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Sample records for national longitudinal mortality

  1. NATIONAL LONGITUDINAL MORTALITY STUDY- NATIONAL DEATH INDEX RECORD LINKAGE (NLMS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    National Longitudinal Mortality Study is to investigate social, economic, demographic and occupational differentials in mortality (total and by cause) within a national sample of the U.S. population. In a collaboration begun in 1999 with the Census Bureau and other federal agenci...

  2. NATIONAL MORTALITY FOLLOWBACK SURVEY (NMFS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 1993 National Mortality Followback Survey (NMFS) is the latest in a series of periodic surveys designed to supplement information routinely collected on the death certificate. The Mortality Followback Survey Program, begun in the 1960's by the National Center for Health Stati...

  3. The National Longitudinal Surveys Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Human Resource Research.

    This volume discussed the research methodology used in the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Ecperience (NLS). The survey studied employment market conditions for four groups in the labor force: men, aged 45-59; women, aged 30-44; young men, aged 14-24; and young women, aged 14-24. Data were collected on 20,000 individuals over a five…

  4. Unified baseline and longitudinal mortality prediction in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Ley, Brett; Bradford, Williamson Z; Weycker, Derek; Vittinghoff, Eric; du Bois, Roland M; Collard, Harold R

    2015-05-01

    The Gender-Age-Physiology (GAP) model is a validated, baseline-risk prediction model for mortality in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Longitudinal variables have been shown to contribute to risk prediction in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and may improve the predictive performance of the baseline GAP model. Our aims were to further validate the GAP model and evaluate whether the addition of longitudinal variables improves its predictive performance. The study population was derived from a large clinical trials cohort of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (n=1109). Model performance was determined by improvement in the C-statistic, net reclassification improvement, clinical net reclassification improvement, and a goodness-of-fit test. The GAP model had good discriminative performance with a C-statistic of 0.757 (95% CI 0.750-0.764). However, the original GAP model tended to overestimate risk in this cohort. A novel, easy to use model, consisting of the original GAP predictors plus history of respiratory hospitalisation and 24-week change in forced vital capacity (the longitudinal GAP model) improved model performance with a C-statistic of 0.785 (95% CI 0.780-0.790), net reclassification improvement of 8.5%, clinical net reclassification improvement of 25%, and a goodness-of-fit test of 0.929. The Longitudinal GAP model, along with the original GAP model, may unify baseline and longitudinal mortality risk prediction in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:25614172

  5. Poverty or income inequality as predictor of mortality: longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed Central

    Fiscella, K.; Franks, P.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of inequality in income between communities independent of household income on individual all cause mortality in the United States. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study. SUBJECTS: A nationally representative sample of 14,407 people aged 25-74 years in the United States from the first national health and nutrition examination survey. SETTING: Subjects were followed from initial interview in 1971-5 until 1987. Complete follow up information was available for 92.2% of the sample. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Relation between both household income and income inequality in community of residence and individual all cause mortality at follow up was examined with Cox proportional hazards survival analysis. RESULTS: Community income inequality showed a significant association with subsequent community mortality, and with individual mortality after adjustment for age, sex, and mean income in the community of residence. After adjustment for individual household income, however, the association with mortality was lost. CONCLUSIONS: In this nationally representative American sample, family income, but not community income inequality, independently predicts mortality. Previously reported ecological associations between income inequality and mortality may reflect confounding between individual family income and mortality. PMID:9185498

  6. Longitudinal Trends in Hypertension Management and Mortality Among Octogenarians

    PubMed Central

    Ravindrarajah, Rathi; Hazra, Nisha; Hamada, Shota; Jackson, Stephen H.D.; Gulliford, Martin C.

    2016-01-01

    The role of hypertension management among octogenarians is controversial. In this long-term follow-up (>10 years) study, we estimated trends in hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control among octogenarians, and evaluated the relationship of systolic blood pressure (SBP) ranges with mortality. Data were based on the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). Outcome measures were hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment and control, and cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality events. Participants were separated into 8 categories of SBP values (<110, 110–119, 120–129, 130–139, 140–149, 150–159, 160–169, and >169 mm Hg). Among 2692 octogenarians, mean SBP levels declined from 147 mm Hg in 1998/2000 to 134 mm Hg in 2012/2013. The decline was of lower magnitude in the 50 to 79 years old subgroup (n=22007). Hypertension prevalence and awareness were 40% and 13%, respectively, higher among octogenarians than the 50 to 79 years of age subgroup, but hypertension treatment rates were similar (≈90%). Around 47% of the treated octogenarians achieved conventional BP targets (<140/90 mm Hg), increasing to 59% when assessed against revised targets (<150/90 mm Hg). All-cause mortality rates were higher (hazard ratio, 1.55; 95% confidence interval, 0.89–2.72) at lower extremes of SBP values (<110 mm Hg). The lowest cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality risk among treated octogenarians was observed for an SBP range of 140 to 149 mm Hg (1.04, 0.60–1.78) and 160 to 169 mm Hg (0.78, 0.51–1.21). An increasing trend in hypertension awareness and treatment was observed in a large sample of community-dwelling octogenarians. The results do not support the view that more stringent BP targets may be associated with lower mortality. PMID:27160194

  7. Hearing, mobility, and pain predict mortality: a longitudinal population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Feeny, David; Huguet, Nathalie; McFarland, Bentson H.; Kaplan, Mark S.; Orpana, Heather; Eckstrom, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Objective Measures of health-related quality of life (HRQL), including the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3) are predictive of mortality. HUI3 includes eight attributes, vision, hearing, speech, ambulation, dexterity, cognition, emotion, and pain and discomfort, with five or six levels per attribute that vary from no to severe disability. This study examined associations between individual HUI3 attributes and mortality. Study Design and Setting Baseline data and 12 years of follow-up data from a closed longitudinal cohort study, the 1994/95 Canadian National Population Health Survey, consisting of 12,375 women and men aged 18 and older. A priori hypotheses were that ambulation, cognition, emotion, and pain would predict mortality. Cox proportional hazards regression models were applied controlling for standard determinants of health and risk factors. Results Single-attribute utility scores for ambulation (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.10; 0.04–0.22), hearing (HR = 0.18; 0.06–0.57), and pain (HR = 0.53; 0.29–0.96) were statistically significantly associated with an increased risk of mortality; ambulation and hearing were predictive for the 60+ cohort. Conclusion Few studies have identified hearing or pain as risk factors for mortality. This study is innovative because it identifies specific components of HRQL that predict mortality. Further research is needed to understand better the mechanisms through which deficits in hearing and pain affect mortality risks. PMID:22521576

  8. Education and Mortality in the Rome Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Cacciani, Laura; Bargagli, Anna Maria; Cesaroni, Giulia; Forastiere, Francesco; Agabiti, Nera; Davoli, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Background A large body of evidence supports an inverse association between socioeconomic status and mortality. We analysed data from a large cohort of residents in Rome followed-up between 2001 and 2012 to assess the relationship between individual education and mortality. We distinguished five causes of death and investigated the role of age, gender, and birthplace. Methods From the Municipal Register we enrolled residents of Rome on October 21st 2001 and collected information on educational level attained from the 2001 Census. We selected Italian citizens aged 30–74 years and followed-up their vital status until 2012 (n = 1,283,767), identifying the cause of death from the Regional Mortality Registry. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for overall and cause-specific mortality in relation to education. We used age, gender, and birthplace for adjusted or stratified analyses. We used the inverse probability weighting approach to account for right censoring due to emigration. Results We observed an inverse association between education (none vs. post-secondary+ level) and overall mortality (HRs(95%CIs): 2.1(1.98–2.17), males; 1.5(1.46–1.59), females) varying according to demographic characteristics. Cause-specific analysis also indicated an inverse association with education, in particular for respiratory, digestive or circulatory system related-mortality, and the youngest people seemed to be more vulnerable to low education. Conclusion Our results confirm the inverse association between education and overall or cause-specific mortality and show differentials particularly marked among young people compared to the elderly. The findings provide further evidence from the Mediterranean area, and may contribute to national and cross-country comparisons in Europe to understand the mechanisms generating socioeconomic differentials especially during the current recession period. PMID:26376166

  9. Mortality and refusal in the longitudinal 90+ project.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío; Zamarrón, María Dolores; Díez-Nicolás, Juan; Lopez-Bravo, María Dolores; Molina, María Ángeles; Schettini, Rocío

    2011-01-01

    Attrition is one of the most important threats for longitudinal studies on aging mainly due to refusal and mortality. This study deals with those individuals who were assessed in the base line of 90+ project but died, dropped out or were examined in the follow-up. Participants of the 90+ project baseline consist of a sample of 188 older than 90 years, independent individuals (mean age = 92.9; 67 men and 121 women) living in the community (n = 76) or in residences (n = 112). They were assessed through the European Survey on Aging Protocol (ESAP) by collecting anthropometric, health and life styles, bio-behavioral, psychological and social data. After 6-14 months from the baseline, 55% individuals were re-assessed, 11% died and 34% dropped out for several reasons. Comparisons between the individuals deceased, interviewed and those who dropped out yielded significant differences mainly due to contextual variables. The mortality rate of participants living in residences is three times greater than those of participants living in the community. Trying to determine the differences between these three groups due to bio-psycho-social variables, we found that regular physical activity, mental status, leisure activities, fitness, perceived control and openness assessed at the baseline differentiate our three groups. Finally, 90% of those individuals who died were identified at the baseline as "non successful agers", while more than a half of those who participated and a third of the non-participants were identified as "successful agers". It can be concluded that among those independent but very old people, mortality is less important than willing to participate and contextual, behavioral and psychological factors are relevant for distinguishing mortality, survival and participation. PMID:20943279

  10. [Inequalities in mortality in the Italian longitudinal studies].

    PubMed

    Cardano, M; Costa, G; Demaria, M; Merler, E; Biggeri, A

    1999-01-01

    The article presents some of the most relevant results on inequalities in mortality, obtained by the two Italian longitudinal studies carried out in Turin, and Tuscany (in Leghorn and Florence). The two studies share the same methodology. Each database contains census data, information from population register and from death certificates. The authors approach this issue not in an analytical way (as they did in the works cited in the reference list), but answering some questions, relevant both from a scientific and a political point of view. How big are the health inequalities in Italy? Are the health inequalities in Italy increasing or decreasing? Are the health inequalities due to absolute or to relative deprivation? Does the mortality profile of the Italian population express the presence of old or new health inequalities? Can the health inequalities be reduced? The study's results prove that the health inequalities in Italy are deep and strictly related to individuals' position in the social fabric. Facing the other questions the authors focus only in the Turin data. From the 1970's to the 1990's the health inequalities in Turin have increased, despite of general improvement of population's health condition and the progressive reduction of the size of deprived groups. Turin data support both the hypotheses on the source of health inequalities, using long term unemployment as absolute deprivation's indicator, and status' inconsistency as (a row) indicator of relative deprivation. The growth of drug-related causes of death (AIDS and overdose) shows that in the Turin and--quite reasonably--Italian population old and new health inequalities live together. The essay closes offering evidence on the possibility to reduce health inequalities. For this purpose the authors analyses the Turin trend of avoidable deaths and infant and adolescent mortality. PMID:10605247

  11. Air Pollution and Mortality in Seven Million Adults: The Dutch Environmental Longitudinal Study (DUELS)

    PubMed Central

    Marra, Marten; Ameling, Caroline B.; Hoek, Gerard; Beelen, Rob; de Hoogh, Kees; Breugelmans, Oscar; Kruize, Hanneke; Janssen, Nicole A.H.; Houthuijs, Danny

    2015-01-01

    Background Long-term exposure to air pollution has been associated with mortality in urban cohort studies. Few studies have investigated this association in large-scale population registries, including non-urban populations. Objectives The aim of the study was to evaluate the associations between long-term exposure to air pollution and nonaccidental and cause-specific mortality in the Netherlands based on existing national databases. Methods We used existing Dutch national databases on mortality, individual characteristics, residence history, neighborhood characteristics, and national air pollution maps based on land use regression (LUR) techniques for particulates with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Using these databases, we established a cohort of 7.1 million individuals ≥ 30 years of age. We followed the cohort for 7 years (2004–2011). We applied Cox proportional hazard models adjusting for potential individual and area-specific confounders. Results After adjustment for individual and area-specific confounders, for each 10-μg/m3 increase, PM10 and NO2 were associated with nonaccidental mortality [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.08; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.09 and HR = 1.03; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.03, respectively], respiratory mortality (HR = 1.13; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.17 and HR = 1.02; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.03, respectively), and lung cancer mortality (HR = 1.26; 95% CI: 1.21, 1.30 and HR = 1.10 95% CI: 1.09, 1.11, respectively). Furthermore, PM10 was associated with circulatory disease mortality (HR = 1.06; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.08), but NO2 was not (HR = 1.00; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.01). PM10 associations were robust to adjustment for NO2; NO2 associations remained for nonaccidental mortality and lung cancer mortality after adjustment for PM10. Conclusions Long-term exposure to PM10 and NO2 was associated with nonaccidental and cause-specific mortality in the Dutch population of ≥ 30 years of age. Citation Fischer PH, Marra M, Ameling CB, Hoek G, Beelen R, de

  12. Snakebite Mortality in India: A Nationally Representative Mortality Survey

    PubMed Central

    Mohapatra, Bijayeeni; Warrell, David A.; Suraweera, Wilson; Bhatia, Prakash; Dhingra, Neeraj; Jotkar, Raju M.; Rodriguez, Peter S.; Mishra, Kaushik; Whitaker, Romulus; Jha, Prabhat

    2011-01-01

    Background India has long been thought to have more snakebites than any other country. However, inadequate hospital-based reporting has resulted in estimates of total annual snakebite mortality ranging widely from about 1,300 to 50,000. We calculated direct estimates of snakebite mortality from a national mortality survey. Methods and Findings We conducted a nationally representative study of 123,000 deaths from 6,671 randomly selected areas in 2001–03. Full-time, non-medical field workers interviewed living respondents about all deaths. The underlying causes were independently coded by two of 130 trained physicians. Discrepancies were resolved by anonymous reconciliation or, failing that, by adjudication. A total of 562 deaths (0.47% of total deaths) were assigned to snakebites. Snakebite deaths occurred mostly in rural areas (97%), were more common in males (59%) than females (41%), and peaked at ages 15–29 years (25%) and during the monsoon months of June to September. This proportion represents about 45,900 annual snakebite deaths nationally (99% CI 40,900 to 50,900) or an annual age-standardised rate of 4.1/100,000 (99% CI 3.6–4.5), with higher rates in rural areas (5.4/100,000; 99% CI 4.8–6.0), and with the highest state rate in Andhra Pradesh (6.2). Annual snakebite deaths were greatest in the states of Uttar Pradesh (8,700), Andhra Pradesh (5,200), and Bihar (4,500). Conclusions Snakebite remains an underestimated cause of accidental death in modern India. Because a large proportion of global totals of snakebites arise from India, global snakebite totals might also be underestimated. Community education, appropriate training of medical staff and better distribution of antivenom, especially to the 13 states with the highest prevalence, could reduce snakebite deaths in India. PMID:21532748

  13. The National Longitudinal Surveys Handbook. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Human Resource Research.

    Designed as a comprehensive guide to the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience (NLS), this handbook is intended for two major categories of readers. For persons who wish to ascertain whether their research interests can be served by the NLS data, the handbook can provide the detailed description of the objectives of the surveys,…

  14. The National Longitudinal Surveys Handbook. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Human Resource Research.

    This volume is designed as a comprehensive guide to the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience (NLS) which are concerned with the labor market experience of middle-aged and young men and women. Detailed descriptions of the objectives of the surveys, the samples covered, and the types of information collected are presented.…

  15. NLS Handbook, 2005. National Longitudinal Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS), sponsored by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), are a set of surveys designed to gather information at multiple points in time on the labor market experiences of groups of men and women. Each of the cohorts has been selected to represent all people living in the United States at the initial…

  16. Association between resting heart rate across the life course and all-cause mortality: longitudinal findings from the Medical Research Council (MRC) National Survey of Health and Development (NSHD)

    PubMed Central

    Hartaigh, Bríain Ó; Gill, Thomas M; Shah, Imran; Hughes, Alun D; Deanfield, John E; Kuh, Diana; Hardy, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Background Resting heart rate (RHR) is an independent risk factor for mortality. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether elevations in childhood and mid-adulthood RHR, including changes over time, are associated with mortality later in life. We sought to evaluate the association between RHR across the life course, along with its changes and all-cause mortality. Methods We studied 4638 men and women from the Medical Research Council (MRC) National Survey of Health and Development (NSHD) cohort born during 1 week in 1946. RHR was obtained during childhood at ages 6, 7 and 11, and in mid-adulthood at ages 36 and 43. Using multivariable Cox regression, we calculated the HR for incident mortality according to RHR measured at each time point, along with changes in mid-adulthood RHR. Results At age 11, those in the top fifth of the RHR distribution (≥97 bpm) had an increased adjusted hazard of 1.42 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.93) for all-cause mortality. A higher adjusted risk (HR, 95% CI 2.17, 1.40 to 3.36) of death was also observed for those in the highest fifth (≥81 bpm) at age 43. For a > 25 bpm increased change in the RHR over the course of 7 years (age 36–43), the adjusted hazard was elevated more than threefold (HR, 95% CI 3.26, 1.54 to 6.90). After adjustment, RHR at ages 6, 7 and 36 were not associated with all-cause mortality. Conclusions Elevated RHR during childhood and midlife, along with greater changes in mid-adulthood RHR, are associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality. PMID:24850484

  17. Global determinants of mortality in under 5s: 10 year worldwide longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Nacher, Mathieu; Guihenneuc, Chantal; Tubert-Bitter, Pascale; Chavance, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess at country level the association of mortality in under 5s with a large set of determinants. Design Longitudinal study. Setting 193 United Nations member countries, 2000-09. Methods Yearly data between 2000 and 2009 based on 12 world development indicators were used in a multivariable general additive mixed model allowing for non-linear relations and lag effects. Main outcome measure National rate of deaths in under 5s per 1000 live births Results The model retained the variables: gross domestic product per capita; percentage of the population having access to improved water sources, having access to improved sanitation facilities, and living in urban areas; adolescent fertility rate; public health expenditure per capita; prevalence of HIV; perceived level of corruption and of violence; and mean number of years in school for women of reproductive age. Most of these variables exhibited non-linear behaviours and lag effects. Conclusions By providing a unified framework for mortality in under 5s, encompassing both high and low income countries this study showed non-linear behaviours and lag effects of known or suspected determinants of mortality in this age group. Although some of the determinants presented a linear action on log mortality indicating that whatever the context, acting on them would be a pertinent strategy to effectively reduce mortality, others had a threshold based relation potentially mediated by lag effects. These findings could help designing efficient strategies to achieve maximum progress towards millennium development goal 4, which aims to reduce mortality in under 5s by two thirds between 1990 and 2015. PMID:24212105

  18. Duration of depressive symptoms and mortality risk: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA)

    PubMed Central

    White, James; Zaninotto, Paola; Walters, Kate; Kivimäki, Mika; Demakakos, Panayotes; Biddulph, Jane; Kumari, Meena; De Oliveira, Cesar; Gallacher, John; Batty, G. David

    2016-01-01

    Background The relationship between the duration of depressive symptoms and mortality remains poorly understood. Aims To examine whether the duration of depressive symptoms is associated with mortality risk. Method Data (n = 9560) came from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). We assessed depressive symptom duration as the sum of examinations with an eight-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale score of ⩾3; we ascertained mortality from linking our data to a national register. Results Relative to those participants who never reported symptoms, the age- and gender-adjusted hazard ratios for elevated depressive symptoms over 1, 2, 3 and 4 examinations were 1.41 (95% CI 1.15–1.74), 1.80 (95% CI 1.44–2.26), 1.97 (95% CI 1.57–2.47) and 2.48 (95% CI 1.90–3.23), respectively (P for trend <0.001). This graded association can be explained largely by differences in physical activity, cognitive function, functional impairments and physical illness. Conclusions In this cohort of older adults, the duration of depressive symptoms was associated with mortality in a dose–response manner. PMID:26795425

  19. Longitudinal Changes in Vascular Risk Markers and Mortality Rates among a Latino Population with Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Pflederer, Matthew C.; Long, Carlin S.; Beaty, Brenda; Havranek, Edward P.; Mehler, Philip S.; Keniston, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Vascular markers such as pulse-wave velocity and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) might improve the prediction of incident cardiovascular disease beyond traditional risk factors. These vascular markers have not been well characterized in minority populations and might be more useful than inflammatory biomarkers. We conducted a prospective, longitudinal cohort study among hypertensive patients in an urban safety-net hospital. We evaluated inflammatory biomarkers, arterial pulse-wave velocity, and carotid intima-media thickness at baseline, 1 year, and 2 years. The primary outcome variable was CIMT. Generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate associations between CIMT and predictive variables accounting for the correlation of multiple measurements within subjects over time. For our secondary outcome, we used administrative and National Death Index data to determine all-cause death, and univariate relationships were evaluated. Among 175 subjects, 117 were Latino (67%) and 117 were female (67%). Pulse-wave velocity and CIMT regressed over time (both P <0.001) and were highly correlated (P <0.001). Only pulse-wave velocity (P=0.002) and total cholesterol (P=0.03) were associated with CIMT in time-varying covariate analysis. At a median follow-up period of 80 months, 17 of 175 subjects had died (10%). Higher baseline CIMT and pulse-wave velocity were associated with increased mortality rates (both P <0.01). No serum inflammatory marker was significantly correlated with longitudinal changes in CIMT or death. In conclusion, both arterial stiffness and preclinical carotid atherosclerosis were associated with increased mortality rates and might be useful risk-stratification markers among this minority population. PMID:27127427

  20. Longitudinal Changes in Vascular Risk Markers and Mortality Rates among a Latino Population with Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Pflederer, Matthew C; Long, Carlin S; Beaty, Brenda; Havranek, Edward P; Mehler, Philip S; Keniston, Angela; Krantz, Mori J

    2016-04-01

    Vascular markers such as pulse-wave velocity and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) might improve the prediction of incident cardiovascular disease beyond traditional risk factors. These vascular markers have not been well characterized in minority populations and might be more useful than inflammatory biomarkers. We conducted a prospective, longitudinal cohort study among hypertensive patients in an urban safety-net hospital. We evaluated inflammatory biomarkers, arterial pulse-wave velocity, and carotid intima-media thickness at baseline, 1 year, and 2 years. The primary outcome variable was CIMT. Generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate associations between CIMT and predictive variables accounting for the correlation of multiple measurements within subjects over time. For our secondary outcome, we used administrative and National Death Index data to determine all-cause death, and univariate relationships were evaluated. Among 175 subjects, 117 were Latino (67%) and 117 were female (67%). Pulse-wave velocity and CIMT regressed over time (both P <0.001) and were highly correlated (P <0.001). Only pulse-wave velocity (P=0.002) and total cholesterol (P=0.03) were associated with CIMT in time-varying covariate analysis. At a median follow-up period of 80 months, 17 of 175 subjects had died (10%). Higher baseline CIMT and pulse-wave velocity were associated with increased mortality rates (both P <0.01). No serum inflammatory marker was significantly correlated with longitudinal changes in CIMT or death. In conclusion, both arterial stiffness and preclinical carotid atherosclerosis were associated with increased mortality rates and might be useful risk-stratification markers among this minority population. PMID:27127427

  1. Mortality in Autism: A Prospective Longitudinal Community-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillberg, Christopher; Billstedt, Eva; Sundh, Valter; Gillberg, I. Carina

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were to establish the mortality rate in a representative group of individuals (n = 120) born in the years 1962-1984, diagnosed with autism/atypical autism in childhood and followed up at young adult age (greater than or equal to 18 years of age), and examine the risk factors and causes of death. The study group,…

  2. Objectives, Design, and History of the National Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, J. A.; Collins, Elmer

    The National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS) is a federally supported longitudinal study of a national sample of some 23,000 young people first surveyed as high school seniors in the spring of 1972. The historical precedents of such a study include the work of Friend and Haggert in a Boston settlement house, Louis…

  3. Do hassles and uplifts trajectories predict mortality? Longitudinal findings from the VA Normative Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yu-Jin; Aldwin, Carolyn M; Igarashi, Heidi; Spiro, Avron

    2016-06-01

    We examined whether longitudinal patterns of hassles and uplifts trajectories predicted mortality, using a sample of 1315 men from the VA Normative Aging Study (mean age = 65.31, SD = 7.6). In prior work, we identified different trajectory classes of hassles and uplifts exposure and intensity scores over a period of 16 years. In this study, we used the probabilities of these exposure and intensity class memberships to examine their ability to predict mortality. Men with higher probabilities of high hassle intensity trajectory class and high uplift intensity class had higher mortality risks. In a model combining the probabilities of hassle and uplift intensities, the probability of high intensity hassle class membership significantly increased the risk of mortality. This suggests that appraisals of hassles intensity are better predictors of mortality than simple exposure measures, and that uplifts have no independent effects. PMID:26721518

  4. Historic air pollution exposure and long-term mortality risks in England and Wales: prospective longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hansell, Anna; Ghosh, Rebecca E; Blangiardo, Marta; Perkins, Chloe; Vienneau, Danielle; Goffe, Kayoung; Briggs, David; Gulliver, John

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Long-term air pollution exposure contributes to mortality but there are few studies examining effects of very long-term (>25 years) exposures. Methods This study investigated modelled air pollution concentrations at residence for 1971, 1981, 1991 (black smoke (BS) and SO2) and 2001 (PM10) in relation to mortality up to 2009 in 367 658 members of the longitudinal survey, a 1% sample of the English Census. Outcomes were all-cause (excluding accidents), cardiovascular (CV) and respiratory mortality. Results BS and SO2 exposures remained associated with mortality decades after exposure—BS exposure in 1971 was significantly associated with all-cause (OR 1.02 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.04)) and respiratory (OR 1.05 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.09)) mortality in 2002–2009 (ORs expressed per 10 μg/m3). Largest effect sizes were seen for more recent exposures and for respiratory disease. PM10 exposure in 2001 was associated with all outcomes in 2002–2009 with stronger associations for respiratory (OR 1.22 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.44)) than CV mortality (OR 1.12 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.25)). Adjusting PM10 for past BS and SO2 exposures in 1971, 1981 and 1991 reduced the all-cause OR to 1.16 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.26) while CV and respiratory associations lost significance, suggesting confounding by past air pollution exposure, but there was no evidence for effect modification. Limitations include limited information on confounding by smoking and exposure misclassification of historic exposures. Conclusions This large national study suggests that air pollution exposure has long-term effects on mortality that persist decades after exposure, and that historic air pollution exposures influence current estimates of associations between air pollution and mortality. PMID:26856365

  5. ADDHEALTH - NATIONAL LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study provides a comprehensive view of the health and health behaviors of adolescents and the antecedents - personal, interpersonal, familial, and environmental of these outcomes. The study features a longitudinal, multi-level design with independent measurement at the indiv...

