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1

Developing a National Family Planning Primary Healthcare Research Program  

E-print Network

priorities for a programmatic community-based primary healthcare family planning research and researcher to improvements in equitable access to high quality family planning knowledge, services and methods, particularly methods studies (appended) to inform development of an innovative programmatic approach to research

2

Family planning in developing nations: a global concern, our concern.  

PubMed

Rapid population growth is a serious problem in many developing countries and family planning policies developed in response to the problem raise many ethical issues; home economists can help the citizens in their respective countries increase their knowledge of population dynamics and help them assess the ethical implications of population and family planning policies. Most developing countries have high population growth rates. The annual population growth rates for 1975-79 were 2.8% for Africa, 2.6% for Latin America, and 2.1% for Asia. Population grows exponentially: a population growing at an annual rate of 3% increases. 1900% in a century. If current population trends continue the world's population will stablize toward the end of the 21st century at about 10 billion persons, compared to the world's present population of 4.3 billion. Rapid population growth not only threatens the future welfare of society as a whole, but currently impedes the economic development of the world's poorest nations. Consequently, the governments in many developing countries have adopted vigorous family planning programs. It is difficult to reduce population growth in developing countries because these countries have a high proportion of young people in their populations, i.e., a high number of persons of reproductive age. Barriers to family planning acceptance include 1) high illiteracy rates 2) high infant mortality rates 3) the high economic and socialvalue placed on children in developing countries and 4)religious beliefs. Methods used by governments to alter population growth include 1) manipulating access to contraceptives, 2)developing programs to alter social determinants of fertility, 3) using propaganda to encourage or discourage birth control and repressing information contrary to the government's policies, 4) offering incentives to those who further government policies and imposing disincentives on those who do not comply with government policies, and 5) exerting political pressure to force individual to comply with the govermnent's policies. The use of some of these methods raises ethical issues. When does pressure become coercion? Is coecion justified by the need to ensure the future welfare of the world? In India, sterilization was promoted by making payments to sterilization acceptors and promoters and to physicians who performed sterilizations. In Taiwan, savings deposits were made for children of couples with 1 or 2 children, and the deposits were decreased in additional childred were born. In China incentives, disincentives, and polititcal and peer pressure are used to promote the governt's family planning policies. Do these strong measures lead to infaticide and to the abuse of children whose births result in economic loss for other family members? Do they violate human rights? These issues should be discussed in home economics classes, and additional efforts must be made to ensure that male students are also provided with population information. Home economists can promote the critical assessment of the population problem and its solutions. PMID:12339668

Harriman, L

1984-01-01

3

[The National Conference of Propaganda Work on Family Planning held Beijing].  

PubMed

The National Conference on Propaganda Work in Family Planning, held in Beijing from November 1-6, 1982, was sponsored by the the Propaganda Department of the Chinese Communist Party Central Committee and the National Family Planning Committee. Among the 136 participants were representatives from various provincial, city, and autonomous region propaganda and family planning units, the General Political Department of the People's Liberation Army, general trade unions, All China Women's Federation, Communist Youth League, and propaganda reporters. The purpose of the conference was to discuss how to organize family planning propaganda in meeting China's goal of limiting the population to 1,200,000,000 by 2000, and how to arrange a Family Planning Propaganda Month for early 1983. The Chairman of the National Family Planning Committee made 3 points: family planning is a basic national policy, greater propaganda efforts must be made towards peasant family planning, and everyone must work hard to create a new situation in family planning work. The Vice Minister of the Propaganda Department remarked that family planning propaganda was foremost among the 12 national propaganda topics; these sentiments were supported totally by the representatives of the women and youth groups. The Vice Chairman of the Advisory Committee of the Central Committee said that family planning work was longterm, and that its success lay in the countryside. Finally, the Vice Chairman of the National Family Planning Committee encouraged all delegates to take the spirit of the conference back to their home. During the conference delegates also met to discuss important points in planning the Family Planning Propaganda Month. PMID:12312938

Ma, B

1983-01-29

4

[The third medical Rwandan colloquium on the national family planning program].  

PubMed

The 3rd medical colloquium in Rwanda held in Kigali in 1989 was organized jointly by the Ministry of Health and the National Office on Population (ONAPO) to promote use of family planning and to study the process of integrating family planning into basic health services. Objectives of the colloquium included identifying obstacles to family planning use, developing strategies for rational use of health resources so as to offer high quality family planning services, mobilizing health personnel to combat misinformation about family planning, and promoting methods of contraception that are still not frequently used. Over the 3 days of the colloquium there were presentations on Rwanda's family planning policy, the current status of integration of family planning into the health system, and the program of social mobilization and results of a pilot project using community promoters in 2 communes of Ruhengeri. The colloquium among other suggestions recommended that a committee be created to coordinate government and other family planning activities. Areas with particularly strong negative propaganda against modern family planning methods should be identified and should receive intensive family planning education and promotion. Adequate records should be kept of family planning activities. A survey of family planning clients should be undertaken to identify what changes would increase client satisfaction. To combat misinformation, personnel at all levels should continue and intensify provision of objective information, and the Ministry of Health and ONAPO should develop a mechanism for quality control of contraceptives. Efforts to inform the population of different contraceptive methods should be intensified. PMID:12316203

Muhawenimana, A

1989-12-01

5

[Preliminary achievements of China's national economy development and family planning].  

PubMed

A preliminary view of the population control policies of the People's Republic of China is the subject of this report. The report maintains that population control policies are closely linked to economic growth and indicates that criticism by the West of these policies is unfounded. According to an investigation of 1000 married women of child-bearing age carried out in 1981, 19.1% of them have 1 child, 21.4% of them have 2, 49.5% have 3 and only 9.9% of them have no children. This would seem to refute the West's idea of the "1 child only" policy as strict and clear-cut. The report maintains that economic growth and family planning are functions of one another. Although China has made marked progress in population control, its population problem is still far from being resolved as population growth is still relatively high compared to productivity. The marriageable population is extremely high and increase in population create a burden on education, employment, transportation, welfare, housing and medicine each year. The trend in rural areas (which make up 80% of China's population) to have larger families to produce more labor must be reversed in order to make population control objectives feasible. Thus, the need for China to continue its efforts to promote rural economy and family planning must continue. The needs for improvement in promotion and family planning education as well as for improved medical conditions are also evident. PMID:12159290

Xu, D

1986-01-29

6

[To raise the family planning work to a new level--a comprehensive introduction to the National Family Planning Working Conference].  

PubMed

The National Family Planning Working Conference convened on August 10-16, 1982 in Beijing, China. Among the 250 conferees were family planning representatives from various provinces, cities, autonomous regions, the People's Liberation Armt, representatives of partial progressive areas, counties, communes, the Central Committee, State Council, All China Women's Federation, All China Federation of Trade Unions, journalists and population theorists. Topics of discussion included the current situation of family planning work, how to implement the Central Committee's directive on improving family planning work, and the relationship between population law and population development by the year 2000. On August 18 Premier Zhao Ziyang told various representatives at a meeting that population control was a longterm national policy and emphasized its importance in long-range economic and social planning. The Vice-premier of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, Wang Shoudao, implored the representatives to understand the directive's contents and said family planning would serve later generations. The Chairman of the National Family Planning Commission, Quian Xinzhong, reviewed the current population situation, noting the encouraging fact that the birth rate for the first 6 months of 1982 was higher than the first 6 months in 1981 by only 1/1000. In order to raise birth control work to a new level, he suggested the following steps: strengthen family planning propaganda; strenuously follow the policy of 1 child per family; obtain permission to have a 2nd child; oppose unplanned births; establish various birth control responsibility systems; and improve contraceptive research and techniques. PMID:12159365

Peng, Z L

1982-11-29

7

Use of Services for Family Planning and Infertility, United States, 1982. (Data from the National Survey of Family Growth, Series 23, No. 13).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Survey of Family Growth is a periodic survey conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics, and designed to produce national estimates of statistics on fertility, family planning, and aspects of maternal and child health that are closely related to childbearing. This report presents statistics based on data collected in the…

Horn, Marjorie C.; Mosher, William D.

1986-01-01

8

The family planning service.  

PubMed

In 1978, 1,521,400 women in Great Britain obtained contraceptives through the National Health Service (NHS) family planning clinics, in 1980 the number was 1,468,000; likewise in 1978 2,118,313 women obtained them through general practitioners who offer a contraceptive service and in 1980 the number was also down, to 2,033,810. There has been little expansion in the provision of family planning clinics or the organization of extra sessions, contrasting with the expansion program of the Family Planning Association (FPA) when they largely had the responsibility of providing services, before 1974. Clinic sessions should be available for people of all ages but young people might respond better to separate, less formal arrangements. For children under age 16 the professional should persuade the child to involve the parents as soon as possible. Health visitors must be well trained in family planning to provide advice and support to patients. With the recent restructuring of Health Authorities, family planning services must not be cut in order to save money. The FPA must ask the government to reissue the May 1974 family planning service Memorandum of Guidance, and must write to those responsible for the supervision of family planning services in this regard. PMID:6550171

Arger, K

1983-01-01

9

Family planning education.  

PubMed

17 days were spent devoted to the effort of learning about China's educational approach to family planning in the hope of discovering how they are achieving their remarkable success in reducing population growth. As a member of the 1981 New York University/SIECUS Colloquim in China, it was necessary to rely on the translation provided by the excellent guides. Discussions were focused on questions prepared in advance about the topics that concerned the group. These observations, based on a short and limited exposure, cover the following areas: marriage and family planning policies; the family planning program; school programs; adult education; family planning workers; and unique aspects of the program. China has an official position on marriage and family planning that continues to undergo revisions. The new marriage law sets the minimum ages of marriage at 22 for men and 20 for women. Almost everyone marries, and an unmarried person over age 28 is a rarity. The family planning program in China is carried out by an extensive organizational network at national, provincial, and local government levels. Officials termed it a "propaganda campaign." Hospitals, clinics, and factories invariably displayed posters; a popular set of four presents the advantages of the 1 child family as follows: late marriage is best, for it allows more time to work and study; 1 child is best for the health of the mother; one gets free medical care for his/her child if a family has only 1 child; and there is more time to teach 1 child. The state operated television regularly explains the 1 child policy utilizing special films. According to 1 family planning official, "before marriage there is little sex." There are few abortions for unmarried women. Education about sex is for adults, for those persons who are about to be married. There is little if any sex education in schools. Sexual teaching is not generally acceptable, especially in the rural areas. By contrast, in Shanghai the physiology teaching in the middle school does include sex education and reproduction. Sex information for adults is offered at the time of marriage. Married or about to be married adults are the major target of the state's family planning education effort. The key educators are an extensive network of family planning workers. All hospitals have a family planning office, and there are also family planning workers in the factories. What is unique about the Chinese approach is its use of reward and punishment. PMID:6550674

Hamburg, M V

1983-02-01

10

Family planning in Singapore.  

PubMed

Since the initial voluntary efforts of the Singapore Family Planning Association in 1949, family planning in Singapore has made important progress. This effort extended over the years until the end of 1965 when the government accepted full responsibility for family planning on a national scale. In September 1965, the government announced a 5-year National Family Planning Program with the goal of reducing the birthrate from 32/1000 in 1964 to below 20/1000 by 1970. This would result in a growth rate of not more than 1.5%. The government program aims at reaching 60% of married women in the reproductive age range of 15-45. It is estimated that out of 450,000 in this age range, some 300,000 are married. The target is 180,000 in 5 years. The Singapore Family Planning & Population Board was established by an Act of Parliament and charged with responsibility for the implementation of the 5-year plan. The national program offers a menu card of all family planning methods except abortion. Initial focus was on the IUD as the method of choice for 80%. Oral contraception (OC) was the preferred alternative for the remaining 20%. Other conventonal methods also were available. A few months after the plan began in 1966, the IUD became unacceptable to Singapore women. Its side effects of bleeding, cramps, perforation, and pregnancy were exaggerated by rumors. By the middle of 1966, attendance and acceptors in the national program had declined. Emphasis in the national program was changed to OCs, which now are the mainstay of family planning. Currently, nearly 65% of the acceptors use OCs. The program also demonstrates the importance, especially in urban areas, of the tremendous impact of a postpartum family planning service. Over 70% of the births in Singapore take place at the Kandang Kerbau Maternity Hospitals. Government midwives deliver another 5%. All these women are contacted by a team of family planning workers in the postpartum period and are offered family planning. Nearly 90% verbally accept appointments for family planning in the hospital. Eventually, some 50% do come for service. During the past 18 months, nearly 1400-1500 new acceptors each month, out of an average of 2500-2600 per month, are recruited into the program through the postpartum service. A massive publicity program was launched in the middle of July 1966 when mass media, in particular government radio and television supported by extensive press publicity, was used. The entire program and its publicity is essentially female-centered but some appeal is made to the family as a whole. Singapore's 5-year family planning program is designed to reduce its birthrate from 30 to 20/1000 in 5 years. It has reached half this objective in the first 2 years. PMID:12313933

Kanagaratnam, K

1968-01-01

11

Family planning defended [India].  

PubMed

Indira Gandhi, Prime Minister of India, criticized what she termed excessive propaganda on the part of certain political parties and groups against family planning, indicating that there was a tremendous need for family planning in a country with a population of 660 million. In a television interview Gandhi stressed that her government believed in persuasion and not coercion as the means of controlling population growth. A mass sterilization campaign conducted during Gandhi's previous government 3 years ago was 1 of the main factors influencing her defeat in the 1977 national elections. A national population policy setting the goals and strategy for curbing population growth is now being formulated, but the government has provided sufficient indication that there will be no return to compulsion which had marked the implementation of the family planning program during 1975-1976. Family planning is presently being pursued as a totally voluntary program and as an integral part of a comprehensive policy including education and health. The plan is to organize 50,000 camps in which 2 million persons are expected to participate. PMID:12278475

12

Family Emergency Preparedness Plan 1 Family Emergency Preparedness Plan  

E-print Network

#12;#12;Family Emergency Preparedness Plan 1 Family Emergency Preparedness Plan Why Plan Emergency Telephone Numbers.....................................................26 Credits The Family Military Department, Emergency Management Division. #12;2 Family Emergency Preparedness Plan Why plan

Noble, James S.

13

The Progress of Nations: The Nations of the World Ranked Acording to Their Achievements in Health, Nutrition, Education, Family Planning, and Progress for Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report documents the progress made in developing and developed nations to improve health, nutrition, education, family planning, and the condition of women over the last 40 years. It presents tables that rank the world's nations and regions on: (1) the mortality rate of children under 5 years of age; (2) the percent of children under 5 years…

Adamson, Peter, Ed.

14

National program for family planning and primary health care Pakistan: a SWOT analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The National Program for Family Planning and Primary Healthcare was launched in 1994. It is one of the largest community based programs in the world, providing primary healthcare services to about 80 million people, most of which is rural poor. The program has been instrumental in improving health related indicators of maternal and child health in the last two decades. Methods SWOT analysis was used by making recourse to the structure and dynamics of the program as well as searching the literature. SWOT analysis Strengths of the program include: comprehensive design of planning, implementation and supervision mechanisms aided by an MIS, selection and recruitments processes and evidence created through improving health impact indicators. Weaknesses identified are slow progress, poor integration of the program with health services at local levels including MIS, and de-motivational factors such as job insecurity and non-payment of salaries in time. Opportunities include further widening the coverage of services, its potential contribution to health system research, and its use in areas other than health like women empowerment and poverty alleviation. Threats the program may face are: political interference, lack of funds, social threats and implications for professional malpractices. Conclusion Strengthening of the program will necessitate a strong political commitment, sustained funding and a just remuneration to this bare foot doctor of Pakistan, the Lady Health Worker. PMID:24268037

2013-01-01

15

Family Employability Development Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the Family Employability Development Plan (FEDP) process, a facilitator works with the family to help its members acquire the skills to develop their own plan for economic independence. The facilitator helps coordinate the interagency effort and helps the family become empowered to carry out its own plan. Carried out as a pilot project in 13…

Michigan State Dept. of Education, Lansing. Adult Extended Learning Services.

16

[The present task of family planning as suggested by the findings of the National Sample Survey of Fertility].  

PubMed

Results from the 1982 census show great progress has been made in the field of family planning because of close cooperation between the people and the government. Under the influence of the high birth rate in the 1950s and 1960s, a large number of youths are reaching the age for marriage each year, and they are bringing heavy pressure on the population growth. As a result of this situation, family planning work is still urgently needed. A great difference exists between cities and rural areas in family planning work. Economic conditions, cultural and educational levels, occupational characteristics, living environments, and concepts of population growth have contributed to this difference. Henceforth, special emphasis should be placed on family planning work in rural areas, so that the large scale population groth in the countryside may be brought under control. In areas of scientific management, propaganda and education, and technical measures for family planning, modern and and progressive methods should be used in order to reach the national goal of controlling population growth. PMID:12159373

Xiao, Z; Chen, S

1983-07-29

17

The Progress of Nations: The Nations of the World Ranked According to Their Achievements in Child Health, Nutrition, Education, Family Planning, and Progress for Women, 1994.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report brings together the latest available statistics to record national achievements in child survival, health, nutrition, education, family planning, and progress for women. Each section contains a commentary and a presentation of related statistics. The commentaries of the report are: (1) Introduction, "One Small Step for a Summit" (Peter…

Adamson, Peter, Ed.

1994-01-01

18

[Wang Renzhong, Chen Muhua stress family planning].  

PubMed

Wang Renzhong, secretary of the Secretariat of the CCP Central Committee, and Chen Muhua, vice premier of the State Council, addressed the national discussion meeting on propaganda for family planning. Wang Renzhong stated that if population control and family planning continue to be overlooked, population growth will become a calamity in the future. He identified family planning as a permanent strategic task and said that more publicity should be given to family planning, particularly in the rural areas. Chen Muhua discussed her recent briefing to Vice Chairman Deng on the progress made in family planning during 1980 and the current problems. She reported that Vice Chairman Deng expressed satisfaction over the 1980 achievements in family planning. Deng advised creating public opinion in favor of family planning. The national discussion meeting on propaganda for family planning was held in Beijing during January. Measures for implementing "major points of propaganda on controlling China's population growth" were studied. PMID:12264003

1981-01-15

19

Nationalism, race, and gender: the politics of family planning in Zimbabwe, 1957-1990.  

PubMed

In line with a general tendency of nationalists to hold pro-natalist views, African nationalists in Zimbabwe took a hostile position to family planning upon its introduction in 1957, arguing that it was part of a conspiracy to control the black population. However, it was only after the unilateral declaration of independence in 1965 by the white settlers under Ian Smith that an official policy aimed at reducing African fertility emerged. The African nationalists waged a consistent propaganda campaign against this policy, and the facilities that were established under it, as well as their personnel, became military targets during the guerrilla war in the late 1970s. After independence in 1980, the triumphant nationalists tried to maintain their pro-natalist position. But, with a postwar 'baby boom' pushing the birth rate close to four per cent by the mid-1980s, the officials in charge of economic and social development concluded that society could not sustain such a high fertility rate. Consequently, there was a reversal of policy, and by 1990 Zimbabwe had become an internationally recognized leader of family planning among developing countries. For the most part, however, these changes have taken place without any real input by African women, who remained largely excluded from the male-dominated circles in which decisions about family planning were made. PMID:11639476

West, M O

1994-12-01

20

JSTOR: Family Planning Perspectives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The full text of Family Planning Perspectives, v. 1-33, 1969-2001 is now available online at JSTOR. Visitors can search or browse the journal. Note: access to JSTOR contents is currently available only on a site license basis to academic institutions. A list of institutions with site licenses is provided.

21

Rakhaine community embraces family planning.  

PubMed

The Rakhaines are a small, tightly knit community of 15,000 people who occupy parts of the coastal and hilly districts of southern Bangladesh. It is a closed community with different ethnic origins and religion from other Bangladeshis. As such, they have been largely unreached by government health and family planning services. In response to the need to bring services to these people, contact was established between the Family Planning Association of Bangladesh (FPAB) and the Rakhaine in 1987 in the interest of improving family health and well-being among the Rakhaine people through the introduction of maternal and child health care and family planning. The Family Planning Services for the Rakhaine Community project of the FPAB began in Cox's Bazar and Harbang in late 1987, and spread gradually over the hilly terrain inhabited by the Rakhaine to now serve 2000 couples. Although family planning was the focal point, the project also incorporated schemes for income generation, maternal and child health care, and sanitation. At baseline, less than 25% of reproductive age couples were using contraception, but this proportion grew to 69% by 1993, higher than the national contraceptive prevalence rate of approximately 40%. Used by 41% of married women of reproductive age, the pill is the most preferred contraceptive method, followed by sterilization among 10% of women. The efforts of fieldworkers were crucial to program success. The author notes that current users have been using contraception on average for just over two years. Moreover, the level of tetanus toxoid immunization rose to 60% of pregnant women, while 75% of children are now immunized against major life-threatening diseases. Some costs are recovered, but not enough to finance the project. PMID:12345743

Chowdhury, S M

1994-01-01

22

The impact of family planning on primary school enrolment in sub-national areas within 25 African countries.  

PubMed

We study how the availability and use of family planning services in African countries influences the family planning situation of households and through this the educational participation of young children. A district panel dataset is used for 441 urban and rural areas within 233 districts of 25 countries. Path analysis shows that a decrease in the number of births is associated with an increase in educational participation in the area. The number of births is negatively associated with acceptance, knowledge and actual use of contraceptives in the area. As reversed causality and selection bias seem unlikely, the identified relationship probably is at least partially causal. Hence, investments in family planning services in poor areas are not only important because they allow women to plan their births better, but also because they may lead to higher primary enrolment rates and thus contribute to the region's future economic growth. PMID:24069749

Longwe, Abiba; Smits, Jeroen

2013-06-01

23

Family Planning in Asia.  

PubMed

In this article the medical director of IPPF, Dr. Malcolm Potts, reviews some new aspects of family planning as discussed in a regional IPPF conference in 1970 in Tokyo and as he gathered impressions from his travels in Asia. Nearly all Asian countries have governmental family planning programs. However, for the most part, bottlenecks have developed in these programs, and the achievements have been disappointing. The population in Asia is biased towards the younger age groups. Migration makes only a marginal difference. Unemployment is a serious social program which will be magnified by additional labor force. Japan has demonstrated that legal abortion can be a relatively safe procedure while in Korea induced abortion is illegal. Conversely, in Korea oral contraceptives have been successfully distributed in the governmental program while in Japan the method is still not approved by the government. A bill to reform the abortion law is before the Indian parliament. In Mainland China, IUDs, oral contraceptives and condoms are in use; sterilization and abortion are available upon request. PMID:12254734

Potts, M

1970-01-01

24

Family Planning Handbook for Doctors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) believes that all people have the right to family planning information, including premarital and marital counseling, contraception information, and sex education. This physician's handbook is designed to provide all doctors with the necessary instructions on the latest family planning methods…

Kleinman, Ronald L., Ed.

25

FAmily planning in Taiwan.  

PubMed

At the turn of the century, Taiwan's population was increasing slowly, then later grew during a period of high fertility after the end of World War II and the accordance of independence in 1946. This growth in fertility came together with increasing life expectancy and a general desire by couples to have families comprised of 5-6 children. Taiwan was therefore poised to experience a major population explosion. In this context, a family planning program was established in the country which has since evolved into one of the world's most successful such programs. By 1990, the preferred family size was 2-3 children and of couples which already had 2 children, 70% of those without any sons were nonetheless practicing contraception. While in 1965, no married women used contraception until they had some children, by 1990, 27% of married women without children used contraception. Increasing age at marriage has been an important factor in Taiwan's declining fertility, with the average age at marriage increasing from 20 years in the 1950s to approximately 27 in the 1970s. Few mothers, however, want only one child. The fertility trends observed in Taiwan have been made possible through the provision of contraception, which used to be universally free, but which is now provided free to only people of low income or the disabled. Oral contraception, condoms, and IUDs are used, although 30% of couples depend upon sterilization. PMID:9741982

Trewinnard, K

1998-07-01

26

Family planning for travellers.  

PubMed

A public health nurse from London describes the customs of nomadic people in the British Isles, known as "travellers," as they affect provision of family planning services. Most are of British or Irish stock, some migrate and others live in caravan sites all year. Their traditions dictate that men work and women are housewives. Early, often arranged, marriage, early childbearing and large families are the norm. Sex and contraception are not considered appropriate for discussion between the sexes, or in the presence of children. Large families and financial hardship force many women to space pregnancies. Women often have to hide contraceptives from their husbands, difficult in conditions without privacy. Therefore they prefer IUDs, but some use oral contraceptives, although sometimes erratically because most are illiterate. Traveller women are usually unwilling to do self-examination, as needed with IUDs. They often have difficulty attending regular Pap smear clinics. Cervical cancer rates are high. They experience discrimination in clinics, and need extra care about modesty. It is worth while to take time to develop trust in the clinical relationship, to deal with the traveller woman's uneasy among outsiders. PMID:2286082

Rustom, A

1990-11-01

27

Obstetrician-gynecologists’ views on contraception and natural family planning: a national survey  

PubMed Central

Objective To characterize beliefs about contraception among obstetrician-gynecologists (Ob/Gyns). Study design National mailed survey of 1800 U.S. Ob/Gyns. Criterion variables were whether physicians have a moral or ethical objection to - and whether they would offer – six common contraceptive methods. Covariates included physician demographic and religious characteristics. Results 1154 of 1760 eligible Ob/Gyns responded (66%). Some Ob/Gyns object to intrauterine devices (4.4% object, 3.6% would not offer), progesterone implants and/or injections (1.7% object, 2.1% would not offer), tubal ligations (1.5% object, 1.5% would not offer), oral contraceptive pills (1.3% object, 1.1% would not offer), condoms (1.3% object, 1.8% would not offer), and the diaphragm or cervical cap with spermicide (1.3% object, 3.3% would not offer). Religious physicians were more likely to object (OR 7.4) and to refuse to provide a contraceptive (OR 1.9). Conclusion Controversies about contraception are ongoing, but among Ob/Gyns objections and refusals to provide contraceptives are infrequent. PMID:21074134

Lawrence, Ryan E; Rasinski, Kenneth A; Yoon, John D; Curlin, Farr A

2010-01-01

28

Population Growth: Family Planning Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These proceedings of the second annual symposium on population growth bring together speeches and panel discussions on family planning programs. Titles of speeches delivered are: Communicating Family Planning (Mrs. Jean Hutchinson); Effects of New York's Abortion Law Change (Dr. Walter Rogers); The Law and Birth Control, Sterilization and Abortion…

Doberenz, Alexander R., Ed.; Taylor, N. Burwell G., Ed.

29

[Integration in family planning programs].  

PubMed

The question of whether family planning programs should be integrated with other activities or limited strictly to contraception has been debated for years without achievement of consensus. Profamilia, the Colombian family planning organization, has been a firm advocate of a vertical program without other activities. A large body of economic and demographic data and evaluations of numerous programs in numerous places support the Profamilia position that both economic development and family planning programs are important in achieving demographic objectives, but if only 1 is possible in a given country, a good family planning program gives better results. Profamilia, a private, nonprofit organization, is responsible for 2/3 of the contraception practiced in Colombia. Profamilia's success appears to demonstrate that an effective program, even in a country no more promising otherwise than any of its neighbors, can achieve excellent results. For government-run programs, it may be politically impossible to avoid an integrated family planning program; the public is likely to question the emphasis on family planning if other urgent health needs go unattended. But even government-run programs may create separate structures with separate funding and personnel for specific problems such as malaria control, suggesting recognition of their greater efficiency. A nongovernmental organization such as Profamilia, faced with a continuing struggle for funding, must concentrate its resources on fulfilling its mission of allowing couples to decide freely on the timing and extent of their reproduction. Vertical programs, tolerant if not enthusiastic governments, and abundant demand are the 3 factors that have led to high rates of contraceptive usage in some countries; sthe contraceptive prevalence rate is 60% in Colombia. A number of studies in the late 1970s and early 1980s have shown that funds directed to family planning have a far greater demographic impact than do equal amounts directed to rural female education, nutrition, or control of infant mortality. Verticality in a family planning program should be understood to include all activities that attract potential family planning acceptors, as well as all services which generate funds that can be channeled to family planning programs and that contribute to program efficiency. Pregnancy tests, Pap smears, gynecological or urological consultations, social marketing, antiparasite campaigns, and treatments of infertility, sexually transmitted diseases, or sexual dysfunctions are all appropriate components of a vertical family planning program. True and unacceptable integration views contraception as a remote and secondary goal, while the type of "false" integration described above views family planning as its epicenter and does everything possible to promote and facilitate contraception. PMID:12268899

Trias, M

1987-01-01

30

Iran's revolutionary approach to family planning.  

PubMed

This article presents Iran's revolutionary approach to family planning. In 1967, the "Tehran Declaration" acknowledged family planning as a human right promoting the social and economic welfare of families and society; however, this program was dismantled after the Revolution. After the war with Iraq in 1988, the government realized that rapid population growth was a hindrance to development and subsequently called for the establishment of a national family planning program. In December 1989, the revived family planning program was inaugurated with three major goals: 1) encourage spacing of 3-4 years between pregnancies; 2) discourage pregnancies among women aged under 18 and over 35 years; and 3) limit family size to 3 children. In May 1993, a law was passed that included disincentive penalties for couples who had more than 3 children. According to the Ministry of Health and Medical Education (1989-97), there was an increased use of contraceptives among married women, and the total fertility rate (TFR) dropped from 5.2 to 2.6 children. Moreover, Iran's 1996 census showed a total population of 60.6 million with an average annual growth rate of 1.5% over the previous 5-year period. Iran's success in bringing about a decline in its TFR has been helped by the integration of family planning and primary health care and the involvement of various segments of society. PMID:12322212

Roudi, F

1999-01-01

31

Men and Family Planning in Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Having followed a pronatalist policy during the first decade of its life, the Islamic Republic of Iran adopted a frankly antinatalist policy with specific demographic and health objectives in 1989. The official Family Planning Programme reintroduced since then has proven exceptionally effective by international standards. By 1997, when the last nation-wide KAP survey was conducted, contraceptive prevalence rate had risen

Amir H. Mehryar; F. Mostafavi; Homa Agha

32

A Profile of Succession Planning among Family Business Owners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from the 1997 National Family Business Survey, this study analyzed 673 family- owned businesses. Consistent with other studies, the findings indicated that only 20 percent had a written succession plan. Among 673 family business owners, only about 14% developed a net worth statement and 13% met with a financial planner or business consultant to discuss estate planning. Those

Yoon G. Lee; Cynthia R. Jasper; Karen P. Goebel

33

Approaching 4 Decades of Legislation in the National Family Planning Program: An Analysis of Title X's History From 1970 to 2008  

PubMed Central

Family planning is an important public health activity. Title X (Pub L No. 91-572), enacted in 1970, remains the only national family planning program in the United States dedicated to providing voluntary and confidential services to all individuals. We conducted a thematic analysis of Title X's legislative history. Of 293 federal bills included in the legislative history, only 20 (6.8%) were enacted into law. Regardless of the proposed challenges, limited changes have been adopted. Except for technical amendments, bills involving restrictions accounted for the highest percentage of enacted bills, demonstrating efforts to undermine reproductive health rights. Title X requires political will and bipartisan support if it is to continue to protect individuals' reproductive rights. PMID:21940931

Daley, Ellen M.; Perrin, Kay M.; Mahan, Charles S.; Buhi, Eric R.

2011-01-01

34

Family planning propaganda outline, 1988.  

PubMed

In 1988, the regional Family Planning (FP) Commission of Nei Monggol, China, issued a propaganda outline containing the following language: "In order to fulfill the three fighting targets put forward by the autonomous regional party committee, efforts should be made to accelerate the speed of developing the economy on the one hand and bring population growth under strict control on the other hand. It is necessary to further stabilize the existing policy on FP work and to continuously encourage one couple to have one child throughout their life. In allowing rural people to have a second birth, rural authorities must strictly enforce the measure, strictly ban second or more births outside the plan, and strictly prohibit people marrying too early and giving birth too early. Minority nationalities should also implement the FP policy in line with the demand of central authorities." The propaganda outline also urges Communist party members, CYL members, and cadres at all levels to actively respond to the party's call and be vanguards in FP work. PMID:12289660

1988-01-01

35

[Family planning in New York].  

PubMed

The nurse Margaret Sanger started the 1st American contraception consultation in 1916 in Bronxville, N.Y. Today the Planned Parenthood Federation of America has 800 clinics in all states. A clinic in White Plains, N.Y., had 31,297 visits a year mostly from low-income people. Services consist of contraceptive and abortion counseling, abortion and infertility procedures, cancer tests with colposcopy and breast examination, and tests concerning sexually transmitted disease and human immunodeficiency virus infection. An adolescent pregnancy impact program helps future mothers ages 13-21 with the Lamaze method, health and diet, delivery, child development, family planning (FP), and life style. Abortion figures in New York State in 1989 showed that among white women ages 15-19 there were 49 abortions and 29 births/89 pregnancies, while among nonwhites with identical parameters there were 120 abortions and 77 births/225 pregnancies. Overall 11% of this age group give birth every year and about 5% get an abortion. The Supreme Court decision in the case of Roe v. Wade in 1973 gave women the right to abortion during the 1st trimester. That same year the National Right to Life Committee was formed with the goal of reimposing the ban on abortions. In 1977 the Supreme Court ruled that states did not have to pay for voluntary abortions. Each state determines whether a minor has to inform her parents. From 1985 there have been 22 bomb and arson attempts, 42 cases of vandalism, 2 break-ins, 1 bomb attack against a car, 15 death threats, and 7 instances of maltreatment of FP and abortion clinic staff. In 1989 states were allowed to restrict the right to abortion. In 1991 Utah banned abortion except for incest, rape, and risk to the mother's health. Other states also plan to change their abortion laws. PMID:1765559

Bolin, H

1991-09-01

36

Virginians tune-in to family planning.  

PubMed

Virginia Bureau of Family Planning initiated an information program aimed at the state's diverse geography which reflects its many cultures using television public service announcements (PSAs). 4 PSAs were produced: economic consideration of family planning, eligibility requirements for services, and 2 general presentations. Following success of these spots, radio spots were developed geared to specific target audiences. These spots built a framework for outreach workers who independently operate clinics in the 39 Virginia health districts. Even though highly regionalized, the Bureau maintains close contact with each district and directs feedback sessions where common problems and experiences are discussed. The Bureau also began a bimonthly newsletter in 1975 which keeps 3000 subscribers abreast of family planning activities. These information dissemination efforts have paid off: Virginia hospitals are required to provide family planning literature to all maternity patients. And Virginia has the nation's 1st ongoing statewide, publicly run voluntary sterilization program, servicing 1000 patients free of charge during the 1st year of operation. The Bureau operates on an annual budget of $5.3 million in state funds as well as HEW Title 5, 10, and 20 family planning funding. PMID:12277857

1977-01-01

37

USA aborts international family planning.  

PubMed

The US Agency for International Development (USAID) has been a leader in international family planning for almost 30 years, accounting for 46% of all funds in international family planning provided by OECD countries during 1991. Moreover, relative to other donor countries, the US supplies worldwide a disproportionate amount of contraceptives. While international family planning activities received $546 million in 1995, the budget was slashed in 1996 to $72 million. This unprecedented cut will have a profound effect upon the reproductive health and family planning choices of tens of millions of people in developing countries. Millions of additional unintended pregnancies and maternal and child deaths may result. 1996 began with the White House and Congress in political gridlock, with negotiations on foreign aid stalled on the issue of abortion. The Republican-led House of Representatives wanted to bar support of any nongovernmental organization (NGO) which also provided information on abortion, while Democratic President Bill Clinton affirmed that he would veto such legislation. At the end of January, the House passed the Balanced Budget and Down Payment Act (HR 2880) containing clauses which cut the aid budget by 35% and barring new money in the area of family planning until July 1. Spending was limited to the allocation of 6.5% of the total budget each month. Some social marketing programmers who distribute condoms and oral contraceptives are already feeling the pinch, and some programs will simply run out of contraceptives. This cut in funding also bodes ill for achieving the goals of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. There is, however, hope that the cuts will be reversed for the next fiscal year. The author notes survey findings which indicate that US citizens support higher budgets for family planning. PMID:8596311

Potts, M

1996-03-01

38

[Family planning among gipsy women].  

PubMed

Family is the major social unit of gipsy society. The basic value in ethno-culture of gypsies is children. As in almost all aspects of health, regarding the reproduction health and access to health care gipsy population do not have good enough indexes. The purpose of this research is to determine the information gipsy women have about family planning. The inquiry is conducted through 100 gipsy women in different ages in the village Bukovlak, Pleven municipality. PMID:20380105

Dilova, P; Popova, T; Atanassova, K; Samuilova, E

2009-01-01

39

Incentives to promote family planning  

PubMed Central

Objective Over the past 60 years, population control has become an increasingly urgent issue worldwide as a growing population strains already limited resources. The use of financial incentives to promote family planning is an innovative approach that has potential to make a contribution to efforts to better manage population growth. This report reviews eight studies that examined the effect of incentives on family planning. Method Published studies that tested the impact of incentives to promote some aspect of family planning and included an appropriate control or comparison condition were reviewed. Results Incentives have been used to promote attendance at contraceptive education sessions, adoption and continuation of contraceptive methods, sterilization, and to limit family size. All but one of the eight studies reviewed reported positive outcomes, but weaknesses in study design and execution limit the strength of the conclusions that can be drawn. Conclusion Review of this literature suggests that family planning behaviors, like other behaviors, are sensitive to incentives. Given the tremendous need for efficacious interventions in global efforts to manage population growth, further research on this topic using more rigorous experimental methods is warranted. PMID:22743293

Heil, Sarah H.; Gaalema, Diann E.; Herrmann, Evan S.

2012-01-01

40

National Military Family Association  

MedlinePLUS

... quick fact sheet about this program. Military Spouse Scholarships The mission of this scholarship program is to help prepare military spouses for ... better contribute to their family’s financial security. Our scholarships are awarded to spouses of all Uniformed Services ...

41

Planning National Radiotherapy Services  

PubMed Central

Countries, states, and island nations often need forward planning of their radiotherapy services driven by different motives. Countries without radiotherapy services sponsor patients to receive radiotherapy abroad. They often engage professionals for a feasibility study in order to establish whether it would be more cost-beneficial to establish a radiotherapy facility. Countries where radiotherapy services have developed without any central planning, find themselves in situations where many of the available centers are private and thus inaccessible for a majority of patients with limited resources. Government may decide to plan ahead when a significant exodus of cancer patients travel to another country for treatment, thus exposing the failure of the country to provide this medical service for its citizens. In developed countries, the trigger has been the existence of highly visible waiting lists for radiotherapy revealing a shortage of radiotherapy equipment. This paper suggests that there should be a systematic and comprehensive process of long-term planning of radiotherapy services at the national level, taking into account the regulatory infrastructure for radiation protection, planning of centers, equipment, staff, education programs, quality assurance, and sustainability aspects. Realistic budgetary and cost considerations must also be part of the project proposal or business plan. PMID:25505730

Rosenblatt, Eduardo

2014-01-01

42

78 FR 71431 - National Family Week, 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Proclamation 9061--National Family Week, 2013 Presidential Documents Federal Register...9061 of November 22, 2013 National Family Week, 2013 By the President of the United States...American society. During National Family Week, we celebrate the spirit that moves...

2013-11-27

43

National Development Plan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Throughout the 1990s, Ireland experienced phenomenal growth in the emerging fields of information technologies (including such sectors as website design), and was dubbed the Celtic Tiger, due to its economic success. The country envisions a strong development plan for the coming years, hence the reason for this very site. Ireland's National Development Plan involves an investment of over 52-billion euros of public, private, and EU funds over the period from 2000 to 2006, and involves significant improvements in health services, social housing, education, roads, rural development, and industry. The site itself contains a bevy of documents, such as an executive summary and a complete version of the Development Plan itself, and a project database, which details the status of the hundreds of projects which are an integral part of this ongoing process. Overall, this site will be of great interest to persons working in the field of social policy, planning, and international development schemes.

44

Effectiveness of Family Planning Methods  

MedlinePLUS

Effectiveness of Family Planning Methods Most Effective Less than 1 pregnancy per 100 women in a year Reversible Implant 0.05 %* Intrauterine Device (IUD) LNG - ... Laparoscopic, Hysteroscopic) 0.5 % How to make your method most effective After procedure, little or nothing to ...

45

FAMILY PLANNING PROGRAMS IN ASIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population explosion in Asia has reached crisis proportions. Fortunately many of the countries in Asia, as well as the developed countries in the West, recognize the severity of the crisis and are actively supporting Family Planning Programs to bring contraception education and supplies to the populace. The Programs are still in their infancy, but some of them (Taiwan, South

M. S. DIXON

46

[Family Planning Circular of 1990].  

PubMed

In 1990, the government of Guangdong issued a Family Planning Circular demanding that the people of Guangdong take immediate actions to push ahead with Guangdong's family planning (FP) work. The Circular provides that, despite the fact that Guangdong has achieved gratifying results in its FP work this year, it has failed to fulfill its FP quotas and check excessive population growth for 4 successive years in the 7th 5-Year period. The Circular also provides that, in view of this rigorous situation, the Government demands that people's governments at all levels in Guangdong immediately formulate specific plans aimed at fully implementing to the FP quotas and an FP-oriented responsibility system at all levels. All concerned departments and mass organizations in Guangdong are required actively to cooperate and coordinate with one another in carrying out FP work. PMID:12317499

1990-05-10

47

76 FR 72601 - National Family Week, 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Proclamation 8756--National Family Week, 2011 Proclamation 8757--National Farm-City Week, 2011 Proclamation 8758--National Child's...8756 of November 18, 2011 National Family Week, 2011 By the President of the United...

2011-11-23

48

[The challenges of the family planning program].  

