence, AIA established a rocket propulsion committee to develop the National Rocket Propulsion Strategic Plan. Developing such a plan required a broad spectrum of experience and disciplines. The Strategic Plan team needed the participation of industry, government, and academia. The plan provides, if followed, a means for the U.S. to maintain technical excellence and world leadership in rocket propulsion. To implement the National Rocket Propulsion Strategic Plan is to invest in the social, economic, and technological futures of America. The plan lays the basis for upgrading existing propulsion systems and a firm base for future full scale development, production, and operation of rocket propulsion systems for space, defense, and commercial applications.

  1. Search is on for most outstanding family planning workers and clinics.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    The JSI Research and Training Institute, Inc, sponsored a national wide search in the Philippines commencing March 15, 1994, and ending July 7, 1994, for commendable family planning workers. The winners of the competition were selected from five categories: the best family planning volunteer worker, government family planning service worker, nongovernment family planning service worker, a government family planning clinic or center, and a nongovernment family planning clinic or center. Winners in each category were selected at the provincial or chartered city level, regional level, and national level. Nomination forms were made available in Provincial Health Offices or City Health Offices. Nomination criteria involved a worker who must have worked for at least 18 months for a family planning service agency and a volunteer who must have worked at least a year a family planning service agency in referring cases. Clinics or centers must have been in operation for at least 18 months and preferably accredited by the government. Winner selection criteria was based on the number of clients served, the commitment to family planning, and the quality of their work. Nominations were disqualified if workers were involved with performing abortions, coercing clients to practice family planning, or discriminating against any legally acceptable methods of contraception. Provincial selection of the winner occurred on July 15, 1994, and these winners were entered in the regional competition, which was set for August 1 and September 15, 1994. Regional winners competed in the national competition in November 1994. The award for each provincial winner will be a certificate, an aneroid sphygmomanometer, and a stethoscope. Provincial clinics will receive a certificate and a wall clock. Regional winners will receive a certificate and wrist watches. Regional clinics will receive a certificate and an examining table or karaoke sound system. The five national winners will receive a plaque of appreciation, a three day stay in Manila, and a round trip ticket to award ceremonies. Personnel will receive a complete medical kit, while the center will get a refrigerator. An opportunity to visit a family planning program in an Asian country will be provided to national winners. PMID:12290569

  2. National Security Technology Incubator Operations Plan

    SciTech Connect

    2008-04-30

    This report documents the operations plan for developing the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) program for southern New Mexico. The NSTI program will focus on serving businesses with national security technology applications by nurturing them through critical stages of early development. The NSTI program is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The operation plan includes detailed descriptions of the structure and organization, policies and procedures, scope, tactics, and logistics involved in sustainable functioning of the NSTI program. Additionally, the operations plan will provide detailed descriptions of continuous quality assurance measures based on recommended best practices in incubator development by the National Business Incubation Association (NBIA). Forms that assist in operations of NSTI have been drafted and can be found as an attachment to the document.

  3. Connecting America: The National Broadband Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In early 2009, Congress directed the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to develop a National Broadband Plan to ensure every American has "access to broadband capability." Congress also required that this plan include a detailed strategy for achieving affordability and maximizing use of broadband to advance "consumer welfare, civic…

  4. Differences in Counseling Men and Women: Family Planning in Kenya.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young Mi; Kols, Adrienne; Mwarogo, Peter; Awasum, David

    2000-01-01

    Comparisions of family planning sessions in Kenya found distinct gender differences in reasons for visiting the clinics and communication styles of both the clients and the counselors. These communication patterns may be a result of Kenyan gender roles and men's and women's different reasons for seeking family planning services. Implications of

  5. Family Planning and Integration. IPPF Bibliography Series. November 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    This document is a bibliography of materials that present family planning in comprehensive programs for the alleviation of poverty and deprivation. It contains 141 entries. Some of the items describe projects or approaches in which family planning is combined with a single function such as midwifery. The other entries cover programs of varying…

  6. Differences in Counseling Men and Women: Family Planning in Kenya.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young Mi; Kols, Adrienne; Mwarogo, Peter; Awasum, David

    2000-01-01

    Comparisions of family planning sessions in Kenya found distinct gender differences in reasons for visiting the clinics and communication styles of both the clients and the counselors. These communication patterns may be a result of Kenyan gender roles and men's and women's different reasons for seeking family planning services. Implications of…

  7. 34 CFR 303.167 - Individualized family service plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individualized family service plans. 303.167 Section...-Application Requirements § 303.167 Individualized family service plans. Each application must include— (a) An assurance that a current IFSP is in effect and implemented for each eligible child and the child's...

  8. Studies in Family Planning, Volume 3 Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Council, New York, NY.

    A new design for government family planning programs is proposed in "Family Planning Programs: An Economic Approach," the principal article in this monthly publication of The Population Council. The design is intended primarily for low-income countries that seek large and rapid reductions in fertility. Thirteen elements of the proposed system of…

  9. Studies in Family Planning, Volume 2 Number 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Council, New York, NY.

    A typology of incentives and the general effects of incentives for family planning are discussed in "Incentives in the Diffusion of Family Planning Innovations," the first of three studies in this monthly publication of The Population Council. A brief review of the history of incentives and their present status in the fields is given, together…

  10. Population Growth and Family Planning. IN Visitors' Information Special Report. SO 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heisse, Thomas

    The rapid and still-accelerating increase in the world's population, especially in developing nations, will have a number of serious economic, social, and ecological consequences for the whole world. Germany is attempting to help solve these problems by providing family planning and poverty alleviation assistance to developing nations. German…

  11. New awareness campaign increases appeal of family planning.

    PubMed

    1999-06-01

    This article examines the impact of the campaign known as "Bringing New Marital and Reproductive Styles into Tens of Thousands of Households" on family planning in China. The awareness campaign, which started in October 1998, was established to increase the effectiveness of family planning and introduce progressive lifestyles among the population through an interactive and service-oriented approach focusing on the needs of human beings. The program emphasizes the following elements: 1) late marriage; 2) late childbirth; 3) fewer childbirth; 4) gender equality; 5) male participation in family planning; 6) dissemination of family planning and reproductive health knowledge; 7) healthier births and quality of education; 8) enhanced self-care capabilities; 9) higher quality of life; and 10) healthier lifestyles. A face-to-face approach was used to encourage public participation and increase the appeal of family planning programs to ordinary people. Efforts are also being made to expose rural residents to new ideas and lifestyles. PMID:12319745

  12. Attitudes of urban Sudanese men toward family planning.

    PubMed

    Khalifa, M A

    1988-01-01

    Using data from the Male Attitude Survey of 1985, this paper shows that Sudanese men play a major role in family planning decision-making. Attitudes regarding family planning issues are presented for 1,500 men aged 18 years and over, living in urban areas of Khartoum, the capital of Sudan. The decision not to practice family planning is found to be male-dominated, and husbands are responsible for providing contraceptives when family planning is practiced. Widespread misconceptions about vasectomy, along with a very low acceptance rate, exist among the men in the sample. It is concluded that the involvement of men in family planning programs will give these programs a better chance of success in the future. PMID:3176096

  13. Achievements of the Iranian family planning programmes 1956-2006.

    PubMed

    Simbar, M

    2012-03-01

    Family planning programmes initiated in the Islamic Republic of Iran from 1966 met with limited success. Following the 1986 census family planning was considered a priority and was supported by the country's leaders. Appropriate strategies based on the principles of health promotion led to an increase in the contraceptive prevalence rate among married women from 49.0% in 1989 to 73.8% in 2006. This paper reviews the family planning programmes in the Islamic Republic of Iran and their achievements during the last 4 decades and discusses the principles of health promotion and theories of behaviour change which may explain these achievements. Successful strategies included: creation of a supportive environment, reorientation of family planning services, expanding of coverage of family planning services, training skilled personnel, providing free contraceptives as well as vasectomy and tubectomy services, involvement of volunteers and nongovernmental organizations and promotion of male participation. PMID:22574484

  14. Language, videos and family planning in the South Pacific.

    PubMed

    Winn, M; Lucas, D

    1993-12-01

    In 1984, women in Fiji, Kiribati, the Solomon Islands, and Tonga wanted culture-specific, educational resources on sexuality, family planning, contraception, reproduction, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Family Planning Australia [FPA] found video to be the most appropriate means to present information on these topics, since video continues the story-telling tradition of the Pacific. Women worked with FPA to produce videos addressing these topics. They were filmed in Fiji, which has a broad cross-section of South Pacific people. FPA took into account women's concerns and cultural and religious sensitivities. The English language videos were Better Safe, a story about STDs, condom use, and male sexual responsibility; Taboo Talk, a documentary about women's attitudes on menstruation, sex education, and family planning; AIDS and the South Pacific, about AIDS transmission and prevention; a d Down There, an animated documentary on reproduction and contraceptive methods. A project evaluation revealed that the videos would have received wider acceptance had they been in local languages. Local men and women debated each work of a translation of the list of reproductive health terms, eventually resulting in 20 culturally and linguistically appropriate video translations. A cross section of national language speakers modified and improved the draft translation of the 4 scripts. This whole process resulted in incorporation of the 88 reproductive health terms into the Booklet of South Pacific Reproductive Health Words and Phrases. The project showed that Pacific women were able to compile a booklet of culturally and linguistically acceptable terms and to successfully translate the scripts of health videos. In conclusions, people tend to be more willing to accept sexuality information and frank and explicit material than is usually believed if they are allowed to determine the context in which they receive it. PMID:12318840

  15. National nutrition planning: lessons of experience.

    PubMed

    Pines, J M

    1982-11-01

    National nutrition planning has failed to fulfill its initial promise because of inadequate consideration of political and administrative obstacles to applying the methodology. The political and operational contexts within which multisectoral nutrition planning has occurred are reviewed in order to draw insights and lessons from the experience of the last 10 years. Considered are the political process, macro and micro planning, the multisectoral approach, integration with agricultural and health planning, nutrition interventions, community participation, cost benefit analyses, and information systems evaluation, management and organization. Emphasis on the multisectoral causation of malnutrition has contributed substantially to nutrition programming and remains indispensable for improving nutrition, but requires more thoughtful response to practical implementation problems. Integrating nutrition concerns more effectively into health and agriculture systems offers a more promising approach than efforts to attack malnutrition by encouraging multisectoral nutrition coordinating agencies and national plans. PMID:12338585

  16. Role of village practitioners in family planning service delivery system.

    PubMed

    Rahman, S

    1985-12-01

    The acceptability of village practitioners (VPs) as providers of family planning service and their efficiency in delivery of such services is assessed. 120 VPs were selected on stratified random sample basis from 4 Thanas in Malaysia and were trained for 21 days on different aspects of family planning, MCH diagnosis and treatment of common ailments. Regular monthly meetings at the respective Thana Health Complexes were held to assess the progress of work on clinical discussion and for problem solving. The VPs showed interest in the training program and opined that such training programs should be organized on a continual basis. After training, the VPs were actively involved in distribution of contraceptives and referral of patients for clinical methods for 1 year. The compiled progress report on distribution of contraceptives in monthly meetings shows that the VPs contributed to 37% of the total performances of the population control division in the 4 Thanas. The use of contraceptives improved during the experimental project. 50% of the males and 36% of the females reported current use of contraceptives compared to 23% in the National Program. PMID:12314740

  17. National transportation strategic planning study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the nation's transportation system and identifies future investments required to maintain and develop the infrastructure. It discusses the impact demographics, economic factors, the energy supply, and the environment will have on the supply and demand for transportation services during the next 25 to 30 years. The book then describes the setting in which infrastructure issues must be reviewed, including current status of transportation, international issues, regulatory issues, safety and security factors, and the potential of new technologies. And finally, the book addresses the various components of the transportation system on a mode-by-mode basis.

  18. Economic woes mean cuts to family planning services.

    PubMed

    1991-07-01

    Due to budget cuts at the federal, state, and local levels, family planning clinics that rely in public funding are facing financial hardship. In 1980, the federal government provided $162 million for family planning under Title 10. But for 1991, the allocation was down to $140 million. Compared to 1980, there are 100 fewer government-funded clinics providing family planning. Many health clinics have simply ceased providing such services. The Community Family Planning Council in New York City is one of those organizations that has suffered severely from the cutbacks. Previously operating 12 family planning clinics, the council had no choice but to close 3 clinics that served about 10,000 low-income women, after the city's Human Resource Administration (HRA) cut $1 million from the council's budget. For 1992, HRA plans increase the cut to $2.3 million. The majority of the women affected are part of the "working poor," women who work for minimum wage. Family planners say that, in the long run, the consequences of the cutbacks will be more expensive for the city. Many women will have unwanted pregnancies, and many will be forced to quit their jobs to care for the baby, relying on public assistance and Medicaid. As the council has argued to city officials, family planning programs are cost effective. The council estimates that their programs prevent about 4500 pregnancies and 2000 abortions each year, which saves the city $15 million a year social services. Massive cutbacks also threaten family planning services in New Hampshire, where legislators where proposing to cut all funding. After pleas from family planners, the state is not looking at 45% reduction. A bright note has been California, where evidence to the cost-effectiveness of family planning convinced the governor to propose a $10 million increase for 1992. PMID:12284064

  19. Family planning and maternal health care in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-mouelhy, M T

    1990-01-01

    The Government of Egypt is introducing policies to reduce the mortality of women of reproductive age. However, family planning and maternal-child health care programs are unlikely to have the desired impact without corresponding improvements in the status of Egyptian women. Women's status in the areas of education, health, poverty, employment, the family, government, and the community is a crucial determinant of their willingness and ability to accept a smaller family size ideal and become contraceptive users. At present, only 6% of Egyptian women are a part of the work force and 60% are illiterate. In a society in which women are valued on the basis of the number of children they produce for their husbands, those practice birth control risk abandonment and isolation. The powerlessness and insecurity that lead Egyptian women to have an average of at least 5 children impeded national development and thus delay creation of the socioeconomic conditions that could liberate women from their domestic role. Equal opportunities in education and employment would represent a first step toward improving women's status by giving them a source of income and increased independence. Also needed are modifications in archaic marriage, divorce, and custody laws. PMID:12317075

  20. National mirror fusion program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Experiments are under way in the Tandem Mirror Experiment (TMX) facility at Livermore, which was built to test the principles of the new tandem-mirror concept. Recently this idea has been greatly improved by incorporating a new element called the thermal barrier, a concept that promises a higher power gain factor (Q = 10 to 20) with much less demanding neutral-beam and magnet technology and a higher fusion power density in the reactor. In addition to the tandem-mirror experiments in TMX, a new attempt will be made in the Beta II facility during FY 1980 to create and sustain a field-reversed mirror configuration, which is a different mirror fusion approach that could lead to early commercialization of small reactors. The plan presented here is designed to exploit the results of these and other mirror experiments and theoretical developments toward a variety of applications. The main objective is electric power generation. Other applications being studied include a hybrid fusion reactor that breeds fuel for fission reactors and a reactor for producing synthetic fuel (H/sub 2/) by means of thermochemical processes.

  1. Emerging challenges in family planning programme in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, D R; Shrestha, A; Ghimire, J

    2012-05-01

    Family planning is a priority program of the Government of Nepal. Despite political instability in the last two decades, Nepal has achieved remarkable progress in the overall status of reproductive health, including family planning. Married women of reproductive age have been increasingly using contraceptive from 1980s to 2006. However, Nepal Demographic Health Survey 2011 has shown unexpected results on contraceptive prevalence rate. There had been a notable decline in the prevalence rate between 2006 and 2011, creating concerns among various stakeholders working in family planning programs. This paper analyzes this situation and identifies possible reasons for the stagnated contraceptive prevalence rate in Nepal. High proportion of spousal separation, an increased use of traditional methods, abortion, emergency contraception, and a lack of innovative approaches to cater services to difficult-to-reach or special sub-groups are possible reasons. To improve the contraceptive prevalence, the family planning program should be implemented more strategically. Further data analysis, initiation of best practices to fulfill family planning needs of special groups, functional integration of family planning services into general health services, effective counseling and behavior change communication to prevent unwanted pregnancies, and increased access to modern family planning methods could be the stepping stones to improve contraceptive prevalence rate and the overall FP program in Nepal. PMID:23034371

  2. Family Functioning and Adolescent Behavior Problems: An Analysis of the National Survey of Families and Households.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Brett V.

    This study used data from the National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH) to explore the relationship between family functioning and adolescent behavior problems. The data covered five family types: married, two-biological parent families (TP); stepfamilies; divorced/separated female-headed families (DSF); never married female-headed…

  3. Family planning in the reorganized N.H.S. (e) Community family planning services.

    PubMed

    Macqueen, I A

    1974-06-01

    Recommendations on community family planning services are made by an Aberdeen Medical Health Officer. It is noted that: 1) both GPs and clinics have their value in contraceptive treatment; 2) clinics should be conveniently located and might be set up in buildings which are used for other health purposes at other times; 3) most women work so there should be evening sessions; 4) arrangements should be made which include both an appointments system and emergency visits; 5) reception at the clinic should be courteous and without moral judgements; 6) domiciliary services should be used only as a last resort; and 7) payment of prescription charges is now required, but there might be advantages in changing this to a free service. The ideal person for motivating people to use the service is the health visitor. More health visitors are needed, salaries and promotions must be raised, and enrolled nurses should be recruited to act as assistants to health visitors. Benefits of the Aberdeen community family planning services are described. Such services increase the happiness of the community and save the community a considerable amount of money. PMID:4428028

  4. Perceptions of population policy, development, and family planning programs in northern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Renne, E P

    1996-01-01

    In this article, local perceptions of family planning programs and federal population policy are examined, based on responses to a childbirth survey and on interviews with a range of individuals in one northern Nigerian town. The respondents' differing perceptions of the relationship between population and national development reflect distinctive ideas about political authority, population policy, and family planning programs, about development, and about domestic and international political affairs. Local suspicions about the Nigerian population policy and family planning programs suggest that they cannot be implemented in isolation from broader political and economic concerns. This distrust has ramifications for current family planning programs and reproductive health initiatives undertaken by Western-sponsored aid projects. PMID:8829295

  5. Reducing discontinuation in family planning programs.

    PubMed

    Roberts, D; Panitchpakdi, P; Loevinsohn, B

    1993-01-01

    Management strategies for reducing discontinuation in family planning programs are summarized; the strategies are practical and show how to analyze data for women who stop using contraception. Common factors that are associated with high levels of discontinuation are identified. Recommendations are made for how program managers can change service delivery in order to improve client continuation. Understanding the size and nature of discontinuation is an important precursor to a solution. Data collection on discontinuation could be combined with a system for tracking and follow-up of individual clients. The reasons that women stop using contraception are identified as those which clinics can or cannot control. A clinic discontinues is one who is a "no show" within a reasonable period of time. Decisions need to be made about the type of discontinues to be tracked, e.g. all new acceptors or pill users only. How to identify no shows, how to use the daily register tracking system, and how to calculate discontinuation rates are described. A special daily record tracking system can be used to track clients over years and does not replace the client medical and reproductive history record. The advantages are that client forms to not have to be redesigned and staff training is simple. The disadvantages apply to large clinics and the need for ample filing areas and proper management. An example is given of a working solution in Kenya for a community-based distribution program. Discontinuation rates may be calculated in various ways; a more exact measure tends to be the most useful. Recalculating discontinuation rates at regular intervals can provide an effective way to check standards of care. A tally sheet can be used to track characteristics of discontinues; a sample is given and analyzed to show interpretations which point the way to program changes. Comparisons may be made by age, method type, length of use. An example is given of the Rwanda service delivery system and the management improvements resulting from data analysis. Emphasis is placed on clinics with established medical standards of care and protocols, and improvements in training and in counseling. Suggestions are made for clinics with few resources. A checklist is provided for clinic managers, supervisor,s and senior level managers for reducing discontinuation. PMID:12286670

  6. Taiwan's population and family planning efforts: an historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Cernada, G; Sun, T H; Chang, M C; Tsai, J F

    The unprecedented decline of Taiwan's natural population increase rate from 3% in 1963 to 1.9% in 1973, attributed primarily to an increasing use of contraception, brought universal attention to one of the first and most successful national family planning programs, at a time when successes were few. Taiwan met its goal of decreasing its natural increase rate despite its young population, increasing numbers of women of childbearing ages, a strong preference for sons and a per capita income at the outset in 1963 of less than U.S.$200. Recognition of this achievement brought thousands of professionals, particularly from developing countries, to study the program firsthand: more than 3,000 during 1970--73 alone. This was matched by an avalanche of publications about the program that appeared around the world, written by practitioners, academics and others. This article tells the story of this success. PMID:18364300

  7. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The objective of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan is to compile and to consolidate information annually on how the ORNL Waste Management Program is conducted, which waste management facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, what activities are planned for the forthcoming fiscal year (FY), and how all of the activities are documented.

  8. National energy planning for developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Wilbanks, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper is a summary of what has been learned from the experience with national energy planning in developing countries. It considers lessons learned about the roles of data, analysis, and modeling in this enterprise, because of the connections between these components and our common interest in research to advance the state of the art; but it concludes that the most important needs at this time are institutional rather than analytical, which suggests a somewhat different set of priorities for scholarship related to national energy planning in the developing world.

  9. Jamaica Integrated National Energy Planning Model

    SciTech Connect

    Macal, C.M.

    1987-01-01

    The Jamaica Integrated National Energy Planning (JINEP) Model was developed by Argonne National Laboratory under contract to the Jamaica Ministry of Mining, Energy, and Tourism. JINEP is a comprehensive model of the energy-producing sector and the major energy consuming sectors of Jamaica. The JINEP Model is an application of a modelling system, the Integrated Demand and Energy Supply (IDES) Model, that was previously developed at Argonne for the purpose of analyzing energy systems of developing countries. IDES is based on several years of experience in analyzing energy planning issues characteristic of developing countries.

  10. [Family planning services utilization increases for migrant workers].

    PubMed

    Akbaba, M

    1994-05-01

    Between April and October 1989 in Turkey, interviews with more than 3000 migrant workers working in the cotton fields of Dogankent were conducted to examine their attitude towards family planning and their utilization of family planning services. Researchers wanted to evaluate a family planning program which was integrated into 3 primary health centers in Adana. The workers tended to be young. The average family size was 4.3. 40% of the women have had an induced abortion. 62% have already lost a child. 70% of the migrant workers were illiterate. A family planning team (a physician, a public health professional, a nurse, and a midwife) would meet under the tents of the migrant workers outside of work hours to speak to 15-20 persons about the principles of family planning. The team would return once a month to provide contraceptives and to determine the needs and demands of each person. When the migrant workers returned to their home villages in eastern Turkey, the team would give them an official letter addressed to the physicians of the health centers in their village to achieve follow-up care. Almost 80% of the 300 workers who originally used a traditional family planning method accepted effective family planning methods (e.g., IUD, oral contraceptives [OCs], condoms, spermicide tablets, and tubal ligation). At the end of the family planning program, almost 50% of the 3000 workers used modern contraception. Prior to its inception, the modern contraception use rate was only 10%. 78% of them used OCs or condoms. The remaining used spermicide tablets or IUDs. PMID:12222252

  11. National Ignition Facility project acquisition plan

    SciTech Connect

    Callaghan, R.W.

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this National Ignition Facility Acquisition Plan is to describe the overall procurement strategy planned for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Project. The scope of the plan describes the procurement activities and acquisition strategy for the following phases of the NIF Project, each of which receives either plant and capital equipment (PACE) or other project cost (OPC) funds: Title 1 and 2 design and Title 3 engineering (PACE); Optics manufacturing facilitization and pilot production (OPC); Convention facility construction (PACE); Procurement, installation, and acceptance testing of equipment (PACE); and Start-up (OPC). Activities that are part of the base Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program are not included in this plan. The University of California (UC), operating Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Lockheed-Martin, which operates Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR-LLE), will conduct the acquisition of needed products and services in support of their assigned responsibilities within the NIF Project structure in accordance with their prime contracts with the Department of Energy (DOE). LLNL, designated as the lead Laboratory, will have responsibility for all procurements required for construction, installation, activation, and startup of the NIF.

  12. China: women benefit from the family planning programme.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Z

    1995-08-01

    This statement was made by the director of CPIRC in China. Opening remarks focused on the admirable achievement in the reduction of births over 20 years by about 300 million, which is more than the combined populations of Canada and the USA. Family planning programs are considered as providing the means for couples to have fewer children and as promoting social progress and the advancement of women. IEC programming for family planning is extensive and country wide. Home visitation for family planning is part of programming within the All China Women's Federation and the China Family Planning Association. IEC programs include information about population, reproductive health, and family planning for millions of families. The opportunity is available for Chinese women to acquire knowledge and make decisions that balance individual needs with social responsibility and to have access to information on modern methods, on healthy childrearing patterns, and on maternal health. Chinese women are considered able to have an equal say with their husbands in determining the size and spacing of children. The maternal and child health (MCH) and family planning network is described as including 374 MCH hospitals, over 2800 MCH clinics and stations, 2300 county family planning service stations, and millions of medical professionals in mobile medical teams. Jiangsu is identified as a particularly successful province in achievement of health and family planning. State family planning policy and related regulations are understood within the context of integrated programs combining family planning with economic development, poverty alleviation, popularization of modern scientific knowledge, and betterment of social security systems. The example is given of Henan province where girls are enthusiastic about learning and bring productive skills as a form of dowry to the marriage. Rural women are encouraged to participate in training, and urban women are encouraged to serve as public role models. Family planning acceptance has not occurred evenly across the country, and some old social traditions of son preference still prevail. China is described as committed to programs for sustainable development, the protection of women's rights, and the enhancement of women's status. PMID:12290277

  13. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory site development plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This plan briefly describes the 20-year outlook for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Missions, workloads, worker populations, facilities, land, and other resources necessary to fulfill the 20-year site development vision for the INEL are addressed. In addition, the plan examines factors that could enhance or deter new or expanded missions at the INEL. And finally, the plan discusses specific site development issues facing the INEL, possible solutions, resources required to resolve these issues, and the anticipated impacts if these issues remain unresolved.

  14. National Ignition Facility wet weather construction plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kugler, A N

    1998-01-01

    This report presents a wet weather construction plan for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) construction project. Construction of the NIF commenced in mid- 1997, and excavation of the site was completed in the fall. Preparations for placing concrete foundations began in the fall, and above normal rainfall is expected over the tinter. Heavy rainfall in late November impacted foundation construction, and a wet weather construction plan was determined to be needed. This wet weather constiction plan recommends a strategy, techniques and management practices to prepare and protect the site corn wet weather effects and allow construction work to proceed. It is intended that information in this plan be incorporated in the Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) as warranted.

  15. Idaho National Laboratory Site Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Jenifer Nordstrom

    2014-02-01

    This plan provides a high-level summary of environmental monitoring performed by various organizations within and around the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site as required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and DOE Order 458.1, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, Guide DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance, and in accordance with 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. The purpose of these orders is to 1) implement sound stewardship practices that protect the air, water, land, and other natural and cultural resources that may be impacted by DOE operations, and 2) to establish standards and requirements for the operations of DOE and DOE contractors with respect to protection of the environment and members of the public against undue risk from radiation. This plan describes the organizations responsible for conducting environmental monitoring across the INL Site, the rationale for monitoring, the types of media being monitored, where the monitoring is conducted, and where monitoring results can be obtained. Detailed monitoring procedures, program plans, or other governing documents used by contractors or agencies to implement requirements are referenced in this plan. This plan covers all planned monitoring and environmental surveillance. Nonroutine activities such as special research studies and characterization of individual sites for environmental restoration are outside the scope of this plan.

  16. National Biofuels Action Plan, October 2008

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2008-10-01

    To help industry achieve the aggressive national goals, Federal agencies will need to continue to enhance their collaboration. The Biomass Research and Development (R&D) Board was created by Congress in the Biomass Research and Development Act of 2000. The National Biofuels Action Plan outlines areas where interagency cooperation will help to evolve bio-based fuel production technologies from promising ideas to competitive solutions.

  17. A second look at natural family planning.

    PubMed

    Lolarga, E

    1983-01-01

    There is renewed interest in natural family planning (NFP) as the Philippine Population Program enters the 1980s. Much of this interest is due to the realization that, properly practiced, NFP can be a highly effective means of birth spacing. In 1978 the Special Committee to Review the Philippine Population Program recommended that more efforts be made to promote NFP. The different methods of NFP are reviewed. Sex without intercourse, coitus interruptus, and prolonged nursing are not officially recognized as NFP methods by the Program. The rhythm method was first described independently by Drs. Hermann Knaus of Austria and Kyusaku Ogino of Japan in the 1930s. Ogino's method of calculating a woman's fertile period is based on the lengths of the last 12 menstrual cycles which she recorded on a calendar. The advantages of rhythm are that it is inexpensive, it requires only the cost of charts which may be homemade, there are no physical side effects, control is in the woman's hands, and it is acceptable to people who consider it their duty to follow religious teachings. Disadvantages include: keeping constant, accurate records of cycles for long periods of time; the need for perseverance and correct interpretation of the chart; the possible need for medical advice and help; and the fear that something might upset a woman's cycle and change the time of ovulation. The continuation rates of rhythm acceptors in the Philippines are unimpressive. A study of 142 women revealed a high pregnancy/failure rate--25% for a 12-month period compared to 0 with oral contraception (OC) and the IUD's 2%. The basal body temperature method helps determine the unsafe period with some accuracy. Its premise is that there are slight but detectable changes in a woman's body temperature during her cycle. These changes herald ovulation. A special thermometer must record temperature changes of 0.1 degree Farenheit. This instrument and the charts are the only expenses involved. The reviewers of the Philippine Population Program noted that since the end of the unsafe period can be indicated only by the temperature, the total period of abstinence becomes long, although the basal body temperature method gives more or less 10 successive days for intercourse. The cervical mucus method, also known as the Billings method, takes into account the cervical secretions during the menstrual cycle. Appearance of this mucus is an indication of fertility. All that is required of a practitioner is to learn to distinguish the different sensations of wetness and dryness. The disadvantage is that the method becomes ineffective in areas where there is cervicitis or infection of the cervix. The symptom thermal method is the basal body temperature method combined with other NFP techniques and is widely used. With this method an accurate record of the 6 immediately preceding menstrual cycles is established. The start of the fertile period is set by substracting 20 days plus 1. The woman watches for symptoms like pelvic heaviness, breast softness, and mucus discharge. PMID:12265791

  18. The 'unreached' in family planning: a case study of the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Ahn, K C; Rhee, K Y; Jung, B H; Kong, J J

    1987-06-01

    The family planning program of the Republic of Korea has been quite successful, yet it has not been able to extend its services to all couples of childbearing age. There still exists a group of couples who want no more children and yet are not currently using any contraceptive method. The word pong-eem which literally means being neglected, i.e. untouched by the family planning program, was coined to describe this group. National surveys have shown that the proportion of women of reproductive age in this group is significant. The study on which this article is based focuses on the psychosocial characteristics of the group to provide policy makers, family planning administrators and workers with the specific information they need in order to reduce its size. Among the factors affecting the family planning decisions of couples is demographic pressure. However, there was no statistically significant relationship between demographic pressure and family planning status. With regard to the couples' knowledge about contraception, the higher the respondents' level of knowledge was, the lower was their proportion in the pong-eem group. In both the urban and rural areas, the proportion of women in the pong-eem group was higher among those who disapproved of the Government's population policies. The proportion of women in the pong-eem group was much higher among those who were least motivated to limit family size. The lower the level of social support for family planning, the higher was the proportion of women in the pong-eem group in both the urban and rural areas. Among the psychosocial characteristics, social support for family planning was the most closely related to the family planning status of couples no matter what measure of social support was used. PMID:12341278

  19. "Three primaries" method in pushing family planning ahead.