  6. Relationships of Suicide Ideation with Cause-Specific Mortality in a Longitudinal Study of South Koreans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khang, Young-Ho; Kim, Hye-Ryun; Cho, Seong-Jin

    2010-01-01

    Using 7-year mortality follow-up data (n = 341) from the 1998 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys of South Korean individuals (N = 5,414), the authors found that survey participants with suicide ideation were at increased risk of suicide mortality during the follow-up period compared with those without suicide ideation. The…

  7. The Effect of Interview Length on Attrition in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. National Longitudinal Surveys Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branden, Laura; And Others

    The effect of interview length on wave nonresponse in a longitudinal survey was studied, controlling for respondent-specific characteristics known to affect survey response. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth were used, for a sample of over 10,000 people who were 14 to 22 years old when first interviewed in 1979. These individuals…

  8. Cardiovascular mortality in Dutch men during 1996 European football championship: longitudinal population study

    PubMed Central

    Witte, Daniel R; Bots, Michiel L; Hoes, Arno W; Grobbee, Diederick E

    2000-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether an important football match increases stress to such an extent that it triggers acute myocardial infarction and stroke. Design Longitudinal study of mortality around 22 June 1996 (the day the Dutch football team was eliminated from the European football championship). Mortality on 22 June was compared with the five days before and after the match and in the same period in 1995 and 1997. Setting Netherlands. Subjects Dutch population aged 45 years or over in June 1996. Main outcome measures All cause mortality and mortality due to coronary heart disease and stroke. Results Mortality from coronary heart disease and stroke was increased in men on the day of the match (relative risk 1.51, 95% confidence interval 1.08 to 2.09). No clear rise in mortality was observed for women (1.11, 0.80 to 1.56). Among men, about 14 excess cardiovascular deaths occurred on the day of the match. Conclusion Important sporting events may provoke a sufficient level of stress to trigger symptomatic cardiovascular disease. The difference between men and women requires further investigation. PMID:11124170

  9. High Basal Metabolic Rate Is a Risk Factor for Mortality: The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Ruggiero, Carmelinda; Metter, E. Jeffrey; Melenovsky, Vojtech; Cherubini, Antonio; Najjar, Samer S.; Ble, Alessandro; Senin, Umberto; Longo, Dan L.; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite longstanding controversies from animal studies on the relationship between basal metabolic rate (BMR) and longevity, whether BMR is a risk factor for mortality has never been tested in humans. We evaluate the longitudinal changes in BMR and the relationship between BMR and mortality in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) participants. Methods BMR and medical information were collected at the study entry and approximately every 2 years in 1227 participants (972 men) over a 40-year follow-up. BMR, expressed as kcal/m2/h, was estimated from the basal O2 consumption and CO2 production measured by open-circuit method. Data on all-cause and specific-cause mortality were also obtained. Result BMR declined with age at a rate that accelerated at older ages. Independent of age, participants who died had a higher BMR compared to those who survived. BMR was a significant risk factor for mortality independent of secular trends in mortality and other well-recognized risk factors for mortality, such as age, body mass index, smoking, white blood cell count, and diabetes. BMR was nonlinearly associated with mortality. The lowest mortality rate was found in the BMR range 31.3–33.9 kcal/m2/h. Participants with BMR in the range 33.9–36.4 kcal/m2/h and above the threshold of 36.4 kcal/m2/h experienced 28% (hazard ratio: 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.02–1.61) and 53% (hazard ratio: 1.53; 95% confidence interval, 1.19–1.96) higher mortality risk compared to participants with BMR 31.3–33.9 kcal/m2/h. Conclusion We confirm previous findings of an age-related decline of BMR. In our study, a blunted age-related decline in BMR was associated with higher mortality, suggesting that such condition reflects poor health status. PMID:18693224

  10. Migration, urbanisation and mortality: 5-year longitudinal analysis of the PERU MIGRANT study

    PubMed Central

    Pena, Melissa S Burroughs; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M; Sánchez, Juan F; Quispe, Renato; Pillay, Timesh D; Málaga, Germán; Gilman, Robert H; Smeeth, Liam; Miranda, J Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare all-cause and cause-specific mortality among 3 distinct groups: within-country, rural-to-urban migrants, and rural and urban dwellers in a longitudinal cohort in Peru. Methods The PERU MIGRANT Study, a longitudinal cohort study, used an age-stratified and sex-stratified random sample of urban dwellers in a shanty town community in the capital city of Peru, rural dwellers in the Andes, and migrants from the Andes to the shanty town community. Participants underwent a questionnaire and anthropomorphic measurements at a baseline evaluation in 2007–2008 and at a follow-up visit in 2012–2013. Mortality was determined by death certificate or family interview. Results Of the 989 participants evaluated at baseline, 928 (94%) were evaluated at follow-up (mean age 48 years; 53% female). The mean follow-up time was 5.1 years, totalling 4732.8 person-years. In a multivariable survival model, and relative to urban dwellers, rural participants had lower all-cause mortality (HR=0.27; 95% CI 0.07 to 0.98), and both the rural (HR=0.07; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.87) and migrant (HR=0.13; 95% CI 0.02 to 0.81) groups had lower cardiovascular mortality. Conclusions Cardiovascular mortality of migrants remains similar to that of the rural group, suggesting that rural-to-urban migrants do not appear to catch up with urban mortality in spite of having a more urban cardiovascular risk factor profile. PMID:25987723

  11. An integrated national mortality surveillance system for death registration and mortality surveillance, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shiwei; Wu, Xiaoling; Lopez, Alan D; Wang, Lijun; Cai, Yue; Page, Andrew; Yin, Peng; Liu, Yunning; Li, Yichong; Liu, Jiangmei; You, Jinling; Zhou, Maigeng

    2016-01-01

    In China, sample-based mortality surveillance systems, such as the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention's disease surveillance points system and the Ministry of Health's vital registration system, have been used for decades to provide nationally representative data on health status for health-care decision-making and performance evaluation. However, neither system provided representative mortality and cause-of-death data at the provincial level to inform regional health service needs and policy priorities. Moreover, the systems overlapped to a considerable extent, thereby entailing a duplication of effort. In 2013, the Chinese Government combined these two systems into an integrated national mortality surveillance system to provide a provincially representative picture of total and cause-specific mortality and to accelerate the development of a comprehensive vital registration and mortality surveillance system for the whole country. This new system increased the surveillance population from 6 to 24% of the Chinese population. The number of surveillance points, each of which covered a district or county, increased from 161 to 605. To ensure representativeness at the provincial level, the 605 surveillance points were selected to cover China's 31 provinces using an iterative method involving multistage stratification that took into account the sociodemographic characteristics of the population. This paper describes the development and operation of the new national mortality surveillance system, which is expected to yield representative provincial estimates of mortality in China for the first time. PMID:26769996

  12. Unintentional injury mortality in India, 2005: Nationally representative mortality survey of 1.1 million homes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Unintentional injuries are an important cause of death in India. However, no reliable nationally representative estimates of unintentional injury deaths are available. Thus, we examined unintentional injury deaths in a nationally representative mortality survey. Methods Trained field staff interviewed a living relative of those who had died during 2001-03. The verbal autopsy reports were sent to two of the130 trained physicians, who independently assigned an ICD-10 code to each death. Discrepancies were resolved through reconciliation and adjudication. Proportionate cause specific mortality was used to produce national unintentional injury mortality estimates based on United Nations population and death estimates. Results In 2005, unintentional injury caused 648 000 deaths (7% of all deaths; 58/100 000 population). Unintentional injury mortality rates were higher among males than females, and in rural versus urban areas. Road traffic injuries (185 000 deaths; 29% of all unintentional injury deaths), falls (160 000 deaths, 25%) and drowning (73 000 deaths, 11%) were the three leading causes of unintentional injury mortality, with fire-related injury causing 5% of these deaths. The highest unintentional mortality rates were in those aged 70years or older (410/100 000). Conclusions These direct estimates of unintentional injury deaths in India (0.6 million) are lower than WHO indirect estimates (0.8 million), but double the estimates which rely on police reports (0.3 million). Importantly, they revise upward the mortality due to falls, particularly in the elderly, and revise downward mortality due to fires. Ongoing monitoring of injury mortality will enable development of evidence based injury prevention programs. PMID:22741813

  13. Relationships of suicide ideation with cause-specific mortality in a longitudinal study of South Koreans.

    PubMed

    Khang, Young-Ho; Kim, Hye-Ryun; Cho, Seong-Jin

    2010-10-01

    Using 7-year mortality follow-up data (n = 341) from the 1998 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys of South Korean individuals (N = 5,414), the authors found that survey participants with suicide ideation were at increased risk of suicide mortality during the follow-up period compared with those without suicide ideation. The cause-specific analyses showed that, in men, suicide ideation was significantly associated with mortality due to cardiovascular disease, external causes, and other causes. However, there was no significant association between suicide ideation and cause-specific mortality in women. The relationship between suicide ideation and cause-specific mortality in men was not fully explained by baseline health status, socioeconomic status, health behavior, or psychosocial factors. PMID:21034209

  14. NATIONAL VITAL STATISTICS SYSTEM - MORTALITY DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the United States, State laws require death certificates to be completed for all deaths, and Federal law mandates national collection and publication of deaths and other vital statistics data. The National Vital Statistics System, the Federal compilation of this data, is the r...

  15. Using National Education Longitudinal Data Sets in School Counseling Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Julia A.; Day-Vines, Norma L.; Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl; Moore-Thomas, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    National longitudinal databases hold much promise for school counseling researchers. Several of the more frequently used data sets, possible professional implications, and strategies for acquiring training in the use of large-scale national data sets are described. A 6-step process for conducting research with the data sets is explicated:…

  16. New Data Available for the National Longitudinal Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, William R.

    The National Longitudinal surveys (NLS) of Labor Market Behavior have been conducted by the Center for Human Resource Research at Ohio State University and supported by the Department of Labor since l966. In this paper, data from the fifth and newest NLS cohort, a national cohort of 12,686 youth who were aged 14-21 in 1979, are discussed.…

  17. National variation in United States sepsis mortality: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The regional distribution of a disease may provide important insights regarding its pathophysiology, risk factors and clinical care. While sepsis is a prominent cause of death in the United States (US), few studies have examined regional variations with this malady. We identified the national variation in sepsis deaths in the US. We conducted a descriptive analysis of 1999-2005 national vital statistics data from the National Center for Health Statistics summarized at the state-level. We defined sepsis deaths as deaths attributed to an infection, classified according to the International Classification of Diseases, Version 10. We calculated national and state age-adjusted sepsis-attributed mortality rates. Results National age-adjusted sepsis mortality was 65.5 per 100,000 persons (95% CI: 65.8 - 66.0). State level sepsis mortality varied more than two-fold (range 41 to 88.6 per 100,000 persons; median 60.8 per 100,000, IQR 53.9-74.4 per 100,000). A cluster extending from the Southeastern to the mid-Atlantic US encompassed states with the highest sepsis mortality. Conclusions Sepsis mortality varies across the US. The states with highest sepsis mortality form a contiguous cluster in the Southeastern and mid-Atlantic US. These observations highlight unanswered questions regarding the characteristics and care of sepsis. PMID:20156361

  18. Number of Teeth and Mortality Risk in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Padilha, Dalva Maria Pereira; Hilgert, Juliana Balbinot; Hugo, Fernando Neves; Bós, Ângelo José Gonçalves; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Background Findings from several studies suggested an association between oral health and several health outcomes including cardiovascular disease, aspiration pneumonia, malnutrition, poor quality of life, and mortality. Using data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA), we tested the hypothesis that number of teeth is indicative of mortality risk independent of other confounders. Methods Dentists conducted a standardized oral examination that included tooth count, tooth with coronal and cervical caries count, and gingival and periodontal index. Blood tests used in the analysis included fasting glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, and white blood cell counts. Physical activity, skin fold thickness, body mass index and chronic diseases were also evaluated. Results Of the 500 BLSA participants evaluated, 198 died an average of 130 (±75) months postdental evaluation, and 302 survivors were followed for a mean of 185 (±90) months. Based on multivariate Cox regression models, being edentulous or having than 20 teeth was independently associated with mortality. Conclusion The results of this study support the notion that number of teeth is a significant and independent risk indicator for early mortality. These findings suggest that the improvement of oral health may have a positive impact on general health and may delay mortality. PMID:18693229

  19. Longitudinal Community-Based Study of QT Interval and Mortality in Southeast Asians

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Jonathan; Jin, Ai Zhen; Nyunt, Shwe Zin; Ng, Tze Pin; Richards, A. Mark; Lam, Carolyn S. P.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The prognostic impact of QT interval prolongation has not been well studied in healthy Asians. We investigated the association between the QT interval with mortality and cardiovascular events in a healthy Southeast Asian population. Methods The QT interval corrected for heart rate using the Bazett’s formula (QTc) was measured in 2536 (825 men, mean age 65.7±7.5 years) Singaporean adults free of cardiovascular disease in the population-based Singapore Longitudinal Ageing Study. Outcomes were all-cause mortality and incident cardiovascular events (cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction (MI) and/or stroke). Results Over a mean 7.78 years (19695 person-years) of follow-up, there were 202 deaths (45 from cardiovascular causes), 62 cases of myocardial infarction and 64 cases of stroke. Adjusting for age, sex, and cardiovascular risk factors, QTcB prolongation remained independently associated with increased all-cause mortality (HR(per standard deviation) 1.27 (1.10–1.48), p = 0.0015), as well as increased risk of cardiovascular events (HR 1.20 (1.01–1.43), p = 0.0415) and MI/stroke (HR 1.22 (1.01–1.47), p = 0.0455), but not cardiovascular mortality alone (HR 1.05 (0.77–1.44), p = 0.7562). Conclusions We provide the first community-based estimates of the independent association of QT prolongation with all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events in Southeast Asians. PMID:27148971

  20. NATIONAL LONGITUDINAL ALCOHOL EPIDEMIOLOGIC SURVEY (NLAES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NLAES is a household survey of 42,862 persons 18 years and older in the coterminous United States. The survey was designed to provide comprehensive information on amounts and patterns of alcohol consumption and on problems associated with alcohol. It is the only nationally-re...

  1. Connecticut Participation in the National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Department of Education Research Bulletin, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Statewide information concerning the Connecticut eight-grade public school students who particpated in the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS) in the spring of 1988 is presented. Over 900 students in 46 schools in 35 school districts, almost evenly divided between males and females, completed cognitive tests and student surveys about…

  2. Secondary Analysis of National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Tyler A.; Knollman, Greg A.

    2015-01-01

    This review examines published secondary analyses of National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 (NLTS2) data, with a primary focus upon statistical objectives, paradigms, inferences, and methods. Its primary purpose was to determine which statistical techniques have been common in secondary analyses of NLTS2 data. The review begins with an…

  3. Planning Papers for the National Longitudinal Study of Chapter 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Policy Studies Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The Elementary and Secondary School Improvement Amendments of 1988 (P.L. 100-297) require the U.S. Department of Education to conduct a national longitudinal study of Chapter 1 of the Elementary Secondary Education Act (ESEA). The department commissioned the selection of experts qualified to provide design suggestions and advice for the national…

  4. Longitudinal Trends in Hypertension Management and Mortality Among Octogenarians: Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Dregan, Alex; Ravindrarajah, Rathi; Hazra, Nisha; Hamada, Shota; Jackson, Stephen H D; Gulliford, Martin C

    2016-07-01

    The role of hypertension management among octogenarians is controversial. In this long-term follow-up (>10 years) study, we estimated trends in hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control among octogenarians, and evaluated the relationship of systolic blood pressure (SBP) ranges with mortality. Data were based on the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). Outcome measures were hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment and control, and cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality events. Participants were separated into 8 categories of SBP values (<110, 110-119, 120-129, 130-139, 140-149, 150-159, 160-169, and >169 mm Hg). Among 2692 octogenarians, mean SBP levels declined from 147 mm Hg in 1998/2000 to 134 mm Hg in 2012/2013. The decline was of lower magnitude in the 50 to 79 years old subgroup (n=22007). Hypertension prevalence and awareness were 40% and 13%, respectively, higher among octogenarians than the 50 to 79 years of age subgroup, but hypertension treatment rates were similar (≈90%). Around 47% of the treated octogenarians achieved conventional BP targets (<140/90 mm Hg), increasing to 59% when assessed against revised targets (<150/90 mm Hg). All-cause mortality rates were higher (hazard ratio, 1.55; 95% confidence interval, 0.89-2.72) at lower extremes of SBP values (<110 mm Hg). The lowest cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality risk among treated octogenarians was observed for an SBP range of 140 to 149 mm Hg (1.04, 0.60-1.78) and 160 to 169 mm Hg (0.78, 0.51-1.21). An increasing trend in hypertension awareness and treatment was observed in a large sample of community-dwelling octogenarians. The results do not support the view that more stringent BP targets may be associated with lower mortality. PMID:27160194

  5. Road traffic related mortality in Vietnam: Evidence for policy from a national sample mortality surveillance system

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are among the leading causes of mortality in Vietnam. However, mortality data collection systems in Vietnam in general and for RTIs in particular, remain inconsistent and incomplete. Underlying distributions of external causes and body injuries are not available from routine data collection systems or from studies till date. This paper presents characteristics, user type pattern, seasonal distribution, and causes of 1,061 deaths attributable to road crashes ascertained from a national sample mortality surveillance system in Vietnam over a two-year period (2008 and 2009). Methods A sample mortality surveillance system was designed for Vietnam, comprising 192 communes in 16 provinces, accounting for approximately 3% of the Vietnamese population. Deaths were identified from commune level data sources, and followed up by verbal autopsy (VA) based ascertainment of cause of death. Age-standardised mortality rates from RTIs were computed. VA questionnaires were analysed in depth to derive descriptive characteristics of RTI deaths in the sample. Results The age-standardized mortality rates from RTIs were 33.5 and 8.5 per 100,000 for males and females respectively. Majority of deaths were males (79%). Seventy three percent of all deaths were aged from 15 to 49 years and 58% were motorcycle users. As high as 80% of deaths occurred on the day of injury, 42% occurred prior to arrival at hospital, and a further 29% occurred on-site. Direct causes of death were identified for 446 deaths (42%) with head injuries being the most common cause attributable to road traffic injuries overall (79%) and to motorcycle crashes in particular (78%). Conclusion The VA method can provide a useful data source to analyse RTI mortality. The observed considerable mortality from head injuries among motorcycle users highlights the need to evaluate current practice and effectiveness of motorcycle helmet use in Vietnam. The high number of deaths occurring on

  6. Longitudinal study of dental caries, tooth mortality and interproximal bone loss in adults with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Gabre, P; Martinsson, T; Gahnberg, L

    2001-02-01

    The investigation focused on longitudinal changes of oral health in a group of adults with intellectual disability. A number of 124 individuals, aged 21-40 yr in 1990, were followed during 8.5 yr. The incidence and prevalence of caries, incidence of tooth mortality, and interproximal bone loss were registered from clinical examinations and bite-wing radiographs. The subjects visited the dental clinic for preventive dental care on average every third month during the period. The caries incidence was low, on average 0.51 new lesions per yr. Persons with mild intellectual disability experienced more caries than other subjects. During the 8.5 yr, the subjects had lost on average 1.82 teeth, with periodontitis dominating as the reason for tooth mortality. Individuals who cooperated poorly with dental treatment had lost the most teeth. The average annual bone loss in all subjects was 0.03 mm. Subjects with Down syndrome had a higher bone loss compared to those with other diagnoses of intellectual disability. Thus, the major part of the persons with intellectual disability showed satisfactory oral health. However, subjects with poor ability to cooperate with dental treatment and subjects with Down syndrome showed an increased risk for impaired oral health. PMID:11330930

  7. Income Inequality and Child Mortality in Wealthy Nations.

    PubMed

    Collison, David

    2016-01-01

    This chapter presents evidence of a relationship between child mortality data and socio-economic factors in relatively wealthy nations. The original study on child mortality that is reported here, which first appeared in a UK medical journal, was undertaken in a school of business by academics with accounting and finance backgrounds. The rationale explaining why academics from such disciplines were drawn to investigate these issues is given in the first part of the chapter. The findings related to child mortality data were identified as a special case of a wide range of social and health indicators that are systematically related to the different organisational approaches of capitalist societies. In particular, the so-called Anglo-American countries show consistently poor outcomes over a number of indicators, including child mortality. Considerable evidence has been adduced in the literature to show the importance of income inequality as an explanation for such findings. An important part of the chapter is the overview of a relatively recent publication in the epidemiological literature entitled The Spirit Level: Why Equality Is Better for Everyone, which was written by Wilkinson and Pickett. PMID:27197976

  8. Disparities in Cervical Cancer Mortality Rates as Determined by the Longitudinal Hyperbolastic Mixed-Effects Type II Model

    PubMed Central

    Tabatabai, Mohammad A.; Kengwoung-Keumo, Jean-Jacques; Eby, Wayne M.; Bae, Sejong; Guemmegne, Juliette T.; Manne, Upender; Fouad, Mona; Partridge, Edward E.; Singh, Karan P.

    2014-01-01

    Background The main purpose of this study was to model and analyze the dynamics of cervical cancer mortality rates for African American (Black) and White women residing in 13 states located in the eastern half of the United States of America from 1975 through 2010. Methods The cervical cancer mortality rates of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) were used to model and analyze the dynamics of cervical cancer mortality. A longitudinal hyperbolastic mixed-effects type II model was used to model the cervical cancer mortality data and SAS PROC NLMIXED and Mathematica were utilized to perform the computations. Results Despite decreasing trends in cervical cancer mortality rates for both races, racial disparities in mortality rates still exist. In all 13 states, Black women had higher mortality rates at all times. The degree of disparities and pace of decline in mortality rates over time differed among these states. Determining the paces of decline over 36 years showed that Tennessee had the most rapid decline in cervical cancer mortality for Black women, and Mississippi had the most rapid decline for White Women. In contrast, slow declines in cervical cancer mortality were noted for Black women in Florida and for White women in Maryland. Conclusions In all 13 states, cervical cancer mortality rates for both racial groups have fallen. Disparities in the pace of decline in mortality rates in these states may be due to differences in the rates of screening for cervical cancers. Of note, the gap in cervical cancer mortality rates between Black women and White women is narrowing. PMID:25226583

  9. Influence of Social Engagement on Mortality in Korea: Analysis of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (2006–2012)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of social engagement and patterns of change in social engagement over time on mortality in a large population, aged 45 years or older. Data from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging from 2006 and 2012 were assessed using longitudinal data analysis. We included 8,234 research subjects at baseline (2006). The primary analysis was based on Cox proportional hazards models to examine our hypothesis. The hazard ratio of all-cause mortality for the lowest level of social engagement was 1.841-times higher (P < 0.001) compared with the highest level of social engagement. Subgroup analysis results by gender showed a similar trend. A six-class linear solution fit the data best, and class 1 (the lowest level of social engagement class, 7.6% of the sample) was significantly related to the highest mortality (HR: 4.780, P < 0.001). Our results provide scientific insight on the effects of the specificity of the level of social engagement and changes in social engagement on all-cause mortality in current practice, which are important for all-cause mortality risk. Therefore, protection from all-cause mortality may depend on avoidance of constant low-levels of social engagement. PMID:27365997

  10. Design and methods of the national Vietnam veterans longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Schlenger, William E; Corry, Nida H; Kulka, Richard A; Williams, Christianna S; Henn-Haase, Clare; Marmar, Charles R

    2015-09-01

    The National Vietnam Veterans Longitudinal Study (NVVLS) is the second assessment of a representative cohort of US veterans who served during the Vietnam War era, either in Vietnam or elsewhere. The cohort was initially surveyed in the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study (NVVRS) from 1984 to 1988 to assess the prevalence, incidence, and effects of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other post-war problems. The NVVLS sought to re-interview the cohort to assess the long-term course of PTSD. NVVLS data collection began July 3, 2012 and ended May 17, 2013, comprising three components: a mailed health questionnaire, a telephone health survey interview, and, for a probability sample of theater Veterans, a clinical diagnostic telephone interview administered by licensed psychologists. Excluding decedents, 78.8% completed the questionnaire and/or telephone survey, and 55.0% of selected living veterans participated in the clinical interview. This report provides a description of the NVVLS design and methods. Together, the NVVRS and NVVLS constitute a nationally representative longitudinal study of Vietnam veterans, and extend the NVVRS as a critical resource for scientific and policy analyses for Vietnam veterans, with policy relevance for Iraq and Afghanistan veterans. PMID:26096554

  11. National cancer incidence and mortality in China, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wanqing; Zheng, Rongshou; Zuo, Tingting; Zeng, Hongmei; Zhang, Siwei

    2016-01-01

    Background Population-based cancer registration data in 2012 from all available cancer registries were collected by the National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR). NCCR estimated the numbers of new cancer cases and cancer deaths in China with compiled cancer incidence and mortality rates. Methods In 2015, there were 261 cancer registries submitted cancer incidence and deaths occurred in 2012. All the data were checked and evaluated based on the NCCR criteria of data quality. Qualified data from 193 registries were used for cancer statistics analysis as national estimation. The pooled data were stratified by area (urban/rural), gender, age group [0, 1–4, 5–9, 10–14, …, 85+] and cancer type. New cancer cases and deaths were estimated using age-specific rates and corresponding national population in 2012. The Chinese census data in 2000 and Segi’s population were applied for age-standardized rates. All the rates were expressed per 100,000 person-year. Results Qualified 193 cancer registries (74 urban and 119 rural registries) covered 198,060,406 populations (100,450,109 in urban and 97,610,297 in rural areas). The percentage of cases morphologically verified (MV%) and death certificate-only cases (DCO%) were 69.13% and 2.38%, respectively, and the mortality to incidence rate ratio (M/I) was 0.62. A total of 3,586,200 new cancer cases and 2,186,600 cancer deaths were estimated in China in 2012. The incidence rate was 264.85/100,000 (289.30/100,000 in males, 239.15/100,000 in females), the age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and by world standard population (ASIRW) were 191.89/100,000 and 187.83/100,000 with the cumulative incidence rate (0–74 age years old) of 21.82%. The cancer incidence, ASIRC and ASIRW in urban areas were 277.17/100,000, 195.56/100,000 and 190.88/100,000 compared to 251.20/100,000, 187.10/100,000 and 183.91/100,000 in rural areas, respectively. The cancer mortality was 161.49/100,000 (198.99/100,000 in

  12. Food Habits, Lifestyle Factors and Mortality among Oldest Old Chinese: The Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS)

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zumin; Zhang, Tuohong; Byles, Julie; Martin, Sean; Avery, Jodie C.; Taylor, Anne W.