PubMed

Mexican family planning officials used date from the 1990 population census to revise population growth estimates and determine program needs for different family planning institutions during 1990-94. Total fertility rates were used to estimate fertility, using information from sociodemographic surveys taken over the past 10 years. Total fertility rates were estimated at 3.29 in 1987, 2.8 in 1990, and projected at 2.5 in 1994. These rates correspond to a crude birth rate of 24-25/1000 in 1990 and 22-23 in 1994 and natural increase rates of 1.87% and 1.67%. In obtaining these estimates, the structure of fertility of the 1987 National Survey of Fertility and Health and the program projections of women by ages of the National Population Council and the National Institute of Statistics, Geography, and were considered. The TARGET model was used to estimate the numbers of women in union using different modern methods who would need to be served by family planning programs in order to meet the proposed total fertility rates. The prevalence of sterilization, IUDS, and oral contraceptives (OCs) in women in union would be 59% in 1990 and 62% in 1994, or in absolute terms 7.8 million women in 1990 and 9.3 million in 1994. The public sector has replaced the private as the major source of family planning services. The Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) share is expected to increase from 48.3% of users in 1990 to 56.5% in 1994. The other 3 public sector institutions will maintain their current level of coverage. The private sector has played a smaller role in family planning in Mexico than in many other countries, and the state will thus have the major responsibility for service provision, including family planning education, promotion, and counseling of prospective clients. Existing services should be made more accessible as far as physical access and hours of operation, and the methods available should be increased beyond OCs and condoms. Traditional midwives in rural areas should be trained to administer modern methods in collaboration with institutional health services so that rural-urban differences in coverage and quality can be decreased. It is estimated that, of the 59% of women in union who want no more children, 44% are using a traditional method or no method. Encouraging these women to use contraception is a challenge for the family planning program. It will not be enough to communicate the general advantages of family planning; specific information on each method is needed. The integration of family planning into maternal-child health services is necessary for the focus on reproductive health and preventing high risk pregnancies. Health services should cooperate with the civil registration system to identify newlyweds and provide them with family planning information. Greater efforts are needed to reach adolescents through cooperation with educational institutions. PMID:12158037

Alarcon, F; Mojarro, O

1991-01-01

49

NATIONAL SURVEY OF FAMILY GROWTH  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) provides information on childbearing, contraception, and related aspects of maternal and child health. The NSFG is the principal national source of data on trends and group differences in contraceptive use and effectiveness, use of fami...

50

Integrating family planning with other social services.  

PubMed

Family planning outreach workers in the 43 municipalities of Iloilo Province, Western Visayas, the Philippines, have provided their communities with health, nutrition, educational, and agricultural services since 1973, when the Provincial Development Staff (PDS) began attempting to integrate services. The early work of the PDS was aided by the launching of the National Population and Family Planning Outreach Project in rural areas in 1976 and the creation of the Provincial Population Office (PPO) in 1977. 43% of the Outreach Project cost is borne by the local government, with the Commission on Population covering the rest. It is anticipated that the local goverment will eventually absorb the full cost. The Outreach officers have become an integral part of the planning body of the provincial government, largely due to the creation of the Provincial Consultative Committee on Population (PCCP) in 1979. The PCCP, composed of 22 governmental and private agencies involved in population-related activities, is charged with implementing the national population program in order to utilize all possible resources for provincial development. Its Integrated Provincial Population Plan has become part of the total provincial development plan. The Municipal Population Planning Actions Teams, whose functions are patterned on those of the PCCPs, further strengthen local planning at the municipal level. Full-Time Outreach Workers participate as well in planning at the barangay level. The various community-based projects initiated by the Outreach staff in Iloilo demonstrate a concern with making the population program responsive to the immediate needs of the provincial population. Organizations which teach better farming methods and undertake community projects emphasize local initiative and solutions to problems, and demonstrate the committment of population workers to broader development efforts. Outreach workers are involved in primary health care, social service delivery, income generating projects, and other activities even in backward and inaccessible areas. PMID:12338629

Bernales, E H

1982-01-01

51

Men and Family Planning. Worldwatch Paper 41.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph focuses on men's potentially positive role in family planning. In addition, it identifies reasons why so few organized family planning programs have targeted men as clients and why men have so often played a peripheral or negative role in family planning. The document is presented in seven chapters. Chapter I introduces the topic…

Stokes, Bruce

52

Spousal veto over family planning services.  

PubMed Central

In many countries a spouse, usually the husband, can veto a partner's use of family planning services. Where spousal veto acts as a barrier to family planning services it represents a serious threat to the lives and health of women and children. Removal of spousal authorization requirements has been shown to increase the use of family planning services. The Family Guidance Association of Ethiopia, for example, removed their requirement in 1982 and clinic utilization increased by 26 per cent within a few months. Courts of several countries have held that spousal veto practices violate principles of personal privacy and autonomy and the right to health care. The effect of such judgements has been to reinforce rights to sexual nondiscrimination found, for example, in national constitutions and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. This article discusses the nature and application of spousal veto practices, explains how such requirements can violate certain human rights, and explores possible remedies to this problem, including ministerial, legislative, and judicial initiatives. PMID:3812842

Cook, R J; Maine, D

1987-01-01

53

[Tianjin holds family planning conference].  

PubMed

This article reports on the results of a conference on family planning in Tianjin municipality, China. On the basis of a preliminary census, the birth rate in the municipality is expected to reach 15/1000 and the population growth rate 9/1000 in 1979. These figures exceed the target of population growth rate of 6/1000. The high figures are accounted for by the high birth rate in the suburban counties. Late marriage, planned parenthood, and 1 child families are being encouraged. Other measures should be taken to, 1) bring the municipalities birth rate to less than 2/1000, 2) encourage 1 child families in the suburban counties, 3) encourage 50% of the women of child bearing age who already have 1 child to not bear a 2nd child, and 4) encourage 70% of the women of child bearing age who already have 1 child 3 years old not to bear a 2nd child. Propaganda and education are also encouraged in order to inform the masses. PMID:12338061

1979-08-01

54

Family planning program: 26% of reproductive-age Filipinos.  

PubMed

In the past 10 years, great gains have been made in family planning in the Philippines; 26% of reproductive-age Filipinos now use contraception. The government has increasingly supported population planning. Recognizing the limitations of earlier approaches which established family planning clinics throughout the country or used part-time family planning motivators to reach people not served by the clinics, POPCOM (the Commission on Population) and/U.S. Agency for International Development developed a new program in 1976 - the National Family Planning Outreach project. The project objective is to make national family planning services conveniently and dependably available without cost in every barangay. To achieve this objective, POPCOM is granting money to local governments to establish a network for family planning coordination and service delivery down to the barangay level. The program provides a management and support structure to guarantee proper supervision, operational funding, and logistical support. Full-time outreach workers are recruited from their own communities, adequately trained, and paid. The workers conduct house-to-house visits to encourage involvement, follow up new participants, and establish and manage and average of 10-15 Barangay Supply Points to distribute free oral contraceptives and condoms in rural and poor urban areas. The operators of the Barangay Supply Points motivate and counsel their clients during resupply visits and assist the outreach workers organizing barangay family planning meetings. POPCOM has also expanded the voluntary sterilization program so that it is now supported and endorsed as a major service. PMID:12177901

1977-12-01

55

Current state of family planning in Japan.  

PubMed

This paper summarizes the findings of the 19th National Survey on Family Planning, conducted in June 1988, covering 3400 married women under 50 years of age. The survey was carried out by the Population Problems Research Council of the Mainichi Newspapers in cooperation with the Japan Federation of Family Planning, the Japan Family Planning Association, and the Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning. The ideal number of children a couple wishes to have began to go down with the occurrence of the global oil crisis in 1973. Since 1979, 2 children have ranked 1st in preference. Younger and urban mothers had a stronger preference for 2 children than older or rural mothers. More than half, or 56.3% of the respondents, are currently practicing contraception. These rates are not as high as those of European or American women. 39.1% of the contraceptors began practicing contraception after the birth of their 2nd child. In 1986, the number of abortions was .52 million, less than half the number of abortions at their peak in 1955. 30% of the respondents have had at least 1 abortion. Findings suggest that under the current situation, where sufficient information and knowledge of contraception is present, many married women are against abortion in cases of contraceptive failure, while they are sympathetic to abortions due to straitened circumstances. Many people no longer seem to have as strong feeling of obligation towards the aging as before. They expect more support from the government. 74.6% of the mothers thought that schools needed to provide sex education, including contraceptive methods. Only 6.4% responded negatively. More than 70% feel that sex education should start in junior high school. A slightly higher percentage of younger mothers have breastfed their children than did older mothers. PMID:12282144

Ozaki, M

1989-07-01

56

The Individual Family Service Plan: Unresolved Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that federal requirement to develop Individual Family Service Plan (IFSP) for all infants and toddlers with special needs has major conceptual difficulty stemming from linkage of family service to family assessment. Sees many authorities as advocating parents and professionals as partners in assessing needs and planning services. Questions…

Goodman, Joan F.; Hover, Sarah A.

1992-01-01

57

Family planning at the grass roots.  

PubMed

Despite help from national and international organizations, progress in implementing policy directives from Health Ministry offices in Cairo is slow at the receiving end. El Minya, 1 of 7 governorates to benefit from World Bank-financed population projects, still has a population growth rate of 2.5%-3% annually. An expanding network of family planning outlets in Minya, training programs for health professionals, and provision of equipment and supplies by the British government's O.D.A. fund are intended to improve maternal and child health services to the extent that perceptions of the need for large families to guard against loss of some in infancy will be obviated. The staffing and layout of the rural and urban health facilities reflect the integration of family planning into the health care system as a whole. The pill is still the most widely used method in most parts of the governorate. Home visits by nurses in rural areas are more important than the advice and supplies available at government clinics, which are visited only by those unable to afford private care, but it is doubtful that the low salaries of nurses provide sufficient incentive to encourage them to make their 150 call monthly quotas. Nursing is such an underpaid and unattractive career choice that in areas with severe shortages, the authorities have resorted to engaging the local "dayas", traditional mainstays of village health services. This represents an important shift in policy from the days when attempts were made to limit their activities. The propaganda campaign to promote small families of the State Information Service has been another important aspect of government concern. Bureaucratic delays have hampered progress of the family planning program, and less than half of the O.D.A. funds available have actually been claimed. The seriousness of the government's interest in curbing population growth has been questioned, and the prevailing view among the urban and rural population is that family size is not an issue of serious national concern. Children are viewed as a gift from God and a demonstration of virility, and it has been suggested that contraception will not be taken seriously until imposed by economic necessity. PMID:12339618

Ingram, S

1983-01-01

58

77 FR 69733 - National Family Week, 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...That is why strong families will always be at the heart of my Administration's...affordable coverage. My Administration...and meeting their families' needs. Moreover...our Nation's families. [[Page 69734...have hereunto set my hand this...

2012-11-21

59

Family planning: as important for the child as for the mother and for the family.  

PubMed

The following were among the questions directed to India's Prime Minister Indira Ghandi: what priorities does the government accord to the family planning program; is there any alternative for economic viability for the country in the face of failure to curb the population growth rate to a manageable proportion; should family planning be part of the minimum national consensus, i.e., above party politics; what steps is the government taking to revitalize the family planning program; and is there a need to review the law in order to determine how it can be made more supportive of the family planning effort. Ghandi noted that India's government was the 1st in the entire world to adopt family planning as a official program, and this action shows how important family planning is to the country. She maintained that the real answer is development--development to provide what the people really need and development because it helps to curb families. Ghandi made the point that a subject like family planning should be above any controversy, but in actuality there has been considerable propaganda against family planning in India. To revitalize the program, Ghandi identified the need for involving the entire population rather than just the department in charge of family planning. She indicated that schools, the youth movement, women's organizations and other institutions which are concerned with any type of social welfare should be involved in family planning. Finally, Ghandi reported that the government is doing a great deal to raise the status of women in India, beginning by helping girls to continue their education. PMID:12337660

Doordarshan

1980-11-01

60

Indonesia's family planning story: success and challenge.  

PubMed

A historical overview and descriptions of family planning programs in Indonesia are presented. 85 million of the 135 million inhabitants of the Indonesian archipelago are concentrated on the island of Java, which comprises about 7% of the Indonesian land mass. The Dutch colonial government preferred a policy ("transmigration") which advocated the redistribution of population from Java to the other islands to relieve overpopulation. This policy was also advocated by President Sukarno after the Indonesian Revolution of 1940. The need for family planning was recognized by small groups, and official policy supported national family planning programs to replace transmigration programs only after Sukarno became president in 1966. The focus of the program was on Java and Bali, the 2 most populous islands. Local clinics became the locus for birth control efforts. Fieldworkers affiliated with the clinics were given the job of advocating birth control use door-to-door. Fieldworkers "incentive programs," area "target" (quota) programs, and "special drives" were organized to create new contraceptive "acceptors." A data reporting system and a research program increase the effectiveness of the family planning drive by ascertaining trends in contraceptive use which can determine where and how money and effort can best be applied. "Village Contraception Distribution Centers" bring the contraceptive means closer to the people than do the clinics. Figures from the years 1969-1977 show the great increase in acceptance of contraceptives by the inhabitants of the Java-Bali area. Steps are now being taken to alleviate the large monthly variations in the number of (often temporary) acceptors caused by the "target programs" and "special drives." The average acceptor is 27-years-old, has 2.6 children, has not finished primary school, and has a husband of low social status. Bali has shown the greatest success in family planning. It is a small island with a highly developed system of local clinics. The strong community structures on Bali encourage birth control use. Bali, which is predominantly Hindi, is more receptive to the IUD than Java, which is predominantly Muslim. In East Java, the authoritarian bureaucracy makes efficient use of its money. Central Java is making slow but steady progress in family planning. In West Java, fieldworkers are teamed with paramedics; there, door-to-door contraceptive supply was more effective than the clinic system. In many areas traditional methods, i.e., herbs, massage, total abstinence for long periods of time, etc., were favored. More educated women often do not use contraceptives for fear of side effects. The need for family planning on the outer Indonesian islands is not as great, but programs are being set under way. These programs are the beginning of an attempt to alleviate problems that could be encountered if Indonesia's population growth continues unchecked. PMID:12260296

Hull, T H; Hull, V J; Singarimbun, M

1977-11-01

61

Combined Edition of Family Planning Library Manual and Family Planning Classification.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This edition combines two previous publications of the Katharine Dexter McCormick Library into one volume: the Family Planning Library Manual, a guide for starting a family planning and population library or information center, and the Family Planning Classification, a coding system for organizing book and non-book materials so that they can be…

Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.

62

1993--Twenty-Fifth Annual National Council on Family Relations Videotape Competition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lists and annotates winning entries in 1993 National Council on Family Relations Videotape Competition in categories of substance abuse, aging, social issues, divorce/remarriage, families with special needs, family violence, human development, reproduction and family planning, marital/family issues, mental health, nontraditional families,…

Gentry, Deborah; And Others

1994-01-01

63

Family-Directed Transition Planning Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide to family-directed transition planning is intended to help parents and students with disabilities take leading roles in the process of transition from school to post-school activities. First, a letter to families examines the challenge of change and the transition process. Section 2 examines regulations that affect transition planning,…

Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver. Div. of Special Education Services.

64

Family Planning: Bosnian, Russian, Spanish, Nuer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide provides information in English, Bosnian, Russian, Spanish, and Nuer on family planning. Topics covered include a variety of birth control methods: abstinence, condoms, contraceptive foam, birth control pills, the Depo-Provera shot, the Norplant implant, diaphragms, intrauterine devices, natural family planning, sterilization, and the…

Anoka County Community Health and Environmental Services, Coon Rapids, MN.

65

Decision on family planning, 7 January 1987.  

PubMed

On 1 January 1987 the Gansu provincial party committee and government issued a Decision on family planning: "The Decision demands that the party committees and government at all levels assign family planning work an important place on their agenda and get a good and tight grasp of it. They must step up family planning propaganda. Beginning this year, the planning commissions and finance departments at all levels must list the task of capital construction for the family planning departments, and assign it a certain amount of investment. It is necessary to establish family planning committee organs, put them on a sound basis, and assign them good leadership groups, to ensure that all family planning work is carried out well. The decision demands that the public health, civil affair, pharmaceutical, and industry and commerce departments regard making a success of family planning work as their own important task and grasp it for a long time to come to ensure that Gansu's population will register proportional and planned growth." PMID:12346592

1987-01-01

66

Priority strategies for India's family planning programme  

PubMed Central

Strategies to accelerate progress of India's family planning programme are discussed and the importance of improving the quality and reach of services to address unmet contraceptive need by providing method choice is emphasized. Although there is a growing demand for both limiting and spacing births, female sterilisation, is the dominant method in the national programme and use of spacing methods remains very limited. Fertility decline has been slower in the empowered action group (EAG) States which contribute about 40 per cent of population growth to the country and also depict gloomy statistics for other socio-development indicators. It is, therefore, important to intensify efforts to reduce both fertility and mortality in these States. A rationale has been provided for implementing integrated programmes using a gender lens because the lack of women's autonomy in reproductive decision-making, compounded by poor male involvement in sexual and reproductive health matters, is a fundamental issue yet to be addressed. The need for collaboration between scientists developing contraceptive technologies and those implementing family planning services is underscored. If contraceptive technologies are developed with an understanding of the contexts in which they will be delivered and an appreciation of end-users’ needs and perspectives, they are more likely to be accepted by service providers and used by clients. PMID:25673535

Pachauri, Saroj

2014-01-01

67

Priority strategies for India's family planning programme.  

PubMed

Strategies to accelerate progress of India's family planning programme are discussed and the importance of improving the quality and reach of services to address unmet contraceptive need by providing method choice is emphasized. Although there is a growing demand for both limiting and spacing births, female sterilisation, is the dominant method in the national programme and use of spacing methods remains very limited. Fertility decline has been slower in the empowered action group (EAG) states which contribute about 40 per cent of population growth to the country and also depict gloomy statistics for other socio-development indicators. It is, therefore, important to intensify efforts to reduce both fertility and mortality in these states. arationale has been provided for implementing integrated programmes using a gender lens because the lack of women's autonomy in reproductive decision-making, compounded by poor male involvement in sexual and reproductive health matters, is a fundamental issue yet to be addressed. The need for collaboration between scientists developing contraceptive technologies and those implementing family planning services is underscored. If contraceptive technologies are developed with an understanding of the contexts in which they will be delivered and an appreciation of end-users' needs and perspectives, they are more likely to be accepted by service providers and used by clients. PMID:25673535

Pachauri, Saroj

2014-11-01

68

Improving the urban family planning programme.  

PubMed

This report presents the directives on improving urban family planning (FP) programs issued by various Chinese departments in March 1997. The departments included the State Family Planning Commission, State Economic and Trade Commission, Ministry of Public Security, Ministry of Personnel, Ministry of Labor, Ministry of Public Health, and the National Industrial and Commercial Administration. The directives related to time frame, objectives, management, local level operations, IEC, the floating population's needs, the responsibility system, and a well-trained staff. It was stated that urban FP improvements will take some time, due to expansion of urban population, the increase in floating population, and the demand for quality services. The guiding principles support Deng Xiaoping's theory of building socialism with Chinese characteristics and balancing population with socioeconomic and sustainable development. The aim is to improve IEC and services and achieve low fertility as a way of creating favorable demographics for modernization. Leaders must be held responsible for the practice of FP in their unit. Subdistrict offices are a key link for managing FP in all units and neighborhood committees in their territory. Efforts need to be increased to spread IEC on population and FP and to reduce abortion. Every department registry should make an effort to provide comprehensive FP to floating populations. Urban centers should concentrate on improving the quality of FP services. Staff should be carefully chosen. PMID:12293432

1997-10-01

69

Circular on family planning, 1988.  

PubMed

This Hubei, China, Circular, issued near the end of 1988, provides the following: "The population growth situation in our country is grim. Since 1986, the natural population growth rate has risen continuously. To draw the prompt attention of the whole party and the entire people to the issue of our population, all localities must seriously unfold the activities of publicizing family planning (FP) this winter and next spring, in coordination with education in current affairs. It is necessary to publicize FP in an all-around way and with accuracy, and the activities of publicizing must be carried out effectively in a solid and deep-going way. In the rural areas, stress must be placed on areas where FP work is not carried out well and where there is a prevailing tendency toward early marriage, early child-bearing, and extra-budgetary births. In cities, publicity and education must be conducted especially among the transient population, individual households, and jobless households. During the period of publicity, large-scale street-corner publicity activities must be carried out in cities and towns so as to create strong public opinion and to combine the endeavor to publicize current affairs and policies with the effort to popularize knowledge about contraception and birth-control, to execute measures of contraception and birth control, and to establish FP associations in the countryside." PMID:12289626

1988-01-01

70

National Invasive Species Management Plan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In February 1999, an Executive Order by President Clinton established the National Invasive Species Council (NISC) to take a leadership role in dealing with invasive species issues. As part of that order, NISC has prepared a plan "to minimize the economic and ecological impacts and the harm to animal and human health associated with invasive species." This document, "National Management Plan: Meeting the Invasive Species Challenge," is posted on the NISC Webpage, with public commentary invited through November 18, 2000.

71

Who uses natural family planning?  

PubMed

This study examined the characteristics and attitudes of 132 married couples who had received training in use of the symptothermal method of natural family planning (NFP). 61% of respondents were 20-30 years of age and over 2/3 had completed college; 59% were Catholic. The largest group of subjects (35%) became aware of NFP through friends, neighbors, and relatives. 71% said they were drawn to NFP because it represented a safe and healthy alternative to other methods of birth control; only 17% gave moral or religious reasons for learning about NFP. 42% of the sample were using NFP at the time of the survey, 32% had discontinued use, and 25% were using fertility awareness in conjunction with barrier methods (combination-continuers). There was a significant difference between these 3 groups in church attendance: 48% of combination-continuers and 67% of continuers compared with 41% of discontinuers attended church once a week or more. The combination-continuer group had more Catholics (50%) than the discontinuer group (37%) but less than the continuers (76%). No significant differences were found between the 3 groups in terms of age, education, or regularity of menstrual cycle length. Over 3/4 of continuers had been married for less than 5 years compared with about 1/2 of those in the 2 other groups. 69% of continuers believed that NFP is extremely effective compared to 13% of discontinuers and 40% of combination-continuers. Spouses encouraged each other in the use of NFP in 88% of combination-continuer couples and 86% of continuer couples, but only about half of discontinuers received such encouragement. Although most NFP advocates emphasize a nonsexual form of abstinence during the fertile period, the vast majority of respondents in this study defined abstinence to include the possibility of orgasm. Combination-continuers, positioned between continuers and discontinuers or both dissatisfaction with other methods and with abstinence, warrant more attention in future NFP research. PMID:4016658

Daly, K J; Herold, E S

1985-01-01

72

On the efficiency of multiple media family planning promotion campaigns.  

PubMed

This article presents the result of a study conducted by Miriam N. Jato on the impact of multimedia family planning communication campaigns on contraceptive use. The study was conducted in Tanzania, where a government program integrated family planning into maternal and child health care services in 1988, while in 1992 a private-sector condom-marketing program begun and a national population policy for wider distribution of family planning information was adopted by the government. In less than 3 years, contraceptive use was found to have doubled to a level of 11.3% and the total fertility rate declined from an average of 6.3 to 5.8 live births. The result of the study indicates that exposure to media sources of family planning messages was directly associated with increased contraceptive use. Moreover, the use of modern methods increased among women who were exposed to a greater number of media sources, as did discussion of family planning with spouses and attendance of health facilities. The programmatic implications of the results confirm that utilization of multiple media channels in the promotion of family planning and other reproductive issues must be continued, with emphasis on media sources that reach large audiences. PMID:12349449

1999-01-01

73

Filling the Family Planning Gap. Worldwatch Paper 12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author provides a global review of family planning techniques and their impact on national birth rates. Sterilization, the pill, and intrauterine devices are the most popular methods of contraception worldwide. Abortion, where it is legal, is also extremely popular. In countries such as the United States where population control is not an…

Stokes, Bruce

74

Attitudes of Czech and Slovak gynecologists toward family planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was held among 155 gynecologists of the former Czech and Slovak Federal Republic (CSFR) who visited a national gynecological congress. The sample was fairly comparable to the total group of Czech and Slovak gynecologists concerning sex, age and county. Questions were asked on personal and professional characteristics, experience with the provision of contraception, attitudes toward family planning and

A. Ph Visser; R. Uzel; E. Ketting; N. Bruyniks; B. J. Oddens

1993-01-01

75

A dynamic family planning and health campaign.  

PubMed

Any successful development program that combines family planning, nutrition, and parasite control such as the integrated project, must include effective information, education, and communication (IEC) components. The Population an Community Development Association (PDA), the largest nonprofit organization in Thailand provides a network of family planning service delivery composed of volunteer distributors including midwives, school techers and shopkeepers. Reliability and accessibility are the 2 important elements. A concerted media campaign which exposes people to condoms and other contraceptives helps desensitize an otherwise "too personal" issue. The problem which confronts family planning communication is how to counteract the sensuous messages form advetisers while focusing on mundane topics such as maternal and child health, responsible parenthood, and family budgets. The PDA has tried to use the same attractions to promote family planning. It distributes promotional items such as T-shirts, pens towels and cigarette lighters bearing family planning messages. In addition to the use of television and radio, PDA also utilizes every possible channel of communication. Approaches include: the Youth-to-Youth Program; informational exhibits; video-mobile vans which visit schools and factories; and the holding of PDA's vasectomy festivals. Informational exhibits on family planning and health care use a variety of audio-visual methods. Video is an effective communication medium. The PDA video material ordinarily consists of family dramas illustrating good and bad family planning practices. By holding vasectomy festivals, PDA provides a media-attracting forum to educate the public and promote vasectomey as the most effective birth control method. Mass media campaigns must be linked with fieldwork outreach. PMID:12314464

1986-11-01

76

Domestic, international family planning programs at risk.  

PubMed

The US government has subsidized family planning services domestically and abroad for three decades. For most of that period, the support has been provided with the broad-based backing of both US lawmakers and the general public. However, recent polling indicates that public support for family planning programs remains strong, but not necessarily among legislators. Since Republicans gained control of the US House of Representatives in 1995, a well-organized opposition to government-subsidized family planning has developed. The House leadership has launched attacks to defund and abolish Title X, the core domestic family planning program, and the US Agency for International Development's (USAID) population assistance program. Although these attempts failed, a parallel strategy is being pursued to raise anxieties about the programs and chip away at members' support for them. Family planning supporters in Congress and the White House are on the defensive. Rather than fighting for funding increases and new program initiatives, family planning advocates have been forced to try to just hold their ground. Even though they rest intact, Title X and USAID funding has suffered and the programs' base of congressional support has been seriously compromised. With the current Republican domination of the House, Title X and USAID face an uncertain future. PMID:12321447

Turnbull, W; Kaeser, L

1998-02-01

77

A Small Library in Family Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated listing of books is intended as a reference for anyone seeking an authoritative introduction to population and family planning information, as a world, family, or individual concern. For each entry, the International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is provided if available. The number preceding each reference represents the…

Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc., New York, NY.

78

Readability Levels of Individualized Family Service Plans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This descriptive study examined the readability levels of Individualized Family Service Plans (IFSPs). The readability of 85 de-identified IFSP documents developed by seven agencies that serve families and children enrolled in a county early intervention program was analyzed using Flesch Kincaid grade levels and Flesch reading ease scores. The…

Pizur-Barnekow, Kris; Patrick, Timothy; Rhyner, Paula M.; Folk, Lillian; Anderson, Kara

2010-01-01

79

75 FR 71519 - National Family Week, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...This National Family Week, we recognize the importance of the family unit in helping all Americans reach their dreams. As we confront our challenges as a Nation...Together, we will build a foundation for the future success of all of America's...

2010-11-24

80

NATIONAL SURVEY OF FAMILY GROWTH (NSFG)  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) provides information on childbearing, contraception, and closely related aspects of maternal and child health from a sample of women in the United States (including Alaska and Hawaii). The National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) was con...

81

Families of nations and public policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Employing cluster analysis, this article reconsiders a concept formulated by Francis G. Castles that stresses the existence of four families of nations, which markedly differ in respect of public policy?making. For two policy fields — social and economic policy — the hypothesised families of nations can be shown to exist, and they are quite robust and stable over time. Cluster

Herbert Obinger; Uwe Wagschal

2001-01-01

82

Can Better National Policy End Family Homelessness?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An understanding of the close link between federal policy and family homelessness is critical for ensuring that one day no child in the United States is homeless. This article discusses the nature of family homelessness, the national policy framework that exists to help vulnerable families, the homeless assistance system that federal policy has…

Roman, Nan

2010-01-01

83

China's family planning policies: recent reforms and future prospects.  

PubMed

In November 2013, China announced reforms to its family planning policies whereby couples would be allowed to have a second child if either parent is an only child. The announcement garnered worldwide media coverage, and stimulated academic and popular discussion. We explore the context of the 2013 reforms, including the economic, demographic, and political motivations behind them, and speculate on their likely effect. Noting that the impact of the reforms on China's long-term demographic future is likely to be relatively slight, we consider why more radical reform may have been difficult to implement. We offer observations about possible future directions for Chinese family planning policies and explore the notion of "local pronatalism within nationally prescribed antinatalist limits" and how this suggests that an ideological shift within China's family planning apparatus may be plausible. PMID:25469931

Basten, Stuart; Jiang, Quanbao

2014-12-01

84

National Environmental Manpower Planning Conference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The national planning conference was held to acquaint State and local environmental agencies with available resources and Federal/State activities related to the development and utilization of an environmental workforce. The 200 participants and 48 speakers represented Federal, State, local, and private agencies as well as professional…

Environmental Career Center, Inc., Washington, DC.

85

National Plan for Graduate Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Brazilian National Plan for Graduate Studies aims at achieving a combination of training activities at the graduate level to be developed at the various institutions of higher education and research. The current situation is reviewed in terms of stabilization, performance, and development problems. Objectives and general directives include:…

Ministry of Education and Culture, Brasilia (Brazil).

86

Black Families: A Source of National Strength.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, Arthur Jefferson, the Executive Director of the Office of Criminal Justice Plans and Analysis, discusses crime in the black community and its effect on the black family. The literature on the impact of crime on the black family is not extensive; however, there is considerable information concerning crime in the black community in…

Jefferson, Arthur M.

87

75 FR 17203 - National Rail Plan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Docket No. FRA-2010-0020] National Rail Plan AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...development of the long-range National Rail Plan (NRP) through an open docket. In...INFORMATION: Background: The Passenger Rail Investment and Improvement Act of...

2010-04-05

88

National Family Caregiver Support Program  

MedlinePLUS

... is available through this database. Back to top Funding History Funding for Family Caregiver Support Services during the past ... resource for policymakers and the public on the economic, social, and personal imperatives of intergenerational cooperation. The ...

89

Biomass fuels: a national plan  

SciTech Connect

The options and potentials of biomass fuel production for the U.S. are reviewed. The following options are discussed: plant or vegetable oils, direct combustion of wood, production of biogas, and alcohol fuels. It is considered essential that a national planning model is developed to integrate the biofuel requirements for arable land and commercial forests with those for food and other traditional uses. (Refs. 32)

Mitchell, T.E.; Schroer, B.J.; Ziemke, M.C.; Peters, J.F.

1983-04-01

90

The Nation's Families: 1960-1990.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Family Outlook Report provides a detailed analysis of trends in the nation's population, household composition, family structure, and women's working patterns from 1960 to 1990 and describes the implications of these trends for American society. The behavior of groups of individuals born in the same years were followed as they grew older.…

Masnick, George; And Others

91

Career and Family Plans of College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Factors which mediate the life decisions of college men and women were examined. Undergraduates (N=107) completed questionnaires about career and family plans, notions of success and failure, integration of two potentially conflicting roles, and the relationship between personal values, life goals, and choices. Results indicated that: (1) women…

Goff, Susan B.

92

Current Literature in Family Planning, Number 54.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a monthly classified review of literature, this annotated bibliography offers a selection of books and articles recently received by the Katharine Dexter McCormick Library relative to family planning in the United States. Divided into two parts, the first contains book reviews from a variety of sources. They cover the subjects fund raising,…

Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.

93

New Directions in Family Planning Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from two research studies in Newfoundland, Canada are summarized. The first study examined divorced persons and their family patterns. It was found that numbers and timing of children did not affect marital stability, and neither did whether children were born before or during the current marriage. But whether the children were planned had a…

Johnson, Frank C.; Johnson, May R.

94

Nursing 572: Principles of Family Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A description is provided of "Principles of Family Planning," a course designed for graduate nursing students or practicing nurses seeking continuing education credit. The first sections of the course description provide a rationale for the course, information on its curricular placement, scheduling information, and statements of long-range and…

Newton, Marsha

95

A call for a family planning surge.  

PubMed

In 1994, the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo, Egypt, laid out in its Programme of Action an impressive and ambitious set of goals for improving sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) all over the world, by the target date of 2015 (International Conference on Population and Development 1994). One of these goals was the provision of universal access to a full range of safe and reliable family-planning methods. However, notwithstanding increases in budgets for family planning during the years following the ICPD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development), there has been an alarming neglect from the international community for the topic since the year 2000. As a result, the progress made during the second half of the nineties slowed down considerably between 2000 and 2010; in a sense, one could say that ten years were almost wasted! This is astonishing, the more since meeting the need for family planning would have beneficial impacts on public health, environmental sustainability and social and economic development. In this paper, we explore these impacts and urge for a strong renewed commitment of the global community in the form of a global family planning decade. PMID:24753885

Temmerman, M; Van Braeckel, D; Degomme, O

2012-01-01

96

A call for a family planning surge  

PubMed Central

In 1994, the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo, Egypt, laid out in its Programme of Action an impressive and ambitious set of goals for improving sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) all over the world, by the target date of 2015 (International Conference on Population and Development 1994). One of these goals was the provision of universal access to a full range of safe and reliable family-planning methods. However, notwithstanding increases in budgets for family planning during the years following the ICPD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development), there has been an alarming neglect from the international community for the topic since the year 2000. As a result, the progress made during the second half of the nineties slowed down considerably between 2000 and 2010; in a sense, one could say that ten years were almost wasted! This is astonishing, the more since meeting the need for family planning would have beneficial impacts on public health, environmental sustainability and social and economic development. In this paper, we explore these impacts and urge for a strong renewed commitment of the global community in the form of a global family planning decade. PMID:24753885

Temmerman, M.; Van Braeckel, D.; Degomme, O.

2012-01-01

97

Teenagers, young people and family planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Family planning was for a long time prohibited in Romania. This has reduced the demand for contraceptives. Even though contraceptives were made accessible and their use promoted since the beginning of December 1989, abortion has still been the preferred form of fertility regulation, as the people of Romania are unaware of the advantages of contraception. The purpose of the present

R Alexandrescu; E Tuchendria

1999-01-01

98

Hispanic Immigrant Women Talk About Family Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to discover what can improve family planning services for recently immigrated Hispanic women and to foster cultural competence among health care providers in this arena, the authors conducted four focus groups of recently immigrated Hispanic women in a medium-sized Midwestern community. The focus group discussions covered such topics as health care, knowledge of birth control, domestic life,

Marjorie R. Sable; Kirsten Havig; Lisa R. Schwartz; Andrea Shaw

2009-01-01

99

Private sector joins family planning effort.  

PubMed

Projects supported by the Directorate for Population (S&T/POP) of the U.S. Agency for International Development and aimed at increasing for-profit private sector involvement in providing family planning services and products are described. Making products commercially available through social-marketing partnerships with the commercial sector, USAID has saved $1.1 million in commodity costs from Brazil, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Indonesia, and Peru. Active private sector involvement benefits companies, consumers, and donors through increased corporate profits, healthier employees, improved consumer access at lower cost, and the possibility of sustained family planning programs. Moreover, private, for-profit companies will be able to meet service demands over the next 20 years where traditional government and donor agency sources would fail. Using employee surveys and cost-benefit analyses to demonstrate expected financial and health benefits for businesses and work forces, S&T/POP's Technical Information on Population for the Private Sector (TIPPS) project encourages private companies in developing countries to invest in family planning and maternal/child health care for their employees. 36 companies in 9 countries have responded thus far, which examples provided from Peru and Zimbabwe. The Enterprise program's objectives are also to increase the involvement of for-profit companies in delivering family planning services, and to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of private volunteer organizations in providing services. Projects have been started with mines, factories, banks, insurance companies, and parastatals in 27 countries, with examples cited from Ghana and Indonesia. Finally, the Social Marketing for Change project (SOMARC) builds demand and distributes low-cost contraceptives through commercial channels especially to low-income audiences. Partnerships have been initiated with the private sector in 17 developing countries, with examples provided from the Dominican Republic, Liberia and Ecuador. These projects have increased private sector involvement in family planning, thereby promoting service expansion at lower public sector cost. PMID:12343476

1989-12-01

100

Creating a National Homeland Security Plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is time to create a National Homeland Security Plan (NHSP) on par with the National Response Plan (NRP). The National Strategy for Homeland Security; Homeland Security Act of 2002; and Homeland Security Presidential Directive-5 (HSPD-5), Management of Domestic Incidents, establish objectives for a national effort to prevent terrorist attacks within the United States; reduce America's vulnerability to terrorism, major

Bruce Davis

101

Your Family Spending Plan 1 Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service Your Family Spending Plan  

E-print Network

Your Family Spending Plan 1 Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service Your Family Spending Plan Almost the problem. Most people must get along on what they have. Whether a family has a lot of money or just before the money disappears in unexpected ways. A spending plan can help a family: · identify available

102

China's first family planning publicity month.  

PubMed

China conducted its 1st nationwide Family Planning Publicity Month in 1983, from New Year's Day to Spring Festival (February 13). The campaign emphasized the rural areas and focused on explaining why family planning is a state policy. The most noticeable achievements of this campaign were that every household became familiar with the fact that family planning is a basic state policy. The majority of the population take this policy seriously, realizing that strict control of population growth is both a good and imperative policy. More than 1,830,000 propaganda columns and photo exhibitions were displayed, 5,900,000 radio and television programs broadcast, 2,010,000 theatrical performances, movie and slide showings presented, and 97,000,000 copies of materials published for public dissemination. The activities were varied and interesting, vivid and lively, and purposeful and persuasive. 1 of the most effective methods of publicizing population control has been the presentation of comparative statistics. This aspect of the campaign was a specific and lively form of education in population theory and practice. The presentation of statistics that show the relationship among population, land use, grain produce, and income enabled the population to reason out why population growth needs to match economic and social development. Another important accomplishment of the publicity month was that a large number of couples of reproductive age became convinced of the need to use contraception. According to the incomplete statistics, 8,860,000 people had surgical operations for birth control. The universal promotion of ligations by either partner of a reproductive couple who already had given birth to a 2nd child was an important development of family planning technique promoted simultaneously with the promotion of IUDs. The increase in the number of people doing family planning work was another achievement of the publicity month. More than 15,240,000 publicity personnel and 760,000 medical personnel were trained. The enthusiasm of the Party and the people contributed to the success of the publicity month. The success of the publicity month is inseparable from the achievements and experience gained through China's longterm pursuit of family planning. PMID:12312452

Shen, G

1983-05-01

103

Health services and the family planning component.  

PubMed

This is a composite article made up of statements from journals and reports of Americans who have visited China in the 1977-79 period. Observers comment on the health delivery system in China. It is remarkable that, without expensive technology, complex health facilities, and highly trained personnel, China has been able to reduce its death rate substantially in recent years. Reduction of the infant and child mortality rates has encouraged people to practice family planning with assurance that their children will survive to adulthood. The following 2 factors have been responsible for the improvements in the Chinese health delivery system: 1) use of barefoot doctors and other health outreach personnel working at the community level; and 2) use of a combination of traditional Chinese medicine, e.g., acupuncture and herbal medicines, with techniques imported from the West, e.g., X-ray and modern drugs. Often Western methods are used for diagnosis and traditional medicines for treatment. Research into the method of action of traditional medicines is ongoing. Family planning is seen at every level of health service provision. Barefoot doctors actually bring contraceptives to the people at their homes or work places. Family planning services and supplies are free. Provision of supplies is accomplished by minimally trained personnel with referral to more trained people available when necessary. PMID:12261798

Epstein, S G; Chen, P C; Grant, J P; Duke, R C; Guttmacher, L; Oakley, D

1980-03-01

104

Tay Sachs and Related Storage Diseases: Family Planning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on interviews with 24 families, the article discusses family planning and the choices available to those families in which a child has previously died from Tay-Sachs or related lipid storage diseases. (IM)

Schneiderman, Gerald; And Others

1978-01-01

105

Bibliography of Family Planning and Population, Volume 1 Number 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compiled from the world's research literature, this bi-monthly classified list of references on population and family planning emphasizes recently published material, primarily journal literature. Topics covered include: population and fertility; reproductive behaviour; the family; education in population, family planning, and sex; family

Linzell, Dinah, Comp.

106

[Changes in midwifery practice. 26. Postwar legislative guideline concerning family planning].  