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    Crash family planning drives cause 3 problems: 1) they tax leaders' energies and hinder work in other areas, 2) many abortions put too much stress on local hospitals, and 3) the drives adversely affect relations with the masses. The "3 Primaries" give precedence to 1) publicity and education over economic measures, 2) contraception over abortion, and 3) routine work over crash drives. The authors recommend persistence in publicity and education as primary methods and the strengthening of ideological polictical work. Many meetings, radio programs, art productions, street exhibitions, story telling programs, and films have informed the masses about family planning and the 1 child family policy. They recommend commending good people and good deeds in promoting contraception as the primary method of family planning and spreading information about it. Advocating the 1 child family has caused the numbers of abortions to increase sharply due to ignorance of contraception. Newlyweds should be visited at home, as they are often shy about discussing this, and advised on contraception. Routine work should be performed as a primary method, and good work can be done at the grassroots level. Regular meetings should be held at each organizational level to exchange experiences and discuss work. Family planning team leaders should visit households and distribute contraceptives. Production brigade cadres should make regular inspections and pregnancy reports. Files should be kept of newlyweds, births, couples who pledge to have only 1 child, contraceptive use, and contraceptive distribution. Communes should x-ray for misplaced IUDs every 3 months. Women's federations, health care centers, nurseries and kindergartens, and old age security systems must cooperate to promote family planning. Family planning work must persevere. By sticking to the 3 primary methods, these have been achieved 1) a planned birth rate, 2) a lower abortion rate, 3) greater acceptance of the 1 child family, and 4) improved relations between government and masses. PMID:12313986

  20. Men in Bangladesh play a role in family planning.

    PubMed

    Ahsan, S B

    1992-08-01

    More and more men are convincing their wives to use family planning in Bangladesh. In this conservative, Moslem country, women are not allowed to leave the homes so husbands must go to buy methods especially rural areas. 70% of women who use oral contraceptives (OCs), IUDs, or condoms report that their husbands obtain these method for them. many couples are poor peasants. Contraceptive prevalence is not 23.2%. Female sterilization and OCs are the 2 most popular methods (9% each) followed by condoms (2%), IUD (1.7%), and vasectomy (1.5%). The total fertility rate is 4.8 which is higher than the goal of 3.5 Bangladesh hoped to reach by 1995. In 1975, 30% of women believed fate determines family size but now only 8% think that. Attitude changes about family size have occurred despite illiteracy and poverty. Traditional religious beliefs are still prevalent in rural areas making it difficult for wives to speak to their husbands about family planning. Husband-wife communication is more open among urban, middle class couples. The long lasting hormonal implant, Norplant, holds promise as a means for Bangladesh to reach its goal. About 4500 women now have Norplant and government and nongovernment clinics plan to insert it into around 20,000 more women. A study of 2586 potential acceptors of Norplant at family clinics in Bangladesh 3 other developing countries shows that counseling diminishes the anxiety women and their husbands experience about Norplant and its side effects. A study in Bangladesh reveals higher continuation rates of Norplant for women whose husbands underwent counseling than for those whose husbands did not undergo counseling. Family planning advertisements on the radio, TV, and in newspapers have convinced couples to use family planning, but the advertisements tend to not explaining how to use family planning. Men are key to the changes in attitude about family planning in Bangladesh. PMID:12317723

  1. Integrating reproductive health services into family planning programs.

    PubMed

    1995-06-01

    A recent Population Council publication, Reproductive Health Approach to Family Planning, discusses integration of reproductive health into family planning programs in a series of edited presentations that Council staff and colleagues gave at a 1994 meeting of the US Agency for International Development (USAID) cooperating agencies. The presentations reflect the Council's view that family planning programs ought to help individuals achieve their own reproductive goals in a healthful manner. The report discusses four areas of reproductive health: reproductive tract infections (RTIs), including sexually transmitted diseases; prevention and treatment of unsafe abortion; pregnancy, labor, and delivery care; and postpartum care. Christopher Elias (Senior Associate, Programs Division) argued that family planning programs ought to provide services that target RTIs, given that these illnesses afflict a significant proportion of reproductive-age women. The family planning community has an ethical responsibility to provide services to women who experience an unwanted pregnancy. They must have access to high-quality postabortion care, including family planning services. Professional midwives are ideally suited to serve as integrated reproductive health workers trained to combat the five major maternal killers: hemorrhage, sepsis, pregnancy-induced hypertension, obstructed labor, and unsafe abortion. This was demonstrated in a highly successful Life-Saving Skills for Midwives program undertaken in Ghana, Nigeria, and Uganda, and soon to start in Vietnam in conjunction with the Council's Safe Motherhood research program. Family planning services should be viewed as part of a comprehensive set of health services needed by postpartum women, which include appropriate contraception, maternal health checks, well-baby care, and information about breastfeeding, infant care, and nutrition. Family planning programs should incorporate breastfeeding counseling into their services. When programs aim to help individuals meet their own reproductive goals in a healthful manner, this implies that services will not increase clients' risk of morbidity. PMID:12319546

  2. Family planning in conflict: results of cross-sectional baseline surveys in three African countries

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite the serious consequences of conflict for reproductive health, populations affected by conflict and its aftermath face tremendous barriers to accessing reproductive health services, due to insecurity, inadequate numbers of trained personnel and lack of supplies. Family planning is often particularly neglected. Methods In six conflict-affected areas in Sudan, northern Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo, household surveys of married or in-union women of reproductive age were conducted to determine baseline measures of family planning knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding contraception. Health facility assessments were carried out to assess baseline measures of family planning services availability. Data were double-entered into CSPro 3.2 and exported to SAS 9.2, which was used to calculate descriptive statistics. The studies' purposes were to guide program activities and to serve as a baseline against which program accomplishments could be measured. Results Knowledge of modern contraceptive methods was low relative to other sub-Saharan African countries, and use of modern methods was under 4% in four sites; in two sites with prior family planning services it was 12% and 16.2%. From 30% to 40% of women reported they did not want a child within two years, however, and an additional 12% to 35% wanted no additional children, suggesting a clear need for family planning services. The health facilities assessment showed that at most only one-third of the facilities mandated to provide family planning had the necessary staff, equipment and supplies to do so adequately; in some areas, none of the facilities were prepared to offer such services. Conclusions Family planning services are desired by women living in crisis situations when offered in a manner appropriate to their needs, yet services are rarely adequate to meet these needs. Refugee and internally displaced women must be included in national and donors' plans to improve family planning in Africa. PMID:21752241

  3. Description of the National Highway Planning Network

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, B.E.

    1990-09-01

    The National Highway Planning Network is a data base of major highways in the continental United States. It is a foundation for analytic studies of highway performance, for vehicle routing and scheduling problems, and for mapping purposes. The network is based on a set of roadways digitized from the National Atlas by the US Geological Survey. It has been enhanced at Oak Ridge National Laboratory by adding additional roads and attribute detail and correcting topological errors to produce a true analytic network. This documentation is intended primarily to assist users of this data base by describing its structure, data elements, and development.

  4. A National Periodicals Center Technical Development Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Library Resources, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This technical plan for developing, managing, and operating a national periodicals center (NPC), which was prepared at the request of the Library of Congress, is designed so that it could be used by the Library or any other agency prepared to assume responsibility for the creation of a major periodicals facility. The overall goal of the NPC is to…

  5. National Ignition Facility Title II Design Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kumpan, S

    1997-03-01

    This National Ignition Facility (NIF) Title II Design Plan defines the work to be performed by the NIF Project Team between November 1996, when the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) reviewed Title I design and authorized the initiation of Title H design and specific long-lead procurements, and September 1998, when Title 11 design will be completed.

  6. A National Plan for Improving Professional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Dennis; Hirsh, Stephanie

    To improve American education, there must be improved ongoing professional development for teachers and a national plan for helping teachers fulfill their untapped potential. Research shows that quality professional development can improve student achievement. Teachers report that professional development improves their teaching. Despite this, the…

  7. The agenda for family planning in the USSR.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, H

    1991-09-01

    Concerned over a high rate of abortions that could be undermining the health Soviet women, the USSR has begun developing a family planning agenda designed to improve maternal and child health. Compared to industrialized countries, the USSR's infant mortality is high. This fact may be explained by the extremely high rate of abortions -- an annual 12 million induced abortions in a country with 70 million women of fertile age. The average Soviet woman of fertile age has had between 4 and 6 abortions (some have had as many as 20 abortions performed in their lifetime). About 1/2 of all the country's gynecologists do nothing but perform abortions. The heavy reliance on abortion is due to shortages in any other birth control methods. When abortion was legalized in 1955, the government did not promote family planning. Many Soviet people, however, had become concerned over the dangers of abortion. With the changes brought on by Glasnost and Perestroika, a movement to develop a family planning agenda began growing. As a result, the Soviet government has begun promoting family planning programs in an effort to improve maternal health and reduce the number of abortions. And in 1989, the Soviet Family Health Association (SFHA), a self-financing nongovernmental organization dedicated to family planning, started operating. Furthermore, in 1990, an appeal by President Mikhail Gorbachev led the Supreme Soviet to create the Committee on Problems of Women, Family and Maternal and Child Health Care. PMID:12284285

  8. Minister Peng reports on the population status and family planning programme in 1993.

    PubMed

    Peng, P

    1994-04-01

    Madame Peng Peiyun as Minister of the State Family Planning Commission addressed the National Family Planning Conference in March 1994. The topics of discussion were program activities in 1993, justification of the program, and aims for 1994. Future activities of the family planning programs will be devoted to program improvement and to promotion of awareness of the importance of family planning. Improvements will also be made in the responsibility system for target management. Population plans have been successful in reducing fertility. The level of socioeconomic development should determine the quotas set in the population plan. Competitiveness between areas and impractically high targets should be avoided. Fulfillment of targets is expected as well as the enforcement of guidelines. Family planning implementation should be evaluated in terms of the methods used to achieve targets and the relationship between Party organizations and the public and between cadres and the people. This form of evaluation was recommended by General-Secretary Jiang Zemin at the National Forum on Family Planning Work in March 1993. The "three stresses" should be implemented with the highest priority at all levels: IEC, contraception, and regular management and services. An emphasis on these "stresses" can improve the economic and social status of women and can contribute to a "rational socialist civilization." An integrated approach combining production, living standards, and human reproduction should also be forthcoming. The ultimate goal is to develop production, establish happy, more civilized families, and have fewer, but healthier babies. Grassroots implementation must be strengthened. Funding must be increased. The major goals of the Development of Children Program in the 1990s must be fulfilled. The unbalanced sex ratio should be given attention at all levels. PMID:12346841

  9. Need for integration of gender equity in family planning services

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Suneela; Singh, Ritesh

    2014-01-01

    The family planning programme of India has shown many significant changes since its inception five decades back. The programme has made the contraceptives easily accessible and affordable to the people. Devices with very low failure rate are provided free of cost to those who need it. Despite these significant improvements in service delivery related to family planning the programme cannot be said to achieve success at all levels. There are many issues with the family planning services available through the public health facilities in India. Failure to adopt the latest technology is one of these. But the most serious drawback of the programme is that it has never been able to bridge the gap between the two genders related to contraceptives. The programme gave emphasis to women-centric contraceptive and thus women were seen as their clients. The choice to adopt a contraceptive though is ‘cafeteria approach’ in family planning lexicon; it is the choice of the husband that is ultimately practiced. There is not enough dialogue between husband and wife and husband and health worker to discuss the use of one contraceptive over another. The male gender needs to be taken in confidence while promoting the family planning practice. The integration of gender equity is to be done carefully so as not to make dominant gender more powerful. Only when there is equity between genders while using family planning services the programme will achieve success. PMID:25673536

  10. National Security Technology Incubator Business Plan

    SciTech Connect

    2007-12-31

    This document contains a business plan for the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI), developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP) and performed under a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This business plan describes key features of the NSTI, including the vision and mission, organizational structure and staffing, services, evaluation criteria, marketing strategies, client processes, a budget, incubator evaluation criteria, and a development schedule. The purpose of the NSPP is to promote national security technologies through business incubation, technology demonstration and validation, and workforce development. The NSTI will focus on serving businesses with national security technology applications by nurturing them through critical stages of early development. The vision of the NSTI is to be a successful incubator of technologies and private enterprise that assist the NNSA in meeting new challenges in national safety, security, and protection of the homeland. The NSTI is operated and managed by the Arrowhead Center, responsible for leading the economic development mission of New Mexico State University (NMSU). The Arrowhead Center will recruit business with applications for national security technologies recruited for the NSTI program. The Arrowhead Center and its strategic partners will provide business incubation services, including hands-on mentoring in general business matters, marketing, proposal writing, management, accounting, and finance. Additionally, networking opportunities and technology development assistance will be provided.

  11. [Family planning and diverse declarations of human rights].

    PubMed

    Gakwaya, D

    1990-08-01

    Human beings have always desired to claim their rights, even in times when only a small proportion of the population was considered fully human and the rest were slaves, servants, uncivilized, colonized, underdeveloped, or, in the recent euphemism, "developing". The French Declaration of the Rights of Man of 1789 marked the 1st time in history that rights for all people were publicly affirmed. The rights in question were essentially constitutional and political, but the idea of claiming rights had been born. In 1948, the international community approved the Universal Declaration of Human Rights which encompassed all types of rights. Other international acts on civil and political rights and the rights of women and children have complemented and interpreted the 1948 document. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights affirmed that all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights and that all persons have a right to satisfaction of economic, social, and cultural needs. The convention on elimination of all forms of discrimination against women referred in its preamble to the particular disadvantages of women living in poverty and affirmed the right of all women to education in health and family welfare, including family planning, as well as to medical and family planning services. Women were affirmed to have the same rights as men to decide freely and in an informed manner on the number and spacing of their children and to have access to the information, education, and means to exercise these rights. The United Nations has demonstrated its interest in Population Commission in 1946 and of the UN Fund for Population Activities in 1969, and through decennial worldwide population conferences in 1954, 1965, 1974, and 1984. UN demographic goals include reduced fertility on a worldwide basis, a reduced proportion of women not using reliable contraception, a substantial reduction of early marriage and adolescent pregnancy, reduction in infant and maternal mortality, a life expectancy of at least 62 years in all countries, and a better geographic distribution of population within national territories permitting rational use of resources. Governments which subscribed to the declaration and conventions on human rights should respect their promises. Population growth which outpaces increases in production will make it increasingly difficult to satisfy the rights and needs of all population sectors. A government confronted with this problem is obliged to explore every possible means of increasing production but must also seek to control population growth. Contraception is a legitimate means of achieving this end. PMID:12316572

  12. [Family planning. Priority on family health in order to reach men].

    PubMed

    Ilboudo, M

    1994-05-01

    Family planning policy in Burkina Faso aims to improve maternal and child health. Family planning services are oriented towards modern contraceptives and tend to target women. Yet, the man has a large responsibility in the life of the family. He makes the important decisions on sexual relations and, therefore, on family planning. Family planning in terms of spacing of births interests many men. If family planning is presented as birth spacing, men would be in favor of it. Services adapted to men's needs will prove useful. Some men even want to limit the number of their children. A man from Burkina Faso believes that having many children is not a sign of affluence but of poverty. In rural areas, despite the lack of sanitation, weak means and methods of contraception, the people have information on family planning. Dispensaries are centers of distribution of such messages. The messages of the mass media are often misunderstood. A father of 6 who was older than 60 was unaware of methods to limit fertility. Sexual abstinence is no longer a rule in rural areas, at least among the youth. In the villages, young couples often face the many problems of too close pregnancies. Male violence is equally responsible for some situations. The drunk husband enters the home while falling and making his wife sleep with him. This violence is an obstacle to freedom in matters of production. It is not easy to change their attitude. One has simply ignored the influential role of men. Men are even forgotten in conception programs. Since 1981 in Mauritania, the family health program has had a fathers' school which sensitizes men to the problems of women, children, and family planning. The Ghanian Family Planning Association sponsors Dads' Clubs. PMID:12288140

  13. National Security Technology Incubation Strategic Plan

    SciTech Connect

    2007-01-01

    This strategic plan contains information on the vision, mission, business and technology environment, goals, objectives, and incubation process of the National Security Technology Incubation Program (NSTI) at Arrowhead Center. The development of the NSTI is a key goal of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP). Objectives to achieve this goal include developing incubator plans (strategic, business, action, and operations), creating an incubator environment, creating a support and mentor network for companies in the incubator program, attracting security technology businesses to the region, encouraging existing business to expand, initiating business start-ups, evaluating products and processes of the incubator program, and achieving sustainability of the incubator program. With the events of 9/11, the global community faces ever increasing and emerging threats from hostile groups determined to rule by terror. According to the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Strategic Plan, the United States must be able to quickly respond and adapt to unanticipated situations as they relate to protection of our homeland and national security. Technology plays a key role in a strong national security position, and the private business community, along with the national laboratories, academia, defense and homeland security organizations, provide this technology. Fostering innovative ideas, translated into relevant technologies answering the needs of NNSA, is the purpose of the NSTI. Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University is the operator and manager of the NSTI. To develop the NSTI, Arrowhead Center must meet the planning, development, execution, evaluation, and sustainability activities for the program and identify and incubate new technologies to assist the NNSA in meeting its mission and goals. Technology alone does not give a competitive advantage to the country, but the creativity and speed with which it is employed does. For a company to succeed, it must have sustainable competitive advantages in seven key areas: geography, products and businesses, distribution, sales and service culture, efficiency, brand, and most important, people. The four strategic goals of the plan are to: 1. Identify and recruit small businesses with technology applications for national security. 2. Design and implement a national security incubator program that provides incubator services and physical space for the targeted businesses. 3. Provide business assistance and technical leadership to NSTI clients to assist in bringing their products to market. 4. Construct a new multi-tenant facility with dedicated physical space for businesses with technology applications for national security.

  14. Idaho National Laboratory Site Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Joanne L. Knight

    2012-08-01

    This plan describes environmental monitoring as required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, “Environmental Protection Program,” and additional environmental monitoring currently performed by other organizations in and around the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The objective of DOE Order 450.1 is to implement sound stewardship practices that protect the air, water, land, and other natural and cultural resources that may be impacted by DOE operations. This plan describes the organizations responsible for conducting environmental monitoring across the INL, the rationale for monitoring, the types of media being monitored, where the monitoring is conducted, and where monitoring results can be obtained. This plan presents a summary of the overall environmental monitoring performed in and around the INL without duplicating detailed information in the various monitoring procedures and program plans currently used to conduct monitoring.

  15. Idaho National Laboratory Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Joanne L. Knight

    2008-04-01

    This plan describes environmental monitoring as required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, “Environmental Protection Program,” and additional environmental monitoring currently performed by other organizations in and around the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The objective of DOE Order 450.1 is to implement sound stewardship practices that protect the air, water, land, and other natural and cultural resources that may be impacted by DOE operations. This plan describes the organizations responsible for conducting environmental monitoring across the INL, the rationale for monitoring, the types of media being monitored, where the monitoring is conducted, and where monitoring results can be obtained. This plan presents a summary of the overall environmental monitoring performed in and around the INL without duplicating detailed information in the various monitoring procedures and program plans currently used to conduct monitoring.

  16. Idaho National Laboratory Site Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Joanne L. Knight

    2010-10-01

    This plan describes environmental monitoring as required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, “Environmental Protection Program,” and additional environmental monitoring currently performed by other organizations in and around the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The objective of DOE Order 450.1 is to implement sound stewardship practices that protect the air, water, land, and other natural and cultural resources that may be impacted by DOE operations. This plan describes the organizations responsible for conducting environmental monitoring across the INL, the rationale for monitoring, the types of media being monitored, where the monitoring is conducted, and where monitoring results can be obtained. This plan presents a summary of the overall environmental monitoring performed in and around the INL without duplicating detailed information in the various monitoring procedures and program plans currently used to conduct monitoring.

  17. Family planning and family vision in mothers after diagnosis of a child with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Navot, Noa; Jorgenson, Alicia Grattan; Vander Stoep, Ann; Toth, Karen; Webb, Sara Jane

    2016-07-01

    The diagnosis of a child with autism has short- and long-term impacts on family functioning. With early diagnosis, the diagnostic process is likely to co-occur with family planning decisions, yet little is known about how parents navigate this process. This study explores family planning decision making process among mothers of young children with autism spectrum disorder in the United States, by understanding the transformation in family vision before and after the diagnosis. A total of 22 mothers of first born children, diagnosed with autism between 2 and 4 years of age, were interviewed about family vision prior to and after their child's diagnosis. Grounded Theory method was used for data analysis. Findings indicated that coherence of early family vision, maternal cognitive flexibility, and maternal responses to diagnosis were highly influential in future family planning decisions. The decision to have additional children reflected a high level of adaptability built upon a solid internalized family model and a flexible approach to life. Decision to stop childrearing reflected a relatively less coherent family model and more rigid cognitive style followed by ongoing hardship managing life after the diagnosis. This report may be useful for health-care providers in enhancing therapeutic alliance and guiding family planning counseling. PMID:26395237

  18. Population and Family Planning in Latin America. Report Number 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrow, Phyllis T., Ed.

    Analysis of Latin America's demographic situation has led many to believe that the present rapid rates of population growth, the highest anywhere in the world, must be reduced in order to prevent catastrophe. Family planning associations, affiliated with the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), have been organized in 29 Latin…

  19. Current Literature in Family Planning, November 1972, No. 51.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.

    Abstracts of current publications in the fields of population and family planning are contained in this monthly acquisitions list of the Katherine Dexter McCormick Library, Planned Parenthood, New York. Organized in two parts, Part 1 contains an annotated list of the books most recently acquired by the Library, marked with its Library call number,…

  20. A Selection of Films for Family Planning Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    This catalog gives an annotated listing of selected films available for use in family planning programs. Films are listed alphabetically, geographically by particular country, and by subject. In most cases information is given concerning length, producer, distributor, cost, and rental conditions from the International Planned Parenthood…

  1. USA: victory over gag rule for family planning groups.

    PubMed

    Frankel, D H

    1992-11-14

    November 3, 1992 marked both the defeat of President Bush in the US presidential elections and the end to a "gag rule" on health professional providing counseling or referral for abortion in federally funded family planning clinics. the US Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit handed down the decision in Rust v. Sullivan; the decision was based on procedural grounds only. the history of the "gag rule" is presented. Arguments for restricting abortion counseling were generated in the late 1970s. Policy cemented this position during the 1980s and Republican presidencies. Opposition to the policy decision was mounted by the American Medical Association which considered it "frightening and abhorrent" and the american College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists which beseeched Congress to restore the patient's rights to receive full information and the health professional obligation to provide the information. Legislative efforts were made in November, 1991 with HR 2707 to attach an anti-gag rule measure to a massive appropriations bill. President Bush rescinded the "gag rule" for doctors only, knowing that health professionals did most abortion counseling. HR 2707 was passed and vetoed. The override attempt failed by a close margin. In March 19192, Health and Human Services ordered compliance with the President's November 1991 memorandum. In April 1992 the case or National Family Planning and Reproductive Health Association, Inc., et al. v. Sullivan was filed. The argument was that, since "notice and comment" rulemaking under the Federal Administrative Procedures Act applied to the original "gag rule," the directives constituted new rules subject to "notice and comment" rulemaking which requires months of public discussion and debate. This action forced President Bush into enforcing the original "gag rule" or complying with the "notice and comment" on his directive. Time was running out. It is expected that President Clinton will repeal the "gag rule." PMID:1359274

  2. Family planning and development helping women world-wide.

    PubMed

    Mahler, H

    1989-04-01

    This article discusses the need for family planning (FP) as part of the development process, applauds its successes and rallies continued momentum of the FP movement. 500,000 women die each year from pregnancy- or labor-related conditions, and 10s of millions of women suffer pregnancy-related illnesses and impairments that undermine their social and economic productivity. Moreover, the 4 major factors that lead to high-risk pregnancies, namely, becoming pregnant before the age of 20, after the age of 35, after 4 or more pregnancies, and 2 years after an earlier pregnancy, all reveal the need for FP. These tragedies could be avoided by assuring better nutrition, primary health care for all, good antenatal attention and proper facilities and help in childbirth, access to good obstetric care in emergency situations, and universally available FP services. FP organizations must empower women with the knowledge of FP and the means to put it into practice. Developing countries, such as China, India, Indonesia, Thailand and Mexico, in addition to affluent industrialized countries have made strides in FP with the help of such organizations as the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). IPPF has helped to motivate large numbers of men and women to determine their ideal family size. It has provided the means for them to reach such goals and has ensured that acceptance of FP has been on a voluntary basis. IPPF has also advised and cajoled governments into becoming involved in FP. In the future, national strategies must produce the building blocks for better policies to help women become more responsible for their lives. The education of women will be vital to achieving this objective as well as other aspects of development. PMID:12342371

  3. The construction of community participation: village family planning groups and the Indonesian state.

    PubMed

    Shiffman, Jeremy

    2002-04-01

    Indonesia's family planning program has been one of the most effective in the developing world in promoting contraceptive use and contributing to fertility transition. In evaluating why the program has worked, analysts have given much credit to a network of village family planning groups that developed from the 1970s to the 1990s and that blanketed the archipelago. These groups, composed primarily of female volunteers, made contraception available to women in even the most remote parts of the country, and acted as agents of family planning motivation. They have been labeled by the Indonesian state family planning agency as an example of effective community participation on a national scale. In this paper, I investigate this claim and find it to be simplistic. I provide extensive evidence that the creation of this network was orchestrated by the Indonesian state. On the other hand, I show that these groups are not fully state entities, as they have several characteristics that mark them as socially embedded institutions. They are best labeled as unusual state-society hybrids. In my investigation I draw on one of the newest paradigms in the discipline of political science--the state-society approach--to uncover the odd nature of this family planning network. More deeply, I argue that the state-society approach ought to be adopted in family planning analysis on a comprehensive basis. The traditional organizational and social-demographic approaches that have dominated the field offer only limited understanding of the nature of family planning programs in developing countries. The state-society approach is ideally suited to identifying how family planning programs are institutions of a political nature, embedded in states and societies, and transformed by and transformative of each. PMID:11989957

  4. Minister Peng on population situation and major experiences of family planning implementation.

    PubMed

    Peng, P

    1994-02-01

    Minister Peng Peiyen of the State Family Planning Commission delivered a speech at the 6th National Symposium on Population Science and the Conference of the Population Association of China. Population programs should be an integral part of economic and social development and a priority for the Communist Party and at all levels of government. Full responsibility for implementation should be taken by top Party organizations and government. Achievement in family planning should be based on the target responsibility system. Family planning policy should be evenly implemented throughout the country. Family planning quotas are preferred as strict and effective controls on births. Traditional ideas about childbearing should be challenged through information, education, and communication [IEC]. Grassroots level networks should be strengthened for effective program management. Family planning should better serve and be integrated with the socialist agenda of economic development. Large numbers of family planning workers need to be trained in a systematic way. Self-management, self-education, and self-service should be encouraged among the population. The family planning program is still unevenly developed in the country, and there are still a large number of annual births, which puts pressure on socioeconomic development, natural resources, and ecology. The most important task for China is the control of population growth, which also involves improving the quality of human resources and readjusting the population structure. The practice of family planning is a policy decision, which is required for attainment of the 2nd and 3rd strategic goals for economic development. There is a need for demographic research to guide program implementation. Research should focus on controlling population growth, improving the quality of human resources, and expanding the scope of inquiry. PMID:12318708

  5. Pakistan: family planning expands in non-governmental organizations.

    PubMed

    1977-01-01

    The Family Planning Association of Pakistan has begun a program of integration of family planning activities with other voluntary welfare agencies. 1 of the more successful projects has been in cooperation with the Family Welfare Cooperative Society of Lahore. Volunteers have provided facilities to very low-income women to help supplement income. At 1st it was knitting, embroidery, and cloth manufacture, but over several years it developed into a complex of several buildings with a comprehensive vocational training center, a showroom, schools for the children of mothers in training, a secretarial school, and a hostel for homeless women there. There is a medical unit, a full-time doctor, and family planning services. PMID:12260386

  6. Making twin concerns of family planning and primary health care.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y

    1985-10-01

    The implementation of the Integrated FP/MCH/Parasite Control project by JOICFP in 1984 was envisioned to strengthen international cooperation, promote international exchange of knowledge and expand approaches in the practice of family planning. 2 municipalities in China were selected as pilot project areas. The objectives set in the 3-year plan of the integrated project are: to publicize the advantages of family planning and improve people's knowledge and practice of family planning; to stengthen technical guidance on family planning and control the growth and improve the quality of the population; to improve maternal and child care; and to reduce the infection rate of soil-transmitted helminthiasis. Steering committees on the integrated project at the municipal, county, township and village levels were set up in the pilot areas; the significance of the project has been communicated through film and slide presentations. Training courses for the administrative workers and technicians have been held. As a result of the family planning education activities, the contraceptive rates in the 2 pilot areas remained stable at 85%. Neonatal mortality was reduced significantly. Parasite control has benefitted 52,546 people in the pilot areas. An improvement was noted in environmental hygiene, the proper disposal of waste and the provision of safe drinking water. Further improvement can be achieved by intensifying public health education in the project areas, improving working systems and accomplishing all the tasks that the integrated project has set forth. PMID:12313888

  7. A Decade of Family Planning Progress. Draper Fund Report No. 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper World Population Fund, Washington, DC.