    2015-01-01

    There are few studies reporting the association between lifestyle and mortality among the oldest old in developing countries. We examined the association between food habits, lifestyle factors and all-cause mortality in the oldest old (≥80 years) using data from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS). In 1998/99, 8959 participants aged 80 years and older took part in the baseline survey. Follow-up surveys were conducted every two to three years until 2011. Food habits were assessed using an in-person interview. Deaths were ascertained from family members during follow-up. Cox and Laplace regression were used to assess the association between food habits, lifestyle factors and mortality risk. There were 6626 deaths during 31,926 person-years of follow-up. Type of staple food (rice or wheat) was not associated with mortality. Daily fruit and vegetable intake was inversely associated with a higher mortality risk (hazard ratios (HRs): 0.85 (95% CI (confidence interval) 0.77–0.92), and 0.74 (0.66–0.83) for daily intake of fruit and vegetables, respectively). There was a positive association between intake of salt-preserved vegetables and mortality risk (consumers had about 10% increase of HR for mortality). Fruit and vegetable consumption were inversely, while intake of salt-preserved vegetables positively, associated with mortality risk among the oldest old. Undertaking physical activity is beneficial for the prevention of premature death. PMID:26371039

  13. Differences in mortality by immigrant status in Italy. Results of the Italian Network of Longitudinal Metropolitan Studies.

    PubMed

    Pacelli, Barbara; Zengarini, Nicolás; Broccoli, Serena; Caranci, Nicola; Spadea, Teresa; Di Girolamo, Chiara; Cacciani, Laura; Petrelli, Alessio; Ballotari, Paola; Cestari, Laura; Grisotto, Laura; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo

    2016-07-01

    Despite a rapid increase in immigration from low-income countries, studies on immigrants' mortality in Italy are scarce. We aimed to describe differences in all and cause-specific mortality among immigrants and Italians residing in Turin and Reggio Emilia (Northern Italy), two cities participating in the Italian Network of Longitudinal Metropolitan Studies (IN-LiMeS). We used individual data from the municipal population registers linked to the cause of death registers. All people aged 1-64 years residing between 2001 and 2010 were enrolled (open cohort) and followed up until 2013. The mortality of citizens from high migratory pressure countries (as a whole, and for each macro-area group) was compared with that of Italians; differences were estimated by Poisson regression adjusted by age and calendar year mortality rate ratios (MRRs), and by age-standardized mortality ratios for the analysis of cause-specific mortality. Compared with Italians, immigrants had lower overall mortality (MRR for men: 0.82, 95 % CI: 0.75-0.90; for women: 0.71, 95 % CI: 0.63-0.81). Sub-Saharan Africans experienced a significant higher mortality than Italians (MRR for men 1.29, 95 % CI: 1.03-1.61; for women: 1.70, 95 % CI: 1.22-2.36). Higher mortality for immigrants compared to Italians was observed for infectious diseases, congenital anomalies, some site-specific tumours and homicide mortality. Our study showed heterogeneity in mortality across the macro-areas of origin, and in particular Sub-Saharan Africans seemed to be a vulnerable population. The extension to other cohorts of IN-LiMeS will allow the health status of immigrants and vulnerable groups to be studied and monitored in more depth. PMID:27461270

  14. Standardized analysis of German cattle mortality using national register data.

    PubMed

    Pannwitz, Gunter

    2015-03-01

    In a retrospective cohort study of national register data, 1946 randomly selected holdings, with 286,912 individual cattle accumulating 170,416 animal-years were analyzed. The sample was considered to represent the national herd in Germany 2012. Within each holding, individual cattle records were stratified by current age (≤21 days, 3-6 weeks, 6-12 weeks, 3-6 months, 6-12 months, 1-2, 2-4, 4-8, and >8 years), sex, breed (intensive milk, less intensive milk, and beef), and mean monthly air temperature (<10°C and ≥10°C). Holdings were categorized by size (<100 and ≥100 animal-years), calving rate, slaughter rate, and federal state. 8027 on-site deaths (excluding slaughter for human consumption) were recorded, with cattle aged <6 months, 6-24 months, and >2 years contributing 50.0%, 15.4%, and 34.6% of deaths, respectively. Poisson regression and generalized estimating equations (gee) accounting for intra-herd clustering were used to model the number of deaths. In both models, most age bands differed significantly, with highest rates in calves ≤21 days, falling to lowest rates in 1-2 year olds, and rising again thereafter in females. Males exhibited higher mortality than females from birth to 2 years. All breed categories differed significantly with lowest rates in beef and highest in intensive milk breeds. Larger holdings, temperatures ≤10°C, calving rates >0-0.5 per animal year were all associated with higher mortality. Via interaction, intensive and less intensive milk breed cattle aging 6 weeks to 6 months and intensive milk breed females >4 years were associated with higher mortality. There were no significant differences between federal states and slaughter rates. The standardized deviations of modeled dead cattle numbers from occurred deaths per calendar year per holding were calculated and a 95% reference range of deviations constructed. This approach makes a standardized active monitoring and surveillance system regardless of herd size possible

  15. The influence of neighbourhood-level socioeconomic deprivation on cardiovascular disease mortality in older age: longitudinal multilevel analyses from a cohort of older British men

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, S E; Morris, R W; Whincup, P H; Subramanian, S V; Papacosta, A O; Lennon, Lucy T; Wannamethee, S G

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence from longitudinal studies on the influence of neighbourhood socioeconomic factors in older age on cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality is limited. We aimed to investigate the prospective association of neighbourhood-level deprivation in later life with CVD mortality, and assess the underlying role of established cardiovascular risk factors. Methods A socially representative cohort of 3924 men, aged 60–79 years in 1998–2000, from 24 British towns, was followed up until 2012 for CVD mortality. Quintiles of the national Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD), a composite score of neighbourhood-level factors (including income, employment, education, housing and living environment) were used. Multilevel logistic regression with discrete-time models (stratifying follow-up time into months) were used. Results Over 12 years, 1545 deaths occurred, including 580 from CVD. The risk of CVD mortality showed a graded increase from IMD quintile 1 (least deprived) to 5 (most deprived). Compared to quintile 1, the age-adjusted odds of CVD mortality in quintile 5 were 1.71 (95% CI 1.32 to 2.21), and 1.62 (95% CI 1.23 to 2.13) on further adjustment for individual social class, which was attenuated slightly to 1.44 (95% CI 1.09 to 1.89), but remained statistically significant after adjustment for smoking, body mass index, physical activity and use of alcohol. Further adjustment for blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and prevalent diabetes made little difference. Conclusions Neighbourhood-level deprivation was associated with an increased risk of CVD mortality in older people independent of individual-level social class and cardiovascular risk factors. The role of other specific neighbourhood-level factors merits further research. PMID:26285580

  16. Identifying Probable Suicide Clusters in Wales Using National Mortality Data

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Phillip; Gunnell, David; Platt, Stephen; Scourfield, Jonathan; Lloyd, Keith; Huxley, Peter; John, Ann; Kamran, Babar; Wells, Claudia; Dennis, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background Up to 2% of suicides in young people may occur in clusters i.e., close together in time and space. In early 2008 unprecedented attention was given by national and international news media to a suspected suicide cluster among young people living in Bridgend, Wales. This paper investigates the strength of statistical evidence for this apparent cluster, its size, and temporal and geographical limits. Methods and findings The analysis is based on official mortality statistics for Wales for 2000–2009 provided by the UK's Office for National Statistics (ONS). Temporo-spatial analysis was performed using Space Time Permutation Scan Statistics with SaTScan v9.1 for suicide deaths aged 15 and over, with a sub-group analysis focussing on cases aged 15–34 years. These analyses were conducted for deaths coded by ONS as: (i) suicide or of undetermined intent (probable suicides) and (ii) for a combination of suicide, undetermined, and accidental poisoning and hanging (possible suicides). The temporo-spatial analysis did not identify any clusters of suicide or undetermined intent deaths (probable suicides). However, analysis of all deaths by suicide, undetermined intent, accidental poisoning and accidental hanging (possible suicides) identified a temporo-spatial cluster (p = 0.029) involving 10 deaths amongst 15–34 year olds centred on the County Borough of Bridgend for the period 27th December 2007 to 19th February 2008. Less than 1% of possible suicides in younger people in Wales in the ten year period were identified as being cluster-related. Conclusions There was a possible suicide cluster in young people in Bridgend between December 2007 and February 2008. This cluster was smaller, shorter in duration, and predominantly later than the phenomenon that was reported in national and international print media. Further investigation of factors leading to the onset and termination of this series of deaths, in particular the role of the media, is required. PMID

  17. Independent and joint effects of sedentary time and cardiorespiratory fitness on all-cause mortality: the Cooper Center Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Shuval, Kerem; Finley, Carrie E; Barlow, Carolyn E; Nguyen, Binh T; Njike, Valentine Y; Pettee Gabriel, Kelley

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the independent and joint effects of sedentary time and cardiorespiratory fitness (fitness) on all-cause mortality. Design, setting, participants A prospective study of 3141 Cooper Center Longitudinal Study participants. Participants provided information on television (TV) viewing and car time in 1982 and completed a maximal exercise test during a 1-year time frame; they were then followed until mortality or through 2010. TV viewing, car time, total sedentary time and fitness were the primary exposures and all-cause mortality was the outcome. The relationship between the exposures and outcome was examined utilising Cox proportional hazard models. Results A total of 581 deaths occurred over a median follow-up period of 28.7 years (SD=4.4). At baseline, participants’ mean age was 45.0 years (SD=9.6), 86.5% were men and their mean body mass index was 24.6 (SD=3.0). Multivariable analyses revealed a significant linear relationship between increased fitness and lower mortality risk, even while adjusting for total sedentary time and covariates (p=0.02). The effects of total sedentary time on increased mortality risk did not quite reach statistical significance once fitness and covariates were adjusted for (p=0.05). When examining this relationship categorically, in comparison to the reference category (≤10 h/week), being sedentary for ≥23 h weekly increased mortality risk by 29% without controlling for fitness (HR=1.29, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.63); however, once fitness and covariates were taken into account this relationship did not reach statistical significance (HR=1.20, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.51). Moreover, spending >10 h in the car weekly significantly increased mortality risk by 27% in the fully adjusted model. The association between TV viewing and mortality was not significant. Conclusions The relationship between total sedentary time and higher mortality risk is less pronounced when fitness is taken into account. Increased car time, but

  18. Stability of alcohol consumption among youth: a National Longitudinal Survey.

    PubMed

    Grant, B F; Harford, T C; Grigson, M B

    1988-05-01

    The present study draws upon the National Longitudinal Survey (NLS) of Labor Market Experience in Youth (ages 17-24) to describe alcohol use patterns over a 2-year period during the transition years between adolescence and young adulthood. Specifically, turnover in current (using any amount of alcohol in any frequency during the past month) and heavier (drinking six or more drinks on at least 2-3 occasions during the past month) drinking levels among panel members was examined by charting incidence, remission, chronicity, and abstinence between 1982 and 1983. The prevalence of each consumption level increased between the ages of 17 and 22 but declined thereafter for each sex until the age of 24. Changes in prevalence from 1982 to 1983 were shown to be a function of changes in drinking level status. The analysis of turnover in current and heavier drinking levels indicated that there was continuity in drinking behavior over time. Sex differences observed in these trends were examined and their implications to internal and external age- and sex-appropriate constraints and paradigmatic development were explicated. PMID:3374139

  19. Surgical Mortality Audit–lessons Learned in a Developing Nation

    PubMed Central

    Bindroo, Sandiya; Saraf, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    Surgical audit is a systematic, critical analysis of the quality of surgical care that is reviewed by peers against explicit criteria or recognized standards. It is used to improve surgical practice with the ultimate goal of improving patient care. As the pattern of surgical care is different in the developing world, we analyzed mortalities in a referral medical institute of India to suggest interventions for improvement. An analysis of total admissions, different surgeries, and mortalities over 1 year in an urban referral medical institute of northern India was performed, followed by “peer review” of the mortalities. Mortality rates as outcomes and classification was done to provide comparative results. Of 10,005 surgical patients, 337 (male = 221, female = 116) deaths were reported over 1 year. The overall mortality rate was 3.36%, while mortality in operative cases was 1.76%. Total deaths were classified into (1) Viable: 153 (45%), (2) Nonviable: 174 (52%), and (3) Indeterminate: 10 (3%). Exclusion of the nonviable group reduced the mortality rate from 3.36% to 1.62%. Trauma was the major cause of mortality (n = 235; 70%) as compared to other surgical patients (n = 102; 30%). Increased mortality was also associated with emergency procedures (3.66%) as compared to elective surgeries (0.34%). In conclusion, audit of mortality and morbidity helps in initiating and implementing preventive strategies to improve surgical practice and patient care, and to reduce mortality rates. The mortality and morbidity forum is an important educational activity. It should be considered a mandatory activity in all postgraduate training programs. PMID:26414825

  20. Income Inequality, Economic Growth and Stroke Mortality in Brazil: Longitudinal and Regional Analysis 2002-2009

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Stroke accounts for more than 10% of all deaths globally and most of it occurs in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Income inequality and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita has been associated to stroke mortality in developed countries. In LMIC, GDP per capita is considered to be a more relevant health determinant than income inequality. This study aims to investigate if income inequality is associated to stroke mortality in Brazil at large, but also on regional and state levels, and whether GDP per capita modulates the impact of this association. Methods Stroke mortality rates, Gini index and GDP per capita data were pooled for the 2002 to 2009 period from public available databases. Random effects models were fitted, controlling for GDP per capita and other covariates. Results Income inequality was independently associated to stroke mortality rates, even after controlling for GDP per capita and other covariates. GDP per capita reduced only partially the impact of income inequality on stroke mortality. A decrease in 10 points in the Gini index was associated with 18% decrease in the stroke mortality rate in Brazil. Conclusions Income inequality was independently associated to stroke mortality in Brazil. PMID:26352415

  1. Austerity and old-age mortality in England: a longitudinal cross-local area analysis, 2007–2013

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Martin; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Taylor-Robinson, David; Barr, Ben; Stuckler, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective There has been significant concern that austerity measures have negatively impacted health in the UK. We examined whether budgetary reductions in Pension Credit and social care have been associated with recent rises in mortality rates among pensioners aged 85 years and over. Design Cross-local authority longitudinal study. Setting Three hundred and twenty-four lower tier local authorities in England. Main outcome measure Annual percentage changes in mortality rates among pensioners aged 85 years or over. Results Between 2007 and 2013, each 1% decline in Pension Credit spending (support for low income pensioners) per beneficiary was associated with an increase in 0.68% in old-age mortality (95% CI: 0.41 to 0.95). Each reduction in the number of beneficiaries per 1000 pensioners was associated with an increase in 0.20% (95% CI: 0.15 to 0.24). Each 1% decline in social care spending was associated with a significant rise in old-age mortality (0.08%, 95% CI: 0.0006–0.12) but not after adjusting for Pension Credit spending. Similar patterns were seen in both men and women. Weaker associations observed for those aged 75 to 84 years, and none among those 65 to 74 years. Categories of service expenditure not expected to affect old-age mortality, such as transportation, showed no association. Conclusions Rising mortality rates among pensioners aged 85 years and over were linked to reductions in spending on income support for poor pensioners and social care. Findings suggest austerity measures in England have affected vulnerable old-age adults. PMID:26980412

  2. 30-day Mortality after Bariatric Surgery: Independently Adjudicated Causes of Death in the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Mark D.; Patterson, Emma; Wahed, Abdus S.; Belle, Steven H.; Berk, Paul D.; Courcoulas, Anita P.; Dakin, Gregory F.; Flum, David R.; Machado, Laura; Mitchell, James E.; Pender, John; Pomp, Alfons; Pories, Walter; Ramanathan, Ramesh; Schrope, Beth; Staten, Myrlene; Ude, Akuezunkpa; Wolfe, Bruce M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Mortality following bariatric surgery is a rare event in contemporary series, making it difficult for any single center to draw meaningful conclusions as to cause of death. Nevertheless, much of the published mortality data come from single center case series and reviews of administrative databases. These sources tend to produce lower mortality estimates than those obtained from controlled clinical trials. Furthermore, information about the causes of death and how they were determined is not always available. The aim of the present report is to describe in detail all deaths occurring within 30-days of surgery in the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (LABS). Methods LABS is a 10-center observational cohort study of bariatric surgical outcomes. Data were collected prospectively for bariatric surgeries performed between March 2005 and April 2009. All deaths occurring within 30-days of surgery were identified, and cause of death assigned by an independent Adjudication Subcommittee, blinded to operating surgeon and site. Results 6118 patients underwent primary bariatric surgery. 18 deaths (0.3%) occurred within 30-days of surgery. The most common cause of death was sepsis (33% of deaths), followed by cardiac causes (28%) and pulmonary embolism (17%). For one patient cause of death could not be determined despite examination of all available information. Conclusions This study confirms the low 30-day mortality rate following bariatric surgery. The recognized complications of anastomotic leak, cardiac events, and pulmonary emboli accounted for the majority of 30-day deaths. PMID:21866378

  3. Intelligence and early life mortality: Findings from a longitudinal sample of youth.

    PubMed

    Beaver, Kevin M; Schwartz, Joseph A; Connolly, Eric J; Al-Ghamdi, Mohammed Said; Kobeisy, Ahmed Nezar; Barnes, J C; Boutwell, Brian B

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined whether adolescent IQ predicted risk for mortality by the age of 32. Analyses of data from the Add Health revealed that IQ was related to mortality risk, such that respondents with relatively lower IQs were significantly more likely to experience early life mortality when compared to respondents with relatively higher IQs. This association remained statistically significant even after controlling for a host of covariates such as race, gender, involvement in violent behaviors, levels of self-control, and poverty. The average IQ of deceased respondents was approximately 95, whereas the average IQ of living respondents was about 100. PMID:26765521

  4. Substance use disorders, psychiatric disorders, and mortality after release from prison: a nationwide longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Zheng; Lichtenstein, Paul; Larsson, Henrik; Fazel, Seena

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background High mortality rates have been reported in people released from prison compared with the general population. However, few studies have investigated potential risk factors associated with these high rates, especially psychiatric determinants. We aimed to investigate the association between psychiatric disorders and mortality in people released from prison in Sweden. Methods We studied all people who were imprisoned since Jan 1, 2000, and released before Dec 31, 2009, in Sweden for risks of all-cause and external-cause (accidents, suicide, homicide) mortality after prison release. We obtained data for substance use disorders and other psychiatric disorders, and criminological and sociodemographic factors from population-based registers. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) by Cox regression, and then used them to calculate population attributable fractions for post-release mortality. To control for potential familial confounding, we compared individuals in the study with siblings who were also released from prison, but without psychiatric disorders. We tested whether any independent risk factors improved the prediction of mortality beyond age, sex, and criminal history. Findings We identified 47 326 individuals who were imprisoned. During a median follow-up time of 5·1 years (IQR 2·6–7·5), we recorded 2874 (6%) deaths after release from prison. The overall all-cause mortality rate was 1205 deaths per 100 000 person-years. Substance use disorders significantly increased the rate of all-cause mortality (alcohol use: adjusted HR 1·62, 95% CI 1·48–1·77; drug use: 1·67, 1·53–1·83), and the association was independent of sociodemographic, criminological, and familial factors. We identified no strong evidence that other psychiatric disorders increased mortality after we controlled for potential confounders. In people released from prison, 925 (34%) of all-cause deaths in men and 85 (50%) in women were potentially attributable to substance

  5. Adoption Does Not Increase the Risk of Mortality among Taiwanese Girls in a Longitudinal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mattison, Siobhán M.; Brown, Melissa J.; Floyd, Bruce; Feldman, Marcus W.

    2015-01-01

    Adopted children often experience health and well-being disadvantages compared to biological children remaining in their natal households. The degree of genetic relatedness is thought to mediate the level of parental investment in children, leading to poorer outcomes of biologically unrelated children. We explore whether mortality is related to adoption in a historical Taiwanese population where adoption rarely occurred among kin. Using Cox proportional hazards models in which adoption is included as a time-dependent covariate, we show that adoption of girls does not increase the risk of mortality, as previously suggested; in fact, it is either protective or neutral with respect to mortality. These results suggest that socio-structural variables may produce positive outcomes for adopted children, even compared to biological children who remain in the care of their parents. PMID:25923106

  6. Longitudinal study on morbidity and mortality in white veal calves in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mortality and morbidity are hardly documented in the white veal industry, despite high levels of antimicrobial drug use and resistance. The objective of the present study was to determine the causes and epidemiology of morbidity and mortality in dairy, beef and crossbred white veal production. A total of 5853 calves, housed in 15 production cohorts, were followed during one production cycle. Causes of mortality were determined by necropsy. Morbidity was daily recorded by the producers. Results The total mortality risk was 5,3% and was significantly higher in beef veal production compared to dairy or crossbreds. The main causes of mortality were pneumonia (1.3% of the calves at risk), ruminal disorders (0.7%), idiopathic peritonitis (0.5%), enterotoxaemia (0.5%) and enteritis (0.4%). Belgian Blue beef calves were more likely to die from pneumonia, enterotoxaemia and arthritis. Detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus at necropsy was associated with chronic pneumonia and pleuritis. Of the calves, 25.4% was treated individually and the morbidity rate was 1.66 cases per 1000 calf days at risk. The incidence rate of respiratory disease, diarrhea, arthritis and otitis was 0.95, 0.30, 0.11 and 0.07 cases per 1000 calf days at risk respectively. Morbidity peaked in the first three weeks after arrival and gradually declined towards the end of the production cycle. Conclusions The present study provided insights into the causes and epidemiology of morbidity and mortality in white veal calves in Belgium, housed in the most frequent housing system in Europe. The necropsy findings, identified risk periods and differences between production systems can guide both veterinarians and producers towards the most profitable and ethical preventive and therapeutic protocols. PMID:22414223

  7. Increased Mortality for Elective Surgery during Summer Vacation: A Longitudinal Analysis of Nationwide Data

    PubMed Central

    Caillet, Pascal; Payet, Cécile; Polazzi, Stéphanie; Carty, Matthew J.; Lifante, Jean-Christophe; Duclos, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Surgical safety during vacation periods may be influenced by the interplay of several factors, including workers' leave, hospital activity, climate, and the variety of patient cases. This study aimed to highlight an annually recurring peak of surgical mortality during summer in France and explore its main predictors. We selected all elective of open surgical procedures performed in French hospitals between 2007 and 2012. Surgical mortality variation was analyzed over time in relation to workers leaving on vacation, the volume of procedures performed by hospitals, and temperature changes. We ran a multilevel logistic regression for exploring the determinants of surgical mortality, taking into account the clustering of patients within hospitals and adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics. A total of 609 French hospitals had 8,926,120 discharges related to open elective surgery. During 6 years, we found a recurring mortality peak of 1.15% (95% CI 1.09–1.20) in August compared with 0.81% (0.79–0.82, p<.001) in other months. The incidence of worker vacation was 43.0% (38.9–47.2) in August compared with 7.3% (4.6–10.1, p<.001) in other months. Hospital activity decreased substantially in August (78,126 inpatient stays, 75,298–80,954) in relation to other months (128,142, 125,697–130,586, p<.001). After adjusting for all covariates, we found an "August effect" reflecting a higher risk to patients undergoing operations at this time (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.12–1.19, p<.001). The main study limitation was the absence of data linkage between surgical staffing and mortality at the hospital level. The observed, recurring mortality peak in August raises questions about how to maintain hospital activity and optimal staffing through better regulation of human activities. PMID:26407191

  8. A Longitudinal Evaluation of the National Cancer Institute Science Enrichment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Colleen F.; Goodman, Irene F.

    This paper proposes the design and key methodological features of a longitudinal evaluation of the National Cancer Institute Science Enrichment Program (NCISEP). Goodman Research Group's (GRG) five-year longitudinal evaluation is designed as a randomized experiment with a control group and employs both quantitative and qualitative data collection…

  9. Dietary patterns predict mortality in a national cohort: the National Health Interview Surveys, 1987 and 1992.

    PubMed

    Kant, Ashima K; Graubard, Barry I; Schatzkin, Arthur

    2004-07-01

    We examined the association of mortality and dietary patterns using data from the National Health Interview Surveys of 1987 and 1992 (n = 10,084), aged >/=45 y at baseline (with 2287 deaths due to all causes over 5.9 median years of follow-up). The approximately 60-item FFQ administered at baseline was examined for mentions of foods and dietary behaviors recommended in current dietary guidance (fruits, vegetables, lean poultry and alternates, low-fat dairy, and whole grains), and the resulting patterns were expressed as follows: 1) a Recommended Foods and Behavior Score (RFBS), 2) factor scores from factor analysis, and 3) clusters from cluster analysis. The multivariate-adjusted relative risk (RR) of mortality for each of the 3 types of dietary patterns was examined using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. In men, RR of all-cause mortality was 0.72 (95% CI: 0.56, 0.92, P for trend < 0.001) for RFBS, and 0.74 (95% CI: 0.57, 0.95, P for trend = 0.002) for the fruit-vegetable-whole grain factor score when comparing extreme quartiles. Membership in 1 of the 4 clusters also was associated with lower risk in men (RR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.66, 1.01). For women, the RFBS was a modest inverse predictor of mortality after multivariate adjustment (RR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.61, 1.04, P for trend = 0.04), but estimates for factor and cluster patterns were attenuated. The population-attributable fraction due to diet was 0.16 in men and 0.09 in women. Dietary patterns characterized by compliance with prevailing food-based dietary guidance were associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality. PMID:15226471

  10. Longitudinal study of astronaut health: Mortality in the years 1959-1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Leif E.

    1993-01-01

    We conducted a historical cohort study of mortality among 195 astronauts who were exposed to space and medical sources of radiation between 1959 and 1991. Cumulative occupational and medical radiation exposures were obtained from the astronaut radiation exposure history data base. Causes of death were obtained from obligatory death certificates and autopsy reports that were on file in the medical records. A total of 18 deaths occurred during the 32-year follow-up period for which the all-cause standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was 142 (95 percent confidence interval 84 225). There was one cancer death in the buccal cavity and pharynegeal ICD-9 rubric whose occurrence was significantly beyond expectation. Mortality for coronary disease was 59 percent lower than expected (2 deaths; SMR = 41; 95 percent confidence limit 5 147). The crude death rate for 10 occupationally related accidents was 400 deaths per 100,000 person-years, which is an order of magnitude greater than accidental death rates in mining industries. The SMR of 1027 for fatal accidents was significantly beyond expectation (14 deaths; 95 percent confidence limit 561 1723) and was similar to SMRs for accidents among aerial pesticide applications. The 10-year cumulative risk of occupational fatalities based on the exponential, Weibull, Gompertz, and linear-exponential distributions was 10 percent. Mortality from motor vehicle accidents was slightly higher than expected but was not significant (1 death; SMR = 145; 95 percent confidence limit 2 808). Radiation exposures from medical procedures accounted for a majority of cumulative dose when compared with space radiation exposures. The results of the study do not confirm the impression that astronauts are at increased risk of cancer, but this does not obviate the need for further study. Overall, it was found that astronauts are at a health disadvantage as a result of catastrophic accidents.