PubMed

Yoshio Furuya, who authored the 1951 legislative guidelines for family planning in Japan, designated 3 villages to model family planning upon his return from the United States in 1950. The instructors were public health nurses, midwives and regular nurses who had been trained and certified by the National Public Health Institute. They showed film strips and slides, and distributed contraceptives and medication. Population Research Group also embarked on the New Life Style Movement among Japanese industries in 1951. The new life style was said to have 3 pillars: family planning, career planning, and family morals. The idea of family planning was welcomed at the beginning by industries because it would mean less dependents of employees to provide financial aid for. The movement lasted only several years. In 1955, the International Family Planning Federation and the Japan Family Planning Federation co-sponsored the Fifth International Family Planning Conference in Tokyo. 572 participants including Margaret Sanger delivered 91 papers on techniques and practices of family planning. Soon after the conference, the Family Planning Study Committee was organized, and they met once a month to discuss socio-cultural implications of family planning, theory and practice of contraception, maternal and child health. Many of the committee members were idealistic/feminist public health officials but there were no women among them. A post-war family planning movement approved by the Japanese government resulted in the dramatic reduction in the birth rate from 34.3% in 1947 to 17.2% in 1957. Midwives played an important role in enforcing the policy but they were excluded from policy making. PMID:3682331

Obayashi, M

1987-09-01

107

NATIONAL PLAN TO ACHIEVE MARITIME DOMAIN AWARENESS  

E-print Network

Awareness i FOREWORD By signing National Security Presidential Directive-41/Homeland Security Presidential infrastructure following attack or similar disruption. · Maritime Transportation System Security Plan responds

Acton, Scott

108

Linking population, fertility, and family planning with adaptation to climate change: perspectives from Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Global climate change is felt disproportionately in the world's most economically disadvantaged countries. As adaption to an evolving climate becomes increasingly salient on national and global scales, it is important to assess how people at the local-level are already coping with changes. Understanding local responses to climate change is essential for helping countries to construct strategies to bolster resilience to current and future effects. This qualitative research investigated responses to climate change in Ethiopia; specifically, how communities react to and cope with climate variation, which groups are most vulnerable, and the role of family planning in increasing resilience. Participants were highly aware of changing climate effects, impacts of rapid population growth, and the need for increased access to voluntary family planning. Identification of family planning as an important adaptation strategy supports the inclusion of rights-based voluntary family planning and reproductive health into local and national climate change adaptation plans. PMID:24069764

Rovin, Kimberly; Hardee, Karen; Kidanu, Aklilu

2013-09-01

109

World population growth, family planning, and American foreign policy.  

PubMed

The US decision since the 1960s to link foreign policy with family planning and population control is noteworthy for its intention to change the demographic structure of foreign countries and the magnitude of the initiative. The current population ideologies are part of the legacy of 19th century views on science, morality, and political economy. Strong constraints were placed on US foreign policy since World War II, particularly due to presumptions about the role of developing countries in Cold War ideology. Domestic debates revolved around issues of feminism, birth control, abortion, and family political issues. Since the 1960s, environmental degradation and resource depletion were an added global dimension of US population issues. Between 1935 and 1958 birth control movements evolved from the ideologies of utopian socialists, Malthusians, women's rights activists, civil libertarians, and advocates of sexual freedom. There was a shift from acceptance of birth control to questions about the role of national government in supporting distribution of birth control. Immediately postwar the debates over birth control were outside political circles. The concept of family planning as a middle class family issue shifted the focus from freeing women from the burdens of housework to making women more efficient housewives. Family planning could not be taken as a national policy concern without justification as a major issue, a link to national security, belief in the success of intervention, and a justifiable means of inclusion in public policy. US government involvement began with agricultural education, technological assistance, and economic development that would satisfy the world's growing population. Cold War politics forced population growth as an issue to be considered within the realm of foreign policy and diplomacy. US government sponsored family planning was enthusiastic during 1967-74 but restrained during the 1980s. The 1990s has been an era of redefinition of the issues and increased divisiveness among environmentalists, feminists, and population control advocates. The current justification of US population program assistance is based on concern for the health of women and children. Future changes will be dependent on ideology, theology, and political philosophy. PMID:12346346

Sharpless, J

1995-01-01

110

78 FR 23491 - National Forest System Land Management Planning; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...National Forest System Land Management Planning; Correction AGENCY: Forest...revising, and monitoring land management plans (the planning rule). The National Forest...National Forest System Land Management Planning Rule Final...

2013-04-19

111

77 FR 21161 - National Forest System Land Management Planning  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...National Forest System Land Management Planning; Final Rule Federal Register...National Forest System Land Management Planning AGENCY: Forest Service...National Forest System land management planning rule (planning rule)....

2012-04-09

112

Family planning under the Doi Moi policy.  

PubMed

Vietnam's economy began to grow after the December 1986 implementation of Doi Moi policy, with the gross domestic product increasing by more than 5% annually since 1990. Per capita GNP has increased to US$220. In 1989, Vietnam achieved self-sufficiency in rice production and became the world's third largest exporter of rice, the infant mortality rate is 42 per 1000 live births, the average life expectancy is 65 years, and 88% of people aged 10 years and older are literate. Vietnam's economy is expected to continue to grow. However, population growth is a major constraint to Vietnam's projected steady economic and social development. The total population grew from 15.5 million in 1921 to 74 million in 1995. A high unemployment rate and urbanization are already issues. Doi Moi policy therefore gives top priority to the Population and Family Planning (PFP) Program. The overall objective of the PFP policies is to achieve small and healthy families conducive to a happy and prosperous life. Specifically, it hopes to realize each family with one or two children so that by the year 2015 the average number of children for each family will be only two. Policy aims to stabilize Vietnam's population by the year 2050. PMID:12320322

Taniguchi, H

1995-01-01

113

[Decision on improving family planning work, 1992].  

PubMed

This document contains a translation of a Decision on Family Planning (FP) reached by China's Zhejiany province. The Decision calls for party committees and government leaders at all levels to assume responsibility for implementation of the FP program. The Decision also calls for creation of responsibility contracts that will ensure implementation of the FP program through the grassroots level. Additional changes will involve 1) a gradual increase in the investment in FP projects, 2) education and development of FP cadres, and 3) strengthening of interdepartmental coordination. While seeking strengthened propaganda and education, the Decision also calls for progress in advancing prenatal care. PMID:12293808

1992-06-10

114

Family Planning Regulations, 2 November 1988.  

PubMed

These Regulations provide the following: 1) women who give birth at a mature age are to be given one month's salary as a bonus or 30 additional days maternity leave; 2) cadres and staff who have a nonagricultural residence who give birth to a second child are required to pay the social expenses for raising the children and their monthly remuneration is to be reduced; and 3) women of child-bearing age who intend to work in Tianjin Province, China, are required to register with the relevant family planning authorities in Tianjin. PMID:12289689

1988-01-01

115

Fifth national conference on integrated resource planning  

SciTech Connect

Presentations at the Fifth National Conference on Integrated Resource Planning, sponsored by the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners, are presented in this volume. Topics cover gas and electric utilities, demand side management programs, assessment of the value of externalities, integrated resource planning implementation, economic analyses, regulatory problems with IRP, etc.

Not Available

1994-01-01

116

[Promoting family planning work in Xiaqidu township by establishing a family planning association in each village].  

PubMed

A family planning association was established in each village of Xiaqidu Township in Hunan Province, China in October 1986. The positive functions of each such association were so fully developed that family planning work reached new levels. For example, most villages are no longer experiencing early marriages or unplanned births. Some of the villages have established associations for individual work groups. The traditional method was for both township and village associations to rely upon the positive attitudes of officials to instill into fertile women Party policy, and to arouse their patriotism and initiative. By establishing family planning associations at the village level, however, the people can conduct their own affairs and educate themselves. Emphasis has been placed on attracting into the associations those who are of childbearing age, as well as older villagers of experience. The associations' raison d'etre was to serve the people. They did so through: propaganda (disseminating population theory, birth control and family planning information); helping the people overcome poverty, traditional thinking, and ignorance; assisting women with any problems and anxieties relating to child-bearing; delivering contraceptives to households; and providing the elderly with care and the young with education. PMID:12159303

Li, C

1987-07-01

117

Coverage and Costs of Family Planning Services in California  

E-print Network

a speci?c family planning policy such as teenage pregnanciesfamily planning speci?c example which applied the cost-effectiveness approach to coverage issues involves teenageteenage pregnancy at Kaiser. The need to perform formal cost analyses of family planning

Phair, Neva

1996-01-01

118

Couple Communication and Sexual Attitudes in Natural Family Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Natural family planning (NFP) refers to techniques for planning or preventing pregnancy by observation of natural signs of fertility. In using natural family planning to avoid pregnancy, there is abstinence from sexual intercourse during the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle. Social values which are incorporated into the method include couples…

Shivanandan, Mary; Borkman, Thomasina

119

National Strategic Research Plan 1991, 1992, 1993.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report updates the National Strategic Research Plan of the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD) and reports progress made from 1991 through 1993 as required by the National Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Act of 1988 (Public Law 100-553) which established the Institute. An executive summary…

National Inst. on Deafness and Other Communications Disorders, Bethesda, MD.

120

"Developing Nationally Significant Infrastructure: the Future Role of Energy Planning"  

E-print Network

"Developing Nationally Significant Infrastructure: the Future Role of Energy Planning" An Overview July 2007 #12;"Developing Nationally Significant Infrastructure: The Future Role of Energy Planning;"Developing Nationally Significant Infrastructure: The Future Role of Energy Planning" Overview of Energy

Martin, Ralph R.

121

77 FR 44144 - National Forest System Land Management Planning; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...National Forest System Land Management Planning; Correction AGENCY: Forest...National Forest System land management planning rule in the Federal Register...National Forest System Land Management Planning (36 CFR part 219,...

2012-07-27

122

14 CFR 151.3 - National Airport Plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false National Airport Plan. 151.3 Section...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS...3 National Airport Plan. (a) Under the...a “National Airport Plan” for developing public...Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and Guam. In...

2010-01-01

123

Family planning: cultural and religious perspectives.  

PubMed

The world population explosion has caused political leaders to look upon national and regional birth control projects as vital. Support for regulation of individual fertility has been evident in all cultures, and at all times, even in those societies in which social and religious rules have favoured the abundant production of children. As the secularization of Western society and scientific enquiry gained momentum during the modern period, knowledge of reproduction increased and was applied to control human population growth. The various methods of contraception and their development through the years from the ancient ideas to the modern era are presented. Each approach to fertility control has its advantages and disadvantages. No one method is perfect for everyone, for every clinical setting, and in every culture. Higher levels of fertility have been associated with 'traditional', religious prohibitions on some forms of birth control, 'traditional' values about the importance of children and the priority of family, and 'traditional' family and gender roles reinforced by religion. The attitude of the main religious groups to contraceptive practice is discussed. PMID:8345093

Schenker, J G; Rabenou, V

1993-06-01

124

National Security Technology Incubation Project Continuation Plan  

SciTech Connect

This document contains a project continuation plan for the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI). The plan was developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP) funded by a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This continuation plan describes the current status of NSTI (staffing and clients), long-term goals, strategies, and long-term financial solvency goals.The Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University (NMSU) is the operator and manager of the NSTI. To realize the NSTI, Arrowhead Center must meet several performance objectives related to planning, development, execution, evaluation, and sustainability. This continuation plan is critical to the success of NSTI in its mission of incubating businesses with security technology products and services.

None

2008-09-30

125

National Security Technology Incubator Action Plan  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the action plan for developing the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) program for southern New Mexico. The NSTI program is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). This action plan serves as a tool in measuring progress in the development process and delivery of services for the NSTI program. Continuous review and evaluation of the action plan is necessary in the development process of the NSTI. The action plan includes detailed steps in developing the NSTI program based on recommended best practices in incubator development by the National Business Incubation Association (NBIA). Included are tasks required to implement the NSTI, developed within a work breakdown structure. In addition, a timeline is identified for each task.

None

2008-02-28

126

BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT PLAN.  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Wildlife Management Plan (WMP) is to promote stewardship of the natural resources found at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), and to integrate their protection with pursuit of the Laboratory's mission.

NAIDU,J.R.

2002-10-22

127

Birth control, population control, and family planning: an overview.  

PubMed

This overview of the US birth control movement reflects on the emergence of family planning policy due to the efforts of Margaret Sanger, feminists, and the civil rights movement, the eugenics motive to limit "deviant" populations, and the population control movement, which aims to solve social and economic problems through fertility control. Population control moved through three stages: from the cause of "voluntary motherhood" to advance suffrage and women's political and social status, to the concept of "birth control" promoted by socialist feminists to help empower women and the working class, to, from 1920 on, a liberal movement for civil rights and population control. Physicians such as Dr. Robert Latou Dickinson legitimized the movement in the formation of the Committee on Maternal Health in 1925, but the movement remained divided until 1939, when Sanger's group merged with the American Birth Control League, the predecessor of the present Planned Parenthood Federation of America. A key legal decision in 1939 in the United States v. One Package amended the Comstock Act and allowed for the distribution of birth control devices by mail to physicians. Sanger, after a brief retirement, formed the International Planned Parenthood Federation and supported research into the pill. Eugenicists through the Committee on Maternal Health supported Christopher Tietze and others developing the pill. Final constitutional access to contraception based on the right to privacy was granted in Griswold v. Connecticut. The ruling in Eisenstadt v. Baird in 1972 extended this right to unmarried persons. The right to privacy was further extended in the Roe v. Wade decision in 1973 on legal abortion. The argument for improving the quality of the population remained from the formation of the Population Reference Bureau in 1929 through the 1960s. Under the leadership of Rockefeller, population control was defined as justified on a scientific and humanitarian basis. US government support for national and international family planning proceeded slowly through the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. Congress during 1967-70 enacted strong legislation in support of national and international family planning. The Bucharest conference in 1974 highlighted the inadequacies of international population control that deemphasized economic development. Polarization and divisiveness on population policy persists. PMID:12346341

Critchlow, D T

1995-01-01

128

Ecological planning proposal for Kruger National Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses an application of the ecological planning model proposed by Van Riet and Cooks. The various steps outlined\\u000a in this model have been applied to Kruger National Park in South Africa. The natural features of Kruger National Park, which\\u000a form the basis of such an ecological planning exercise and from which the various land use categories, values, and

W. F. Van Riet; J. Cooks

1990-01-01

129

The strategies, experiences and future challenges of the information component in the Indonesian Family Planning Programme.  

PubMed

In 1957, the Indonesian Planned Parenthood Federation was established. In 1970, the National Family Planning Board (BKKBN) was created. The current contraceptive prevalence rate is 45-50%. The family planning program began with a health-oriented approach. To promote acceptance, religious leaders were asked to provide legitimacy to the program. Through their efforts, it became possible to include all the means and medication used for family planning services within the program. In developing an IEC strategy to encourage couples to accept family planning, 3 main factors were studied: 1) the types of innovations that were to be introduced, 2) the characteristics of the Indonesian community, and 3) the need for an IEC strategy to convey the programs messages the community and make the community itself the agent of the innovation being introduced. The elements of the strategy were introduced stage by stage to avoid unnecessary debate. Another strategic step was the introduction of family planning using a community approach. A 3rd strategic step was a shift from couples as family planning acceptors to the introduction of the norm of a small, happy, and prosperous family. The 1st stage, expansion of program coverage, 1) promoted the need for and desirability of family planning to make the small and happy family the norm and 2) supplied contraceptives and information about contraceptives throughout Indonesia. The 2nd stage, the program maintenance approach, included 1) an increase in the frequency of visits to villages by mobile family planning teams, 2) the integration of family planning activities with other health-related activities, and 3) giving people a wider choice of methods and helping them to choose the most suitable method for them. The 3rd stage made family planning a community activity, integrated within the economic and social fabric of community life. The general strategy of the IEC program is to make the various target groups full family planning participants, who will in turn, help to draw nonacceptors into the program. Social marketing is being used to 1) reach those as yet uninformed about family planning, 2) promote the quality of various information and motivation activities so that they will become behaviorally oriented, and 3) provide an opportunity for the private sector to participate in the program professionally. PMID:12342240

Suyono, H

1988-12-01

130

National Security Technology Incubator Operations Plan  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the operations plan for developing the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) program for southern New Mexico. The NSTI program will focus on serving businesses with national security technology applications by nurturing them through critical stages of early development. The NSTI program is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The operation plan includes detailed descriptions of the structure and organization, policies and procedures, scope, tactics, and logistics involved in sustainable functioning of the NSTI program. Additionally, the operations plan will provide detailed descriptions of continuous quality assurance measures based on recommended best practices in incubator development by the National Business Incubation Association (NBIA). Forms that assist in operations of NSTI have been drafted and can be found as an attachment to the document.

None

2008-04-30

131

Maintaining technical excellence requires a national plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To meet the challenge of technical excellence, AIA established a rocket propulsion committee to develop the National Rocket Propulsion Strategic Plan. Developing such a plan required a broad spectrum of experience and disciplines. The Strategic Plan team needed the participation of industry, government, and academia. The plan provides, if followed, a means for the U.S. to maintain technical excellence and world leadership in rocket propulsion. To implement the National Rocket Propulsion Strategic Plan is to invest in the social, economic, and technological futures of America. The plan lays the basis for upgrading existing propulsion systems and a firm base for future full scale development, production, and operation of rocket propulsion systems for space, defense, and commercial applications.

Davidson, T. F.

1991-01-01

132

The politics of family planning in the Maghrib.  

PubMed

This article uses a comparative case study approach to relate policy outcomes in terms of family planning to the patterns of political forces observed in the 3 Maghrib states of Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia. It is suggested that official support for a strong family planning program may be linked to recognition of the problem of low labor absorption and to concrete steps taken to counter the problem. The article discusses different vantage points for approaching the political context of family planning and distinguishes between the use of family planning as an instrument of social policy and as an instrument of economic policy. Ideological reasons for opposition to or support of family planning are then outlined. The colonial experience of the 3 states is differentiated and a chronological account of their family planning programs is provided. The political systems and leadership of the 3 countries are separately discussed in greater detail, after which the influence of elite groups on family planning programs and activities in each country is assessed. Developments in the 3 countries since 1978 are then sketched. The author concludes that the relative importance of policies toward employment and women's status in connection with support for family planning has probably varied over time, with economics playing a greater role in the 1970s. The activities of non-regime political actors were found to be very significant in formulation of population policies in Algeria and Morocco but less so in Tunisia. PMID:12264495

Grosse, S D

1982-01-01

133

The economics of family planning and underage conceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines whether improved access to family planning services for under 16 is likely to help in achieving the aim of reducing underage conceptions. A simple model of rational choice is introduced which suggests that family planning increases rates of underage sexual activity and has an ambiguous impact on underage conception and abortion rates. The model is tested on

David Paton

2002-01-01

134

Ecological planning proposal for Kruger National Park  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article discusses an application of the ecological planning model proposed by Van Riet and Cooks. The various steps outlined in this model have been applied to Kruger National Park in South Africa. The natural features of Kruger National Park, which form the basis of such an ecological planning exercise and from which the various land use categories, values, and zoning classes can be determined, are discussed in detail. The suitability of each of the various features is analyzed and a final zoning proposal for Kruger National Park is suggested. Furthermore a method for selecting a site for a new camp is illustrated by referring to the site for the new Mopane rest camp which is now under construction in the Kruger National Park. The conclusion is reached that the proposed ecological planning model can be used successfully in planning conservation areas such as Kruger National Park and for the selection of the most desirable sites for the establishment of new rest camps. Its suitability as a practical model in such planning exercises is proven by the fact that the siting proposals of two new camps based on this model have been accepted by the National Parks Board, the controlling body of Kruger National Park.

van Riet, W. F.; Cooks, J.

1990-05-01

135

A situation analysis study of the Nairobi City Commission family planning clinics. Selected findings.  

PubMed

The Africa OR/TA Project assisted the Nairobi City Commission (NCC) in conducting a situation analysis of its 46 family planning clinics. An important element in Kenya's national family planning program, NCC provides more than 1/2 of all family planning services in Nairobi and accounts for more than 1/3 of all family planning acceptors in Kenya. In order to upgrade NCC services, researchers conducted staff and client interviews and observed provider-client interactions. In addition to quality of care, the study evaluated the functioning of each major family planning subsystem; logistics/supplies, facilities, staffing, training, supervision, IEC, and record keeping. The study found that record keeping and logistics were functioning relatively well, and that IEC activities compared favorably with the national family planning program. Significant problems, however, were noted in training, supervision, and equipment. Only 15% of nurses had undergone refresher training, about 1/2 of the staff reported receiving no external supervision, and essential equipment was either missing or not working in many clinics (39% of clinics lacked working sterilizers). Concerning quality of care, clients were receiving information on a range of contraceptive methods, and clients provider-client relations were generally good. But waiting times were long, service hours were curtailed unnecessarily, and often, clients received inadequate information on how to manage side-effects. More significantly, the study found low provider competence (only 49% of clients received aseptic services). As a result, NCC clinics scored low on quality of care. PMID:12285349

1992-03-01

136

Language, videos and family planning in the South Pacific.  

PubMed

In 1984, women in Fiji, Kiribati, the Solomon Islands, and Tonga wanted culture-specific, educational resources on sexuality, family planning, contraception, reproduction, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Family Planning Australia [FPA] found video to be the most appropriate means to present information on these topics, since video continues the story-telling tradition of the Pacific. Women worked with FPA to produce videos addressing these topics. They were filmed in Fiji, which has a broad cross-section of South Pacific people. FPA took into account women's concerns and cultural and religious sensitivities. The English language videos were Better Safe, a story about STDs, condom use, and male sexual responsibility; Taboo Talk, a documentary about women's attitudes on menstruation, sex education, and family planning; AIDS and the South Pacific, about AIDS transmission and prevention; a d Down There, an animated documentary on reproduction and contraceptive methods. A project evaluation revealed that the videos would have received wider acceptance had they been in local languages. Local men and women debated each work of a translation of the list of reproductive health terms, eventually resulting in 20 culturally and linguistically appropriate video translations. A cross section of national language speakers modified and improved the draft translation of the 4 scripts. This whole process resulted in incorporation of the 88 reproductive health terms into the Booklet of South Pacific Reproductive Health Words and Phrases. The project showed that Pacific women were able to compile a booklet of culturally and linguistically acceptable terms and to successfully translate the scripts of health videos. In conclusions, people tend to be more willing to accept sexuality information and frank and explicit material than is usually believed if they are allowed to determine the context in which they receive it. PMID:12318840

Winn, M; Lucas, D

1993-12-01

137

National Wetlands Inventory Draft Strategic Plan  

E-print Network

National Wetlands Inventory Draft Strategic Plan: Conserving America's Wetlands for Future America's Wetlands for Future Generations Cover Photo: Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge, on Virginia's Chesapeake Bay, showing combined climate change and other impacts on wetlands, with dead or dying trees from

Gray, Matthew

138

Barriers to Effective Intercultural Communication in Family Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document addresses communication problems between Anglo-American family planning counselors and Latin-American clients. Cultural differences in attitudes toward family, work, and sexuality are examined. The extended family provides the Latin-American woman with positive self-identity and serves as a source of social relations; it also favors…

Alcalay, Rina; Caldiz, Laura

139

Family planning at heart of political debate.  

PubMed

In the US, the efforts of Chris Smith, a Republican member of the House of Representatives from New Jersey, have led to Congressional approval of two restrictions on US aid to foreign family planning (FP) programs. The first restriction prohibits the US from funding any organization that performs abortion with its own funds, even in countries where abortion is legal (except in cases of life endangerment, rape, or incest). The bill specifies that President Clinton can waive this prohibition only at a cost of $44 million to the already reduced FP funding. The second restriction prohibits US funding of any group that engages in abortion-related lobbying and is, in effect, a "gag rule" that would punish organizations for engaging in activities that would be protected in the US by the First Amendment of the Constitution. Clinton has threatened to veto the legislation even though this means that he will risk losing his ability to pay dues owed to the UN or to provide backing to the International Monetary Fund. Smith's actions reflect efforts to eliminate federal funding of domestic and international FP programs despite the fact that polls continually demonstrate the widespread approval of the US public for such programs. PMID:12348706

Kaeser, L

1998-09-01

140

House battles over UN family planning funds.  

PubMed

The House International Relations Subcommittee on Operations and Human Rights approved HR 1253 by voice vote on April 10, 1997. HR 1253 is a reauthorization of State Department programs for fiscal years 1998 and 1999. Republican anti-choice subcommittee chair Chris Smith inserted language which prohibits the State Department from funding the UNFPA, the UN family planning program. The restriction would only be lifted if President Clinton certifies that the UNFPA has ended all activities in China or that no government-coerced abortions have taken place in China during the previous 12 months. Since neither change is likely, the Smith provision would effectively bar the US from funding the UNFPA, even though the agency does not support abortion services. The State Department authorization was then taken up by the full House International Relations Committee as part of HR 1486, a bill which would reorganize foreign policy operations. By a 23-16 vote on May 6, the committee approved an amendment which deleted the Smith provision and instead stipulated that US funds cannot be used for UNFPA programs in China. Pro-choice representative Tom Campbell sponsored the amendment which deleted the Smith provision. President Clinton's proposed budget for fiscal year 1998 also includes the Campbell provision. PMID:12292412

1997-05-01

141

75 FR 57820 - National Credit Union Administration Restoration Plan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION National Credit Union Administration Restoration Plan AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA...elevated. The credit union CAMEL ratings reflect the risk of loss...

2010-09-22

142

NATIONAL PLANNING EXCELLENCE AWARD FOR  

E-print Network

legislation that sup- ports local green building practices. Select provisions include: ALLOWANCE FOR EXTERNAL INSULATION WITHIN THE PROPERTY LINE OF AN EXISTING BUILDING ROOFTOP ALLOWANCES FOR GREEN ROOFS, SKYLIGHTS on sustainability. At a high level, the provisions carry out many objectives of PlaNYC, the city's long-range plan

Handy, Susan L.

143

Africa's population and family planning dynamics.  

PubMed

The historical and current demography of Africa in this discussion focuses on the context of population policy, contraceptive use, reproductive behavior, polygamy, and economic impacts. Sub-Saharan Africa countries have the highest rate of population growth in the world. 50% are aged under 20 years, and 20% are aged under five years. Urban areas are growing at the fastest rates in the world (5-6% annually). Population density remains low, except for areas where there is high soil fertility. Many African countries recognize the need for population policies. The most important donor to Africa, the World Bank, has pressured African governments to adopt family planning (FP) programs. A major World Bank study has shown that more FP services are desired by African women. Family expenditures for the 1980s for FP were estimated at $100 million annually, of which $53 million was provided by donors. Further expansion in the program is needed. The World Bank targeted contraceptive use at 25% of African married couples. Except for Egypt and North African countries, contraceptive use is around 3-4%. Another perspective on population reduction is to expand programs for child spacing and postnatal nutrition of mothers and infants. There has been a failure to turn health systems around to low-cost preventive health, particularly in rural areas. Infant mortality must be reduced before fertility will decline. Population growth can be slowed by changing the status of African women (high social status and recognition are associated with high fertility), age of marriage, child spacing, agricultural productivity, and nutrition. Demographic data on Africa have only become available during the past 25 years. African demographers are in short supply and require training abroad. Demographic data gaps and reliability problems are offset by the recent availability and quantity of survey data. Historical demography has produced conflicting results. Although some investigators, such as Ester Boserup, argue that population pressure results in agricultural innovations, Africa has yet to experience this phenomena. The youthful composition of the population guarantees continued population momentum. Fertility is enhanced by the cultural emphasis on perpetuating lineage and high fertility. Changes in reproductive behavior will depend on major social changes for women. PMID:12286949

Segal, A

1993-01-01

144

76 FR 8479 - National Forest System Land Management Planning  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...National Forest System Land Management Planning; Proposed Rule Federal Register...National Forest System Land Management Planning AGENCY: Forest Service...to guide land and resource management planning for all units of the...

2011-02-14

145

20 CFR 632.18 - Regional and national planning meetings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Regional and national planning meetings. 632.18 Section 632...EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Program Planning, Application and Modification Procedures § 632.18 Regional and national planning meetings. Grant funds may be...

2010-04-01

146

20 CFR 632.18 - Regional and national planning meetings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Regional and national planning meetings. 632.18 Section 632...EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Program Planning, Application and Modification Procedures § 632.18 Regional and national planning meetings. Grant funds may be...

2011-04-01

147

20 CFR 632.18 - Regional and national planning meetings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Regional and national planning meetings. 632.18 Section 632...EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Program Planning, Application and Modification Procedures § 632.18 Regional and national planning meetings. Grant funds may be...

2012-04-01

148

Family planning in conflict: results of cross-sectional baseline surveys in three African countries  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the serious consequences of conflict for reproductive health, populations affected by conflict and its aftermath face tremendous barriers to accessing reproductive health services, due to insecurity, inadequate numbers of trained personnel and lack of supplies. Family planning is often particularly neglected. Methods In six conflict-affected areas in Sudan, northern Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo, household surveys of married or in-union women of reproductive age were conducted to determine baseline measures of family planning knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding contraception. Health facility assessments were carried out to assess baseline measures of family planning services availability. Data were double-entered into CSPro 3.2 and exported to SAS 9.2, which was used to calculate descriptive statistics. The studies' purposes were to guide program activities and to serve as a baseline against which program accomplishments could be measured. Results Knowledge of modern contraceptive methods was low relative to other sub-Saharan African countries, and use of modern methods was under 4% in four sites; in two sites with prior family planning services it was 12% and 16.2%. From 30% to 40% of women reported they did not want a child within two years, however, and an additional 12% to 35% wanted no additional children, suggesting a clear need for family planning services. The health facilities assessment showed that at most only one-third of the facilities mandated to provide family planning had the necessary staff, equipment and supplies to do so adequately; in some areas, none of the facilities were prepared to offer such services. Conclusions Family planning services are desired by women living in crisis situations when offered in a manner appropriate to their needs, yet services are rarely adequate to meet these needs. Refugee and internally displaced women must be included in national and donors' plans to improve family planning in Africa. PMID:21752241

2011-01-01

149

National space transportation systems planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the fall of 1984, the DOD and NASA had been asked to identify launch vehicle technologies which could be made available for use in 1995 to 2010. The results of the studies of the two groups were integrated, and a consumer report, dated December 1984, was forwarded to the President. Aspects of mission planning and analysis are discussed along with a combined mission model, future launch system requirements, a launch vehicle planning background, Shuttle derivative vehicle program options, payload modularization, launch vehicle technology implications, a new engine program for the mid-1990's. Future launch systems goals are to achieve an order of magnitude reduction in future launch cost and meet the lift requirements and launch rates. Attention is given to an advanced cryogenic engine, advanced LOX/hydrocarbon engine, advanced power systems, aerodynamics/flight mechanics, reentry/recovery systems, avionics/software, advanced manufacturing techniques, autonomous ground and mission operations, advanced structures/materials, and air breathing propulsion.

Lucas, W. R.

1985-01-01

150

34 CFR 303.340 - Individualized family service plan-general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Individualized family service plan-general. 303.340 Section...Evaluations and Assessments, and Individualized Family Service Plans Individualized Family Service Plan (ifsp) § 303.340...

2013-07-01

151

34 CFR 303.340 - Individualized family service plan-general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Individualized family service plan-general. 303.340 Section...Evaluations and Assessments, and Individualized Family Service Plans Individualized Family Service Plan (ifsp) § 303.340...

2014-07-01

152

34 CFR 303.340 - Individualized family service plan-general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Individualized family service plan-general. 303.340 Section...Evaluations and Assessments, and Individualized Family Service Plans Individualized Family Service Plan (ifsp) § 303.340...

2012-07-01

153

42 CFR 59.4 - How does one apply for a family planning services grant?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false How does one apply for a family planning services grant? 59.4 Section 59...HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.4 How does one...

2014-10-01

154

42 CFR 59.4 - How does one apply for a family planning services grant?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false How does one apply for a family planning services grant? 59.4 Section 59...HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.4 How does one...

2013-10-01

155

42 CFR 59.4 - How does one apply for a family planning services grant?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false How does one apply for a family planning services grant? 59.4 Section 59...HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.4 How does one...

2012-10-01

156

42 CFR 59.3 - Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant? 59.3 Section 59...HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.3 Who is eligible...

2014-10-01

157

On the integration of fighting poverty with family planning work.  

PubMed

New approaches to family planning (FP) are being applied in poor areas of China. Poverty programs are being integrated into FP programs. The current situation reveals that 679 poor counties were helped to increase per capita income. Between 1986 and 1988, per capita income of farmers rose from 245 yuan to 331.1 yuan, or a 14.2% increase. Between 1985-88, the population earning 200 yuan dropped from 64.54 million to 22.565 million, or from 39.5% to 9.9% of the total population. The reason given for poverty is unchecked population growth. Poverty is concentrated in 8 provinces and autonomous regions. This population also has a total fertility rate for married women of childbearing age of 3.0 compared with 2.47 nationally. 7 out of the 8 provinces are known to be ethnic border provinces that are economically and educationally backward. The approach to fighting poverty is to develop production with assistance from the state and society. Difficulties involve a high dependency ratio and the lower accumulation of family wealth. In 32 counties in Sichuan, survey results reveal 15.4% fewer working age persons in poor families, and the dependency ratio in poor families an average of 34.2 higher. A successful integrated program occurred in the mountainous areas of Jinzhai County of Anhui Province. Population had soared from 320,000 in the 1950s to 546,000 in 1978. Children/family varied from 3-5 to 9-10. A policy to require approval of a 2nd birth only after income reaches 300 yuan was implemented. For those practicing FP, economic development is provided. Between 1979-89, the birth rate of Jinzhai County dropped from 17.69/1000 to 12.67/1000, and the natural increase from 11.45/1000 to 7.1/1000. Quality of life had improved such that by 1989 90.1% of poor families had enough food and clothing. The net per capita income was 301 yuan in 1989. The ways in which FP and fighting poverty can be integrated are fourfold. 1) It must be part of the overall strategy of socioeconomic development, with FP in the target management of responsibility system and contract responsibility system. 2) Consistency is required between programs. Family income should be a requirement for additional children and economic support provided for those responding. 3) Measures to prevent additional unplanned births must be provided. 4) Good coordination of departments requires FP officials in poverty programs and vice versa. PMID:12285199

Zhou, H

1991-10-01

158

National energy planning for developing countries  

SciTech Connect

This paper is a summary of what has been learned from the experience with national energy planning in developing countries. It considers lessons learned about the roles of data, analysis, and modeling in this enterprise, because of the connections between these components and our common interest in research to advance the state of the art; but it concludes that the most important needs at this time are institutional rather than analytical, which suggests a somewhat different set of priorities for scholarship related to national energy planning in the developing world.

Wilbanks, T.J.

1986-01-01

159

National Ignition Facility project acquisition plan  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this National Ignition Facility Acquisition Plan is to describe the overall procurement strategy planned for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Project. The scope of the plan describes the procurement activities and acquisition strategy for the following phases of the NIF Project, each of which receives either plant and capital equipment (PACE) or other project cost (OPC) funds: Title 1 and 2 design and Title 3 engineering (PACE); Optics manufacturing facilitization and pilot production (OPC); Convention facility construction (PACE); Procurement, installation, and acceptance testing of equipment (PACE); and Start-up (OPC). Activities that are part of the base Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program are not included in this plan. The University of California (UC), operating Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Lockheed-Martin, which operates Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR-LLE), will conduct the acquisition of needed products and services in support of their assigned responsibilities within the NIF Project structure in accordance with their prime contracts with the Department of Energy (DOE). LLNL, designated as the lead Laboratory, will have responsibility for all procurements required for construction, installation, activation, and startup of the NIF.

Callaghan, R.W.

1996-04-01

160

National Teacher Training Institute: Lesson Plan Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visit this Web site from the National Teacher Training Institute (NTTI) for a set of engaging lesson plans for middle and high school students. The latest life science offerings address DNA and RNA, pika camouflage, environmental issues, and adaptation. A number of older lesson plans are available as well. In addition to providing detailed instructions, each lesson plan includes a variety of features and resources such as links for in-class research and downloadable activity sheets. The lessons take about one class period to complete and require the use of educational videos -- part of NTTI's goal to increase "dynamic use of classroom technology."

161

Idaho National Engineering Laboratory site development plan  

SciTech Connect

This plan briefly describes the 20-year outlook for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Missions, workloads, worker populations, facilities, land, and other resources necessary to fulfill the 20-year site development vision for the INEL are addressed. In addition, the plan examines factors that could enhance or deter new or expanded missions at the INEL. And finally, the plan discusses specific site development issues facing the INEL, possible solutions, resources required to resolve these issues, and the anticipated impacts if these issues remain unresolved.

Not Available

1994-09-01

162

Idaho National Laboratory Site Environmental Monitoring Plan  

SciTech Connect

This plan provides a high-level summary of environmental monitoring performed by various organizations within and around the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site as required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and DOE Order 458.1, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, Guide DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance, and in accordance with 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. The purpose of these orders is to 1) implement sound stewardship practices that protect the air, water, land, and other natural and cultural resources that may be impacted by DOE operations, and 2) to establish standards and requirements for the operations of DOE and DOE contractors with respect to protection of the environment and members of the public against undue risk from radiation. This plan describes the organizations responsible for conducting environmental monitoring across the INL Site, the rationale for monitoring, the types of media being monitored, where the monitoring is conducted, and where monitoring results can be obtained. Detailed monitoring procedures, program plans, or other governing documents used by contractors or agencies to implement requirements are referenced in this plan. This plan covers all planned monitoring and environmental surveillance. Nonroutine activities such as special research studies and characterization of individual sites for environmental restoration are outside the scope of this plan.

Jenifer Nordstrom

2014-02-01

163

Australia: Townsville Sexual Assault Support Service (Family Planning Qld. Townsville)  

E-print Network

Australia: Townsville Sexual Assault Support Service (Family Planning Qld. Townsville) http://www.fpq.com.au/locations/tvillelocations.php Suite 2, 5 Castlemaine St., Kirwan QLD 4817 | Phone: (07) 4723 8184 Australia: Wollongong Urunga House

Amin, S. Massoud

164

"Three primaries" method in pushing family planning ahead.  

PubMed

Crash family planning drives cause 3 problems: 1) they tax leaders' energies and hinder work in other areas, 2) many abortions put too much stress on local hospitals, and 3) the drives adversely affect relations with the masses. The "3 Primaries" give precedence to 1) publicity and education over economic measures, 2) contraception over abortion, and 3) routine work over crash drives. The authors recommend persistence in publicity and education as primary methods and the strengthening of ideological polictical work. Many meetings, radio programs, art productions, street exhibitions, story telling programs, and films have informed the masses about family planning and the 1 child family policy. They recommend commending good people and good deeds in promoting contraception as the primary method of family planning and spreading information about it. Advocating the 1 child family has caused the numbers of abortions to increase sharply due to ignorance of contraception. Newlyweds should be visited at home, as they are often shy about discussing this, and advised on contraception. Routine work should be performed as a primary method, and good work can be done at the grassroots level. Regular meetings should be held at each organizational level to exchange experiences and discuss work. Family planning team leaders should visit households and distribute contraceptives. Production brigade cadres should make regular inspections and pregnancy reports. Files should be kept of newlyweds, births, couples who pledge to have only 1 child, contraceptive use, and contraceptive distribution. Communes should x-ray for misplaced IUDs every 3 months. Women's federations, health care centers, nurseries and kindergartens, and old age security systems must cooperate to promote family planning. Family planning work must persevere. By sticking to the 3 primary methods, these have been achieved 1) a planned birth rate, 2) a lower abortion rate, 3) greater acceptance of the 1 child family, and 4) improved relations between government and masses. PMID:12313986

1983-01-01

165

Contraception. Family planning: by whom and for whom?  

PubMed

Many people consider family planning to be the cure for population growth and its consequences (poverty, child mortality, morbidity, depletion of natural resources, and environmental degradation). International organizations support family planning programs and population-political strategies control their operations. Other key players in family planning are the pharmaceutical industry, the churches, and governments. Women tend not be involved in developing population and family planning policies, however, but instead implement the policies. Population planners are generally not interested in family planning methods which give women control over their own bodies, e.g., female-controlled barrier methods. In fact, they distrust them because the planners consider women to be unreliable. Besides, the low effectiveness of these methods means women need to rely on abortion, which is a problem in many developing countries, e.g., Latin America. Further, family planning programs must meet predetermined goals, so their service is lacking, e.g., limited supply of contraceptives and not enough time to provide information to clients. Family planning revolves around women. For example, they encourage them to talk their partners into approving the women's use of contraception, but this is almost always difficult for women in developing countries. Provision of family planning cannot be successful without society accepting and treating women as full citizens. In addition, society needs to realize that women have a sexuality separate from men. Political will is needed for these changes in attitude. The international women's movement does not agree on the degree which women can control contraceptives themselves. Women's groups are working to improve the position and independence of women and contraception is just 1 factor which can help them achieve this goal. The Women's Sexuality and Health Feminist Collective in Sao Paulo, Brazil, is an example of a coalition of women's health groups. PMID:12285430

Stemerding, B

1992-01-01

166

Family planning in Russia: Experience and attitudes of gynecologists  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was made of 375 Russian gynecologists. The questionnaire on family planning and contraceptives was distributed at the beginning of three local educational symposia. Almost all participants filled in the questionnaire on attitudes, knowledge and experience with family planning. The sample consisted of departmental specialists and heads of departments\\/clinics, working mainly at in-or out-patient women's health clinics. The mean

A. Ph. Visser; N. Bruyniks; L. Remennick

1993-01-01

167

Farmers knew prosperity lies in family planning: Prof. Gao Yuanxiang.  