    World population growth and family planning progress in developing nations are discussed. The Draper Fund, established within the Population Crisis Committee (PCC) in 1975 to honor PCC's principal founder, encourages and funds activities which promise the greatest impact in slowing world population growth. There are 10 articles and an editorial.

  8. Knowledge into Action: The Use of Research in Taiwan's Family Planning Program. Paper No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cernada, George; Sun, T. H.

    Focusing on the effects that research on the Taiwan family planning program has had on social change, both in the intergration of research findings into national action programs and in the dissemination of these ideas to other Asian countries, this report discusses five individual case studies and presents a summary and analysis of the research

  9. IEC strategy in support of family planning evaluated.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    A final project evaluation report was released in April 1994 as PHI/89/PO9, Strengthening IEC Management among Thailand Family Planning Programs. The project is described as a function of the Department of Health's five year plan. The project aim is to increase the capacity for planning, supervising, and implementing IEC activities, designing and evaluating an evaluation system, developing and producing IEC materials, and training and mobilizing workers in IEC. The evaluation reveals that objectives have been met and teams are set up at all levels. Recommendations are made to develop an integrated and comprehensive family planning plan with major IEC components, to subcontract out activities where personnel skills are inadequate, to introduce operations research and integrate the results into operations, to strengthen staff capability, and to test the viability of and expand IEC teams at the local level. The report also indicates that there is a need for centrally produced IEC materials. Materials were needed on methods and how to handle misconceptions about methods. There is a need to secure the services of a private agency for production of materials. Family planning and IEC distribution systems need to be strengthened at the local government level. A training skills session is necessary for development of interpersonal communication skills on how to use and maximize use of IEC materials. Communications training in general required a longer investment in training time. Communications training methods would be improved through use of videos on family planning counseling and practical field exercises. PMID:12318973

  10. Providing quality family planning and MCH services in the urban areas: the YKB experience.

    PubMed

    1986-06-01

    In Indonesia, the provision of family planning services to the community for a fee through a privately operated clinic is a relatively new concept. The idea to charge patients for family planning services came up during several meetings sponsored by the National Family Planning Coordinating Board (NFPCB) in its effort to increase family planning acceptance in urban areas. NFPCB realized that while the village family planning program was very effective, the urban family planning program was lagging behind for several reasons: while its services were free, most government-run clinics were open only in the morning, making it inconvenient for working mothers to avail themselves of the services; government operated clinics were crowded; since the services were free, they were perceived to be not of good quality; and there was a limited range of contraceptives and drugs available in the government operated clinics. In 1980, the Yayasan Kusuma Buana (YKB), a private nonprofit health and family planning organization in Jakarta, was asked by the Badan Koordenasi Keluarga Berencana Nasional (BKKBN) to set up a semi-commercial, urban family planning clinic as a pilot project. The clinic was established in an area where most of the residents belonged to the lower middle income group. After almost 3 years, the clinic became self-reliant and was used by the YKB as a basis for expanding the project. Currently, there are 9 such clinics in Jakarta and YKB is helping 10 other Indonesian cities to set up their own clinics. This paper considers the main components of YKB's strategy for planning and managing the clinic and and provides an analysis of the YKB experience in operating a successful family planning and maternal and child health program in the urban areas. To become self-reliant and at the same time have a successful family planning and health program, clinics should have the following characteristics: integrated services; competent and attractive clinic personnel; a strategic location; longer clinic hours; and a reasonable fee structure. A variety of outreach activities have been found to be useful in generating communiting interest in the YKB clinics, including inviting mothers groups to hold their meetings on the clinic premises. Information/education/communication materials in the form of posters, leaflets, booklets, flipcharts, and magnetic boards are needed to support community outreach and promotional activities. Those who plan to undertake the creation of a private clinic should keep in mind the following points if success is to be realized: community outreach is critical; clinic services should be adapted to community needs; adequate staff training and support should be provided; services should be expanded; and ties with government organizations, medical organizations, and community groups should be established and maintained. PMID:12340743

  11. Is family planning an economic decision?

    PubMed

    Wunderink, S R

    1995-09-01

    This study examines economic models of household choice and the role of economic factors in determining the timing of births. A static economic model is presented and tested with data from the Netherlands. After the availability of contraceptives, the family size variable shifted from being an exogenous to an endogenous one, because births could be regulated. Costs of childbearing were construed to have maintenance costs for parents and society, attendance costs of care, and intangible costs such as anxiety or personal freedom. Benefits were intangible ones, such as joy and happiness; income; public benefits; and attendance benefits. Intangible benefits enlarged the utility of children, but maintenance costs diminished resources available for consumption. Child quality was a product of market goods purchased by parents and others and household labor. Household time allocation varied with child's age. Private responsibility for children varied by country. Quality of child care varied between countries and over time. Quality was dependent upon economies of scale, variable costs by the age of the child, variable time commitments by age of the child, and market substitutes for private child care. Higher income families spent more money but less time on children. It is pointed out that Becker's model explained number of children, but not timing of births. Postponement of birth was unlikely for those with a limited education, an unpleasant job, and low wages. When the advantages and disadvantages of having a baby were positive, spouses or single women with a high subjective preference were expected to bear a child as soon as possible. Government policy can affect the average family size by increasing or decreasing the financial and/or time burden of children. Postponement may be chosen based on long term analysis of a couple's future, the formation and use of capital, and/or high subjective time preference. Before and after first birth are different frames of reference for couples. Before the birth, the future may be vague. After the birth, life without a child becomes unimaginable. PMID:12291178

  12. Family planning in China: out of control?

    PubMed Central

    Bogg, L

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined sex ratios in 6 counties in China. METHODS: Data from a household survey (n = 5756) were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: A normal sex ratio was found for children less than 18 years of age. Significant differences in sex ratios and family size were observed between the household survey data and population registers. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate a high number of unregistered female births and are consistent with calls for a rethinking of Chinese population policies in the direction of a more collaborative policy based on female education and participation. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:9551011

  13. The National Federation of Families for Children's Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Corey

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines the mission and vision of the National Federation of Families for Children's Mental Health and its history and accomplishments in the family movement. It gives examples of how the National Federation is leading the way for positive, collaborative, and engaging training; as well as research and advocacy. Five core principles…

  14. Highlights of the National Family Day Care Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Nancy, Ed.

    The National Council of Jewish Women's National Family Day Care Project (NFDCP) is a 3-year initiative which is intended to pioneer effective roles for community groups in increasing the quality, supply, and visibility of family day care. This publication provides: (1) a statement on the importance of the NFDCP by Edward Zigler; (2) a paper called…

  15. 76 FR 68621 - National Family Caregivers Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-28843 Filed 11-3-11; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F2-P ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8748 of November 1, 2011 National Family Caregivers Month, 2011 By the... National Family Caregivers Month, we pay tribute to the individuals throughout America who ensure...

  16. 77 FR 66525 - National Family Caregivers Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8900 of November 1, 2012 National Family Caregivers Month, 2012 By the... loved ones. During National Family Caregivers Month, we recognize and thank the humble heroes who do...

  17. 75 FR 67903 - National Family Caregivers Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-28078 Filed 11-3-10; 8:45 am] Billing code 3195-W1-P ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8593 of October 29, 2010 National Family Caregivers Month, 2010 By the... their daily lives. During National Family Caregivers Month, we honor the millions of Americans who...

  18. National solid waste management plan for Iraq.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Knowles JA

    2009-06-01

    After decades of turmoil and international sanctions much of the key civil infrastructure within Iraq has fallen into disrepair, leading to a considerable decline in the provision of basic and essential municipal services. This is particularly true of waste and resource management services that have seen years of underdevelopment and deterioration. This has resulted in a lack of provision of basic public services in the waste sector which have been replaced by a burgeoning unregulated informal market in waste collection, disposal and recycling. In response, a National Solid Waste Management Plan (NSWMP) for Iraq was developed in 2007, to plan for the strategic development of all aspects of waste management in the country over the coming 20 years. In particular, the NSWMP focuses on policy development and integrated planning regarding regulatory framework, economic aspects, institutional capacity, citizen and technical education, and technical and operational development. This paper summarizes the key objectives, challenges and subsequent recommendations contained in the NSWMP for Iraq.

  19. National solid waste management plan for Iraq.

    PubMed

    Knowles, James A

    2009-06-01

    After decades of turmoil and international sanctions much of the key civil infrastructure within Iraq has fallen into disrepair, leading to a considerable decline in the provision of basic and essential municipal services. This is particularly true of waste and resource management services that have seen years of underdevelopment and deterioration. This has resulted in a lack of provision of basic public services in the waste sector which have been replaced by a burgeoning unregulated informal market in waste collection, disposal and recycling. In response, a National Solid Waste Management Plan (NSWMP) for Iraq was developed in 2007, to plan for the strategic development of all aspects of waste management in the country over the coming 20 years. In particular, the NSWMP focuses on policy development and integrated planning regarding regulatory framework, economic aspects, institutional capacity, citizen and technical education, and technical and operational development. This paper summarizes the key objectives, challenges and subsequent recommendations contained in the NSWMP for Iraq. PMID:19470543

  20. India's National Action Plan on Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Pandve, Harshal T

    2009-04-01

    Climate change is one of the most critical global challenges of our times. Recent events have emphatically demonstrated our growing vulnerability to climate change. Climate change impacts will range from affecting agriculture - further endangering food security - to sea-level rise and the accelerated erosion of coastal zones, increasing intensity of natural disasters, species extinction, and the spread of vector-borne diseases. India released its much-awaited National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) to mitigate and adapt to climate change on June 30, 2008, almost a year after it was announced. The NAPCC runs through 2017 and directs ministries to submit detailed implementation plans to the Prime Minister's Council on Climate Change by December 2008. This article briefly reviews the plan and opinion about it from different experts and organizations. PMID:20165607

  1. Phase Transitions in Planning Problems: Design and Analysis of Parameterized Families of Hard Planning Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hen, Itay; Rieffel, Eleanor G.; Do, Minh; Venturelli, Davide

    2014-01-01

    There are two common ways to evaluate algorithms: performance on benchmark problems derived from real applications and analysis of performance on parametrized families of problems. The two approaches complement each other, each having its advantages and disadvantages. The planning community has concentrated on the first approach, with few ways of generating parametrized families of hard problems known prior to this work. Our group's main interest is in comparing approaches to solving planning problems using a novel type of computational device - a quantum annealer - to existing state-of-the-art planning algorithms. Because only small-scale quantum annealers are available, we must compare on small problem sizes. Small problems are primarily useful for comparison only if they are instances of parametrized families of problems for which scaling analysis can be done. In this technical report, we discuss our approach to the generation of hard planning problems from classes of well-studied NP-complete problems that map naturally to planning problems or to aspects of planning problems that many practical planning problems share. These problem classes exhibit a phase transition between easy-to-solve and easy-to-show-unsolvable planning problems. The parametrized families of hard planning problems lie at the phase transition. The exponential scaling of hardness with problem size is apparent in these families even at very small problem sizes, thus enabling us to characterize even very small problems as hard. The families we developed will prove generally useful to the planning community in analyzing the performance of planning algorithms, providing a complementary approach to existing evaluation methods. We illustrate the hardness of these problems and their scaling with results on four state-of-the-art planners, observing significant differences between these planners on these problem families. Finally, we describe two general, and quite different, mappings of planning problems to QUBOs, the form of input required for a quantum annealing machine such as the D-Wave II.

  2. Family planning since ICPD--how far have we progressed?

    PubMed

    Cates, Willard; Maggwa, Baker

    2014-12-01

    The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) was a pivotal global event. It established voluntary family planning as a fundamental human right. We describe the progress made and challenges faced by the family planning field in the 20 years since ICPD. We present case studies from three African countries to highlight factors affecting the evolution of family planning during the past 2 decades. Measurable progress has been made in the key family planning indicators over this interval. However, improvement has slowed in recent years, and demographic forecasts predict a greater unmet need for effective contraception in the future. With a rights-based lens, we need to better understand the nuances of fertility intentions as we offer women and couples contraceptive choices pertinent to their stage of life. With a public-health lens, we need better metrics to reflect the realities of contraceptive effectiveness. Now is the time to build on two decades of family planning progress after ICPD. PMID:25033749

  3. Need for focus on men's perspective in family planning.

    PubMed

    Rix, B A

    1995-03-01

    An April 1994 workshop involving 13 men associated with European Family Planning Associations emphasized the need for greater male involvement in family planning and sex education. The redefinition of traditional sex roles currently underway in Europe provides a basis for men to discuss sexuality more openly and assume a more active part in family planning activities. This will not occur under existing family planning clinic models, however. Family planning associations must train male educators to train their counterparts and consider the establishment of special facilities to reach and meet the needs of men. In countries such as Sweden, Denmark, Holland, and Ireland, where male-specific services (e.g., sex education clinics for boys, courses on male sexuality for teachers and other role models, special educational materials) have been made available, the response has been overwhelming. Other suggested programs include peer-led boys' discussion groups, educational programs at sites such as sports clubs and army barracks, and open discussions of sensitive issues such as homosexuality, masturbation, and pornography. Also in need of revision is condom information. Such training should include advice to first try to masturbate with a condom and the experience of condom purchase. Realistic information on the difficulties of condom use should be offered, and young men should be given suggested phrases to use in situations when condom use is being negotiated with a partner. PMID:12289090

  4. National conference on integrated resource planning: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    Until recently, state regulators have focused most of their attention on the development of least-cost or integrated resource planning (IRP) processes for electric utilities. A number of commissions are beginning to scrutinize the planning processes of local gas distribution companies (LDCs) because of the increased control that LDCs have over their purchased gas costs (as well as the associated risks) and because of questions surrounding the role and potential of gas end-use efficiency options. Traditionally, resource planning (LDCs) has concentrated on options for purchasing and storing gas. Integrated resource planning involves the creation of a process in which supply-side and demand-side options are integrated to create a resource mix that reliably satisfies customers` short-term and long-term energy service needs at the lowest cost. As applied to gas utilities, an integrated resource plan seeks to balance cost and reliability, and should not be interpreted simply as the search for lowest commodity costs. The National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners` (NARUC) Energy Conservation committee asked Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) to survey state PUCs to determine the extent to which they have undertaken least cost planning for gas utilities. The survey included the following topics: status of state PUC least-cost planning regulations and practices for gas utilities; type and scope of natural gas DSM programs in effect, including fuel substitution; economic tests and analysis methods used to evaluate DSM programs; relationship between prudency reviews of gas utility purchasing practices and integrated resource planning; key regulatory issued facing gas utilities during the next five years.

  5. National conference on integrated resource planning: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Until recently, state regulators have focused most of their attention on the development of least-cost or integrated resource planning (IRP) processes for electric utilities. A number of commissions are beginning to scrutinize the planning processes of local gas distribution companies (LDCs) because of the increased control that LDCs have over their purchased gas costs (as well as the associated risks) and because of questions surrounding the role and potential of gas end-use efficiency options. Traditionally, resource planning (LDCs) has concentrated on options for purchasing and storing gas. Integrated resource planning involves the creation of a process in which supply-side and demand-side options are integrated to create a resource mix that reliably satisfies customers' short-term and long-term energy service needs at the lowest cost. As applied to gas utilities, an integrated resource plan seeks to balance cost and reliability, and should not be interpreted simply as the search for lowest commodity costs. The National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners' (NARUC) Energy Conservation committee asked Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) to survey state PUCs to determine the extent to which they have undertaken least cost planning for gas utilities. The survey included the following topics: status of state PUC least-cost planning regulations and practices for gas utilities; type and scope of natural gas DSM programs in effect, including fuel substitution; economic tests and analysis methods used to evaluate DSM programs; relationship between prudency reviews of gas utility purchasing practices and integrated resource planning; key regulatory issued facing gas utilities during the next five years.

  6. National Conference on Integrated Resource Planning: Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Until recently, state regulators have focused most of their attention on the development of least-cost or integrated resource planning (IRP) processes for electric utilities. A number of commissions are beginning to scrutinize the planning processes of local gas distribution companies (LDCs) because of the increased control that LDCs have over their purchased gas costs (as well as the associated risks) and because of questions surrounding the role and potential of gas end-use efficiency options. Traditionally, resource planning (LDCs) has concentrated on options for purchasing and storing gas. Integrated resource planning involves the creation of a process in which supply-side and demand-side options are integrated to create a resource mix that reliably satisfies customers' short-term and long-term energy service needs at the lowest cost. As applied to gas utilities, an integrated resource plan seeks to balance cost and reliability, and should not be interpreted simply as the search for lowest commodity costs. The National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners' (NARUC) Energy Conservation committee asked Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) to survey state PUCs to determine the extent to which they have undertaken least cost planning for gas utilities. The survey included the following topics: status of state PUC least-cost planning regulations and practices for gas utilities; type and scope of natural gas DSM programs in effect, including fuel substitution; economic tests and analysis methods used to evaluate DSM programs; relationship between prudency reviews of gas utility purchasing practices and integrated resource planning; and key regulatory issues facing gas utilities during the next five years.

  7. Watch out for the blue circle: a breakthrough in family planning promotional strategy.

    PubMed

    Sumarsono

    1989-07-01

    Realizing the potential of commercial marketing in changing the attitude and behavior of the target audience in the early years of the 4th 5-year development plan, the National Family Planning Program tried to develop new ventures in communicating the concept of the small family norm to the people. The condom was chosen as the 1st product to be sold through the social marketing project because male awareness about family planning was still low. Based on audience research, the pricing, packaging, and branding of the product was developed. The most accepted brand name was Dua Lima because it has a neutral meaning, is easily remembered, and can be described in sign language. The last reason is very important because most consumers have difficulty communicating about condoms in the sales outlet. Social marketing has proved effective because of strong public relations activities and the involvement of formal and informal leaders. This experiment has convinced family planning management that social marketing is workable for promoting the small family norm. In 1987, under the new program of self-sufficiency in family planning, the private sector is invited to participate by providing family planning services for target audiences, using the principles of self-sufficiency and self-support. There are 2 principal activities; 1) the IEC campaign, and 2) product (contraceptive) selling. IEC activities include a media campaign public relations work. Product selling is done through commercial channels such as pharmaceutical firms, drug stores, private doctors, and midwives. It was decided that the campaign would be aided by a name and logo. The blue circle was chosen because it is unique, communicative, and simple. The social marketing of contraceptives in Indonesia can be considered a breakthrough in communication strategy for a national development program. PMID:12282138

  8. A family planning program that pays for itself.

    PubMed

    1987-07-01

    In Japan, the condom is the method of choice of 82% of all contraceptive users. The Japan Family Planning Association covers about 3% of the total condom market through a well-organized social marketing scheme. Mobile guidance teams, equipped with a vehicle, supply contraceptives to health centers, independent midwives, and maternity hospitals in 17 prefectures and collect payment for condoms distributed after their previous visit. As an incentive, organizations and health institutions receive a commission for the condoms they supply. Japan's largest condom manufacturer provides supplies to the Family Planning Association at a very low price. The contraceptive social marketing program pays for its own promotion, and the Family Planning Association is able to support its other activities from the income it earns. The program was designed to complement rather than compete with commercial marketing channels such as pharmacies, which supply 60% of the 660 million condoms purchased in Japan each year. PMID:12341264

  9. [Nursing and family planning: the interfaces of contraception].

    PubMed

    Coelho, Elga Berger Salema

    2005-01-01

    This work analyses some aspects of family planning policy in Brazil related to contraceptive methods as published in Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem between 1960 and 1997. The subject analysis considers three categories: Catholic church, feminist and official state discourse. According to the records, in the decade of 1960 the Catholic church discourse was predominant. This situation continued in the decade of 1970, accompanied with emerging voice of the official state discourse. In the decade of 1980, the feminist discourse joined. Finally, in the decade of 1990 the feminist discourse continued, the official state discourse was consolidated and that of the Catholic church was not found any more. In conclusion, the journal established family planning on the agenda of Brazilian nursing by the means of scientific production. The methodology used enabled us to identify what are the obligations of nursing with respect to family planning in the context of its relationship with state policies and with the society. PMID:16689498

  10. NATIONAL SURVEY OF FAMILIES AND HOUSEHOLDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a longitudinal population-based survey of families and households in the United States that was designed to look at the causes and consequences of changes in American family and household structure. The first wave of the NSFH consists of interviews conducted during 1987-1...

  11. [A gold key to initiate a new situation in family planning work].

    PubMed

    Du, S; Yuan, Z; Fang, X

    1983-05-29

    Because of the popularization of a responsible agricultural production system, the livilihood of peasants has been improving greatly, while the demands and needs of the general public are also increasing at the same time. Still under the influence of the traditional belief of carrying on one's family line and emphasis on having male children, married people prefer to have more childre, and the birth rate is now rising again. In order to solve this new problem, we need to teach the peasants national policies on population, land utilization, and food supply. In order to initiate a new situation in family planning work, we need to control this "gold key" of ideological education and propaganda. The emphasis should be placed on ideological education for cadres at all levels as well as the general public in order that they may understand the Party's strategy. Education on the national strategy should be combined with material interests of the peasants, and reward and punishment in production should also be linked up with that of family planning. Social measures are needed to reduce economic burdens of the peasants, offer better treatment for single-child households, and provide adequate care for old and retired people. Family planning projects should be consolidated and improved. Scientific management, facilities and techniques for birth control, compensation for working personnel in family planning, and other practical problems deserve immediate attention and solution. PMID:12159355

  12. Social attitudes of Filipinos towards family planning interest groups.

    PubMed

    1992-08-01

    Some results are provided from the 1991 Social Weather Survey conducted in 1991 for the Legislators' Committee on Population and Development. The sample included both males and females (84% Roman Catholic, 7% other indigenous Christians, 7% Protestants, 1.2% Muslims, 0.2% without a religion, and 0.1% Buddhists). Surprising findings are that the public does not feel restricted from using family planning methods due to religious rules, schooling teachings, or a physician's advice. Most people hold that politicians generally support family planning. Only 19% are reported to believe that governors are against family planning, and 16% report that their mayors are against family planning. According to stated voting intentions, incumbent government officials perceived to be anti-family planning risk not being reelected. 96% of the survey respondents believe that it is important to have control over one's fertility. Awareness of family planning methods is directly related to socioeconomic class, education, and urban location. 21% say that their religion forbids tubal ligation and 26% say that ligation should never be practiced. 22% say that their religion allows ligation. Among people who believe that religion bans ligation, 10% approve of ligation at any time and 44% stipulate that there are times when it may be practiced. Another interesting finding was that school teaching had more influence on beliefs than religion. When schools said that rhythm was not allowed, 40% agreed. When religion taught that rhythm was not allowed, only 21% agreed. 9% of persons who were sectarian educated and 5% among non-sectarian educated persons believed that ligation should not be practiced. PMID:12179233

  13. 42 CFR 59.4 - How does one apply for a family planning services grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How does one apply for a family planning services... GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services 59.4 How does one apply for a family planning services grant? (a) Application for a grant under this subpart...

  14. 42 CFR 59.4 - How does one apply for a family planning services grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How does one apply for a family planning services... GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services 59.4 How does one apply for a family planning services grant? (a) Application for a grant under this subpart...

  15. 42 CFR 59.4 - How does one apply for a family planning services grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How does one apply for a family planning services... GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services 59.4 How does one apply for a family planning services grant? (a) Application for a grant under this subpart...

  16. 42 CFR 59.3 - Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Who is eligible to apply for a family planning... SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services 59.3 Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant? Any public or nonprofit private entity...

  17. 42 CFR 59.3 - Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Who is eligible to apply for a family planning... SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services 59.3 Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant? Any public or nonprofit private entity...

  18. 42 CFR 59.3 - Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Who is eligible to apply for a family planning... SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services 59.3 Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant? Any public or nonprofit private entity...

  19. 42 CFR 59.5 - What requirements must be met by a family planning project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What requirements must be met by a family planning... GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.5 What requirements must be met by a family planning project? (a) Each project supported under this part must:...

  20. 42 CFR 59.3 - Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who is eligible to apply for a family planning... SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.3 Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant? Any public or nonprofit private entity...

  1. 42 CFR 59.4 - How does one apply for a family planning services grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How does one apply for a family planning services... GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.4 How does one apply for a family planning services grant? (a) Application for a grant under this subpart...

  2. Introducing the standard days method: expanding family planning options in Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Blair, Caroline; Sinai, Irit; Mukabatsinda, Marie; Muramutsa, Félix

    2007-08-01

    The Standard Days Method is a simple fertility awareness-based method of family planning that helps women identify the days each cycle when they are most likely to conceive. Couples who wish to prevent pregnancy avoid unprotected intercourse on these days. The method was introduced in 13 sites in Rwanda, a nation with a high level of unmet need for family planning. This was the first time the method was introduced into regular service delivery, without the rigorous follow-up of a study setting. Users of the Standard Days Method were identified from clinic records and participated in interviews and focus groups. Community workers were also interviewed. Results confirm that the Standard Days Method is easy for providers to teach and for clients to learn and correctly use. The method attracts couples who are new to family planning, and is a valuable addition to the method mix offered in Rwanda. PMID:20690288

  3. Factors determining family planning in Catalonia. Sources of inequity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In recent decades, the foreign population in Spain has increased significantly, particularly for Catalonia, an autonomous region of Spain (2.90% in 2000 and 15.95% in 2010) and in particular Girona province (6.18% in 2000 and 21.55% in 2010). Several studies have shown a lower use of family planning methods by immigrants. This same trend is observed in Spain. The objective of this paper is to determine the existence of differences and possible sources of inequity in the use of family planning methods among health service users in Catalonia (Spain) by sex, health status, place of birth and socioeconomic conditions. Methods Data were taken from an ad-hoc questionnaire which was compiled following a qualitative stage of individual interviews. Said questionnaire was administered to 1094 Catalan public health service users during 2007. A complete descriptive analysis was carried out for variables related to public health service users’ sociodemographic characteristics and variables indicating knowledge and use of family planning methods, and bivariate relationships were analysed by means of chi-square contrasts. Considering the use (or non-use) of family planning methods as a dependent variable and a set of demographic, socioeconomic and health status variables as explanatory factors, the relationship was modelled using mixed models. Results The analysed sample is comprised of 54.3% women and 45.7% men, with 74.3% natives (or from the EU) and 25.7% economic immigrants. 54.8% use some method of family planning, the condom (46.7%) and the pill (28.0%) being the two most frequently used methods. Statistical modelling indicates that those factors which most influence the use of family planning methods are level of education (30.59% and 39.29% more likelihood) and having children over 14 (35.35% more likelihood). With regard to the origin of the user, we observe that patients from North Africa,sub. Saharan Africa and Asia are less likely to use family planning methods (36.68%, 38.59% and 70.51%, respectively). Conclusions The use of family planning methods is positively related to a higher level of education and having children over 14. Factors such as sex, age, income and self-perceived health do not appear to influence their use. Furthermore, being a native of this country, the European Union or Central/South America represents a greater likelihood of use than being African or Asian. Although no general differences in use were found between sexes, the difference found in the case of Asian women stands out, with a higher likelihood of use. PMID:22818829

  4. Integrating AIDS components into the region's family planning programs.

    PubMed

    1993-05-01

    Married and young, single women are most at risk for AIDS. Many women in developing countries typically do not receive health services from any source other than family planning clinics. As such, family planning programs must rally to offer clients accurate and complete information on AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases (STD). The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) in 1987 established an AIDS prevention unit with funding from the British Overseas Development Administration; they have worked since to integrate AIDS prevention into family planning programs worldwide. In May 1988, the Office of IPPF's Western Hemisphere Region (WHR) created the staff position of Project Officer for AIDS Prevention. This position has provided technical assistance, project funding, training, and the distribution of educational materials for family planning associations (FPA) in Latin America and the Caribbean. FPAs are perfectly positioned to counsel on AIDS and other STDs, and developing a community-based STD/AIDS prevention program can really help associations gain visibility and effectiveness in communities. IPPF/WHR will therefore increase its assistance to FPAs over the next 5 years for the purpose of promoting safer sex mainly through development programs and establishing infection control procedures. PMID:12179853

  5. National Ignition Facility project acquisition plan revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Clobes, A.R.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this National Ignition Facility Acquisition Plan is to describe the overall procurement strategy planned for the National Ignition Facility M Project. It was prepared for the NIP Prood Office by the NIF Procurement Manager.

  6. Quinault Indian Nation Renewable Energy Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Don Hopps, Institute for Washington's Future; Jesse Nelson, Institute for Washington's Future

    2006-11-28

    The Quinault Indian Nation (Nation) initiated this study on conservation and production of renewable energy because this approach created the opportunity: • To become self-sufficient and gain greater control over the energy the Nation uses; • To generate jobs and businesses for its members; • To better manage, sustain, and protect its resources; • To express the cultural values of the Nation in an important new arena. The Nation has relatively small energy needs. These needs are concentrated at two separate points: the Quinault Beach Resort and Casino (QBRC) and Taholah on the Quinault Indian Reservation (QIR). Except for the town of Queets, energy needs are small and scattered. The needs vary greatly over the season. The small scale, widely dispersed, and variable nature of these needs presents a unique challenge to the Nation. Meeting these needs requires a resource and technology that is flexible, effective, and portable. Conservation is the most cost-effective way to meet any need. It is especially effective in a situation like this where production would leave a high per unit cost. This plan is based on first gaining energy savings through conservation. Major savings are possible through: 1. Upgrading home appliances on the QIR. 2. Weatherizing homes and facilities. 3. Changes in lighting/ventilation in the QBRC pool room. These elements of the plan are already being implemented and promise to save the Nation around a quarter of its present costs. Wood biomass is the best resource available to the QIN for energy production either on-site or for commercial development. It is abundant, flexible and portable. Its harvesting has high job potential and these jobs are a good fit for the present “skill set” of the QIN. This plan focuses on using wood biomass to produce energy and other value-added products. Our study considered various technologies and approaches to using wood for energy. We considered production for both on-site and commercial production. This plan calls for commercial-scale production only, with the QIN being the first “customer” for the product. This plan favors employing the pyrolysis technology to produce bio-oil, heat, and char. We favor this approach and technology because it is the most cost effective way to use the available resource. Its main product, bio-oil, has proven utility for the production of heat and electricity. It has promise for use as an alternative fuel, which is a much higher value than present uses of wood and it meets the QIN need for flexibility, scalability, and portability. Char, the secondary product from the pyrolysis process, has proven value-added uses. In addition to these direct benefits, the use of biomass in pyrolysis technology has significant indirect benefits. These benefits include the fact that the technology is a good fit with the Nation’s cultural values, i.e., environmental protection and the holistic use of a resource. It fits well with current QIN enterprises. For example, char could be processed into a charcoal co-product for QIN fish. Finally, the QIN can become a leader in developing and demonstrating this innovative approach to the use of wood. This plan proposes key organization steps to insure both excellent implementation of the plan and taking the best advantage of the processes and facilities put in place. This plan calls for two new QIN organizations: an energy production/distribution corporation and a community development corporation. The production/distribution corporation can be either a utility or a business enterprise that develops and markets renewable energy. The community development corporation can be a not-for-profit to support the QIN in taking best advantage of its energy opportunities. The production and distribution corporation is the subject of a further business planning effort now underway. This plan envisions a community development corporation that works directly with the Business Committee on research, education, and project development. Specifically, this corporation can seek grant funding to research energy matters such as the BPA direct sale of energy proposal, identify key business opportunities like charcoal production and train QIN members in business building, and establish a renewable energy education program and center to enhance the education of QIN youth and market to schools and community colleges in Western Washington. Overall, this final report includes the final Renewable Energy Plan for the QIN, the final Financial Analysis, and appendices. The two final plans are the culmination of research and planning represented by the appendices.