  11. Longitudinal study of astronaut health: Mortality in the years 1959-1991

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, L.E.; Pepper, L.J.; Hamm, P.B.; Gilbert, S.L. )

    1993-02-01

    We conducted a historical cohort study of mortality among 195 astronauts who were exposed to space and medical sources of radiation between 1959 and 1991. Cumulative occupational and medical radiation exposures were obtained from the astronaut radiation exposure history data base. Causes of death were obtained from obligatory death certificates and autopsy reports that were on file in the medical records. There was a total of 20 deaths that occurred during the 32-year follow-up period of which 16 were due to accidents. The all-cause standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was 181 (95% confidence interval 110, 279). There was 1 cancer death in the buccal cavity and pharyngeal ICD-9 rubric whose occurrence was significantly beyond expectation. Mortality for coronary disease was 53% lower than expected (2 deaths; SMR = 47; 95% confidence limits 5, 168). The crude death rate for 12 occupationally related accidents was 445 deaths per 100,000 person-years and was an order of magnitude greater than accidental death rates in the mining industries. The SMR of 1346 for fatal accidents was significantly beyond expectation (16 deaths; 95% confidence limits 769, 2168) and was similar to SMRs for accidents among aerial pesticide applicators. The 10-year cumulative risk of occupational fatalities based on the exponential, Weibull, Gompertz, and linear-exponential distributions was 10%. Mortality from motor vehicle accidents was slightly higher than expected, but was not significant (1 death; SMR = 165; 95% confidence limits 2,922). Radiation exposures from medical procedures accounted for a majority of cumulative dose when compared with space radiation exposures. Overall, it was found that astronauts are at a health disadvantage as a result of catastrophic accidents.

  12. Longitudinal trends in prostate cancer incidence, mortality, and survival of patients from two Shanghai city districts: a retrospective population-based cohort study, 2000–2009

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer is the fifth most common cancer affecting men of all ages in China, but robust surveillance data on its occurrence and outcome is lacking. The specific objective of this retrospective study was to analyze the longitudinal trends of prostate cancer incidence, mortality, and survival in Shanghai from 2000 to 2009. Methods A retrospective population-based cohort study was performed using data from a central district (Putuo) and a suburban district (Jiading) of Shanghai. Records of all prostate cancer cases reported to the Shanghai Cancer Registry from 2000 to 2009 for the two districts were reviewed. Prostate cancer outcomes were ascertained by matching cases with individual mortality data (up to 2010) from the National Death Register. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to analyze factors associated with prostate cancer survival. Results A total of 1022 prostate cancer cases were diagnosed from 2000 to 2009. The average age of patients was 75 years. A rapid increase in incidence occurred during the study period. Compared with the year 2000, 2009 incidence was 3.28 times higher in Putuo and 5.33 times higher in Jiading. Prostate cancer mortality declined from 4.45 per 105 individuals per year in 2000 to 1.94 per 105 in 2009 in Putuo and from 5.45 per 105 to 3.5 per 105 in Jiading during the same period. One-year and 5-year prostate cancer survival rates were 95% and 56% in Putuo, and 88% and 51% in Jiading, respectively. Staging of disease, Karnofsky Performance Scale Index, and selection of chemotherapy were three independent factors influencing the survival of prostate cancer patients. Conclusions The prostate cancer incidence increased rapidly from 2000 to 2009, and prostate cancer survival rates decreased in urban and suburban Chinese populations. Early detection and prompt prostate cancer treatment is important for improving health and for increasing survival rates of the Shanghai male population. PMID:24731197

  13. Caribou calf mortality in Denali National Park, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, L.G.; Singer, F.J.; Dale, B.W.

    1995-01-01

    Calf mortality is major component of caribou population dynamics, but little is known about the timing or causes of calf losses, or of characteristics that predispose calves to mortality. During 1984-87, we radiocollared 226 calves (less than or equal to 3 days old) in the Denali Caribou Herd (DCH), an unhunted population utilized by a natural complement of predators, to determine the extent, timing, and causes of calf mortality and to evaluate influences of year, sex, birthdate, and birth mass on those losses. Overall, 39% of radio-collared calves died as neonates (less than or equal to 15 days old), and 98% of those deaths were attributed to predation. Most neonatal deaths (85%) occurred within 8 days of birth. Few deaths occurred after the neonatal period (5, 10, and 0% of calves instrumented died during 16-30, 31-150, and greater than 150 days of age, respectively). Survival of neonates was lower (P = 0.038) in 1985, following a severe winter, than during the other 3 years. In years other than 1985, calves born during the peak of calving (approx 50% of the total, born 5-8 days after calving onset) experienced higher (P less than 0.001) neonatal survival than did other calves. Grizzly bears, wolves, and unknown large predators (i.e., grizzly bears or wolves) accounted for 49, 29, and 16% of the neonatal deaths, respectively. The rate of bear-caused mortalities declined (P less than 0.001) with calf age, and bears killed few calves greater than 10 days old. Wolf predation was not related (P greater than 0.05) to calf age and peaked 10 days after onset of calving. Grizzly bear and wolf predation on neonates during the calving season was a limiting factor for the DCH.

  14. Young Stroke Mortality in Fiji Islands: An Economic Analysis of National Human Capital Resource Loss

    PubMed Central

    Maharaj, Jagdish C.; Reddy, Mahendra

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. The objective of this study was to perform an economic analysis in terms of annual national human capital resource loss from young stroke mortality in Fiji. The official retirement age is 55 years in Fiji. Method. Stroke mortality data, for working-age group 15–55 years, obtained from the Ministry of Health and per capita national income figure for the same year was utilised to calculate the total output loss for the economy. The formula of output loss from the economy was used. Results. There were 273 stroke deaths of which 53.8% were of working-age group. The annual national human capital loss from stroke mortality for Fiji for the year was calculated to be F$8.85 million (US$5.31 million). The highest percentage loss from stroke mortality was from persons in their forties; that is, they still had more then 10 years to retirement. Discussion. This loss equates to one percent of national government revenue and 9.7% of Ministry of Health budget for the same year. The annual national human capital loss from stroke mortality is an important dimension in the overall economic equation of total economic burden of stroke. Conclusion. This study demonstrates a high economic burden for Fiji from stroke mortality of young adults in terms of annual national human capital loss. PMID:22778993

  15. Work Attitudes and Labor Market Experience: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrisani, Paul J.; And Others

    A study was done to examine the influence of several work attitudes on a number of facets of subsequent labor market experience, as well as the influence of labor market experience on the work attitudes. Based on interview data on about 20,000 respondents from the National Longitudinal Surveys representative national samples of men 14 to 24 and 45…

  16. Technological Change and the Skill Acquisition of Young Workers. National Longitudinal Surveys Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartel, Ann P.; Sicherman, Nachum

    Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and several alternative data sets containing proxies for industries' rates of technological change (including the Jorgenson productivity growth series, National Bureau of Economic Research productivity data, and the Census of Manufacturers series on investments in computers, the Research and…

  17. The choice of self-rated health measures matter when predicting mortality: evidence from 10 years follow-up of the Australian longitudinal study of ageing

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Self-rated health (SRH) measures with different wording and reference points are often used as equivalent health indicators in public health surveys estimating health outcomes such as healthy life expectancies and mortality for older adults. Whilst the robust relationship between SRH and mortality is well established, it is not known how comparable different SRH items are in their relationship to mortality over time. We used a dynamic evaluation model to investigate the sensitivity of time-varying SRH measures with different reference points to predict mortality in older adults over time. Methods We used seven waves of data from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing (1992 to 2004; N = 1733, 52.6% males). Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between three time-varying SRH measures (global, age-comparative and self-comparative reference point) with mortality in older adults (65+ years). Results After accounting for other mortality risk factors, poor global SRH ratings increased mortality risk by 2.83 times compared to excellent ratings. In contrast, the mortality relationship with age-comparative and self-comparative SRH was moderated by age, revealing that these comparative SRH measures did not independently predict mortality for adults over 75 years of age in adjusted models. Conclusions We found that a global measure of SRH not referenced to age or self is the best predictor of mortality, and is the most reliable measure of self-perceived health for longitudinal research and population health estimates of healthy life expectancy in older adults. Findings emphasize that the SRH measures are not equivalent measures of health status. PMID:20403203

  18. A Longitudinal Examination of Childhood Maltreatment and Adolescent Obesity: Results from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Miller, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: We sought to explore the association between childhood maltreatment (e.g., neglect, physical and sexual abuse) and longitudinal growth trajectories of body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods: We used latent curve modeling to examine data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 8,471),…

  19. Impact of Health System Inputs on Health Outcome: A Multilevel Longitudinal Analysis of Botswana National Antiretroviral Program (2002-2013)

    PubMed Central

    Price, Natalie; El-Halabi, Shenaaz; Mlaudzi, Naledi; Keapoletswe, Koona; Lebelonyane, Refeletswe; Fetogang, Ernest Benny; Chebani, Tony; Kebaabetswe, Poloko; Masupe, Tiny; Gabaake, Keba; Auld, Andrew F.; Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Marlink, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Objective To measure the association between the number of doctors, nurses and hospital beds per 10,000 people and individual HIV-infected patient outcomes in Botswana. Design Analysis of routinely collected longitudinal data from 97,627 patients who received ART through the Botswana National HIV/AIDS Treatment Program across all 24 health districts from 2002 to 2013. Doctors, nurses, and hospital bed density data at district-level were collected from various sources. Methods A multilevel, longitudinal analysis method was used to analyze the data at both patient- and district-level simultaneously to measure the impact of the health system input at district-level on probability of death or loss-to-follow-up (LTFU) at the individual level. A marginal structural model was used to account for LTFU over time. Results Increasing doctor density from one doctor to two doctors per 10,000 population decreased the predicted probability of death for each patient by 27%. Nurse density changes from 20 nurses to 25 nurses decreased the predicted probability of death by 28%. Nine percent decrease was noted in predicted mortality of an individual in the Masa program for every five hospital bed density increase. Conclusion Considerable variation was observed in doctors, nurses, and hospital bed density across health districts. Predictive margins of mortality and LTFU were inversely correlated with doctor, nurse and hospital bed density. The doctor density had much greater impact than nurse or bed density on mortality or LTFU of individual patients. While long-term investment in training more healthcare professionals should be made, redistribution of available doctors and nurses can be a feasible solution in the short term. PMID:27490477

  20. Mortality of women from intimate partner violence in South Africa: a national epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Abrahams, Naeemah; Jewkes, Rachel; Martin, Lorna J; Mathews, Shanaaz; Vetten, Lisa; Lombard, Carl

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe mortality of women from intimate partner violence (IPV) in South Africa using a retrospective national study in a proportionate random sample of 25 mortuaries. Homicides identified from mortuary, autopsy, and police records. There were 3,797 female homicides, of which 50.3% were from IPV. The mortality rate from IPV was 8.8 per 100,000 women. Mortality from IPV were elevated among those 14 to 44 years and women of color. Blunt force injuries were more common, while strangulation or asphyxiation were less common. The national IPV mortality rate was more than twice that found in the United States. The study highlights the value of collecting reliable data across the globe to develop interventions for advocacy of which gender equity is critical. PMID:19694357

  1. A Research Agenda for the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience: Report on the Social Science Research Council's Conference on the National Longitudinal Surveys, October, 1977. Parts I to IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Science Research Council, Washington, DC. Center for Coordination of Research on Social Indicators.

    This report of the Social Science Research Council's Conference on the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience (NLS) begins with a description of the rationale and background for the conference. In the first of four parts, the conference objectives are stated: (1) review previous research based on the National Longitudinal Surveys…

  2. Institutional Diversity in Higher Education: A Cross-National and Longitudinal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huisman, Jeroen; Meek, Lynn; Wood, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    This paper contributes to the debate on institutional diversity in higher education systems by looking at the phenomenon from a comparative (cross-national) and longitudinal perspective. Despite the attention to diversity in policy debates, surprisingly, only a limited amount of studies address methodological issues. In addition, the number of…

  3. National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988. First Follow-Up: School Component Data File User's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingels, Steven J.; And Others

    This manual has been produced to familiarize data users with the procedures followed for data collection and processing of the first follow-up component of the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88). A corollary objective is to provide the necessary documentation for use of the data file. Use of the data set does not require the…

  4. Pets and Human Health in Germany and Australia: National Longitudinal Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Headey, Bruce; Grabka, Markus M.

    2007-01-01

    The German and Australian "longitudinal" surveys analysed here are the first national representative surveys to show that (1) people who continuously own a pet are the healthiest group and (2) people who cease to have a pet or never had one are less healthy. Most previous studies which have claimed that pets confer health benefits were…

  5. Nonstandard Work and Marital Instability: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalil, Ariel; Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.; Epstein, Jodie Levin

    2010-01-01

    This article replicated and extended Harriet Presser's (2000) investigation of the linkages between nonstandard work and marital instability. We reexplored this question using data from a sample of 2,893 newlywed couples from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) and using different analytic techniques. In contrast to Presser, we found…

  6. Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth: A Unique Research Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This article provides a history of the data set known as "the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY)." Promising research agendas that use the data set are described. These agendas concern maternal employment and child care, adolescent pregnancy and parenthood, divorce, poverty, and multigenerational parenting. (BC)

  7. Consequences of Parenthood in Late Adolescence: Findings from the National Longitudinal Study of High School Seniors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haggstrom, Gus W.; Morrison, Peter A.

    The effects of adolescent parenthood upon certain outcome measures reflecting changes in aspirations, attitudes, and well-being were investigated using data from the National Longitudinal Study of High School Class of 1972. Analyses were computed for expected educational attainment; self-esteem; locus of control; orientation toward work, family,…

  8. High School Employment: Consumption or Investment. National Longitudinal Surveys Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruhm, Christopher J.

    The long-term effects of employment during high school were analyzed by using National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data on 1,067 students who were initially interviewed in 1979 and who remained in the survey sample through 1991. Hours worked by respondents during the week prior to the survey date in their sophomore, junior, and senior years of…

  9. Research Uses of the National Longitudinal Surveys. R&D Monograph 62.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bielby, William T.; And Others

    This report surveys the research done using the National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS) of Labor Market Experience data. It also identifies neglected research opportunities and directions of future research. The content is presented in eleven sections. The focus of sections 2-8 is on research done in major areas of labor market research. The sections…

  10. Analysis of Apprenticeship Training from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Robert F.; And Others

    A study investigated effects of on-the-job or "hands-on" vocational training relative to standard classroom vocational instruction on subsequent employment, earnings, wages, and job satisfaction. The data used were from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 and five follow-up surveys of this population. An analysis of…

  11. Are Measured School Effects Just Sorting? Causality and Correlation in the National Education Longitudinal Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, David I.; Painter, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Youth who share a school and neighborhood often show similar levels of academic achievement, but some studies find all or most of this correlation is due to sorting (not causation). We analyze the National Education Longitudinal Survey (NELS) in three ways to decompose sorting versus causality: We first control for much richer measures of family…

  12. Work and Family: Never Too Old To Learn. Data from the National Longitudinal Surveys. Report 856.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Data from the Mature Women's cohort of the National Longitudinal Surveys were used in an analysis of the acquisition of education and training by women at later ages over the 1979-89 period. These data described a sample of women who were between the ages of 30 and 45 in 1967 and who had been interviewed regularly at later intervals. Between the…

  13. Does Alcohol Use during High School Affect Educational Attainment?: Evidence from the National Education Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatterji, Pinka

    2006-01-01

    This paper uses data from the National Education Longitudinal Study to estimate the association between high school alcohol use and educational attainment measured around age 26. Initially, the effect of alcohol use on educational attainment is estimated using baseline probit models, which ignore the possibility that unmeasured determinants of…

  14. Consequences of maternal mortality on infant and child survival: a 25-year longitudinal analysis in Butajira Ethiopia (1987-2011)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Maternal mortality remains the leading cause of death and disability for reproductive-age women in resource-poor countries. The impact of a mother’s death on child outcomes is likely severe but has not been well quantified. This analysis examines survival outcomes for children whose mothers die during or shortly after childbirth in Butajira, Ethiopia. Methods This study uses data from the Butajira Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) site. Child outcomes were assessed using statistical tests to compare survival trajectories and age-specific mortality rates for children who did and did not experience a maternal death. The analyses leveraged the advantages of a large, long-term longitudinal dataset with a high frequency of data collection; but used a strict date-based method to code maternal deaths (as occurring within 42 or 365 days of childbirth), which may be subject to misclassification or recall bias. Results Between 1987 and 2011, there were 18189 live births to 5119 mothers; and 73 mothers of 78 children died within the first year of their child’s life, with 45% of these (n=30) classified as maternal deaths due to women dying within 42 days of childbirth. Among the maternal deaths, 81% of these infants also died. Children who experienced a maternal death within 42 days of their birth faced 46 times greater risk of dying within one month when compared to babies whose mothers survived (95% confidence interval 25.84-81.92; or adjusted ratio, 57.24 with confidence interval 25.31-129.49). Conclusions When a woman in this study population experienced a maternal death, her infant was much more likely to die than to survive—and the survival trajectory of these children is far worse than those of mothers who do not die postpartum. This highlights the importance of investigating how clinical care and socio-economic support programs can better address the needs of orphans, both throughout the intra- and post-partum periods as well as over

  15. Role of Right Ventricular Global Longitudinal Strain in Predicting Early and Long-Term Mortality in Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Patients

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Vivien Klaudia; Széplaki, Gábor; Apor, Astrid; Kutyifa, Valentina; Kovács, Attila; Kosztin, Annamária; Becker, Dávid; Boros, András Mihály; Gellér, László; Merkely, Béla

    2015-01-01

    Background Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction has been associated with poor prognosis in chronic heart failure (HF). However, less data is available about the role of RV dysfunction in patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). We aimed to investigate if RV dysfunction would predict outcome in CRT. Design We enrolled prospectively ninety-three consecutive HF patients in this single center observational study. All patients underwent clinical evaluation and echocardiography before CRT and 6 months after implantation. We assessed RV geometry and function by using speckle tracking imaging and calculated strain parameters. We performed multivariable Cox regression models to test mortality at 6 months and at 24 months. Results RV dysfunction, characterized by decreased RVGLS (RV global longitudinal strain) [10.2 (7.0–12.8) vs. 19.5 (15.0–23.9) %, p<0.0001] and RVFWS (RV free wall strain) [15.6 (10.0–19.3) vs. 17.4 (10.5–22.2) %, p = 0.04], improved 6 months after CRT implantation. Increasing baseline RVGLS and RVFWS predicted survival independent of other parameters at 6 months [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.37 (0.15–0.90), p = 0.02 and HR = 0.42 (0.19–0.89), p = 0.02; per 1 standard deviation increase, respectively]. RVGLS proved to be a significant independent predictor of mortality at 24 months [HR = 0.53 (0.32–0.86), p = 0.01], and RVFWS showed a strong tendency [HR = 0.64 (0.40–1.00), p = 0.05]. The 24-month survival was significantly impaired in patients with RVGLS below 10.04% before CRT implantation [area under the curve = 0.72 (0.60–0.84), p = 0.002, log-rank p = 0.0008; HR = 5.23 (1.76–15.48), p = 0.003]. Conclusions Our findings indicate that baseline RV dysfunction is associated with poor short-term and long-term prognosis after CRT implantation. PMID:26700308

  16. Pathways to the Future, Vol. II. The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Labor Market Experience in 1980. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borus, Michael E., Ed.

    This report is based on data from the 1979 and 1980 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Labor Market Experience (NLS). These data were collected for a nationally representative sample of 12,686 youth in 1979 and 12,141 in 1980. Chapter One uses the longitudinal capability of the NLS to examine those youth who were unemployed at the…

  17. Evaluating the Quality of National Mortality Statistics from Civil Registration in South Africa, 1997–2007

    PubMed Central

    Joubert, Jané; Rao, Chalapati; Bradshaw, Debbie; Vos, Theo; Lopez, Alan D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Two World Health Organization comparative assessments rated the quality of South Africa’s 1996 mortality data as low. Since then, focussed initiatives were introduced to improve civil registration and vital statistics. Furthermore, South African cause-of-death data are widely used by research and international development agencies as the basis for making estimates of cause-specific mortality in many African countries. It is hence important to assess the quality of more recent South African data. Methods We employed nine criteria to evaluate the quality of civil registration mortality data. Four criteria were assessed by analysing 5.38 million deaths that occurred nationally from 1997–2007. For the remaining five criteria, we reviewed relevant legislation, data repositories, and reports to highlight developments which shaped the current status of these criteria. Findings National mortality statistics from civil registration were rated satisfactory for coverage and completeness of death registration, temporal consistency, age/sex classification, timeliness, and sub-national availability. Epidemiological consistency could not be assessed conclusively as the model lacks the discriminatory power to enable an assessment for South Africa. Selected studies and the extent of ill-defined/non-specific codes suggest substantial shortcomings with single-cause data. The latter criterion and content validity were rated unsatisfactory. Conclusion In a region marred by mortality data absences and deficiencies, this analysis signifies optimism by revealing considerable progress from a dysfunctional mortality data system to one that offers all-cause mortality data that can be adjusted for demographic and health analysis. Additionally, timely and disaggregated single-cause data are available, certified and coded according to international standards. However, without skillfully estimating adjustments for biases, a considerable confidence gap remains for single-cause data

  18. Mortality benefits of population-wide adherence to national physical activity guidelines: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Long, Gráinne; Watkinson, Clare; Brage, Søren; Morris, Jerry; Tuxworth, Bill; Fentem, Peter; Griffin, Simon; Simmons, Rebecca; Wareham, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    We quantified the mortality benefits and attributable fractions associated with engaging in physical activity across a range of levels, including those recommended by national guidelines. Data were from the Allied Dunbar National Fitness Survey, a population-based prospective cohort comprising 1,796 male and 2,122 female participants aged 16-96 years, randomly selected from 30 English constituencies in 1990. Participants were tagged for mortality at the Office for National Statistics. Cox multivariable regression quantified the association between self-reported achievement of activity guidelines--150 min of at least moderate activity per week, equivalent here to 30 or more 20-min episodes of at least moderate activity per month--and mortality adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, social class, geographical area, anxiety/depression and interview season. There were 1,175 deaths over a median (IQR) of 22.9 (3.9) years follow-up; a mortality rate of 15.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 14.4-16.1 per 1,000 person years. Compared with being inactive (no 20-min bouts per month), meeting activity guidelines (30+ bouts) was associated with a 25% lower mortality rate, adjusting for measured confounders. If everyone adhered to recommended-, or even low-activity levels, a substantial proportion of premature mortality might be avoided (PAF, 95% CI 20.6, 6.9-32.3 and 8.9, 4.2-13.4%, respectively). Among a representative English population, adherence to activity guidelines was associated with significantly reduced mortality. Efforts to increase population-wide activity levels could produce large public health benefits and should remain a focus of health promotion efforts. PMID:25377532

  19. Predictive Factors of Hospital Mortality Due to Myocardial Infarction: A Multilevel Analysis of Iran's National Data

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Ali; Soori, Hamid; Mehrabi, Yadollah; Etemad, Koorosh; Sajjadi, Homeira; Sadeghi, Mehraban

    2015-01-01

    Background: Regarding failure to establish the statistical presuppositions for analysis of the data by conventional approaches, hierarchical structure of the data as well as the effect of higher-level variables, this study was conducted to determine the factors independently associated with hospital mortality due to myocardial infarction (MI) in Iran using a multilevel analysis. Methods: This study was a national, hospital-based, and cross-sectional study. In this study, the data of 20750 new MI patients between April, 2012 and March, 2013 in Iran were used. The hospital mortality due to MI was considered as the dependent variable. The demographic data, clinical and behavioral risk factors at the individual level and environmental data were gathered. Multilevel logistic regression models with Stata software were used to analyze the data. Results: Within 1-year of study, the frequency (%) of hospital mortality within 30 days of admission was derived 2511 (12.1%) patients. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) of mortality with (95% confidence interval [CI]) was derived 2.07 (95% CI: 1.5–2.8) for right bundle branch block, 1.5 (95% CI: 1.3–1.7) for ST-segment elevation MI, 1.3 (95% CI: 1.1–1.4) for female gender, and 1.2 (95% CI: 1.1–1.3) for humidity, all of which were considered as risk factors of mortality. But, OR of mortality was 0.7 for precipitation (95% CI: 0.7–0.8) and 0.5 for angioplasty (95% CI: 0.4–0.6) were considered as protective factors of mortality. Conclusions: Individual risk factors had independent effects on the hospital mortality due to MI. Variables in the province level had no significant effect on the outcome of MI. Increasing access and quality to treatment could reduce the mortality due to MI. PMID:26730342

  20. Association of Thyroid Functional Disease With Mortality in a National Cohort of Incident Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Steven; Gillen, Daniel L.; Oztan, Tolga; Wang, Jiaxi; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Kuttykrishnan, Sooraj; Nguyen, Danh V.; Brunelli, Steven M.; Kovesdy, Csaba P.; Brent, Gregory A.; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2015-01-01

    Context: Hypothyroidism is a common condition that disproportionately affects hemodialysis patients. In the general population, hypothyroidism is associated with higher mortality, particularly in populations with underlying cardiovascular risk. Despite their heightened cardiovascular mortality, the impact of hypothyroidism on the survival of hemodialysis patients remains uncertain. Objective: To examine whether hypothyroidism is independently associated with higher mortality in hemodialysis patients. Design, Setting, and Patients: Among 8840 incident hemodialysis patients receiving care from a large national dialysis provider from January 2007 to December 2011, we examined the association of hypothyroidism (TSH >5.0 mIU/L) with mortality. Main Outcome Measures: Associations between baseline and time-dependent hypothyroidism with all-cause mortality were determined using case-mix adjusted Cox models. In secondary analyses, we examined the impact of low-normal, upper-normal, subclinical range, and overt range TSH levels (TSH ≥0.5–3.0, >3.0–5.0, >5.0–10.0, and >10.0 mIU/L, respectively) on mortality risk. Results: The study population consisted of 1928 (22%) hypothyroid and 6912 (78%) euthyroid patients. Baseline and time-dependent hypothyroidism were associated with higher mortality: adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 1.47 (1.34–1.61) and 1.62 (1.45–1.80), respectively. Compared to low-normal TSH, upper-normal, subclinical hypothyroid, and overt hypothyroid TSH levels were associated with incrementally higher adjusted death risk in baseline and time-dependent analyses. In time-dependent analyses, the hypothyroidism-mortality association was increasingly stronger across higher body mass index strata. Conclusions: Hypothyroidism as well as upper-normal TSH levels are associated with higher mortality in hemodialysis patients. Further studies are needed to determine whether restoration of TSH to low-normal levels with thyroid hormone

  1. Family Structure and Child Mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa: Cross-National Effects of Polygyny

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omariba, D. Walter Rasugu; Boyle, Michael H.

    2007-01-01

    This study applies multilevel logistic regression to Demographic and Health Survey data from 22 sub-Saharan African countries to examine whether the relationship between child mortality and family structure, with a specific emphasis on polygyny, varies cross-nationally and over time. Hypotheses were developed on the basis of competing theories on…

  2. Multinational Corporations, Democracy and Child Mortality: A Quantitative, Cross-National Analysis of Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shandra, John M.; Nobles, Jenna E.; London, Bruce; Williamson, John B.