PubMed

This brief article summarizes a speech given by the Director of Population Studies in Hebei, China, on family planning and sustainable development. Concurrent with the implementation of the family planning policy over the past 20 years was the implementation of development policies in rural areas. Agricultural policy shifted from support of the commune system to a land-leasing system. The land-leasing system is an improvement that inspires farmers to become wealthy and modernized. The new rural administration encourages modernization that releases manpower, and thus, frees farmers to concentrate on improving production and farming techniques rather than on increasing reproduction. Farmers decide on working time allocation and investment. Surplus agricultural laborers are migrating to cities in search of better work opportunities. Legal measures are needed to help migrants adapt to development. Urban living requires a one-child policy, while a two-child policy is acceptable in poor and mountainous rural areas. "The education of family planning must be mandatory." Under the new policies, people must become committed to family planning. Farmers are beginning to discover the benefits of family planning. Farmer's enlightenment occurred as a result of the family planning and poverty alleviation efforts during the late 1980s and 1990s. Farmers appreciate the government assistance and now believe that family planning benefits individuals and enhances their honor and responsibility. The benefits of the policy will continue into the future. "Sustainable population development is an important part of economic development." China is entering the new century with a new type of demographic structure, a new cultural system of family planning, and practical efforts. PMID:12292780

1997-09-01

168

Need for integration of gender equity in family planning services  

PubMed Central

The family planning programme of India has shown many significant changes since its inception five decades back. The programme has made the contraceptives easily accessible and affordable to the people. Devices with very low failure rate are provided free of cost to those who need it. Despite these significant improvements in service delivery related to family planning the programme cannot be said to achieve success at all levels. There are many issues with the family planning services available through the public health facilities in India. Failure to adopt the latest technology is one of these. But the most serious drawback of the programme is that it has never been able to bridge the gap between the two genders related to contraceptives. The programme gave emphasis to women-centric contraceptive and thus women were seen as their clients. The choice to adopt a contraceptive though is ‘cafeteria approach’ in family planning lexicon; it is the choice of the husband that is ultimately practiced. There is not enough dialogue between husband and wife and husband and health worker to discuss the use of one contraceptive over another. The male gender needs to be taken in confidence while promoting the family planning practice. The integration of gender equity is to be done carefully so as not to make dominant gender more powerful. Only when there is equity between genders while using family planning services the programme will achieve success. PMID:25673536

Garg, Suneela; Singh, Ritesh

2014-01-01

169

Need for integration of gender equity in family planning services.  

PubMed

The family planning programme of India has shown many significant changes since its inception five decades back. The programme has made the contraceptives easily accessible and affordable to the people. Devices with very low failure rate are provided free of cost to those who need it. Despite these significant improvements in service delivery related to family planning the programme cannot be said to achieve success at all levels. There are many issues with the family planning services available through the public health facilities in India. Failure to adopt the latest technology is one of these. But the most serious drawback of the programme is that it has never been able to bridge the gap between the two genders related to contraceptives. The programme gave emphasis to women-centric contraceptive and thus women were seen as their clients. The choice to adopt a contraceptive though is 'cafeteria approach' in family planning lexicon; it is the choice of the husband that is ultimately practiced. There is not enough dialogue between husband and wife and husband and health worker to discuss the use of one contraceptive over another. The male gender needs to be taken in confidence while promoting the family planning practice. The integration of gender equity is to be done carefully so as not to make dominant gender more powerful. Only when there is equity between genders while using family planning services the programme will achieve success. PMID:25673536

Garg, Suneela; Singh, Ritesh

2014-11-01

170

[Family planning and diverse declarations of human rights].  

PubMed

Human beings have always desired to claim their rights, even in times when only a small proportion of the population was considered fully human and the rest were slaves, servants, uncivilized, colonized, underdeveloped, or, in the recent euphemism, "developing". The French Declaration of the Rights of Man of 1789 marked the 1st time in history that rights for all people were publicly affirmed. The rights in question were essentially constitutional and political, but the idea of claiming rights had been born. In 1948, the international community approved the Universal Declaration of Human Rights which encompassed all types of rights. Other international acts on civil and political rights and the rights of women and children have complemented and interpreted the 1948 document. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights affirmed that all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights and that all persons have a right to satisfaction of economic, social, and cultural needs. The convention on elimination of all forms of discrimination against women referred in its preamble to the particular disadvantages of women living in poverty and affirmed the right of all women to education in health and family welfare, including family planning, as well as to medical and family planning services. Women were affirmed to have the same rights as men to decide freely and in an informed manner on the number and spacing of their children and to have access to the information, education, and means to exercise these rights. The United Nations has demonstrated its interest in Population Commission in 1946 and of the UN Fund for Population Activities in 1969, and through decennial worldwide population conferences in 1954, 1965, 1974, and 1984. UN demographic goals include reduced fertility on a worldwide basis, a reduced proportion of women not using reliable contraception, a substantial reduction of early marriage and adolescent pregnancy, reduction in infant and maternal mortality, a life expectancy of at least 62 years in all countries, and a better geographic distribution of population within national territories permitting rational use of resources. Governments which subscribed to the declaration and conventions on human rights should respect their promises. Population growth which outpaces increases in production will make it increasingly difficult to satisfy the rights and needs of all population sectors. A government confronted with this problem is obliged to explore every possible means of increasing production but must also seek to control population growth. Contraception is a legitimate means of achieving this end. PMID:12316572

Gakwaya, D

1990-08-01

171

National Security Technology Incubator Business Plan  

SciTech Connect

This document contains a business plan for the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI), developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP) and performed under a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This business plan describes key features of the NSTI, including the vision and mission, organizational structure and staffing, services, evaluation criteria, marketing strategies, client processes, a budget, incubator evaluation criteria, and a development schedule. The purpose of the NSPP is to promote national security technologies through business incubation, technology demonstration and validation, and workforce development. The NSTI will focus on serving businesses with national security technology applications by nurturing them through critical stages of early development. The vision of the NSTI is to be a successful incubator of technologies and private enterprise that assist the NNSA in meeting new challenges in national safety, security, and protection of the homeland. The NSTI is operated and managed by the Arrowhead Center, responsible for leading the economic development mission of New Mexico State University (NMSU). The Arrowhead Center will recruit business with applications for national security technologies recruited for the NSTI program. The Arrowhead Center and its strategic partners will provide business incubation services, including hands-on mentoring in general business matters, marketing, proposal writing, management, accounting, and finance. Additionally, networking opportunities and technology development assistance will be provided.

None

2007-12-31

172

78 FR 66617 - National Family Caregivers Month, 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of October 31, 2013 National Family Caregivers Month, 2013 By the President of the...and support. During National Family Caregivers Month, we thank these tireless heroes...well-being of their loved ones and of the caregivers themselves. Under the Affordable...

2013-11-05

173

The National Federation of Families for Children's Mental Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article outlines the mission and vision of the National Federation of Families for Children's Mental Health and its history and accomplishments in the family movement. It gives examples of how the National Federation is leading the way for positive, collaborative, and engaging training; as well as research and advocacy. Five core principles…

Brown, Corey

2011-01-01

174

Current Literature in Family Planning, November 1972, No. 51.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Abstracts of current publications in the fields of population and family planning are contained in this monthly acquisitions list of the Katherine Dexter McCormick Library, Planned Parenthood, New York. Organized in two parts, Part 1 contains an annotated list of the books most recently acquired by the Library, marked with its Library call number,…

Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.

175

Effect of Prepaid Health Plans on a Family Practice Residency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Residents and faculty members completed a survey covering the effect of prepaid health care plans at a family medicine center on the program's practice profile, cost-containment, and education activities over a three-year period. Respondents agreed that prepaid plans increased the number of patient visits. (Author/MLW)

Bradley, Don W.; Gehlbach, Stephen H.

1988-01-01

176

Current status of natural family planning in Granada (Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Spain the use of natural family planning (NFP) is limited. In Barcelona, CODIPLAN, an NFP planning center, has offered natural methods to potential users for a number of years. In Granada and Jaén, information provided by health professionals on fertility awareness is now gaining importance. In 1989, a seminar introduced NFP in Granada; the program has been very active

E. Barranco; M. J. Sanchez; I. Garcia; F. Soler; M. D. Chica

1994-01-01

177

The needs of adolescent women utilizing family planning services  

Microsoft Academic Search

To provide comprehensive family planning services to adolescents requires going beyond the provision of birth control methods. To determine other needs, all women 18 years old and under attending Planned Parenthood of New York City clinics for the first time during a six week sample period were interviewed. Data were collected from 476 adolescents. Results indicated that: (a) there were

Jerry Cahn

1977-01-01

178

National Security Technology Incubation Strategic Plan  

SciTech Connect

This strategic plan contains information on the vision, mission, business and technology environment, goals, objectives, and incubation process of the National Security Technology Incubation Program (NSTI) at Arrowhead Center. The development of the NSTI is a key goal of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP). Objectives to achieve this goal include developing incubator plans (strategic, business, action, and operations), creating an incubator environment, creating a support and mentor network for companies in the incubator program, attracting security technology businesses to the region, encouraging existing business to expand, initiating business start-ups, evaluating products and processes of the incubator program, and achieving sustainability of the incubator program. With the events of 9/11, the global community faces ever increasing and emerging threats from hostile groups determined to rule by terror. According to the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Strategic Plan, the United States must be able to quickly respond and adapt to unanticipated situations as they relate to protection of our homeland and national security. Technology plays a key role in a strong national security position, and the private business community, along with the national laboratories, academia, defense and homeland security organizations, provide this technology. Fostering innovative ideas, translated into relevant technologies answering the needs of NNSA, is the purpose of the NSTI. Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University is the operator and manager of the NSTI. To develop the NSTI, Arrowhead Center must meet the planning, development, execution, evaluation, and sustainability activities for the program and identify and incubate new technologies to assist the NNSA in meeting its mission and goals. Technology alone does not give a competitive advantage to the country, but the creativity and speed with which it is employed does. For a company to succeed, it must have sustainable competitive advantages in seven key areas: geography, products and businesses, distribution, sales and service culture, efficiency, brand, and most important, people. The four strategic goals of the plan are to: 1. Identify and recruit small businesses with technology applications for national security. 2. Design and implement a national security incubator program that provides incubator services and physical space for the targeted businesses. 3. Provide business assistance and technical leadership to NSTI clients to assist in bringing their products to market. 4. Construct a new multi-tenant facility with dedicated physical space for businesses with technology applications for national security.

None

2007-01-01

179

Watch out for the blue circle: a breakthrough in family planning promotional strategy.  

PubMed

Realizing the potential of commercial marketing in changing the attitude and behavior of the target audience in the early years of the 4th 5-year development plan, the National Family Planning Program tried to develop new ventures in communicating the concept of the small family norm to the people. The condom was chosen as the 1st product to be sold through the social marketing project because male awareness about family planning was still low. Based on audience research, the pricing, packaging, and branding of the product was developed. The most accepted brand name was Dua Lima because it has a neutral meaning, is easily remembered, and can be described in sign language. The last reason is very important because most consumers have difficulty communicating about condoms in the sales outlet. Social marketing has proved effective because of strong public relations activities and the involvement of formal and informal leaders. This experiment has convinced family planning management that social marketing is workable for promoting the small family norm. In 1987, under the new program of self-sufficiency in family planning, the private sector is invited to participate by providing family planning services for target audiences, using the principles of self-sufficiency and self-support. There are 2 principal activities; 1) the IEC campaign, and 2) product (contraceptive) selling. IEC activities include a media campaign public relations work. Product selling is done through commercial channels such as pharmaceutical firms, drug stores, private doctors, and midwives. It was decided that the campaign would be aided by a name and logo. The blue circle was chosen because it is unique, communicative, and simple. The social marketing of contraceptives in Indonesia can be considered a breakthrough in communication strategy for a national development program. PMID:12282138

Sumarsono

1989-07-01

180

Idaho National Laboratory Site Environmental Monitoring Plan  

SciTech Connect

This plan describes environmental monitoring as required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, “Environmental Protection Program,” and additional environmental monitoring currently performed by other organizations in and around the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The objective of DOE Order 450.1 is to implement sound stewardship practices that protect the air, water, land, and other natural and cultural resources that may be impacted by DOE operations. This plan describes the organizations responsible for conducting environmental monitoring across the INL, the rationale for monitoring, the types of media being monitored, where the monitoring is conducted, and where monitoring results can be obtained. This plan presents a summary of the overall environmental monitoring performed in and around the INL without duplicating detailed information in the various monitoring procedures and program plans currently used to conduct monitoring.

Joanne L. Knight

2010-10-01

181

Idaho National Laboratory Site Environmental Monitoring Plan  

SciTech Connect

This plan describes environmental monitoring as required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, “Environmental Protection Program,” and additional environmental monitoring currently performed by other organizations in and around the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The objective of DOE Order 450.1 is to implement sound stewardship practices that protect the air, water, land, and other natural and cultural resources that may be impacted by DOE operations. This plan describes the organizations responsible for conducting environmental monitoring across the INL, the rationale for monitoring, the types of media being monitored, where the monitoring is conducted, and where monitoring results can be obtained. This plan presents a summary of the overall environmental monitoring performed in and around the INL without duplicating detailed information in the various monitoring procedures and program plans currently used to conduct monitoring.

Joanne L. Knight

2012-08-01

182

Idaho National Laboratory Environmental Monitoring Plan  

SciTech Connect

This plan describes environmental monitoring as required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, “Environmental Protection Program,” and additional environmental monitoring currently performed by other organizations in and around the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The objective of DOE Order 450.1 is to implement sound stewardship practices that protect the air, water, land, and other natural and cultural resources that may be impacted by DOE operations. This plan describes the organizations responsible for conducting environmental monitoring across the INL, the rationale for monitoring, the types of media being monitored, where the monitoring is conducted, and where monitoring results can be obtained. This plan presents a summary of the overall environmental monitoring performed in and around the INL without duplicating detailed information in the various monitoring procedures and program plans currently used to conduct monitoring.

Joanne L. Knight

2008-04-01

183

Pakistan: family planning expands in non-governmental organizations.  

PubMed

The Family Planning Association of Pakistan has begun a program of integration of family planning activities with other voluntary welfare agencies. 1 of the more successful projects has been in cooperation with the Family Welfare Cooperative Society of Lahore. Volunteers have provided facilities to very low-income women to help supplement income. At 1st it was knitting, embroidery, and cloth manufacture, but over several years it developed into a complex of several buildings with a comprehensive vocational training center, a showroom, schools for the children of mothers in training, a secretarial school, and a hostel for homeless women there. There is a medical unit, a full-time doctor, and family planning services. PMID:12260386

1977-01-01

184

[A gold key to initiate a new situation in family planning work].  

PubMed

Because of the popularization of a responsible agricultural production system, the livilihood of peasants has been improving greatly, while the demands and needs of the general public are also increasing at the same time. Still under the influence of the traditional belief of carrying on one's family line and emphasis on having male children, married people prefer to have more childre, and the birth rate is now rising again. In order to solve this new problem, we need to teach the peasants national policies on population, land utilization, and food supply. In order to initiate a new situation in family planning work, we need to control this "gold key" of ideological education and propaganda. The emphasis should be placed on ideological education for cadres at all levels as well as the general public in order that they may understand the Party's strategy. Education on the national strategy should be combined with material interests of the peasants, and reward and punishment in production should also be linked up with that of family planning. Social measures are needed to reduce economic burdens of the peasants, offer better treatment for single-child households, and provide adequate care for old and retired people. Family planning projects should be consolidated and improved. Scientific management, facilities and techniques for birth control, compensation for working personnel in family planning, and other practical problems deserve immediate attention and solution. PMID:12159355

Du, S; Yuan, Z; Fang, X

1983-05-29

185

Research Plan for the National Center for Medical Rehabilitation Research  

E-print Network

Research Plan for the National Center for Medical Rehabilitation Research BETHESDA, MD MARCH.............................................................................................................................................................................5 National Advisory Board on Medical Rehabilitation Research...............................................................................................................................................18 Conceptual Model of the Rehabilitation Process.......................................................................................

Rau, Don C.

186

National Ignition Facility project acquisition plan revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this National Ignition Facility Acquisition Plan is to describe the overall procurement strategy planned for the National Ignition Facility M Project. It was prepared for the NIP Prood Office by the NIF Procurement Manager.

Clobes, A.R.

1996-10-01

187

Studies in Family Planning, Number 52.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first of the two articles reviews the types of population education currently available, indicating that sex education, education for family living, population awareness, and education for basic value orientations are not mutually exclusive. The objectives and evaluation of such courses are not necessarily identical in different parts of the…

Population Council, New York, NY.

188

Phase Transitions in Planning Problems: Design and Analysis of Parameterized Families of Hard Planning Problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are two common ways to evaluate algorithms: performance on benchmark problems derived from real applications and analysis of performance on parametrized families of problems. The two approaches complement each other, each having its advantages and disadvantages. The planning community has concentrated on the first approach, with few ways of generating parametrized families of hard problems known prior to this work. Our group's main interest is in comparing approaches to solving planning problems using a novel type of computational device - a quantum annealer - to existing state-of-the-art planning algorithms. Because only small-scale quantum annealers are available, we must compare on small problem sizes. Small problems are primarily useful for comparison only if they are instances of parametrized families of problems for which scaling analysis can be done. In this technical report, we discuss our approach to the generation of hard planning problems from classes of well-studied NP-complete problems that map naturally to planning problems or to aspects of planning problems that many practical planning problems share. These problem classes exhibit a phase transition between easy-to-solve and easy-to-show-unsolvable planning problems. The parametrized families of hard planning problems lie at the phase transition. The exponential scaling of hardness with problem size is apparent in these families even at very small problem sizes, thus enabling us to characterize even very small problems as hard. The families we developed will prove generally useful to the planning community in analyzing the performance of planning algorithms, providing a complementary approach to existing evaluation methods. We illustrate the hardness of these problems and their scaling with results on four state-of-the-art planners, observing significant differences between these planners on these problem families. Finally, we describe two general, and quite different, mappings of planning problems to QUBOs, the form of input required for a quantum annealing machine such as the D-Wave II.

Hen, Itay; Rieffel, Eleanor G.; Do, Minh; Venturelli, Davide

2014-01-01

189

The National Broadband Plan: Connecting America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has been working on a National Broadband Plan for the United States since early 2010, and this website provides information about their ongoing work. The hope for this plan is that it will open up economic opportunities to a wide range of locales that are not currently served by broadband Internet access. On this site, visitors can look over sections that include "About Broadband", "Events", "Initiatives", and "The Plan". First-time visitors may want to click on the "About Broadband" to get some basic details about the importance of broadband access. Moving on, visitors can click on "The Plan" to watch an overview of the plan from the chairman of the FCC, and they may also view an executive summary and the entire plan. After that, visitors should look at the thematic areas of the site (such as "Health Care" and "Civic Engagement") to learn more about how increased broadband will transform these sectors of life in America.

190

Need for focus on men's perspective in family planning.  

PubMed

An April 1994 workshop involving 13 men associated with European Family Planning Associations emphasized the need for greater male involvement in family planning and sex education. The redefinition of traditional sex roles currently underway in Europe provides a basis for men to discuss sexuality more openly and assume a more active part in family planning activities. This will not occur under existing family planning clinic models, however. Family planning associations must train male educators to train their counterparts and consider the establishment of special facilities to reach and meet the needs of men. In countries such as Sweden, Denmark, Holland, and Ireland, where male-specific services (e.g., sex education clinics for boys, courses on male sexuality for teachers and other role models, special educational materials) have been made available, the response has been overwhelming. Other suggested programs include peer-led boys' discussion groups, educational programs at sites such as sports clubs and army barracks, and open discussions of sensitive issues such as homosexuality, masturbation, and pornography. Also in need of revision is condom information. Such training should include advice to first try to masturbate with a condom and the experience of condom purchase. Realistic information on the difficulties of condom use should be offered, and young men should be given suggested phrases to use in situations when condom use is being negotiated with a partner. PMID:12289090

Rix, B A

1995-03-01

191

78 FR 13316 - National Forest System Land Management Planning Directives  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...National Forest System Land Management Planning Directives AGENCY: Forest...Forest System (NFS) land management planning regulation. Issuance of these...Forest System (NFS) land management planning regulation set out at 36...

2013-02-27

192

National solid waste management plan for Iraq.  

PubMed

After decades of turmoil and international sanctions much of the key civil infrastructure within Iraq has fallen into disrepair, leading to a considerable decline in the provision of basic and essential municipal services. This is particularly true of waste and resource management services that have seen years of underdevelopment and deterioration. This has resulted in a lack of provision of basic public services in the waste sector which have been replaced by a burgeoning unregulated informal market in waste collection, disposal and recycling. In response, a National Solid Waste Management Plan (NSWMP) for Iraq was developed in 2007, to plan for the strategic development of all aspects of waste management in the country over the coming 20 years. In particular, the NSWMP focuses on policy development and integrated planning regarding regulatory framework, economic aspects, institutional capacity, citizen and technical education, and technical and operational development. This paper summarizes the key objectives, challenges and subsequent recommendations contained in the NSWMP for Iraq. PMID:19470543

Knowles, James A

2009-06-01

193

Family Planning in Pakistan 1955-1977: a review.  

PubMed

A review and critique of the family planning effort in Pakistan has as its focus the strategies which have been employed, and the organizational changes through which the program has passed. In spite of several reorganizations and apparent changes in philosophy of the family planning program, all variants of the program were still derived from the same set of underlying assumptions. First, the plans and schemes have all been animated by the spirit expressed in the original scheme that family planning is essentially an administrative matter. By focusing on administrative aspects, the programs have downplayed clinical methods. Second, the plans were assuming that a deep, unfilled demand for family planning services existed on the part of the potential clients. No consistent communications or propaganda strategy was ever developed, and demand was taken for granted. Third, the program has assumed that it was possible to create quickly a nationwide program capable of reaching into the remote rural areas in spite of the fact that no other public sector program has succeeded in doing so. Fourth, the program has lacked a consistent, detailed set of fertility estimates for the population covered by the program. It is concluded that the chief missing link has been not on the supply side, but on the demand side. In principle, any of several programs could have succeeded; if they did not, it was not only because of administrative or supply problems, but because of inadequate effective demand. Future efforts should be carefully planned, pretested, and then slowly and gradually put into place. Had a carefully phased program been adopted in 1965, it is concluded that the overall family planning effort in Pakistan would be at least as well off and for much less cost and effort. PMID:12335586

Robinson, W C

1978-01-01

194

National conference on integrated resource planning: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

Until recently, state regulators have focused most of their attention on the development of least-cost or integrated resource planning (IRP) processes for electric utilities. A number of commissions are beginning to scrutinize the planning processes of local gas distribution companies (LDCs) because of the increased control that LDCs have over their purchased gas costs (as well as the associated risks) and because of questions surrounding the role and potential of gas end-use efficiency options. Traditionally, resource planning (LDCs) has concentrated on options for purchasing and storing gas. Integrated resource planning involves the creation of a process in which supply-side and demand-side options are integrated to create a resource mix that reliably satisfies customers` short-term and long-term energy service needs at the lowest cost. As applied to gas utilities, an integrated resource plan seeks to balance cost and reliability, and should not be interpreted simply as the search for lowest commodity costs. The National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners` (NARUC) Energy Conservation committee asked Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) to survey state PUCs to determine the extent to which they have undertaken least cost planning for gas utilities. The survey included the following topics: status of state PUC least-cost planning regulations and practices for gas utilities; type and scope of natural gas DSM programs in effect, including fuel substitution; economic tests and analysis methods used to evaluate DSM programs; relationship between prudency reviews of gas utility purchasing practices and integrated resource planning; key regulatory issued facing gas utilities during the next five years.

Not Available

1991-12-31

195

National conference on integrated resource planning: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

Until recently, state regulators have focused most of their attention on the development of least-cost or integrated resource planning (IRP) processes for electric utilities. A number of commissions are beginning to scrutinize the planning processes of local gas distribution companies (LDCs) because of the increased control that LDCs have over their purchased gas costs (as well as the associated risks) and because of questions surrounding the role and potential of gas end-use efficiency options. Traditionally, resource planning (LDCs) has concentrated on options for purchasing and storing gas. Integrated resource planning involves the creation of a process in which supply-side and demand-side options are integrated to create a resource mix that reliably satisfies customers' short-term and long-term energy service needs at the lowest cost. As applied to gas utilities, an integrated resource plan seeks to balance cost and reliability, and should not be interpreted simply as the search for lowest commodity costs. The National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners' (NARUC) Energy Conservation committee asked Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) to survey state PUCs to determine the extent to which they have undertaken least cost planning for gas utilities. The survey included the following topics: status of state PUC least-cost planning regulations and practices for gas utilities; type and scope of natural gas DSM programs in effect, including fuel substitution; economic tests and analysis methods used to evaluate DSM programs; relationship between prudency reviews of gas utility purchasing practices and integrated resource planning; key regulatory issued facing gas utilities during the next five years.

Not Available

1991-01-01

196

National Conference on Integrated Resource Planning: Proceedings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until recently, state regulators have focused most of their attention on the development of least-cost or integrated resource planning (IRP) processes for electric utilities. A number of commissions are beginning to scrutinize the planning processes of local gas distribution companies (LDCs) because of the increased control that LDCs have over their purchased gas costs (as well as the associated risks) and because of questions surrounding the role and potential of gas end-use efficiency options. Traditionally, resource planning (LDCs) has concentrated on options for purchasing and storing gas. Integrated resource planning involves the creation of a process in which supply-side and demand-side options are integrated to create a resource mix that reliably satisfies customers' short-term and long-term energy service needs at the lowest cost. As applied to gas utilities, an integrated resource plan seeks to balance cost and reliability, and should not be interpreted simply as the search for lowest commodity costs. The National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners' (NARUC) Energy Conservation committee asked Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) to survey state PUCs to determine the extent to which they have undertaken least cost planning for gas utilities. The survey included the following topics: status of state PUC least-cost planning regulations and practices for gas utilities; type and scope of natural gas DSM programs in effect, including fuel substitution; economic tests and analysis methods used to evaluate DSM programs; relationship between prudency reviews of gas utility purchasing practices and integrated resource planning; and key regulatory issues facing gas utilities during the next five years.

197

Lecture 3: Methods in Formulating National Economic Plans  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the Party and the state have determined the political and economic tasks of each period, the planning organs must formulate national economic plans that can guarantee the fulfillment of these tasks. These plans must be formulated with scientific methods. These scientific methods must correctly reflect the requirements of a planned (proportional) development of the national economy. The more than

Chung Chi-fu

1977-01-01

198

NATIONAL SURVEY OF FAMILIES AND HOUSEHOLDS  

EPA Science Inventory

This is a longitudinal population-based survey of families and households in the United States that was designed to look at the causes and consequences of changes in American family and household structure. The first wave of the NSFH consists of interviews conducted during 1987-1...

199

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan FY 2004-2008  

SciTech Connect

This Institutional Plan for FY 2004-2008 is the principal annual planning document submitted to the Department of Energy's Office of Science by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Washington. This plan describes the Laboratory's mission, roles, and technical capabilities in support of Department of Energy priorities, missions, and plans. It also describes the Laboratory strategic plan, key planning assumptions, major research initiatives, and program strategy for fundamental science, energy resources, environmental quality, and national security.

Quadrel, Marilyn J.

2004-04-15

200

Inequalities in the Use of Family Planning in Rural Nepal  

PubMed Central

This paper explores inequalities in the use of modern family planning methods among married women of reproductive age (MWRA) in rural Nepal. Data from the 2012 Nepal Household Survey (HHS) were utilized, which employed a stratified, three-stage cluster design to obtain a representative sample of 9,016 households from rural Nepal. Within the sampled households, one woman of reproductive age was randomly selected to answer the survey questions related to reproductive health. Only four out of every ten rural MWRA were using a modern family planning method. Short-acting and permanent methods were most commonly used, and long-acting reversible contraceptives were the least likely to be used. Muslims were less likely to use family planning compared to other caste/ethnic groups. Usage was also lower among younger women (likely to be trying to delay or space births) than older women (likely to be trying to limit their family size). Less educated women were more likely to use permanent methods and less likely to use short-term methods. To increase the CPR, which has currently stalled, and continue to reduce the TFR, Nepal needs more focused efforts to increase family planning uptake in rural areas. The significant inequalities suggest that at-risk groups need additional targeting by demand and supply side interventions. PMID:25405205

Mehata, Suresh; Paudel, Yuba Raj; Dotel, Bhogendra Raj; Singh, Dipendra Raman; Poudel, Pradeep; Barnett, Sarah

2014-01-01

201

Inequalities in the use of family planning in rural Nepal.  

PubMed

This paper explores inequalities in the use of modern family planning methods among married women of reproductive age (MWRA) in rural Nepal. Data from the 2012 Nepal Household Survey (HHS) were utilized, which employed a stratified, three-stage cluster design to obtain a representative sample of 9,016 households from rural Nepal. Within the sampled households, one woman of reproductive age was randomly selected to answer the survey questions related to reproductive health. Only four out of every ten rural MWRA were using a modern family planning method. Short-acting and permanent methods were most commonly used, and long-acting reversible contraceptives were the least likely to be used. Muslims were less likely to use family planning compared to other caste/ethnic groups. Usage was also lower among younger women (likely to be trying to delay or space births) than older women (likely to be trying to limit their family size). Less educated women were more likely to use permanent methods and less likely to use short-term methods. To increase the CPR, which has currently stalled, and continue to reduce the TFR, Nepal needs more focused efforts to increase family planning uptake in rural areas. The significant inequalities suggest that at-risk groups need additional targeting by demand and supply side interventions. PMID:25405205

Mehata, Suresh; Paudel, Yuba Raj; Dotel, Bhogendra Raj; Singh, Dipendra Raman; Poudel, Pradeep; Barnett, Sarah

2014-01-01

202

[Combining vertical service with horizontal service to promote family planning].  

PubMed

How Bazhong County of Sechuan Province, China, carries out family planning through a combination of what are termed vertical and horizontal services is described. Vertical service refers to assistance such as premarital education, prenatal hygiene, child health care, and family planning, while horizontal service refers to household assistance for married women. Premarital education is designed to help young people acquire sufficent knowledge about family planning, hygiene, and eugenics, and stresses the disadvantages involved in marriages between close relatives. Prenatal hygiene provides safe and convenient medical accommodations for delivery of the child as well as maternal care. Child health services assure that the best facilities are to be made available for physical examinations, vaccinations, and medical treatment. The family planning program involves comprehensive measures such as distribution of contraceptives and safe sterilization. In addition, the county provides medical assistance for couples unable to have children. Horizontal service providing household assistance for married women promotes scientific farming (e.g., how to use fertilizer), helps people increase their income by teaching them skills, and provides social services to improve life style and education. These vertical and horizontal services have brought about substantial improvements in the standard of living, family harmony, and population control. PMID:12341133

An, Y; Yu, Q

1986-03-01

203

Family Emergency Plan Make sure your family has a plan in case of an emergency. Before an emergency happens, sit down together and decide how you will  

E-print Network

Family Emergency Plan Make sure your family has a plan in case of an emergency. Before an emergency-of-Neighborhood Meeting Place: Phone: Out-of-Town Meeting Place: Phone: Fill out the following information for each family family spends the most time: work, school and other places you frequent. Schools, daycare providers

Burke, Peter

204

Multivariate relationships between modernity value orientations and family planning indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using canonical correlation techniques in the analysis of data collected from interviews with 1,737 married women of three Indian states, this paper evaluated three modernity value orientations—subjective efficacy, openness to change, and propensity to plan—as predictors of a set of four family planning indicators. The analysis revealed that, in Haryana, both subjective efficacy and openness to change were related to

Bishwa Nath Mukherjee

1981-01-01

205

Levels, trends and reasons for unmet need for family planning among married women in Botswana: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objectives The objectives of this study are: (1) to estimate the prevalence of unmet need for family planning among married women using Botswana Family Health Survey 2007 data and (2) to identify risk factors for unmet need for family planning among married women. Design This study used secondary data from a cross-sectional survey that was conducted to provide a snapshot of health issues in Botswana. Setting Nationally representative population survey data. Participants 2601 married or in union women aged 15–49?years who participated in the 2007 Botswana Family Health Survey were included in the analysis. Primary outcome Unmet need for family planning, which was defined as the percentage of all fecund married women who are not using a method of contraception even though they do not want to get pregnant. Results Married women who had unmet need for family planning were 9.6% in 2007. Most of the unmet need was for limiting (6.7%) compared to spacing (2.9%). Unmet need for family planning was more likely to be among women whose partners disapproved of family planning, non-Christians, had one partner and had never discussed family planning with their partner. Women of low parity, aged 25–34?years, and greater exposure to mass media, were less likely to have experienced unmet need. The patterns and magnitude of covariates differed between unmet need for limiting and for spacing. Conclusions The prevalence of unmet need for family planning was low in Botswana compared to other sub-Saharan African countries. The findings from this study reemphasise the importance of women's empowerment and men's involvement in women's sexual and reproductive healthcare needs and services. Different approaches are needed to satisfy the demand for family planning for spacing and limiting. PMID:25829370

Letamo, Gobopamang

2015-01-01

206

77 FR 15052 - National Ocean Council-National Ocean Policy Draft Implementation Plan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY National Ocean Council--National Ocean Policy Draft Implementation Plan AGENCY: Council...establishing a National Policy for the Stewardship of the Ocean, our Coasts, and the Great Lakes (National...

2012-03-14

207

75 FR 67682 - Sequoia National Forest, California; Sequoia National Forest Plan Amendment, Giant Sequoia...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Sequoia National Forest Plan Amendment, Giant Sequoia National Monument Draft Environmental...extending the public comment period for the Giant Sequoia National Monument Draft Environmental...more detailed information related to the Giant Sequoia National Monument Draft EIS...

2010-11-03

208

Importance of male fertility control in family planning.  

PubMed

The world population, currently estimated to be almost seven billion, is expected to double in less than four decades. The projected population growth will cause severe competition for existing resources, not to mention the issue of overcrowding of the planet and additional greenhouse gases that will have an adverse effect on the ecological health of the planet. A recent survey conducted by the United Nations Population Control Division shows that the majority of today's young men in many countries are willing to participate in family planning by taking full control of their fertility, an important global health issue. However, the contraceptive needs of tens of millions of men/couples go unmet every single day and results in millions of unwanted pregnancies. Ever since the approval of the birth control pill by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1960, scientists have been hoping for a male equivalent. It has, however, been a difficult road, in part because of the complicated science of the male reproductive system. It is easier to control a monthly event of ovulation in women than to regulate the production of millions of fertile spermatozoa every day in men. Thus, the contraceptive options for men have not changed in decades and are still limited to the use of condoms, a timely withdrawal/pulling out (coitus interruptus) or vasectomy, a minor surgical procedure in which the vas deferens is occluded to prevent the release of spermatozoa during ejaculation. The first two approaches have a relatively higher failure rate, whereas the last approach is largely irreversible and not suitable for younger men. In this article, we will discuss various approaches currently available for men to take control of their fertility. Our intention is to discuss the details of three similar approaches that will provide safe, affordable and reversible contraception for men and are close to being approved for use by millions of men around the globe. The availability of safe, reversible and reliable male contraceptives will allow men and women to take full control of their fertility in family planning. PMID:24654689

Tulsiani, Daulat R P; Abou-Haila, Aida

2014-01-01

209

Early abortion in a family planning clinic.  

PubMed

The successful integration of sessions for very early abortion in the Planned Parenthood Clinic of San Francisco is described. Abortion sessions replaced 2 one- half days of contraceptive clinics per week. Flexible Karman cannulas and foot, or electrically-operated vacuum pumps were used. Routine testing for RhD antibody and gonorrhea were done at each abortion. 560 women were aborted during the year and 4 had repeat abortion. Problems encountered were 1.8% failed abortion requiring repeat suction, 1.6% bleeding heavier than a menstrual period, 3% infection in the uterus or surrounding tissues, and 1 ecotopic pregnancy. The abortion service in the Clinic was well accepted by patients, staff, the medical community, and the community at large. PMID:4218815

Goldsmith, S

1974-01-01

210

Quinault Indian Nation Renewable Energy Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Quinault Indian Nation (Nation) initiated this study on conservation and production of renewable energy because this approach created the opportunity: • To become self-sufficient and gain greater control over the energy the Nation uses; • To generate jobs and businesses for its members; • To better manage, sustain, and protect its resources; • To express the cultural values of the Nation in an important new arena. The Nation has relatively small energy needs. These needs are concentrated at two separate points: the Quinault Beach Resort and Casino (QBRC) and Taholah on the Quinault Indian Reservation (QIR). Except for the town of Queets, energy needs are small and scattered. The needs vary greatly over the season. The small scale, widely dispersed, and variable nature of these needs presents a unique challenge to the Nation. Meeting these needs requires a resource and technology that is flexible, effective, and portable. Conservation is the most cost-effective way to meet any need. It is especially effective in a situation like this where production would leave a high per unit cost. This plan is based on first gaining energy savings through conservation. Major savings are possible through: 1. Upgrading home appliances on the QIR. 2. Weatherizing homes and facilities. 3. Changes in lighting/ventilation in the QBRC pool room. These elements of the plan are already being implemented and promise to save the Nation around a quarter of its present costs. Wood biomass is the best resource available to the QIN for energy production either on-site or for commercial development. It is abundant, flexible and portable. Its harvesting has high job potential and these jobs are a good fit for the present “skill set” of the QIN. This plan focuses on using wood biomass to produce energy and other value-added products. Our study considered various technologies and approaches to using wood for energy. We considered production for both on-site and commercial production. This plan calls for commercial-scale production only, with the QIN being the first “customer” for the product. This plan favors employing the pyrolysis technology to produce bio-oil, heat, and char. We favor this approach and technology because it is the most cost effective way to use the available resource. Its main product, bio-oil, has proven utility for the production of heat and electricity. It has promise for use as an alternative fuel, which is a much higher value than present uses of wood and it meets the QIN need for flexibility, scalability, and portability. Char, the secondary product from the pyrolysis process, has proven value-added uses. In addition to these direct benefits, the use of biomass in pyrolysis technology has significant indirect benefits. These benefits include the fact that the technology is a good fit with the Nation’s cultural values, i.e., environmental protection and the holistic use of a resource. It fits well with current QIN enterprises. For example, char could be processed into a charcoal co-product for QIN fish. Finally, the QIN can become a leader in developing and demonstrating this innovative approach to the use of wood. This plan proposes key organization steps to insure both excellent implementation of the plan and taking the best advantage of the processes and facilities put in place. This plan calls for two new QIN organizations: an energy production/distribution corporation and a community development corporation. The production/distribution corporation can be either a utility or a business enterprise that develops and markets renewable energy. The community development corporation can be a not-for-profit to support the QIN in taking best advantage of its energy opportunities. The production and distribution corporation is the subject of a further business planning effort now underway. This plan envisions a community development corporation that works directly with the Business Committee on research, education, and project development. Specifically, this corporation can seek grant funding to research energy m

Don Hopps, Institute for Washington's Future; Jesse Nelson, Institute for Washington's Future

2006-11-28

211

Client-centered counseling improves client satisfaction with family planning visits: evidence from Irbid, Jordan  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Background: High levels of unmet need for family planning and high contraceptive discontinuation rates persist in Jordan, prompting the Jordan Health Communication Partnership (JHCP) to initiate a client-centered family planning service program called “Consult and Choose” (CC), together with community-based activities to encourage women with unmet need to visit health centers. Methods: We held exit interviews with 461 family planning clients between November–December 2011 to assess, from the clients' perspective, whether trained providers followed the CC protocol and used the CC tools, as well as to measure client satisfaction. We also tracked referral card information from community-based activities to health centers and examined service statistics to explore trends in family planning use. Results: On average, clients reported that providers performed 5.6 of the 7 steps outlined in the CC protocol. Nearly 83% of respondents were very satisfied with their clinic visits. Logistic regression analysis found that the odds of being “very satisfied” increases by 20% with each additional counseling protocol step performed and by 70% with each increase in the number of CC materials used. Between June 2011 and August 2012, 14,490 referral cards from community-based activities were collected in health centers, 59% of which were for family planning services. Service statistic trends indicate an increase in the number of new family planning users and in couple-years of protection after starting the CC program. Conclusions: Implementation of the CC program at health centers nationally, in tandem with community-based interventions, could play a key role in attaining Jordan's goal of reducing its total fertility rate to 2.1 by 2030. Although this initiative would likely be replicated most readily in other middle-income countries, lower-resource countries could also adapt the tested CC approach. PMID:25276531

Kamhawi, Sarah; Underwood, Carol; Murad, Huda; Jabre, Bushra

2013-01-01

212

78 FR 67418 - National Plan for Civil Earth Observations; Request for Information  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...TECHNOLOGY POLICY National Plan for Civil Earth Observations; Request for Information...development of a National Plan for Civil Earth Observations (``National Plan...Please include ``National Plan for Civil Earth Observations'' in the subject line...

2013-11-12

213

Snapshots of America's Families II: A View of the Nation and 13 States from the National Survey of America's Families, 1997-1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of snapshots examines the well-being of America's children and adults through the lens of the 1999 National Survey of America's Families. Snapshots include: "Foreword: Snapshots of America's Families II: A View of the Nation and 13 States from the National Survey of America's Families" (Alyssa Wigton and Alan Weil); "Family

Koppelman, Jane, Ed.

214

The Impact on Clinics of the California Office of Family Planning Budget Cuts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The California Office of Family Planning (OFP), a branch of the Family Health Division, Department of Health Services, was established in 1973 to provide assistance and services relating to the planning of families. In July 1989, state appropriations for OFP were cut by two-thirds, leaving $12 million to support the provision of family planning

Brindis, Claire; And Others

215

A Crucial New Direction for International Family Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Repressive attitudes toward female sexuality by Third World men and ignorance of the basic biology of the female reproductive system by Third World women have led to the failure of family planning efforts. Use of the "Universal Childbirth Picture Book," which illustrates the female reproductive system, is recommended. (IS)

Hosken, Fran P.