  7. Progress report on a multi-service family planning mobile unit September, 1981.

    PubMed

    1981-12-01

    In 1979, the National Family Planning Program's (NFPP) multiservice mobile unit pilot project was implemented to deliver a full complement of clinical and nonclinical family planning services to remote Thai villages by transporting nurses, physicians, and supplies by van. 15 provinces with the lowest family planning achievement in 1978 were selected to participate in the project for 1 year; one refused. Funding was allocated for mobile unit trips and promotional billboards. Implementation at the time of data analysis averaged 9.8 province-months, sufficient to reveal trends in project achievement. 9579 new acceptors were reported after 805 mobile trips in the 14 provinces, an average of 12 new acceptors/trip. New acceptor recruitment costs were estimated at $6.20/client. Based on Thai data for continuation rates, an estimated 18,238 couples years of protection (CYP) were achieved by the mobile unit. In comparison to other family planning services' mobile units, the multiservice unit had the lowest operating costs, but the most expensive cost/CYP. The effectiveness of the promotional billboards was assessed by comparing acceptor rates in provinces with and without billboards. Overall, the provinces with billboards showed less of an increase in new acceptors. When months of project implementation are controlled, a positive effect of the billboards is suggested. While demonstrating that all modern contraception can be delivered via mobile units to remote villages, there is inadequate acceptance of the highly effective family planning methods to justify the cost of transporting staff and equipment. PMID:12311584

  8. Federal Republic of Germany: family planning, family policy and demographic policy.

    PubMed

    Zuhlke, W

    1989-01-01

    Decades of social change in West Germany and the emergence of an ideology that stresses individualism have altered dramatically procreative behavioral patterns. At present, West Germany is characterized by a low marriage rate (6.1/1000 in 1986), declining fertility (10.3 birth/1000), rising divorce rates (20.1/1000), and increases in the proportion of single-person households (34%). The relationship between family planning, family policy, and demographic policy is unclear and changing. Family planning practice is viewed as a part of comprehensive life planning and is based on factors such as partnership or marital status, sex roles, the conflict between working in the home and having a career, consumer aspirations, and housing conditions. The Government's family policy includes the following components: child benefits, tax relief on children, tax splitting arrangements for married couples, childcare allowance, parental leave, student grants, tax deductions for domiciliary professional help and nursing assistance, and the provision of daycare. Thus, West Germany's family policy is directed more at encouraging and facilitating parenthood and family life than at a setting demographic goals. There is no evidence, however, that such measures will be successful and divergent influences of other policy areas are often more compelling. Nor is there any way to quantify the fertility-costing impact of individual family policy measures. The indistinct nature of family planning policy in West Germany mirrors political differences between the current coalition government, which maintains a traditional view of the family, and the opposition Social-Democratic and Green Parties, which question whether the equality of men and women can be achieved in the context of old family structures. PMID:12316308

  9. Urban family physician plan in Iran: challenges of implementation in Kerman

    PubMed Central

    Dehnavieh, Reza; Kalantari, Ali Reza; Jafari Sirizi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Family Physician Plan has recently been implemented in three provinces of Iran on a pilot basis and is going to be implemented throughout Iran in the future. Through a qualitative design, this study aims to determine probable implementation challenges of Family Physician Plan in Kerman. Methods: This study was conducted in Kerman in 2013. Data were collected through interviews with 21 experts in the field. Sampling continued until data saturation level was achieved. All interviews were recorded and then analyzed, and main themes and subgroups were extracted from them based on a framework analysis model. Results: most prevalent establishment challenges of Family Physician Plan were classified into policy-making, financial supply, laws and resources. Conclusion: The urban Family Physician Plan can be carried out more effectively by implementing this plan step by step, highlighting the relationships between the related organizations, using new payment mechanisms e.g Per Capita, DRG, make national commitment and proper educational programs for providers, development the health electronic Record, justifying providers and community about advantages of this plan, clarifying regulatory status about providers' Duties and most importantly considering a specific funding source. PMID:26913266

  10. 47 CFR 90.16 - Public Safety National Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Public Safety Radio Pool § 90.16 Public Safety National Plan. The... National Plan is contained in the Report and Order in General Docket No. 87-112. The principal spectrum... (“border regions”). In the border regions, the principal spectrum for the National Plan may be...

  11. 47 CFR 90.16 - Public Safety National Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Public Safety Radio Pool § 90.16 Public Safety National Plan. The... National Plan is contained in the Report and Order in General Docket No. 87-112. The principal spectrum... (“border regions”). In the border regions, the principal spectrum for the National Plan may be...

  12. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan FY 2004-2008

    SciTech Connect

    Quadrel, Marilyn J.

    2004-04-15

    This Institutional Plan for FY 2004-2008 is the principal annual planning document submitted to the Department of Energy's Office of Science by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Washington. This plan describes the Laboratory's mission, roles, and technical capabilities in support of Department of Energy priorities, missions, and plans. It also describes the Laboratory strategic plan, key planning assumptions, major research initiatives, and program strategy for fundamental science, energy resources, environmental quality, and national security.

  13. Importance of male fertility control in family planning.

    PubMed

    Tulsiani, Daulat R P; Abou-Haila, Aida

    2014-01-01

    The world population, currently estimated to be almost seven billion, is expected to double in less than four decades. The projected population growth will cause severe competition for existing resources, not to mention the issue of overcrowding of the planet and additional greenhouse gases that will have an adverse effect on the ecological health of the planet. A recent survey conducted by the United Nations Population Control Division shows that the majority of today's young men in many countries are willing to participate in family planning by taking full control of their fertility, an important global health issue. However, the contraceptive needs of tens of millions of men/couples go unmet every single day and results in millions of unwanted pregnancies. Ever since the approval of the birth control pill by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1960, scientists have been hoping for a male equivalent. It has, however, been a difficult road, in part because of the complicated science of the male reproductive system. It is easier to control a monthly event of ovulation in women than to regulate the production of millions of fertile spermatozoa every day in men. Thus, the contraceptive options for men have not changed in decades and are still limited to the use of condoms, a timely withdrawal/pulling out (coitus interruptus) or vasectomy, a minor surgical procedure in which the vas deferens is occluded to prevent the release of spermatozoa during ejaculation. The first two approaches have a relatively higher failure rate, whereas the last approach is largely irreversible and not suitable for younger men. In this article, we will discuss various approaches currently available for men to take control of their fertility. Our intention is to discuss the details of three similar approaches that will provide safe, affordable and reversible contraception for men and are close to being approved for use by millions of men around the globe. The availability of safe, reversible and reliable male contraceptives will allow men and women to take full control of their fertility in family planning. PMID:24654689

  14. A Holistic Approach to Family Planning Counseling and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaves, Lushanhya Coutinho; And Others

    A family planning clinic which was part of a large public maternity hospital in Salvador Bahia, Brazil received a grant to expand its services and to evaluate a service model focusing on client counseling and education. The counseling, education, and service provision process included individual pre-consultation with a nurse, group education and…

  15. Yard Plan of the Brundage, Parish, Simmons Families et al. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Yard Plan of the Brundage, Parish, Simmons Families et al. Circa 1940s - The Smokey Hollow Community, Informal boundaries by street name: North to South: East Jefferson Street to East Van Buren Street. West to East: South Gadsden Street to Marvin Street., Tallahassee, Leon County, FL

  16. The Role of Communications in Population and Family Planning Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, William O.

    In this paper, the author outlines the historical development of information and education programs for population control and family planning, arguing that communications activities should receive as much emphasis as the health services program. The public information aspect includes use of mass media, advertising and promotion, public relations…

  17. A Crucial New Direction for International Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosken, Fran P.

    1984-01-01

    Repressive attitudes toward female sexuality by Third World men and ignorance of the basic biology of the female reproductive system by Third World women have led to the failure of family planning efforts. Use of the "Universal Childbirth Picture Book," which illustrates the female reproductive system, is recommended. (IS)

  18. Family Planning for Inner-City Adolescent Males: Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Janet; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Describes a pilot family planning program in an inner-city pediatric practice. Male adolescents were more likely to accept contraceptives if the provider first raised the topic of birth control to them. Identified a desire for anonymity/confidentiality and embarrassment or discomfort as the key reasons for not seeking contraceptives. Emphasizes

  19. Comprehensive understanding of "truth of China's family planning practices".

    PubMed

    Zhou, P

    1986-12-01

    This is an account of the tour by 25 U.S. Congressmen to the Peoples' Republic of China in November 1986 to determine the degree of coercion in the family planning program. 1st, the delegates attended a conference in Beijing, introducing the family planning program in China, lead by the minister of the China State Family Planning Commission. Then they had talks with researchers at the Population Research Centre. The group split up and some inspected the Nanjing Institute of Family Planning Management. Others went to Shanghai and visited the International Peace Hospital of Maternity and Child Care. 2 delegates travelled to a rural community in Jiangsu Province. Thus, the congressmen and women got a wide exposure of central authorities and local organizations. A spokesman for the Education, Science, Culture and Public Health Committee emphasized that the few incidents of coercion were exceptions, contrary to policy, and greatly spectacularized in the western press. Some cases were merely a variety of management style, and were dealt with by admonition. Women usually go for abortions on their own request. Those who have unplanned births are subject to social pressure and taxation. China's population policy must be respected as it is designed to meet her particular needs. PMID:12341212

  20. Training x Trainee Interactions in a Family Planning Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leon, Federico, R.; Rios, Alex; Zumaran, Adriana

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of introducing a family planning counseling model at clinics of Peru's Ministry of Health. Providers trained in the model presented greater quality of care and longer counseling sessions than did controls. The main effects, however, were misleading. Nearly all of the quality improvements were contributed by 37%…

  1. Personal and Family Financial Planning: Perspectives on Community College Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leo, Robert J.; And Others

    After a brief summary of the findings of a 1979 study of Personal and Family Financial Planning (PFFP) programs at member institutions of the League for Innovation in the Community College (LICC), this two-part monograph provides information on selected PFFP programs. Part I presents in-depth descriptions of the implementation, subject coverage,…

  2. Family Planning and the Burden of Unintended Pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, Amy O.; McDonald-Mosley, Raegan; Burke, Anne E.

    2010-01-01

    Family planning is hailed as one of the great public health achievements of the last century, and worldwide acceptance has risen to three-fifths of exposed couples. In many countries, however, uptake of modern contraception is constrained by limited access and weak service delivery, and the burden of unintended pregnancy is still large. This review focuses on family planning's efficacy in preventing unintended pregnancies and their health burden. The authors first describe an epidemiologic framework for reproductive behavior and pregnancy intendedness and use it to guide the review of 21 recent, individual-level studies of pregnancy intentions, health outcomes, and contraception. They then review population-level studies of family planning's relation to reproductive, maternal, and newborn health benefits. Family planning is documented to prevent mother-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, contribute to birth spacing, lower infant mortality risk, and reduce the number of abortions, especially unsafe ones. It is also shown to significantly lower maternal mortality and maternal morbidity associated with unintended pregnancy. Still, a new generation of research is needed to investigate the modest correlation between unintended pregnancy and contraceptive use rates to derive the full health benefits of a proven and cost-effective reproductive technology. PMID:20570955

  3. The Current State of Family Planning Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haaga, John

    This report provides an overview of methods of evaluating the impact of family planning programs in developing countries, with a discussion of their strengths and weaknesses. The focus is on estimation of program impact on fertility rates, though other potential outcome measures, such as maternal and child health, are also discussed. The first…

  4. Family Planning Attitudes of Traditional and Acculturated Navajo Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Alan; And Others

    To determine whether various indices of "acculturation" would predict attitudes towards family planning was the major purpose of a survey conducted among a highly educated group of Navajo people at Navajo Community College (NCC). Owned and operated by the Navajo Tribe, NCC served as a target survey model due to its 90% population of Navajo…

  5. [The impact of family planning on reproductive health].

    PubMed

    Trias, M

    1992-06-01

    Until relatively recently, sheer survival has been a more pressing concern of most human populations than has control of population growth through contraception. Today family planning with its varied technologies has become an accepted behavior of the majority of fertile couples. Colombia has achieved a satisfactory contraceptive prevalence rate largely due to private institutions. The decline from 6.5 to 3.5 children per woman that required 58 years in the US (1842-1900) required just 15 years in Colombia, according to UN data. Other UN publications demonstrate that family planning prevalence is strongly correlated with quality of life as measured by income, life expectancy, and education, with family planning and quality of life tending to improve simultaneously and coherently. Reproductive health might more appropriately be considered sexual health, since most couples wish to continue sexual relations without fear of unwanted pregnancy. Reproductive health defined as referring to fertile-aged women and children under 15 concerns around 2/3 of the population in developing countries. Although the reproductive health of a country depends in large measure on the physical and mental well-being of its women, discrimination against women in education health, employment, and participation is a serious problem in many countries. Accessibility of family planning is another indicator of women's status. The potential health benefits of avoiding births before age 20 and after 35, high parity births, and closely spaced births are well known. Avoiding all such births would reduce maternal mortality by 20-25% worldwide, saving 100,.000-125,000 maternal lives. Proper spacing would also combat infant mortality. Infant survival programs that omit family planning as a component are short sighted. Family planning has the important benefits of reducing recourse to abortion and of allowing savings in public services including health care, education, and nutrition. In the area of family planning, Colombia's PROFAMILIA continues to prefer a cafeteria approach in which numerous contraceptive options are available. It has been demonstrated that each new method increases the number of acceptors by 6% on average. The especially for women who want to terminate childbearing. Morbidity and mortality rates of the different contraceptive methods, even in the worst conditions, are lower than they would be if contraception were not used. Oral contraceptives, for example, are 4-5 times less risky than nonuse of contraception. PROFAMILIA is currently seeking authorization to use a new combined monthly injectable contraceptive called Cyclofem. The subdermal implant NORPLANT has been well accepted in Colombia. PMID:12318090

  6. [Some reflections on the introduction of family planning into businesses in Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Ngambi Kunga

    1990-01-01

    Cameroon has announced that it favors family planning as a means of improving family welfare. In the local context, family planning would refer to spacing and to a lesser extent limiting births, as well as combatting infertility. This work argues that, at a time of deep economic and financial crisis for Cameroon and of growing need and demand for family planning services, the introduction of employment-based family planning services could reinforce the family planning activities of the government and private agencies. The work broadly outlines national family planning policy, identifies weaknesses of proposed family planning strategies, and points out the advantages of employment-based services. Cameroon's infant mortality rate of 90/1000 live births and maternal mortality of 420/100,000 are partly related to its very high fertility rate, closely spaced births, and early pregnancy. The national family planning program goal is to promote health and wellbeing by preventing early and unwanted pregnancies and illnesses in high-risk groups. A decline in unwanted births would be achieved through voluntary use of contraception. The main strategy would be an ambitious IEC program to inform the population of the advantages of family planning using mass media, print materials, and interpersonal communication. The general objectives of the IEC program would be to reduce maternal mortality to 300/100,000 and infant mortality from 90 to 70/1000 and increase contraceptive prevalence from 3 to 20% by 1994. Family planning services and commercial distribution centers would be created, taking advantage of existing health facilities wherever possible as well as community based systems of service delivery for the population not yet served by the traditional distribution system. Experience with the IEC strategy in other countries demonstrates that there is a great disproportion between the population touched by IEC and contraceptive prevalence. The strategy would probably be more effective if it were oriented toward a more limited population group. Interpersonal communication is often a more effective medium for IEC than is communication based on the mass media, and the place of work constitutes an ideal arena for interpersonal communication. An IEC strategy would have more impact in difficult-to-reach rural population if it were reinforced by an employment-based program. Workers as a group are more disposed to conscious decision making about family sizes than are other categories of persons. Employment-based services could benefit workers, their spouses, and perhaps the neighboring population. Employers would benefit from the improved health of the workers, from the greater continuity of employment of female workers not requiring maternity leaves, and from lessened expenditures related to the family size of the workforce, such as health care costs. A cost-benefit analysis of an employment-based family planning would demonstrate the savings to be realized by the program, especially over time. PMID:12178537

  7. Assessing the wraparound process during family planning meetings.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Michael H; Nordness, Philip D; Kutash, Krista; Duchnowski, Al; Schrepf, Sheryl; Benner, Greg J; Nelson, J Ron

    2003-01-01

    Research and evaluation of the wraparound process has typically focused on outcomes, service providers, and costs. While many of these studies describe a process that is consistent with the wraparound approach, few studies have reported attempts to monitor or measure the treatment fidelity of the wraparound process. The purpose of this study was to assess the fidelity of the wraparound process in a community-based system of care using the Wraparound Observation Form-Second Version. Results from 112 family planning meetings indicated some strengths and weaknesses within the current system. Families and professionals were frequently involved in the planning and implementation of the wraparound process. However, informal supports and natural family supports were not present in a majority of the meetings. Given the significant number of youth served in wraparound programs, the benefits of using the Wraparound Observation Form-Second Version as an instrument to monitor the fidelity of the wraparound approach should not be ignored. PMID:12875102

  8. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    The goal of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Waste Management Program is the protection of workers, the public, and the environment. A vital aspect of this goal is to comply with all applicable state, federal, and DOE requirements. Waste management requirements for DOE radioactive wastes are detailed in DOE Order 5820.2A, and the ORNL Waste Management Program encompasses all elements of this order. The requirements of this DOE order and other appropriate DOE orders, along with applicable Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) rules and regulations, provide the principal source of regulatory guidance for waste management operations at ORNL. The objective of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan is to compile and to consolidate information annually on how the ORNL Waste Management is to compile and to consolidate information annually on how the ORNL Waste Management Program is conducted, which waste management facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, what activities are planned for the forthcoming fiscal year (FY), and how all of the activities are documented.

  9. 78 FR 71431 - National Family Week, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ....) [FR Doc. 2013-28734 Filed 11-26-13; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F4 ... the spirit that moves family members to care for one another, to grow and dream together, and to... Michelle Obama and Dr. Jill Biden's Joining Forces initiative is connecting service members, veterans,...

  10. Key Statistics from the National Survey of Family Growth: Vasectomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Birth Data NCHS Key Statistics from the National Survey of Family Growth - V Listing Recommend on Facebook ... What's this? Submit Button Related Sites NCHS Listservs Surveys and Data Collection Systems Vital Statistics: Birth Data ...

  11. 78 FR 66617 - National Family Caregivers Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ... thirty- eighth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-26675 Filed 11-4-13; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F4 ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 9053 of October 31, 2013 National Family Caregivers Month, 2013 By the... Family Caregivers Month, we thank these tireless heroes for the long, challenging work they...

  12. A national action plan for workforce development in behavioral health.

    PubMed

    Hoge, Michael A; Morris, John A; Stuart, Gail W; Huey, Leighton Y; Bergeson, Sue; Flaherty, Michael T; Morgan, Oscar; Peterson, Janice; Daniels, Allen S; Paris, Manuel; Madenwald, Kappy

    2009-07-01

    Across all sectors of the behavioral health field there has been growing concern about a workforce crisis. Difficulties encompass the recruitment and retention of staff and the delivery of accessible and effective training in both initial, preservice training and continuing education settings. Concern about the crisis led to a multiphased, cross-sector collaboration known as the Annapolis Coalition on the Behavioral Health Workforce. With support from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, this public-private partnership crafted An Action Plan for Behavioral Health Workforce Development. Created with input from a dozen expert panels, the action plan outlines seven core strategic goals that are relevant to all sectors of the behavioral health field: expand the role of consumers and their families in the workforce, expand the role of communities in promoting behavioral health and wellness, use systematic recruitment and retention strategies, improve training and education, foster leadership development, enhance infrastructure to support workforce development, and implement a national research and evaluation agenda. Detailed implementation tables identify the action steps for diverse groups and organizations to take in order to achieve these goals. The action plan serves as a call to action and is being used to guide workforce initiatives across the nation. PMID:19564217

  13. [Circular on census and family planning of 1990].

    PubMed

    1990-04-17

    In 1990 the Census Leading Group under the State Council, the State Family Planning Commission, and the Ministry of Public Security issued a circular on census and family planning calling for various localities to do a good job in registering children who were born beyond the state target. The circular provides the following: "1. To strictly enforce the policy for family planning and allow no children who were born beyond the state target to register themselves for residence, it is necessary to clarify issues to the local cadres. While acknowledging their enthusiasm in implementing the state policy for family planning, we must ask them to allow some children who were born beyond the state target to register themselves for the census and residence on the basis of the relevant regulations of the State Council. 2. It is necessary to carry out ideological work well among those cadres who did not report the number of children who were born beyond the state plan because of political reasons or material benefits, so that they will report childbirths and have those children registered. In general, no further investigation will be made as long as the children born beyond the state target have truthfully registered themselves during this census. However, those who continuously refuse to tell the truth will be severely dealt with when they are caught. 3. It is necessary to strengthen propaganda and education work among the masses who dare not report the births of children beyond the state target for fear of possible punishment, and make them understand that the census is aimed at managing state affairs and providing scientific data for working out various policies for social and economic developments. Therefore, it is necessary to report things as they are." The circular also provides that "Family planning is China's basic state policy. It is wrong to give birth to any child beyond the state target. It is impermissable to do so. From now on, we still need to enforce the policy of family planning." PMID:12343815

  14. Men should take part in family planning. An interview with the Grand Mufti.

    PubMed

    Hata, K

    1994-09-01

    For Muslims the Koran provides the infallible rules of conduct fundamental to their way of life. In the past, conservative religious leaders represented a force opposing changes in the traditional status of women and large family norms in Egypt. However, the Grand Mufti has openly expressed his support for responsible parenthood and family planning. The total fertility rate would not have dropped to 3.9 in Egypt without his strong support for family planning. The Grand Mufti expressed his views on family planning in an interview. Family planning is compatible with the teaching of the Koran. There is no problem in promoting family planning according to the Koran. Family planning is the independent and voluntary decision and right of each couple. The Grand Mufti encourages practice family planning through TV, radio, and newspapers. Among Islamic countries, Egypt is one of the few countries where family planning has been well accepted. Religious leaders, medical doctors, and mass media people recognize that the Koran's teachings harmonize with family planning, therefore the promotion of family planning has been successful. More and more people in other Islamic countries will come to practice family planning as they comprehend the Koran's teachings accurately. However, it will take some time before people in these countries will be able to benefit from family planning, since many countries face economic problems thwarting the development of family planning services. The fact that most of the family planning users are women is immaterial, as family planning is the joint responsibility of the married couple. Men should definitely participate in family planning. Men's participation in family planning fits in with the Koran. At the International Conference on Population and Development to be held in the September, 1994, the Grand Mufti is going to speak on men's responsibility for family planning. PMID:12288252

  15. Protecting the mother's and child's health. Indonesia. Moslems and Islamic organizations participate in the family planning movement.

    PubMed

    Yapie, K H

    1996-01-01

    The lack of united legal opinion has become a characteristic of Islam. The Islamic community's views on family planning are therefore diverse, ranging from those who strongly resist it to those who enthusiastically support and promote it. However, in order to smoothly introduce family planning into Indonesia, religious legal support was and remains crucial. Religion, especially Islam, is very important in the lives of Indonesian people. The need for religious support was stated explicitly in the guidelines of the First Five-Year Development Plan, as one of the considerations in carrying out the National Family Planning Program. That program, the first of its kind, was provided by the Legal Affairs Committee of Muhammadiyah in 1968. The major characteristics of the four formal religious decisions on family planning are described, followed by discussion of the current views of some ulama. PMID:12347301

  16. [The nature of family planning management in China].

    PubMed

    Pei, Z

    1989-07-01

    Family planning (FP) program management in China uses the power of the state to manage population reproduction. the characteristics of program management are as follows. 1) The FP program is for the benefit of the state, community and individual, 2) the FP program is a process of birth planning under social planning rather than an individual family's planning, 3) FP include both restriction on the number of people and the improvement of the quality of the population. 4) FP is a public affair. Government organizations at all levels of coordination and mobilize the FP program so that people of all walks of life can participate. 5) People participate in the FP program management by expressing their views in the people's congress, through communication with administration leadership, and through self-education. The special features of FP program management in China are also reflected in its concerns with a variety of target populations, its need for cooperation from people and its need for involvement of all institutions and enterprises. As the human reproductive cycle is long, making a long- term strategic policy for FP is no less important than long-term economic planning. The management of the program should emphasize direction and persuasion, the provision of services and help to people, and the efforts to involve government or public organizations in promoting planning programs. PMID:12159349

  17. 34 CFR 303.340 - Individualized family service plan-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Individualized family service plan-general. 303.340... INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES Child Find, Evaluations and Assessments, and Individualized Family Service Plans Individualized Family Service Plan (ifsp) § 303.340 Individualized family service...

  18. 34 CFR 303.340 - Individualized family service plan-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Individualized family service plan-general. 303.340... INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES Child Find, Evaluations and Assessments, and Individualized Family Service Plans Individualized Family Service Plan (ifsp) § 303.340 Individualized family service...

  19. 34 CFR 303.340 - Individualized family service plan-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Individualized family service plan-general. 303.340... INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES Child Find, Evaluations and Assessments, and Individualized Family Service Plans Individualized Family Service Plan (ifsp) § 303.340 Individualized family service...

  20. Family Planning Policy Environment in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Levers of Positive Change and Prospects for Sustainability.

    PubMed

    Mukaba, Thibaut; Binanga, Arsene; Fohl, Sarah; Bertrand, Jane T

    2015-01-01

    Building on expressed support from the Prime Minister to the Ministries of Health and Planning, the country's new family planning commitment grew out of: (1) recognition of the impact of family planning on maternal mortality and economic development; (2) knowledge sharing of best practices from other African countries; (3) participatory development of a national strategic plan; (4) strong collaboration between stakeholders; (5) effective advocacy by champions including country and international experts; and (6) increased donor support. The question becomes: Will the favorable policy environment translate into effective local programming? PMID:26085015

  1. Levels, trends and reasons for unmet need for family planning among married women in Botswana: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Letamo, Gobopamang

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study are: (1) to estimate the prevalence of unmet need for family planning among married women using Botswana Family Health Survey 2007 data and (2) to identify risk factors for unmet need for family planning among married women. Design This study used secondary data from a cross-sectional survey that was conducted to provide a snapshot of health issues in Botswana. Setting Nationally representative population survey data. Participants 2601 married or in union women aged 15–49 years who participated in the 2007 Botswana Family Health Survey were included in the analysis. Primary outcome Unmet need for family planning, which was defined as the percentage of all fecund married women who are not using a method of contraception even though they do not want to get pregnant. Results Married women who had unmet need for family planning were 9.6% in 2007. Most of the unmet need was for limiting (6.7%) compared to spacing (2.9%). Unmet need for family planning was more likely to be among women whose partners disapproved of family planning, non-Christians, had one partner and had never discussed family planning with their partner. Women of low parity, aged 25–34 years, and greater exposure to mass media, were less likely to have experienced unmet need. The patterns and magnitude of covariates differed between unmet need for limiting and for spacing. Conclusions The prevalence of unmet need for family planning was low in Botswana compared to other sub-Saharan African countries. The findings from this study reemphasise the importance of women's empowerment and men's involvement in women's sexual and reproductive healthcare needs and services. Different approaches are needed to satisfy the demand for family planning for spacing and limiting. PMID:25829370

  2. Fresh impetus to family planning programmes planned in India. APPN interviews Mr. B. Shankaranand Union Minister for Health and Family Welfare, India.