    2005-01-01

    This study presents quantitative, sociological models designed to account for cross-national variation in child mortality. We consider variables linked to five different theoretical perspectives that include the economic modernization, social modernization, political modernization, ecological-evolutionary, and dependency perspectives. The study is…

  3. Screening Program Reduced Melanoma Mortality at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 1984-1996

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, MD, J S; II, PhD, D; MD, PhD, M

    2006-10-12

    Worldwide incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma has increased substantially, and no screening program has yet demonstrated reduction in mortality. We evaluated the education, self examination and targeted screening campaign at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) from its beginning in July 1984 through 1996. The thickness and crude incidence of melanoma from the years before the campaign were compared to those obtained during the 13 years of screening. Melanoma mortality during the 13-year period was based on a National Death Index search. Expected yearly deaths from melanoma among LLNL employees were calculated by using California mortality data matched by age, sex, and race/ethnicity and adjusted to exclude deaths from melanoma diagnosed before the program began or before employment at LLNL. After the program began, crude incidence of melanoma thicker than 0.75 mm decreased from 18 to 4 cases per 100,000 person-years (p = 0.02), while melanoma less than 0.75mm remained stable and in situ melanoma increased substantially. No eligible melanoma deaths occurred among LLNL employees during the screening period compared with a calculated 3.39 expected deaths (p = 0.034). Education, self examination and selective screening for melanoma at LLNL significantly decreased incidence of melanoma thicker than 0.75 mm and reduced the melanoma-related mortality rate to zero. This significant decrease in mortality rate persisted for at least 3 yr after employees retired or otherwise left the laboratory.

  4. Cadmium Exposure and Cancer Mortality in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Scott V.; Passarelli, Michael N.; Newcomb, Polly A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study examined prospective data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) cohort to investigate the relationship between cadmium exposure and cancer mortality, and the specific cancers associated with cadmium exposure, in the general population. Methods Vital status and cause of death through December 31, 2006 were obtained by the National Center for Health Statistics for NHANES III participants. Cadmium concentration of spot urine samples was measured, and corrected for urine creatinine. Weighted Cox proportional hazards regression with age as the time metric was applied to estimate sex-specific adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) of mortality associated with uCd for all cancers and the cancers responsible for the most deaths in the US. Estimates were stratified by smoking history and adjusted education, body mass index, and race. Results uCd was associated with cancer mortality (aHR per 2-fold higher uCd (95%CI), men: 1.26 (1.07–1.48)); women: 1.21 (1.04–1.42)). In men, mortality from lung, pancreatic cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphoma was associated with uCd; an association with leukemia mortality was suggested. In women, associations were suggested with mortality due to lung cancer, leukemia, ovarian, and uterine cancer, but evidence was weaker than in men. Conclusions Cadmium appears to be associated with overall cancer mortality in men and women, but the specific cancers associated differ between men and women, suggesting avenues for future research. Limitations of the study include the possibility of uncontrolled confounding by cigarette smoking or other factors, and the limited number of deaths due to some cancers. PMID:22068173

  5. Mortality in Adult Offspring of Immigrants: A Swedish National Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Manhica, Hélio; Toivanen, Susanna; Hjern, Anders; Rostila, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Background Higher risks of psychiatric disorders and lower-than-average subjective health in adulthood have been demonstrated in offspring of immigrants in Sweden compared with offspring of native Swedes, and linked to relative socioeconomic disadvantage. The present study investigated mortality rates in relation to this inequity from a gender perspective. Methods We used data from national registers covering the entire Swedish population aged 18-65 years. Offspring of foreign-born parents who were either Swedish born or had received residency in Sweden before school age (<7 years) were defined as “offspring of immigrants.” We used Cox regression models to examine the association between parental country of birth and mortality between 1990 and 2008, with adjustment for education, income, age and family type. Results Male offspring of immigrants from the Middle East (HR:2.00, CI:1.66-2.26), other non-European countries (HR:1.80, CI:1.36-2.36) and Finland (HR:1.56, CI:1.48-1.65) showed an age-adjusted excess mortality risk from all causes of death when compared to offspring with Swedish-born parents. Income, but not education, greatly attenuated these increased mortality risks. No excess mortality rates were found among female offspring of immigrants, with the exception of external cause of death among offspring of Finnish immigrants. Conclusion The study demonstrates high mortality rates in male offspring of immigrants from Finland and non-European countries that are associated with economic, but not educational, disadvantage. No increased mortality rates were found among female offspring of immigrants. Future studies are needed to explain this gender differential and why income, but not education, predicts mortality in male offspring of immigrants. PMID:25706297

  6. Incident Subjective Cognitive Decline Does Not Predict Mortality in the Elderly – Results from the Longitudinal German Study on Ageing, Cognition, and Dementia (AgeCoDe)

    PubMed Central

    Roehr, Susanne; Luck, Tobias; Heser, Kathrin; Fuchs, Angela; Ernst, Annette; Wiese, Birgitt; Werle, Jochen; Bickel, Horst; Brettschneider, Christian; Koppara, Alexander; Pentzek, Michael; Lange, Carolin; Prokein, Jana; Weyerer, Siegfried; Mösch, Edelgard; König, Hans-Helmut; Maier, Wolfgang; Scherer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objective Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) might represent the first symptomatic representation of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), which is associated with increased mortality. Only few studies, however, have analyzed the association of SCD and mortality, and if so, based on prevalent cases. Thus, we investigated incident SCD in memory and mortality. Methods Data were derived from the German AgeCoDe study, a prospective longitudinal study on the epidemiology of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia in primary care patients over 75 years covering an observation period of 7.5 years. We used univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses to examine the relationship of SCD and mortality. Further, we estimated survival times by the Kaplan Meier method and case-fatality rates with regard to SCD. Results Among 971 individuals without objective cognitive impairment, 233 (24.0%) incidentally expressed SCD at follow-up I. Incident SCD was not significantly associated with increased mortality in the univariate (HR = 1.0, 95% confidence interval = 0.8–1.3, p = .90) as well as in the multivariate analysis (HR = 0.9, 95% confidence interval = 0.7–1.2, p = .40). The same applied for SCD in relation to concerns. Mean survival time with SCD was 8.0 years (SD = 0.1) after onset. Conclusion Incident SCD in memory in individuals with unimpaired cognitive performance does not predict mortality. The main reason might be that SCD does not ultimately lead into future cognitive decline in any case. However, as prevalence studies suggest, subjectively perceived decline in non-memory cognitive domains might be associated with increased mortality. Future studies may address mortality in such other cognitive domains of SCD in incident cases. PMID:26766555

  7. Surveying the Nation: Longitudinal Surveys and the Construction of National Solutions to Educational Inequity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutt, Ethan L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the origins and influences of the introduction of longitudinal student data-sets as a way of gaining insight into the operation of American schools and as a tool for policy-makers. The paper argues that the creation of this new form of data in the 1960s and 1970s represented a relatively new way of thinking about American…

  8. Causes of mortality in sea ducks (Mergini) necropsied at the USGS-National Wildlife Health Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skerratt, L.F.; Franson, J.C.; Meteyer, C.U.; Hollmén, Tuula E.

    2005-01-01

    A number of factors were identified as causes of mortality in 254 (59%) of 431 sea ducks submitted for necropsy at the USGS-National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, Wisconsin from 1975 until 2003. Bacteria causing large outbreaks of mortality were Pasteurella multocida and Clostridium botulinum Type E. Starvation was responsible for large mortality events as well as sporadic deaths of individuals. Lead toxicity, gunshot and exposure to petroleum were important anthropogenic factors. Other factors that caused mortality were avian pox virus, bacteria (Clostridium botulinum Type C, Riemerella anatipestifer and Clostridium perfringens), fungi (Aspergillus fumigatus and an unidentified fungus), protozoans (unidentified coccidia), nematodes (Eustrongylides spp.), trematodes (Sphaeridiotrema globulus and Schistosoma spp.), acanthocephalans (Polymorphus spp.), predation, cyanide and trauma (probably due to collisions). There were also a number of novel infectious organisms in free-living sea ducks in North America, which were incidental to the death, including avipoxvirus and reovirus, bacteria Mycobacterium avium, protozoans Sarcocystis sp. and nematodes Streptocara sp. Apart from anthropogenic factors, the other important mortality factors listed here have not been studied as possible causes for the decline of sea ducks in North America.

  9. Mixed conifer forest mortality and establishment before and after prescribed fire in Sequoia National Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mutch, L.S.; Parsons, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    Pre-and post-burn tree mortality rates, size structure, basal area, and ingrowth were determined for four 1.0 ha mixed conifer forest stands in the Log Creek and Tharp's Creek watersheds of Sequoia National Park. Mean annual mortality between 1986 and 1990 was 0.8% for both watersheds. In the fall of 1990, the Tharp's Creek watershed was treated with a prescribed burn. Between 1991 and 1995, mean annual mortality was 1.4% in the unburned Log Creek watershed and 17.2% in the burned Tharp's Creek watershed. A drought from 1987 to 1992 likely contributed to the mortality increase in the Log Creek watershed. The high mortality in the Tharp's Creek watershed was primarily related to crown scorch from the 1990 fire and was modeled with logistic regression for white fir (Abies concolor [Gord. and Glend.]) and sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana [Dougl.]). From 1989 to 1994, basal area declined an average of 5% per year in the burned Tharp's Creek watershed, compared to average annual increases of less than 1% per year in the unburned Log Creek watershed and in the Tharp's watershed prior to burning. Post-burn size structure was dramatically changed in the Tharp's Creek stands: 75% of trees ???50 cm and 25% of trees >50 cm were killed by the fire.

  10. Birth Outcomes and Infant Mortality by the Degree of Rural Isolation among First Nations and Non-First Nations in Manitoba, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Zhong-Cheng; Wilkins, Russell; Heaman, Maureen; Martens, Patricia; Smylie, Janet; Hart, Lyna; Simonet, Fabienne; Wassimi, Spogmai; Wu, Yuquan; Fraser, William D.

    2010-01-01

    Context: It is unknown whether rural isolation may affect birth outcomes and infant mortality differentially for Indigenous versus non-Indigenous populations. We assessed birth outcomes and infant mortality by the degree of rural isolation among First Nations (North American Indians) and non-First Nations populations in Manitoba, Canada, a setting…

  11. Can Two Tongues Live in Harmony: Analysis of the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS88) Longitudinal Data on the Maintenance of Home Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Marsh, Herbert W.; Suliman, Rosemary

    2000-01-01

    Used data from the National Education Longitudinal Study to examine the relationships among first language (not English), maintenance of that home language, English proficiency, and academic achievement. Results do not support speculation that home language proficiency would have persistent negative effects on English and other academic outcomes…

  12. Mortality Associations with Long-Term Exposure to Outdoor Air Pollution in a National English Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Iain M.; Kent, Andrew J.; van Staa, Tjeerd; Cook, Derek G.; Anderson, H. Ross

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Cohort evidence linking long-term exposure to outdoor particulate air pollution and mortality has come largely from the United States. There is relatively little evidence from nationally representative cohorts in other countries. Objectives: To investigate the relationship between long-term exposure to a range of pollutants and causes of death in a national English cohort. Methods: A total of 835,607 patients aged 40–89 years registered with 205 general practices were followed from 2003–2007. Annual average concentrations in 2002 for particulate matter with a median aerodynamic diameter less than 10 (PM10) and less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone, and sulfur dioxide (SO2) at 1 km2 resolution, estimated from emission-based models, were linked to residential postcode. Deaths (n = 83,103) were ascertained from linkage to death certificates, and hazard ratios (HRs) for all- and cause-specific mortality for pollutants were estimated for interquartile pollutant changes from Cox models adjusting for age, sex, smoking, body mass index, and area-level socioeconomic status markers. Measurements and Main Results: Residential concentrations of all pollutants except ozone were positively associated with all-cause mortality (HR, 1.02, 1.03, and 1.04 for PM2.5, NO2, and SO2, respectively). Associations for PM2.5, NO2, and SO2 were larger for respiratory deaths (HR, 1.09 each) and lung cancer (HR, 1.02, 1.06, and 1.05) but nearer unity for cardiovascular deaths (1.00, 1.00, and 1.04). Conclusions: These results strengthen the evidence linking long-term ambient air pollution exposure to increased all-cause mortality. However, the stronger associations with respiratory mortality are not consistent with most US studies in which associations with cardiovascular causes of death tend to predominate. PMID:23590261

  13. The neuropsychological underpinnings to psychopathic personality traits in a nationally representative and longitudinal sample.

    PubMed

    Beaver, Kevin M; Vaughn, Michael G; DeLisi, Matt; Barnes, J C; Boutwell, Brian B

    2012-06-01

    Although psychopathy is a major area of research in psychology and criminology, much remains unknown about its etiological underpinnings. Drawing on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the current study explored the association between neuropsychological deficits and psychopathic personality traits and produced three key findings. First, four neuropsychological deficits measures were consistently related to the measure of psychopathic personality traits both longitudinally and cross-sectionally. Second, neuropsychological deficits measures predicted variation in psychopathic personality traits for both males and females and the magnitude of the association between neuropsychological deficits and psychopathic personality traits did not vary as a function of gender. Third, parental socialization measures had relatively small and inconsistent effects on psychopathic personality traits. Suggestions for future research are offered. PMID:21879360

  14. Cancer incidence, mortality, and stage at diagnosis in First Nations living in Manitoba

    PubMed Central

    Decker, K.M.; Kliewer, E.V.; Demers, A.A.; Fradette, K.; Biswanger, N.; Musto, G.; Elias, B.; Turner, D.

    2016-01-01

    Background In the present study, we examined breast (bca) and colorectal cancer (crc) incidence and mortality and stage at diagnosis for First Nations (fn) individuals and all other Manitobans (aoms). Methods Several population-based databases were linked to determine ethnicity and to calculate age-standardized incidence and mortality rates. Logistic regression was used to compare bca and crc stage at diagnosis. Results From 1984–1988 to 2004–2008, the incidence of bca increased for fn and aom women. Breast cancer mortality increased for fn women and decreased for aom women. First Nations women were significantly more likely than aom women to be diagnosed at stages iii–iv than at stage i [odds ratio (or) for women ≤50 years of age: 3.11; 95% confidence limits (cl): 1.20, 8.06; or for women 50–69 years of age: 1.72; 95% cl: 1.03, 2.88). The incidence and mortality of crc increased for fn individuals, but decreased for aoms. First Nations status was not significantly associated with crc stage at diagnosis (or for stages i–ii compared with stages iii–iv: 0.98; 95% cl: 0.68, 1.41; or for stages i–iii compared with stage iv: 0.91; 95% cl: 0.59, 1.40). Conclusions Our results underscore the need for improved cancer screening participation and targeted initiatives that emphasis collaboration with fn communities to reduce barriers to screening and to promote healthy lifestyles. PMID:27536172

  15. Factors Associated With Mortality of Thyroid Storm: Analysis Using a National Inpatient Database in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ono, Yosuke; Ono, Sachiko; Yasunaga, Hideo; Matsui, Hiroki; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Tanaka, Yuji

    2016-02-01

    Thyroid storm is a life-threatening and emergent manifestation of thyrotoxicosis. However, predictive features associated with fatal outcomes in this crisis have not been clearly defined because of its rarity. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations of patient characteristics, treatments, and comorbidities with in-hospital mortality. We conducted a retrospective observational study of patients diagnosed with thyroid storm using a national inpatient database in Japan from April 1, 2011 to March 31, 2014. Of approximately 21 million inpatients in the database, we identified 1324 patients diagnosed with thyroid storm. The mean (standard deviation) age was 47 (18) years, and 943 (71.3%) patients were female. The overall in-hospital mortality was 10.1%. The number of patients was highest in the summer season. The most common comorbidity at admission was cardiovascular diseases (46.6%). Multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that higher mortality was significantly associated with older age (≥60 years), central nervous system dysfunction at admission, nonuse of antithyroid drugs and β-blockade, and requirement for mechanical ventilation and therapeutic plasma exchange combined with hemodialysis. The present study identified clinical features associated with mortality of thyroid storm using large-scale data. Physicians should pay special attention to older patients with thyrotoxicosis and coexisting central nervous system dysfunction. Future prospective studies are needed to clarify treatment options that could improve the survival outcomes of thyroid storm. PMID:26886648

  16. Oral cancer: the association between nation-based alcohol-drinking profiles and oral cancer mortality.

    PubMed

    Petti, Stefano; Scully, Crispian

    2005-09-01

    The unclear association between different nation-based alcohol-drinking profiles and oral cancer mortality was investigated using, as observational units, 20 countries from Europe, Northern America, Far Eastern Asia, with cross-nationally comparable data. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were run with male age-standardised, mortality rate (ASMR) as explanatory variable and annual adult alcohol consumption, adult smoking prevalence, life expectancy, as explanatory. Large between-country differences in ASMR (range, 0.88-6.87 per 100,000) were found, but the mean value was similar to the global estimate (3.31 vs. 3.09 per 100,000). Differences in alcohol consumption (2.06-21.03 annual litres per capita) and in distribution between beverages were reported. Wine was the most prevalent alcoholic beverage in 45% of cases. Significant increases in ASMR for every litre of pure ethanol (0.15 per 100,000; 95 CI, 0.01-0.29) and spirits (0.26 per 100,000; 95 CI, 0.03-0.49), non-significant effects for beer and wine were estimated. The impact of alcohol on oral cancer deaths would be higher than expected and the drinking profile could affect cancer mortality, probably because of the different drinking pattern of spirit drinkers, usually consuming huge alcohol quantities on single occasions, and the different concentrations of ethanol and cancer-preventing compounds such as polyphenols, in the various beverages. PMID:15979385

  17. Comparison of National Operative Mortality in Gastroenterological Surgery Using Web-based Prospective Data Entry Systems.

    PubMed

    Anazawa, Takayuki; Paruch, Jennifer L; Miyata, Hiroaki; Gotoh, Mitsukazu; Ko, Clifford Y; Cohen, Mark E; Hirahara, Norimichi; Zhou, Lynn; Konno, Hiroyuki; Wakabayashi, Go; Sugihara, Kenichi; Mori, Masaki

    2015-12-01

    International collaboration is important in healthcare quality evaluation; however, few international comparisons of general surgery outcomes have been accomplished. Furthermore, predictive model application for risk stratification has not been internationally evaluated. The National Clinical Database (NCD) in Japan was developed in collaboration with the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP), with a goal of creating a standardized surgery database for quality improvement. The study aimed to compare the consistency and impact of risk factors of 3 major gastroenterological surgical procedures in Japan and the United States (US) using web-based prospective data entry systems: right hemicolectomy (RH), low anterior resection (LAR), and pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD).Data from NCD and ACS-NSQIP, collected over 2 years, were examined. Logistic regression models were used for predicting 30-day mortality for both countries. Models were exchanged and evaluated to determine whether the models built for one population were accurate for the other population.We obtained data for 113,980 patients; 50,501 (Japan: 34,638; US: 15,863), 42,770 (Japan: 35,445; US: 7325), and 20,709 (Japan: 15,527; US: 5182) underwent RH, LAR, and, PD, respectively. Thirty-day mortality rates for RH were 0.76% (Japan) and 1.88% (US); rates for LAR were 0.43% versus 1.08%; and rates for PD were 1.35% versus 2.57%. Patient background, comorbidities, and practice style were different between Japan and the US. In the models, the odds ratio for each variable was similar between NCD and ACS-NSQIP. Local risk models could predict mortality using local data, but could not accurately predict mortality using data from other countries.We demonstrated the feasibility and efficacy of the international collaborative research between Japan and the US, but found that local risk models remain essential for quality improvement. PMID:26656350

  18. Maternal Mortality in India: Causes and Healthcare Service Use Based on a Nationally Representative Survey

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Ann L.; Ram, Usha; Kumar, Rajesh; Jha, Prabhat

    2014-01-01

    Background Data on cause-specific mortality, skilled birth attendance, and emergency obstetric care access are essential to plan maternity services. We present the distribution of India's 2001–2003 maternal mortality by cause and uptake of emergency obstetric care, in poorer and richer states. Methods and Findings The Registrar General of India surveyed all deaths occurring in 2001–2003 in 1.1 million nationally representative homes. Field staff interviewed household members about events that preceded the death. Two physicians independently assigned a cause of death. Narratives for all maternal deaths were coded for variables on healthcare uptake. Distribution of number of maternal deaths, cause-specific mortality and uptake of healthcare indicators were compared for poorer and richer states. There were 10 041 all-cause deaths in women age 15–49 years, of which 1096 (11.1%) were maternal deaths. Based on 2004–2006 SRS national MMR estimates of 254 deaths per 100 000 live births, we estimated rural areas of poorer states had the highest MMR (397, 95%CI 385–410) compared to the lowest MMR in urban areas of richer states (115, 95%CI 85–146). We estimated 69 400 maternal deaths in India in 2005. Three-quarters of maternal deaths were clustered in rural areas of poorer states, although these regions have only half the estimated live births in India. Most maternal deaths were attributed to direct obstetric causes (82%). There was no difference in the major causes of maternal deaths between poorer and richer states. Two-thirds of women died seeking some form of healthcare, most seeking care in a critical medical condition. Rural areas of poorer states had proportionately lower access and utilization to healthcare services than the urban areas; however this rural-urban difference was not seen in richer states. Conclusions Maternal mortality and poor access to healthcare is disproportionately higher in rural populations of the poorer states of India. PMID

  19. Social integration and maternal smoking: A longitudinal analysis of a national birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Mumford, Elizabeth A; Liu, Weiwei

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Social support and engagement are related to smoking behavior in general populations, but it is unknown whether these measures of social integration as experienced by recent mothers are related to longitudinal maternal smoking patterns. The purpose of this study is, first, to describe longitudinal patterns of maternal smoking before, during, and after pregnancy through the early childhood parenting years, as well as variation in these patterns; and second, to examine these patterns in relation to social integration, emotional, behavioral, and sociodemographic factors. Methods Among 9,050 mothers of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (a nationally representative probability sample of children born in 2001), we estimated trajectories of maternal smoking with general growth mixture model (GGMM), and examined how baseline predictors are associated with these patterns over a 5 to 6 year period beginning three months prior to pregnancy. Results A 5-class solution identified trajectories of nonsmokers (70.5%), temporary quitters (9.4%), pregnancy-inspired quitters (3.3%), delayed initiators (5.1%), and persistent smokers (11.7%). Modifiable risk factors included postpartum alcohol consumption and behavioral cues from co-resident smokers, while breastfeeding beyond six months and social engagement through religious service attendance were protective characteristics. Conclusions Prevention of and treatment for maternal perinatal and postpartum smoking is best informed by mothers’ emotional, behavioral and sociodemographic characteristics. Religious service attendance, but not measures of social support or social engagement, is a protective factor for maternal smoking trajectories. PMID:26987858

  20. Measuring Personality in Wave I of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

    PubMed Central

    Young, J. Kenneth; Beaujean, and A. Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The researchers sought to develop a personality measure from items in Wave I of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The study found 13 items from three dimensions of personality (neuroticism, extroversion, and conscientiousness), and then examined the factor structure and internal consistency of each of the three dimensions. Within each personality dimension, the items showed a unidimensional factor structure and internal consistency estimates of the summed similar to scores from NEO Personality Inventories. The results can be used to further examine how child/adolescent personality is related to multiple mental and physical health outcomes in the Add Health database. PMID:21808628

  1. Mortality and causes of death among violent offenders and victims-a Swedish population based longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Most previous studies on mortality in violent offenders or victims are based on prison or hospital samples, while this study analyzed overall and cause specific mortality among violent offenders, victims, and individuals who were both offenders and victims in a general sample of 48,834 18-20 year-old men conscripted for military service in 1969/70 in Sweden. Methods Each person completed two non-anonymous questionnaires concerning family, psychological, and behavioral factors. The cohort was followed for 35 years through official registers regarding violent offenses, victimization, and mortality. The impact of violence, victimization, early risk factors and hospitalization for psychiatric diagnosis or alcohol and drug misuse during follow up on mortality was investigated using Cox proportional hazard regression analyses. Results Repeat violent offenses were associated with an eleven fold higher hazard of dying from a substance-related cause and nearly fourfold higher hazard of dying from suicide. These figures remained significantly elevated also in multivariate analyses, with a 3.03 and 2.39 hazard ratio (HR), respectively. Participants with experience of violence and inpatient care for substance abuse or psychiatric disorder had about a two to threefold higher risk of dying compared to participants with no substance use or psychiatric disorder. Conclusions Violent offending and being victimized are associated with excess mortality and a risk of dying from an alcohol or drug-related cause or suicide. Consequently, prevention of violent behavior might have an effect on overall mortality and suicide rates. Prevention of alcohol and drug use is also warranted. PMID:22251445

  2. The National Rural Health Mission in India: its impact on maternal, neonatal, and infant mortality.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Shyama; Paul, Vinod K; Yadav, Namrata; Gupta, Shuchita

    2015-10-01

    The National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) has been a watershed in the history of India's health sector. As a previously unattempted investment, governance, and mobilization effort, the NRHM succeeded in injecting new energy into India's public health system. A huge expansion of infrastructure and human resources is the hallmark of the NRHM action. Demand-side initiatives led to enhanced utilization of public health facilities, especially for facility births. The impact is visible. The Mission has brought Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 within India's grasp. Acceleration in infant and neonatal mortality reduction is especially notable. The NRHM has created conditions for the country to move toward universal health coverage. PMID:26385051

  3. Do Hassles Mediate between Life Events and Mortality in Older Men? Longitudinal Findings from the VA Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Aldwin, Carolyn M.; Jeong, Yu-Jin; Igarashi, Heidi; Choun, Soyoung; Spiro, Avron

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether hassles mediated the effect of life events on mortality in a sample of 1,293 men (Mage = 65.58, SD = 7.01), participants in the VA Normative Aging Study. We utilized measures of stressful life event (SLE) and hassles from 1989 to 2004, and men were followed for mortality until 2010. For life events and hassles, previous research identified three and four patterns of change over time, respectively, generally indicating low, moderate, and high trajectories, with one moderate, non-linear pattern for hassles (shallow U curve). Controlling for demographics and health behaviors, we found that those with moderate SLE trajectories (38%) more likely to die than those with low SLE trajectories, HR = 1.42, 95% CI [1.16, 3.45]. Including the hassles classes showed that those with the moderate non-linear hassles trajectory were 63% more likely to die than those with low hassles trajectory, HR = 1.63, 95% CI [1.19, 2.23],, while those with consistently high hassles trajectory were over 3 times more likely to die, HR = 3.30, 95% CI [1.58, 6.89]. However, the HR for moderate SLE trajectory decreased only slightly to 1.38, 95% CI [1.13, 1.68], suggesting that the two types of stress have largely independent effects on mortality. Research is needed to determine the physiological and behavioral pathways through which SLE and hassles differentially affect mortality. PMID:24995936

  4. Mortality Benefit of a Fourth-Generation Synchronous Telehealth Program for the Management of Chronic Cardiovascular Disease: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Chi-Sheng; Yu, Jiun-Yu; Lin, Yen-Hung; Chen, Ying-Hsien; Huang, Ching-Chang; Lee, Jen-Kuang; Chuang, Pao-Yu; Chen, Ming-Fong

    2016-01-01

    Background We have shown that a fourth-generation telehealth program that analyzes and responds synchronously to data transferred from patients is associated with fewer hospitalizations and lower medical costs. Whether a fourth-generation telehealth program can reduce all-cause mortality has not yet been reported for patients with chronic cardiovascular disease. Objective We conducted a clinical epidemiology study retrospectively to determine whether a fourth-generation telehealth program can reduce all-cause mortality for patients with chronic cardiovascular disease. Methods We enrolled 576 patients who had joined a telehealth program and compared them with 1178 control patients. A Cox proportional hazards model was fitted to analyze the impact of risk predictors on all-cause mortality. The model adjusted for age, sex, and chronic comorbidities. Results There were 53 (9.3%) deaths in the telehealth group and 136 (11.54%) deaths in the control group. We found that the telehealth program violated the proportional hazards assumption by the Schoenfeld residual test. Thus, we fitted a Cox regression model with time-varying covariates. The results showed an estimated hazard ratio (HR) of 0.866 (95% CI 0.837-0.896, P<.001; number needed to treat at 1 year=55.6, 95% CI 43.2-75.7 based on HR of telehealth program) for the telehealth program on all-cause mortality after adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities. The time-varying interaction term in this analysis showed that the beneficial effect of telehealth would increase over time. Conclusions The results suggest that our fourth-generation telehealth program is associated with less all-cause mortality compared with usual care after adjusting for chronic comorbidities. PMID:27177497

  5. Dengue in Malaysia: Factors Associated with Dengue Mortality from a National Registry

    PubMed Central

    Suli, Zailiza; Mudin, Rose Nani; Goh, Pik Pin; Chinna, Karuthan

    2016-01-01

    Background The increasing incidence and geographical distribution of dengue has had significant impact on global healthcare services and resources. This study aimed to determine the factors associated with dengue-related mortality in a cohort of Malaysian patients. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of patients in the Malaysian National Dengue Registry of 2013. The outcome measure was dengue-related mortality. Associations between sociodemographic and clinical variables with the outcome were analysed using multivariate analysis. Results There were 43 347 cases of which 13081 were serologically confirmed. The mean age was 30.0 years (SD 15.7); 60.2% were male. The incidence of dengue increased towards the later part of the calendar year. There were 92 probable dengue mortalities, of which 41 were serologically confirmed. Multivariate analysis in those with positive serology showed that increasing age (OR 1.03; CI:1.01–1.05), persistent vomiting (OR 13.34; CI: 1.92–92.95), bleeding (OR 5.84; CI 2.17–15.70) and severe plasma leakage (OR 66.68; CI: 9.13–487.23) were associated with mortality. Factors associated with probable dengue mortality were increasing age (OR 1.04; CI:1.03–1.06), female gender (OR 1.53; CI:1.01–2.33), nausea and/or vomiting (OR 1.80; CI:1.17–2.77), bleeding (OR 3.01; CI:1.29–7.04), lethargy and/or restlessness (OR 5.97; CI:2.26–15.78), severe plasma leakage (OR 14.72; CI:1.54–140.70), and shock (OR 1805.37; CI:125.44–25982.98), in the overall study population. Conclusions Older persons and those with persistent vomiting, bleeding or severe plasma leakage, which were associated with mortality, at notification should be monitored closely and referred early if indicated. Doctors and primary care practitioners need to detect patients with dengue early before they develop these severe signs and symptoms. PMID:27336440

  6. Status Variations in Alcohol Use among Young Adults: Results from the 1984 National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Joan E.