1984-01-01

216

A Holistic Approach to Family Planning Counseling and Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A family planning clinic which was part of a large public maternity hospital in Salvador Bahia, Brazil received a grant to expand its services and to evaluate a service model focusing on client counseling and education. The counseling, education, and service provision process included individual pre-consultation with a nurse, group education and…

Chaves, Lushanhya Coutinho; And Others

217

Factors influencing the choice to use modern natural family planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

A discrepancy exists between the interest in modern methods of natural family planning (NFP) and their actual use in developed countries. To explore reasons for this discrepancy, we analyzed data from a questionnaire administered to postpartum women in Berlin (n = 223) and Cracow (n = 233). Knowledge of NFP, past use of NFP and expected effects of abstinence on

Rafael T Mikolajczyk; Joseph B Stanford; Martina Rauchfuss

2003-01-01

218

Improving Permanency Planning in Families with HIV Disease.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes two distinct service models developed in New York City for providing mental health and custody-planning services to families with HIV/AIDS. Project Talk uses cognitive behavior techniques with groups of parents and their teenage children. Project Care employs a psycho-educational approach to counseling mothers and children in their…

Draimin, Barbara H.; Gamble, Ivy; Shire, Amy; Hudis, Jan

1998-01-01

219

Yard Plan of the Brundage, Parish, Simmons Families et al. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Yard Plan of the Brundage, Parish, Simmons Families et al. Circa 1940s - The Smokey Hollow Community, Informal boundaries by street name: North to South: East Jefferson Street to East Van Buren Street. West to East: South Gadsden Street to Marvin Street., Tallahassee, Leon County, FL

220

Condoms, family planning and living with HIV in Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the socio-cultural context of Zimbabwe, where men have both sexual freedom and power over women in relationships, the use of condoms and family planning remains subject to a man's willingness. Men's dislike of condoms remain a major barrier to HIV\\/STD prevention both before and after a positive HIV diagnosis. Openness about the diagnosis or even the suggestion to use

Karla Meursing; Flora Sibindi

1995-01-01

221

Diffusion of Innovations: Family Planning in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the best examples of the validity of the theory of “diffusion of innovations” is the case of family planning in developing countries. The desire of health, development and environment advocates in rich countries to make modern contraceptive use and lower fertility a norm in developing countries was translated into organized efforts to reach top-level leaders in these countries.

ELAINE MURPHY

2004-01-01

222

[Chen Muhua, Bo Yibo speak at family planning meeting].  

PubMed

Chen Muhua, the Chinese vice premier in charge of family planning spoke at a forum on the family, marriage, and family planning held in Beijing. She made the point that an attempt will be made to realize the goal of a 1 child family on the part of 95% of the married couples in the cities and 90% of the married couples in the countryside. Chen Muhua pointed out that the population growth rate should be in scale with economic developments, and she called for wide scale propaganda regarding the importance of birth control. The vice premier went on to say that late marriage and late birth should be advocated and that attention should be paid to the well being of women, children, and the aged. More than 200 delegates from Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei Provinces and from the People's Liberation Army attended the forum. 10 representatives spoke of their experience in promoting family planning. Vice Premiers Wang Zhen and Bo Yibo also spoke and noted that birth control was of considerable importance in improving the material and spiritual life of China's future generations. PMID:12338054

1980-02-01

223

International family-planning training for nurse practitioners.  

PubMed

Since the mid-1970s, the Margaret Sanger Center of Planned Parenthood of New York City has prepared nurses and nurse midwives from less developed countries to be family-planning nurse practitioners. These nurse practitioners then provide services to patients, train other staff, and manage integrated family-planning clinics. More than 120 nurses and nurse midwives have arrived in groups of 10 at the Sanger Center, with 72 attending since 1981. Each course lasts 10 weeks. The core curriculum provides trainees with skills in women's health care including contraception, in training and advocacy, and in management of clinics. Whether, in the current period of scarce resources, cross-cultural training programs of this type remain a worthwhile investment, and if so, which of their components are most important to this success, is assessed. PMID:3641903

Vansintejan, G A; Purdy, P J

1986-01-01

224

Policy guidelines for collective bargaining and family planning.  

PubMed

The benfits of establishing family planning through collective bargaining to both labor and management are discussed. Until workers can be convinced that their children will receive health care, education and employment, and that they will be economically secure in old age, it is difficult to convince them of the many benefits of child spacing and small family size. In 1953, it was calculated by management in a Japanese steel factory that about 70% of all acidents could be attributable to difficulties in the private lives of employees. In order to ease problems in the home, collective agreements were initiated by management in the Nippon Express Company to provide family planning services. Labor agreed as long as the workers were to share in the economic awards which came from participation. Costs of implementing the family planning programs were fully offset by the decrease in expenditure on family allowances, confinement, nursing, and so on. In India some ten estates began a program in which a certain amount of money is paid into an account for every month that a woman does not become pregnant. If the woman becomes pregnant, she forfeits a substantial amount of the fund. This money comes directly from the funds which would normally have to be set aside to provide for maternity and child support programs. Certain guidelines are presented in the paper to outline the areas of responsibility of labor and management in the provision of family planning services. Among the many possibilities mentioned is the idea that both labor and management could look into the conceivability of plowing back a portion of whatever savings are accrued by management into a pension scheme to compensate workers for the loss of labor caused by having fewer children than were previously anticipated. PMID:12306650

Finnigan, O D; Parulan, D

1973-01-01

225

Fertility and family planning in Accra.  

PubMed

A sample of 1000 currently married women aged 25-39 and living in 3 geographic areas of the Ghanaian capital were interviewed about their contraceptive knowledge and practice. Slightly over 90% of the respondents said that they had heard of ways to delay or prevent pregnancy. There was no difference between the 3 areas, but more of those aged 30-34 had heard about contraception. The chances that a respondent had heard about contraception increased with the level of education. Catholics were less likely to have heard of any contraceptive methods than Protestants. Also, women engaged in traditional informal occupations were the least likely to have heard of any contraceptive methods. Overall, education emerged as the most important differentiating factor. The pill, condom, and IUD were the best known methods. Regarding actual contraceptive practice, only 41% of the respondents were currently using some form of contraception, with about 19% using modern and 27% traditional methods. Results of contraceptive usage by user characteristics show that the majority of women in 2/3 of the areas rely on a mixture of traditional and modern methods; that the % of users (any method) increases with age up to 30-34 years, after which it decreases. The % of ever-users of any type of contraception in this study is highest for the highest education levels, at 84% for women with 2ndary and post 2ndary education. With the exception of the IUD, douche and folklore methods, better educated women have higher ever-use %s for both traditional and modern methods. While the %s of users increases with education for foam, diaphragm and withdrawal; the reverse is observed for the pill and IUD, probably due to fear of negative side effects. Overall, there are no significant variations in contraceptive use by migration status; but the % of non-users is highest among recent migrants who are also the least likely to have ever used modern methods. Fertility differentials across ethnic groups have been observed in Ghana. The Akan have the highest fertility, followed by the Ewe and Ga-Adangbe with moderate fertility, and the northern ethnic groups with the lowest fertility. The Akan also have the highest % of ever users of modern contraceptives, an inconsistency which may be explained by their recent recognition of the burdens of high fertility and their attempts to control it. Religious differences are pronounced, especially between the traditional category on the 1 hand, and Christians and Muslims on the other. Results of an analysis of variance suggests that family size is the strongest motivation for adopting modern contraception, and that it may be used for limiting rather than spacing births. PMID:3944146

Fosu, G B

1986-01-01

226

Family Structure and Children's Health and Behavior: Data from the 1999 National Survey of America's Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from the 1999 National Survey of America's Families, this research investigates the association and pathways between family structure and child well-being among children age 6 to 17. Three indicators of child well-being are examined: parent-rated health, limiting health conditions, and child behavior. Results show that both stepfamilies…

Wen, Ming

2008-01-01

227

[How to carry out work on family planning after adopting production responsibility systems in rural areas].  

PubMed

After the Third Meeting of the Eleventh People's Congress, the entire responsibility for agricultural production was transferred to a lower level. Peasants in various areas have adopted the so called production responsibility system, and the phenomenon of an increased population rate has also appeared in some areas. In this article, the author discusses how to solve these problems created by the new situation. The 1st step is try to control population growth through socialist propaganda education, administrative measures, economic incentives and punishments, and family planning work. The 2nd step is to popularize the practice of having only 1 child per household in the rural areas. The 2nd and 3rd child in each family should be controlled and prohibited. This policy formulated by the Central Government should be carried out thoroughly. Families which follow the policy and have only 1 child should be encouraged with economic rewards, and those families which have 2 or more children should be punished economically. The 3rd step is to establish a national work team to be in charge of family planning and birth control. There should be an ideological unity among the nation's leadership. Party members and cadres should establish themselves as good examples for the people so that the population control work may become successful. PMID:12266135

Xiao, S H

1982-05-29

228

[The nature of family planning management in China].  

PubMed

Family planning (FP) program management in China uses the power of the state to manage population reproduction. the characteristics of program management are as follows. 1) The FP program is for the benefit of the state, community and individual, 2) the FP program is a process of birth planning under social planning rather than an individual family's planning, 3) FP include both restriction on the number of people and the improvement of the quality of the population. 4) FP is a public affair. Government organizations at all levels of coordination and mobilize the FP program so that people of all walks of life can participate. 5) People participate in the FP program management by expressing their views in the people's congress, through communication with administration leadership, and through self-education. The special features of FP program management in China are also reflected in its concerns with a variety of target populations, its need for cooperation from people and its need for involvement of all institutions and enterprises. As the human reproductive cycle is long, making a long- term strategic policy for FP is no less important than long-term economic planning. The management of the program should emphasize direction and persuasion, the provision of services and help to people, and the efforts to involve government or public organizations in promoting planning programs. PMID:12159349

Pei, Z

1989-07-01

229

[Circular on census and family planning of 1990].  

PubMed

In 1990 the Census Leading Group under the State Council, the State Family Planning Commission, and the Ministry of Public Security issued a circular on census and family planning calling for various localities to do a good job in registering children who were born beyond the state target. The circular provides the following: "1. To strictly enforce the policy for family planning and allow no children who were born beyond the state target to register themselves for residence, it is necessary to clarify issues to the local cadres. While acknowledging their enthusiasm in implementing the state policy for family planning, we must ask them to allow some children who were born beyond the state target to register themselves for the census and residence on the basis of the relevant regulations of the State Council. 2. It is necessary to carry out ideological work well among those cadres who did not report the number of children who were born beyond the state plan because of political reasons or material benefits, so that they will report childbirths and have those children registered. In general, no further investigation will be made as long as the children born beyond the state target have truthfully registered themselves during this census. However, those who continuously refuse to tell the truth will be severely dealt with when they are caught. 3. It is necessary to strengthen propaganda and education work among the masses who dare not report the births of children beyond the state target for fear of possible punishment, and make them understand that the census is aimed at managing state affairs and providing scientific data for working out various policies for social and economic developments. Therefore, it is necessary to report things as they are." The circular also provides that "Family planning is China's basic state policy. It is wrong to give birth to any child beyond the state target. It is impermissable to do so. From now on, we still need to enforce the policy of family planning." PMID:12343815

1990-04-17

230

Sex education and family planning messages in Greek school books.  

PubMed

The Greek Family Planning Association (GFPA) completed in march 1990 a 3-year effort to evaluate whether sex education was an integral part of the school curricula. It was reported by a representative of the Pedagogical Institute in the Ministry of Education and Religion that important efforts have been made. The findings were presented at the 2nd Sex Education and Health seminar in March, 1990. Greek primary schools have 1 teacher for all lessons; but specialists in various fields of the secondary school curricula. Primary school books have various references and pictures on human reproduction. Equality of the sexes socially and culturally is represented, as well as good health messages on nutrition and hygiene. Noticeably absent, however, is any reference to human sexuality, nude human body or sex organ pictures, or other non-traditional family models. Family planning and contraception are also missing; teacher training or special courses are needed. Secondary school books have clear but limited messages. For example, there is a whole page on the philosophy and aims of family planning, but parenthood is only presented in the context of traditional marriage without contraception. It is recommended that legislative support be engaged to insure that sex education programs are systematic, age-specific, and a continuous activity from the primary level. Another important role in the implementation and curriculum development of sex education is one played by teachers and health professionals, those in touch with young people. GFPA needs to compile basic guidelines for those teaching sex education. PMID:12343171

Frisiras, S; Lagiou, A; Sourtzi, P; Vidalaki, M

1991-05-01

231

On the socioeconomic benefits of family planning work.  

PubMed

The focus of this article is on 1) the intended socioeconomic benefit of Chinese family planning (FP) versus the benefit of the maternal production sector, 2) the estimated costs of FP work, 3) and the principal ways to lower FP costs. Marxian population theory, which is ascribed to in socialist China, states that population and socioeconomic development are interconnected and must adapt to each other and that an excessively large or small population will upset the balance and retard development. Malthusians believe that large populations reduce income, and Adam Smith believed that more people meant a larger market and more income. It is believed that FP will bring socioeconomic benefits to China. The socioeconomic benefit of material production is the linkage between labor consumption and the amount of labor usage with the fruits and benefits of labor. FP invests in human, material, and financial resources to reduce the birth rate and the absolute number of births. The investment is recouped in population. The increased national income generated from a small outlay to produce an ideal population would be used to improve material and cultural lives. FP brings economic benefits and accelerates social development (ecological balances women's emancipation and improvement in the physical and mental health of women and children, improvement in cultural learning and employment, cultivation of socialist morality and new practices, and stability). In computing FP cost, consideration is given to total cost and unit cost. Cost is dependent on the state budget allocation, which was 445.76 million yuan in 1982 and was doubled by 1989. World Bank figures for 1984 affixed the FP budget in China at 979.6 million US dollars, of which 80% was provided by China. Per person, this means 21 cents for central, provincial, prefecture, and country spending, 34 cents for rural collective set-ups, 25 cents for child awards, and various subsidies, 15 cents for sterilization, and 5 cents for rural medical services, or 1 US dollar/person. Unit costs are the costs to reduce the population of one and include direct and indirect costs. The unit cost between 1970-82 was 35.5 yuan, but if outlays for families and industrial units are included, the cost was 70-100 yuan. Population growth, however, must be balanced so that aging does not cancel out the benefits from FP gains. Lower costs can be achieved by better FP administration. PMID:12343682

Yang, D

1991-01-01

232

The nurse practitioner in family planning services: law and practice.  

PubMed

Before 1971, when Idaho became the 1st state to authorize expanded scope of functions for registered nurses, nearly all states made it illegal for any nurse to perform diagnosis or prescribe treatment, creating an ambiguity as more and more nurses were equipped by education and technology to perform new tasks. Today 30 states have liberalized the scope of nursing functions, making it possible for nurses and nurse-midwives to assume, among other tasks, family planning functions. A table gives the status of legislation and regulations governing nurse practitioners and nurse-midwives in each state. The area of greatest controversy is the prescription of oral contraceptives. In some states it is allowed under doctor's supervision or in rural areas or in areas where clear need exists for a nurse to dispense such medication. Usually this dispensing is limited to a single course of treatment. Nurse-midwives are rapidly being accepted as extensions of scarce medical facilities. Generally nurse-midwives are authorized to provide prenatal and postpartum care, to handle normal deliveries, and do family planning work including fitting diaphragms and inserting and removing IUDs. An innovation is the family planning nurse practitioner. Several courses for such practitioners have been set up across the U.S. Graduates may, with medical direction, perform bimanual pelvic examinations and breast examinations, take blood pressure, prescribe contraception, fit diaphragms, insert IUDs, examine vaginal secretions microscopically, and refer patients with problems to physicians. In a California program both registered and nonregistered nurses are being trained as women's health specialists who may make routine examinations in both pregnant and nonpregnant women and give family planning advice. Non-RN family planning specialists being trained include licensed vocational nurses, baccalaureate degree holders in nonnursing fields, and qualified persons with less formal education. The 24-week course was authorized under a California State Department of Health demonstration program. While there may be serious concern that nurse-practitioners or other trained personnel may be used in place of physicians in poor neighborhoods and rural areas, others feel that use of such personnel will help make family planning and well-baby services more generally available and conserve valuable physician time for those cases which need greater skill and training. PMID:12259979

Roemer, R

1977-06-01

233

National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan Review  

MedlinePLUS

... and Area Contingency Plans (ACPs). Top of Page Oil Removals §300.317 Establishes national priorities for responding ... Additional Information: Criteria for State, Local, and Regional Oil Removal Contingency Plans The criteria for state, local ...

234

National Flood Risk Management Planning Center of Expertise  

E-print Network

National Flood Risk Management Planning Center of Expertise The Flood Risk Management Planning Center of Expertise (FRM-PCX) was established and Reallocation, Hydropower, and Flood Risk Management. The FRM-PCX is a virtual

US Army Corps of Engineers

235

The National Survey of America's Families: an overview of the health policy component.  

PubMed

This report describes one aspect of "Assessing the New Federalism," a multi-year research project, started by the Urban Institute in 1996, to analyze the devolution of responsibility for social programs from the federal government to the states. The project combines case studies in 13 diverse states with analyses of data drawn from a wide range of sources, including a new household survey--the National Survey of America's Families (NSAF). The NSAF, which contains nationally representative data from almost 45,000 families, was fielded in 1997 and 1999, and is planned for 2001 and again at subsequent two-year intervals. In this paper, we provide an overview of the NSAF's purpose; the sampling approach and methods; the questionnaire content, with particular emphasis on questions of interest to health policy researchers; health policy research planned by Urban Institute staff; and the timetable for public release of the NSAF data. PMID:10570667

Kenney, G; Zuckerman, S; Rajan, S; Brennan, N; Holahan, J

1999-01-01

236

National Energy Audit Tool for Multifamily Buildings Development Plan  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) enables low-income families to reduce their energy costs by providing funds to make their homes more energy efficient. In addition, the program funds Weatherization Training and Technical Assistance (T and TA) activities to support a range of program operations. These activities include measuring and documenting performance, monitoring programs, promoting advanced techniques and collaborations to further improve program effectiveness, and training, including developing tools and information resources. The T and TA plan outlines the tasks, activities, and milestones to support the weatherization network with the program implementation ramp up efforts. Weatherization of multifamily buildings has been recognized as an effective way to ramp up weatherization efforts. To support this effort, the 2009 National Weatherization T and TA plan includes the task of expanding the functionality of the Weatherization Assistant, a DOE-sponsored family of energy audit computer programs, to perform audits for large and small multifamily buildings This report describes the planning effort for a new multifamily energy audit tool for DOE's WAP. The functionality of the Weatherization Assistant is being expanded to also perform energy audits of small multifamily and large multifamily buildings. The process covers an assessment of needs that includes input from national experts during two national Web conferences. The assessment of needs is then translated into capability and performance descriptions for the proposed new multifamily energy audit, with some description of what might or should be provided in the new tool. The assessment of needs is combined with our best judgment to lay out a strategy for development of the multifamily tool that proceeds in stages, with features of an initial tool (version 1) and a more capable version 2 handled with currently available resources. Additional development in the future is expected to be needed if more capabilities are to be added. A rough schedule for development of the version 1 tool is presented. The components and capabilities described in this plan will serve as the starting point for development of the proposed new multifamily energy audit tool for WAP.

Malhotra, Mini [ORNL; MacDonald, Michael [Sentech, Inc.; Accawi, Gina K [ORNL; New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL; Im, Piljae [ORNL

2012-03-01

237

Idaho National Laboratory Cultural Resource Management Plan  

SciTech Connect

As a federal agency, the U.S. Department of Energy has been directed by Congress, the U.S. president, and the American public to provide leadership in the preservation of prehistoric, historic, and other cultural resources on the lands it administers. This mandate to preserve cultural resources in a spirit of stewardship for the future is outlined in various federal preservation laws, regulations, and guidelines such as the National Historic Preservation Act, the Archaeological Resources Protection Act, and the National Environmental Policy Act. The purpose of this Cultural Resource Management Plan is to describe how the Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office will meet these responsibilities at Idaho National Laboratory in southeastern Idaho. The Idaho National Laboratory is home to a wide variety of important cultural resources representing at least 13,500 years of human occupation in the southeastern Idaho area. These resources are nonrenewable, bear valuable physical and intangible legacies, and yield important information about the past, present, and perhaps the future. There are special challenges associated with balancing the preservation of these sites with the management and ongoing operation of an active scientific laboratory. The Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office is committed to a cultural resource management program that accepts these challenges in a manner reflecting both the spirit and intent of the legislative mandates. This document is designed for multiple uses and is intended to be flexible and responsive to future changes in law or mission. Document flexibility and responsiveness will be assured through regular reviews and as-needed updates. Document content includes summaries of Laboratory cultural resource philosophy and overall Department of Energy policy; brief contextual overviews of Laboratory missions, environment, and cultural history; and an overview of cultural resource management practices. A series of appendices provides important details that support the main text.

Julie Braun Williams

2013-02-01

238

78 FR 72060 - Chimney Rock National Monument Management Plan; San Juan National Forest; Colorado  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Chimney Rock National Monument Management Plan; San...for the land and resources within Chimney Rock National Monument, designated by Presidential...Presidential Proclamation establishing Chimney Rock National Monument (the Monument)...

2013-12-02

239

78 FR 69462 - National Nanotechnology Initiative Strategic Plan; National Science and Technology Council...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY OFFICE National...Nanotechnology Initiative Strategic Plan; National Science and Technology Council; National Nanotechnology...Executive Office of the President, Office of Science and Technology Policy. [[Page...

2013-11-19

240

Career Planning in Harmony with Family Values and Needs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Balancing career and family! Balancing what you love and who you love!! It is such an attention getting topic. And yet, if you really think about it, people have been doing it for ages. What makes it challenging in today's world is the dual income families that throw off-balance of traditional style of balancing family and profession. Balancing family and career is not as difficult. The question is more meaningful when you ask how do you find the right balance, and in fact, what is the right balance? How do you know you are there? Happiness at home and self esteem due to work is genderless issue however, it is essentially talked more in the context of women. Some of the things that could be helpful in achieving the right balance, are time management, proper prioritization, asking for help, a caring family, friends, and most importantly colleagues. In the portfolio of professional passions, it is important to identify the areas that are conducive to possibilities of changing family needs, international families, spouse's career and job relocation, etc. So, the bottom line question is whether it is possible to find a right balance between family and career? I would submit to you that with passion, courage, open- mindedness, and proper career planning, it is definitely possible. We just need to utilize the same techniques in choosing and sustaining the right balance that we use in identifying research topics and executing it. This discussion will look into further details of the challenges of balancing family and career from the perspective of also an immigrant, and possible ways of overcoming them.

Dubey, Archana

2008-03-01

241

National Institutes of Health Research Plan on Down Syndrome  

E-print Network

National Institutes of Health Research Plan on Down Syndrome October 2007 U.S. DEPARTMENT................................................................................. 2 BACKGROUND ON DOWN SYNDROME.......................................................................................... 2 HIGHLIGHTS OF ONGOING RESEARCH ON DOWN SYNDROME AT THE NIH...... 3 NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE

Rau, Don C.

242

An automated clinic management system for a family planning network.  

PubMed

The medical information, financial, and logistic aspects of a comprehensive computer-based Appointment, Registration, Information System, and Evaluation (ARISE) are analyzed for the management of a family planning program serving 30,000 patients annually. An overview of the existing computer system network is presented with descriptions of the interactive master patient index, the batch appointment process, the management statistics package, and Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW) reporting. Emphasis is placed on the financial management control system which includes 1) procedures for third-party submission of claims for payment, in particular Titles IVA, XX, and XIX (Social Security Act), together with discussion of related administrative requirements; 2) technics of auditing data integrity including systematic sampling of collected data; and 3) the process of billing and receipts collection. Methodology and implementation aspects of ARISE may have wide applicability to other family planning and similarly structured clinical programs. PMID:876564

Mize, S G; Heartwell, S F; Ellis, R G; Walther, M D; Mishelevich, D J; Baine, M S; MacDonald, P C

1977-08-01

243

The economic consequences of reproductive health and family planning.  

PubMed

We consider the evidence for the effect of access to reproductive health services on the achievement of Millennium Development Goals 1, 2, and 3, which aim to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, achieve universal primary education, and promote gender equality and empower women. At the household level, controlled trials in Matlab, Bangladesh, and Navrongo, Ghana, have shown that increasing access to family planning services reduces fertility and improves birth spacing. In the Matlab study, findings from long-term follow-up showed that women's earnings, assets, and body-mass indexes, and children's schooling and body-mass indexes, substantially improved in areas with improved access to family planning services compared with outcomes in control areas. At the macroeconomic level, reductions in fertility enhance economic growth as a result of reduced youth dependency and an increased number of women participating in paid labour. PMID:22784535

Canning, David; Schultz, T Paul

2012-07-14

244

[Hungarian national plan and strategy for rare diseases].  

PubMed

The rarity of low prevalence diseases and the lack of information, research, diagnosis, treatment and expert availability may mean that the people affected do not benefit from the health resources and services they need. Rare diseases are considered to have little impact on society as a whole, yet they pose serious difficulties for sufferers and their families. By the end of the last century, two robust achievements in science and technology, i.e. the biotechnological and informatics revolutions, have created a real base for global approach to rare diseases by coordinating the capacities for health care, biomedical research and drug development and pooling the very limited resources available both nationally and transnationally. The European Commission has taken a number of actions which help patients and professionals to share expertise and information across borders with the objective of reducing the number of people suffering from these types of diseases. These actions together form the legal basis of the European Union policy on rare diseases. Orphan or rare diseases are now one of the priorities in the public health programmes in European Union. In 2009, the document "European Union Council Recommendation on an action in the field of rare diseases" was released with the main goal to provide national health authorities with supporting tools for the development and implementation of national plans and strategies for rare diseases by the end of 2013. This recommendation adopted by European Union Member States, allows common policy guidelines to be shared everywhere in Europe. By September 2013 the Hungarian National Plan for Rare Diseases, a health policy strategy until 2020 was finalized. The present report gives a short view on the document. PMID:24566695

Kosztolányi, György

2014-03-01

245

Idaho National Laboratory Site Pollution Prevention Plan  

SciTech Connect

It is the policy of the Department of Energy (DOE) that pollution prevention and sustainable environmental stewardship will be integrated into DOE operations as a good business practice to reduce environmental hazards, protect environmental resources, avoid pollution control costs, and improve operational efficiency and mission sustainability. In furtherance of this policy, DOE established five strategic, performance-based Pollution Prevention (P2) and Sustainable Environmental Stewardship goals and included them as an attachment to DOE O 450.1, Environmental Protection Program. These goals and accompanying strategies are to be implemented by DOE sites through the integration of Pollution Prevention into each site's Environmental Management System (EMS). This document presents a P2 and Sustainability Program and corresponding plan pursuant to DOE Order 450.1 and DOE O 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. This plan is also required by the state of Idaho, pursuant to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) partial permit. The objective of this document is to describe the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site P2 and Sustainability Program. The purpose of the program is to decrease the environmental footprint of the INL Site while providing enhanced support of its mission. The success of the program is dependent on financial and management support. The signatures on the previous page indicate INL, ICP, and AMWTP Contractor management support and dedication to the program. P2 requirements have been integrated into working procedures to ensure an effective EMS as part of an Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS). This plan focuses on programmatic functions which include environmentally preferable procurement, sustainable design, P2 and Sustainability awareness, waste generation and reduction, source reduction and recycling, energy management, and pollution prevention opportunity assessments. The INL Site P2 and Sustainability Program is administratively managed by the INL Site P2 Coordinator. Development and maintenance of this overall INL Site plan is ultimately the responsibility of DOE-ID. This plan is applicable to all INL Site contractors except those at the Naval Reactors Facility.

E. D. Sellers

2007-03-01

246

Changing fortunes: analysis of fluctuating policy space for family planning in Kenya  

PubMed Central

Policies relating to contraceptive services (population, family planning and reproductive health policies) often receive weak or fluctuating levels of commitment from national policy elites in Southern countries, leading to slow policy evolution and undermining implementation. This is true of Kenya, despite the government's early progress in committing to population and reproductive health policies, and its success in implementing them during the 1980s. This key informant study on family planning policy in Kenya found that policy space contracted, and then began to expand, because of shifts in contextual factors, and because of the actions of different actors. Policy space contracted during the mid-1990s in the context of weakening prioritization of reproductive health in national and international policy agendas, undermining access to contraceptive services and contributing to the stalling of the country's fertility rates. However, during the mid-2000s, champions of family planning within the Kenyan Government bureaucracy played an important role in expanding the policy space through both public and hidden advocacy activities. The case study demonstrates that policy space analysis can provide useful insights into the dynamics of routine policy and programme evolution and the challenge of sustaining support for issues even after they have reached the policy agenda. PMID:18653676

Crichton, Joanna

2008-01-01

247

National Program Plan Fuel Cells in Transportation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fuel cells are being developed for application in the transportation sector because they will convert hydrogen to electric power at high efficiencies with virtually no detrimental environmental impact. To realize these energy, environmental, and economic benefits, developers of FCV's need to (1) reduce the size and weight of current designs, (2) develop fuel cell propulsion systems with rapid start-up and greater load-following capability, (3) reduce system cost and/or improve performance, and (4) utilize alternative fuels to a large extent. This Plan addresses the FCV-related requirements of the Energy Act, describing a development program for light- and heavy-duty propulsion systems, a basic R&D program on fuel cell technology that is separate from, but feeds into, the system development activities, and supporting analyses. Implementation of the Program Plan by means of industry/government alliances will accelerate the commercialization of FCV's. In the long term, the successful deployment of large numbers of FCV's promises to eliminate the transportation sector as a major contributor to the nation's environmental problems.

1993-02-01

248

[Family planning among teenage mothers in a Cameroonian centre].  

PubMed

This study was carried out in Yaounde (Cameroon) in 1995 to determine the knowledge, attitude and behaviour of teenage mothers towards family planning. The study was based on a questionnaire administered at household level drawn from previously determined clusters. It was accomplished by recruiting 462 teenage mothers with ages ranging from 14 to 19 years and who had 1 to 3 children. On the whole, 93.9% had heard of family planning, 72.5% had heard of family planning centres, but only 43% had been to one of these centres at least once. With regards to contraceptive prevalence, 62.1% affirmed the use of a contraceptive method at the time of the study with periodic abstinence being the most widely used (35.9%). Besides the common methods, some teenage mothers made use of herbal concoctions and vaginal douching, sometimes with permanganate or the taking of tablets. Nineteen per cent of respondents had had between one and four episodes of induced abortion. According to these teenagers, the ideal average age for first delivery is 19.7 +/- 2.5 years, whereas that of nubility is 22.8 +/- 3.3 years, a difference of 3 years. This suggests that on the whole, teenage mothers believe that first delivery must precede marriage. PMID:12471919

Adonis, T; Joseph, K; Françoise, N; Bergis, S E; Charles, K

2001-08-01

249

State administration and financing of family planning services.  

PubMed

A 1971 survey by the Center for Family Planning Program Development consisted of a questionnaire mailed to health and welfare directors in 50 states and 5 federal jurisdictions concerning their family planning policies and administrative practices. 52 agencies responded; Guam, Mississippi, and Louisiana did not. The major funding for state health agencies was allocated by HEW and by maternal and child health (MCH) formula grants under Title 5 of the Social Security Act. 11 states made additional expenditures of $1.7 million for a variety of purposes. 21 states required local welfare departments to purchase services under the Medicaid program established by Title 19 of the Social Security Act. Administration was assigned to specific organizations within the state health agencies. 31 states reported a total of 128 full-time professional personnel, with 90 assigned at state headquarters level. In general, on a state-by-state basis, the full-time staff does not correspond to the size of the appropriations. Survey findings were useful measures of resource commitments to family planning services by state health and welfare agencies and provided data on future levels of resource requirements. PMID:5052570

Weinberg, D

1972-04-01

250

Condom promotion and use: family planning versus HIV protection.  

PubMed

Condoms have been used since the 16th century as a prophylactic agent against sexually transmitted diseases. With regards to family planning, condoms are used for spacing and prevention of pregnancy. However, after the invention of more reliable contraceptives, condoms lost their popularity as a contraceptive agent, only to regain it in the wake of the AIDS epidemic. The main concern in using condoms has always been the high failure rate, which tends to be a complicated issue given that it's efficacy is affected by the motivation and characteristic of the user. Irrespective of the numerous advantages of the condom, at present there is little incentive to use them on a routine basis. Reasons for this objection include the fact that condoms not only interfere with sex, but are unnatural and leave the man very unsatisfied. Promoting condoms in developing countries is both a cultural and political issue, stemming from the misleading preconception of the man's role in family planning. For instance, condoms are infamous for their use in illicit sex, and as such cannot be used on a relatively respectable individual. The challenge in condom promotion is the creation of a new image based on family planning, reliability aspects of condoms, noninterference with pleasure concept and the added value of protection against STD's. PMID:12316117

Mundigo, A I

1989-12-01

251

Women's Fears and Men's Anxieties: The Impact of Family Planning on Gender Relations in Northern Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Navrongo experiment, a family planning and health project in northern Ghana, has demonstrated that an appropriately designed, community-based family planning program can produce a change in contraceptive practice that had been considered unattainable in such a setting. Simultaneously, however, evidence suggests that newly introduced family planning services and contraceptive availability can activate tension in gender relations. In this society,

Ayaga Agula Bawah; Patricia Akweongo; Ruth Simmons; James F. Phillips

1999-01-01

252

42 CFR 59.3 - Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant? 59.3 Section...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.3 Who is...

2010-10-01

253

42 CFR 59.4 - How does one apply for a family planning services grant?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false How does one apply for a family planning services grant? 59.4 Section...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.4 How does...

2010-10-01

254

42 CFR 59.3 - Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant? 59.3 Section...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.3 Who is...

2012-10-01

255

42 CFR 59.3 - Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant? 59.3 Section...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.3 Who is...

2011-10-01

256

42 CFR 59.3 - Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant? 59.3 Section...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.3 Who is...

2013-10-01

257

42 CFR 59.4 - How does one apply for a family planning services grant?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false How does one apply for a family planning services grant? 59.4 Section...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.4 How does...

2011-10-01

258

AIDS and family planning counseling of psychiatrically ill women in community mental health clinics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighty-two of 83 mental health professionals, including psychiatrists, were surveyed to determine their attitudes and behaviors toward AIDS prevention and family planning counseling with psychiatrically ill female outpatients. Nearly all reported that information should be provided on AIDS and family planning. However, they reported that they had raised topics of AIDS with only 19% of patients and family planning with

John H. Coverdale; John F. Aruffo

1992-01-01

259

Family Planning in Five Continents: Africa, America, Asia, Europe, Oceania. November 1975 Update.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document gives highlights of the family planning situation in countries of the world, together with basic demographic statistics. Its purpose is to provide a quick reference source for those who work in family planning, population, and other related fields. Following a brief history of the pioneering work in family planning, population…

International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

260

45 CFR 286.70 - Who submits a Tribal Family Assistance Plan?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Who submits a Tribal Family Assistance Plan? 286.70 Section...Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

2010-10-01

261

45 CFR 286.165 - How is a Tribal Family Assistance Plan amended?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false How is a Tribal Family Assistance Plan amended? 286.165...Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

2010-10-01

262

45 CFR 286.165 - How is a Tribal Family Assistance Plan amended?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false How is a Tribal Family Assistance Plan amended? 286.165...Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

2012-10-01

263

45 CFR 286.70 - Who submits a Tribal Family Assistance Plan?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2012-10-01 true Who submits a Tribal Family Assistance Plan? 286.70 Section...Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

2014-10-01

264

45 CFR 286.165 - How is a Tribal Family Assistance Plan amended?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2012-10-01 true How is a Tribal Family Assistance Plan amended? 286.165...Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

2013-10-01

265

45 CFR 286.165 - How is a Tribal Family Assistance Plan amended?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false How is a Tribal Family Assistance Plan amended? 286.165...Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

2011-10-01

266

45 CFR 286.70 - Who submits a Tribal Family Assistance Plan?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Who submits a Tribal Family Assistance Plan? 286.70 Section...Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

2012-10-01

267

45 CFR 286.70 - Who submits a Tribal Family Assistance Plan?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Who submits a Tribal Family Assistance Plan? 286.70 Section...Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

2011-10-01

268

45 CFR 286.165 - How is a Tribal Family Assistance Plan amended?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2012-10-01 true How is a Tribal Family Assistance Plan amended? 286.165...Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

2014-10-01

269

[Psychosocial research and family planning services in Mexico].  

PubMed

Psychosocial and service studies round out data from the demographic and contraceptive prevalence studies that have been conducted every 3 years since 1976 in Mexico. The studies can be formative, providing basic information for development of a program, or evaluative, indicating how well a program is performing. Among formative psychosocial studies in Mexico have been knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) studies, which are usually helpful in the initial stages of family planning program implementation. A 1964 study of knowledge and practice in 7 Mexican cities showed that attitudes toward family planning were more traditional and disapproving in Mexico City than in other areas, but that many women wanted no more children. About 1/4 of the population of Mexico City knew no contraceptive methods and about 1/2 knew only less effective traditional methods. By 1979, 72% of women knew at least 1 effective method. KAP studies have demonstrated differences in the family size desires of men and women and in the determinants of attitudes toward birth control. Formative studies of surgical contraception have been psychologically oriented, and have helped provide a rational basis for making the operation accessible to the public. Despite some passing problems, most women have adapted to sterilization and their libidos have normalized by 18 months postoperative. Studies of the knowledge and attitudes of physicians conducted in the early days of family planning programs have helped in the design of programs to inform them of the advantages and side affects of contraceptive methods. Other studies have helped identify traditional midwives with large practices in rural areas who could be trained to deliver family planning services and have demonstrated that they develop a good understanding of contraindications and side effects of oral contraceptives. Teaching materials for IEC programs have been evaluated with small samples, but minimal attention has been given to research on the best ways of providing family planning education for physicians, nurses, students, promoters, husbands, or other population groups. The greatest effort appears to have focused on development of educational materials for illiterates. Evaluative research on messages transmitted in IEC campaigns has however been abundant since the start of the programs. Careful studies of IEC c ampaigns in 1980-81 indicated that they improved knowledge of basic aspects of family planning considerably but had little effect on values and beliefs associated with family planning. Data on new acceptors in Mexico have come primarily from institutional registration systems, special studies, and as a subproduct of demographic surveys. Careful studies done by private organizations have provided information needed to reformulate commercial distribution programs and design supporting IEC campagns for their users and agents. Evaluative service studies have focuses on identifying factors in differential continuation rates for different methods and programs. Research on service delivery in rural areas has helped identify the most productive type of community worker and has uncovered causes of dissatisfaction and high turnover among workers which impairs their performance. PMID:4071277

Urbina Fuentes, M; Vernon Carter, R

1985-01-01

270

Idaho National Laboratory Cultural Resource Management Plan  

SciTech Connect

As a federal agency, the U.S. Department of Energy has been directed by Congress, the U.S. president, and the American public to provide leadership in the preservation of prehistoric, historic, and other cultural resources on the lands it administers. This mandate to preserve cultural resources in a spirit of stewardship for the future is outlined in various federal preservation laws, regulations, and guidelines such as the National Historic Preservation Act, the Archaeological Resources Protection Act, and the National Environmental Policy Act. The purpose of this Cultural Resource Management Plan is to describe how the Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office will meet these responsibilities at the Idaho National Laboratory. This Laboratory, which is located in southeastern Idaho, is home to a wide variety of important cultural resources representing at least 13,500 years of human occupation in the southeastern Idaho area. These resources are nonrenewable; bear valuable physical and intangible legacies; and yield important information about the past, present, and perhaps the future. There are special challenges associated with balancing the preservation of these sites with the management and ongoing operation of an active scientific laboratory. The Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office is committed to a cultural resource management program that accepts these challenges in a manner reflecting both the spirit and intent of the legislative mandates. This document is designed for multiple uses and is intended to be flexible and responsive to future changes in law or mission. Document flexibility and responsiveness will be assured through annual reviews and as-needed updates. Document content includes summaries of Laboratory cultural resource philosophy and overall Department of Energy policy; brief contextual overviews of Laboratory missions, environment, and cultural history; and an overview of cultural resource management practices. A series of appendices provides important details that support the main text.

Lowrey, Diana Lee

2009-02-01

271

Idaho National Laboratory Cultural Resource Management Plan  

SciTech Connect

As a federal agency, the U.S. Department of Energy has been directed by Congress, the U.S. president, and the American public to provide leadership in the preservation of prehistoric, historic, and other cultural resources on the lands it administers. This mandate to preserve cultural resources in a spirit of stewardship for the future is outlined in various federal preservation laws, regulations, and guidelines such as the National Historic Preservation Act, the Archaeological Resources Protection Act, and the National Environmental Policy Act. The purpose of this Cultural Resource Management Plan is to describe how the Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office will meet these responsibilities at the Idaho National Laboratory. This Laboratory, which is located in southeastern Idaho, is home to a wide variety of important cultural resources representing at least 13,500 years of human occupation in the southeastern Idaho area. These resources are nonrenewable; bear valuable physical and intangible legacies; and yield important information about the past, present, and perhaps the future. There are special challenges associated with balancing the preservation of these sites with the management and ongoing operation of an active scientific laboratory. The Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office is committed to a cultural resource management program that accepts these challenges in a manner reflecting both the spirit and intent of the legislative mandates. This document is designed for multiple uses and is intended to be flexible and responsive to future changes in law or mission. Document flexibility and responsiveness will be assured through annual reviews and as-needed updates. Document content includes summaries of Laboratory cultural resource philosophy and overall Department of Energy policy; brief contextual overviews of Laboratory missions, environment, and cultural history; and an overview of cultural resource management practices. A series of appendices provides important details that support the main text.

Lowrey, Diana Lee

2011-02-01

272

Programming the body, planning reproduction, governing life: the '(ir-) rationality' of family planning and the embodiment of social inequalities in Salvador da Bahia (Brazil).  

PubMed

This paper examines family planning in Brazil as biopolitics and explores how the democratization of the State and of reproductive health services after two decades of military dictatorship (1964-1984) has influenced health professionals' and family planning users' discourses and practices. Do health professionals envisage family planning as a 'right' or do they conceive it, following the old neo-Malthusian rationale, as a 'moral duty' of poor people, whose 'irrational' reproduction jeopardizes the family's and the nation's well being? And how do their patients conceptualize and embody family planning? To answer these questions, this paper draws on 13 months of multi-sited ethnographic research undertaken between 2003 and 2005 in two public family planning services in Salvador da Bahia, where participant observation was undertaken and unstructured interviews were conducted with 11 health professionals and 70 family planning users, mostly low income black women. The paper examines how different bio-political rationalities operate in these services and argues that the old neo-Malthusian rationale and the current, dominant discourse on reproductive rights, gender equality and citizenship coexist. The coalescence of different biopolitical rationalities leads to the double stigmatization of family planning users as 'victims' of social and gender inequalities and as 'irrational' patients, 'irresponsible' mothers and 'bad' citizens if they do not embody the neo-Malthusian and biomedical rationales shaping medical practice. However, these women do not behave as 'docile bodies': they tactically use medical and non-medical contraceptives not only to be good mothers and citizens, but also to enhance themselves and to attain their own goals. PMID:22889428

De Zordo, Silvia

2012-01-01

273

Results of the 2009 National Resident Matching Program: family medicine.  