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    Mr. B. Shankaranand, Union Minister for Health and Family Welfare in India, speaking on new policy measures planned to give family planning a major boost, stated that programs related to population and family welfare should be interwoven with the minimum needs program so that the message of the small family norm becomes attractive to acceptors. The new incentive measures, outlined by Shankaranand, are based on the understanding that the existing infrastructure for service delivery must be fully utilized. The new package of incentives places equal emphasis on state level campaigns which will be suitably dovetailed with services and supplies. Monetary rewards in the form of community assets will be given to organized and identifiable groups actively engaged in the implementation of the Family Welfare Program. Cash awards will be given to the best performing states. A new incentive scheme will be introduced for industrial labor groups in the organized sector. Innovative publicity campaigns in selected areas will be conducted. Reorganization of the service delivery outreach system will include establishing health posts staffed by nurse midwives and health workers in urban slums and congested areas. A scheme is in preparation to issue green cards to acceptors of terminal methods after 2 children. The card holders will be entitled to priority attention and preferential treatment in schemes where such practices are feasible. Currently, there are 5000 Primary Health Centers and 50,000 subcenters offering integrated health services. Family planning statistics provide supportive evidence of programmatic response to the achievement of longterm goals of population stabilization. During the 1st 10 months of the current financial year 2,800,000 sterilizations were performed, a 43% higher achievement rate than the corresponding period last year. The number is likely to rise to 4,000,000 by the end of this financial year. Similarly, the number of IUD acceptors is 760,000, 35% higher than last year. Another encouraging sign has been the formulation of a National Health Policy. PMID:12312721

  3. National volcanic ash operations plan for aviation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    United States Department of Commerce; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

    2007-01-01

    The National Aviation Weather Program Strategic Plan (1997) and the National Aviation Weather Initiatives (1999) both identified volcanic ash as a high-priority informational need to aviation services. The risk to aviation from airborne volcanic ash is known and includes degraded engine performance (including flameout), loss of visibility, failure of critical navigational and operational instruments, and, in the worse case, loss of life. The immediate costs for aircraft encountering a dense plume are potentially major—damages up to $80 million have occurred to a single aircraft. Aircraft encountering less dense volcanic ash clouds can incur longer-term costs due to increased maintenance of engines and external surfaces. The overall goal, as stated in the Initiatives, is to eliminate encounters with ash that could degrade the in-flight safety of aircrews and passengers and cause damage to the aircraft. This goal can be accomplished by improving the ability to detect, track, and forecast hazardous ash clouds and to provide adequate warnings to the aviation community on the present and future location of the cloud. To reach this goal, the National Aviation Weather Program established three objectives: (1) prevention of accidental encounters with hazardous clouds; (2) reduction of air traffic delays, diversions, or evasive actions when hazardous clouds are present; and (3) the development of a single, worldwide standard for exchange of information on airborne hazardous materials. To that end, over the last several years, based on numerous documents (including an OFCMsponsored comprehensive study on aviation training and an update of Aviation Weather Programs/Projects), user forums, and two International Conferences on Volcanic Ash and Aviation Safety (1992 and 2004), the Working Group for Volcanic Ash (WG/VA), under the OFCM-sponsored Committee for Aviation Services and Research, developed the National Volcanic Ash Operations Plan for Aviation and Support of the International Civil Aviation Organization’s (ICAO) International Airways Volcano Watch. This plan defines agency responsibilities, provides a comprehensive description of an interagency standard for volcanic ash products and their formats, describes the agency backup procedures for operational products, and outlines the actions to be taken by each agency following an occurrence of a volcanic eruption that subsequently affects and impacts aviation services. Since our most recent International Conference on Volcanic Ash and Aviation Safety, volcanic ash-related product and service activities have grown considerably along with partnerships and alliances throughout the aviation community. In January 2005, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s National Centers for Environment Prediction began running the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model in place of the Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport and Dispersion (VAFTAD) model, upgrading support to the volcanic ash advisory community. Today, improvements to the HYSPLIT model are ongoing based on recommendations by the OFCM-sponsored Joint Action Group for the Selection and Evaluation of Atmospheric Transport and Diffusion Models and the Joint Action Group for Atmospheric Transport and Diffusion Modeling (Research and Development Plan). Two international workshops on volcanic ash have already taken place, noticeable improvements and innovations in education, training, and outreach have been made, and federal and public education and training programs on volcanic ash-related products, services, and procedures iv continue to evolve. For example, in partnership with Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University and other academic institutions, volcanic ash hazard and mitigation training has been incorporated into aviation meteorology courses. As an essential next step, our volcanic ash-related efforts in the near term will be centered on the development of an interagency implementation plan to document and address the most critical needs of the volcanic ash advisory community. This interagency plan, developed as the result of the cooperative efforts of six federal agencies, follows the guidelines in support of the ICAO International Airways Volcano Watch. The signatories on the next page are committed to volcanic ash operations for aviation and will work toward full implementation through agency programs, initiatives, and procedures. I extend my sincere thanks to all members of the WG/VA, subject-matter experts, and to my staff for their collaborative and cooperative efforts in developing this first-ever national volcanic ash operations plan.

  4. Health care policy and the Reagan administration: the case of family planning.

    PubMed

    Crum, G

    1990-01-01

    In 1970 the Public Health Service Act was passed and Title X had a provision to establish and fund a national network of family planning clinics through the Office of Family Planning (OFP). The Reagan administration's policy towards family planning suffers from dilemmas and shortcomings that had an influence on the programs put in place by Title X. The attempts to reshape the philosophy of Title X have for the most part failed, but these attempts have had some negative effects none the less. This article examines the history of Title X and the attempts by the Reagan administration to change it. For the years 1985-86, the OFP had a budget of $142 million of which $135 million went to fund the clinics and the rest went to training, educational materials, and research and development of newer and better ways of getting family planning to the people. Before 1987 the Reagan administration tried to change the strategy of family planning from sex education, contraception and abortion to advocating abstinence, adoption counseling, infertility counseling, and natural contraception. This tactic failed because the Reagan administration was only able to divert $5 million towards these new goals. Congress was the administration's primary obstacle. Another unsuccessful tactic was to change the method of funding by moving the money to block grants which all states received from the federal government to do with basically as they pleased. But Congress went ahead and funded Title X directly in the usual manner. After 1986 the Reagan administration found a new avenue to accomplish its policy change. The "Superbill" as it is called would restrict funding to any clinics that refer for abortion, counsel for abortion or are closely overlapping fiscally or physically with abortion services. The administration also rail-roaded through new regulations to this effect in case Congress did not pass the Superbill. As of the writing of this article, pro-family planning organizations have gotten court injunctions to block the new regulations. PMID:10105516

  5. The nurse practitioner in family planning services: law and practice.

    PubMed

    Roemer, R

    1977-06-01

    Before 1971, when Idaho became the 1st state to authorize expanded scope of functions for registered nurses, nearly all states made it illegal for any nurse to perform diagnosis or prescribe treatment, creating an ambiguity as more and more nurses were equipped by education and technology to perform new tasks. Today 30 states have liberalized the scope of nursing functions, making it possible for nurses and nurse-midwives to assume, among other tasks, family planning functions. A table gives the status of legislation and regulations governing nurse practitioners and nurse-midwives in each state. The area of greatest controversy is the prescription of oral contraceptives. In some states it is allowed under doctor's supervision or in rural areas or in areas where clear need exists for a nurse to dispense such medication. Usually this dispensing is limited to a single course of treatment. Nurse-midwives are rapidly being accepted as extensions of scarce medical facilities. Generally nurse-midwives are authorized to provide prenatal and postpartum care, to handle normal deliveries, and do family planning work including fitting diaphragms and inserting and removing IUDs. An innovation is the family planning nurse practitioner. Several courses for such practitioners have been set up across the U.S. Graduates may, with medical direction, perform bimanual pelvic examinations and breast examinations, take blood pressure, prescribe contraception, fit diaphragms, insert IUDs, examine vaginal secretions microscopically, and refer patients with problems to physicians. In a California program both registered and nonregistered nurses are being trained as women's health specialists who may make routine examinations in both pregnant and nonpregnant women and give family planning advice. Non-RN family planning specialists being trained include licensed vocational nurses, baccalaureate degree holders in nonnursing fields, and qualified persons with less formal education. The 24-week course was authorized under a California State Department of Health demonstration program. While there may be serious concern that nurse-practitioners or other trained personnel may be used in place of physicians in poor neighborhoods and rural areas, others feel that use of such personnel will help make family planning and well-baby services more generally available and conserve valuable physician time for those cases which need greater skill and training. PMID:12259979

  6. Is the malpractice crisis filtering down to family planning?

    PubMed

    1986-06-01

    Evidence now exists that the insurance industry is including contraceptive researchers and family planning clinics in its crackdown on malpractice and liability policies. Family planning practioners have been lumped together with private physicians under the category "Profit-buster" for most major insurers, and the effects are just beginning to show. The liability problems of family planning clinics overlap those of physicians and drug companies. Essentially, they, too, can be held responsible for the products they prescribe and dispense to their clients. When the family planning clinic of NEWCAP, Inc., a community action program in Wisconsin, was abruptly dropped by its insurer in November, the staff was puzzled. NEWCAP had a spotless record and had experienced no previous insurance problems. The insurance company justified its actions by explaining it was getting out of the malpractice field altogether. Although NEWCAP's dilemma seems to be unique at this time, family planning organizations are concerned about the future. The malpractice crackdown also is causing problems for contraceptive researchers. Over the past few years, research and development programs have suffered because of difficulty in obtaining product liability insurance. Due to insurance costs, the Popuation Council's US clinical trials of the promising NORPLANT contraceptive implant were pared down to the minimum number required for Food and Drug Administration approval. Family Planning International's clinical trials of the biodegradable contraceptive implant Capronor have been postponed because an insurer could not be found. Acquiring insurance does not put the researcher over the hurdle, according to Richard Lincoln, senior vice president of the Alan Guttmacher Institute. There are more problems ahead after the research is completed. Dr. Harold Nash, New York's Population Council, has some suggestions for alleviating what seems to be a growing problem. If interest rates increase and insurers raise rates across the board, "they will start seeing a good return on their investments, and the problem will just go away," he said. "But if that doesn't happen, and maybe even if it does, some legislative remedies are needed to control all this litigation." Several different ideas now are being considered by state legislatures and by Congress. One suggestion is to limit the contingency fees that lawyers can charge. Another is to limit the amount of damages that can be levied based on pain and suffering. A third considers the problem of frivolous suits and would require a plantiff entering into a trivial suit to pay the expenses incurred by the defendant. PMID:12340769

  7. Idaho National Laboratory Cultural Resource Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Julie Braun Williams

    2013-02-01

    As a federal agency, the U.S. Department of Energy has been directed by Congress, the U.S. president, and the American public to provide leadership in the preservation of prehistoric, historic, and other cultural resources on the lands it administers. This mandate to preserve cultural resources in a spirit of stewardship for the future is outlined in various federal preservation laws, regulations, and guidelines such as the National Historic Preservation Act, the Archaeological Resources Protection Act, and the National Environmental Policy Act. The purpose of this Cultural Resource Management Plan is to describe how the Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office will meet these responsibilities at Idaho National Laboratory in southeastern Idaho. The Idaho National Laboratory is home to a wide variety of important cultural resources representing at least 13,500 years of human occupation in the southeastern Idaho area. These resources are nonrenewable, bear valuable physical and intangible legacies, and yield important information about the past, present, and perhaps the future. There are special challenges associated with balancing the preservation of these sites with the management and ongoing operation of an active scientific laboratory. The Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office is committed to a cultural resource management program that accepts these challenges in a manner reflecting both the spirit and intent of the legislative mandates. This document is designed for multiple uses and is intended to be flexible and responsive to future changes in law or mission. Document flexibility and responsiveness will be assured through regular reviews and as-needed updates. Document content includes summaries of Laboratory cultural resource philosophy and overall Department of Energy policy; brief contextual overviews of Laboratory missions, environment, and cultural history; and an overview of cultural resource management practices. A series of appendices provides important details that support the main text.

  8. Planning parenthood: Health care providers' perspectives on pregnancy intention, readiness, and family planning.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Lindsay M

    2015-08-01

    A major health care goal in the United States is increasing the proportion of pregnancies that are planned. While many studies examine family planning from the perspective of individual women or couples, few investigate the perceptions and practices of health care providers, who are gatekeepers to medicalized fertility control. In this paper, I draw on 24 in-depth interviews with providers to investigate how they interpret and enact the objective to "plan parenthood" and analyze their perspectives in the context of broader discourses about reproduction, family planning, and motherhood. Interviews reveal two central discourses: one defines pregnancy planning as an individual choice, that is as patients setting their own pregnancy intentions; the second incorporates normative expectations about what it means to be ready to have a baby that exclude poor, single, and young women. In the latter discourse, planning is a broader process of achieving middle-class life markers like a long-term relationship, a good job, and financial stability, before having children. Especially illuminating are cases where a patient's pregnancy intention and the normative expectations of "readiness" do not align. With these, I demonstrate that providers may prioritize normative notions of readiness over a patient's own intentions. I argue that these negotiations of intention and readiness reflect broader tensions in family planning and demonstrate that at times the seemingly neutral notion of "planned parenthood" can mask a source of stratification in reproductive health care. PMID:26151389

  9. Idaho National Laboratory Site Pollution Prevention Plan

    SciTech Connect

    E. D. Sellers

    2007-03-01

    It is the policy of the Department of Energy (DOE) that pollution prevention and sustainable environmental stewardship will be integrated into DOE operations as a good business practice to reduce environmental hazards, protect environmental resources, avoid pollution control costs, and improve operational efficiency and mission sustainability. In furtherance of this policy, DOE established five strategic, performance-based Pollution Prevention (P2) and Sustainable Environmental Stewardship goals and included them as an attachment to DOE O 450.1, Environmental Protection Program. These goals and accompanying strategies are to be implemented by DOE sites through the integration of Pollution Prevention into each site's Environmental Management System (EMS). This document presents a P2 and Sustainability Program and corresponding plan pursuant to DOE Order 450.1 and DOE O 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. This plan is also required by the state of Idaho, pursuant to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) partial permit. The objective of this document is to describe the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site P2 and Sustainability Program. The purpose of the program is to decrease the environmental footprint of the INL Site while providing enhanced support of its mission. The success of the program is dependent on financial and management support. The signatures on the previous page indicate INL, ICP, and AMWTP Contractor management support and dedication to the program. P2 requirements have been integrated into working procedures to ensure an effective EMS as part of an Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS). This plan focuses on programmatic functions which include environmentally preferable procurement, sustainable design, P2 and Sustainability awareness, waste generation and reduction, source reduction and recycling, energy management, and pollution prevention opportunity assessments. The INL Site P2 and Sustainability Program is administratively managed by the INL Site P2 Coordinator. Development and maintenance of this overall INL Site plan is ultimately the responsibility of DOE-ID. This plan is applicable to all INL Site contractors except those at the Naval Reactors Facility.

  10. Career Planning in Harmony with Family Values and Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, Archana

    2008-03-01

    Balancing career and family! Balancing what you love and who you love!! It is such an attention getting topic. And yet, if you really think about it, people have been doing it for ages. What makes it challenging in today's world is the dual income families that throw off-balance of traditional style of balancing family and profession. Balancing family and career is not as difficult. The question is more meaningful when you ask how do you find the right balance, and in fact, what is the right balance? How do you know you are there? Happiness at home and self esteem due to work is genderless issue however, it is essentially talked more in the context of women. Some of the things that could be helpful in achieving the right balance, are time management, proper prioritization, asking for help, a caring family, friends, and most importantly colleagues. In the portfolio of professional passions, it is important to identify the areas that are conducive to possibilities of changing family needs, international families, spouse's career and job relocation, etc. So, the bottom line question is whether it is possible to find a right balance between family and career? I would submit to you that with passion, courage, open- mindedness, and proper career planning, it is definitely possible. We just need to utilize the same techniques in choosing and sustaining the right balance that we use in identifying research topics and executing it. This discussion will look into further details of the challenges of balancing family and career from the perspective of also an immigrant, and possible ways of overcoming them.

  11. Does the timing of the first family planning visit still matter?

    PubMed

    Finer, L B; Zabin, L S

    1998-01-01

    The timing of a first family planning visit relative to first intercourse can affect the likelihood of an early unintended pregnancy. Nationally representative data from the 1982, 1988, and 1995 cycles of the National Survey of Family Growth were studied to identify changes in the timing of first family planning visits and to investigate the degree to which young women are now more likely than in the past to practice contraception independently of visiting a provider. The proportion of women who waited a month or more after their first intercourse to see a provider grew from 76% to 79% between 1978 and 1995, with women waiting for a median of 22 months after first intercourse in 1991-95. Any contraceptive use at first intercourse increased among women who delayed a first visit from 51% to 75%, and among those whose first visit occurred before their first intercourse or within the same month from 61% to 91%. The importance of the first family planning visit seems to be declining, as sexually active young women who delay their first visit increasingly do so because they are already using a provider-independent method, mainly the condom. This greater use of the condom is related to the advent of the HIV/AIDS pandemic and the associated broader awareness of condoms' ability to block the transmission of HIV and other STDs. PMID:9494813

  12. Communication and family planning in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    De Paolis, M R

    1994-01-01

    An analysis of 46 posters from 27 countries of Sub-Saharan Africa allowed the values conveyed by this medium to be defined, the status of the announcer and the recipient to be clarified, and their relationship and the attendant social consequences to be brought out. One of the primary characteristics of this sample was that the vast majority of the posters contained drawings and only a limited number used photos. The family was the theme most commonly represented by the image and the text: information on family planning necessarily involved the family, the synonym of fertility. The majority of posters represented the traditional, nuclear family of the Western world, comprising the father, mother, and children. It was interesting to observe that this image did not necessarily reflect reality in Africa, where traditionally the extended family, including the grandparents, uncles and aunts, is more widespread. The message most commonly conveyed the image of the nuclear family. The number of children shown varied from 1 to 4, with an average of 2. The most widely used message strategies in this sample of posters involved three types of announcer: authoritarian, nonauthoritarian, and character announcer. The authoritarian type announcer was not visually depicted but consisted of messages that were written orders or threats. The nonauthoritarian announcer, also not depicted, gave messages that contained no orders or threats. The character announcer was one the characters portrayed in the picture. PMID:12319939

  13. Motivations and Constraints to Family Planning: A Qualitative Study in Rwanda’s Southern Kayonza District

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Didi Bertrand; Berman, Leslie; Ryan, Grace; Habumugisha, Lameck; Basinga, Paulin; Nutt, Cameron; Kamali, Francois; Ngizwenayo, Elias; Fleur, Jacklin St; Niyigena, Peter; Ngabo, Fidele; Farmer, Paul E; Rich, Michael L

    2015-01-01

    Background: While Rwanda has achieved impressive gains in contraceptive coverage, unmet need for family planning is high, and barriers to accessing quality reproductive health services remain. Few studies in Rwanda have qualitatively investigated factors that contribute to family planning use, barriers to care, and quality of services from the community perspective. Methods: We undertook a qualitative study of community perceptions of reproductive health and family planning in Rwanda’s southern Kayonza district, which has the country’s highest total fertility rate. From October 2011 to December 2012, we conducted interviews with randomly selected male and female community members (n = 96), community health workers (n = 48), and health facility nurses (n = 15), representing all 8 health centers’ catchment areas in the overall catchment area of the district’s Rwinkwavu Hospital. We then carried out a directed content analysis to identify key themes and triangulate findings across methods and informant groups. Results: Key themes emerged across interviews surrounding: (1) fertility beliefs: participants recognized the benefits of family planning but often desired larger families for cultural and historical reasons; (2) social pressures and gender roles: young and unmarried women faced significant stigma and husbands exerted decision-making power, but many husbands did not have a good understanding of family planning because they perceived it as a woman’s matter; (3) barriers to accessing high-quality services: out-of-pocket costs, stock-outs, limited method choice, and long waiting times but short consultations at facilities were common complaints; (4) side effects: poor management and rumors and fears of side effects affected contraceptive use. These themes recurred throughout many participant narratives and influenced reproductive health decision making, including enrollment and retention in family planning programs. Conclusions: As Rwanda continues to refine its family planning policies and programs, it will be critical to address community perceptions around fertility and desired family size, health worker shortages, and stock-outs, as well as to engage men and boys, improve training and mentorship of health workers to provide quality services, and clarify and enforce national policies about payment for services at the local level. PMID:26085021

  14. Family planning: choices and challenges for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Mbizvo, Michael T; Phillips, Sharon J

    2014-08-01

    While slow and uneven progress has been made on maternal health, attaining the 1994 Cairo International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) goal for achieving universal access to reproductive health remains elusive for many developing countries. Assuring access to sexual and reproductive health services, including integrated family planning services, remains a critical strategy for improving the health and well-being of women and alleviating poverty. Family planning not only prevents maternal, infant, and child deaths, but also empowers women to engage fully in socioeconomic development and provides them with reproductive choices. This paper will discuss the current landscape of contraception in developing countries, including options available to women and couples, as well as the challenges to its provision. Finally, we review suggestions to improve access and promising strategies to ensure all people have universal access to reproductive health options. PMID:24957693

  15. Sexuality, reproduction, and family planning in women with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Miller, L J

    1997-01-01

    This article reviews data about how schizophrenia affects sexuality, pregnancy, the puerperium, parenting, and family planning. Women with schizophrenia have high rates of coerced sex, sexual risk behavior, and unwanted pregnancies. High rates of obstetric complications and custody loss increase morbidity for women and their offspring. Since untreated psychosis increases these problems, the risks of withholding pharmacotherapy must be weighed against the risks of prescribing medications during pregnancy. The puerperium is a time when women are especially vulnerable to exacerbations of schizophrenia. Mothers with schizophrenia may have a reduced ability to read children's cues, and they often have weak social support networks. Their children may be more difficult to raise than other children. Parenting rehabilitation can address some of these problems. Often, women with schizophrenia who are sexually active and do not wish to become pregnant do not use contraception. Incorporating family planning measures into mental health care delivery systems may reduce unwanted pregnancies. PMID:9365999

  16. Family Structure and Children's Health and Behavior: Data from the 1999 National Survey of America's Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wen, Ming

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the 1999 National Survey of America's Families, this research investigates the association and pathways between family structure and child well-being among children age 6 to 17. Three indicators of child well-being are examined: parent-rated health, limiting health conditions, and child behavior. Results show that both stepfamilies…

  17. [How to carry out work on family planning after adopting production responsibility systems in rural areas].

    PubMed

    Xiao, S H

    1982-05-29

    After the Third Meeting of the Eleventh People's Congress, the entire responsibility for agricultural production was transferred to a lower level. Peasants in various areas have adopted the so called production responsibility system, and the phenomenon of an increased population rate has also appeared in some areas. In this article, the author discusses how to solve these problems created by the new situation. The 1st step is try to control population growth through socialist propaganda education, administrative measures, economic incentives and punishments, and family planning work. The 2nd step is to popularize the practice of having only 1 child per household in the rural areas. The 2nd and 3rd child in each family should be controlled and prohibited. This policy formulated by the Central Government should be carried out thoroughly. Families which follow the policy and have only 1 child should be encouraged with economic rewards, and those families which have 2 or more children should be punished economically. The 3rd step is to establish a national work team to be in charge of family planning and birth control. There should be an ideological unity among the nation's leadership. Party members and cadres should establish themselves as good examples for the people so that the population control work may become successful. PMID:12266135

  18. [Family planning: what role for African female communicators?].

    PubMed

    Sow, E B

    1990-08-01

    In April 1990, 60 members of the Association of African Communication Professionals (APAC) from 17 African countries attended a seminar-workshop in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, entitled "Family Planning: What Role for African Female Communicators?" The countries included Algeria, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Ivory Coast, Congo, Gabon, Guinea, Kenya, Mali, Morocco, Niger, Senegal, Tunisia, Togo, and Zaire. The participants considered population growth to be the major challenge that Africa faces today. Population growth brings problems of urbanization, housing, health, education, and food security. Family planning appears to be a remedy for these ills. Family planning oriented-IEC (information, education, and communication) can help overcome the resistance of the cultural, social, and religious order and foster new behavior. The goal of the seminar-workshop was precisely to give participants conceptual and methodological tools that will allow them to effectively use IEC in the area of family planning. The Minister of Information and Culture for Burkina Faso, who is also APAC's president, emphasized the APAC seminar-workshop goal during the opening ceremonies. Other notables at the opening ceremonies were the Minister of Health and Social Work, APAC's Executive Secretary, the wife of the Chief of State, and various government officials. The participants' recommendations cross-supported APAC's concern and turned toward the need for the training of professional female communicators, for international organizations to put at their disposal relevant documents, and for re-expansion of APAC branches. This requires governments to make flexible judicial and administrative resolutions in order to favor the creation of new APAC branches. The Center of Population for Development Studies and Research addressed the seminar-workshop. In 1988, it created a network of journalists to assure extensive information for decision-makers, researchers, and the general public on population and development questions. PMID:12346460

  19. Could Family Planning Clients Benefit From More Nutrition Counselling?

    PubMed Central

    Bonds, Charlotte A.; Powell, Marion G.; Yurkiw, Mary Anne

    1978-01-01

    The nutritional concerns of females prior to conception and while practicing birth control have often been given less emphasis than the importance of nutrition to pregnant women. This article indicates ways of ensuring that family planning clients are not frustrated in practicing their chosen method of birth control because physicians are unaware that they may have a special need for nutrition counselling and services. PMID:20469290

  20. 77 FR 11116 - Draft National Plan To Address Alzheimer's Disease

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Draft National Plan To Address Alzheimer's Disease AGENCY: Office of the Assistant.... SUMMARY: HHS is soliciting public input on the draft National Plan to Address Alzheimer's Disease, which... . Background On January 4, 2011, President Barack Obama signed into law the National Alzheimer's Project...

  1. Idaho National Laboratory Cultural Resource Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Lowrey, Diana Lee

    2011-02-01

    As a federal agency, the U.S. Department of Energy has been directed by Congress, the U.S. president, and the American public to provide leadership in the preservation of prehistoric, historic, and other cultural resources on the lands it administers. This mandate to preserve cultural resources in a spirit of stewardship for the future is outlined in various federal preservation laws, regulations, and guidelines such as the National Historic Preservation Act, the Archaeological Resources Protection Act, and the National Environmental Policy Act. The purpose of this Cultural Resource Management Plan is to describe how the Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office will meet these responsibilities at the Idaho National Laboratory. This Laboratory, which is located in southeastern Idaho, is home to a wide variety of important cultural resources representing at least 13,500 years of human occupation in the southeastern Idaho area. These resources are nonrenewable; bear valuable physical and intangible legacies; and yield important information about the past, present, and perhaps the future. There are special challenges associated with balancing the preservation of these sites with the management and ongoing operation of an active scientific laboratory. The Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office is committed to a cultural resource management program that accepts these challenges in a manner reflecting both the spirit and intent of the legislative mandates. This document is designed for multiple uses and is intended to be flexible and responsive to future changes in law or mission. Document flexibility and responsiveness will be assured through annual reviews and as-needed updates. Document content includes summaries of Laboratory cultural resource philosophy and overall Department of Energy policy; brief contextual overviews of Laboratory missions, environment, and cultural history; and an overview of cultural resource management practices. A series of appendices provides important details that support the main text.

  2. Idaho National Laboratory Cultural Resource Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Lowrey, Diana Lee

    2009-02-01

    As a federal agency, the U.S. Department of Energy has been directed by Congress, the U.S. president, and the American public to provide leadership in the preservation of prehistoric, historic, and other cultural resources on the lands it administers. This mandate to preserve cultural resources in a spirit of stewardship for the future is outlined in various federal preservation laws, regulations, and guidelines such as the National Historic Preservation Act, the Archaeological Resources Protection Act, and the National Environmental Policy Act. The purpose of this Cultural Resource Management Plan is to describe how the Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office will meet these responsibilities at the Idaho National Laboratory. This Laboratory, which is located in southeastern Idaho, is home to a wide variety of important cultural resources representing at least 13,500 years of human occupation in the southeastern Idaho area. These resources are nonrenewable; bear valuable physical and intangible legacies; and yield important information about the past, present, and perhaps the future. There are special challenges associated with balancing the preservation of these sites with the management and ongoing operation of an active scientific laboratory. The Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office is committed to a cultural resource management program that accepts these challenges in a manner reflecting both the spirit and intent of the legislative mandates. This document is designed for multiple uses and is intended to be flexible and responsive to future changes in law or mission. Document flexibility and responsiveness will be assured through annual reviews and as-needed updates. Document content includes summaries of Laboratory cultural resource philosophy and overall Department of Energy policy; brief contextual overviews of Laboratory missions, environment, and cultural history; and an overview of cultural resource management practices. A series of appendices provides important details that support the main text.

  3. Fertility, development, and family planning, 1970-1980: an analysis of cases weighted by population.

    PubMed

    Menard, S

    1987-01-01

    A series of related studies (Freedman and Berelson, 1976; Mauldin and Berelson, 1978; and Tsui and Bogue, 1978) have presented empirical findings based on multiple regression analysis which indicated that family planning program effort (FP), as measured by an index developed by Lapham and Mauldin (1972), was the single most important predictor of (or influence on) fertility reduction in less-developed countries (LDCs). The basic results have been confirmed repeatedly. A more extensive data set was used to extend the analysis to a comparison of results of corss-sectional models circa 1970 and 1980. The study builds upon the results of past studies yet differs from them in several ways. All the variables in the present study were measured at 2 points in time: circa 1970 and circa 1980, allowing a comparison between cross-sectional models for 1970 and 1980. Among the cases included in this multivariate analysis was China, a country usually excluded for lack of data. The analysis was extend to 85 countries. Cases were weighted by population, having the effect of increasing the impact of larger countries such as India and China on the outcome of the analysis. Total fertility rate (TFR) was used as an indicator of fertility. For 1970, family planning program effort had the strongest direct influence on fertility (a result consistent with previous studies). Life expectancy at birth was the other direct influence. The direct influence of life expectancy at birth was less than that of family planning, but the total influence was greater. After life expectancy and family planning, school enrollment and relative educational status of women had the strongest indirect and total influences. The other variables all had a positive influence on fertility. When the total variance attributable was considered, directly and indirectly to each of the independent variables, urbanization, carlorie supply, and per capita gross national product all accounted for less than 5% of the variance in fertility, all of it indirect. Life expectancy, family planning, and school enrollment each explained (directly plus indirectly) more than 10% of the variance in fertility. The pattern differed somewhat for 1980. Calorie supply, per capita gross national product, and relative educational status of women had no influence, direct or indirect on fertility. Also for 1980, life expectancy had a stronger direct influence on fertility than family planning. Overall, life expectancy at birth, family planning program effort, and total school enrollment emerged as the principal influences on fertility. PMID:12280901

  4. Values clarification as a technique for family planning education.

    PubMed

    Toohey, J V; Valenzuela, G J

    1983-02-01

    A Spanish language family planning education program utilizing the dynamics of values clarification has been designed and implemented in the state of Oaxaca, Mexico. The design of the program features three basic personality identification activities to help individuals identify other dimensions of adult life expression than child rearing. In addition, a series of simple and precise scenarios specifically related to family planning are presented. Each scenario is accompanied by a set of valuing questions that direct the learner to respond to the scenario. The activity booklet is entitled, "Clarification De Valores En La Planificacion Familar." The booklet requires the learner to make responses to the learning materials. Responses are then used as a basis for inferring that people are comprehending and above all personalizing knowledge about themselves and their culture and family planning. The program is cross cultural and can be used in Spanish speaking communities in the U.S. Its English language form can be used with English speaking target populations. Statistical analysis of seven critical categories of the program indicated that the shifts in attitudes from pre-to post-values, whether positive or negative (desirable or undesirable), were not significant at the .05 level of confidence. It should, however, be noted that small shifts in the rate of natural increase, or rate of natural decrease for population growth can have a dramatic effect on population growth when multiplied by time. PMID:6550677

  5. Condom promotion and use: family planning versus HIV protection.

    PubMed

    Mundigo, A I

    1989-12-01

    Condoms have been used since the 16th century as a prophylactic agent against sexually transmitted diseases. With regards to family planning, condoms are used for spacing and prevention of pregnancy. However, after the invention of more reliable contraceptives, condoms lost their popularity as a contraceptive agent, only to regain it in the wake of the AIDS epidemic. The main concern in using condoms has always been the high failure rate, which tends to be a complicated issue given that it's efficacy is affected by the motivation and characteristic of the user. Irrespective of the numerous advantages of the condom, at present there is little incentive to use them on a routine basis. Reasons for this objection include the fact that condoms not only interfere with sex, but are unnatural and leave the man very unsatisfied. Promoting condoms in developing countries is both a cultural and political issue, stemming from the misleading preconception of the man's role in family planning. For instance, condoms are infamous for their use in illicit sex, and as such cannot be used on a relatively respectable individual. The challenge in condom promotion is the creation of a new image based on family planning, reliability aspects of condoms, noninterference with pleasure concept and the added value of protection against STD's. PMID:12316117

  6. National Energy Audit Tool for Multifamily Buildings Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Malhotra, Mini; MacDonald, Michael; Accawi, Gina K; New, Joshua Ryan; Im, Piljae

    2012-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) enables low-income families to reduce their energy costs by providing funds to make their homes more energy efficient. In addition, the program funds Weatherization Training and Technical Assistance (T and TA) activities to support a range of program operations. These activities include measuring and documenting performance, monitoring programs, promoting advanced techniques and collaborations to further improve program effectiveness, and training, including developing tools and information resources. The T and TA plan outlines the tasks, activities, and milestones to support the weatherization network with the program implementation ramp up efforts. Weatherization of multifamily buildings has been recognized as an effective way to ramp up weatherization efforts. To support this effort, the 2009 National Weatherization T and TA plan includes the task of expanding the functionality of the Weatherization Assistant, a DOE-sponsored family of energy audit computer programs, to perform audits for large and small multifamily buildings This report describes the planning effort for a new multifamily energy audit tool for DOE's WAP. The functionality of the Weatherization Assistant is being expanded to also perform energy audits of small multifamily and large multifamily buildings. The process covers an assessment of needs that includes input from national experts during two national Web conferences. The assessment of needs is then translated into capability and performance descriptions for the proposed new multifamily energy audit, with some description of what might or should be provided in the new tool. The assessment of needs is combined with our best judgment to lay out a strategy for development of the multifamily tool that proceeds in stages, with features of an initial tool (version 1) and a more capable version 2 handled with currently available resources. Additional development in the future is expected to be needed if more capabilities are to be added. A rough schedule for development of the version 1 tool is presented. The components and capabilities described in this plan will serve as the starting point for development of the proposed new multifamily energy audit tool for WAP.