    This document gives descriptive results on alcohol use patterns among young adults from the 1984 National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market of Youth, a survey of a large, nationally representative sample supplemented by samples of blacks, Hispanics, and economically disadvantaged non-black, non-Hispanic youth and covering the entire range of…

  7. The Intergenerational Effects of Fatherlessness on Educational Attainment and Entry-Level Wages. National Longitudinal Surveys Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grogger, Jeff; Ronan, Nick

    The effects of fatherlessness on children's educational attainment and entry-level wages were examined through a method-of-moments analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), a national panel study of 12,686 youths who were aged 14-22 in 1979. Two special features of the NLSY were used: its subsample of siblings and its…

  8. Causes of mortality in eagles submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center 1975-2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Russell, Robin E.; Franson, J. Christian

    2014-01-01

    We summarized the cause of death for 2,980 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and 1,427 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center in Madison, Wisconsin, USA, for diagnosis between 1975 and the beginning of 2013. We compared the proportion of eagles with a primary diagnosis as electrocuted, emaciated, traumatized, shot or trapped, diseased, poisoned, other, and undetermined among the 4 migratory bird flyways of the United States (Atlantic, Mississippi, Central, and Pacific). Additionally, we compared the proportion of lead-poisoned bald eagles submitted before and after the autumn 1991 ban on lead shot for waterfowl hunting. Trauma and poisonings (including lead poisoning) were the leading causes of death for bald eagles throughout the study period, and a greater proportion of bald eagles versus golden eagles were diagnosed as poisoned. For golden eagles, the major causes of mortality were trauma and electrocution. The proportion of lead poisoning diagnoses for bald eagles submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center displayed a statistically significant increase in all flyways after the autumn 1991 ban on the use of lead shot for waterfowl hunting. Thus, lead poisoning was a significant cause of mortality in our necropsied eagles, suggesting a continued need to evaluate the trade-offs of lead ammunition for use on game other than waterfowl versus the impacts of lead on wildlife populations. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. Active social participation and mortality risk among older people in Japan: results from a nationally representative sample.

    PubMed

    Minagawa, Yuka; Saito, Yasuhiko

    2015-07-01

    A large literature suggests that active social participation contributes to the well-being of older people. Japan provides a compelling context to test this hypothesis due to its rapidly growing elderly population and the phenomenal health of the population. Using the Nihon University Japanese Longitudinal Study of Aging, this study examines how social participation, measured by group membership, is related to the risk of overall mortality among Japanese elders aged 65 and older. Results from Cox proportional hazards models show that group affiliation confers advantages against mortality risk, even after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, physical health measures, and family relationship variables. In particular, activities geared more toward self-development, such as postretirement employment and lifelong learning, are strongly associated with lower levels of mortality. Findings suggest that continued social participation at advanced ages produces positive health consequences, highlighting the importance of active aging in achieving successful aging in the Japanese context. PMID:25651580

  10. Longitudinal Blood Pressure Control, Long-Term Mortality, and Predictive Utility of Serum Liver Enzymes and Bilirubin in Hypertensive Patients.

    PubMed

    McCallum, Linsay; Panniyammakal, Jeemon; Hastie, Claire E; Hewitt, Jonathan; Patel, Rajan; Jones, Gregory C; Muir, Scott; Walters, Matthew; Sattar, Naveed; Dominiczak, Anna F; Padmanabhan, Sandosh

    2015-07-01

    There is accruing evidence from general population studies that serum bilirubin and liver enzymes affect blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular risk, but it is unclear whether these have an impact on hypertensive patients in terms of long-term survival or BP control. We analyzed 12 000 treated hypertensive individuals attending a tertiary care clinic followed up for 35 years for association between baseline liver function tests and cause-specific mortality after adjustment for conventional cardiovascular covariates. Generalized estimating equations were used to study the association of liver tests and follow-up BP. The total time at risk was 173 806 person years with median survival 32.3 years. Follow-up systolic BP over 5 years changed by -0.4 (alanine transaminase and bilirubin), +2.1(alkaline phosphatase), +0.9(γ-glutamyl transpeptidase) mm Hg for each standard deviation increase. Serum total bilirubin and alanine transaminase showed a significant negative association with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, whereas alkaline phosphatase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase showed a positive association and aspartate transaminase showed a U-shapedassociation. Serum bilirubin showed an incremental improvement of continuous net reclassification improvement by 8% to 26% for 25 year and 35 year cardiovascular mortality, whereas all liver markers together improved continuous net reclassification improvement by 19% to 47% compared with reference model. In hypertensive patients, serum liver enzymes and bilirubin within 4 standard deviations of the mean show independent effects on mortality and BP control. Our findings would support further studies to elucidate the mechanisms by which liver enzymes and bilirubin may exert an effect on BP and cardiovascular risk, but there is little support for using them in risk stratification. PMID:25941342

  11. Longitudinal Association of Registered Nurse National Nursing Specialty Certification and Patient Falls in Acute Care Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Diane K.; Cramer, Emily; Potter, Catima; Staggs, Vincent S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Researchers have studied inpatient falls in relation to aspects of nurse staffing, focusing primarily on staffing levels and proportion of nursing care hours provided by registered nurses (RNs). Less attention has been paid to other nursing characteristics, such as RN national nursing specialty certification. Objective The aim of the study was to examine the relationship over time between changes in RN national nursing specialty certification rates and changes in total patient fall rates at the patient care unit level. Methods We used longitudinal data with standardized variable definitions across sites from the National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators. The sample consisted of 7,583 units in 903 hospitals. Relationships over time were examined using multilevel (units nested in hospitals) latent growth curve modeling. Results The model indices indicated a good fit of the data to the model. At the unit level, there was a small statistically significant inverse relationship (r = −.08, p = .04) between RN national nursing specialty certification rates and total fall rates; increases in specialty certification rates over time tended to be associated with improvements in total fall rates over time. Discussion Our findings may be supportive of promoting national nursing specialty certification as a means of improving patient safety. Future study recommendations are (a) modeling organizational leadership, culture, and climate as mediating variables between national specialty certification rates and patient outcomes and (b) investigating the association of patient safety and specific national nursing specialty certifications which test plans include patient safety, quality improvement, and diffusion of innovation methods in their certifying examinations. PMID:26049719

  12. Social Integration and Maternal Smoking: A Longitudinal Analysis of a National Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Mumford, Elizabeth A; Liu, Weiwei

    2016-08-01

    Objectives Social support and engagement are related to smoking behavior in general populations, but it is unknown whether these measures of social integration as experienced by recent mothers are related to longitudinal maternal smoking patterns. The purpose of this study is, first, to describe longitudinal patterns of maternal smoking before, during, and after pregnancy through the early childhood parenting years, as well as variation in these patterns; and second, to examine these patterns in relation to social integration, emotional, behavioral, and sociodemographic factors. Methods Among 9050 mothers of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (a nationally representative probability sample of children born in 2001), we estimated trajectories of maternal smoking with a general growth mixture model and examined how baseline predictors are associated with these patterns over a 5-6 year period beginning 3 months prior to pregnancy. Results A 5-class solution identified trajectories of nonsmokers (70.5 %), temporary quitters (9.4 %), pregnancy-inspired quitters (3.3 %), delayed initiators (5.1 %), and persistent smokers (11.7 %). Modifiable risk factors included postpartum alcohol consumption and behavioral cues from co-resident smokers, while breastfeeding beyond 6 months and social engagement through religious service attendance were protective characteristics. Conclusions for Practice Prevention of and treatment for maternal perinatal and postpartum smoking is best informed by mothers' emotional, behavioral and sociodemographic characteristics. Religious service attendance, but not measures of social support or social engagement, was a protective factor for maternal smoking trajectories. PMID:26987858

  13. Rotavirus mortality in India: estimates based on a nationally representative survey of diarrhoeal deaths

    PubMed Central

    Awasthi, Shally; Khera, Ajay; Bassani, Diego G; Kang, Gagandeep; Parashar, Umesh D; Kumar, Rajesh; Shet, Anita; Glass, Roger I; Jha, Prabhat

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the number of rotavirus-associated deaths among Indian children younger than five years. Methods We surveyed more than 23 000 child deaths from a nationally representative survey of 1.1 million Indian households during 2001–2003. Diarrhoeal deaths were characterized by region, age and sex and were combined with the proportion of deaths attributable to rotavirus, as determined by hospital microbiologic data collected by the Indian Rotavirus Strain Surveillance Network from December 2005 to November 2007. Rotavirus vaccine efficacy data from clinical trials in developing countries were used to estimate the number of deaths preventable by a national vaccination programme. Data were analysed using Stata SE version 10. Findings Rotavirus caused an estimated 113 000 deaths (99% confidence interval, CI: 86 000–155 000); 50% (54 700) and 75% (85 400) occurred before one and two years of age, respectively. One child in 242 died from rotavirus infection before five years of age. Rotavirus-associated mortality rates overall, among girls and among boys were 4.14 (99% CI: 3.14–5.68), 4.89 (99% CI: 3.75–6.79) and 3.45 (99% CI: 2.58–4.66) deaths per 1000 live births, respectively. Rates were highest in Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, which together accounted for > 50% of deaths (64 400) nationally. Rotavirus vaccine could prevent 41 000–48 000 deaths among children aged 3–59 months. Conclusion The burden of rotavirus-associated mortality is high among Indian children, highlighting the potential benefits of rotavirus vaccination. PMID:23109739

  14. Reflecting on the Delivery of a Longitudinal Coping Intervention Amongst Junior National Netball Players

    PubMed Central

    Devonport, Tracey J.; Lane, Andrew M.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research suggests that appropriately-tailored interventions can assist adolescents enhance their coping skills (Frydenberg and Lewis, 2004). The present paper reflects upon the delivery of a longitudinal coping intervention utilized by junior national netball players. Reflection is focused on issues such as the rationale for the intervention, operational issues surrounding the delivery and management of the work. It is also focused on interpersonal issues relating to intervention implementation. We contend that being explicit about developmental and applied processes may enable theoretically sound and efficacious practices to be identified. In addition, unpacking operational issues related to delivery may assist applied sport and exercise psychologists in the development of related work. Key points This paper exemplifies the potential benefits of reflective practice and offers an insight into the lessons learned during longitudinal applied research. We conclude that intervention-based research must accommodate the idiosyncrasies of an organization and requires the sport organisation to buy into the value of the work. Whilst thoughts and associations are offered, readers are encouraged to consider these and alternative associations. PMID:24149523

  15. Who Is Hurt by Procyclical Mortality?

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Ryan D.

    2014-01-01

    There is renewed interest in understanding how fluctuations in mortality or health are related to fluctuations in economic conditions. The traditional perspective that economic recessions lower health and raise mortality has been challenged by recent findings that reveal mortality is actually procyclical. The epidemiology of the phenomenon — traffic accidents, cardiovascular disease, and smoking and drinking — suggests that socioeconomically vulnerable populations might be disproportionately at risk of “working themselves to death” during periods of heightened economic activity. In this paper, I examine mortality by individual characteristic during the 1980s and 1990s using the U.S. National Longitudinal Mortality Study. I find scant evidence that disadvantaged groups are significantly more exposed to procyclical mortality. Rather, working-age men with more education appear to bear a heavier burden, while those with little education experience countercyclical mortality. PMID:18977577

  16. Longitudinal Patterns of Blood Pressure, Incident Cardiovascular Events, and All-Cause Mortality in Normotensive Diabetic People.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhijun; Jin, Cheng; Vaidya, Anand; Jin, Wei; Huang, Zhe; Wu, Shouling; Gao, Xiang

    2016-07-01

    Lower blood pressure (BP) within the normotensive range has been suggested to be deleterious in diabetic people using antihypertensive drugs. We hypothesized that BP <120/80 mm Hg and BP trajectories may predict further risk of all-cause mortality or cardiovascular events in normotensive diabetic individuals. We included 3159 diabetic adults, free of hypertension, atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases, or cancer in 2006 (baseline), from a community-based cohort including 101 510 participants. A total of 831 participants with BP <120/80 mm Hg and 2328 participants with BP of 120 to 139/80 to 89 mm Hg were included. BP and other clinical covariates were repeatedly measured every 2 years. During 7 years of follow-up, we documented 247 deaths and 177 cardiovascular events. Diabetic people with BP <120/80 mm Hg had a 46% increased risk of all-cause mortality (95% confidence interval, 10%-93%) compared with those with BP of 120 to 139/80 to 89 mm Hg at baseline. We then estimated the association between BP trajectories from 2006 to 2008 and adverse events among 2311 diabetic people who had both BP measures at 2006 and 2008. Relative to stable BP of 120 to 139/80 to 89 mm Hg, having persistently BP <120/80 mm Hg (hazard ratio: 2.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-5.01) or a spontaneous decrease in BP from 120 to 139/80 to 89 to <120/80 mm Hg (hazard ratio: 3.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.56-5.92) was significantly associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality during 2008 to 2014. A rise in BP from 120 to 139/80 to 89 to ≥140/90 mm Hg conferred a high risk of cardiovascular events (hazard ratio: 1.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.24-3.17). In normotensive diabetic people having a low BP or a decline in BP was both associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality, whereas development of incident hypertension increased the risk of cardiovascular events. PMID:27217407

  17. Early childbearing, human capital attainment and mortality risk: Evidence from a longitudinal demographic surveillance area in rural-KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ardington, Cally; Menendez, Alicia; Mutevedzi, Tinofa

    2014-01-01

    Using a rich longitudinal dataset, we examine the relationship between teen fertility and both subsequent educational outcomes and HIV related mortality risk in rural South Africa. Human capital deficits among teen mothers are large and significant, with earlier births associated with greater deficits. In contrast to many other studies from developed countries, we find no clear evidence of selectivity into teen childbearing in either schooling trajectories or pre-fertility household characteristics. Enrolment rates among teen mothers only begin to drop in the period immediately preceding the birth and future teen mothers are not behind in their schooling relative to other girls. Older teen mothers and those further ahead in school for their age pre-birth are more likely to continue schooling after the birth. In addition to adolescents’ higher biological vulnerability to HIV infection, pregnancy also appears to increase the risk of contracting HIV. Following women over an extended period, we document a higher HIV related mortality risk for teen mothers that cannot be explained by household characteristics in early adulthood. Controlling for age at sexual debut, we find that teen mothers report lower condom use and older partners than other sexually active adolescents. PMID:26028690

  18. Racial Differences in Effects of Religiosity and Mastery on Psychological Distress: Evidence from National Longitudinal Data

    PubMed Central

    Oates, Gary L.; Goode, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This research engages nationally representative longitudinal data and a multipopulation LISREL model to investigate variation among black and white Americans in the impact of religiosity and mastery on psychological distress. Guided by the stress and coping perspective and prominent theorizing about how religiosity influences mental health, the model assesses not only direct effects of religiosity and mastery on distress but also the possibility of religiosity and mastery inhibiting distress indirectly (via effects on other coping resources or stressors) and attenuating the distress-inducing properties of individual stressors. Findings solidly support the endorsed proposition of religiosity’s being particularly beneficial to blacks’ emotional well-being and moderately support the prediction of mastery’s being primarily helpful to whites’. Public religiosity substantially eclipses private and subjective religiosity as a facilitator of blacks’ emotional well-being, and although main effects dominate, there are significant mediation and moderation effects of religiosity or mastery within each race. PMID:23762783

  19. The biosocial correlates of neuropsychological deficits: results from the national longitudinal study of adolescent health.

    PubMed

    Beaver, Kevin M; Vaughn, Michael G; DeLisi, Matt; Higgins, George E

    2010-12-01

    A body of empirical research has revealed that neuropsychological functioning is one of the most consistent predictors of antisocial behavior. It is somewhat surprising however that criminological research has been slow to examine the different factors that are implicated in the development of neuropsychological deficits. This study addresses this gap in the literature by examining the effects that a number of social and biological variables have on neuropsychological functioning. Analysis of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) indicates that postnatal exposure to cigarette smoke, duration of breastfeeding, maternal involvement, and household income predicts variation in adolescent and adulthood levels of neuropsychological functioning. Implications of the findings are noted and discussed. PMID:19741153

  20. Racial Differences in Effects of Religiosity and Mastery on Psychological Distress: Evidence from National Longitudinal Data.

    PubMed

    Oates, Gary L; Goode, Jennifer

    2013-03-01

    This research engages nationally representative longitudinal data and a multipopulation LISREL model to investigate variation among black and white Americans in the impact of religiosity and mastery on psychological distress. Guided by the stress and coping perspective and prominent theorizing about how religiosity influences mental health, the model assesses not only direct effects of religiosity and mastery on distress but also the possibility of religiosity and mastery inhibiting distress indirectly (via effects on other coping resources or stressors) and attenuating the distress-inducing properties of individual stressors. Findings solidly support the endorsed proposition of religiosity's being particularly beneficial to blacks' emotional well-being and moderately support the prediction of mastery's being primarily helpful to whites'. Public religiosity substantially eclipses private and subjective religiosity as a facilitator of blacks' emotional well-being, and although main effects dominate, there are significant mediation and moderation effects of religiosity or mastery within each race. PMID:23762783

  1. Cohabitation and U.S Adult Mortality: An Examination by Gender and Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Hui; Reczek, Corinne

    2012-01-01

    This study is the first to explore the relationship between cohabitation and U.S. adult mortality using a nationally representative sample. Using data from the National Health Interview Survey-Longitudinal Mortality Follow-up files 1997-2004 (N = 193,851), the authors found that divorced, widowed, and never-married White men had higher mortality…

  2. Participant Retention in a Longitudinal National Telephone Survey of African American Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Cheryl L.; Le, Daisy; Calvanelli, Joe; Huang, Jin; Clark, Eddie M.; Roth, David L.; Williams, Beverly; Schulz, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this article is to describe participant demographic factors related to retention, and to report on retention strategies in a national study of African Americans re-contacted 2.5 years after an initial baseline telephone interview. Design & Setting The Religion and Health in African Americans (RHIAA) study was originally developed as a cross-sectional telephone survey to examine relationships between religious involvement and health-related factors in a national sample of African Americans. The cohort was re-contacted on average of 2.5 years later for a follow-up interview. Participants RHIAA participants were 2,803 African American men (1,202) and women (1,601). Interventions RHIAA used retention strategies consistent with recommendations from Hunt and White.1 Participants also received a lay summary of project findings. Main outcome measures Retention at the follow-up interview. Results Retention rates ranged from 39%–41%. Retained participants tended to be older and female. In age- and sex-adjusted analyses, retained participants were more educated, single, and in better health status than those not retained. There was no difference in religious involvement in adjusted analyses. Conclusions Although overall retention rates are lower than comparable longitudinal studies, RHIAA was not originally designed as a longitudinal study and so lacked a number of structures associated with long-term studies. However, this project illustrates the feasibility of conducting lengthy cold call telephone interviews with an African American population and helps to identify some participant factors related to retention and study strategies that may aid in retention. PMID:26118147

  3. Challenges of maternal mortality reduction and opportunities under National Rural Health Mission--a critical appraisal.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Satish

    2005-01-01

    Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) continues to remain high in our country without showing any declining trend over a period of two decades. The proportions of maternal deaths contributed by direct obstetric causes have also remained more or less the same in rural areas. There is a strong need to improve coverage of antenatal care, promote institutional deliveries and provide emergency obstetric care. Delays occur in seeking care for obstetric complications and levels of 'met obstetric need' continue to be low in many parts of the country. Most of the First Referral Units (FRUs) and CHCs function at sub-optimal level in the country. National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) offers institutional mechanism and strategic options to reduce high MMR. 'Janani Suraksha Yojna', strengthening of CHCs (as per Indian Public Health standards) to offer 24 hours quality services including that of anesthetists and Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA) are important proposals in this regard. District Health Mission can play an important role in monitoring maternal deaths occurring in hospitals or in community and thus create a social momentum to prevent and reduce maternal deaths. NRHM, however, depends largely on Panchayati Raj Institutions for effective implementation of proposed interventions and utilization of resources. In most parts of our country, State Governments have not empowered PRIs with real devolution of power. Therefore, much needs to be done locally to build the capacity of PRIs and develop state-specific guidelines in operational terms to implement interventions under NRHM for reducing maternal mortality ratio. PMID:16468281

  4. Risk factors for maternal death and trends in maternal mortality in low- and middle-income countries: a prospective longitudinal cohort analysis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Because large, prospective, population-based data sets describing maternal outcomes are typically not available in low- and middle-income countries, it is difficult to monitor maternal mortality rates over time and to identify factors associated with maternal mortality. Early identification of risk factors is essential to develop comprehensive intervention strategies preventing pregnancy-related complications. Our objective was to describe maternal mortality rates in a large, multi-country dataset and to determine maternal, pregnancy-related, delivery and postpartum characteristics that are associated with maternal mortality. Methods We collected data describing all pregnancies from 2010 to 2013 among women enrolled in the multi-national Global Network for Women’s and Children’s Health Research Maternal and Neonatal Health Registry (MNHR). We reported the proportion of mothers who died per pregnancy and the maternal mortality ratio (MMR). Generalized linear models were used to evaluate the relationship of potential medical and social factors and maternal mortality and to develop point and interval estimates of relative risk associated with these factors. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for the correlation of outcomes within cluster to develop appropriate confidence intervals. Results We recorded 277,736 pregnancies and 402 maternal deaths for an MMR of 153/100,000 live births. We observed an improvement in the total MMR from 166 in 2010 to 126 in 2013. The MMR in Latin American sites (91) was lower than the MMR in Asian (178) and African sites (125). When adjusted for study site and the other variables, no formal education (RR 3.2 [1.5, 6.9]), primary education only (RR 3.4 [1.6, 7.5]), secondary education only (RR 2.5 [1.1, 5.7]), lack of antenatal care (RR 1.8 [1.2, 2.5]), caesarean section delivery (RR 1.9 [1.3, 2.8]), hemorrhage (RR 3.3 [2.2, 5.1]), and hypertensive disorders (RR 7.4 [5.2, 10.4]) were associated with higher

  5. Foliar injury, tree growth and mortality, and lichen studies in Mammoth Cave National Park. Final report, 1985-1986

    SciTech Connect

    McCune, B.; Cloonan, C.L.; Armentano, T.V.

    1987-03-01

    Foliar condition, tree growth, tree mortality, and lichen communities were studied in Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky, to document the present forest condition and to provide a basis for detecting future changes. Foliar injury by ozone was common on many plant species in 1985. Species showing the most injury were white ash, green ash, redbud, sycamore, tulip poplar, milkweed, and wild grape. Injury apparently depended on canopy position and vigor. Tree growth was equivocally related to visible symptoms in 1986, probably because of the low ozone levels in that year. Tree mortality rates from 1966-1985 in two natural stands were somewhat lower than mortality rates known for other midwestern woods.