PubMed

The results of the 2009 National Resident Matching Program (NRMP) reflect a persistently low level of student interest in family medicine residency training in the United States. Compared with the 2008 Match, 70 fewer positions (with 89 fewer US seniors) were filled in family medicine residency programs through the NRMP in 2009, at the same time that 18 fewer positions were filled in primary care internal medicine (11 fewer US seniors), one more position was filled in pediatrics-primary care (three more US seniors), and 13 more positions were filled in internal medicine-pediatrics programs (but with seven fewer US seniors). Multiple forces, including student perspectives of the demands, rewards and prestige of the specialty, the turbulence and uncertainty of the health care and economic environments, lifestyle issues, the advice of deans, and the impact of faculty role models, continue to influence medical student career choices. A total of 152 more positions (28 fewer US seniors) were filled in categorical internal medicine. Thirty-one more positions (72 more US seniors) were filled in categorical pediatrics programs. The 2009 NRMP results suggest that while interest in family medicine experienced a slight increase in the number of students choosing the specialty last year, overall interest in primary care careers continues to decline. With the nation continuing to call for the roles and services of family physicians, family medicine still matched too few graduates through the 2009 NRMP to effectively address the nation's needs for primary care physicians. PMID:19724942

Pugno, Perry A; McGaha, Amy L; Schmittling, Gordon T; DeVilbiss, Ashley D; Ostergaard, Daniel J

2009-09-01

274

National Standards for Family and Consumer Sciences Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document presents a new set of standards for family and consumer sciences (FACS) education. Section 1 is a three-chapter overview. Chapter 1 addresses the rationale for change and the FACS vision and mission. Chapter 2 describes the approach to develop the national standards, FACS format, and components of the standards. Chapter 3 provides…

National Association of State Administrators for Family and Consumer Sciences.

275

The provision of family planning services by family doctors in a Health Board region  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was carried out to ascertain the extent of family planning services provided by family doctors. Of the 134 doctors\\u000a surveyed, 119 (88.8%) replied. Of these 97 (81.5%) were male, 30 (25.2%) were aged less than 40 and 22 (18.5%) were greater\\u000a than 60. Sixty-four (53.8%) worked in single-handed practices, 52(43.7%) were vocationally trained, 101 (84.9%) had the MICGP

D. Bedford; F. Howell; I. Lynskey

1995-01-01

276

NATIONAL METAL FINISHING ENVIRONMENTAL R&D PLAN - AN UPDATE  

EPA Science Inventory

This document is an update to the National Metal Finishing Environmental R&D Plan (EPA/600/R-97/095), dated September 1997. The 1997 Plan and Update are available on the National Metal Finishing Resource Center's web site, www.nmfrc.org. The primary purpose in preparing an up...

277

National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Emergency Planning in Athletics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a position statement by the National Athletic Trainers' Association on emergency planning in athletics, examining the professional and legal importance of emergency plans and looking at components of emergency plans, which include implementation, personnel, equipment, communication, transportation, venue location, emergency care…

Andersen, J. C.; Courson, Ronald W.; Kleiner, Douglas M.; McLoda, Todd A.

2002-01-01

278

Oak Ridge National Laboratory Institutional Plan, FY 1995--FY 2000  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the institutional plan for Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the next five years (1995-2000). Included in this report are the: laboratory director`s statement; laboratory mission, vision, and core competencies; laboratory plan; major laboratory initiatives; scientific and technical programs; critical success factors; summaries of other plans; and resource projections.

Not Available

1994-11-01

279

Family Interaction Patterns, Career Planning Attitudes, and Vocational Identity of High School Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the current study was to examine how perceptions of family interaction patterns as defined along three dimensions of family environment (quality of family relationships, family goal-orientations, and degree of organization and control within the family system) predict vocational identity and career planning attitudes among male and…

Hargrove, Byron K.; Inman, Arpana G.; Crane, Randy L.

2005-01-01

280

Family Relationships and Advance Care Planning: Do Supportive and Critical Relations Encourage or Hinder Planning?  

PubMed Central

Objectives. The effectiveness of advance care planning (ACP) may depend on family members’ understanding of patient preferences. However, we know of no studies that explore the association between family relationship dynamics and ACP. ACP includes a living will, durable power of attorney for health care (DPAHC) appointment, and discussions. We evaluated the effects of three aspects of family relations—general family functioning, support and criticism from spouse, and support and criticism from children—on both overall ACP and specific DPAHC designations. Method. Using multinomial logistic regression models and data from a sample of 293 older adults, we estimated the effects of family relationship quality on the likelihood of completing ACP and appointing a spouse or adult child as DPAHC. Analyses controlled for demographic and health characteristics. Results. Better overall family functioning increased the odds of ACP. Higher levels of spousal support increased the odds of holding informal discussions, whereas spousal criticism reduced the odds of naming one’s spouse as DPAHC. Both criticism and emotional support from children increased the odds that a child was named as DPAHC. Discussion. Family dynamics affect ACP in complex ways and should be considered when patients and their families discuss end-of-life care and make DPAHC designations. PMID:23286929

2013-01-01

281

Fertility awareness / natural family planning for adolescents and their families: report of multisite pilot project.  

PubMed

Fertility awareness is experiential learning about cyclic fertility. This awareness, used as a family planning method, differs from contraception because it does not isolate the procreative capacity of either partner. The acceptability and effect of teaching fertility awareness on teen sexual activity and decision making was tested in a multisite pilot program which taught fertility awareness via the prospective marker of the cervical mucus (ovulation method of natural family planning). 200 US and 35 Guatemalan volunteer women ages 15-17 in a structured 1 year curriculum, monitored cycle charting and explored the implications of experiencing one's signs of fertility. Control subjects were recruited from the general population and from family planning clinics. 9% of the US study group were sexually active prior to entry. By cycle 12, 1/2 had discontinued activity. Conception rate was 0.0044. The continuation rate dropped from 90% at cycle 7 to 71% at cycle 8 due to scheduling constraints for 2 classes and to 57% at cycle 12. Postprogram follow-up of early leavers showed only 1/3 the expected rate of onset of sexual activity and pregnancy. Parent involvement correlated positively with postponement and/or discontinuation of sexual activity. Reported movement away from peer group pressure appeared 3 months after entry. PMID:12315578

Klaus, H; Bryan, L M; Bryant, M L; Fagan, M U; Harrigan, M B; Kearns, F

1987-01-01

282

Results of the 2010 national resident matching program: family medicine.  

PubMed

The results of the 2010 National Resident Matching Program (NRMP) reflect a small but promising increased level of student interest in family medicine residency training in the United States. Compared with the 2009 Match, 75 more positions (with 101 more US seniors) were filled in family medicine residency programs through the NRMP in 2010, at the same time that seven more positions were filled in primary care internal medicine (one more US senior), 14 fewer positions were filled in pediatrics-primary care (16 fewer US seniors), and 16 more positions were filled in internal medicine-pediatrics programs (58 more US seniors). Multiple forces including student perspectives of the demands, rewards, and prestige of the specialty; national dialogue about health care reform; turbulence in the economic environment; lifestyle issues; the advice of deans; and the impact of faculty role models continue to influence medical student career choices. Ninety-four more positions (90 more US seniors) were filled in categorical internal medicine. Fifty-seven more positions (29 more US seniors) were filled in categorical pediatrics programs. The 2010 NRMP results suggest that there is a small increase in primary care careers; however, students continue to show an overall preference for subspecialty careers. Despite matching the highest number of US seniors into family medicine residencies since 2004, in 2010 the production of family physicians remains insufficient to meet the current and anticipated need to support the nation's primary care infrastructure. PMID:20830620

Pugno, Perry A; McGaha, Amy L; Schmittling, Gordon T; DeVilbiss Bieck, Ashley D; Crosley, Philip W; Ostergaard, Daniel J

2010-09-01

283

77 FR 67783 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities...Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP...District Library, 300 South River Avenue, Holland, MI 49423...Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals,...

2012-11-14

284

A sensitive approach to family planning motivation in Malaysia.  

PubMed

The goals of the Malaysian Family Planning Program are not only to reduce population growth from 3% to 2% by 1985 and to bring the crude birth rate to 28.2 from 30.3, but to generally improve the health of the family, and to enhance the government's efforts to raise the per capita income. The work program is divided into the Creative Unit, the Media Unit, the Production Unit, and the Field Diffusion Unit. The objectives are to build up strong support from political, community, and opinion leaders, and to run educational campaigns aimed at motivating potential acceptors. The program also runs centers training medical and paramedical personnel. The program is combined with development programs for women, especially useful among the rural population. PMID:12277967

1978-01-01

285

Education's Role in National Development Plans: Ten Country Cases.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The place education has been assigned in the national development programs of 10 nations is discussed, the problems that these countries have encountered in managing education are examined, and the measures adopted to solve educational problems are assessed. Included are the following papers: (1) "The Nature of National Development Planning" (R.…

Thomas, R. Murray, Ed.

286

The use of inter vivos gifts in family estate planning  

E-print Network

gift is made between the living and during the donor' s lifetime. A gift which takes effect upon the death of the donor and one revocable during his lifetime is legally referred to as a "gift causa 2 Commissioner v, G. A. Nontague, 126 F 2d 948... (1942). 10 mortis. " Family estate planning is concerned primarily with lifetime gifts. Under the common law concept three elements must be present to qualify as a valid gift during the donor's lifetime. These mey be stated as intent, delivery...

Lehrmann, Otto Quade

1963-01-01

287

77 FR 38296 - Draft Public Health Action Plan-A National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Prevention [Docket No. CDC-2012-0004] Draft Public Health Action Plan--A National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection, Prevention...requesting public comment on the draft National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection,...

2012-06-27

288

77 FR 28883 - Draft Public Health Action Plan-A National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Prevention [Docket No. CDC-2012-0004] Draft Public Health Action Plan--A National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection, Prevention...requesting public comment on the draft National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection,...

2012-05-16

289

National plans and strategies on rare diseases in Europe.  

PubMed

This analysis of national plans and strategies on RD in Europe shows that a few countries have already set up national plans. Existing national plans show a good consistency, but also a quite different stage of progress, depending on start date as well as on resource allocation. Several other EU countries have launched actions on RD, often with a considerable strategic effort; however, such initiatives are yet not integrated in a consistent national strategy taking into account the EC recommendations. The project EUROPLAN represents a major initiative to support the development of a shared strategy on RD at EU and Member State level; critical steps include the comparative evaluation of existing plans and actions, identification of gaps and achievements, the development of consensus indicators, as well as the integration of successful national achievements within the EU strategy. PMID:20824461

Taruscio, Domenica; Vittozzi, Luciano; Stefanov, Rumen

2010-01-01

290

76 FR 35467 - Deer and Vegetation Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Fire Island National Seashore...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Fire Island National Seashore, New York AGENCY...a Deer and Vegetation Management Plan, Fire Island National Seashore, New York...Deer and Vegetation Management Plan at Fire Island National Seashore, New York....

2011-06-17

291

SUGGESTED THREE-YEAR GRADUATION PLAN Human Development and Family Studies  

E-print Network

SUGGESTED THREE-YEAR GRADUATION PLAN Human Development and Family Studies ­ Child and Youth Development and Family Studies major HDFS 24012 Child Development 3 See note 1 on page 2 HDFS 25512-YEAR GRADUATION PLAN Human Development and Family Studies ­ Child and Youth Development - Bachelor of Science [EH

Sheridan, Scott

292

More Information and Better Choices: What Low Income Women Seek from Family Planning Services  

E-print Network

teenage years when many said they knew little about sexuality, birth control, or family planningteenage participants reported that their mothers had talked to them about sex and even taken them for family planning,teenage girls attending a school-based comprehensive health clinic in Dallas. Because family planning

Chetkovich, Carol; Mauldon, Jane; Brindis, Claire; Guendelman, Sylvia

1996-01-01

293

SUGGESTED THREE-YEAR GRADUATION PLAN Human Development and Family Studies Case Management  

E-print Network

SUGGESTED THREE-YEAR GRADUATION PLAN Human Development and Family Studies ­Case Management HDFS 44192 Internship in Human Development and Family Studies: Case Management I 3-6 Offered in fall below #12;SUGGESTED THREE-YEAR GRADUATION PLAN Human Development and Family Studies ­Case Management

Sheridan, Scott

294

SUGGESTED THREE-YEAR GRADUATION PLAN Human Development and Family Studies Case Management  

E-print Network

SUGGESTED THREE-YEAR GRADUATION PLAN Human Development and Family Studies ­Case Management Internship in Human Development and Family Studies: Case Management I 3-6 Offered in fall only; fulfills THREE-YEAR GRADUATION PLAN Human Development and Family Studies ­Case Management for Individuals

Sheridan, Scott

295

Teaching of Family Planning at Medical Nursing and Midwifery Schools in Certain Countries of the Region.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review is given of the status of family planning education at medical, nursing, and midwifery schools in seven European countries. The report is presented in 11 sections. Section one, an introduction, explains the scope of the study and defines family planning to include birth control, pregnancy and delivery, problems of adolescents, family life…

World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

296

Family planning in Pakistan: applying what we have learned.  

PubMed

Despite six decades of government and private sector programs, CPR in Pakistan is among the lowest in the region. This article reviews published and grey literature to understand why despite sufficient time and usually sufficient funding, CPR remains low in Pakistan. This paper looks beyond the usual factors of quality of services, coverage and supplies and management issues to examine how family planning may be improved in Pakistan. Based on analysis of the Pakistan Demographic Health Survey 2006-7, the public sector provides around a third of FP services, while NGOs and private providers another 15%. More than half of all family planning users buy their methods directly from stores. Within the government, the services cost 5-8 fold more than the private sector. Nearly a fifth of pregnancies end in an abortion suggesting the role of abortions as a key FP method. This together with a high unmet need pose the question: why is there such low uptake of FP services in the country. To explain this lack of uptake, we explore the limitations of the public sector in providing services, the lack of effect of religious beliefs, of abundant, yet misdirected funding and gaps in demand creation. The increasing role of NGOs and donors in filling the void left by the public sector is discussed. Suggestions are provided about improving public and private sector services including better information gathering and use in defining needs, measuring results and creating demand for FP. PMID:24386723

Khan, Adnan Ahmad; Khan, Ayesha; Javed, Wajiha; Hamza, Hasan Bin; Orakzai, Mejzgaan; Ansari, Aliya; Abbas, Khadija

2013-04-01

297

Computerized patient-flow analysis of local family planning clinics.  

PubMed

The Center for Disease Control, in cooperation with the Illinois Family Planning Council and the Tennessee Department of Public Health, has created a computerized method of patient flow analysis (PFA) to meet the need for a simply operated, easily understood and inexpensively performed technique. PFA is a self administered time and motion study performed during 1 clinic session, relating characteristics of the clinic setting, staff, and patient population to the amount of time each staff member spends with each patient. Output consists of an easily read flowchart and a detailed statistical report showing how patient and staff time is used, and presents a brief cost analysis of services provided. Using these data, clinic managers can compare staff activity with patient movement and spot probable causes of inefficiency and bottle necks in patient flow. The operation of PFA is described fully, together with its use in a 5 step problem solving process. Its use in a publicly funded family planning clinic is described, where patient waiting time was reduced nearly an hour and costs per visit reduced by 1 dollar. PMID:7286167

Graves, J L; Hudgins, A A; DeLung, J; Burnett, C A; Scanlon, P; Orentlicher, D

1981-01-01

298

"Family planning and population programs" a book review article.  

PubMed

RESUMEN: El volumen Planeamiento Familiar y Programas de Poblacion es un libro indispensable tanto para demógrafos como para otras personas interesadas en el control de población. Tiene sus limitaciones dodo su caracter heterogéneo, su falta de autocrítica, el no tratar sobre la validez y confiabilidad de las encuestas de conocimientos, attitudes y prácticas (KAP), su injustificado tono optimista, y su fracaso al no explorar y considerar alternativas para las presunciones y premisas sobre las cuales se basan los actuates programas de planeamiento familiar. Es sin embargo un importante hito que resume las contribuciones de las ciencias sociales y biomédicas al campo de la demografía.SummaryThe volume Family Planning and Population Programs is an indispensable book to demographers as well as to others concerned with population control. It is not without limitations because of its heterogeneous character, its lack of self-criticism, its failure to deal with the reliability and validity of KAP surveys, its unwarranted optimistic aura, and its failure to explore and consider alternatives to the basic assumptions and premises on which present family planning programs are based. It is, nevertheless, a landmark in its summarization of the contribution of the social and biomedical sciences to demographic engineering. PMID:21279790

Hauser, P M

1967-03-01

299

Family Planning and Preconception Health Among Men in Their Mid-30s: Developing Indicators and Describing Need.  

PubMed

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Healthy People 2020 call for improvements in meeting men's reproductive health needs but little is known about the proportion of men in need. This study describes men aged 35 to 39 in need of family planning and preconception care, demographic correlates of these needs, and contraception use among men in need of family planning. Using data from Wave 4 (2008-2010) of the National Survey of Adolescent Males, men were classified in need of family planning and preconception care if they reported sex with a female in the last year and believed that they and their partner were fecund; the former included men who were neither intentionally pregnant nor intending future children and the latter included men intending future children. Men were classified as being in need of both if they reported multiple sex partners in the past year. About 40% of men aged 35 to 39 were in need of family planning and about 33% in need of preconception care with 12% in need of both. Current partner's age, current union type, and sexually transmitted infection health risk differentiated men in need of family planning and preconception care (all ps < .01) and participants' race/ethnicity further differentiated men in need of preconception care (p < .01). More than half of men in need of family planning reported none of the time current partner hormonal use (55%) or condom use (52%) during the past year. This study identified that many men in their mid-30s are in need of family planning or preconception care. PMID:25389215

Casey, Frances E; Sonenstein, Freya L; Astone, Nan M; Pleck, Joseph H; Dariotis, Jacinda K; Marcell, Arik V

2014-11-11

300

76 FR 24050 - Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, Biscayne National...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...National Park Service [2310-0003-422] Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Final Programmatic...Environmental Impact Statement for the Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Biscayne National...Environmental Impact Statement for the Coral Reef Restoration Plan (Plan/FEIS)...

2011-04-29

301

3 CFR 9061 - Proclamation 9061 of November 22, 2013. National Family Week, 2013  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...society. During National Family Week, we celebrate the spirit that moves family members to care for one another, to grow and dream together, and to instill in their children the character that keeps our Nation strong. As we honor...

2014-01-01

302

A Training Program for Supervisory Workers in Local Family Planning Programs: Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The scarcity of skilled administrative and supervisory personnel for planning, operating, and evaluating local family planning programs is a major problem in assisting the poor to plan their families in accord with their wishes. The purpose of the report is therefore to provide for private and governmental agencies a training program for these…

Kentucky Research Foundation, Lexington.

303

The Big Red How-To Guide: Planning a Health Fair for Children and Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community health fairs usually focus on adult health issues and seldom on child and family health or the link between health and education. This guide's purpose is to assist communities in developing child and family-focused health fairs. The guide is divided into two major sections: pre-planning and planning. The pre-planning section covers steps…

Foley, Christina A.

304

Results of the 2011 National Resident Matching Program: family medicine.  

PubMed

The results of the 2011 National Resident Matching Program (NRMP) reflect another small but promising increased level of student interest in family medicine residency training in the United States. Compared with the 2010 Match, family medicine residency programs filled 172 more positions (with 133 more US seniors) through the NRMP in 2011. In other primary care fields, 26 more primary care internal medicine positions filled (10 more US seniors), one more position in pediatrics-primary care (two fewer US seniors), and seven more positions in internal medicine-pediatrics programs (10 more US seniors). The 2011 NRMP results suggest a small increase in choosing primary care careers for the second year in a row; however, students continue to show an overall preference for subspecialty careers. Multiple forces continue to influence medical student career choices. Despite matching the highest number of US seniors into family medicine residencies since 2002, the production of family physicians remains insufficient to meet the current and anticipated need to support the nation's primary care infrastructure. PMID:22002772

Biggs, Wendy S; Bieck, Ashley D; Pugno, Perry A; Crosley, Philip W

2011-10-01

305

Women's attitudes towards mechanisms of action of family planning methods: survey in primary health centres in Pamplona, Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Informed consent in family planning includes knowledge of mechanism of action. Some methods of family planning occasionally work after fertilization. Knowing about postfertilization effects may be important to some women before choosing a certain family planning method. The objective of this survey is to explore women's attitudes towards postfertilization effects of family planning methods, and beliefs and characteristics possibly

Jokin de Irala; Cristina Lopez del Burgo; Carmen M Lopez de Fez; Jorge Arredondo; Rafael T Mikolajczyk; Joseph B Stanford

2007-01-01

306

Child abuse as an inhibiting factor for family planning.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to determine the magnitude of the problem of using children as an economic asset to the family thus, in one way increasing the prevalence of child abuse in Egypt and also hindering the family planning program. Two focus-group interviews were conducted in urban & rural areas for 10 women with the same age range and socioeconomic background. All were non-users of any contraception. Subsequently an interview was conducted for all women who attended the Ob. & Gyn. Clinic at Ain Shams University Hospital in the period from June to August 1991, their ages ranged from 30-35 years and they never used contraception. Another group of women with the same characteristics were interviewed from a rural area at Fayoum Governorate. A questionnaire was filled for each interviewed woman. The total women interviewed in urban area is 340 while in the rural area they were 400 women. Sixty percent of urban women and 80% of rural women are illiterate, 70% of the urban & 100% of rural women are housewives. Their years of marriage ranged between 10-20 years and all of them have more than five children. A percentage of 73.5% of urban women and 85% of rural women stated that children are used as an economic asset to their families, they work in urban areas as assistants in motor repairs, hair-dressers, beggars, bakeries, shops, restaurants and factories while in rural areas they work as agricultural workers. PMID:1295939

Fahim, H I; Faris, R

1992-01-01

307

Year 6 Planning Exemplification. National Literacy Strategy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

First in a series, this booklet contains suggestions for planning literacy in Year 6. This Year 6 plan for 2001-2002 and the short-term unit plan for narrative writing are a distillation of the work of a representative group of Year 6 teachers. It contains the Year 6 Term 1 Units 2 and 5 on Narrative Writing. It begins with an outline of the basic…

Department for Education and Skills, London (England).

308

Criticality emergency planning at Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

A plan to protect personnel and control the spread of contamination in the event of a radiation accident at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is outlined. Procedures and personnel are presented. (ACK)

Green, J.H.; Cain, G.C.

1983-01-01

309

Design and operation of the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth.  

PubMed

In the US, the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) was designed to provide richer data than previous NSFG surveys from 1973, 1976, 1982, and 1988. Planning for the 1995 NSFG took place at a series of meetings beginning in 1990. Pretesting of the expanded questionnaire, the new computer-assisted personal interviewing method, and the audio computer-assisted, self-interviewing method for sensitive topics occurred in 1993 and led to the decision to offer a cash incentive to respondents and to use the new interviewing methods. The revised questionnaire collected information on event histories, pregnancy history and family formation, partner history, sterilization and fecundity, contraception and birth expectations, use of family planning and other medical services, demographic characteristics, abortion history, number of sexual partners, and rape. The sample for the 1995 NSFG included 14,000 civilian, noninstitutionalized women of reproductive age, 13,795 of whom proved eligible. Of these, 79% completed interviews. Quality control measures included careful design and testing of the questionnaire, use of a Life History Calendar, intensive interviewer training, consistency checks, and use of the incentive. Sampling weights for each respondent were used to derive nationally representative statistical estimates. Sampling errors were created to reflect the complexity of the sample. Research based on the results of the 1995 NSFS has only begun to take advantage of the potential offered by these data. PMID:9494815

Mosher, W D

1998-01-01

310

National Ignition Facility Risk Management Plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NIF Risk Management Plan has been prepared in accordance with the DOE Life Cycle Asset Management Good Practice Guide to support Critical Decision 3 of the NIF Project. The objectives of the plan are to: 1) identify the risks to the completion of the Project in terms of meeting technical and regulatory requirements, cost, and schedule, 2) assess the

Brereton

1997-01-01

311

National Ignition Facility Site Management Plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the NIF Site Management Plan is to describe the roles, responsibilities, and interfaces for the major NIF Project organizations involved in construction of the facility, installation and acceptance testing of special equipment, and the NIF activation. The plan also describes the resolution of priorities and conflicts. The period covered is from Critical Decision 3 (CD3) through the

1997-01-01

312

“We Don't Have a Back-Up Plan”: An Exploration of Family Contingency Planning for Emergencies Following Stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little research has explored emergency preparedness among families coping with stroke. In this longitudinal qualitative study, we explored contingency caregiving planning by interviewing (N?=?18) family caregivers providing care for a stroke survivor at home during the first 6 months post-discharge from the hospital. Emergent themes showed most families did not have a concrete “back-up plan” for a crisis or disaster

Tracey OSullivan; Andrea Ghazzawi; Agatha Stanek; Louise Lemyre

2012-01-01

313

rationalizing sex: family planning and the making of modern lovers in urban Greece  

E-print Network

's experiences and undermines family planners' goals for women's autonomy, [family planning, abortion, gender is a disciplinary product of modernity, and because anthropologists are modern subjects, thinking against modernity

Seager, Sara

314

Field Experiences Integrating Family Planning into Programs to Prevent Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews field experiences with provision of family planning services in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programs in ten countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Family planning is a standard component of most antenatal care and maternal-child health programs within which PMTCT programs are offered. Yet PMTCT sites often miss opportunities to provide HIV-positive clients with family planning

Naomi Rutenberg; Carolyn Baek

2005-01-01

315

National Ignition Facility risk management plan, rev. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The initial release of the National Ignition Facility (AUF) Risk Management Plan (LLNL, 1997a) was prepared in accordance with the DOE Life Cycle Asset Management Good Practice Guide (DOE, 1996a) and supported Critical Decision 3 (CD3), Approval to Initiate Construction (DOE, 1997a). The objectives of the plan were to: (1) Identify the risks to the completion of the Project in

S J Brereton

1998-01-01

316

From Physical Activity Guidelines to a National Activity Plan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The U.S. National Physical Activity Plan (NPAP) is a comprehensive strategic plan aimed at increasing physical activity levels in all segments of the American population. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the development of the NPAP, provide an update on the status of the NPAP, and comment on the future of the NPAP. The NPAP was released…

Bornstein, Daniel B.; Pate, Russell R.

2014-01-01

317

QUALITY MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR THE NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA has taken the lead, in consort with NIH, in developing the Quality Management Plan (QMP) for the National Children's Study (NCS); the QMP will delineate a systematic planning process for the implementation of the NCS. The QMP will state the goals and objectives of the NCS, th...

318

80 FR 18780 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List...Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and...been met and the water monitoring data shows that the Jordan...the deleted site may be restored to the NPL without application...POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN 0 1. The authority...

2015-04-08

319

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory institutional plan: FY 1996--2001  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the operation and direction plan for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory of the US Department of Energy. The topics of the plan include the laboratory mission and core competencies, the laboratory strategic plan; the laboratory initiatives in molecular sciences, microbial biotechnology, global environmental change, complex modeling of physical systems, advanced processing technology, energy technology development, and medical technologies and systems; core business areas, critical success factors, and resource projections.

NONE

1996-01-01

320

Oak Ridge National Laboratory institutional plan, FY 1996--FY 2001  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the institutional plan for Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the next five years. Included in the report are: laboratory director`s statement; laboratory mission, vision, and core competencies; laboratory strategic plan; major laboratory initiatives; scientific and technical programs; critical success factors; summaries of other plans; resource projections; appendix which contains data for site and facilities, user facility, science and mathematic education and human resources; and laboratory organization chart.

NONE

1995-12-01

321

Results of the 2000 National Resident Matching Program: family practice.  

PubMed

The results of the 2000 National Resident Matching Program (NRMP) reflect substantial volatility in the perceptions and career choices of physicians entering graduate medical education in the United States. Ninety-four fewer positions (191 fewer US seniors) were filled in family practice residency programs through the NRMP in 2000, compared with 1999, as well as 60 fewer (66 fewer US seniors) in primary care internal medicine, 12 fewer in pediatrics-primary care (6 fewer US seniors), and 10 fewer (9 fewer US seniors) in internal medicine-pediatric programs. In contrast, 37 more positions (36 more US seniors) were filled in anesthesiology and 4 more (13 more US seniors) in diagnostic radiology, two "marker" disciplines that have recently been market sensitive. Twelve fewer positions (63 fewer US seniors) were also filled in categorical internal medicine, while 35 fewer positions (104 fewer US seniors) were filled in categorical pediatrics programs, where trainees perceive options for practicing as generalists or entering subspecialty fellowships, depending on the market. While the needs of the nation, especially rural and underserved populations, continue to offer a market for family physicians, family practice experienced a third year of decline through the 2000 NRMP. Current forces, including media hype, market factors, lifestyle choices, debt, and the turbulence of the health care environment, appear to be influencing many students to choose subspecialty rather than primary care careers. PMID:11002864

Pugno, P A; McPherson, D S; Schmittling, G T; Kahn, N B

2000-09-01

322

National Infrastructure Protection Plan: Partnering to Enhance Protection and Resiliency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The overarching goal of the National Infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP) is to build a safer, more secure, and more resilient America by preventing, deterring, neutralizing, or mitigating the effects of deliberate efforts by terrorists to destroy, incapacitate, or exploit elements of our Nation's critical infrastructure and key resources (CIKR)…

US Department of Homeland Security, 2009

2009-01-01

323

Handbook for Decentralized Education Planning. Implementing National EFA Plans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Dakar 2000 goal of Education For All (EFA) is at the center of UNESCO's education activities worldwide. The wide-ranging efforts to achieve EFA in many countries involve education reform, development strategies and plans. Decentralization, a major component in modernizing the public sector, is also applicable to the education sector. The…

Online Submission, 2005

2005-01-01

324

National Civil Applications Program: strategic plan vision for 2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The National Mapping Division (NMD) has developed this comprehensive strategic plan to chart the course of the National Civil Applications Program (NCAP) over the next 5 years. To meet the challenges of the future, the NCAP is changing its program emphases, methods of responding to customer needs, and business practices. The NCAP Strategic Plan identifies the new direction for the program through a series of strategic thrusts and goals for managers to use in formulating plans, establishing program emphases, and determining resource needs and allocations.

U.S. Geological Survey

2004-01-01

325

Determinants of modern family planning use among women of reproductive age in the Nkwanta district of Ghana: a case–control study  

PubMed Central

Background Average contraceptive prevalence rate in the Nkwanta district of Ghana was estimated to be 6.2% relative to the national average at the time, of 19%. While several efforts had been made to improve family planning in the country, the district still had very low use of modern family planning methods. This study sought to determine the factors that influenced modern family planning use in general and specifically, the factors that determined the consistently low use of modern family planning methods in the district. Methods A case–control study was conducted in the Nkwanta district of Ghana to determine socio-economic, socio-cultural and service delivery factors influencing family planning usage. One hundred and thirty cases and 260 controls made up of women aged 15–49 years were interviewed using structured questionnaires. A logistic regression was fitted. Results Awareness and knowledge of modern family planning methods were high among cases and controls (over 90%). Lack of formal education among women, socio-cultural beliefs and spousal communication were found to influence modern family planning use. Furthermore, favourable opening hours of the facilities and distance to health facilities influenced the use of modern contraceptives. Conclusion While modern family planning seemed to be common knowledge among these women, actual use of such contraceptives was limited. There is need to improve use of modern family planning methods in the district. In addition to providing health facilities and consolidating close-to-client service initiatives in the district, policies directed towards improving modern family planning method use need to consider the influence of formal education. Promoting basic education, especially among females, will be a crucial step as the district is faced with high levels of school dropout and illiteracy rates. PMID:25117887

2014-01-01

326

Integrating family planning and HIV services in western Kenya: the impact on HIV-infected patients' knowledge of family planning and male attitudes toward family planning.  

PubMed

Little information exists on the impact of integrating family planning (FP) services into HIV care and treatment on patients' familiarity with and attitudes toward FP. We conducted a cluster-randomized trial in 18 public HIV clinics with 12 randomized to integrated FP and HIV services and 6 to the standard referral-based system where patients are referred to an FP clinic. Serial cross-sectional surveys were done before (n = 488 women, 486 men) and after (n = 479 women, 481 men) the intervention to compare changes in familiarity with FP methods and attitudes toward FP between integrated and nonintegrated (NI) sites. We created an FP familiarity score based on the number of more effective FP methods patients could identify (score range: 0-6). Generalized estimating equations were used to control for clustering within sites. An increase in mean familiarity score between baseline (mean = 5.16) and post-intervention (mean = 5.46) occurred with an overall mean change of 0.26 (95% confidence intervals [CI] = 0.09, 0.45; p = 0.003) across all sites. At end line, there was no difference in increase of mean FP familiarity scores at intervention versus control sites (mean = 5.41 vs. 5.49, p = 0.94). We observed a relative decrease in the proportion of males agreeing that FP was "women's business" at integrated sites (baseline 42% to end line 30%; reduction of 12%) compared to males at NI sites (baseline 35% to end line 42%; increase of 7%; adjusted odds ration [aOR] = 0.43; 95% CI = 0.22, 0.85). Following FP-HIV integration, familiarity with FP methods increased but did not differ by study arm. Integration was associated with a decrease in negative attitudes toward FP among men. PMID:25634244

Onono, Maricianah; Guzé, Mary A; Grossman, Daniel; Steinfeld, Rachel; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Shade, Starley; Cohen, Craig R; Newmann, Sara J

2015-06-01

327

Defining motivational intensity of need for family planning in Africa.  

PubMed

Non-users of contraception differ greatly in their likely motivation to adopt a method or resume use. This study presents a new approach to defining high and low motivation groups by stated intention to use, past use, and unmet need, to determine how these groups differ in characteristics and in region of residence. Data come from 23 DHS surveys in sub-Saharan countries, with representation from the eastern/southern region and western/central region. The low motivation non-users, with less past use and less intention to use in the future, are more rural, less educated, and closer to poverty. Motivational intensity is lower in the western/central region, which contains far fewer intenders than the eastern/southern region and where many more report no past use and no unmet need. When used to guide planning, unmet need should be augmented with motivation, since the two classifications do not entirely overlap. Between 10 and 17% of current non-users of family planning are likely highly motivated to use, but are not captured in the unmet need classification. Program implications for these non-using groups are discussed. PMID:25438510

Kuang, Bernice; Ross, John; Madsen, Elizabeth Leahy

2014-09-01

328

Nevada National Security Site Integrated Groundwater Sampling Plan, Revision 0  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Integrated Sampling Plan (referred to herein as the Plan) is to provide a comprehensive, integrated approach for collecting and analyzing groundwater samples to meet the needs and objectives of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity. Implementation of this Plan will provide high-quality data required by the UGTA Activity for ensuring public protection in an efficient and cost-effective manner. The Plan is designed to ensure compliance with the UGTA Quality Assurance Plan (QAP). The Plan’s scope comprises sample collection and analysis requirements relevant to assessing the extent of groundwater contamination from underground nuclear testing. This Plan identifies locations to be sampled by corrective action unit (CAU) and location type, sampling frequencies, sample collection methodologies, and the constituents to be analyzed. In addition, the Plan defines data collection criteria such as well-purging requirements, detection levels, and accuracy requirements; identifies reporting and data management requirements; and provides a process to ensure coordination between NNSS groundwater sampling programs for sampling of interest to UGTA. This Plan does not address compliance with requirements for wells that supply the NNSS public water system or wells involved in a permitted activity.

Marutzky, Sam; Farnham, Irene

2014-10-01

329

Selawik National Wildlife Refuge Revised Comprehensive Conservation Plan  

E-print Network

with others to conserve, protect, and enhance fish, wildlife, plants, and their habitats for the continuing benefit of the American people. Refuge System Mission Statement The mission of the National Wildlife Refuge System is to administer a national network of lands and waters for the conservation, management, and, where appropriate, restoration of the fish, wildlife, and plant resources and their habitats within the United States for the benefit of present and future generations of Americans. —National Wildlife Refuge System Improvement Act of 1997 The comprehensive conservation plan details program planning levels that are substantially greater than current budget allocations and, as such, is for strategic planning and program prioritization purposes only. This plan does not constitute a commitment for staffing increases or funding for future refuge-specific land acquisitions, construction projects, or operational and maintenance increases.

U. S. Fish; Wildlife Service; June U. S. Fish; Wildlife Service; Mission Statement; Wildlife Service Is Working; Fish; Wildlife Service

2011-01-01

330

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan FY 2001-2005  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan for FY 2001-2005 sets forth the laboratory's mission, roles, technical capabilities, and laboratory strategic plan. In the plan, major initiatives also are proposed and the transitioning initiatives are discussed. The Programmatic Strategy section details our strategic intent, roles, and research thrusts in each of the U.S. Department of Energy's mission areas. The Operations/Infrastructure Strategic Plan section includes information on the laboratory's human resources; environment, safety, and health management; safeguards and security; site and facilities management; information resources management; managaement procatices and standards; and communications and trust.

Fisher, Darrell R.; Pearson, Erik W.

2000-12-29

331

"We don't have a back-up plan": an exploration of family contingency planning for emergencies following stroke.  

PubMed

Little research has explored emergency preparedness among families coping with stroke. In this longitudinal qualitative study, we explored contingency caregiving planning by interviewing (N?=?18) family caregivers providing care for a stroke survivor at home during the first 6 months post-discharge from the hospital. Emergent themes showed most families did not have a concrete "back-up plan" for a crisis or disaster situation involving the primary caregiver being unable to provide care. Furthermore, they assumed formal respite services or long-term care would be available should the need arise. Despite increased awareness over time, most caregivers had not devised contingency plans at 6 months. PMID:22780702

O'Sullivan, Tracey; Ghazzawi, Andrea; Stanek, Agatha; Lemyre, Louise

2012-01-01

332

National Health Interview Survey: Future Plans  

Cancer.gov

NCI plans to continue collaborating with the CDC Division of Cancer Prevention and Control to monitor health behaviors and use of cancer prevention services included in the Healthy People Objectives. The NHIS Cancer Control Supplement (CCS) is administered every 5 years. The most recent data available from the CCS are 2010. The next CCS will be fielded in 2015.

333

Islam and family planning: changing perceptions of health care providers and medical faculty in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT A USAID-sponsored family planning project called “FALAH” (Family Advancement for Life and Health), implemented in 20 districts of Pakistan, aimed to lower unmet need for family planning by improving access to services. To enhance the quality of care offered by the public health system, the FALAH project trained 10,534 facility-based health care providers, managers, and medical college faculty members to offer client-centered family planning services, which included a module to explain the Islamic viewpoint on family planning developed through an iterative process involving religious scholars and public health experts. At the end of the FALAH project, we conducted a situation analysis of health facilities including interviews with providers to measure family planning knowledge of trained and untrained providers; interviewed faculty to obtain their feedback about the training module; and measured changes in women's contraceptive use through baseline and endline surveys. Trained providers had a better understanding of family planning concepts than untrained providers. In addition, discussions with trained providers indicated that the training module on Islam and family planning helped them to become advocates for family planning. Faculty indicated that the module enhanced their confidence about the topic of family planning and Islam, making it easier to introduce and discuss the issue with their students. Over the 3.5-year project period, which included several components in addition to the training activity, we found an overall increase of 9 percentage points in contraceptive prevalence in the project implementation districts—from 29% to 38%. The Islam and family planning module has now been included in the teaching program of major public-sector medical universities and the Regional Training Institutes of the Population Welfare Department. Other countries with sizeable Muslim populations and low contraceptive prevalence could benefit from this module. PMID:25276535

Mir, Ali Mohammad; Shaikh, Gul Rashida

2013-01-01

334

The construction of community participation: village family planning groups and the Indonesian state  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indonesia's family planning program has been one of the most effective in the developing world in promoting contraceptive use and contributing to fertility transition. In evaluating why the program has worked, analysts have given much credit to a network of village family planning groups that developed from the 1970s to the 1990s and that blanketed the archipelago. These groups, composed

Jeremy Shiffman

2002-01-01

335

Women's Reproductive Rights, Modernization, and Family Planning Programs in Developing Countries: A Causal Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ongoing debates on women's reproductive rights in world conferences and conventions have heightened the need for empirical research and theoretical explanations of women's reproductive rights. The study examines the effects of family planning programs and the processes of moderniza tion on women's reproductive rights.The study involves 101 developing countries. Using linear structural equation analysis, the study finds that family planning

Vijayan K. Pillai; Guang-Zhen Wang

1999-01-01

336

Family planning provision in the Trent health region: Is it accessible to school aged teenagers?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strategies to combat existing high teenage pregnancy rates in the UK need to include contraceptive services that can be easily accessed by young people, including those who are still at school. This study concerns the availability of family planning services to young people who are still at school. One hundred and eight family planning clinics in the Trent region were

Jane Allen; Sue Bradley

2001-01-01

337

36 CFR 221.3 - Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...national forest timber according to management plans. 221.3 Section 221...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TIMBER MANAGEMENT PLANNING § 221.3 Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans. (a)...

2010-07-01

338

75 FR 21650 - Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, Biscayne National...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Draft Programmatic...Environmental Impact Statement for the Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Biscayne National...Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the Coral Reef Restoration Plan for Biscayne...