  7. Integrated approach to family planning: Minister Peng Peiyun stresses transitions.

    PubMed

    1996-02-01

    This article on the Integrated Approach to family planning in China defines the concept, states the aims, and discusses the nature of implementation. Major achievements and future challenges due to population growth are identified. The government aims in the 1996-2000 five-year plan to improve socioeconomic conditions in China. The preceding five-year plan was successful in checking rapid population growth and achieving replacement level fertility. In order to achieve continued socioeconomic development, it is argued that population must remain below 1.3 billion people by the year 2000 and 1.4 billion by the year 2010. Without a check on population growth, it is expected that environmental conditions will decline and the quality of life for rural workers will be "severely retarded." Presently there are about 65 million farmers who are impoverished and living in remote and backward areas without sufficient food and clothing. The family planning program agenda for 1995-2000 includes the integration of population issues in the general strategy for socioeconomic development. Minister Peng credits the past international conferences on women, social development, and population with providing valuable documents for working out a more comprehensive strategy for handling population issues. Family planning programs must strive to reduce fertility, focus on economic development, remove poverty, protect the balance between population and the environment, protect the environment and establish reasonable use patterns of natural resources, provide universal education, develop health services, and improve social security. Women's status should be improved. Greater attention must be paid to maternal and child health, economic development, farmer's survival needs, and agricultural problems. PMID:12291339

  8. The Use of Traditional Media in Family Planning Programs in Rural Java. Cornell University, Current Papers in the Communication Arts #2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Robert H.; Adhikarya, Ronny

    Java's present national family planning program is hampered not only by a serious lack of formal communication media, but also by cultural, social and economic barriers that impede the communication effort. To reach the predominantly rural population, family planning programs could utilize Java's traditional mass media: the folk operas, comedies,

  9. 5. Photocopy of original plans (from National Archives, Cartographic Division, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopy of original plans (from National Archives, Cartographic Division, Record Group 77, Misc. Forts File, Benicia Barracks) Delineator unknown. Note dated September 27, 1854 PLAN AND ELEVATIONS - Benicia Arsenal, Hospital, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  10. Malaysia: where big is still better. For Malays, large families are part of the plan.

    PubMed

    1993-11-01

    The benefits of various-sized families in Malaysia were discussed by several women and supplemented with official statements on family planning (FP). The Director of the National Population and Family Development, Dr. Raj Karim, advised that maternal health is jeopardized when women have more than five children. About 30% of reproductive age women in Malaysia have five or more children. A Federation of FP Associations spokesperson agreed that women should be advised of the dangers of bearing over five children, of the importance of spacing births two to four years apart, and of the ideal age of childbearing (21-39 years). The government lacks an official policy on family size. The government position is, however, compatible with Islamic teachings on spacing in order to protect the health of the mother and child. Islamic law does not permit sterilization or abortion. The "fatwas" of Islamic teaching may have been misconstrued by those not using any form of contraception. Dr. Karim, who has five children, reported that having a large family can be difficult for a woman with a job, a career, and a husband or when both parents work. Most Malays desire large families. The average Malay family size was 4.1 children in 1990; Malaysian Chinese have fertility of 2.3 children and Malaysian Indians have 2.6 children. People say that the benefits outweigh the hardships of a large family. PMID:12287219

  11. Screening family planning needs: an operations research project in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, Francisco; Lopez, Felipe; Brambila, Carlos; Burkhart, Marianne

    2004-01-01

    Background Public sector health care providers in rural Guatemala have infrequently offered family planning information and services in routine visits. This operations research project tested a strategy to modify certain practices that prevent health workers from proactively screening clients' needs and meeting them. Methods The research design was quasi-experimental with a pretest-posttest-follow-up comparison group design. Health districts, which comprise health centers and posts, were purposively assigned to intervention or comparison groups to assure comparability of the two groups. The strategy was based on a job-aid designed to guide health workers in screening clients' reproductive intentions and family planning needs, help them to offer contraceptive methods if the woman expressed interest, and facilitate the provision of the method chosen at the time of the visit. The strategy was implemented at intervention sites during a period of six months. Upon completion of post-intervention measurements, the strategy was scaled up to the comparison sites, and a follow-up assessment was conducted nine months later. Results were evaluated by conducting three rounds of exit interviews with women exposed to the risk of unwanted pregnancy. Results Study results showed a two to five-fold increase in providers' screening of clients' reproductive intentions. The proportion of clients who received information about contraceptives increased from 8% at the baseline to 42% immediately post-intervention, and 36% at the follow-up survey. The intervention also proved successful in improving the role service providers play in offering women a chance to ask questions and assisting women in making a selection. The proportion of women who received a method, referral or appointment increased and remained high in the intervention group, although no change was seen in the comparison group after their participation in the strategy. Conclusion The easy-to-use job aid developed for this project proved useful for screening clients' needs and reducing providers' reluctance to discuss family planning with clients and offer contraceptive services. Such family planning screening devices can be useful in traditional settings where both providers and clients shy away from discussing family planning issues. PMID:15132752

  12. Men and family planning: toward a policy of male involvement.

    PubMed

    Pillai, V K; Kelley, A C

    1994-01-01

    The stated aim of this discussion is to examine the extent of male use of family planning and the nature of men's role in family planning in developing countries. Case studies are presented which are successful examples of strategies for involving men in family planning. Policies that aim to increase male involvement must be sensitive to cultural values, apply to a decentralized government approach toward information and supplies, include adequate political will, and consider the costs and benefits of changing values. A male family planning policy would not always be compatible with all fertility values in developing countries or traditional values of the older population. A policy should stress the value of male individuals contributing as much as possible for their own and others' welfare. Community participation is considered important in order to create a feeling of mutual support. A sizeable investment will be required for mass distribution of contraceptive information. Schools are viewed as an ideal place for educating youth about the problems of high fertility and about use of family planning methods, such as the condom. Religious organizations should be used to educate people about responsible parenthood and to minimize barriers to use of modern contraception. Comic books on how to use condoms are suggested as a good source. Local authorities who are trusted are useful in influencing acceptance among local populations. Local personnel may be trained as information disseminators. Adequate contraceptive information needs to be supplied to a wide audience. Lack of supply and inadequate information are given as two key reasons for insufficient use of male contraception. Condoms should be priced to be affordable to the average person and free to those with no income. Program strategies that proved successful are cited for Thailand's Mechai Viravaidya program and Bali's grass-roots program. The vasectomy program in Bangladesh is also noted for its success. Low levels of condom use are attributed to factors such as price, education, availability, accessibility, culture, religion, and economic conditions. Male sterilization levels can be enhanced with wider availability of clinics and provision of correct information for challenging beliefs that vasectomy is a form of castration. PMID:12290097

  13. Family Planning Supply Environment in Kinshasa, DRC: Survey Findings and Their Value in Advancing Family Planning Programming

    PubMed Central

    Kayembe, Patrick; Babazadeh, Saleh; Dikamba, Nelly; Akilimali, Pierre; Hernandez, Julie; Binanga, Arsene; Bertrand, Jane T

    2015-01-01

    Background: Modern contraceptive prevalence was 14.1% in 2007 in Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Yet virtually nothing was known about the family planning supply environment. Methods: Three surveys of health facilities were conducted in 2012, 2013, and 2014 to determine the number, spatial distribution, and attributes of sites providing family planning services. The 2012 and 2013 surveys aimed to identify the universe of family planning facilities while obtaining a limited set of data on “readiness” to provide family planning services (defined as having at least 3 modern methods, at least 1 person training in family planning in the last 3 years, and an information system to track distribution of products to clients) and output (measured by couple-years of protection, or CYP). In contrast, the 2014 survey, conducted under the umbrella of the Performance Monitoring and Accountability 2020 (PMA2020) project, was based on 2-stage cluster sampling. This article provides detailed analysis of the 2012 and 2013 surveys, including bivariate and multivariate analysis of correlates of readiness to provide services and of output. Results: We identified 184 health facilities that reported providing at least 1 contraceptive method in 2012 and 395 facilities in 2013. The percentage of sites defined as “ready” to provide services increased from 44.1% in 2012 to 63.3% in 2013. For the 3-month period between January and March 2013, facilities distributed between 0 and 879.2 CYP (mean, 39.7). Nearly half (49%) of the CYP was attributable to implants, followed by IUDs (24%), CycleBeads (11%), and injectables (8%). In 2013, facilities supported by PEPFAR (n = 121) were more likely than other facilities to be rated as ready to provide services (P<.0001); however, PEPFAR-supported sites generated less CYP on average than sites supported by family planning implementing agencies (P<.0001). Multivariate analysis showed 3 variables were associated with CYP: type of health facility, length of time in operation, and number of contraceptive methods available. Clinics generated higher (3-month) CYP than hospitals and health centers by 65.3 and 61.5 units, respectively (P<.01). The mean CYP for facilities in operation for 4–6 years was 26.9 units higher (P<.05), and 50.2 units higher for those operating 7+ years (P<.01), than the reference group of facilities in operation for 1 year or less. For each additional method available at a facility, CYP increased by almost 8 units (P<.01). Conclusions: Findings from these surveys suggest that lack of physical access is not the defining reason for low contraceptive use in Kinshasa, although it is highly likely that other service-related factors contribute to low service utilization. The results contributed to increasing the momentum for family planning in the DRC in many ways, including mobilizing partners to increase contraceptive access and increasing donor investment in family planning in the DRC. PMID:26681709

  14. 42 CFR 59.4 - How does one apply for a family planning services grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How does one apply for a family planning services grant? 59.4 Section 59.4 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services 59.4 How does one apply for a family planning services...

  15. Philippines. Church vs. state: Fidel Ramos and family planning face "Catholic Power".

    PubMed

    1994-08-24

    Catholic groups and individuals united in a public rally in Manila's Rizal Park to decry a "cultural dictatorship," which promotes abortion, homosexuality, lesbianism, sexual perversion, condoms, and artificial contraception. Government spokesmen responded that condoms and contraception were part of government policy to spread family planning knowledge and informed choices among the population. Cardinal Jaime Sin and former president Corazon Aquino joined forces to lead the movement against the national family planning program in the largest demonstration since the ouster of Ferdinand Marcos in 1986. Also criticized was the 85-page draft action plan for the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) scheduled for September 1994. Cardinal Sin accused President Clinton of using the action plan to promote worldwide abortion. Under the administration of President Fidel Ramos, family planning funding has quintupled and the number of family planning workers has increased from 200 to 8000. President Ramos has gone the farthest of any administration in opposing the Church's positions on contraception and abortion, although years ago Fidel Ramos and Cardinal Sin were allies in the effort to push out Ferdinand Marcos. The population of the Philippines is 85% Catholic, and laws reflect the Church's doctrine against divorce and abortion. The current growth rate is 2.3%, and the goal is to reduce growth to 2.0% by 1998, the end of Ramos's term in office. The population target is in accord with demographic goals proposed in the UN draft action plan. The Vatican has opposed the language in the plan and may have encouraged other religious leaders to join those opposed to the "war against our babies and children." Sin said that contraceptive distribution was "intrinsically evil" and should be stopped now. Ramos's administration stated that their policies and programs are not "in the hands of the devil" and there is support for the Church on family values and abortion. Health minister Flavier has indicated that illegal abortion has become very common, and control of abortion is through family planning. The Protestant president will oppose abortion at ICDP. PMID:12345705

  16. An examination of the problem of unwanted population growth in Africa and the existing facilities for training family planning personnel.

    PubMed

    Kumekpor, M L; Kumekpor, T

    1970-02-01

    Population planning is as important as economic planning and should be applied both at the national and personal levels. Population control and socioeconomic development are intrinsic to each other. Proverty, illiteracy, political instability, and social retardation are found in the countries with high birth rates. Most African nations tend to think of the population in terms of density rather than growth potential. Family planning programs should be accorded the same priority as maternal-child health, but African countries are often not equipped financially or professionally to support family planning workers under the same conditions as other medical personnel could be accomplished locally rather than overseas, thus saving about $204,000 in the East African Region and $213,000 in the West African Region. The success of the trainees' program will depend on the degree to whichf amily planning programs are integrated with other medical services; insight into traditiona l sexual patterns, and tact and skill of personnel. PMID:12308047

  17. 76 FR 22114 - National Emergency Communications Plan (NECP) Tribal Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... SECURITY National Emergency Communications Plan (NECP) Tribal Report AGENCY: National Protection and... Directorate (NPPD), Office of Cybersecurity and Communications (CS&C), Office of Emergency Communications (OEC... public safety capabilities (police, fire, emergency medical services, emergency managers,...

  18. "Civil unrest does not stop ovulation": women's prenatal and family planning services in a 1960s Detroit neighborhood clinic.

    PubMed

    DeGuzman, Pamela B; Schminkey, Donna L; Koyen, Emily A

    2014-01-01

    In 1965, Nancy Milio established a prenatal and family planning clinic in Detroit, Michigan, to address health disparities and limited access to care among low-income, African American, urban women. Women's health disparities persist today nationally and internationally. Using historical methods, this research analyzes how Milio provided women's health services in the context of the social and political environment. Milio empowered neighborhood women to direct, plan, and participate in the care they received. Successful methods to address disparities in access to family and planning and prenatal care should include empowered participation from the women these programs are intending to serve. PMID:24892860

  19. Assessing the Impact of a Family Planning Nurse Training Program in Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halawa, M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a study of the impact of a nurse training program for family planning that stresses the development of nurses' counseling skills. Found an association between improved family planning training for nurses and positive changes in family planning knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among women attending Egyptian Ministry of Health clinics.…

  20. Assessing the Impact of a Family Planning Nurse Training Program in Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halawa, M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a study of the impact of a nurse training program for family planning that stresses the development of nurses' counseling skills. Found an association between improved family planning training for nurses and positive changes in family planning knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among women attending Egyptian Ministry of Health clinics.

  1. Family Planning Legislation. Report on a Survey. EURO Reports and Studies 85.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Barbara

    This study reviews and analyzes family planning legislation in seven countries of the Mediterranean region: Greece, Italy, Morocco, Portugal, Spain, Tunisia, and Turkey. Part 1, a general review, specifically focuses on the role of religion in the development of family planning programs, laws with an indirect effect on family planning (minumum age…

  2. Urban men and their participation in family planning.

    PubMed

    Jahan, S A; Thwin, A A; Nasreen, S; Ahsan, R I

    1996-01-01

    The study explores the issues relating to family planning method use by males in urban areas. Key informant interviews were held with men and women residing in selected wards of four randomly chosen zones in the Dhaka City Corporation, representing both slum and non-slum areas. Ward commissioners and a sample of health and family planning service providers in the Government, NGOs, and private sector in these wards were also interviewed in two phases in June-July 1995 and October 1995. The urban population in Dhaka seemed supportive of male contraceptive use in general. However, certain factors interplay that prevent men from assuming responsibility toward actual male method use, even when they approve and support spacing and limiting family size. The discomfort associated with the use of condoms, their unreliability in providing protection from pregnancy, together with misconceptions and perceptions relating to the fear of losing energy and productivity from using condoms and from being vasectomized, were reported. Recommendations to use the media for motivation and to provide privacy and individual counseling measures were given. The perspectives of the key respondents highlight the need to understand urban men and their attitudes, which may pave the way toward developing motivational strategies. An informed public in urban areas represents a setting conducive toward motivating men to improve achievements of a program that largely attributes its past and present success to targeting women. The findings justify exploring ways to expand choices for the urban couple to achieve reproductive health goals. PMID:12291501

  3. 78 FR 69462 - National Nanotechnology Initiative Strategic Plan; National Science and Technology Council...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... TECHNOLOGY POLICY OFFICE National Nanotechnology Initiative Strategic Plan; National Science and Technology... Science and Technology Policy. ] ACTION: Request for public comment. SUMMARY: The National Science and Technology Council; Committee on Technology; Nanoscale Science, Engineering, and Technology...

  4. "Wait a while, my love" -- an Indonesian popular song with a family planning message.

    PubMed

    Pekerti, R; Musa, R

    1989-10-01

    "Wait a While, My Love," recorded by pop singer Irianti Emingpraja, was the first Indonesian rock sock to contain a family planning message. The album including the song has sold over 100,000 copies. The song has also been packaged as a 60-second video that can be used as an opening theme for radio and television programs. The song, aimed at encouraging Indonesian youth to postpone marriage, has the following lyrics: "Flying free like a seagull/I'll cover many places 'round the world/Give me time for study and reflection, to grow as a mature wise woman/Oh, wait a while, my love/Don't buy me a ring, reflection of your inner love/I'll climb my way up to the top of the world/And reaching our rainbow of hope." The song was produced with support from the United Nations Fund for Population Activities and the Indonesian National Family Planning Coordinating Board. Key factors to be examined in producing a popular song with a family planning message include the specific message desired, the target audience, type of music, the singer, the producer, marketing, a multimedia campaign strategy, and distribution outlets. PMID:12315970

  5. Changing fortunes: analysis of fluctuating policy space for family planning in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Crichton, Joanna

    2008-01-01

    Policies relating to contraceptive services (population, family planning and reproductive health policies) often receive weak or fluctuating levels of commitment from national policy elites in Southern countries, leading to slow policy evolution and undermining implementation. This is true of Kenya, despite the government's early progress in committing to population and reproductive health policies, and its success in implementing them during the 1980s. This key informant study on family planning policy in Kenya found that policy space contracted, and then began to expand, because of shifts in contextual factors, and because of the actions of different actors. Policy space contracted during the mid-1990s in the context of weakening prioritization of reproductive health in national and international policy agendas, undermining access to contraceptive services and contributing to the stalling of the country's fertility rates. However, during the mid-2000s, champions of family planning within the Kenyan Government bureaucracy played an important role in expanding the policy space through both public and hidden advocacy activities. The case study demonstrates that policy space analysis can provide useful insights into the dynamics of routine policy and programme evolution and the challenge of sustaining support for issues even after they have reached the policy agenda. PMID:18653676

  6. [Coverage of family planning services in five health regions].

    PubMed

    Herrera Miranda, J L

    1985-04-01

    In 1984, a team of specialists from the National Population Council and the Ministry of Health evaluated the availability of family planning services in 5 health regions of Peru: a sector of Lima, Arequipa, San Martin, Cuzco, and Cajamarca. The numbers of women aged 15-49 years in the health regions, the numbers subject to Ministry of Health programming, the numbers of acceptors, and the percentage of coverage respectively were 1,357,298, 906,675, 83,542, and 9.21% in Lima; 183,168, 122,356, 4789, and 3.91% in Arequipa; 77,427, 51,721, 1610, and 3.11% in San Martin; 283,088, 189,103, 7695, and 4.07% in Cuzco; and 120,375, 80,411, 1181, and 1.47% in Cajamarca. There were 98,817 acceptors in the 5 regions, and the coverage was 7.32%. The differences in coverage achieved in the 5 regions were due to different financial and professional resources in the different regions as well as to differences in sociodemographic characteristics and especially degree of urbanism. A better distribution and more rational utilization of budgetary and professional resources would permit a levelling of the regional rates of coverage and an increase of the total coverage. The number of acceptors of condoms and other methods, pills, and IUDs respectively were 17,034, 30,117, and 36,391 in Lima; 2176, 1830, and 783 in Arequipa; 352, 751, and 507 in San Martin; 2879, 3507, and 1309 in Cuzco, 250, 445, and 486 in Cajamarca, and 22,691, 36,650, and 39,476 in all 5 regions. Of the 98,817 acceptors, 23.0% chose condoms and others, 37.1% pills, and 39.9% chose IUDs. Regional variations in methods selected depended primarily on the professional resources available. In areas where more physicians were available there were higher rates of IUD use. PMID:12267241

  7. The National Survey of America's Families: an overview of the health policy component.

    PubMed

    Kenney, G; Zuckerman, S; Rajan, S; Brennan, N; Holahan, J

    1999-01-01

    This report describes one aspect of "Assessing the New Federalism," a multi-year research project, started by the Urban Institute in 1996, to analyze the devolution of responsibility for social programs from the federal government to the states. The project combines case studies in 13 diverse states with analyses of data drawn from a wide range of sources, including a new household survey--the National Survey of America's Families (NSAF). The NSAF, which contains nationally representative data from almost 45,000 families, was fielded in 1997 and 1999, and is planned for 2001 and again at subsequent two-year intervals. In this paper, we provide an overview of the NSAF's purpose; the sampling approach and methods; the questionnaire content, with particular emphasis on questions of interest to health policy researchers; health policy research planned by Urban Institute staff; and the timetable for public release of the NSAF data. PMID:10570667

  8. Family planning through private practitioners: characteristics of Kenyan contraceptive acceptors.

    PubMed

    Rogo, K O

    1990-01-01

    Kenya has one of the highest population growth rates in the world. Innovative programs are therefore called for to help curb the fast population growth rate. The Kenya Medical Association started a new program of involving private physicians in the active provision of family planning services. A preliminary analysis shows that the program serves generally young, better educated women of low parity. Sixty-one percent of the clients are new acceptors and the oral contraceptive pill the most popular method. The level of education of the clients had marked influence on family size. Age, parity and marital status also influenced the pattern of contraceptive use. These preliminary results are discussed against the background of the 1984 Kenya Contraceptive Prevalence Survey findings and possible areas of improvement suggested. PMID:1968018

  9. A sensitive approach to family planning motivation in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    1978-01-01

    The goals of the Malaysian Family Planning Program are not only to reduce population growth from 3% to 2% by 1985 and to bring the crude birth rate to 28.2 from 30.3, but to generally improve the health of the family, and to enhance the government's efforts to raise the per capita income. The work program is divided into the Creative Unit, the Media Unit, the Production Unit, and the Field Diffusion Unit. The objectives are to build up strong support from political, community, and opinion leaders, and to run educational campaigns aimed at motivating potential acceptors. The program also runs centers training medical and paramedical personnel. The program is combined with development programs for women, especially useful among the rural population. PMID:12277967

  10. Links between Cairo and Kyoto: addressing global warming through voluntary family planning.

    PubMed

    Skeer, Jeffrey

    2002-02-01

    Over the past three decades, with a combination of new technology, rising female literacy rates, and strengthened family planning programs, the world has seen dramatic increases in the use of contraception, with corresponding declines in fertility and population growth rates. At the International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo in 1994, parties pledged a tripling of funding for reproductive health programs in developing countries. Many demographers believe that making such programs more widely available to women would extend the decline in birth rates and shift the world towards the low scenario of United Nations population projections over the next century and a half. By examining the costs and impacts of such programs, in view of the links between population and carbon emissions, this paper shows that extension of voluntary family planning could make a large and cost-effective contribution to the greenhouse gas limitation goals of the Kyoto Protocol that was negotiated in 1997. PMID:11928354

  11. Fertility awareness / natural family planning for adolescents and their families: report of multisite pilot project.

    PubMed

    Klaus, H; Bryan, L M; Bryant, M L; Fagan, M U; Harrigan, M B; Kearns, F

    1987-01-01

    Fertility awareness is experiential learning about cyclic fertility. This awareness, used as a family planning method, differs from contraception because it does not isolate the procreative capacity of either partner. The acceptability and effect of teaching fertility awareness on teen sexual activity and decision making was tested in a multisite pilot program which taught fertility awareness via the prospective marker of the cervical mucus (ovulation method of natural family planning). 200 US and 35 Guatemalan volunteer women ages 15-17 in a structured 1 year curriculum, monitored cycle charting and explored the implications of experiencing one's signs of fertility. Control subjects were recruited from the general population and from family planning clinics. 9% of the US study group were sexually active prior to entry. By cycle 12, 1/2 had discontinued activity. Conception rate was 0.0044. The continuation rate dropped from 90% at cycle 7 to 71% at cycle 8 due to scheduling constraints for 2 classes and to 57% at cycle 12. Postprogram follow-up of early leavers showed only 1/3 the expected rate of onset of sexual activity and pregnancy. Parent involvement correlated positively with postponement and/or discontinuation of sexual activity. Reported movement away from peer group pressure appeared 3 months after entry. PMID:12315578

  12. Family planning performance at a major hospital in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Tennakoon, S

    1983-12-01

    862 men attending the family health clinic, General Hospital, Kurunegala, Sri Lanka for sterilization over the October 1, 1982-March 1983 period were interviewed to study the characteristics of the men attending the clinic and to assess the popularity of vasectomy over other methods of family planning. For the study to be more comprehensive, the figures of the family planning activities of the hospital from 1977-82 also were examined. 438 (55.5%) of the study subjects were paddy cultivators. 71 of the men were in the 16-25 age group, 422 in the 26-35 age group, 272 in the 36-45 age group, and 97 in the 46 and older age group. 725 (85%) of the men were literate. Middle income groups comprised the major segment of men in this series. In 544 (63.1%) the vasectomy was motivated by friends and relatives; only 15 (2.0%) were motivated by health staff. 821 of the men (95.3%) belonged to the 16-39 age group. A table summarizes the relationship between age of the last living child and vasectomy performance. For 279 of the men, the age of their last living child was less than 1 year; it was 1-2 years for 218 men, 2-3 years for 180 men, and 3 or more years for 185 men. Study observations indicate that a consensus is becoming established about the role played by the male partner in family planning. The incentive scheme, acceptability and safety of the method, and a change in life styles should be considered. In the 862 vasectomies performed, there were no major complications or failures in contraception. Some pertinent factors for the favorable trend in vasectomy at this clinic are: health education talks delivered by a trained staff nurse at this clinic, outpatient department, and wards of the hospital; motivation activities of the community development social workers in the field; this clinic being the leading clinic of the limited number of institutions in Kurunegala conducting regular male sterilization clinics, and personality characteristics of the medical officer, staff, and the facilities available at the clinic. The middle months and the latter part of the year were the most popular periods at this clinic. These months represent the nonharvesting season. The study shows that the small family norm has been preferred by the majority; only 111 had more than 3 living children. Better education, better communication, and better approach methods may improve vasectomy acceptance rates. PMID:6680335

  13. Sewing machines and bank loans, farming and family planning.

    PubMed

    Sai, F A; Nsarkoh, J D

    1980-03-01

    Half of a $10,000 grant was given by the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) to finance the rural development project activities of Danfa, a village of about 835 people in Ghana. In this community the women are hard working but doubly disadvantaged. Along with a high illiteracy rate, the women are limited by inadequate income due to underemployment, under productivity, unfavorable farming conditions, and a lack of resources. Large families, frequent pregnancies, poor mother and child health, and high infant mortality all make matters worse for both the rural farm wife and her family. The project began with a nucleus of women that soon grew to between 24-30. Members soon formed small groups according to their occupational interests. The women grasped the self-help idea immediately. Once or twice a month there were demonstrations and the group worked together in such activities as making soap and pomade, preparing meals, and sewing. Meetings generally ended with a general group brainstorming and then members gathered in smaller groups to review their activities and plan for the future. During the 1st year of the project the men in the group rarely attended meetings. The group gave priority attention to their community's urgent need for working capital. 15 women farmers who met the criteria determined by the group received loans in the 1st round; only 8 satisfied the criteria in the 2nd round. At the beginning of the small loans scheme, the group decided to seek bigger loans from the bank if members proved credit worthy. This requirement was satisfied, and the group began negotiations for a loan with the Agricultural Development Bank. The group received the total group loan. The Ghana Home Science Association considers the project to be successful in several respects. Team spirit has developed the group, and the women play important and respected roles. Family planning problems are regularly presented for discussion, but it is difficult to correlate these ideas with practice. The ability of members to discuss these problems comfortably is an indication of their acceptance of family planning as an important topic in their lives. PMID:12311875

  14. 47 CFR 90.16 - Public Safety National Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... National Plan is contained in the Report and Order in General Docket No. 87-112. The principal spectrum... (“border regions”). In the border regions, the principal spectrum for the National Plan may be different..., and the U.S. Virgin Islands. No assignments will be made in the spectrum designated for the...

  15. 47 CFR 90.16 - Public Safety National Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... National Plan is contained in the Report and Order in General Docket No. 87-112. The principal spectrum... (“border regions”). In the border regions, the principal spectrum for the National Plan may be different..., and the U.S. Virgin Islands. No assignments will be made in the spectrum designated for the...

  16. 47 CFR 90.16 - Public Safety National Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Public Safety National Plan. 90.16 Section 90.16 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Public Safety Radio Pool § 90.16 Public Safety National Plan....

  17. 14 CFR 151.3 - National Airport Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false National Airport Plan. 151.3 Section 151.3 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS General Requirements 151.3 National Airport Plan. (a) Under the Federal...

  18. Education for All: National Plan of Action, 2003-2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Background: The Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR) Education for All National Plan of Action (EFA NPA) for 2003-2015 seeks to accomplish three major tasks: equitable access, improved quality and relevance and strengthened education management. Purpose: To design a National Education For All Action Plan for basic education in Lao PDR which…

  19. 77 FR 44144 - National Forest System Land Management Planning; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ...) published a National Forest System land management planning rule in the Federal Register, on April 9, 2012, (77 FR 21162). Errors have been found in the rule with respect to punctuation, hyphenation, and... Forest Service 36 CFR Part 219 RIN 0596-AD02 National Forest System Land Management Planning;...