  6. Maternal morbidity and mortality from severe sepsis: a national cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Acosta, Colleen D; Harrison, David A; Rowan, Kathy; Lucas, D Nuala; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J; Knight, Marian

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe the incidence, characteristics and risk factors for critical care admission with severe maternal sepsis in the UK. Design National cohort study. Setting 198 critical care units in the UK. Participants 646 pregnant and recently pregnant women who had severe sepsis within the first 24 hours of admission in 2008–2010. Primary and secondary outcome measures Septic shock, mortality. Results Of all maternal critical care admissions, 14.4% (n=646) had severe sepsis; 10.6% (n=474) had septic shock. The absolute risk of maternal critical care admission with severe sepsis was 4.1/10 000 maternities. Pneumonia/respiratory infection (irrespective of the H1N1 pandemic influenza strain) and genital tract infection were the most common sources of sepsis (40% and 24%, respectively). We identified a significant gradient in the risk of severe maternal sepsis associated with increasing deprivation (RR=6.5; 95% CI 4.9 to 8.5 most deprived compared with most affluent women). The absolute risk of mortality was 1.8/100 000 maternities. The most common source of infection among women who died was pneumonia/respiratory infection (41%). Known risk factors for morbidity supported by this study were: younger age, multiple gestation birth and caesarean section. Significant risk factors for mortality in unadjusted analysis were: age ≥35 years (unadjusted OR (uOR)=3.5; 95% CI 1.1 to 10.6), ≥3 organ system dysfunctions (uOR=12.7; 95% CI 2.9 to 55.1), respiratory dysfunction (uOR=6.5; 95% CI1.9 to 21.6), renal dysfunction (uOR=5.6; 95% CI 2.3 to 13.4) and haematological dysfunction (uOR=6.5; 95% CI 2.9 to 14.6). Conclusions This study suggests a need to improve timely recognition of severe respiratory tract and genital tract infection in the obstetric population. The social gradient associated with the risk of severe sepsis morbidity and mortality raises important questions regarding maternal health service provision and usage. PMID:27554107

  7. Application of Capture-Recapture for Fine-tuning Uncertainties About National Maternal Mortality Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Yazdizadeh, Bahareh; Mohammad, Kazem; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Changizi, Nasrin; Azemikhah, Arash; Jafari, Nahid; Radpoyan, Laleh; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Maternal mortality ratio (MMR) is one of the main indicators of the millennium development goals and its accurate estimation is very important for the countries concerned. The objective of this study is to evaluate the applicability of capture-recapture (CRC) as an analytical method to estimate MMR in countries. Methods: We used the CRC method to estimate MMR in Iran for 2004 and 2005, using two data sources: The maternal mortality surveillance system and the National Death Registry (NDR). Because the data registry contains errors, we defined three levels of matching criteria to enable matching of cases between the two systems. Increasing the matching level makes the matching criteria less conservative. Because NDR data were missing or incomplete for some provinces, we calculated estimates for two conditions: With and without missing/incomplete data. Results: According to the CRC method, MMR in 2004 and 2005 were 33 and 25 in the best-case scenarios respectively and 86 and 59 in the worst-case scenarios respectively. These estimates are closer to the ones reported by United Nations Agencies published in 2010, 38 and Hogan's study, 30 in 100,000 live births in 2005. Conclusions: The MMR estimation by CRC method is slightly different from the international studies. CRC can be considered as a cost-effective method, in comparison with cross-sectional studies or improvement of vital registration systems, which are both costly and difficult. However, to achieve accurate estimates of MMR with CRC method and decrease the uncertainty we need to have valid databases and the absence of such capacities will limit the applicability of this method in developing countries with poor quality health databases. PMID:24932395

  8. Work Patterns of Women near Retirement. Data from the National Longitudinal Surveys. Work and Family. Report 830.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    The work patterns of women with some work experience over the 1976 to 1989 period were examined as they approach retirement, using data from the Mature Women's cohort of the National Longitudinal Surveys. The data provided information on a sample of women who were between the ages of 30 and 45 in 1967 and who have been interviewed regularly since…

  9. A Comparison of Single-Sex and Coeducational Catholic Secondary Schooling: Evidence from the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LePore, Paul C.; Warren, John Robert

    1997-01-01

    Results from a comparison of single-sex and coeducational Catholic secondary schools using data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988 suggest that single-sex Catholic high schools are not especially favorable academic settings, and that any advantages of the schools only benefited boys. Pre-enrollment differences may explain…

  10. Longitudinal Links between Spanking and Children's Externalizing Behaviors in a National Sample of White, Black, Hispanic, and Asian American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Sexton, Holly R.; Davis-Kean, Pamela; Sameroff, Arnold J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether the longitudinal links between mothers' use of spanking and children's externalizing behaviors are moderated by family race/ethnicity, as would be predicted by cultural normativeness theory, once mean differences in frequency of use are controlled. A nationally representative sample of White, Black, Hispanic, and Asian…

  11. National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988: Second Follow-up Questionnaire Content Areas and Research Issues. Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingels, Steven; Dowd, Katy

    The National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88) provides a wealth of information about factors that influence academic performance and social development of students. The focus of this content overview is the research issues addressed by the NELS:88 second followup in 1992. In 1988, by surveying nearly 25,000 eighth graders, their…

  12. The Longitudinal Association of Childhood School Engagement with Adult Educational and Occupational Achievement: Findings from an Australian National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott-Chapman, Joan; Martin, Kara; Ollington, Nadia; Venn, Alison; Dwyer, Terry; Gall, Seana

    2014-01-01

    The research investigated the association between school engagement and adult education and occupation outcomes, within the context of a 1985 Australian longitudinal national cohort study of the factors affecting children's long-term health and well-being. School engagement may be more modifiable than other factors related to academic…

  13. Base Year, First, Second, and Third Follow-up. Data File Users Manual. Volume II. National Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinsohn, Jay; And Others

    This Users Manual is the supporting documentation for the Public Use Data File from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS). The data file contains certain merged data from the base year (1972), and first, second, and third follow-up NLS surveys for 22,652 cases. This volume contains only appendices K through Q, as…

  14. The Stability of Self-Reported Marijuana Use across Eight Years of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shillington, Audrey M.; Clapp, John D.; Reed, Mark B.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined teen marijuana report stability over 8 years. The stability of self-reports refers to the consistency of self-reported use across several years. This study used fives waves of data across 8 years from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Analyses were conducted to examine the internal or within-wave consistency as well as…

  15. The African Development Bank, structural adjustment, and child mortality: a cross-national analysis of Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Pandolfelli, Lauren E; Shandra, John M

    2013-01-01

    We conduct a cross-national analysis to test the hypothesis that African Development Bank (AfDB) structural adjustment adversely impacts child mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. We use generalized least square random effects regression models and two-step Heckman models that correct for selection bias using data on 35 nations with up to four time points (1990, 1995, 2000, and 2005). We find substantial support for our hypothesis, which indicates that Sub-Saharan African nations that receive an AfDB structural adjustment loan tend to have higher levels of child mortality than Sub-Saharan African nations that do not receive such a loan. This finding remains stable even when controlling for selection bias on whether or not a Sub-Saharan African nation receives an AfDB structural adjustment loan. We conclude by discussing the methodological implications of the article, policy suggestions, and possible directions for future research. PMID:23821909

  16. School Social Capital and Body Mass Index in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

    PubMed Central

    RICHMOND, TRACY K.; MILLIREN, CARLY; WALLS, COURTNEY E.; KAWACHI, ICHIRO

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Social capital in neighborhoods and workplaces positively affects health. Less is known about the inAuence of school social capital on student health outcomes, in particular weight status. We sought to examine the association between individual- and school-level social capital and student body mass index (BMI). METHODS Analyzing data from The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a nationally representative sample of adolescents in grades 7-12 (N = 13,428), we used principal components analysis to define 3 school social capital factors: “connectedness” (feel part of/close to people/safe in school), “treatment” (get along with teachers/students, teachers treat students fairly), and “parental involvement” (school administrator reported percent family/parent self-reported participation in Parent Teacher Organization, average daily school attendance). We examined the associations between individual- and school-level social capital and individual BMI using multilevel modeling techniques. RESULTS In girls, both feeling connected to one's school (b = −0.06, p < .05) and attending schools with overall high connectedness (b = −0.43, p < .01) were associated with lower BM Is. In boys only attending a school with high "treatment" was inversely associated with BMI (b = −0.61, p < .01), adjusting for individual and school demographics. CONCLUSIONS Although further studies are needed, our findings suggest enhancing school social capital as a novel approach to addressing student obesity. PMID:25388592

  17. The Relationship Between Marijuana Use and Intimate Partner Violence in a Nationally Representative, Longitudinal Sample

    PubMed Central

    Reingle, Jennifer M.; Staras, Stephanie A. S.; Jennings, Wesley G.; Branchini, Jennifer; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.

    2013-01-01

    Intimate partner violence is a significant public health problem, as these behaviors have been associated with a number of negative health outcomes including illicit drug use, physical injury, chronic pain, sexually transmitted diseases, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder. The current study examined the association between marijuana use and intimate partner violence using a longitudinal survey of adolescents and young adults ages 15 to 26 years. Data were obtained from 9,421 adolescents in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) Waves 1 through 4 (1995–2008). Marijuana use was measured in the past year at each wave and participants were categorized as “users” or “nonusers.” Partner violence was constructed using six items (three pertaining to victimization and three concerning perpetration) from Wave 4 (2007–2008). Using these six items, participants were categorized as “victims only,” “perpetrators only,” or “victims and perpetrators.” Survey multinomial regression was used to examine the relationship between marijuana use and intimate partner violence. Consistent use of marijuana during adolescence was most predictive of intimate partner violence (OR = 2.08, p < .001). Consistent marijuana use (OR = 1.85, p < .05) was related to an increased risk of intimate partner violence perpetration. Adolescent marijuana use, particularly consistent use throughout adolescence, is associated with perpetration or both perpetration of and victimization by intimate partner violence in early adulthood. These findings have implications for intimate partner violence prevention efforts, as marijuana use should be considered as a target of early intimate partner violence intervention and treatment programming. PMID:22080574

  18. Factors predicting depression across multiple domains in a national longitudinal sample of Canadian youth.

    PubMed

    Bellamy, Sherry; Hardy, Cindy

    2015-05-01

    This prospective longitudinal study aimed to investigate the strength and relative importance of multiple predictors of depression in youth aged 16 to 20 years. Data were drawn from Statistics Canada's National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (Statistics Canada 2007a, b). Hierarchical regressions were conducted separately by child gender (N = 796 boys; N = 919 girls) for two overlapping samples: mixed parent-child dyads (e.g., biological mothers, fathers and other caregivers; N = 1,715) and a subsample containing only biological mother-child dyads (N = 1,425). Parent-reported data were used from Cycle 1 when the children were aged 4 to 8 years. Parent and child-reported data were used from Cycle 4 when children were aged 10 to 14 years. The outcome measure of depressive symptoms was taken from Cycle 7 when the youth were aged 16 to 20 years. Adolescents reported more depression symptoms than young adults and girls reported more than boys. For boys, higher anxiety/depression scores at ages 4 to 8 years and 10 to 14 years, along with lower self-esteem at 10 to 14 years, predicted higher depression scores. Girls' depression was predicted by loss of a parent by ages 4 to 8 years and higher self-reported anxiety/depression and aggression at ages 10 to 14 years. Among biological mother-child dyads, maternal depression reported by mother when child was aged 4 to 8 years and 10 to 14 years significantly predicted depression for girls. At 10 to 14 years, child-reported lower parental monitoring (girls only) and greater parental rejection (boys and girls) predicted depression at ages 16 to 20 years. PMID:25240908

  19. Economic cycles and child mortality: A cross-national study of the least developed countries.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Moreno, Salvador; Blanco-Arana, María C; Bárcena-Martín, Elena

    2016-09-01

    This paper examines the effects of growth and recession periods on child mortality in the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) during the period 1990-2010. We provide empirical evidence of uneven effects of variations in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita on the evolution of child mortality rate in periods of economic recession and expansion. A decrease in GDP per capita entails a significant rise in child mortality rates, whereas an increase does not affect child mortality significantly. In this context, official development assistance seems to play a crucial role in counteracting the increment in child mortality rates in recession periods, at least in those LDCs receiving greater aid. PMID:26998938

  20. SOCIOECONOMIC DISPARITIES IN MORTALITY AMONG CHINESE ELDERLY*

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Weixiang; Xie, Yu

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the association of three different SES indicators (education, economic independence, and household per-capita income) with mortality, using a large, nationally representative longitudinal sample of 12,437 Chinese ages 65 and older. While the results vary by measures used, we find overall strong evidence for a negative association between SES and all-cause mortality. Exploring the association between SES and cause-specific mortality, we find that SES is more strongly related to a reduction of mortality from more preventable causes (i.e., circulatory disease and respiratory disease) than from less preventable causes (i.e., cancer). Moreover, we consider mediating causal factors such as support networks, health-related risk behaviors, and access to health care in contributing to the observed association between SES and mortality. Among these mediating factors, medical care is of greatest importance. This pattern holds true for both all-cause and cause-specific mortality. PMID:25098961

  1. Genetic Influences on Language, Reading, and Mathematics Skills in a National Sample: An Analysis Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Sara A.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Kamp Dush, Claire M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The present study had two purposes: provide an illustration of use of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Children's (CNLSY; U.S. Department of Labor, 2009) database and use the database to seek convergent evidence regarding the magnitude and significance of genetic effects influencing low and typical performers on measures of…

  2. The association between IQ in adolescence and a range of health outcomes at 40 in the 1979 US National Longitudinal Study of Youth

    PubMed Central

    Der, Geoff; Batty, G. David; Deary, Ian J.

    2009-01-01

    A link between pre-morbid intelligence and all cause mortality is becoming well established, but the aetiology of the association is not understood. Less is known about links with cause specific mortality and with morbidity. The aim of this study is to examine the association between intelligence measured in adolescence and a broad range of health outcomes ascertained at 40 years of age. We use data on 7476 participants in the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 who had their cognitive ability measured at baseline and completed the ‘Health at 40’ interview module between 1998 and 2004. The Health at 40 module includes assessments of general health and depression, nine medically diagnosed conditions, and 33 common health problems. Higher mental test scores were associated with lower depression scores, better general health, significantly lower odds of having five of the nine diagnosed conditions and 15 of the 33 health problems. A health disadvantage of higher cognitive ability was evident for only three of the 33 health problems. PMID:19907663

  3. Mortality and Treatment Patterns Among Patients Hospitalized With Acute Cardiovascular Conditions During Dates of National Cardiology Meetings

    PubMed Central

    Jena, Anupam B.; Prasad, Vinay; Goldman, Dana P.; Romley, John

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Thousands of physicians attend scientific meetings annually. Although hospital physician staffing and composition may be affected by meetings, patient outcomes and treatment patterns during meeting dates are unknown. OBJECTIVE To analyze mortality and treatment differences among patients admitted with acute cardiovascular conditions during dates of national cardiology meetings compared with nonmeeting dates. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Retrospective analysis of 30-day mortality among Medicare beneficiaries hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), heart failure, or cardiac arrest from 2002 through 2011 during dates of 2 national cardiology meetings compared with identical nonmeeting days in the 3 weeks before and after conferences (AMI, 8570 hospitalizations during 82 meeting days and 57 471 during 492 nonmeeting days; heart failure, 19 282 during meeting days and 11 4591 during nonmeeting days; cardiac arrest, 1564 during meeting days and 9580 during nonmeeting days). Multivariable analyses were conducted separately for major teaching hospitals and nonteaching hospitals and for low-and high-risk patients. Differences in treatment utilization were assessed. EXPOSURES Hospitalization during cardiology meeting dates. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Thirty-day mortality, procedure rates, charges, length of stay. RESULTS Patient characteristics were similar between meeting and nonmeeting dates. In teaching hospitals, adjusted 30-day mortality was lower among high-risk patients with heart failure or cardiac arrest admitted during meeting vs nonmeeting dates (heart failure, 17.5% [95% CI, 13.7%–21.2%] vs 24.8% [95% CI, 22.9%–26.6%]; P < .001; cardiac arrest, 59.1% [95% CI, 51.4%–66.8%] vs 69.4% [95% CI, 66.2%–72.6%]; P = .01). Adjusted mortality for high-risk AMI in teaching hospitals was similar between meeting and nonmeeting dates (39.2% [95% CI, 31.8%–46.6%] vs 38.5% [95% CI, 35.0%–42.0%]; P = .86), although adjusted percutaneous

  4. Academic performance, educational aspiration and birth outcomes among adolescent mothers: a national longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Maternal educational attainment has been associated with birth outcomes among adult mothers. However, limited research explores whether academic performance and educational aspiration influence birth outcomes among adolescent mothers. Methods Data from Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) were used. Adolescent girls whose first pregnancy occurred after Wave I, during their adolescence, and ended with a singleton live birth were included. Adolescents’ grade point average (GPA), experience of ever skipping a grade and ever repeating a grade, and their aspiration to attend college were examined as predictors of birth outcomes (birthweight and gestational age; n = 763). Univariate statistics, bivariate analyses and multivariable models were run stratified on race using survey procedures. Results Among Black adolescents, those who ever skipped a grade had higher offspring’s birthweight. Among non-Black adolescents, ever skipping a grade and higher educational aspiration were associated with higher offspring’s birthweight; ever skipping a grade was also associated with higher gestational age. GPA was not statistically significantly associated with either birth outcome. The addition of smoking during pregnancy and prenatal care visit into the multivariable models did not change these associations. Conclusions Some indicators of higher academic performance and aspiration are associated with better birth outcomes among adolescents. Investing in improving educational opportunities may improve birth outcomes among teenage mothers. PMID:24422664

  5. Trajectories of Delinquency from Age 14 to 23 in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Sample.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Debra A; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Huang, David; Herbeck, Diane M

    2012-03-01

    This study utilized data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to investigate risk trajectories for delinquency and factors associated with different trajectories, particularly substance use. The sample (N = 8,984) was 49% female. A group-based trajectory model was applied, which identified four distinct trajectories for both males and females: (1) a High group with delinquency rates consistently higher than other groups, with some decrease across the age range; (2) a Decreased group, beginning at high levels with substantial decrease to near zero; (3) a Moderate group experiencing some decline but remaining at moderate rates of delinquency through most of the age range; and (4) a consistently Low group, having low rates of delinquency declining to near zero by mid- to late-teens. The Low group was distinguished by several protective factors, including higher rates of maternal authoritative parenting style, possible lower acculturation (higher rates of non-English spoken at home), higher rates of religious activity, later substance use initiation, lower rates of early delinquent activity, less early experience with neighborhood or personal violence, and higher rates of perceiving penalty for wrongdoing. Conversely, the High group was characterized by several vulnerability factors-essentially the converse of the protective factors above. PMID:23105164

  6. Informal Care and Inter-vivos Transfers: Results from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women.

    PubMed

    Norton, Edward C; Nicholas, Lauren H; Huang, Sean Sheng-Hsiu

    2013-05-01

    Informal care is the largest source of long-term care for elderly, surpassing home health care and nursing home care. By definition, informal care is unpaid. It remains a puzzle why so many adult children give freely of their time. Transfers of time to the older generation may be balanced by financial transfers going to the younger generation. This leads to the question of whether informal care and inter-vivos transfers are causally related. We analyze data from the 1999 and 2003 waves of National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women. We examine whether the elderly parents give more inter-vivos monetary transfers to adult children who provide informal care, by examining both the extensive and intensive margins of financial transfers and of informal care. We find statistically significant results that a child who provides informal care is more likely to receive inter-vivos transfers than a sibling who does not. If a child does provide care, there is no statistically significant effect on the amount of the transfer. PMID:25285181

  7. Longitudinal trends in organophosphate incidents reported to the National Pesticide Information Center, 1995–2007

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Regulatory decisions to phase-out the availability and use of common organophosphate pesticides among the general public were announced in 2000 and continued through 2004. Based on revised risk assessments, chlorpyrifos and diazinon were determined to pose unacceptable risks. To determine the impact of these decisions, organophosphate (OP) exposure incidents reported to the National Pesticide Information Center (NPIC) were analyzed for longitudinal trends. Methods Non-occupational human exposure incidents reported to NPIC were grouped into pre- (1995–2000) and post-announcement periods (2001–2007). The number of total OP exposure incidents, as well as reports for chlorpyrifos, diazinon and malathion, were analyzed for significant differences between these two periods. The number of informational inquiries from the general public was analyzed over time as well. Results The number of average annual OP-related exposure incidents reported to NPIC decreased significantly between the pre- and post-announcement periods (p < 0.001). A significant decrease in the number of chlorpyrifos and diazinon reports was observed over time (p < 0.001). No significant difference in the number of incident reports for malathion was observed (p = 0.4), which was not phased-out of residential use. Similar to exposure incidents, the number of informational inquiries received by NPIC declined over time following the phase-out announcement. Conclusion Consistent with other findings, the number of chlorpyrifos and diazinon exposure incidents reported to NPIC significantly decreased following public announcement and targeted regulatory action. PMID:19379510

  8. Trajectories of Delinquency from Age 14 to 23 in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Sample

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Debra A.; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Huang, David; Herbeck, Diane M.

    2012-01-01

    This study utilized data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to investigate risk trajectories for delinquency and factors associated with different trajectories, particularly substance use. The sample (N = 8,984) was 49% female. A group-based trajectory model was applied, which identified four distinct trajectories for both males and females: (1) a High group with delinquency rates consistently higher than other groups, with some decrease across the age range; (2) a Decreased group, beginning at high levels with substantial decrease to near zero; (3) a Moderate group experiencing some decline but remaining at moderate rates of delinquency through most of the age range; and (4) a consistently Low group, having low rates of delinquency declining to near zero by mid- to late-teens. The Low group was distinguished by several protective factors, including higher rates of maternal authoritative parenting style, possible lower acculturation (higher rates of non-English spoken at home), higher rates of religious activity, later substance use initiation, lower rates of early delinquent activity, less early experience with neighborhood or personal violence, and higher rates of perceiving penalty for wrongdoing. Conversely, the High group was characterized by several vulnerability factors—essentially the converse of the protective factors above. PMID:23105164

  9. Evaluation of the National Tips From Former Smokers Campaign: the 2014 Longitudinal Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Deesha; Davis, Kevin; Ridgeway, William; Shafer, Paul; Cox, Shanna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Since 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has aired a national tobacco education campaign to encourage quitting, Tips From Former Smokers (Tips), which consists of graphic antismoking advertisements that feature former cigarette smokers. We evaluated phase 2 of the 2014 campaign by using a nationally representative longitudinal cohort. Methods Cigarette smokers who participated in a baseline survey were re-contacted for follow-up (n = 4,248) approximately 4 months later, immediately after the campaign’s conclusion. The primary outcomes were incidence of a quit attempt in the previous 3 months, intention to quit within 30 days, and intention to quit within 6 months during the postcampaign period. We used multivariate logistic regression models to estimate the odds of each outcome. We also stratified models by race/ethnicity, education, and mental health status. Postcampaign rates of quit attempts, intentions to quit, and sustained quits were also estimated. Results Exposure to the campaign was associated with increased odds of a quit attempt in the previous 3 months (OR, 1.17; P = .03) among baseline smokers and intentions to quit within the next 6 months (OR, 1.28; P = .01) among current smokers at follow-up. The Tips campaign was associated with an estimated 1.83 million additional quit attempts, 1.73 million additional smokers intending to quit within 6 months, and 104,000 sustained quits of at least 6 months. Conclusion The Tips campaign continued to have a significant impact on cessation-related behaviors, providing further justification for the continued use of tobacco education campaigns to accelerate progress toward the goal of reducing adult smoking in the United States. PMID:27010845

  10. Trends in varicella mortality in the United States: Data from vital statistics and the national surveillance system

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Jessica; Bialek, Stephanie R; Marin, Mona

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript describes trends in US varicella mortality using national vital statistics system data for 2008–2011, the first years of the routine 2-dose varicella vaccination program, and characteristics of varicella deaths reported to CDC during 1996–2013. We obtained data on deaths with varicella as underlying or contributing cause from the 2008–2011 Mortality Multiple Cause-of Death records and calculated rates to compare with the prevaccine and mature 1-dose varicella vaccination program eras. We also reviewed available records of varicella deaths reported to CDC through the national varicella death surveillance. The annual average age-adjusted mortality rate for varicella as the underlying cause was 0.05 per million population during 2008–2011, an 87% reduction from the prevaccine years. Varicella deaths among persons aged <20 y declined by 99% in 2008–2011 compared with prevaccine years. There was a 70% decline in varicella mortality rates among those <20 y in 2008–2011 compared to 2005–2007. Among the 83 deaths reported to CDC during 1996–2013 classified as likely due to varicella, 24 (29%) were among immunocompromised individuals. Five were among persons previously vaccinated with 1 dose of varicella vaccine. In conclusion, although the US varicella vaccination program has significantly reduced varicella disease burden, there are still opportunities to prevent varicella and its associated morbidity and mortality through routine varicella vaccination, catch-up vaccination, and ensuring that household contacts of immunocompromised persons have evidence of immunity. PMID:25714052

  11. Trends in varicella mortality in the United States: Data from vital statistics and the national surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Leung, Jessica; Bialek, Stephanie R; Marin, Mona

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript describes trends in US varicella mortality using national vital statistics system data for 2008-2011, the first years of the routine 2-dose varicella vaccination program, and characteristics of varicella deaths reported to CDC during 1996-2013. We obtained data on deaths with varicella as underlying or contributing cause from the 2008-2011 Mortality Multiple Cause-of Death records and calculated rates to compare with the prevaccine and mature 1-dose varicella vaccination program eras. We also reviewed available records of varicella deaths reported to CDC through the national varicella death surveillance. The annual average age-adjusted mortality rate for varicella as the underlying cause was 0.05 per million population during 2008-2011, an 87% reduction from the prevaccine years. Varicella deaths among persons aged <20 y declined by 99% in 2008-2011 compared with prevaccine years. There was a 70% decline in varicella mortality rates among those <20 y in 2008-2011 compared to 2005-2007. Among the 83 deaths reported to CDC during 1996-2013 classified as likely due to varicella, 24 (29%) were among immunocompromised individuals. Five were among persons previously vaccinated with 1 dose of varicella vaccine. In conclusion, although the US varicella vaccination program has significantly reduced varicella disease burden, there are still opportunities to prevent varicella and its associated morbidity and mortality through routine varicella vaccination, catch-up vaccination, and ensuring that household contacts of immunocompromised persons have evidence of immunity. PMID:25714052

  12. The association between development assistance for health and malaria, HIV and tuberculosis mortality: a cross-national analysis.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Allan J; Emdin, Connor A

    2015-03-01

    Development assistance for health (DAH) and foreign aid have been criticized for being poorly associated with health and economic outcomes on a national level. This study is an attempt to examine whether DAH targeted specifically to malaria, HIV and tuberculosis (TB) is associated with changes in malaria, HIV and TB mortality, respectively. A dataset of DAH targeted to malaria, HIV and TB and corresponding malaria-, HIV- and TB-specific mortality was compiled for 120 low- and middle-income countries. Regression analysis was performed using country and time-period fixed effects and control variables. While malaria and HIV DAH were associated with reductions in malaria and HIV mortality, respectively, TB DAH was not significantly associated with reductions in TB mortality. Estimates were consistent in various sensitivity analyses, including generalized method of moments estimation, addition of extra controls and analysis of a multiply imputed dataset. In conclusion, targeted DAH is associated with reduction of HIV and malaria mortality on a national level. PMID:25700922

  13. Clinical Significance of National Patients Sample Analysis: Factors Affecting Mortality and Length of Stay of Organophosphate and Carbamate Poisoned Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Lee, Jun Yeob; Yeo, Woon Hyung; Park, Ha Young; Park, Kyung Hye; Cho, Junho; Kim, Hyunjong; Kim, Gun Bea; Park, Deuk Hyun; Yoon, Yoo Sang; Kim, Yang Weon

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study considered whether there could be a change of mortality and length of stay as a result of inter-hospital transfer, clinical department, and size of hospital for patients with organophosphates and carbamates poisoning via National Patients Sample data of the year 2009, which was obtained from Health Insurance Review and Assessment Services (HIRA). The utility and representativeness of the HIRA data as the source of prognosis analysis in poisoned patients were also evaluated. Methods Organophosphate and carbamate poisoned patients' mortality and length of stay were analyzed in relation to the initial and final treating hospitals and departments, as well as the presence of inter-hospital transfers. Results Among a total of 146 cases, there were 17 mortality cases, and the mean age was 56.8 ± 19.2 years. The median length of stay was 6 days. There was no inter-hospital or inter-departmental difference in length of stay. However, it significantly increased when inter-hospital transfer occurred (transferred 11 days vs. non-transferred 6 days; p = 0.037). Overall mortality rate was 11.6%. The mortality rate significantly increased when inter-hospital transfer occurred (transferred 23.5% vs. non-transferred 7.0%; p = 0.047), but there was no statistical difference in mortality on inter-hospital and inter-department comparison at the initial treating facility. However, at the final treating facility, there was a significant difference between tertiary and general hospitals (5.1% for tertiary hospitals and 17.3% for general hospitals; p = 0.024), although there was no significant inter-departmental difference. Conclusions We demonstrated that hospital, clinical department, length of stay, and mortality could be analyzed using insurance claim data of a specific disease group. Our results also indicated that length of stay and mortality according to inter-hospital transfer could be analyzed, which was previously unknown. PMID:24523992

  14. The Effect of Burn Center Volume on Mortality in a Pediatric Population: An Analysis of the National Burn Repository

    PubMed Central

    Hodgman, Erica I.; Saeman, Melody R.; Subramanian, Madhu

    2016-01-01

    The effect of burn center volume on mortality has been demonstrated in adults. The authors sought to evaluate whether such a relationship existed in burned children. The National Burn Repository, a voluntary registry sponsored by the American Burn Association, was queried for all data points on patients aged 18 years or less and treated from 2002 to 2011. Facilities were divided into quartiles based on average annual burn volume. Demographics and clinical characteristics were compared across groups, and univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to evaluate relationships between facility volume, patient characteristics, and mortality. The authors analyzed 38,234 patients admitted to 88 unique facilities. Children under age 4 years or with larger burns were more likely to be managed at high-volume and very high–volume centers (57.12 and 53.41%, respectively). Overall mortality was low (0.85%). Comparing mortality across quartiles demonstrated improved unadjusted mortality rates at the low- and high-volume centers compared with the medium-volume and very high–volume centers although univariate logistic regression did not find a significant relationship. However, multivariate analysis identified burn center volume as a significant predictor of decreased mortality after controlling for patient characteristics including age, mechanism of injury, burn size, and presence of inhalation injury. Mortality among pediatric burn patients is low and was primarily related to patient and injury characteristics, such as burn size, inhalation injury, and burn cause. Average annual admission rate had a significant but small effect on mortality when injury characteristics were considered. PMID:26146907

  15. Development and Validation of a National System for Routine Monitoring of Mortality in People Recently Released from Prison

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, Simon J.