2010-04-26

339

Domestic Violence, Marital Control, and Family Planning, Maternal, and Birth Outcomes in Timor-Leste.  

PubMed

Patriarchal traditions and a history of armed conflict in Timor-Leste provide a context that facilitates violence against women. More than a third of ever-married Timorese women report physical and/or sexual domestic violence (DV) perpetrated by their most recent partner. DV violates women's rights and may threaten their reproductive health. Marital control may also limit women's reproductive control and healthcare access. Our study investigated relationships between DV and marital control and subsequent family planning, maternal healthcare, and birth outcomes in Timor-Leste. Using logistic regression, we examined 2009-2010 Demographic and Health Survey data from a nationally representative sample of 2,951 women in Timor-Leste. We controlled for age, education, and wealth. We limited our analyses of pregnancy- and birth-related outcomes to those from the 6 months preceding the survey. Rural women with controlling husbands were less likely than other rural women to have an unmet need for family planning (Adj. OR 0.6; 95 % CI 0.4-0.9). Rural women who experienced DV were more likely than other rural women to have an unplanned pregnancy (Adj. OR 2.6; 95 % CI 1.4-4.8), fewer than four antenatal visits (Adj. OR 2.3; 95 % CI 1.1-4.9), or a baby born smaller than average (Adj. OR 3.1; 95 % CI 1.4-6.7). DV and marital control were not associated with the tested outcomes among urban women. Given high rates of DV internationally, our findings have important implications. Preventing DV may benefit both women and future generations. Furthermore, rural women who experience DV may benefit from targeted interventions that mediate associated risks of negative family planning, maternal healthcare, and birth outcomes. PMID:25480470

Meiksin, Rebecca; Meekers, Dominique; Thompson, Susan; Hagopian, Amy; Mercer, Mary Anne

2014-12-01

340

Leadership for Change: National Standards for Family and Consumer Sciences Education. Family and Consumer Sciences Teacher Education. Yearbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 27 papers on the development of national standards for family and consumer sciences (FACS) education. The following papers are included: "Leadership for Change: Developing the National Standards" (Peggy Wild); "National Standards Model" (Wanda S. Fox); "Reasoning for Action" (Wanda S. Fox, Janet F. Laster); "Career, Community,…

Vail, Ann, Ed.; Fox, Wanda S., Ed.; Wild, Peggy, Ed.

341

The National Ignition Facility: Status and Plans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a 192 beam laser facility presently under construction at LLNL. When completed, NIF will produce 1.8 MJ, 500 TW of ultraviolet light making it the world's largest and most powerful laser system. NIF will be the world's preeminent facility for performing experiments for fusion ignition for inertial confinement fusion (ICF)

E. I. Moses

2005-01-01

342

DIIID National Fusion Program Status and Plans  

E-print Network

Madison Argonne Ventura Santa Monica Pasadena Irvine Ventura Torrance Del Mar Solana Beach San Marcos La) U.Toronto (Toronto, Canada) Industries Calabasas Creek (CA) CompX (Del Mar, CA) CPI (Palo Alto, CA) #12;NATIONAL FUSION FACILITY DIII­D 247-07/DH/jy DIII-D Mission: To Establish the Scientific Basis

343

National Ignition Facility Risk Management Plan  

SciTech Connect

The NIF Risk Management Plan has been prepared in accordance with the DOE Life Cycle Asset Management Good Practice Guide to support Critical Decision 3 of the NIF Project. The objectives of the plan are to: 1) identify the risks to the completion of the Project in terms of meeting technical and regulatory requirements, cost, and schedule, 2) assess the risks in terms of likelihood of occurrence and their impact potential relative to technical performance, ES&H (environment, safety and health), costs, and schedule, and 3) address each identified risk in terms of suitable risk mitigation measures. The documents that form the basis for this risk assessment are as follows: 1. Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Stockpile Stewardship and Management (DOE, 1996a) and Record of Decision (DOE, 1996b), 2. Preliminary Hazards Analysis (Brereton, 1993), 3. Fire Hazards Analysis (Jensen, 1997), 4. Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (LLNL, 1996a), 5. Reliability, Availability and Maintainability Report, 6. Radiation Protection Evaluation, 7. Primary Criteria and Functional Requirements (LLNL, 1996b), 8. Project Execution Plan (DOE, 1996c), 9. Schedule Risk Assessment, 10. Construction Safety Program (LLNL, 1997), 11. Title I Design Media, 12. Congressional Data Sheet. The process used in developing this plan was to form a Risk Assessment team of knowledgeable project personnel. This included: Assurances Manager, Systems Integration Manager, Project Control Manager, a Risk Management consultant, Deputy Associate Project Engineer for Activation and Start-up (Co-chairperson), and Lead Engineer for Safety Analysis (Co-chairperson). They were familiar with the risk basis documents and developed a list of the key risk elements. A methodology for assigning likelihoods, consequences, and risks was developed. Risk elements were then reviewed, and likelihoods, consequences, and risks were assigned. Risk mitigation measures were then developed. Comments were obtained, resolved and incorporated, and this document presents the results of the assessment.

Brereton, S.J.

1997-02-01

344

Polish family planning in crisis: the Roman Catholic influence.  

PubMed

Poland is a country that, according to official sources, is 95% Catholic. The Catholic Church (CC) has a great deal of political power for 3 main reasons: 1) a strong Catholic tradition among Polish families, 2) the role of the Polish CC as the main supporter of the political opposition during the communist dictatorship, 3) the Polish Pope serves as an important authority for many Polish people. When democratic freedoms were won 10 years ago, the CC was poised and ready to exercise its considerable influences to further its own agenda. This can be seen in may areas: since last autumn, children receive religious instruction in state run schools, masses from St. Peter's are broadcast each week on state television, scientific congresses are being opened with High Mass and blessings, the armed forces make pilgrimages to the shrine of the Black Madonna of Czestochowa, and there was High Mass and Christmas blessing in the Polish Parliament. The Church is calling for an end of the separation of church and state. The current 1956 abortion law allows free abortions in state funded hospitals in cases of rape, socio-economic, or medical grounds in the 1st trimester. A current senate bill would allow abortion only to save the mother's life. The CC is currently trying to associate this law with the old communist totalitarian dictatorship and likens it to the Nazi Holocaust. In Poland there are 39 million people, and 600,000 abortions with a ratio of 70-100 abortions/100 live births. The main factors influencing this high rate are: 1) no sex education, 2) very low contraceptive use rates, 3) easy access to abortion, 4) CC opposition to contraception. Family planning in Poland is in a crisis that it may not come out of. Abortion, divorce, sex education, and contraception are all opposed by the CC which means that it will use its powerful influence to criminalize these practices. PMID:12284553

Mrugala, G

1991-09-01

345

3 CFR 8603 - Proclamation 8603 of November 18, 2010. National Family Week, 2010  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and abroad. This National Family Week, we recognize the importance of the family unit in helping all Americans reach their dreams. As we confront our challenges as a Nation, let us support our families in creating safe, nurturing environments for our...

2011-01-01

346

The impact of reproductive health legislation on family planning clinic services in Texas.  

PubMed

We examined the impact of legislation in Texas that dramatically cut and restricted participation in the state's family planning program in 2011 using surveys and interviews with leaders at organizations that received family planning funding. Overall, 25% of family planning clinics in Texas closed. In 2011, 71% of organizations widely offered long-acting reversible contraception; in 2012-2013, only 46% did so. Organizations served 54% fewer clients than they had in the previous period. Specialized family planning providers, which were the targets of the legislation, experienced the largest reductions in services, but other agencies were also adversely affected. The Texas experience provides valuable insight into the potential effects that legislation proposed in other states may have on low-income women's access to family planning services. PMID:25790404

White, Kari; Hopkins, Kristine; Aiken, Abigail R A; Stevenson, Amanda; Hubert, Celia; Grossman, Daniel; Potter, Joseph E

2015-05-01

347

77 FR 12323 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the General Management Plan, Buck Island Reef National...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...C) of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and National Park Service (NPS...Order Number 2 (Park Planning) and...Order Number 12 (Conservation Planning, Environmental...Buck Island Reef National Monument,...

2012-02-29

348

76 FR 68503 - Ungulate Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Great Sand Dunes National Park and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Environmental Impact Statement, Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, CO AGENCY...for the Ungulate Management Plan, Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve...for the Ungulate Management Plan, Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve,...

2011-11-04

349

75 FR 28055 - General Management Plan; Joshua Tree National Park; San Bernardino and Riverside Counties, CA...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Service General Management Plan; Joshua Tree National Park; San Bernardino and Riverside...General Management Plan (GMP) for Joshua Tree National Park, California. The new GMP...Messaros, Management Assistant, Joshua Tree National Park, Joshua, 74485...

2010-05-19

350

76 FR 81962 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for General Management Plan, Ross Lake National Recreation...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Impact Statement for General Management Plan, Ross Lake National Recreation Area, North Cascades National...for the proposed General Management Plan for Ross Lake National Recreation Area (Ross Lake NRA) in Washington State. This Final EIS...

2011-12-29

351

77 FR 14568 - Environmental Impact Statement for Proposed General Management Plan, Pinnacles National Monument...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...for Proposed General Management Plan, Pinnacles National Monument, San Benito and Monterey...EIS) for the General Management Plan, Pinnacles National Monument, California. A Notice...Karen Beppler-Dorn, Superintendent, Pinnacles National Monument, 5000 Highway...

2012-03-12

352

75 FR 67149 - Request for Public Comment on the Draft 2010 National Nanotechnology Initiative Strategic Plan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Comment on the Draft 2010 National Nanotechnology Initiative Strategic Plan AGENCY...regarding the draft 2010 National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Strategic Plan...information. Overview: The National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Strategic...

2010-11-01

353

77 FR 59338 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National...for the Hooker (Hyde Park) Superfund Site from...Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals...requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water Supply...entry ''Hooker (Hyde Park)'', [[Page...

2012-09-27

354

76 FR 11350 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). This partial deletion pertains to the soil and ground water associated with the northern 62-acre parcel. After this deletion, these 62 acres will no longer be...

2011-03-02

355

SUGGESTED THREE-YEAR GRADUATION PLAN Human Development and Family Studies  

E-print Network

SUGGESTED THREE-YEAR GRADUATION PLAN Human Development and Family Studies ­ Child and Youth 24012 Child Development 3 See note 1 on page 2 HDFS 25512 Management of Family Resources 3 HDFS 34031 and Family Studies ­ Child and Youth Development - Bachelor of Science [EH-BS-HDFS-CYD] College of Education

Sheridan, Scott

356

Curriculum Helps Families Discuss and Plan for Future of Their Woodland or Farm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Succession planning is an important step for families owning woodlands and farms that wish to maintain the character of the land and continue the families' connection to it. We introduce Ties to the Land, an educational curriculum that helps families communicate more effectively about the fate of their land and how to transition to future…

Withrow-Robinson, Brad; Sisock, Mary; Watkins, Susan

2012-01-01

357

Family Factors in Migration Plans of Youth, High School Seniors in St. Lawrence County, New York.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyses of data obtained from 790 questionnaires collected from a sample of public high school seniors in a relatively low income, sparsely settled county in northern New York State in May, 1962, revealed some of the effects of 2 family systems--the immediate family and the extended family--on the migration planning of high school seniors.…

Crawford, Charles O.

358

Climate change and family planning: least-developed countries define the agenda.  

PubMed

The links between rapid population growth and concerns regarding climate change have received little attention. Some commentators have argued that slowing population growth is necessary to reduce further rises in carbon emissions. Others have objected that this would give rise to dehumanizing 'population control' programmes in developing countries. Yet the perspective of the developing countries that will be worst affected by climate change has been almost completely ignored by the scientific literature. This deficit is addressed by this paper, which analyses the first 40 National Adaptation Programmes of Action reports submitted by governments of least-developed countries to the Global Environment Facility for funding. Of these documents, 93% identified at least one of three ways in which demographic trends interact with the effects of climate change: (i) faster degradation of the sources of natural resources; (ii) increased demand for scarce resources; and (iii) heightened human vulnerability to extreme weather events. These findings suggest that voluntary access to family planning services should be made more available to poor communities in least-developed countries. We stress the distinction between this approach, which prioritizes the welfare of poor communities affected by climate change, and the argument that population growth should be slowed to limit increases in global carbon emissions. The paper concludes by calling for increased support for rights-based family planning services, including those integrated with HIV/AIDS services, as an important complementary measure to climate change adaptation programmes in developing countries. PMID:20072771

Bryant, Leo; Carver, Louise; Butler, Colin D; Anage, Ababu

2009-11-01

359

Climate change and family planning: least-developed countries define the agenda  

PubMed Central

Abstract The links between rapid population growth and concerns regarding climate change have received little attention. Some commentators have argued that slowing population growth is necessary to reduce further rises in carbon emissions. Others have objected that this would give rise to dehumanizing “population control” programmes in developing countries. Yet the perspective of the developing countries that will be worst affected by climate change has been almost completely ignored by the scientific literature. This deficit is addressed by this paper, which analyses the first 40 National Adaptation Programmes of Action reports submitted by governments of least-developed countries to the Global Environment Facility for funding. Of these documents, 93% identified at least one of three ways in which demographic trends interact with the effects of climate change: (i) faster degradation of the sources of natural resources; (ii) increased demand for scarce resources; and (iii) heightened human vulnerability to extreme weather events. These findings suggest that voluntary access to family planning services should be made more available to poor communities in least-developed countries. We stress the distinction between this approach, which prioritizes the welfare of poor communities affected by climate change, and the argument that population growth should be slowed to limit increases in global carbon emissions. The paper concludes by calling for increased support for rights-based family planning services, including those integrated with HIV/AIDS services, as an important complementary measure to climate change adaptation programmes in developing countries. PMID:20072771

Carver, Louise; Butler, Colin D; Anage, Ababu

2009-01-01

360

Climate adaptation planning in practice: an evaluation of adaptation plans from three developed nations  

SciTech Connect

Formal planning for climate change adaptation is emerging rapidly at a range of geo-political scales. This first generation of adaptation plans provides useful information regarding how institutions are framing the issue of adaptation and the range of processes that are recognized as being part of an adaptation response. To better understand adaptation planning among developed nations, a set of 57 adaptation plans from Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States was evaluated against a suite of 19 planning processes identified from existing guidance instruments for adaptation planning. Total scores among evaluated plans ranged from 16% of the maximum possible score to 61%, with an average of 37%. These results suggest adaptation plans are largely under-developed. Critical weaknesses in adaptation planning are related to limited consideration for non-climatic factors as well as neglect for issues of adaptive capacity including entitlements to various forms of capital needed for effective adaptation. Such gaps in planning suggest there are opportunities for institutions to make better use of existing guidance for adaptation planning and the need to consider the broader governance context in which adaptation will occur. In addition, the adaptation options prescribed by adaptation plans reflect a preferential bias toward low-risk capacity-building (72% of identified options) over the delivery of specific actions to reduce vulnerability. To the extent these findings are representative of the state of developed nation adaptation planning, there appear to be significant deficiencies in climate change preparedness, even among those nations often assumed to have the greatest adaptive capacity.

Preston, Benjamin L [ORNL; Westaway, Richard M. [IMS Consulting, Bristol, Avon, England; Yuen, Emma J. [CSIRO Climate Adaptation Flagship, Aspendale, Vic, Australia

2011-04-01

361

The debate on family planning and reproductive rights in Bolivia.  

PubMed

Using Bolivia as the example, the author critiques international organization and health professional emphasis upon providing family planning services as inadequate to meet the needs and interests of poor women. The feminist and women's movements should be expected to fight to regain the right of self-determination, and to demand integral health care for women. Contraception will constitute but a component of this holistic approach. Poverty, natalism, development, and population policies are all interrelated issues in Bolivia as the country proceeds through a period of democratization. Where total fertility averages 5 children/women as it does in Bolivia, women should certainly have the right to choose contraception in the control of fertility. Simple provision of such services and supplies will not, however, suffice to solve more deeply rooted social and economic problems faced by those women. The author further fears that some parts of the feminist movement have forgotten that population and related policies developed and imposed by other cultures have little interest in respecting the self-determination of women as individuals. Support for these policies by movement members only reinforces and helps to reproduce existing conditions of poverty and unequal rights. PMID:12284538

De La Fuente, M

1991-01-01

362

Evaluation of natural family planning programmes in Liberia and Zambia.  

PubMed

Studies to evaluate use-effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of natural family planning (NFP) were conducted in Liberia and Zambia. The Liberian programme provided uni-purpose NFP services to 1055 clients mainly in rural areas; the Zambian programme provided NFP services integrated with MCH to 2709 clients predominantly in urban areas. The one-year life table continuation and unplanned pregnancy rates were 78.9 and 4.3 per 100 woman-years in Liberia, compared to 71.2 and 8.9 in Zambia. However, high rates of loss to follow-up mandate caution in interpretation of these results, especially in Zambia. More women progressed to autonomous NFP use in Liberia (58%) than in Zambia (35.3%). However, programme costs per couple-year protection were lower in Zambia (US$25.7) than in Liberia (US$47.1). Costs per couple-year protection were higher during learning than autonomy, and declined over time. These studies suggest that NFP programmes can achieve acceptable use- and cost-effectiveness in Africa. PMID:8478373

Gray, R H; Kambic, R T; Lanctot, C A; Martin, M C; Wesley, R; Cremins, R

1993-04-01

363

Accessibility of Family Planning Services: Impact of Structural and Organizational Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: This study sought to determine whether selected structural and organizational characteristics of publicly available family\\u000a planning facilities are associated with greater availability.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: A survey was sent to 726 publicly available family planning facilities in four states. These included local health departments,\\u000a federally qualified health centers (FQHC), Planned Parenthood sites, hospital outpatient departments, and freestanding women’s\\u000a health centers. Usable

Lorraine V. Klerman; Kay A. Johnson; Chiang-hua Chang; Phyllis Wright-Slaughter; David C. Goodman

2007-01-01

364

31 CFR 500.565 - Family remittances to nationals of Vietnam and Cambodia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Family remittances to nationals of Vietnam and Cambodia. 500.565 Section 500...565 Family remittances to nationals of Vietnam and Cambodia. (a) The remittances...provided that the relative is a national of Vietnam or Cambodia, is a resident of...

2010-07-01

365

Marketing Plan for the National Security Technology Incubator  

SciTech Connect

This marketing plan was developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project by the Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University. The vision of the National Security Technology Incubator program is to be a successful incubator of technologies and private enterprise that assist the NNSA in meeting new challenges in national safety and security. The plan defines important aspects of developing the incubator, such as defining the target market, marketing goals, and creating strategies to reach the target market while meeting those goals. The three main marketing goals of the incubator are: 1) developing marketing materials for the incubator program; 2) attracting businesses to become incubator participants; and 3) increasing name recognition of the incubator program on a national level.

None

2008-03-31

366

WILDLAND FIRE MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY.  

SciTech Connect

This Wildland Fire Management Plan (FMP) for Brookhaven National Lab (BNL) and the Upton Ecological and Research Reserve (Upton Reserve) is based on the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (FWS) fire management planning procedures and was developed in cooperation with the Department of Energy (DOE) by Brookhaven Science Associates. As the Upton Reserve is contained within the BNL 5,265-acre site, it is logical that the plan applies to both the Upton Reserve and BNL. The Department of the Interior policy for managing wildland fires requires that all areas managed by FWS that can sustain fire must have an FMP that details fire management guidelines for operational procedures and specifies values to be protected or enhanced. Fire management plans provide guidance on fire preparedness, fire prevention, wildfire suppression, and the use of controlled, ''prescribed'' fires and mechanical means to control the amount of available combustible material. Values reflected in the BNL/Upton Reserve Wildland FMP include protecting life and public safety; Lab properties, structures and improvements; cultural and historical sites; neighboring private and public properties; and endangered and threatened species and species of concern. Other values supported by the plan include the enhancement of fire-dependent ecosystems at BNL and the Upton Reserve. This FMP will be reviewed periodically to ensure the fire program advances and evolves with the missions of FWS, BNL, and the Upton Reserve. This Fire Management Plan is a modified version of the Long Island National Wildlife Refuge Complex Fire plan (updated in 2000), which contains all FWS fire plan requirements and is presented in the format specified by the national template for fire management plans adopted under the National Fire Plan. The DOE is one of the signatory agencies on the National Fire Plan. FWS shall be, through an Interagency Agreement dated November 2000 (Appendix C), responsible for coordinating and implementing prescribed burns and fuel reduction projects in the Upton Reserve. Prescribed fire and fuel reduction in locations outside the Upton Reserve will be coordinated through the Natural Resource Management Program at BNL, and done in consultation with FWS. This FMP is to be used and implemented for the entire BNL site including the Upton Reserve and has been reviewed by FWS, The Nature Conservancy, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Forest Rangers, and DOE, as well as appropriate BNL emergency services personnel.

ENVIRONMENTAL AND WASTE MANAGEMENT SERVICES DIVISION

2003-09-01

367

76 FR 62758 - Wallowa-Whitman and Umatilla National Forests, Oregon Granite Creek Watershed Mining Plans  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...and Umatilla National Forests, Oregon Granite Creek Watershed Mining Plans AGENCY...approval of mining Plans of Operation in the Granite Creek Watershed Mining Plans analysis...proposed mining Plans in the portions of the Granite Creek Watershed under their...

2011-10-11

368

Argonne National Laboratory institutional plan FY 2001--FY 2006.  

SciTech Connect

This Institutional Plan describes what Argonne management regards as the optimal future development of Laboratory activities. The document outlines the development of both research programs and support operations in the context of the nation's R and D priorities, the missions of the Department of Energy (DOE) and Argonne, and expected resource constraints. The Draft Institutional Plan is the product of many discussions between DOE and Argonne program managers, and it also reflects programmatic priorities developed during Argonne's summer strategic planning process. That process serves additionally to identify new areas of strategic value to DOE and Argonne, to which Laboratory Directed Research and Development funds may be applied. The Draft Plan is provided to the Department before Argonne's On-Site Review. Issuance of the final Institutional Plan in the fall, after further comment and discussion, marks the culmination of the Laboratory's annual planning cycle. Chapter II of this Institutional Plan describes Argonne's missions and roles within the DOE laboratory system, its underlying core competencies in science and technology, and six broad planning objectives whose achievement is considered critical to the future of the Laboratory. Chapter III presents the Laboratory's ''Science and Technology Strategic Plan,'' which summarizes key features of the external environment, presents Argonne's vision, and describes how Argonne's strategic goals and objectives support DOE's four business lines. The balance of Chapter III comprises strategic plans for 23 areas of science and technology at Argonne, grouped according to the four DOE business lines. The Laboratory's 14 major initiatives, presented in Chapter IV, propose important advances in key areas of fundamental science and technology development. The ''Operations and Infrastructure Strategic Plan'' in Chapter V includes strategic plans for human resources; environmental protection, safety, and health; site and facilities; security, export control, and counterintelligence; information management; communications, outreach, and community affairs; performance-based management; and productivity improvement and overhead cost reduction. Finally, Chapter VI provides resource projections that are a reasonable baseline for planning the Laboratory's future.

Beggs, S.D.

2000-12-07

369

Sandia National Laboratories Institutional Plan FY1994--1999  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a five year plan for the laboratory. This plan takes advantage of the technical strengths of the lab and its staff to address issues of concern to the nation on a scope much broader than Sandia`s original mission, while maintaining the general integrity of the laboratory. The plan proposes initiatives in a number of technologies which overlap the needs of its customers and the strengths of its staff. They include: advanced manufacturing technology; electronics; information and computational technology; transportation energy technology and infrastructure; environmental technology; energy research and technology development; biomedical systems engineering; and post-cold war defense imperatives.

Not Available

1993-10-01

370

“Let’s become fewer”: Soap operas, contraception, and nationalizing the Mexican family in an overpopulated world  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the emergence of Mexico’s campaigns in the 1970s and 1980s to reduce population increase. Using primarily\\u000a archival material from the National Population Council in Mexico City, the author argues that federal health organizations,\\u000a in particular the Population Council, embraced the use of oral contraception and family planning as the means to introduce\\u000a modern role models for a

Gabriela Soto Laveaga

2007-01-01

371

Carl and Ruth Shapiro Family National Center for Accessible Media  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started in 1993, The Carl and Ruth Shapiro Family National Center for Accessible Media (NCAM) is part of WGBH's Media Access Group. They are primarily interested in creating appropriate policy and technology programs to make sure that various media and technologies are accessible to people with disabilities. On their site, visitors might wish to start by reading over their "What's New?" area, which features some updates on their latest projects, such as their work on simplified captions and access to in-flight entertainment. Moving on, the "Projects" area contains information on their ongoing and completed projects, which include work on increasing access to emergency alerts and research on edited captions for profoundly deaf children. This area also includes a number of useful publications, such as the 2006 document, "Accessible Digital Media: Design Guidelines for Electronic Publications, Multimedia and the Web".

372

Lives and plans of Polish migrant families in Edinburgh   

E-print Network

This thesis takes as its subject Polish families who migrated to Edinburgh after Poland’s accession to the EU in 2004. It analyses the families’ post-migration trajectories and experiences, and investigates how these are ...

Ramasawmy, Lucy Jane

2014-07-01

373

[Decision on family planning work of 7 March 1990].  

PubMed

The full decision in 7 parts of the Fujian Provincial CPC Committee and Government on Family Planning (FP) Work on March 7, 1990 is reported. A general statement about population growth in Fujian urges a stop to unplanned births, early marriages, and early childbearing. Section 1 pertains to cooperative leadership at all levels of party committees and governments in strengthening FP. The call is for integration of FP with economic development in accordance with the law, available cultivated land/capita, and population growth. Leadership in FP must come from the highest levels and be integrated into normal routines with provision for manpower, material, and financial resources. Local party committees and government must supervise FP work in units at all levels according the Central Committee and State Council's directives. Members of the Communist Youth League need to be actively involved. Section 2 pertains to establishing a responsibility system at various levels in order to meet targets, particularly in the next 3 years. Average annual rate of natural population growth should not exceed 13% and should be maintained at 11.33% for 1990. Couples must stay with 1 child/family and reduce unplanned births. Evaluation of work is dependent on fulfilling FP responsibilities for leaders at all levels. Rewards and punishments are to be established. Review of FP occurs annually for individuals and units, and a progress report sent to the People's Congress at the appropriate level of the Standing Committee. Accurate statistics need to be compiled. Section 3 stipulates that FP work is be carried out within the confines of provincial law. Strict enforcement of regulations is necessary. Approval is necessary for a 2nd child, and this regulation needs to be closely monitored. The position recommended is marrying and childbearing late and having only 1 child. Prevention is the key. Rewards and punishments pertain to government or party members. Social welfare benefits for those abiding by the regulations should be expanded. In section 4, emphasis is placed on rural areas lagging behind. Section 5 calls for old age homes and insurance for the aged, which could be funded from the unplanned birth funds, and a fund for women workers' childbearing and social security system. Section 7 promotes education about population, living conditions, and the legal system and propaganda on population and FP at all ages. Population theory and adolescence science need to be incorporated into the curriculum. Section 7 is concerned with increasing the collaboration between FP associations and party and government workers, both past and present. In section 8, the means of strengthening FP work is detailed. PMID:12285788

1990-05-11

374

Planning Ahead: College Seniors' Concerns about Work-Family Conflict.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research suggests that working men experience as much work-family conflict as women do. More men are doing housework and childcare, and feel that family is as important as their work. An attempt was made to determine how college seniors view their potential for managing work-family conflict. College students (N=324) attending a private…

Barnett, Rosalind Chait; Gareis, Karen C.; James, Jacquelyn Boone; Steele, Jennifer

375

Problems in Improving The Methods of National Economic Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

USSR Gosplan has adopted a decree on improving the elaboration of guidelines [>u>metodicheskie ukazaniia>\\/u>] for planning the development of the national economy and its individual branches. This decree instructs USSR Gosplan divisions and scientific research institutes attached to USSR Gosplan, together with the gosplans of union republics, ministries, and agencies of the USSR, to rework the Guidelines on the Compilation

P. Krylov; M. Chistiakov

1972-01-01

376

Planning for the National Ignition Campaign on NIF Presentation to  

E-print Network

Planning for the National Ignition Campaign on NIF Presentation to Fusion Power Associates Annual a clearly defined path forward to achievement of ignition on NIF ·An extensive scientific data base forms the foundation for the NIF ignition point design target and experimental campaign ·We have requirements in place

377

47 CFR 90.16 - Public Safety National Plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SERVICES Public Safety Radio Pool § 90.16 ...formally Public Safety Radio Services and the Special Emergency Radio Service). The National...Plan is the 806-809 MHz and the 851-854 MHz...Mexico border and 140 km (87 miles)...

2010-10-01

378

Family planning use among urban poor women from six cities of Uttar Pradesh, India.  

PubMed

Family planning has widespread positive impacts for population health and well-being; contraceptive use not only decreases unintended pregnancies and reduces infant and maternal mortality and morbidity, but it is critical to the achievement of Millennium Development Goals. This study uses baseline, representative data from six cities in Uttar Pradesh, India to examine family planning use among the urban poor. Data were collected from about 3,000 currently married women in each city (Allahabad, Agra, Varanasi, Aligarh, Gorakhpur, and Moradabad) for a total sample size of 17,643 women. Participating women were asked about their fertility desires, family planning use, and reproductive health. The survey over-sampled slum residents; this permits in-depth analyses of the urban poor and their family planning use behaviors. Bivariate and multivariate analyses are used to examine the role of wealth and education on family planning use and unmet need for family planning. Across all of the cities, about 50% of women report modern method use. Women in slum areas generally report less family planning use and among those women who use, slum women are more likely to be sterilized than to use other methods, including condoms and hormonal methods. Across all cities, there is a higher unmet need for family planning to limit childbearing than for spacing births. Poorer women are more likely to have an unmet need than richer women in both the slum and non-slum samples; this effect is attenuated when education is included in the analysis. Programs seeking to target the urban poor in Uttar Pradesh and elsewhere in India may be better served to identify the less educated women and target these women with appropriate family planning messages and methods that meet their current and future fertility desire needs. PMID:22399250

Speizer, Ilene S; Nanda, Priya; Achyut, Pranita; Pillai, Gita; Guilkey, David K

2012-08-01

379

Brookhaven National Laboratory Institutional Plan FY2001--FY2005  

SciTech Connect

Brookhaven National Laboratory is a multidisciplinary laboratory in the Department of Energy National Laboratory system and plays a lead role in the DOE Science and Technology mission. The Laboratory also contributes to the DOE missions in Energy Resources, Environmental Quality, and National Security. Brookhaven strives for excellence in its science research and in facility operations and manages its activities with particular sensitivity to environmental and community issues. The Laboratory's programs are aligned continuously with the goals and objectives of the DOE through an Integrated Planning Process. This Institutional Plan summarizes the portfolio of research and capabilities that will assure success in the Laboratory's mission in the future. It also sets forth BNL strategies for our programs and for management of the Laboratory. The Department of Energy national laboratory system provides extensive capabilities in both world class research expertise and unique facilities that cannot exist without federal support. Through these national resources, which are available to researchers from industry, universities, other government agencies and other nations, the Department advances the energy, environmental, economic and national security well being of the US, provides for the international advancement of science, and educates future scientists and engineers.

Davis, S.

2000-10-01

380

Wildland Fire Management Plan for Brookhaven National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This Wildland Fire Management Plan (FMP) for Brookhaven National Lab (BNL) updates the 2003 plan incorporating changes necessary to comply with DOE Order 450.1 and DOE P 450.4, Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy and Program Review; Wildland and Prescribed Fire Management Policy and implementation Procedures Reference Guide. This current plan incorporates changes since the original draft of the FMP that result from new policies on the national level. This update also removes references and dependence on the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service and Department of the Interior, fully transitioning Wildland Fire Management responsibilities to BNL. The Department of Energy policy for managing wildland fires requires that all areas, managed by the DOE and/or its various contractors, that can sustain fire must have a FMP that details fire management guidelines for operational procedures associated with wild fire, operational, and prescribed fires. Fire management plans provide guidance on fire preparedness, fire prevention, wildfire suppression, and the use of controlled, 'prescribed' fires and mechanical means to control the amount of available combustible material. Values reflected in the BNL Wildland FMP include protecting life and public safety; Lab properties, structures and improvements; cultural and historical sites; neighboring private and public properties; and endangered, threatened, and species of concern. Other values supported by the plan include the enhancement of fire-dependent ecosystems at BNL. This FMP will be reviewed periodically to ensure the fire program advances and evolves with the missions of the DOE and BNL. This Fire Management Plan is presented in a format that coverers all aspects specified by DOE guidance documents which are based on the national template for fire management plans adopted under the National Fire Plan. The DOE is one of the signatory agencies on the National Fire Plan. This FMP is to be used and implemented for the entire BNL site including the Upton Reserve and has been reviewed by, The Nature Conservancy, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Forest Rangers, and DOE, as well as appropriate BNL emergency services personnel. The BNL Fire Department is the lead on wildfire suppression. However, the BNL Natural Resource Manager will be assigned to all wildland fires as technical resource advisor.

Green,T.

2009-10-23

381

Liquid Waste Certification Plan for Pacific Northwest National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of research and development (R&D) facilities for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on the Hanford Site's 300 Area (see Figure 1). Process wastewater from these facilities is treated by the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) and discharged to the Columbia River via a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System-permitted outfall. The NPDES permit specifies limits of chemical constituents and requires proper operation and maintenance of the TEDF. To meet permit requirements, Fluor Hanford, operator of the TEDF, requires generators who discharge to the 300 Area TEDF to submit a Liquid Waste Certification Plan. This plan is the second revision to PNNL's plan.

Ballinger, Marcel Y.

2002-09-23

382

[Family grasping establishment of service net, making family planning work become a regular practice and a system].  

PubMed

In accordance with Central Committee Document no. 7 which calls for family planning work reform, China's Yuncheng Prefecture established changes in its family planning System. Yuncheng Prefecture contains 13 counties, 211 townships, 3292 administrative villages, and a population of 3,850,000. Propaganda technique leadership stations were implemented in 70% of the prefectures and counties, propaganda technique service stations in 90% of the townships, 1829 service rooms and 475 services in the villages. The Central Committee has frequently stated that controlling population growth entails strategic responsibility; the establishment of service nets is the primary step for fulfilling that responsibility. Methods in its establishment include: 1) Comprehensive planning: determining which districts have leadership and are receptive; 2) Proper selection of enthusiastic and educated personnel; 3) Adequate equipment at service sites; 4) Coordination of service net efforts with public health departments; 5) Accomplishing the following 5 services through administrative and professional management: propaganda, technology, policy, eugenics, and social welfare. The social advantage of the service nets is the creation in 2 years of a specialized group form the agrarian community who will become a systematic force which will guarantee continuous family planning work. As a consequence of the establishment service nets, more couples now desire only 1 child; unplanned 2nd births in 1984 decreased 12% from 1983. The multiple child rate fell 4.83% for those years. Family planning work has become more economical and efficient. PMID:12159297

1987-07-01

383

DO FAMILY PLANNING PROGRAMS DECREASE POVERTY? EVIDENCE FROM PUBLIC CENSUS DATA  

PubMed Central

This paper provides new evidence that family planning programs are associated with a decrease in the share of children and adults living in poverty. Our research design exploits the county roll-out of U.S. family planning programs in the late 1960s and early 1970s and examines their relationship with poverty rates in the short and longer-term in public census data. We find that cohorts born after federal family planning programs began were less likely to live in poverty in childhood and that these same cohorts were less likely to live in poverty as adults. PMID:25346655

Bailey, Martha J.; Malkova, Olga; Norling, Johannes

2014-01-01

384

45 CFR 286.160 - What are the applicable time frames and procedures for submitting a Tribal Family Assistance Plan?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and procedures for submitting a Tribal Family Assistance Plan? 286.160 Section...Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

2010-10-01

385

45 CFR 286.160 - What are the applicable time frames and procedures for submitting a Tribal Family Assistance Plan?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and procedures for submitting a Tribal Family Assistance Plan? 286.160 Section...Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

2011-10-01

386

45 CFR 286.160 - What are the applicable time frames and procedures for submitting a Tribal Family Assistance Plan?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and procedures for submitting a Tribal Family Assistance Plan? 286.160 Section...Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

2013-10-01

387

45 CFR 286.160 - What are the applicable time frames and procedures for submitting a Tribal Family Assistance Plan?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and procedures for submitting a Tribal Family Assistance Plan? 286.160 Section...Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

2012-10-01

388

45 CFR 286.160 - What are the applicable time frames and procedures for submitting a Tribal Family Assistance Plan?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...and procedures for submitting a Tribal Family Assistance Plan? 286.160 Section...Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

2014-10-01

389

75 FR 43929 - National Weather Service (NWS) Strategic Plan, 2011-2020  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...100706289-0289-01] National Weather Service (NWS) Strategic Plan, 2011-2020 AGENCY: National Weather Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric...SUMMARY: The National Weather Service's (NWS) Strategic...

2010-07-27

390

1990: Twenty-Second Annual National Council on Family Relations Media Awards Competition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes winning videotapes and films of Media Competition in 12 categories: Human Development across the Life Span; Parenting Issues; Nontraditional Family Systems; Marital and Family Issues and Communication; Sexuality and Sex Role Development; Substance Abuse/Addiction; Human Reproduction and Family Planning; Stress, Transition, and Crisis…

Anson, Julie; And Others

1991-01-01

391

Return on Investment: A Fuller Assessment of the Benefits and Cost Savings of the US Publicly Funded Family Planning Program  

PubMed Central

Context Each year the United States’ publicly supported family planning program serves millions of low-income women. Although the health impact and public-sector savings associated with this program's services extend well beyond preventing unintended pregnancy, they never have been fully quantified. Methods Drawing on an array of survey data and published parameters, we estimated the direct national-level and state-level health benefits that accrued from providing contraceptives, tests for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), Pap tests and tests for human papillomavirus (HPV), and HPV vaccinations at publicly supported family planning settings in 2010. We estimated the public cost savings attributable to these services and compared those with the cost of publicly funded family planning services in 2010 to find the net public-sector savings. We adjusted our estimates of the cost savings for unplanned births to exclude some mistimed births that would remain publicly funded if they had occurred later and to include the medical costs for births through age 5 of the child. Findings In 2010, care provided during publicly supported family planning visits averted an estimated 2.2 million unintended pregnancies, including 287,500 closely spaced and 164,190 preterm or low birth weight (LBW) births, 99,100 cases of chlamydia, 16,240 cases of gonorrhea, 410 cases of HIV, and 13,170 cases of pelvic inflammatory disease that would have led to 1,130 ectopic pregnancies and 2,210 cases of infertility. Pap and HPV tests and HPV vaccinations prevented an estimated 3,680 cases of cervical cancer and 2,110 cervical cancer deaths; HPV vaccination also prevented 9,000 cases of abnormal sequelae and precancerous lesions. Services provided at health centers supported by the Title X national family planning program accounted for more than half of these benefits. The gross public savings attributed to these services totaled approximately $15.8 billion—$15.7 billion from preventing unplanned births, $123 million from STI/HIV testing, and $23 million from Pap and HPV testing and vaccines. Subtracting $2.2 billion in program costs from gross savings resulted in net public-sector savings of $13.6 billion. Conclusions Public expenditures for the US family planning program not only prevented unintended pregnancies but also reduced the incidence and impact of preterm and LBW births, STIs, infertility, and cervical cancer. This investment saved the government billions of public dollars, equivalent to an estimated taxpayer savings of $7.09 for every public dollar spent. PMID:25314928

Frost, Jennifer J; Sonfield, Adam; Zolna, Mia R; Finer, Lawrence B

2014-01-01

392

Family Strengthening Writ Large: On becoming a Nation that Promotes Strong Families and Successful Youth. Policy Brief No. 24  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Culture and systemic change are paramount to achieving significant and long-lasting gains in child and youth wellbeing and, in time, securing the future of our nation. This brief, based on a high-level synthesis of eight years of experience and research in place-based family strengthening, makes the case for a national transformation to a society…

Online Submission, 2007

2007-01-01

393

The Integrated Family Planning Project in China. FP and health education: a successful combination.  

PubMed

The Integrated Family Planning, Maternal-Child Health Care, and Parasite Control Project has been underway since 1983 in 6 pilot areas in China. The project is a result of collaboration among the China Family Planning Association, the Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning, and International Planned Parenthood Federation. Steering committees in each of the pilot project areas are composed of government workers, representatives of nongovernmental organizations, family planning cadres, health managers, doctors, and health technicians. Family planning service stations have become the activity bases to implement the integrated project. The coverage rate of program propaganda and education has reached 95% in the pilot project areas. Specific IEC techniques have included lectures, parents' study groups, posters, folk art exhibitions, pamphlets, and household visits. In addition, volunteers have been enlisted to build latrines, wells, and running water facilities. Ultimately, the success of the integrated project is dependent upon the masses becoming aware that enhanced attention to family planning, maternal-child health, and parasite control is in their interest and then taking steps to voluntarily transform their traditional practices and attitudes. Also essential is a reduction of the distance between the government and the masses through the use of trusted community volunteers. PMID:12315799

Dong, Y

1988-10-01

394

Family planning funds increased tenfold since FY 1971 while staff remained constant.  

PubMed

State health and welfare agencies administered about $126 million in family planning funds in FY 1976, a 10-fold increase over FY 1971, with little increase in staff. Although family planning personnel in health agencies increased from 85 to 147, staff in welfare agencies decreased from 9 to 7 and part-time professional staff was just over 300 in both years, according to the Alan Guttmacher Institute's 6th annual survey of family planning services. In FY 1976 family planning funds came through 5 separate Federal programs. 1/3 of all funding was concentrated in California, Georgia, Louisiana, and Tennessee and nearly 40% of the increase came in these states. California spent $20.2 million. Louisiana was next with $7.9 million. The largest source of funds was Title 10, providing some $45.2 million to 37 state health agencies. Title 5 grant funds provided $20.2 million to 43 states and the District of Columbia. Title 20 contracts totaled $18.7 million in 19 states and general health agency funds of $6 million in 5 states. Wyoming reported it neither received nor spent any family planning funds. Use of family planning services paralleled funds received. Tables show levels of funding in each state, staff levels, and state welfare agency planning funds in 1971 and 1976. PMID:12308833

1977-10-01

395

Family Strengths and Resilience: Insights from a National Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These authors often have opportunities to talk with practitioners in education, youth development, family services, and other fields about today's families. When asked about their own families, they will most often admit their quirks and challenges--but they generally express great appreciation for their families and how they add meaning,…

Roehlkepartain, Eugene C.; Syvertsen, Amy K.