  20. Programming the body, planning reproduction, governing life: the '(ir-) rationality' of family planning and the embodiment of social inequalities in Salvador da Bahia (Brazil).

    PubMed

    De Zordo, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines family planning in Brazil as biopolitics and explores how the democratization of the State and of reproductive health services after two decades of military dictatorship (1964-1984) has influenced health professionals' and family planning users' discourses and practices. Do health professionals envisage family planning as a 'right' or do they conceive it, following the old neo-Malthusian rationale, as a 'moral duty' of poor people, whose 'irrational' reproduction jeopardizes the family's and the nation's well being? And how do their patients conceptualize and embody family planning? To answer these questions, this paper draws on 13 months of multi-sited ethnographic research undertaken between 2003 and 2005 in two public family planning services in Salvador da Bahia, where participant observation was undertaken and unstructured interviews were conducted with 11 health professionals and 70 family planning users, mostly low income black women. The paper examines how different bio-political rationalities operate in these services and argues that the old neo-Malthusian rationale and the current, dominant discourse on reproductive rights, gender equality and citizenship coexist. The coalescence of different biopolitical rationalities leads to the double stigmatization of family planning users as 'victims' of social and gender inequalities and as 'irrational' patients, 'irresponsible' mothers and 'bad' citizens if they do not embody the neo-Malthusian and biomedical rationales shaping medical practice. However, these women do not behave as 'docile bodies': they tactically use medical and non-medical contraceptives not only to be good mothers and citizens, but also to enhance themselves and to attain their own goals. PMID:22889428

  1. National Standards for Family and Consumer Sciences Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Administrators for Family and Consumer Sciences.

    The document presents a new set of standards for family and consumer sciences (FACS) education. Section 1 is a three-chapter overview. Chapter 1 addresses the rationale for change and the FACS vision and mission. Chapter 2 describes the approach to develop the national standards, FACS format, and components of the standards. Chapter 3 provides…

  2. Enhancing The National Map Through Tactical Planning and Performance Monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2008-01-01

    Tactical planning and performance monitoring are initial steps toward improving 'the way The National Map works' and supporting the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Science Strategy. This Tactical Performance Planning Summary for The National Map combines information from The National Map 2.0 Tactical Plan and The National Map Performance Milestone Matrix. The National Map 2.0 Tactical Plan is primarily a working document to guide The National Map program's execution, production, and metrics monitoring for fiscal years (FY) 2008 and 2009. The Tactical Plan addresses data, products, and services, as well as supporting and enabling activities. The National Map's 2-year goal for FY 2008 and FY 2009 is to provide a range of geospatial products and services that further the National Spatial Data Infrastructure and underpin USGS science. To do this, the National Geospatial Program will develop a renewed understanding during FY 2008 of key customer needs and requirements, develop the infrastructure to support The National Map business model, modernize its business processes, and reengineer its workforce. Priorities for The National Map will be adjusted if necessary to respond to changes to the project that may impact resources, constrain timeframes, or change customer needs. The supporting and enabling activities that make it possible to produce the products and services of The National Map will include partnership activities, improved compatibility of systems, outreach, and integration of data themes.

  3. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Institutional Plan, FY 1995--FY 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    This report discusses the institutional plan for Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the next five years (1995-2000). Included in this report are the: laboratory director`s statement; laboratory mission, vision, and core competencies; laboratory plan; major laboratory initiatives; scientific and technical programs; critical success factors; summaries of other plans; and resource projections.

  4. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Emergency Planning in Athletics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, J. C.; Courson, Ronald W.; Kleiner, Douglas M.; McLoda, Todd A.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a position statement by the National Athletic Trainers' Association on emergency planning in athletics, examining the professional and legal importance of emergency plans and looking at components of emergency plans, which include implementation, personnel, equipment, communication, transportation, venue location, emergency care…

  5. Family Interaction Patterns, Career Planning Attitudes, and Vocational Identity of High School Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargrove, Byron K.; Inman, Arpana G.; Crane, Randy L.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine how perceptions of family interaction patterns as defined along three dimensions of family environment (quality of family relationships, family goal-orientations, and degree of organization and control within the family system) predict vocational identity and career planning attitudes among male and…

  6. Transnational caregiving: Part 1, caring for family relations across nations.

    PubMed

    Dhar, V Erica

    2011-01-01

    This article concerns how globalization and the aging of the world's population are affecting the already complex issue of intergenerational transnational caregiving. Globalization has caused an increase in workforce mobility with large numbers of individuals seeking employment overseas. This, coupled with increased longevity globally, has resulted in many workers leaving their elderly parents in need of care in their home countries. This has spawned caregiving across national borders, or caring for family relations across nations. Currently in the United States, not enough emphasis is given to family caregiving. Data compiled by AARP and the National Alliance for Caregiving estimate the economic value for this group of family caregivers in 2007 to be $375 billion, accounting for 34-52 million family caregivers per given year. This does not include those families who are transnational caregivers. The seminal work in this emerging field has been done by social anthropologists Loretta Baldassar, Cora Velekoop Baldock, and Raelene Wilding, who have defined the components of transnational caregiving based on an ethnographic study using qualitative data to study nine immigrant communities in Western Australia. Although their research focused on caregiving from a distance, additional work has been added to the discussion by introducing the element of "care drain" and further cultural perspectives. Therefore, this research is an exploratory study on intergenerational transnational caregiving within the context of the changing world and its demographics. Within the context of globalization and global aging, the following questions are addressed: What is the significance of family caregiving? What is a transnational? How has technology changed "transnationalism" today? What are the elements that comprise transnational caregiving? How does culture play a role in transnational caregiving? What are some of the national initiatives undertaken by governments to aid in workforce issues and recognition of caregiving organizations? By exploring these questions, it is hoped that there will be a better understanding of transnational caregiving and its relevance in all societies. PMID:21717848

  7. Year 6 Planning Exemplification. National Literacy Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department for Education and Skills, London (England).

    First in a series, this booklet contains suggestions for planning literacy in Year 6. This Year 6 plan for 2001-2002 and the short-term unit plan for narrative writing are a distillation of the work of a representative group of Year 6 teachers. It contains the Year 6 Term 1 Units 2 and 5 on Narrative Writing. It begins with an outline of the basic…

  8. National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency Report

    SciTech Connect

    National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency

    2006-07-01

    Summarizes recommendations, key barriers, and methods for energy efficiency in utility ratemaking as well as revenue requirements, resource planning processes, rate design, and program best practices.

  9. 42 CFR 59.3 - Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant? 59.3 Section 59.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services 59.3 Who is eligible to apply for a family...

  10. 42 CFR 59.5 - What requirements must be met by a family planning project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What requirements must be met by a family planning project? 59.5 Section 59.5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.5 What requirements must be met by a family...

  11. Family Planning in the 1980's: Challenges and Opportunities. Report of the International Conference on Family Planning in the 1980's (Jakarta, Indonesia, April 26-30, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Council, New York, NY.

    Strategic and operational issues throughout the world formed the focus of the International Conference on Family Planning. The objectives of the conference were to review the accomplishments of family planning over the past decade, assess the challenges and opportunities for the 1980's, and identify means to strengthen commitment to family…

  12. "Family planning and population programs" a book review article.

    PubMed

    Hauser, P M

    1967-03-01

    RESUMEN: El volumen Planeamiento Familiar y Programas de Poblacion es un libro indispensable tanto para demógrafos como para otras personas interesadas en el control de población. Tiene sus limitaciones dodo su caracter heterogéneo, su falta de autocrítica, el no tratar sobre la validez y confiabilidad de las encuestas de conocimientos, attitudes y prácticas (KAP), su injustificado tono optimista, y su fracaso al no explorar y considerar alternativas para las presunciones y premisas sobre las cuales se basan los actuates programas de planeamiento familiar. Es sin embargo un importante hito que resume las contribuciones de las ciencias sociales y biomédicas al campo de la demografía.SummaryThe volume Family Planning and Population Programs is an indispensable book to demographers as well as to others concerned with population control. It is not without limitations because of its heterogeneous character, its lack of self-criticism, its failure to deal with the reliability and validity of KAP surveys, its unwarranted optimistic aura, and its failure to explore and consider alternatives to the basic assumptions and premises on which present family planning programs are based. It is, nevertheless, a landmark in its summarization of the contribution of the social and biomedical sciences to demographic engineering. PMID:21279790

  13. Assessing family planning service-delivery skills in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Valadez, J J; Transgrud, R; Mbugua, M; Smith, T

    1997-06-01

    This report demonstrates the use of Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) to evaluate the technical competence of two cohorts of family planning service providers in Kenya trained with a new curriculum. One cohort had just finished training within two months of the study. The other cohort was the first group trained with the new curriculum about one year before the study. LQAS was adapted from industrial and other public health applications to assess both the individual competence of 30 service providers and the competence of each cohort. Results show that Cohorts One and Two did not differ markedly in the number of tasks needing improvement. However, both cohorts exhibited more tasks needing improvement in counseling skills as compared with physical examination skills or with all other skills. Care-givers who were not currently providing services accounted for most service-delivery problems. This result suggests that providers' use of their skills explains their ability to retain service-delivery skills learned in training to a greater degree than does the amount of time elapsed since they were trained. LQAS proved to be a rapid, easy-to-use empirical method for management decisionmaking for improvement of a family planning training curriculum and services. PMID:9216034

  14. 77 FR 67783 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-14

    ..., Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, and Water supply. Dated... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National..., is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). EPA...

  15. Child abuse as an inhibiting factor for family planning.

    PubMed

    Fahim, H I; Faris, R

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the magnitude of the problem of using children as an economic asset to the family thus, in one way increasing the prevalence of child abuse in Egypt and also hindering the family planning program. Two focus-group interviews were conducted in urban & rural areas for 10 women with the same age range and socioeconomic background. All were non-users of any contraception. Subsequently an interview was conducted for all women who attended the Ob. & Gyn. Clinic at Ain Shams University Hospital in the period from June to August 1991, their ages ranged from 30-35 years and they never used contraception. Another group of women with the same characteristics were interviewed from a rural area at Fayoum Governorate. A questionnaire was filled for each interviewed woman. The total women interviewed in urban area is 340 while in the rural area they were 400 women. Sixty percent of urban women and 80% of rural women are illiterate, 70% of the urban & 100% of rural women are housewives. Their years of marriage ranged between 10-20 years and all of them have more than five children. A percentage of 73.5% of urban women and 85% of rural women stated that children are used as an economic asset to their families, they work in urban areas as assistants in motor repairs, hair-dressers, beggars, bakeries, shops, restaurants and factories while in rural areas they work as agricultural workers. PMID:1295939

  16. Sustainable development needs family planning: Mr. Wang Guoging.

    PubMed

    1997-09-01

    This brief article refers to the comments of the Director of Policy and Regulation for the State Family Planning Committee in China on the need for family planning and control of population growth for the sake of sustainable development. Population growth varies between regions in China. Growth should be equalized and brought to a level that will sustain development. A representative of the Institute of Population Research at the People's University stated that the problem was in coordinating population with resources, the environment, and the socioeconomy. Population factors are not the problem. Control of population size has been effective in alleviating pressure on resources, the environment, and socioeconomic development. The population structure, with increased number of elderly and nuclear families, is becoming a problem. China's population of 5.84 billion in mid-1997 accounts for 21.2% of world total population. The growth of world population, which has accelerated since 1950, is currently concentrated in less developed countries. An important factor limiting human and other life is the supply of water. A professor at the China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research indicated that the basic water needs for a Chinese population size of 1.6 billion must increase. China already has water shortage and water pollution problems that reduce the supply of water. The solution is integrated management of water resources and comprehensive effective countermeasures at all links of development, use, protection, and management of water resources. There is a need to promote efficient use of water resources that will result in water savings. Researchers need to develop new water resources, promote water reuse and wastewater reclamation, and coordinate the relationship between water supplies and development. The economy must be based on water conservation. PMID:12292781

  17. A Comparative Study of Family Planning Service Statistics Systems in the ESCAP Region. Asian Population Studies Series No. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok (Thailand).

    This monograph contains a study conducted by the Population Division of the United Nations Economic and Social Committee for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP). The document is designed to aid policy-makers, administrators and evaluation personnel in family planning programs in the ESCAP region, primarily; and researchers working in the field of family…

  18. National Action Plan for the Prevention of Playground Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Donna; Hudson, Susan

    Recognizing the need for a nationally coordinated effort to reduce playground injuries, the National Program for Playground Safety was created in 1995. This booklet describes the national action plan for prevention of playground injuries. Designed for use by parents, teachers, recreation and park personnel, and caregivers involved in providing…

  19. Education's Role in National Development Plans: Ten Country Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, R. Murray, Ed.

    The place education has been assigned in the national development programs of 10 nations is discussed, the problems that these countries have encountered in managing education are examined, and the measures adopted to solve educational problems are assessed. Included are the following papers: (1) "The Nature of National Development Planning" (R.…

  20. Education's Role in National Development Plans: Ten Country Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, R. Murray, Ed.

    The place education has been assigned in the national development programs of 10 nations is discussed, the problems that these countries have encountered in managing education are examined, and the measures adopted to solve educational problems are assessed. Included are the following papers: (1) "The Nature of National Development Planning" (R.

  1. Structural Determinants in Family Planning Service Utilization in Ethiopia: EDHS 2011 Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gizachew Balew, Jembere; Cho, Yongtae; Tammy Kim, Clara; Ko, Woorim

    2015-01-01

    Family planning coverage has improved in Ethiopia in the last decade, though fertility is still about 5.8 in the rural setup. In this paper, the major structural determinants of family planning service were analyzed using a multilevel model from 8906 individual women observation in the 2011 EDHS data. The results show that there is a big variation in family planning use both at the individual and between group levels. More than 39% of the variation in FP use is explained by contextual cluster level differences. Most of the socioeconomic predictors; respondent's education, ethnicity, and partners' education as well as employment status and urbanization were found to be significant factors that affect FP use. Similarly health extension visit and media access were found to be strong factors that affect FP service at both individual and cluster levels. This evidence concludes that addressing these contextual factors is very crucial to strengthen FP use and fertility reduction in the nation, beyond individual behavioral changes. PMID:26783520

  2. Advertising family planning in the press: direct response results from Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Harvey, P D

    1984-01-01

    In 1977 and again in 1982, a series of couponed ads were run in three major Bangladeshi newspapers to test the relative effectiveness of different family planning themes. The ads offered a free booklet about methods of family planning (1977) or "detailed information on contraceptives" (1982) in the context of family health, the wife's happiness, the children's future, and family economics. The most effective ads, by a highly significant margin, were those stressing the importance of family economics (food and shelter) and the children's (sons') future. The least effective ads stressed the benefits of family planning for the wife. PMID:6701954

  3. Teaching of Family Planning at Medical Nursing and Midwifery Schools in Certain Countries of the Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    A review is given of the status of family planning education at medical, nursing, and midwifery schools in seven European countries. The report is presented in 11 sections. Section one, an introduction, explains the scope of the study and defines family planning to include birth control, pregnancy and delivery, problems of adolescents, family life…

  4. Family planning education helps build self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, P

    1993-10-01

    I got married at the age of 20. In our community, generally girls are married off at 15 or 16, but my marriage was delayed according to my father's and my wishes. I did not desire to have my first child immediately. My husband and I are very young and I did not want to assume maternal responsibilities so early in life. Picking up courage, I spoke to my husband. On learning that he had similar views, I was very relieved. I belong to a middle-class family. Due to an absence of a high school in the village. I was forced to drop out of school. Young girls in our community are not allowed to move freely within the village, much less the outside world. But when I was 19, I got the opportunity to gain a lot of information on family planning, health, personal hygiene and good nutrition as part of the Better Life Project. I also learned beauty skills, embroidery, knitting and video film-making. Often I share the information and skills I learned with others. I have even advised my brother's wives about proper child care and immunization. Now that I have a good relationship with the unmarried sister of my husband, I sometimes tell her whatever I have learned. I have felt a great change in myself. My earlier inhibitions in talking to people have dropped, and I can entertain and speak freely with guests who come home. I am more confident about traveling outside my village to other places alone or with company. Learning to operate a video camera and producing a film was my favorite experience. I discovered that I can do what is normally said to be the work of boys only. Sometimes I think that if I had not learned new skills, I would not have been able to share my feelings about family planning with my husband. My mother-in-law is also agreeable to our decision about waiting to have children because both my brothers-in-law have large families. However, I have to face my sisters-in-law who taunt me about my childless status. The problem now is that my husband is not satisfied using condoms. I have decided to consult the doctor at the mobile clinic about taking pills or other methods of contraception. PMID:12287152

  5. [Impact of family planning on maternal-child health].

    PubMed

    Aizenman, D E

    1988-12-01

    An estimated 15 million children under 5 die each year, most of them in developing countries. Some 1/2 million women die of causes related to pregnancy, leaving at least 1 million children orphaned. The World Fertility Surveys of the 1970s demonstrated the direct relationship between family planning and maternal-child health. Between 1985-2000, some 2 billion children are expected to be born, 87% of them in developing countries. Some 240 million will die before 5 years. The main causes of death in small children are acute diarrheal disease, respiratory infections, transmissible diseases preventable with vaccination, malaria, malnutrition, and high fertility. 3 aspects of reproduction have significant effects on child survival: spacing, parity, and maternal age. In 1986, approximately 2 million children under 5 died because of risks associated with rapid procreation, and it is estimated that 1/5 of all child deaths could have been prevented with longer birth intervals. Maternal exhaustion and the inability to give adequate care to several small children at once are believed to be the main causes. The problem of abortion or fetal death increases significantly beginning at the 3rd birth, and the proportion of low birth weight babies increases at the 4th birth. The risk of malnutrition increases in large families with limited resources. The safest ages for childbearing are 20-34 years; the worldwide infant mortality rate for mothers under 20 is about 126/1000. Adolescent mothers are at increased risk of problems in the pregnancy and delivery. Family planning can reduce risks related to spacing, family size, and maternal age, and also risk of congenital defects that increase for older mothers. According to the World Health Organization, each year there are some 500,000 maternal deaths, only 6000 of which occur in developed countries. Immediate causes of maternal death in developing countries include hemorrhage, sepsis, eclampsia, dystocic delivery, and induced abortion, but the underlying causes are related to the poor situation of the woman: poverty, illiteracy, lack of adequate prenatal health care, and childbearing at extreme ages. Estimates based on the World Fertility Survey suggest that if all women stating they wanted no more children used contraception, 30% of maternal deaths would be avoided. It is estimated that some 15 million women undergo induced abortions each year, with 100,000-200,000 resulting deaths. PMID:12157688

  6. Clinical characteristics of familial B-CLL in the National Cancer Institute Familial Registry.

    PubMed

    Ishibe, N; Sgambati, M T; Fontaine, L; Goldin, L R; Jain, N; Weissman, N; Marti, G E; Caporaso, N E

    2001-06-01

    In an ongoing study, families with two or more living cases of B-CLL in first-degree relatives have been recruited through physician and self-referral. Since 1967, 28 kindreds with 73 cases of B-CLL have been enrolled within the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Familial B-CLL Registry. Medical, clinical, and demographic information have been obtained from private physicians, patient interview, hospital records, and death certificates. We used SEER Registry data to compare characteristics of sporadic B-CLL to familial B-CLL. The mean age at diagnosis was approximately 10 years younger among familial cases (57.9 +/- 12.1) than that observed in sporadic cases (70.1 +/- 11.9). A higher percentage of second primary tumors among familial CLL cases compared to reports in sporadic was also observed (16% vs. 8.8%). However, the transformation rate to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma does not appear to be different from that reported for sporadic cases. In conclusion, we observed some differences between familial and sporadic cases; whether any of these characteristics affect survival time or severity of disease is unknown. The study of families with multiple B-CLL cases will aid in delineating the genes and environmental factors that may play a role in the development of both forms of B-CLL. PMID:11699227

  7. Placing Families in Context: Challenges for Cross-National Family Research

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wei-hsin

    2015-01-01

    Cross-national comparisons constitute a valuable strategy to assess how broader cultural, political, and institutional contexts shape family outcomes. One typical approach of cross-national family research is to use comparable data from a limited number of countries, fit similar regression models for each country, and compare results across country-specific models. Increasingly, researchers are adopting a second approach, which requires merging data from many more societies and testing multilevel models using the pooled sample. Although the second approach has the advantage of allowing direct estimates of the effects of nation-level characteristics, it is more likely to suffer from the problems of omitted-variable bias, influential cases, and measurement and construct nonequivalence. I discuss ways to improve the first approach's ability to infer macrolevel influences, as well as how to deal with challenges associated with the second one. I also suggest choosing analytical strategies according to whether the data meet multilevel models’ assumptions. PMID:25999603

  8. Quality of care in family planning services in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Brown, L; Tyane, M; Bertrand, J; Lauro, D; Abou-ouakil, M; deMaria, L

    1995-01-01

    This study was conducted to heighten awareness of quality of care as a programmatic issue in the Moroccan governmental family planning program and to test modified Situation Analysis instruments for measuring quality of care. Data were collected from 50 service-delivery points in five provinces to measure six elements of quality in accordance with the Bruce/Jain framework. A procedure for calculating quality-indicator scores is presented. Although facilities varied by province and within provinces, most had the equipment and supplies needed to deliver services; service personnel were trained and regularly supervised; the service-delivery points scored well on mechanisms to ensure continuity of use. Notable shortcomings included a dearth of materials for counseling and a widespread unavailability of the Ovrette pill. This study raises issues regarding the complexity of measuring quality, the ownership of results, and the appropriateness of a centralized study of quality in a decentralized program. PMID:7570765

  9. Assessing and improving family planning within reproductive health services.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    Before new contraceptive options are introduced to a family planning program, administrators must ensure that the methods are needed and that the service delivery system can provide them with appropriate quality of care. The UNDP/UNFPA/WHO/World Bank Special Program of Research, Development, and Research Training in Human Reproduction has devised a three-stage research approach to the introduction of fertility regulation methods. This model allows for consideration of factors such as the total mix of methods available, sociocultural factors that influence contraceptive acceptance and use, provider skills and capabilities, and the managerial and logistic systems required for service delivery. Moreover, it calls for the participation of all those affected by method introduction, including policymakers, program managers, women's groups, and young people. Finally. the introduction of a contraceptive method is conceptualized as an opportunity to improve the quality of care associated with the provision of all available methods. PMID:12320516

  10. Diffusion of innovations: family planning in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Elaine

    2004-01-01

    One of the best examples of the validity of the theory of "diffusion of innovations" is the case of family planning in developing countries. The desire of health, development and environment advocates in rich countries to make modern contraceptive use and lower fertility a norm in developing countries was translated into organized efforts to reach top-level leaders in these countries. Once on board, these high-level leaders cooperated with bilateral and international funding agencies as well as private foundations to develop mass media and community education campaigns, while simultaneously setting up clinic infrastructure; training doctors, nurses and outreach workers; and developing a new and varied "cafeteria" of modern methods. Over the intervening decades, this innovation was indeed diffused and became a norm, but not without its controversies and missed opportunities. PMID:14960408

  11. The future of professional education in natural family planning.

    PubMed

    Fehring, Richard J

    2004-01-01

    Nurses and other health care professionals often have little knowledge of methods of natural family planning (NFP) and do not readily prescribe natural methods for their patients. One reason for this is that little or no information on NFP is provided in nursing or medical schools. The holistic, informational, and integrative nature of NFP fits well with professional nursing practice. A university online distance education NFP teacher training program, which offers academic credit and includes theory, practice, and the latest developments in fertility monitoring, has been developed for health care professionals. Professional NFP services in the United States need to meet worldwide standards and include documenting and assessing pregnancy outcomes, tailoring NFP services to the client or couple, and simplifying them for ease of use in a standard health care practice. PMID:14971551

  12. The role of family planning communications--an agent of reinforcement or change.

    PubMed

    Chen, E C

    1981-12-01

    Results are presented of a multiple classification analysis of responses to a 1972 KAP survey in Taiwan of 2013 married women aged 18-34 designed to determine whether family planning communication is primarily a reinforcement agent or a change agent. 2 types of independent variables, social demographic variables including age, number of children, residence, education, employment status, and duration of marriage; and social climate variables including ever receiving family planning information from mass media and ever discussing family planning with others, were used. KAP levels, the dependent variables, were measured by 2 variables each: awareness of effective methods and awareness of government supply of contraceptives for knowledge, wish for additional children and approve of 2-child family for attitude, and never use contraception and neither want children nor use contraception for practice. Social demographic and attitudinal variables were found to be the critical ones, while social climate and knowledge variables had only negligible effects on various stages of family planning adoption, indicating that family planning communications functioned primarily as a reinforcement agent. The effects of social demographic variables were prominent in all stages of contraceptive adoption. Examination of effects of individual variables on various stages of family planning adoption still supported the argument that family planning communications played a reinforcement role. Family planning communications functioned well in diffusing family planning knowledge and accessibility, but social demographic variables and desire for additional children were the most decisive influences on use of contraception. PMID:12222468

  13. Idaho National Laboratory Emergency Readiness Assurance Plan - Fiscal Year 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, Carl J.

    2015-09-01

    Department of Energy Order 151.1C, Comprehensive Emergency Management System requires that each Department of Energy field element documents readiness assurance activities, addressing emergency response planning and preparedness. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, as prime contractor at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), has compiled this Emergency Readiness Assurance Plan to provide this assurance to the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office. Stated emergency capabilities at the INL are sufficient to implement emergency plans. Summary tables augment descriptive paragraphs to provide easy access to data. Additionally, the plan furnishes budgeting, personnel, and planning forecasts for the next 5 years.

  14. Criticality emergency planning at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Green, J.H.; Cain, G.C.

    1983-01-01

    A plan to protect personnel and control the spread of contamination in the event of a radiation accident at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is outlined. Procedures and personnel are presented. (ACK)

  15. Book Development in National Communications and Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thapar, Romesh

    In the developing countries of South and Southeast Asia where advancing technologies threaten the stability of traditional societies, books should be used to increase understanding and provide for a smooth transition into a modernized culture. The planning and coordinating of publishing that would serve this purpose demands changes in authorship,…

  16. Yugoslavia: Death of a Nation. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemberger, Beth

    Based on "Zlata's Diary: A Child's Life in Sarajevo" by Zlata Filipovic, this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that historical drama, like other historical fiction, is rooted in history but contains imaginary elements as well; and that the author describes in her diary what it was like to be a teenager in…

  17. Family Planning and Preconception Health Among Men in Their Mid-30s: Developing Indicators and Describing Need.

    PubMed

    Casey, Frances E; Sonenstein, Freya L; Astone, Nan M; Pleck, Joseph H; Dariotis, Jacinda K; Marcell, Arik V

    2016-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Healthy People 2020 call for improvements in meeting men's reproductive health needs but little is known about the proportion of men in need. This study describes men aged 35 to 39 in need of family planning and preconception care, demographic correlates of these needs, and contraception use among men in need of family planning. Using data from Wave 4 (2008-2010) of the National Survey of Adolescent Males, men were classified in need of family planning and preconception care if they reported sex with a female in the last year and believed that they and their partner were fecund; the former included men who were neither intentionally pregnant nor intending future children and the latter included men intending future children. Men were classified as being in need of both if they reported multiple sex partners in the past year. About 40% of men aged 35 to 39 were in need of family planning and about 33% in need of preconception care with 12% in need of both. Current partner's age, current union type, and sexually transmitted infection health risk differentiated men in need of family planning and preconception care (all ps < .01) and participants' race/ethnicity further differentiated men in need of preconception care (p < .01). More than half of men in need of family planning reported none of the time current partner hormonal use (55%) or condom use (52%) during the past year. This study identified that many men in their mid-30s are in need of family planning or preconception care. PMID:25389215

  18. Defining motivational intensity of need for family planning in Africa.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Bernice; Ross, John; Madsen, Elizabeth Leahy

    2014-09-01

    Non-users of contraception differ greatly in their likely motivation to adopt a method or resume use. This study presents a new approach to defining high and low motivation groups by stated intention to use, past use, and unmet need, to determine how these groups differ in characteristics and in region of residence. Data come from 23 DHS surveys in sub-Saharan countries, with representation from the eastern/southern region and western/central region. The low motivation non-users, with less past use and less intention to use in the future, are more rural, less educated, and closer to poverty. Motivational intensity is lower in the western/central region, which contains far fewer intenders than the eastern/southern region and where many more report no past use and no unmet need. When used to guide planning, unmet need should be augmented with motivation, since the two classifications do not entirely overlap. Between 10 and 17% of current non-users of family planning are likely highly motivated to use, but are not captured in the unmet need classification. Program implications for these non-using groups are discussed. PMID:25438510

  19. National Center for Combating Terrorism Strategic Plan, September 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    2003-09-01

    National Center for Combating Terrorism Strategic Plan is to document the mission, vision, and goals for success; define the build plan; and describe initiatives that support the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Department of Defense, U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Department of Justice, intelligence community, National Governors Association, and other organizations or departments with combating terrorism training, testing, and technology responsibilities.

  20. STD / AIDS prevention: new challenges for family planning programs.

    PubMed

    Williamson, N; Townsend, S

    1991-12-01

    Family planning (FP) professionals and programs are increasingly called upon to respond to increasing rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and AIDS. While structural and ideological readjustment to meet these demands may seem problematic for some programs, the AIDS epidemic allows the opportunity for programs to expand into preventive health activities. Dr. Nancy Williamson, Director of Family Health International's Division of Program Evaluation and 1 of the authors of the World Health Organization's guidelines on family planning and AIDS, responds to questions most frequently posed by FP providers considering the need for and process of FP program restructuring. She holds that programmatic expansion for the prevention of HIV infection enhances the capability to provide good contraceptive services. FP programs are not expected to abandon their central missions of preventing unwanted pregnancies, but to engage in both the prevention of STD infection and unwanted pregnancies where possible. Sharing responsible sex behavior and the condom as common means of prevention, these 2 missions are far from mutually exclusive. The AIDS epidemic has impacted upon FP programs in a number of ways. Increased demand for condoms has been observed in countries with high levels of HIV seropositivity, greater concern has been placed upon counseling and sterile procedures, view have been altered to accept this dual role of contraception, and universal precautions for the protection of both client and workers from infection are of greater importance. Promoting the consistent use of condoms for the prevention of STDs has proved more challenging than promoting for contraceptive uses. Gaining the legitimacy of condoms among married couples while they are also promoted among high-risk groups also remains difficult. On other issues, promoting the routine use of 2 temporary methods is not recommended, questions must be posed to determine clients' risk status for infection, counseling and services should be provided to those HIV+, and alternative funding sources may need to be sought for FP program expansion. Arguments for and against such expansion are discussed. Most of sub-Saharan Africa, the Caribbean, and Thailand are in most serious need of programmatic changes, India and most of Central and South American need some changes, and other areas would benefit from minor changes. Dr. Williamson finally considers how programs should be modified, changes made thus far by programs, and suggests what programs may do to enhance their capability to provide contraceptive services. PMID:12284756

  1. Learning about population problem: children's attitudes toward family planning in India.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, S

    1979-03-01

    To determine the attitudes of Indian children and adolescents toward family planning, a sample of 863 high school students (aged 10-18 years) from the state of Andhra Pradesh was asked 2 operational questions ("have you heard about family planning" and "why does India need family planning?") to measure levels of family planning awareness, and 2 additional questions to measure approval of family planning ("do you think family planning is a good thing" and "which is better, a big family or a small family?"). Other variables considered were religion, socioeconomic status, education, political knowledge, and media exposure. 70% of the respondents had heard of family planning. 49% were able to state a reason for family planning (FP), while 32% were able to grasp the causal connection between population growth and economic development. Of the students who had heard of FP, 85% believed that FP was good, while 14% favored large families. The findings reflected the higher level of approval of the Andhra Pradesh youth towards FP compared with their adults; this was attributed to generational differences, and possibly to the lower level of education of Indian adults. Religion exhibited a strong effect on youth's attitudes toward FP, with Hindu children exhibiting a more favorable attitude compared with their Muslim counterparts who felt that family planning was bad and large families were good. Although education appears to be the critical determinant of family planning awareness, the results suggest that overall, the integral element of the socialization process is exposure to a modernizing environment. Nevertheless, reduction of population growth rate still largely depends on the Indian government's provision of educational opportunities to its youth. PMID:12156351

  2. From Physical Activity Guidelines to a National Activity Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Daniel B.; Pate, Russell R.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. National Physical Activity Plan (NPAP) is a comprehensive strategic plan aimed at increasing physical activity levels in all segments of the American population. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the development of the NPAP, provide an update on the status of the NPAP, and comment on the future of the NPAP. The NPAP was released

  3. QUALITY MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR THE NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has taken the lead, in consort with NIH, in developing the Quality Management Plan (QMP) for the National Children's Study (NCS); the QMP will delineate a systematic planning process for the implementation of the NCS. The QMP will state the goals and objectives of the NCS, th...

  4. From Physical Activity Guidelines to a National Activity Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Daniel B.; Pate, Russell R.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. National Physical Activity Plan (NPAP) is a comprehensive strategic plan aimed at increasing physical activity levels in all segments of the American population. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the development of the NPAP, provide an update on the status of the NPAP, and comment on the future of the NPAP. The NPAP was released…

  5. Costs and Benefits of a Coordinated National Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Metric Journal, 1974

    1974-01-01

    The advantages, disadvantages, and costs of going metric under a national plan as opposed to no plan are discussed. The areas of manufacturing, government, labor, and education are given separate analysis. (This is an excerpt from the United States Metric Study 13 Volume Report.) (LS)

  6. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory institutional plan: FY 1996--2001

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This report contains the operation and direction plan for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory of the US Department of Energy. The topics of the plan include the laboratory mission and core competencies, the laboratory strategic plan; the laboratory initiatives in molecular sciences, microbial biotechnology, global environmental change, complex modeling of physical systems, advanced processing technology, energy technology development, and medical technologies and systems; core business areas, critical success factors, and resource projections.

  7. Oak Ridge National Laboratory institutional plan, FY 1996--FY 2001

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    This report discusses the institutional plan for Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the next five years. Included in the report are: laboratory director`s statement; laboratory mission, vision, and core competencies; laboratory strategic plan; major laboratory initiatives; scientific and technical programs; critical success factors; summaries of other plans; resource projections; appendix which contains data for site and facilities, user facility, science and mathematic education and human resources; and laboratory organization chart.

  8. National Ignition Facility Risk Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Brereton, S.J.

    1997-02-01

    The NIF Risk Management Plan has been prepared in accordance with the DOE Life Cycle Asset Management Good Practice Guide to support Critical Decision 3 of the NIF Project. The objectives of the plan are to: 1) identify the risks to the completion of the Project in terms of meeting technical and regulatory requirements, cost, and schedule, 2) assess the risks in terms of likelihood of occurrence and their impact potential relative to technical performance, ES&H (environment, safety and health), costs, and schedule, and 3) address each identified risk in terms of suitable risk mitigation measures. The documents that form the basis for this risk assessment are as follows: 1. Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Stockpile Stewardship and Management (DOE, 1996a) and Record of Decision (DOE, 1996b), 2. Preliminary Hazards Analysis (Brereton, 1993), 3. Fire Hazards Analysis (Jensen, 1997), 4. Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (LLNL, 1996a), 5. Reliability, Availability and Maintainability Report, 6. Radiation Protection Evaluation, 7. Primary Criteria and Functional Requirements (LLNL, 1996b), 8. Project Execution Plan (DOE, 1996c), 9. Schedule Risk Assessment, 10. Construction Safety Program (LLNL, 1997), 11. Title I Design Media, 12. Congressional Data Sheet. The process used in developing this plan was to form a Risk Assessment team of knowledgeable project personnel. This included: Assurances Manager, Systems Integration Manager, Project Control Manager, a Risk Management consultant, Deputy Associate Project Engineer for Activation and Start-up (Co-chairperson), and Lead Engineer for Safety Analysis (Co-chairperson). They were familiar with the risk basis documents and developed a list of the key risk elements. A methodology for assigning likelihoods, consequences, and risks was developed. Risk elements were then reviewed, and likelihoods, consequences, and risks were assigned. Risk mitigation measures were then developed. Comments were obtained, resolved and incorporated, and this document presents the results of the assessment.

  9. 77 FR 15052 - National Ocean Council-National Ocean Policy Draft Implementation Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ... will inform the preparation of the final plan. Per our prior notice, which was published at 77 FR 2514... QUALITY National Ocean Council--National Ocean Policy Draft Implementation Plan AGENCY: Council on Environmental Quality. ACTION: Extension of comment period. SUMMARY: On July 19, 2010, President Obama...

  10. The simulated client method: evaluating client-provider interactions in family planning clinics.

    PubMed

    Huntington, D; Schuler, S R

    1993-01-01

    The "simulated client" method was first detailed in the family planning literature in 1985, but it has not been extensively covered since. As used by the authors to study client-provider interactions in family planning programs, this method essentially consists of sending women to a family planning service provider to request information, and interviewing them after the encounter. The women do not reveal to service providers they are participating in the study. This report describes the method; reviews some of the theoretical, ethical, and methodological issues related to it; and underlines its usefulness as a tool for examining quality-of-care issues in family planning programs. PMID:8351699

  11. [Understanding and implementing the Party's policies on family planning accurately in an all-around way].

    PubMed

    Liang, J; Peng, Z

    1984-05-29

    Recently, the Party's Central Committee held numerous meetings to study the problem of family planning. The main goal of these meetings was to find a correct family planning policy, which should be based on common sense, support from the people, and reasonable work from the cadres. Family planning policies and regulations should be realistic and creative. In the implementation of policies, different methods should be adopted for varied situations, and there should also be appropriate guiding principles for different categories. To cope with a new situation, creative methods and approaches should be chosen in order to implement the family planning policy. The correct method will ensure complete implementation of the policy. In family planning work, the first step is the improvement of ideological education, so that the people may have a correct understanding of the need for family planning. In the technical management work of family planning, a constant improvement in the quality of service should be the goal. Through practical working experience in family planning, some rules and regulations will be found, and they should be used to promote the management level and the level of family planning work in general. PMID:12159337

  12. Meeting demand for family planning within a generation: prospects and implications at country level

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoonjoung; Fabic, Madeleine Short; Hounton, Sennen; Koroma, Desmond

    2015-01-01

    Background In order to track progress towards the target of universal access to sexual and reproductive health care services of the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), a measure (demand for family planning satisfied with modern contraceptive methods) and a benchmark (at least 75% by 2030 in all countries) have been recommended. Objectives The goal of this study was to assess the prospects of reaching the benchmark at the country level. Such information can facilitate strategic planning, including resource allocation at global and country levels. Design We selected 63 countries based on their status as least developed according to the United Nations or as a priority country in global family planning initiatives. Using United Nations estimates and projections of family planning indicators between 1970 and 2030, we calculated percent demand for family planning satisfied with modern contraceptive methods for each year and country. We then calculated the annual percentage point changes between 2014 and 2030 required to meet the benchmark. The required rates of change were compared to current projections as well as estimates between 1970 and 2010. Results To reach the benchmark on average across the 63 countries, demand satisfied with modern methods must increase by 2.2 percentage points per year between 2014 and 2030 – more than double current projections. Between 1970 and 2010, such rapid progress was observed in 24 study countries but typically spanning 5–10 years. At currently projected rates, only 9 of the 63 study countries will reach the benchmark. Meanwhile, the gap between projected and required changes is largest in the Central and West African regions, 0.9 and 3.0 percentage points per year, respectively. If the benchmark is achieved, 334 million women across the study countries will use a modern contraceptive method in 2030, compared to 226 million women in 2014. Conclusions In order to achieve the component of the SDGs calling for universal access to sexual and reproductive health services, substantial effort is needed to accelerate rates of progress by a factor of 2 in most study countries and by a factor of 3 in Central and West African countries. PMID:26562140

  13. Plans for a National Physics Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alt, Franz L.; Herschman, Arthur

    Against a background of widespread interest in national information systems, the American Institute of Physics is developing such a system for physics. This program pivots on the design of a new classification system for physics which is to be used, in conjunction with free-language index terms, for the intellectual organization of the physics…

  14. Planning for the National Electronic Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Brian L.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the idea of a national electronic library as a possible solution to current economic trends in the information industry. Topics addressed include commercial entertainment ventures; the decreasing buying power of library acquisition budgets; the need for free access; government's role; cooperation; serials publications; licensing…

  15. National Civil Applications Program: strategic plan vision for 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2004-01-01

    The National Mapping Division (NMD) has developed this comprehensive strategic plan to chart the course of the National Civil Applications Program (NCAP) over the next 5 years. To meet the challenges of the future, the NCAP is changing its program emphases, methods of responding to customer needs, and business practices. The NCAP Strategic Plan identifies the new direction for the program through a series of strategic thrusts and goals for managers to use in formulating plans, establishing program emphases, and determining resource needs and allocations.

  16. 77 FR 6581 - Winter Use Plan, Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National Park, Idaho...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... National Park Service Winter Use Plan, Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National... prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Winter Use Plan, Yellowstone National Park... preparing a supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) for a Winter Use Plan for...

  17. National Infrastructure Protection Plan: Partnering to Enhance Protection and Resiliency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Homeland Security, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The overarching goal of the National Infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP) is to build a safer, more secure, and more resilient America by preventing, deterring, neutralizing, or mitigating the effects of deliberate efforts by terrorists to destroy, incapacitate, or exploit elements of our Nation's critical infrastructure and key resources (CIKR)…

  18. Results of the 2000 National Resident Matching Program: family practice.

    PubMed

    Pugno, P A; McPherson, D S; Schmittling, G T; Kahn, N B

    2000-09-01

    The results of the 2000 National Resident Matching Program (NRMP) reflect substantial volatility in the perceptions and career choices of physicians entering graduate medical education in the United States. Ninety-four fewer positions (191 fewer US seniors) were filled in family practice residency programs through the NRMP in 2000, compared with 1999, as well as 60 fewer (66 fewer US seniors) in primary care internal medicine, 12 fewer in pediatrics-primary care (6 fewer US seniors), and 10 fewer (9 fewer US seniors) in internal medicine-pediatric programs. In contrast, 37 more positions (36 more US seniors) were filled in anesthesiology and 4 more (13 more US seniors) in diagnostic radiology, two "marker" disciplines that have recently been market sensitive. Twelve fewer positions (63 fewer US seniors) were also filled in categorical internal medicine, while 35 fewer positions (104 fewer US seniors) were filled in categorical pediatrics programs, where trainees perceive options for practicing as generalists or entering subspecialty fellowships, depending on the market. While the needs of the nation, especially rural and underserved populations, continue to offer a market for family physicians, family practice experienced a third year of decline through the 2000 NRMP. Current forces, including media hype, market factors, lifestyle choices, debt, and the turbulence of the health care environment, appear to be influencing many students to choose subspecialty rather than primary care careers. PMID:11002864

  19. Invisible and Visible Language Planning: Ideological Factors in the Family Language Policy of Chinese Immigrant Families in Quebec

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curdt-Christiansen, Xiao Lan

    2009-01-01

    This ethnographic inquiry examines how family languages policies are planned and developed in ten Chinese immigrant families in Quebec, Canada, with regard to their children's language and literacy education in three languages, Chinese, English, and French. The focus is on how multilingualism is perceived and valued, and how these three languages…

  20. Male involvement in family planning decision making in Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ijadunola, Macellina Y; Abiona, Titilayo C; Ijadunola, Kayode T; Afolabi, Olusegun T; Esimai, Olapeju A; OlaOlorun, Funmilola M

    2010-12-01

    This study assessed men's awareness, attitude, and practice of modern contraceptive methods, determined the level of spousal communication, and investigated the correlates of men's opinion in family planning decision making in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Quantitative methodology was employed in this cross-sectional descriptive design using a structured household questionnaire to collect information from 402 male study participants. A multistage sampling procedure was employed. Eighty-nine percent of men approved of the use of family planning while only about 11 percent disapproved of it. Eighty percent of men had ever used contraception while 56 percent of them were current users. Spousal communication about family planning and other family reproductive goals was quite poor. The socio-demographic correlates of men's opinions included religion, marriage type, educational attainment, and occupation (p < 0.05). The study concluded that male involvement in family planning decision making was poor and their patronage of family planning services was low. PMID:21812197

  1. Looking at the formulation of national biosecurity education action plans

    PubMed Central

    Sture, J.; Minehata, M.; Shinomiya, N.

    2015-01-01

    In order for states to be assured of their compliance with the requirements of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, it is necessary that all those science and policy stakeholders working within that state should be aware of their responsibilities under the Convention. This can only be achieved through a comprehensive national biosecurity education programme. We propose that each state should produce a national biosecurity action plan, with accompanying resources and materials to achieve this. A number of resources are already available online to support states in this challenge. We present a model for a national biosecurity action plan and propose a number of ways in which this may be achieved. PMID:22606763

  2. Family planning in Santiageo, Chile: the male viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Hall, M F

    1971-07-01

    To obtain the male viewpoint toward family planning in the Chilean population, 561 men (aged 18-54) in Santiago from upper, middle, and lower socioeconomic levels were interviewed on their birth control attitudes and practices and compared with a random probability sample of 240 men from a nearby rural village. Tabulation of the interviews showed that a majority of both unmarried and married men identified themselves as active participants in birth control discussions. Younger husbands tended to have had more experience with contraception than older husbands, and respondents in higher socioeconomic levels showed a greater use of contraception (75%) than men in the lower class or village sample (35%). 23% of those in the village sample who did not use contraception cited reasons such as lack of knowledge and money or fear of harmful effects, while only 2% of the upper class in the urban sample cited such reasons. Approval of abortion for their wives was expressed by around 40% of all respondents. Approval of abortion in general ranged from 81% in cases of probable fetal deformity to 31% in single girls. Questions on sexual relations revealed that the median age for the first sexual intercourse was 16 years. 91% of the unmarried men were sexually active at a median frequence of once every 2 weeks, and contraception, if used, was most frequently oral or male devices. Among married men, sexual relations occurred at a median frequency of once every 4 days, with contraception, if used, most likely being an intrauterine device. All of the respondents tended to favor dissemination of contraceptive information more readily to men than women. Approval of providing this information to single girls was directly related to economic status. The schools were readily accepted as a forum for contraceptive discussion. The father was by far the preferred principal source of information for a son (44%) rather than friends (6%), but the respondents themselves got their information from friends (41%) rather than their fathers (2%). Including single and married men in family planning counseling programs may increase contraceptive use and lower the abortion rate. PMID:5164354

  3. Learning about the population problem: children's attitudes toward family planning in India.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, S

    1979-03-01

    This research seeks to measure children's awareness of and support for family planning in India, on the premise that they are indications of future fertility behavior. The survey was conducted in June-August 1975 in 6 districts of Andhra Pradesh State, including schools in cities, small towns and villages. The 863 respondents included Hindus and Muslims, various caste groups, 3 language groups, and students in the 6th to 12th classes. Children's awareness of family planning was operationalized through 2 questions: "Have you heard about family planning?" and "Which is better, a big family or a small family?". Results show that 70% had heard of family planning and that approval of family planning is extensive, with only 14% of the sample expressing a preference for large families. Awareness of family planning is clearly correlated in the expected direction with exposure to a modernizing environment, particularly education. Exposure to media and political involvement are also correlated with awareness. Support for family planning is most highly correlated with religion, with Muslim children less approving than Hindu. Party identification and political knowledge are both associated with higher approval. Education and the index of modernity are the only indicators of modernization that correlate with approval. PMID:12156350

  4. Developmental needs and individualized family service plans among infants and toddlers in the child welfare system.

    PubMed

    Casanueva, Cecilia E; Cross, Theodore P; Ringeisen, Heather

    2008-08-01

    This study examines levels of developmental need in young children investigated by child protective services, estimates early intervention service use, and examines need and service use variations during the 5-6 years after investigation on the basis of maltreatment substantiation status. Data were from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, the first nationally representative study of children investigated for maltreatment. The sample comprised 1,845 children aged 0 to 36 months at baseline. Logistic regression with covariate adjustment was used to examine the relationship between having an Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP; a proxy and marker of early intervention services through Part C of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act) and substantiation status. A high prevalence of developmental problems was found among children with substantiated cases and children with unsubstantiated cases. Few children with developmental needs had an IFSP. Substantiation status and level of child welfare system involvement were significantly associated with having an IFSP. PMID:18495948

  5. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan FY 2001-2005

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Darrell R.; Pearson, Erik W.

    2000-12-29

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan for FY 2001-2005 sets forth the laboratory's mission, roles, technical capabilities, and laboratory strategic plan. In the plan, major initiatives also are proposed and the transitioning initiatives are discussed. The Programmatic Strategy section details our strategic intent, roles, and research thrusts in each of the U.S. Department of Energy's mission areas. The Operations/Infrastructure Strategic Plan section includes information on the laboratory's human resources; environment, safety, and health management; safeguards and security; site and facilities management; information resources management; managaement procatices and standards; and communications and trust.

  6. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan FY 2000-2004

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, Erik W.

    2000-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan for FY 2000-2004 sets forth the laboratory's mission, roles, technical capabilities, and laboratory strategic plan. In the plan, major initiatives also are proposed and the transitioning initiatives are discussed. The Programmatic Strategy section details our strategic intent, roles, and research thrusts in each of the U.S. Department of Energy's mission areas. The Operations/Infrastructure Strategic Plan section includes information on the laboratory's human resources; environment, safety, and health management; safeguards and security; site and facilities management; information resources management; management practices and standards; and communications and trust.

  7. Regional Course in the Production and Use of Mass Media and Family Planning Programmes in Asia (Seoul, Republic of Korea, September 14-October 10, 1970). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    This course was organized as a followup to the seminar on mass media and national family planning programs held at UNESCO headquarters in Paris (France), June 23-28, 1969. Among the topics included in the report are: principles and steps in mass media production and utilization; problems arising from the practice of planning, producing, utilizing,…

  8. [Women, family, and reproductive health: a case study on family planning on the outskirts of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Magda Fernanda Medeiros

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study on women from a low-income community in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil, focusing on how the women practice their family planning. The study is based on an analysis of reproductive practices by these women, specifically related to conception and contraception. The paper argues that the family planning care provided to these women involves a so-called "low-profile interventionist" policy, meaning that decisions concerning the number and spacing of children is shifted from the family domain to that of attending physicians, with a gradual transfer of control from the public sector to the health field. PMID:15029345

  9. 77 FR 31215 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ..., Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Dated: May 8... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National..., as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency...

  10. 78 FR 47205 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ..., 56 FR 54757, 3 CFR, 1991 Comp., p. 351; E.O. 12580, 52 FR 2923; 3 CFR, 1987 Comp., p. 193. Appendix B... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National..., as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency...

  11. Intermediate objectives for the monitoring of family planning services.

    PubMed

    Corzantes, C A

    1978-01-01

    Since progress during the early stages of a program cannot easily be measured in terms of the ultimate objectives, there is need to develop a set of intermediate indicators for purposes of necessary evaluation and monitoring. Family planning programs suggest a series of useful intermediate objectives that have a clear cause-and-effect relationship with regard to their ultimate goals. It is important that they be expressed as specific targets. They should provide for a numerical definition of the target population; a given time frame; a service design which takes into account patient load, personnel performance, and service capacities; and a record system that can readily retrieve information about service utilization and also identify each patient individually. At the same time, allowance should be made for periodic review and adjustments in light of modifications that are bound to occur in the composition of the target population as well as possible changes of a sociopolitical nature that might affect the program's scope. PMID:667409

  12. Family planning for new mothers in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Kantner, A; Westley, S B

    1998-10-01

    From November 1997 to February 1998, a survey was conducted to evaluate postpartum family planning (FP) services in the Philippines. Data were gathered from records at 86 clinics in 28 provinces and from interviews with 338 FP providers and 3452 clients who began to use FP within 6 months of delivery. Only 7% of women began using FP within 6 months of delivery, and most postpartum attention was devoted to child care issues. Among the women surveyed, most resumed sexual intercourse at 2.4 months postpartum and experienced a return of menses at 4.4 months postpartum despite breast feeding for 6.2 months. The most commonly recommended method to space births was the IUD followed by the injectable contraceptive. Very few providers recommended use of barrier methods. The results indicate that many breast-feeding women are receiving hormonal contraceptives too soon and that IUD insertion may not be occurring at the ideal time postpartum. While a significant percentage of providers recommended use of the lactational amenorrhea method (LAM) and 16% of the women relied on it, the providers lacked sufficient understanding of LAM. In addition, many women switched or discontinued methods. The study led to the recommendations that postpartum FP services be promoted as an essential part of maternal-child health care and that FP providers receive improved training about contraception and LAM. PMID:12295250

  13. Reassessing Unmet Need for Family Planning in the Postpartum Period.

    PubMed

    Rossier, Clémentine; Bradley, Sarah E K; Ross, John; Winfrey, William

    2015-12-01

    Despite renewed interest in postpartum family planning programs, the question of the time at which women should be expected to start contraception after a birth remains unanswered. Three indicators of postpartum unmet need consider women to be fully exposed to the risk of pregnancy at different times: right after delivery (prospective indicator), after six months of amenorrhea (intermediate indicator), and at the end of amenorrhea (classic indicator). DHS data from 57 countries in 2005-13 indicate that 62 percent (prospective), 43 percent (intermediate), and 32 percent (classic) of women in the first year after a birth have an unmet need for contraception (40 percent when including abstinence). While the protection afforded by postpartum abstinence and lactational amenorrhea lowers unmet need, further analysis shows that women also often rely on these methods without being actually protected. Programs should acknowledge these methods' widespread use and inform women about their limits. Also, the respective advantages of targeting the postnatal period, the end of six months of amenorrhea/exclusive breastfeeding, or the resumption of sexual intercourse to offer contraceptive services should be tested. PMID:26643487

  14. Canadian county-sponsored family planning. 3. A second survey.

    PubMed

    Tyson, J E; Washburn, H H

    1970-03-01

    Information for the Norfolk-Haldimand County Health Unit is family planning clinic from May 1967 through October 1968 (160 new applicants) is presented and compared with the data of the original applicants (163) from May 1966 through April 1967. The pregnancy rate of women applicants age 19-25 was significantly less in the later survey group. There were 27.4% fewer IUD insertions in the second group and a concomitant rise in the number of women receiving oral contraceptives. The overall expulsion rate for the IUD was 11%. During the time covered in the study the overall continuation rate for oral contraceptives was 80%. Over the first 28 months of operation there was a 50% increase in the number of teenagers age 18 and under who had a pregnancy and subsequently requested contraceptive advice. Practically 92% of all applicants attending the clinic had 2 or more children. 90% of patients attending the clinic are women over 18 requesting permanent birth control and since continuation rates for the pill and the IUD are inadquate, sterilization for these women is suggested. PMID:5416702

  15. Canadian county-sponsored family planning. 3. A second survey.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Tyson JE; Washburn HH

    1970-03-01

    Information for the Norfolk-Haldimand County Health Unit is family planning clinic from May 1967 through October 1968 (160 new applicants) is presented and compared with the data of the original applicants (163) from May 1966 through April 1967. The pregnancy rate of women applicants age 19-25 was significantly less in the later survey group. There were 27.4% fewer IUD insertions in the second group and a concomitant rise in the number of women receiving oral contraceptives. The overall expulsion rate for the IUD was 11%. During the time covered in the study the overall continuation rate for oral contraceptives was 80%. Over the first 28 months of operation there was a 50% increase in the number of teenagers age 18 and under who had a pregnancy and subsequently requested contraceptive advice. Practically 92% of all applicants attending the clinic had 2 or more children. 90% of patients attending the clinic are women over 18 requesting permanent birth control and since continuation rates for the pill and the IUD are inadquate, sterilization for these women is suggested.

  16. The Fallopian Dilemma: African Bodies, Citizenship and Family Planning.

    PubMed

    Pussetti, Chiara Gemma

    2015-03-01

    In the recent context of the European Union governmental activity-in particular in this time of crisis-immigration-related issues became of pivotal importance. Social healthcare programmes targeting deprived immigrant populations equate reducing social problems with guiding their conduct towards more responsible, healthier habits and life projects. Building upon a set of debates on governing the body and health under advanced liberalism, this paper, focusing on the Portuguese context and on family planning, suggests ideas towards a new research agenda on immigration and public health, claiming that social care interventions are inherently racialized. The insecurities, threats and overall concerns in a time of global crisis create a state of exception, which justifies the deployment of illiberal practices in order to secure collective well-being. In particular, I am interested in how the dominant discourses of the health and social care sectors influence [1] the ways in which "the right thing to do" is constructed and debated and the material effects of these decisions on immigrants lives; [2] the ongoing strategies, micronegotiations of power and truth between different actors; [3] the fading borders of the subject of medical knowledge, which becomes no longer to govern the body merely according to a medical logic, but rather to seek social well-being. PMID:26863238

  17. National Biological Service Research Supports Watershed Planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Craig D.

    1996-01-01

    The National Biological Service's Leetown Science Center is investigating how human impacts on watershed, riparian, and in-stream habitats affect fish communities. The research will provide the basis for a Ridge and Valley model that will allow resource managers to accurately predict and effectively mitigate human impacts on water quality. The study takes place in the Opequon Creek drainage basin of West Virginia. A fourth-order tributary of the Potomac, the basin falls within the Ridge and Valley. The study will identify biological components sensitive to land use patterns and the condition of the riparian zone; the effect of stream size, location, and other characteristics on fish communities; the extent to which remote sensing can reliable measure the riparian zone; and the relationship between the rate of landscape change and the structure of fish communities.

  18. Communicating bioastronautics research to students, families and the nation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLeish, Marlene Y.; Moreno, Nancy P.; Thomson, William A.; Newman, Dava J.; Gannon, Patrick J.; Smith, Roland B.; Denton, Jon J.; James, Robert K.; Wilson, Craig; Sognier, Marguerite; Illman, Deborah L.

    2005-05-01

    The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) is supporting the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) education mission through a comprehensive Education and Public Outreach Program (EPOP) that communicates the excitement and significance of space biology to schools, families, and lay audiences. The EPOP is comprised of eight academic institutions: Baylor College of Medicine, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Morehouse School of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Texas A&M University, University of Texas Medical Branch Galveston, Rice University, and the University of Washington. This paper describes the programs and products created by the EPOP to promote space life science education in schools and among the general public. To date, these activities have reached thousands of teachers and students around the US and have been rated very highly.

  19. Communicating bioastronautics research to students, families and the nation.

    PubMed

    MacLeish, Marlene Y; Moreno, Nancy P; Thomson, William A; Newman, Dava J; Gannon, Patrick J; Smith, Roland B; Denton, Jon J; James, Robert K; Wilson, Craig; Sognier, Marguerite; Illman, Deborah L

    2005-01-01

    The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) is supporting the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) education mission through a comprehensive Education and Public Outreach Program (EPOP) that communicates the excitement and significance of space biology to schools, families, and lay audiences. The EPOP is comprised of eight academic institutions: Baylor College of Medicine, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Morehouse School of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Texas A&M University, University of Texas Medical Branch Galveston, Rice University, and the University of Washington. This paper describes the programs and products created by the EPOP to promote space life science education in schools and among the general public. To date, these activities have reached thousands of teachers and students around the US and have been rated very highly. PMID:15834996

  20. Islam and family planning: changing perceptions of health care providers and medical faculty in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Mir, Ali Mohammad; Shaikh, Gul Rashida

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT A USAID-sponsored family planning project called “FALAH” (Family Advancement for Life and Health), implemented in 20 districts of Pakistan, aimed to lower unmet need for family planning by improving access to services. To enhance the quality of care offered by the public health system, the FALAH project trained 10,534 facility-based health care providers, managers, and medical college faculty members to offer client-centered family planning services, which included a module to explain the Islamic viewpoint on family planning developed through an iterative process involving religious scholars and public health experts. At the end of the FALAH project, we conducted a situation analysis of health facilities including interviews with providers to measure family planning knowledge of trained and untrained providers; interviewed faculty to obtain their feedback about the training module; and measured changes in women's contraceptive use through baseline and endline surveys. Trained providers had a better understanding of family planning concepts than untrained providers. In addition, discussions with trained providers indicated that the training module on Islam and family planning helped them to become advocates for family planning. Faculty indicated that the module enhanced their confidence about the topic of family planning and Islam, making it easier to introduce and discuss the issue with their students. Over the 3.5-year project period, which included several components in addition to the training activity, we found an overall increase of 9 percentage points in contraceptive prevalence in the project implementation districts—from 29% to 38%. The Islam and family planning module has now been included in the teaching program of major public-sector medical universities and the Regional Training Institutes of the Population Welfare Department. Other countries with sizeable Muslim populations and low contraceptive prevalence could benefit from this module. PMID:25276535