2014-01-01

396

National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Emergency Planning in Athletics  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To educate athletic trainers and others about the need for emergency planning, to provide guidelines in the development of emergency plans, and to advocate documentation of emergency planning. Background: Most injuries sustained during athletics or other physical activity are relatively minor. However, potentially limb-threatening or life-threatening emergencies in athletics and physical activity are unpredictable and occur without warning. Proper management of these injuries is critical and should be carried out by trained health services personnel to minimize risk to the injured participant. The organization or institution and its personnel can be placed at risk by the lack of an emergency plan, which may be the foundation of a legal claim. Recommendations: The National Athletic Trainers' Association recommends that each organization or institution that sponsors athletic activities or events develop and implement a written emergency plan. Emergency plans should be developed by organizational or institutional personnel in consultation with the local emergency medical services. Components of the emergency plan include identification of the personnel involved, specification of the equipment needed to respond to the emergency, and establishment of a communication system to summon emergency care. Additional components of the emergency plan are identification of the mode of emergency transport, specification of the venue or activity location, and incorporation of emergency service personnel into the development and implementation process. Emergency plans should be reviewed and rehearsed annually, with written documentation of any modifications. The plan should identify responsibility for documentation of actions taken during the emergency, evaluation of the emergency response, institutional personnel training, and equipment maintenance. Further, training of the involved personnel should include automatic external defibrillation, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, first aid, and prevention of disease transmission. PMID:12937447

Andersen, J. C.; Courson, Ronald W.; Kleiner, Douglas M.; McLoda, Todd A.

2002-01-01

397

Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Sitewide Institutional Controls Plan  

SciTech Connect

On November 9, 2002, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality approved the Record of Decision Experimental Breeder Reactor-I/Boiling Water Reactor Experiment Area and Miscellaneous Sites, which requires a Sitewide Institutional Controls Plan for the then Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (now known as the Idaho National Laboratory). This document, first issued in June 2004, fulfilled that requirement. The revision is needed to provide an update as remedial actions are completed and new areas of concern are found. This Sitewide Institutional Controls Plan is based on guidance in the May 3, 1999, EPA Region 10 Final Policy on the Use of Institutional Controls at Federal Facilities; the September 29, 2000, EPA guidance Institutional Controls: A Site Manager's Guide to Identifying, Evaluating, and Selecting Institutional Controls at Superfund and RCRA Corrective Action Cleanups; and the April 9, 2003, DOE Policy 454.1, "Use of Institutional Controls." These policies establish measures that ensure short- and long-term effectiveness of institutional controls that protect human health and the environment at federal facility sites undergoing remedial action pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and/or corrective action pursuant to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The site-specific institutional controls currently in place at the Idaho National Laboratory are documented in this Sitewide Institutional Controls Plan. This plan is being updated, along with the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Comprehensive Facilities and Land Use Plan, to reflect the progress of remedial activities and changes in CERCLA sites.

W. L. Jolley

2006-07-27

398

42 CFR 59.5 - What requirements must be met by a family planning project?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...who coerces or endeavors to coerce any person to undergo an abortion or sterilization procedure by threatening such person with...number of pregnancies, or marital status. (5) Not provide abortion as a method of family planning. A project must:...

2014-10-01

399

42 CFR 59.5 - What requirements must be met by a family planning project?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...who coerces or endeavors to coerce any person to undergo an abortion or sterilization procedure by threatening such person with...number of pregnancies, or marital status. (5) Not provide abortion as a method of family planning. A project must:...

2011-10-01

400

42 CFR 59.5 - What requirements must be met by a family planning project?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...who coerces or endeavors to coerce any person to undergo an abortion or sterilization procedure by threatening such person with...number of pregnancies, or marital status. (5) Not provide abortion as a method of family planning. A project must:...

2012-10-01

401

42 CFR 59.5 - What requirements must be met by a family planning project?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...who coerces or endeavors to coerce any person to undergo an abortion or sterilization procedure by threatening such person with...number of pregnancies, or marital status. (5) Not provide abortion as a method of family planning. A project must:...

2013-10-01

402

42 CFR 59.5 - What requirements must be met by a family planning project?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...who coerces or endeavors to coerce any person to undergo an abortion or sterilization procedure by threatening such person with...number of pregnancies, or marital status. (5) Not provide abortion as a method of family planning. A project must:...

2010-10-01

403

Providing family planning and reproductive healthcare to Canadian immigrants: perceptions of healthcare providers.  

PubMed

Cultural impacts on health experiences and behaviours are profound in the area of reproductive health and family planning. Explored through interviews with family planning healthcare professionals, this paper evaluates their experiences in providing family planning and reproductive healthcare to immigrants in the Greater Toronto and Hamilton area of Ontario, Canada. Results reveal the complexity of delivering care to members of this group, particularly when dealing with language barriers, situations when professional and non-professional interpreters are used, and instances where healthcare professionals realize that they themselves have misconceptions and misunderstandings about other cultures. The paper concludes by discussing future research options and implications for the delivery of reproductive health family planning services to this population. PMID:19242836

Newbold, K Bruce; Willinsky, Jacqueline

2009-05-01

404

Contraceptive method-mix and family planning program in Vietnam.  

PubMed

In Vietnam between 1989 and 1993, the modern contraceptive prevalence rate stopped at 38%. In 1984, the government implemented economic renovation (Doi Moi). This closed agricultural cooperatives which had supported commune health centers. Health workers received either low or no wages, resulting in low morale, absenteeism, and moving to the private sector or agriculture. Most women began using the IUD because it was low cost and easy to monitor, provided long-term protection against pregnancy, and there was a limited supply of oral contraceptives (OCs) and condoms. Condom use fell from 13% in 1984 to 1.4% in 1993. More than 80% of contraceptive users used the IUD. The IUD is not appropriate for many women because of health problems: 60-70% of pregnant women and 80% of parturient women have anemia, 40-60% of women have reproductive tract infections, and sexually transmitted diseases are rising. Vietnam's Prime Minister and the Communist Party are committed to expanding the range of the contraceptive method-mix and choice. Limited method choice is especially a problem in rural areas. It increases the abortion rate. About 38% of abortions supplant modern and traditional family planning methods. Improper counseling, insufficient knowledge, and low promotion of OCs account for the low use of OCs. Inferior quality, aversion by couples, and inaccessibility in most rural areas limit condom use. Women's fear and husband's objection outweigh the government's promotion of sterilization. Providers have limited comprehensive accurate and current knowledge of contraceptives. Health service facilities are concentrated in urban and semiurban areas. The quality of care in rural areas, where there is no clean water supply, is inferior. An annual target used to forecast contraceptive needs risks contraceptive stocks expiring during storage and/or disruptions in supply of users. Consecutive actions to eliminate constraints to use of other methods, developing a community level service delivery system to provide a wide range of methods, and developing specific service delivery systems for specific methods are optional strategies to expand method choice in Vietnam. PMID:12288574

Hardjanti, K

1995-01-01

405

Perceived factors of family planning clinic performance and service quality.  

PubMed

As part of a larger operations research project, this 1990 study analyzed the performance of the Philippine Department of Health's (DOH) family planning (FP) clinics. Specific study objectives were 1) to measure acceptor targets, servicing capacity utilization, outreach, and costs; 2) to determine what providers believed affected performance; 3) to record which quality indicator providers use; and 4) to determine the perceptions of acceptors about clinic personnel, the clinic as a FP outlet, FP service processing, and FP service quality. Data were gathered from clinic records and from sample surveys in 25 clinics in four specified locations. Eight clients were sampled from each of the 100 clinics. It was found that clinic staff accepted low attainment of FP acceptor targets and that clinic capacity utilization levels were at 25% of capacity. Providers were unaware of the number of potential FP acceptors in their areas and had no information about the costs of running their clinics. The FP clinic managers identified 34 major determinants of clinic performance, but more than half reported that they had very little control over these determinants. The providers described quality service from the point of view of the acceptors and described the quality of a clinic in terms of the minimal physical characteristics required. The acceptor survey revealed that acceptor satisfaction depends upon 1) clinic accessibility and lay-out, 2) intensive personal contact, and 3) clinic infrastructure. The study uncovered a need for the DOH to institute management training programs for clinic managers and to provide managers with the resources and personnel to shift priorities in favor of FP coverage and prevalence. Managers, who are resource allocators, must also receive information about the costs of FP services in their clinics. In addition, the DOH's determination that its FP program would be facility- rather than community-based should be modified to incorporate community outreach elements. The DOH can also make a big impact on perceptions of quality (of both providers and acceptors) by improving clinic conditions to meet basic standards. Once these basic needs are met, additional needs of acceptors can and must be addressed. PMID:12320234

Roberto, E L

1993-01-01

406

Reproductive health services for refugees by refugees in Guinea I: family planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Comprehensive studies of family planning (FP) in refugee camps are relatively uncommon. This paper examines gender and age differences in family planning knowledge, attitudes, and practices among Sierra Leonean and Liberian refugees living in Guinea. METHODS: In 1999, a cross-sectional survey was conducted of 889 reproductive-age men and women refugees from 48 camps served by the refugee-organised Reproductive Health

Natasha Howard; Sarah Kollie; Yaya Souare; Anna von Roenne; David Blankhart; Claire Newey; Mark I Chen; Matthias Borchert

2008-01-01

407

Geographic Access to Family Planning Facilities and the Risk of Unintended and Teenage Pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: This study tested the hypotheses that greater geographic access to family planning facilities is associated with lower rates\\u000a of unintended and teenage pregnancies. Methods: State Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) and natality files in four states were used to locate unintended\\u000a and teenage births, respectively. Geographic availability was measured by cohort travel time to the nearest family planning

David C. Goodman; Lorraine V. Klerman; Kay A. Johnson; Chiang-hua Chang; Nancy Marth

2007-01-01

408

Use of family planning methods by women in the municipality of Nis (Serbia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of family planning methods reduces maternal mortality, prevents unwanted and high-risk pregnancies, the need for (un)safe\\u000a abortion and protects from sexually transmitted diseases. The objective of the study was to assess the use of family planning\\u000a methods by women in the municipality of Nis. We applied an observational cohort study that included 1,584 women age 15–49\\u000a who lived

O. Radulovic; M. Nikolic; C. Sagric; Lj. Stosic; A. Stankovic; S. Milutinovic

2007-01-01

409

2012-2013 Strategic plan for Parent and Family Relations (06/12/2012) Parent and Family Relations is dedicated to student success by engaging parents and  

E-print Network

2012-2013 Strategic plan for Parent and Family Relations (06/12/2012) MISSION Parent and Family Relations is dedicated to student success by engaging parents and family members as active partners in supporting student success at Texas Tech University. VISION Parent and Family Relations recognizes

Rock, Chris

410

Highlights of the NCJW National Family Day Care Project (1988-1992).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Family Day Care Project (NFDCP) was undertaken by the National Council of Jewish Women (NCJW) to create and support demonstration projects for community-based organizations to ensure the availability of high quality family day care. During the first 2 years of the 4-year project, NCJW volunteers in 31 communities in 21 states assessed…

National Council of Jewish Women, New York, NY. Center for the Child.

411

Family Engagement. National Dropout Prevention Center/Network Newsletter. Volume 20, Number 2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "National Dropout Prevention Newsletter" is published quarterly by the National Dropout Prevention Center/Network. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Family/School Relationships: Relationships That Matter; (2) Program Profile; (3) Engaging Families in the Pathway to College: Lessons From Schools That Are Beating the Odds (Anne T.…

Duckenfield, Marty, Ed.

2008-01-01

412

The edmond J. Safra family lodge at the NatioNal iNstitutes of health  

E-print Network

difficult hospitalizations, including several stays in the Intensive Care Unit. My family and I have beenThe edmond J. Safra family lodge at the NatioNal iNstitutes of health A very special place of respite, solitude, family gatherings and supportive fellowship. A home away from home. #12;We know

Bandettini, Peter A.

413

A global research agenda for family planning: results of an exercise for setting research priorities  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To develop a global research agenda that will guide investment in effective interventions to satisfy the large unmet need for modern methods of family planning. Methods In a global survey, experts on contraception were invited to identify and rank the types of research that would be needed – and the knowledge gaps that would have to be filled – to reduce the unmet need for family planning in the next decade. The experts were then asked to score the research on a given topic in terms of the likelihood of its leading to an intervention that would: (i) be deliverable, affordable and sustainable; (ii) substantially reduce the unmet need for contraceptives; (iii) be effective and efficient in improving health systems; (iv) be ethically implemented; and (v) improve equity in the target population. The overall scores were then ranked. Findings Most of the topics that received the 15 highest scores fell into three categories: implementation of policies in family planning; the integration of services to address barriers to contraceptive use; and interventions targeted at underserved groups, such as adolescents. Conclusion Experts on contraception gave top priority ranking to research on improving the implementation and integration of health services and on strengthening the health systems supporting family planning services. The results of the exercise may help decision-makers, researchers and funding agencies to develop a clear and focused approach to satisfying the global need for family planning and reach the target set by the Family Planning 2020 initiative. PMID:24623902

Seuc, Armando; Rahimi, Asma; Festin, Mario; Temmerman, Marleen

2014-01-01

414

76 FR 50494 - Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Mojave National Preserve, San...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Extension of Scoping Period for Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental...National Park Service is preparing a Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental...management of ground and surface water sources within Mojave National...

2011-08-15

415

75 FR 26711 - Plan Revision for Coconino National Forest; Coconino, Gila and Yavapai Counties, AZ  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...AGRICULTURE Forest Service Plan Revision for Coconino National Forest; Coconino, Gila and Yavapai Counties, AZ AGENCY: Forest...the USDA Forest Service is preparing the Coconino National Forest's revised land management plan (Forest...

2010-05-12

416

Using Radio To Promote Family Planning in Sub-Saharan Africa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family planning programs in sub-Saharan Africa (42 countries and 450 million population), the fastest growing and poorest region in the world, need effective communications campaigns to educate people about the benefits of contraception, help change attitudes about fertility control and family size, and provide information about available…

Henry, Kathleen

417

Children in planned lesbian families: Stigmatisation, psychological adjustment and protective factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study assessed the extent to which children between eight and 12 years old in planned lesbian families in the Netherlands experience stigmatization, as well as the influence of protective factors (relationship with parents, social acceptance by peers, contact with children from other families headed by lesbian mothers or gay fathers) on their psychological adjustment (conduct problems, emotional symptoms, hyperactivity,

Henny M. W. Bos; Frank van Balen

2008-01-01

418

Name: Intended quarter of entry: Academic Planning Worksheet for Early Childhood & Family Studies  

E-print Network

Name: Intended quarter of entry: Academic Planning Worksheet for Early Childhood & Family Studies personal statement reflecting an interest in the early childhood and family studies major and a commitment such as BIOL 100, 180, OR 104 One course in biological bases of development such as Nutrition 300, BIOL 118 Any

Queitsch, Christine

419

FOR FAMILY MEDICAL LEAVE AND SHORT TERM DISABILITY PLAN DARTMOUTH COLLEGE MEDICAL CERTIFICATION FORM  

E-print Network

FOR FAMILY MEDICAL LEAVE AND SHORT TERM DISABILITY PLAN DARTMOUTH COLLEGE MEDICAL CERTIFICATION FORM Certification of Health Care Provider for Employee's Serious Health Condition Family and Medical to the EMPLOYEE: Please complete Section II before giving this form to your medical provider. The FMLA permits

Myers, Lawrence C.

420

[How to launch the activity of propaganda month of family planning in Sichuan province].  

PubMed

In mid-July to the end of August 1982, the Sichuan Provincial Party Committee and the Sichuan Provincial People's Government launched a 1-time family planning propaganda month in all of its cities and villages. The purpose was to promote and to carry out consistently and thoroughly the "Going a Step Further in Family Planning Work Directive" of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party and the State Council. Through the propaganda efforts, cadres and masses of Sichuan became familiar with the Party's family planning policy and the basis for population theory, thereby benefitting the nation, its people and future generations. In addition, people sensed the urgency, glory, and responsibility of population control. Based on incomplete data, during the month of propaganda, there were 174,182 new applications for 1 Child Certificates, which was 94.82% of the certificates applied for in the 1st half of 1982; 419,696 cases of contraceptive use, or 43.32% of those using them in the 1st 6 months of the year; 247,808 cases of those taking remedial measures, or 35.62% of those doing so in the 1st half of the year. The 1 child rate rose from a June 1982 figure of 68.21% to 68.71%; the multiple child rate dropped from 8.24% to 8%. The projected birthrate for 1982 is 16-17/1000. The success of the propaganda month was attained through: 1) organized responsibility, clearly defined goals and complete preparations that existed at all provincial Party and provincial Governmental levels; 2) the propaganda effort that was a priority of all governmental leaders, who utilized every propaganda tool available; At every level, propaganda sessions of every kind were convened, the entire propaganda machine was mobilized, and propaganda was brought into the home and to individuals; 3) propaganda, experience, and implementation that were all utilized simultaneously; and 4) the organization and administration of propaganda work that was systematized. PMID:12312939

Wan, C; Tan, S S

1983-01-29

421

Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in women attending a family planning clinic in Papua New Guinea.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women attending a family planning clinic in Papua New Guinea, in the period between April and June 1991. SETTING--The outpatient department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Port Moresby General Hospital, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea, the departments of Dermato-Venereology and Clinical Microbiology of the Erasmus University, Rotterdam, The Netherlands and the National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven, The Netherlands. PATIENTS--A total of 254 consecutive women who attended the family planning clinic at Port Moresby General Hospital, Papua New Guinea were enrolled into this study. METHODS--Cervical infections with C trachomatis were diagnosed using the direct immunofluorescent assay (DFA) and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Serum IgM and IgG antibodies directed against C trachomatis were detected using the enzyme-linked fluorescent assay (ELFA). RESULTS--The prevalence of C trachomatis was 14.6% using the PCR, 9.1% using the DFA and 17.3% when the results of the PCR and the DFA were combined. An elevated IgM titre was observed in 14.2% of the women, whereas 44.1% had an elevated IgG titre. The titres of IgM or IgG were significantly higher in women who were positive using the PCR or the DFA than in those who were negative in both the PCR and the DFA (p = 0.032 and p = 0.0046, respectively). CONCLUSION--Cervical infection by C trachomatis can be considered a major health problem in at least the studied population in Papua New Guinea. The prevalence of C trachomatis infection is at least comparable with that in groups with a high prevalence in industrialized countries. Effective screening and treatment programmes are imperative to combat this problem. PMID:7490045

Theunissen, J J; Kariwiga, G; Ossewaarde, J M; van Rijsoort-Vos, J H; Stolz, E; van der Meijden, W I

1995-01-01

422

Variables of the Theory of Planned Behavior Are Associated with Family Meal Frequency among Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine associations between Theory of Planned Behavior variables and the family meal frequency. Methods: Fifth-through seventh-grade students (n = 236) completed a self-administered questionnaire in their classrooms. The relationships between Theory of Planned Behavior variables (intention, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived…

Eto, Kumi; Koch, Pamela; Contento, Isobel R.; Adachi, Miyuki

2011-01-01

423

Measurement and evaluation of national family planning programs.  

PubMed

RESUMEN: En los últimos quince años diez paises han inaugurado programas nacionales de planeamiento familiar: India, Pakistán, Corea del Sur, Taiwan, Turquía, Malasia, Ceilán, Túez, la República Arabe Unida, y Marruecos. Otros paises, incluyendo Tailandia, Hong Kong, Singapur, Kenya, Barbados, Trinidad y los Estados Unidos, apoyan y/o estimulan actividades de planeamiento familiar. En la mayor parte de los casos la razón fundamental del programa ha sido que si la tasa de crecimiento poblacional disminuyera, aumentaría la tasa de crecimiento económico.Las metas de largo alcance, expresadas típicamente en términos de reducir las tasa.de de natalidad o de crecimiento, tienen su ejemplo en el propósito de Pakistán de reducir su tasa de crecimiento a 26 para 1970; el de Corea de reducir su tasa de natalidad a 20 para 1971; y el de India de reducir su tasa de natalidad a 25 para 1973.Los objectivos intermedios, que cubren diversos aspectos del pro grama, incluyen metas específicas para un determinado mes a año, considerando personal, la adquisición de anticonceptivos, y el número de usarios por método. Las metas específicas anuales de aceptantes de dispositivos intrauterinos (IUD), para Taiwán, Corea, Túnez, Pakistán e India, son comunes, tanto por la naturaleza del artefacto, como por la facilidad de medición de los que continúan utilizándolos. El programa de evaluación en Taiwán, que trata de medir por diversos medios los efectos inmediatos, mediatos y de largo plazo del programa de planeamiento familiar sirve de modelo. El propósito de la evaiuación de un programa de planeamiento familiar es contribuir a la efectividad y eficiencia del programa, midiendo y analizando su progreso. Las áreas a medir pueden ser clasificadas como- (1) conocimiento acerca de; (2) actitudes hacia; (3) práctica de control de natalidad; y (4) nivel de fecundidad.Un buen sistema de evaluación debería incluir: A. Un buen conjunto de estadísticas de servicio presentadas en formularios estandarizados, en las siguienies formas: 1. Informes nensuales por áreas administrativas, sobre los actuales servicios de planeamiento familiar proporcionados en la actualidad, de carácter permanente o de larga duración (al presente, esterilización y IUD de acuerdo a las siguientes características del receptor: residencia, edad, paridad (número de hijos vivos por sexo), y donde se enteró del programa, si es posible "clase";(probablemente educación de la madre, pero posiblemente ocupación del esposo, ingreso, o equivalente); prácticas anticonceptivas anteriores; intervalo; y deseo de tener más hijos. En un programa grande estos datos pueden obtenerse en base a una muestra. 2. Informes mensuales sobre la distribución de suministros anticonceptivos (condones, píldoras, sustancias efervescentes, etc.), los primeros suministros deben ir acompañados de un registro de las características del recipiente, como anteriormente; los suministros subsecuentes se regietrarán sólo en volumen bruto. Esto también se aplicará al ritmo, donde éste método se enseñe a un número considerable de mujeres. 3. Informes regulares sobre las actividades de planeamiento familiar de médicos privados, como una estimación del efecto catalítico del programa del gobierno sobre ci sector privado. 4. Datos generates mensuales, ppr áreas admirtistrativas importantes, sabre: visitas domiciliarias, reuniones, cuñas radiates y televisadas, avisos en los periódicos y personal que trabaja. 5. Para propósitos de seguimiento una entrevi eta de campo cada 6 a 12 meses a cada N mujer de las listas para (1) y (2) arriba, en un total de 300 o 400, para conocer las tasas de continuación y las razones de abandono (ej: desea otro hijo, insatisfecha can ci método, otras). Las mue.stras podrían ser de 300 cada una, con una supuesta experiencia de 6, 12, 18 y 24 meses. B. Un buen conjunto de datos sobre costa (datos sobre cotos actulaes atribuíbles directamente al programa de planeamiento familiar) fraccionados par áreas principales y cinco a seis

Mauldin, W P

1967-03-01

424

34 CFR 303.20 - Individualized family service plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General...providing early intervention services to an infant or toddler with a disability under this part and the infant's or toddler's family that—...

2014-07-01

425

34 CFR 303.20 - Individualized family service plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General...providing early intervention services to an infant or toddler with a disability under this part and the infant's or toddler's family that—...

2012-07-01

426

34 CFR 303.20 - Individualized family service plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General...providing early intervention services to an infant or toddler with a disability under this part and the infant's or toddler's family that—...

2013-07-01

427

76 FR 20940 - Troy Mine, Incorporated, Troy Mine Revised Reclamation Plan, Kootenai National Forest, Lincoln...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Troy Mine, Incorporated, Troy Mine Revised Reclamation Plan, Kootenai National Forest, Lincoln County...Silver Company, submitted the Troy Mine Revised Reclamation Plan (Revised Reclamation Plan or Proposed Action) on February 27,...

2011-04-14

428

75 FR 63851 - Draft General Management Plan and Environmental Impact Statement, Hampton National Historic Site...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Impact Statement for the General Management Plan (Draft GMP/EIS) for...and coordinate all subsequent planning and management. DATES: The National Park...will be announced on the NPS Planning, Environment, and Public...

2010-10-18

429

Study on a method to improve simultaneously vital statistics and family planning among maternity cases.  

PubMed

In order to develop a public health program in Korea that would simultaneously improve the reporting of vital health statistics and spread the use of family planning, simple hygenic delivery kits with accompanying family planning information were distributed to expectant mothers in Kimchun city and the surrounding rural district of Kumnung Gun. There was a population of 70,000 people in the experimental and control areas during 1966-67. Vital statistic reports and family planning use were compared between areas with the delivery plan and control areas without the kit delivery. Since use of the delivery kits cut down the infant mortality rate, the mothers should be more receptive to family planning in this program. The delivery kit program was found to improve vital statistic reporting and reduce infant mortality. Though more urban mothers than rural mothers wanted to use the kits, more rural deliveries than urban deliveries actually employed the program's kit. The assigning of a vital events reporter in each area shortened the delay between the event and the report and even increased death reporting though it was not part of the program. Vital statistic reporting was more improved by this program in rural than in urban areas. Family planning acceptance in the experimental area was more than 2 times than in the control area. Though the length of the study is too short to accurately determine its effect on maternal health and fertility patterns in Korea, the combining of hygenic delivery kits with family planning information does improve maternal and infant health, increases vital statistic reporting, and aids family planning acceptacne. PMID:12159733

Yang, J M; Bang, S; Sohn, I B; Choi, C H; Lee, D W; Ahn, K C

1969-01-01

430

Natural Resource Management Plan for Brookhaven National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This comprehensive Natural Resource Management Plan (NRMP) for Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) was built on the successful foundation of the Wildlife Management Plan for BNL, which it replaces. This update to the 2003 plan continues to build on successes and efforts to better understand the ecosystems and natural resources found on the BNL site. The plan establishes the basis for managing the varied natural resources located on the 5,265 acre BNL site, setting goals and actions to achieve those goals. The planning of this document is based on the knowledge and expertise gained over the past 10 years by the Natural Resources management staff at BNL in concert with local natural resource agencies including the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Long Island Pine Barrens Joint Planning and Policy Commission, The Nature Conservancy, and others. The development of this plan is an attempt at sound ecological management that not only benefits BNL's ecosystems but also benefits the greater Pine Barrens habitats in which BNL is situated. This plan applies equally to the Upton Ecological and Research Reserve (Upton Reserve). Any difference in management between the larger BNL area and the Upton Reserve are noted in the text. The purpose of the Natural Resource Management Plan (NRMP) is to provide management guidance, promote stewardship of the natural resources found at BNL, and to sustainably integrate their protection with pursuit of the Laboratory's mission. The philosophy or guiding principles of the NRMP are stewardship, sustainability, adaptive ecosystem management, compliance, integration with other plans and requirements, and the incorporation of community involvement, where applicable. The NRMP is periodically reviewed and updated, typically every five years. This review and update was delayed to develop documents associated with a new third party facility, the Long Island Solar Farm. This two hundred acre facility will result in significant changes to this plan warranting the delay. The body of this plan establishes the management goals and actions necessary for managing the natural resources at BNL in a sustainable manner. The appendices provide specific management requirements for threatened and endangered amphibians and fish (Appendices A and B, respectively), and lists of actions in tabular format - including completed items as well as ongoing and new action items (Appendices C and D, respectively).

green, T.

2011-08-15

431

Idaho National Laboratory Site Long-Term Stewardship Implementation Plan  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy has established long-term stewardship programs to protect human health and the environment at sites where residual contamination remains after site cleanup. At the Idaho National Laboratory Site, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERLA) long-term stewardship activities performed under the aegis of regulatory agreements, the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order for the Idaho National Laboratory, and state and federal requirements are administered primarily under the direction of the Idaho Cleanup Project. It represents a subset of all on-going environmental activity at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. This plan provides a listing of applicable CERCLA long-term stewardship requirements and their planned and completed implementation goals. It proffers the Long-Term Stewardship Environmental Data Warehouse for Sitewide management of environmental data. This plan will be updated as needed over time, based on input from the U.S. Department of Energy, its cognizant subcontractors, and other local and regional stakeholders.

B. E. Olaveson

2006-07-27

432

Sandia National Laboratories Institutional Plan: FY 1999-2004  

SciTech Connect

This Institutional Plan is the most comprehensive yearly "snapshot" available of Sandia National Laboratories' major programs, facilities, human resources, and budget. The document also includes overviews of our missions, organization, capabilities, planning functions, milestones, and accomplishments. The document's purpose is to provide the above information to the US Department of Energy, key congressional committees, Sandia management, and other present and potential customers. Chapter 2 presents information about Sandia's mission and summarizes our recent revision of Sandia's Strategic Plan. Chapter 3 presents an overview of Sandia's strategic objectives, chapter 4 lists laboratory goals and milestones for FY 1999, and chapter 5 presents our accomplishments during FY 1998. Chapters 3 through 5 are organized around our eight strategic objectives. The four primary objectives cover nuclear weapons responsibilities, nonproliferation and materials control, energy and critical infrastructures, and emerging national security threats. The major programmatic initiatives are presented in chapter 7. However, the programmatic descriptions in chapter 6 and the Associated funding tables in chapter 9 continue to be presented by DOE Budget and Reporting Code, as in previous Sandia institutional plans. As an aid to the reader, the four primary strategic objectives in chapter 3 are cross-referenced to the program information in chapter 6.

Garber, D.P.

1999-01-06

433

Implenting family planning in a Ministry of Health: organizational barriers at the state and district levels.  

PubMed

1. Family planning occupied a subordinate position in the medical and health bureaucracy almost two decades after its introduction. Senior Ministry officials accorded low priority to formal program objectives, while the State Family Planning Officer, the highest state official concerned solely with the family planning program, suffered from a relatively subordinate position in the Directorate and a lack of authority and support. Within the medical profession, family planning was held in low esteem, and the medical and health bureaucracies did not have a mechanism for selecting personnel on the basis of interest and commitment. 2. Organizational adjustment to family planning in the Ministry of Health was a slow and painful process, absorbing the energy and attention of Ministry officials for almost a decade. The repeated reorganizations of the district setup revolving around the division of labor between medical, health, and family planning acitvities and between the rural and urban program, led to months of almost total inertia and detracted substantially from the supervisory capacity of the officials involved. 3. Decision making and guidance suffered from the quick turnover of the Secretary, the most powerful administrator in the Ministry. In Uttar Pradesh Secretaries stayed barely long enough to begin to understand the complex organizational setup of the program. 4. Multiple and often conflicting lines of authority characterized the relationships between the higher and lower echelons within the Ministry. This was accentuated when the District Family Planning Officer was placed under the administrative control of the District Magistrate. While intended to "energize" family planning through the association of the most prestigious and powerful district official with the program, this organizational arrangement resulted in conflicting instructions to the staffs of the primary health centers. 5. The organizational behavior of the Ministry of Health was shaped by the interplay of the various "professional cultures" of its key actors. The generalist administrators' short time horizon and eagerness to produce quantitative results clashed with the specialists' emphasis upon long-term goals and technical constraints; the politician's defense of the interest of his constituents clashed with the administrator's desire to defend his autonomy. The calculus of political survival made support for family planning goals a costly burden that few politicians have been willing to shoulder. As the party system does not reward the advocacy of family planning, ministers emphasize those programs within their ministry or those decisions within their discretion that correspond to the demands of their constituents. PMID:644632

Simmons, R S; Ashraf, A

1978-01-01

434

Cost Efficiency of the Family Physician Plan in Fars Province, Southern Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: In recent years use of family physicians has been determined as a start point of health system reform to achieve more productive health services. In this study we aimed to assess the cost-efficiency of the implementation of this plan in Fars province, southern Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was done in 2007 in 18 provincial health centers as well as 224 rural health centers in Fars province. Data were collected using forms, statistics, and available evidence and analyzed by expert opinion and ratio techniques, control of process statistics, and multi indicator decision model. Results: Although in the family physician plan more attention is paid to patients and the level of health training, availability, and equity has improved and the best services are presented, it has not only decreased the costs, but also increased the referrals to pharmacies, laboratories, and radiology clinics and the costs of healthcare. Conclusion: Although the family physician plan has led to more regular service delivery, it has increased the patients’ referral to pharmacies, laboratories, and radiology centers and more referrals to family physicians. It seems that the possibility of setting regularity in health system can be gained in the following years of the family physician program mainly via planning, appropriate management and organizing correct health plans according to need assessments, and continual supervision on activities, which would happen according to current experiences in this plan. PMID:23390331

Hatam, Nahid; Joulaei, Hassan; Kazemifar, Yalda; Askarian, Mehrdad

2012-01-01

435

National Ignition Facility Quality Assurance Program Plan. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a key constituent of the Department of Energy`s Stockpile Stewardship Program. The NIF will use inertial confinement fusion (ICF) to produce ignition and energy gain in ICF targets, and will perform weapons physics and high-energy- density experiments in support of national security and civilian objectives. The NIF Project is a national facility involving the collaboration of several DOE laboratories and subcontractors, including Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). The primary mission of the NIF Project is the construction and start-up operation of laser-based facilities that will demonstrate fusion ignition in the laboratory to provide nuclear-weapons-related physics data, and secondarily, to propagate fusion burn aimed at developing a potential source of civilian energy. To support the accomplishment of this very important mission, the LLNL Laser Directorate created the NIF Project Office to organize and bring about the Project. The NIF Project Office has established this Quality Assurance Program to ensure its success. This issue of the Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) adds the requirements for the conduct of Title 11 design, construction, procurement, and Title III engineering. This QAPP defines and describes the program-the management system-for specifying, achieving, and assuring the quality of all NIF Project work consistent with the policies of the Laboratory and the Laser Directorate.

Wolfe, C.R.; Yatabe, J.

1996-09-01

436

A comprehensive assessment of the quality of services provided by family planning field workers in one major area of Dhaka city, Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Bangladesh has considerable national experience promoting and providing family planning services through home visits to reproductive-age married women by paid female community workers. Since 1978, the government has trained and employed 24,000 such workers, known as Family Welfare Assistants (FWA), while nongovernmental organizations (NGO) have trained and employed an additional 7000 field workers to carry out similar activities. NGO field workers are considered to be part of the national family planning program. Findings are presented from an assessment of the quality of family planning services provided by community-based field workers in zone 3 of Dhaka City, Bangladesh, and are based upon a large household survey of a representative sample of clients, direct field worker observation, and interviews with field workers and clients. Areas in greatest need of improvement include the frequency of contact with clients who are nonusers or who have special needs, client education about family planning methods, and counseling about side effects and warning signs. PMID:12349109

Perry, H B; Begum, S; Begum, A; Kane, T T; Quaiyum, M A; Baqui, A H

1999-01-01

437

Applying lessons learned from the USAID family planning graduation experience to the GAVI graduation process.  

PubMed

As low income countries experience economic transition, characterized by rapid economic growth and increased government spending potential in health, they have increased fiscal space to support and sustain more of their own health programmes, decreasing need for donor development assistance. Phase out of external funds should be systematic and efforts towards this end should concentrate on government commitments towards country ownership and self-sustainability. The 2006 US Agency for International Development (USAID) family planning (FP) graduation strategy is one such example of a systematic phase-out approach. Triggers for graduation were based on pre-determined criteria and programme indicators. In 2011 the GAVI Alliance (formerly the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunizations) which primarily supports financing of new vaccines, established a graduation policy process. Countries whose gross national income per capita exceeds $1570 incrementally increase their co-financing of new vaccines over a 5-year period until they are no longer eligible to apply for new GAVI funding, although previously awarded support will continue. This article compares and contrasts the USAID and GAVI processes to apply lessons learned from the USAID FP graduation experience to the GAVI process. The findings of the review are 3-fold: (1) FP graduation plans served an important purpose by focusing on strategic needs across six graduation plan foci, facilitating graduation with pre-determined financial and technical benchmarks, (2) USAID sought to assure contraceptive security prior to graduation, phasing out of contraceptive donations first before phasing out from technical assistance in other programme areas and (3) USAID sought to sustain political support to assure financing of products and programmes continue after graduation. Improving sustainability more broadly beyond vaccine financing provides a more comprehensive approach to graduation. The USAID FP experience provides a window into understanding one approach to graduation from donor assistance. The process itself-involving transparent country-level partners well in advance of graduation-appears a valuable lesson towards success. PMID:24974106

Shen, Angela K; Farrell, Marguerite M; Vandenbroucke, Mary F; Fox, Elizabeth; Pablos-Mendez, Ariel

2014-06-28

438

Oak Ridge National Laboratory Institutional Plan FY 1984-FY 1989  

SciTech Connect

In this plan, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) continues to be committed to scientific and technological research that is based on technical excellence and innovation and that provides a foundation for and a stimulus to broader and more sustained economic growth. DOE is being asked to assist in establishing a new program for Laboratory cooperation with industry, beginning with an initial focus on materials science. The current Institutional Plan thus projects growth in the materials science area as well as in other basic physical science areas and suggests a new initiative designed to extend the various technology transfer activities and to make them more effective by using ORNL as the trial Laboratory for some of these different approaches. This Institutional Plan projects a stable future for ORNL, with only modest amounts of growth in selected areas of research for the FY 1984-FY 1989 planning cycle. Summaries of the overall picture of the proposed budget and personnel levels for the current planning cycle are included. Scientific programs, laboratory resource development, and private sector interactions are discussed.

Not Available

1983-11-01

439

The effect of administration family planning policy on maternal and child health.  

PubMed

Several ideologies of the present Administration appear to converge as they impinge upon family planning--themes which are not restricted to reproductive health but which interact in ways particularly threatening to its achievements of the last decade. Most of these ideologies are clear, articulated objectives of the present government such as overall budget reduction and the return of budgetary control to the states. Others are responsive to the influence of the so called "moral mojority." Essentially, the federal government can affect family planning delivery through 4 different routes: through the allocation of funds; through specific legislation; and through regulation or organizational structure (areas in the hands of the executive branch alone). There have been recent and prime examples of all 4 routes, all directed at weakening the federal family planning program which has grown steadily stronger with bipartisan support in the last decades. Major sources of family planning support are reviewed in order to indicate the areas of change or of serious risk to the field. By retaining the categorical funding of Title 10 (half of the federal money in the family planning field has, for some years, come through Title 10 of the Public Health Service Act) in 1981, Congress reasserted the importance it places upon fertility regualtion against Administration pressure to block-grant. Despite an approximately 23% cut, this funding remains the single best hope for the field in these tight money times. In the language of the House Budget Committee report, Congress expressed its intention that an emphasis upon family planning be retained in the Maternal and Child Health block grant. It is no surprise that under the pressure of funding cuts that intention has not been honored. An upsurge in the use of Medicaid funding by family planning providers has increased the proportion of family planning funds from this source. In Title 20 of the Social Security Act (Social Services) it is permissible to support family planning but not mandatory as it has been in the past. Several legislative measures regarding abortion before Congress last year were not enacted, measures which might have been a serious threat to the provision of legal abortion. It is legislatively that abortion service is in most danger, with Administration forces committed to making it illegal under almost all conditions. Not all policies of this Administration are subject to control by the Congress. The parental notification regulations promulgated by the Department of Health and Human Services are an example of policy responsive to the concept that government can decide what is good for the American Family. PMID:6630504

Zabin, L S

1983-09-01

440

Translating from English to Spanish: The 2002 National Survey of Family Growth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2002, the National Center for Health Statistics conducted Cycle 6 of the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), surveying a nationally representative sample of 12,500 women and men from 15 to 44 years of age, including more than 2,700 Hispanics. The process for developing the Spanish version of the NSFG included modified committee…

Martinez, Gladys; Marin, Barbara V.; Schoua-Glusberg, Alisu

2006-01-01

441

National Context, Family Satisfaction, and Fairness in the Division of Household Labor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study uses data from married women in 30 nations to examine justice processes involving perceptions of fairness of the division of household labor and satisfaction with family life. Relative deprivation theory suggests that national context--operationalized here as nation-level gender equity--might serve as a comparative referent used by…

Greenstein, Theodore N.

2009-01-01

442

76 FR 70483 - Environmental Impact Statement and General Management Plan, Paterson Great Falls National...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Plan, Paterson Great Falls National Historical Park, NJ AGENCY: National...for Paterson Great Falls National Historical Park (NHP), New Jersey. In the park's enabling legislation...established the Paterson Great Falls NHP Advisory...

2011-11-14

443

78 FR 42051 - Proposed Revision of the Corporation for National and Community Service Strategic Plan; Request...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE Proposed Revision of the Corporation for National and Community Service Strategic Plan; Request for...AGENCY: Corporation for National and Community Service (CNCS). ACTION:...

2013-07-15

444

75 FR 9924 - Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan for the Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, MT  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Comprehensive Conservation Plan for the Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, MT...no significant impact (FONSI) for the Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife Refuge is available...e-mail). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife Refuge is...

2010-03-04

445

Toward a two-child norm: Changing family planning attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Administered a questionnaire to 267 unmarried students, stratified for race and sex, to assess attitudes toward population control. Results indicate that Ss (a) desired 2.6 children in contrast to the previous norm of 3; (b) generally favored the birth control pill and, if infertile, were willing to adopt children; (c) supported voluntary limitation of family size (including a small but

Robert Buckhout

1972-01-01

446