    2016-01-01

    Background People released from prison are at increased risk of death. However, no country has established a system for routine monitoring of mortality in this population. The aims of this study were to (a) evaluate a system for routine monitoring of deaths after release from prison in Australia and (b) estimate the number of deaths annually within 28 and 365 days of prison release from 2000 to 2013. Methods Persons released from prison and deaths were identified in records held by Centrelink, Australia’s national provider of unemployment benefits. Estimates generated in this manner were compared with those from a study that probabilistically linked correctional records with the National Death Index (NDI), for each calendar year 2000 to 2007. Using Centrelink data, national estimates of mortality within 28 and 365 days of release were produced for each calendar year 2000 to 2013. Findings Compared with estimates based on linkage with the NDI, the estimated crude mortality rate based on Centrelink records was on average 52% lower for deaths within 28 days of release and 24% lower for deaths within 365 days of release. Nationally, over the period 2000 to 2013, we identified an average of 32 deaths per year within 28 days of release and 188 deaths per year within 365 days of release. The crude mortality rate for deaths within both 28 and 365 days of release increased over this time. Conclusions Using routinely collected unemployment benefits data we detected the majority of deaths in people recently released from prison in Australia. These data may be sufficient for routine monitoring purposes and it may be possible to adopt a similar approach in other countries. Routine surveillance of mortality in ex-prisoners serves to highlight their extreme vulnerability and provides a basis for evaluating policy reforms designed to reduce preventable deaths. PMID:27309540

  16. Environmental Predictors of US County Mortality Patterns on a National Basis

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Reuben; Gohlke, Julia M.; Portier, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of evidence has found that mortality rates are positively correlated with social inequalities, air pollution, elevated ambient temperature, availability of medical care and other factors. This study develops a model to predict the mortality rates for different diseases by county across the US. The model is applied to predict changes in mortality caused by changing environmental factors. A total of 3,110 counties in the US, excluding Alaska and Hawaii, were studied. A subset of 519 counties from the 3,110 counties was chosen by using systematic random sampling and these samples were used to validate the model. Step-wise and linear regression analyses were used to estimate the ability of environmental pollutants, socio-economic factors and other factors to explain variations in county-specific mortality rates for cardiovascular diseases, cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), all causes combined and lifespan across five population density groups. The estimated models fit adequately for all mortality outcomes for all population density groups and, adequately predicted risks for the 519 validation counties. This study suggests that, at local county levels, average ozone (0.07 ppm) is the most important environmental predictor of mortality. The analysis also illustrates the complex inter-relationships of multiple factors that influence mortality and lifespan, and suggests the need for a better understanding of the pathways through which these factors, mortality, and lifespan are related at the community level. PMID:26629706

  17. Environmental Predictors of US County Mortality Patterns on a National Basis.

    PubMed

    Chan, Melissa P L; Weinhold, Robert S; Thomas, Reuben; Gohlke, Julia M; Portier, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of evidence has found that mortality rates are positively correlated with social inequalities, air pollution, elevated ambient temperature, availability of medical care and other factors. This study develops a model to predict the mortality rates for different diseases by county across the US. The model is applied to predict changes in mortality caused by changing environmental factors. A total of 3,110 counties in the US, excluding Alaska and Hawaii, were studied. A subset of 519 counties from the 3,110 counties was chosen by using systematic random sampling and these samples were used to validate the model. Step-wise and linear regression analyses were used to estimate the ability of environmental pollutants, socio-economic factors and other factors to explain variations in county-specific mortality rates for cardiovascular diseases, cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), all causes combined and lifespan across five population density groups. The estimated models fit adequately for all mortality outcomes for all population density groups and, adequately predicted risks for the 519 validation counties. This study suggests that, at local county levels, average ozone (0.07 ppm) is the most important environmental predictor of mortality. The analysis also illustrates the complex inter-relationships of multiple factors that influence mortality and lifespan, and suggests the need for a better understanding of the pathways through which these factors, mortality, and lifespan are related at the community level. PMID:26629706

  18. Risk factors for total tooth loss in the United States; longitudinal analysis of national data.

    PubMed

    Eklund, S A; Burt, B A

    1994-01-01

    The NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study (NHEFS) of 1982-84 collected longitudinal data from 10,523 individuals initially seen during the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I) of 1971-75. Among this additional data was information on the incidence of total tooth loss during the 10 years between the surveys, which could then be added to NHANES I data to identify risk factors. In this analysis, a series of bivariate analyses were carried out, followed by logistic regression analysis to assess the simultaneous effect of major variables. Results showed that 7.4 percent of dentate Americans aged 25-74 at NHANES I became edentulous over the next 10 years. In bivariate analyses, the incidence of edentulism was correlated with baseline measures of lower income and education status, poorer oral health, self-perceptions of poor general health and oral health, absence of a regular dentist, and a lower number of remaining teeth at baseline. No correlation was found with gender and geographic region, nor with self-reported diabetes and arthritis, and age was not a factor when the number of remaining teeth at baseline were taken into account. In a logistic regression model assessing the effect of these variables simultaneously, none of the demographic variables retained significance; the only variable statistically significant in both age groups was the number of teeth remaining at baseline. Other significant variables in younger persons were higher periodontal disease scores, perceived poor dental health, perceived need for extractions, history of smoking, and low ascorbic acid intake. Some of these variables were reflections of negative health behavior and attitudes rather than direct correlates. Principal findings from this study were the importance of early tooth loss in eventual edentulism and the virtual disappearance of gender and age as determinants of total tooth loss. PMID:8164192

  19. Early-Life Origins of the Race Gap in Men's Mortality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, David F.; Hayward, Mark D.

    2006-01-01

    Using a life course framework, we examine the early life origins of the race gap in men's all-cause mortality. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men (1966-1990), we evaluate major social pathways by which early life conditions differentiate the mortality experiences of blacks and whites. Our findings indicate that early life…

  20. Effect of Governance Indicators on Under-Five Mortality in OECD Nations: Generalized Method of Moments

    PubMed Central

    Emamgholipour, Sara; Asemane, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Today, it is recognized that factors other than health services are involved in health improvement and decreased inequality so identifying them is the main concern of policy makers and health authorities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of governance indicators on health outcomes. Methods A panel data study was conducted to investigate the effect of governance indicators on child mortality rate in 27 OECD countries from 1996 to 2012 using the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) model and EVIEWS.8 software. Results According to the results obtained, under-five mortality rate was significantly related to all of the research variables (p < 0.05). One percent increase in under-five mortality in the previous period resulted in a 0.83% increase in the mortality rate in the next period, and a 1% increase in total fertility rate, increased the under-five mortality rate by 0.09%. In addition, a 1% increase in GDP per capita decreased the under-five mortality rate by 0.07%, and a 1% improvement in control of corruption and rule of law indicators decreased child mortality rate by 0.05 and 0.08%, respectively. Furthermore, 1% increase in public health expenditure per capita resulted in a 0.03% decrease in under-five mortality rate. Conclusion The results of the study suggest that considering control variables, including GDP per capita, public health expenditure per capita, total fertility rate, and improvement of governance indicators (control of corruption and rule of law) would decrease the child mortality rate. PMID:26952194

  1. Attitudes and adolescent nonmarital childbearing: evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth.

    PubMed

    Plotnick, R D; Butler, S S

    1991-10-01

    The 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) provided data for the analysis of the impact of self-esteem, locus of control, attitudes towards women's family roles, work, and school on the probability of a nonmarital birth. The study avoided methodological problems of prior studies by using a national data base with attitude measured before nonmarital childbearing occurs. No prior studies included these 5 factors. Previous research on attitudes and nonmarital childbearing is summarized. Theoretical models imply that self-esteem, high educational goals, and an internal locus of control are associated with a lower likelihood of a nonmarital birth. The conceptual model for this study is described. It does not include how attitudes develop or estimate the linkage between family background variables and attitudes. A reduced from approach was used and controls were included for 6 family background and personal variables. The sample of 1184 girls was restricted to those aged 14 or 15 years in 1979 who were never married or had a child. 16.9% of the sample had a nonmarital child by 19 years. Measurement of explanatory variables is indicated as the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale and the Rotter scale for internal-external locus of control. A 7-item scale measured women's roles, an 8-item scale measured attitudes toward school, and 3 items assessed views on the importance of improving one's employment prospects. Background control variables were race/ethnicity, mother's education, presence of welfare income, family income, family structure, and religiosity. The standard logistics technique was used to estimate the logarithm of the odds of having a nonmarital birth as a linear function of both attitude and family background variables. Models were estimated both with and without the educational expectation variable. The results appear to indicate that self-esteem and attitudes toward school are associated with nonmarital childbearing, as predicted by theory. Locus of

  2. Mortality of San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes velox macrotis) at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site, California

    SciTech Connect

    Standley, W.G.; Berry, W.H.; O'Farrell, T.P.; Kato, T.T.

    1992-09-01

    Sources and rates of mortality of a San Joaquin kit fox population (Vulpes velox macrotis) were investigated at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site, California, from November 1988 through September 1991. National Guard-authorized activities, including military training, caused the death of three of the 94 (3%) kit foxes radiocollared, and do not appear to jeopardize the continued existence of the population. Predation by larger carnivores, primarily coyotes (Canis latrans), caused the death of 75% of the 32 radiocollared kit foxes recovered dead for which a cause of death could be determined; vehicle impacts, disease (rabies), poisoning, and shooting were each responsible for the deaths of 6.3%. Adult annual mortality rate was 0.47 and the juvenile mortality rate was 0.80, and both rates are similar to rates reported for kit foxes in other locations. There was no significant difference between male and female mortality rates in either age class. The proportions of dead kit foxes recovered in different habitat types were similar to the availability of the habitat types within the distribution of kit fox on the installation.

  3. The National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972: Selected Results from the Base-Year and the First Follow-Up Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peng, Samuel S.; And Others

    The National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 has completed two phases of data collection: the Base-Year and the First Follow-Up Surveys. This paper summarizes some of the findings from cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of that data. A cross-sectional analysis of the base-year results yielded information on grades, work,…

  4. Comparisons across Time of the Outcomes of Youth with Disabilities up to 4 Years after High School. A Report of Findings from the National Longitudinal Transition Study (NLTS) and the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2). NCSER 2010-3008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Lynn; Wagner, Mary; Cameto, Renee; Knokey, Anne-Marie; Shaver, Debra

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to document the secondary school experiences and postsecondary outcomes of students with disabilities over the last two decades, the U.S. Department of Education (ED) sponsored two longitudinal research studies 15 years apart. The first study, the National Longitudinal Transition Study (NLTS) generated nationally representative…

  5. Women's Risk of Repeat Abortions Is Strongly Associated with Alcohol Consumption: A Longitudinal Analysis of a Russian National Panel Study, 1994–2009

    PubMed Central

    Keenan, Katherine; Grundy, Emily; Kenward, Michael G.; Leon, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Abortion rates in Russia, particularly repeat abortions, are among the highest in the world, and abortion complications make a substantial contribution to the country's high maternal mortality rate. Russia also has a very high rate of hazardous alcohol use. However, the association between alcohol use and abortion in Russia remains unexplored. We investigated the longitudinal predictors of first and repeat abortion, focussing on women's alcohol use as a risk factor. Follow-up data from 2,623 women of reproductive age (16–44 years) was extracted from 14 waves of the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS), a nationally representative panel study covering the period 1994–2009. We used discrete time hazard models to estimate the probability of having a first and repeat abortion by social, demographic and health characteristics at the preceding study wave. Having a first abortion was associated with demographic factors such as age and parity, whereas repeat abortions were associated with low education and alcohol use. After adjustment for demographic and socioeconomic factors, the risk of having a repeat abortion increased significantly as women's drinking frequency increased (P<0.001), and binge drinking women were significantly more likely to have a repeat abortion than non-drinkers (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.62–3.20). This association was not accounted for by contraceptive use or a higher risk of pregnancy. Therefore the determinants of first and repeat abortion in Russia between 1994–2009 were different. Women who had repeat abortions were distinguished by their heavier and more frequent alcohol use. The mechanism for the association is not well understood but could be explained by unmeasured personality factors, such as risk taking, or social non-conformity increasing the risk of unplanned pregnancy. Heavy or frequent drinkers constitute a particularly high risk group for repeat abortion, who could be targeted in prevention efforts. PMID:24671000

  6. The National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS-72): Fifth Follow-Up (1986). Sample Design Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Bruce; Sebring, Penny; Campbell, Barbara

    1987-01-01

    This report is the methodology report for the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 follow-up in 1986. The fifth follow-up survey of the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS-72) took place during spring and summer of 1986. A mail questionnaire was sent to a subsample of 14,489 members of the…

  7. Mortality in Iraq Associated with the 2003–2011 War and Occupation: Findings from a National Cluster Sample Survey by the University Collaborative Iraq Mortality Study

    PubMed Central

    Hagopian, Amy; Flaxman, Abraham D.; Takaro, Tim K.; Esa Al Shatari, Sahar A.; Rajaratnam, Julie; Becker, Stan; Levin-Rector, Alison; Galway, Lindsay; Hadi Al-Yasseri, Berq J.; Weiss, William M.; Murray, Christopher J.; Burnham, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous estimates of mortality in Iraq attributable to the 2003 invasion have been heterogeneous and controversial, and none were produced after 2006. The purpose of this research was to estimate direct and indirect deaths attributable to the war in Iraq between 2003 and 2011. Methods and Findings We conducted a survey of 2,000 randomly selected households throughout Iraq, using a two-stage cluster sampling method to ensure the sample of households was nationally representative. We asked every household head about births and deaths since 2001, and all household adults about mortality among their siblings. We used secondary data sources to correct for out-migration. From March 1, 2003, to June 30, 2011, the crude death rate in Iraq was 4.55 per 1,000 person-years (95% uncertainty interval 3.74–5.27), more than 0.5 times higher than the death rate during the 26-mo period preceding the war, resulting in approximately 405,000 (95% uncertainty interval 48,000–751,000) excess deaths attributable to the conflict. Among adults, the risk of death rose 0.7 times higher for women and 2.9 times higher for men between the pre-war period (January 1, 2001, to February 28, 2003) and the peak of the war (2005–2006). We estimate that more than 60% of excess deaths were directly attributable to violence, with the rest associated with the collapse of infrastructure and other indirect, but war-related, causes. We used secondary sources to estimate rates of death among emigrants. Those estimates suggest we missed at least 55,000 deaths that would have been reported by households had the households remained behind in Iraq, but which instead had migrated away. Only 24 households refused to participate in the study. An additional five households were not interviewed because of hostile or threatening behavior, for a 98.55% response rate. The reliance on outdated census data and the long recall period required of participants are limitations of our study. Conclusions Beyond

  8. Subsequent mortality after hyperglycemic crisis episode in the non-elderly: a national population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kao, Yuan; Hsu, Chien-Chin; Weng, Shih-Feng; Lin, Hung-Jung; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Su, Shih-Bin; Huang, Chien-Cheng; Guo, How-Ran

    2016-01-01

    Hyperglycemic crisis episodes (HCEs)-diabetic ketoacidosis and the hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state-are the most serious acute metabolic complications of diabetes. We aimed to investigate the subsequent mortality after HCE in the non-elderly diabetic which is still unclear. This retrospective national population-based cohort study reviewed, in Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database, data from 23,079 non-elder patients (≤65 years) with new-onset diabetes between 2000 and 2002: 7693 patients with HCE and 15,386 patients without HCE (1:2). Both groups were compared, and follow-up prognoses were done until 2011. One thousand eighty-five (14.1%) patients with HCE and 725 (4.71%) patients without HCE died (P < 0.0001) during follow-up. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) of mortality were 3.24 times higher in patients with HCE than in patients without HCE (P < 0.0001). Individual analysis of diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state also showed the similar result with combination of both. After stratification by age, mortality was significant higher in the middle age (40-64 years) [IRR 3.29; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.98-3.64] and young adult (18-39 years) (IRR 3.91; 95% CI 3.28-4.66), but not in the pediatric subgroup (<18 years) (IRR 1.28; 95% CI 0.21-7.64). The mortality risk was highest in the first month (IRR 54.43; 95% CI 27.98-105.89), and still high after 8 years (IRR 2.05; 95% CI 1.55-2.71). After adjusting for age, gender, and selected comorbidities, the mortality hazard ratio for patients with HCE was still four times higher than for patients without HCE. Moreover, older age, male gender, stroke, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, and liver disease were independent mortality predictors. HCE significantly increases the subsequent mortality risk in the non-elderly with diabetes. Strategies for prevention and control of comorbidities are needed as soon as possible. PMID:26115971

  9. Mortality among a national population sentenced to compulsory care for substance use disorders in Sweden: descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Hall, Taylor; Chassler, Deborah; Blom, Björn; Grahn, Robert; Blom-Nilsson, Marcus; Sullivan, Lisa; Lundgren, Lena

    2015-04-01

    Sweden's compulsory addiction system treats individuals with severe alcohol and narcotics use disorders. Merging data from three national level register databases of those sentenced to compulsory care from 2001 to 2009 (n=4515), the aims of this study were to: (1) compute mortality rates to compare to the general Swedish population; (2) identify leading cause of mortality by alcohol or narcotics use; and (3) identify individual level characteristics associated with mortality among alcohol and narcotics users. In this population, 24% were deceased by 2011. The most common cause of death for alcohol users was physical ailments linked to alcohol use, while narcotics users commonly died of drug poisoning or suicide. Average age of death differed significantly between alcohol users (55.0) and narcotics users (32.5). Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified the same three factors predicting mortality: older age (alcohol users OR=1.28, narcotic users OR=1.16), gender [males were nearly 3 times more likely to die among narcotics users (p<.000) and 1.6 times more likely to die among alcohol users (p<.01)] and reporting serious health problems (for alcohol users p<.000, for narcotics users p<.05). Enhanced program and government efforts are needed to implement overdose-prevention efforts and different treatment modalities for both narcotic and alcohol users. PMID:25577663

  10. Radiation and mortality of workers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory: positive associations for doses received at older ages.

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, D B; Wing, S

    1999-01-01

    We examined associations between low-level exposure to ionizing radiation and mortality among 14,095 workers hired at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory between 1943 and 1972. Workers at the facility were individually monitored for external exposure to ionizing radiation and have been followed through 1990 to ascertain cause of death information. Positive associations were observed between low-level exposure to external ionizing radiation and mortality. These associations were larger for doses received after 45 years of age, larger under longer lag assumptions, and primarily due to cancer causes of death. All cancer mortality was estimated to increase 4.98% [standard error (SE) = 1.5] per 10-mSv cumulative dose received after age 45 under a 10-year lag, and 7.31% (SE = 2.2) per 10-mSv cumulative dose received after age 45 under a 20-year lag. Associations between radiation dose and lung cancer were of similar magnitude to associations between radiation dose and all cancers except lung cancer. Nonmalignant respiratory disease exhibited a positive association with cumulative radiation dose received after age 45, whereas ischemic heart disease exhibited no association with radiation dose. These findings suggest increases in cancer mortality associated with low-level external exposure to ionizing radiation and potentially greater sensitivity to the carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation with older ages at exposure. Images Figure 1 PMID:10417363

  11. The Relationship of Walking Intensity to Total and Cause-Specific Mortality. Results from the National Walkers’ Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Paul T.; Thompson, Paul D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Test whether: 1) walking intensity predicts mortality when adjusted for walking energy expenditure, and 2) slow walking pace (≥24-minute mile) identifies subjects at substantially elevated risk for mortality. Methods Hazard ratios from Cox proportional survival analyses of all-cause and cause-specific mortality vs. usual walking pace (min/mile) in 7,374 male and 31,607 female recreational walkers. Survival times were left censored for age at entry into the study. Other causes of death were treated as a competing risk for the analyses of cause-specific mortality. All analyses were adjusted for sex, education, baseline smoking, prior heart attack, aspirin use, diet, BMI, and walking energy expenditure. Deaths within one year of baseline were excluded. Results The National Death Index identified 1968 deaths during the average 9.4-year mortality surveillance. Each additional minute per mile in walking pace was associated with an increased risk of mortality due to all causes (1.8% increase, P=10-5), cardiovascular diseases (2.4% increase, P=0.001, 637 deaths), ischemic heart disease (2.8% increase, P=0.003, 336 deaths), heart failure (6.5% increase, P=0.001, 36 deaths), hypertensive heart disease (6.2% increase, P=0.01, 31 deaths), diabetes (6.3% increase, P=0.004, 32 deaths), and dementia (6.6% increase, P=0.0004, 44 deaths). Those reporting a pace slower than a 24-minute mile were at increased risk for mortality due to all-causes (44.3% increased risk, P=0.0001), cardiovascular diseases (43.9% increased risk, P=0.03), and dementia (5.0-fold increased risk, P=0.0002) even though they satisfied the current exercise recommendations by walking ≥7.5 metabolic equivalent (MET)-hours per week. Conclusions The risk for mortality: 1) decreases in association with walking intensity, and 2) increases substantially in association for walking pace ≥24 minute mile (equivalent to <400m during a six-minute walk test) even among subjects who exercise regularly. PMID

  12. School Libraries Count! National Longitudinal Survey of School Library Media Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of School Librarians (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    The American Association of School Librarians' (AASL's) School Libraries Count! annual longitudinal survey is an online survey that is open to all elementary and secondary school library media programs to participate. The 2009 survey was launched on January 30, and closed on March 22. AASL has received a high participation rate during the three…

  13. 2012 School Libraries Count! National Longitudinal Survey of School Library Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of School Librarians (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    AASL's School Libraries Count! annual longitudinal survey is an online survey that is open to all primary and secondary school library programs to participate. The 2012 survey was launched on January 24th and closed on March 20th. The survey was publicized through various professional organizations and events and through word of mouth. Data…

  14. School, Neighborhood, and Family Factors Are Associated with Children's Bullying Involvement: A Nationally Representative Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowes, Lucy; Arseneault, Louise; Maughan, Barbara; Taylor, Alan; Caspi, Ashalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2009-01-01

    School size and problems with neighbors is associated with a greater risk of being a bullying victim while family factors such as maltreatment and domestic violence are associated with involvement in bullying. The findings are based on the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study that involves 2,232 children.

  15. Substance abuse and psychiatric co-morbidity as predictors of premature mortality in Swedish drug abusers a prospective longitudinal study 1970 - 2006

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Few longitudinal cohort studies have focused on the impact of substances abused and psychiatric disorders on premature mortality. The aim of the present study was to identify predictors of increased risk of drug related death and non drug related death in substance abusers of opiates, stimulants, cannabis, sedatives/hypnotics, hallucinogens and alcohol over several decades. Methods Follow-up study of a consecutive cohort of 561 substance abusers, admitted to a detoxification unit January 1970 to February 1978 in southern Sweden, and followed up in 2006. Demographic and clinical data, substance diagnoses and three groups of psychiatric diagnoses were identified at first admission. Causes of death were coded according to ICD-10 and classified as drug related deaths or non drug related deaths. To identify the incidence of some probable risk factors of drug related premature death, the data were subjected to a competing risks Cox regression analysis. Results Of 561 patients in the cohort, 11 individuals had either emigrated or could not be located, and 204/561 patients (36.4%) were deceased by 2006. The cumulative risk of drug related death increased more in the first 15 years and leveled out later on when non drug related causes of death had a similar incidence. In the final model, male gender, regular use of opiates or barbiturates at first admission, and neurosis were associated with an increased risk of drug related premature death, while cannabis use and psychosis were associated with a decreased risk. Neurosis, mainly depression and/or anxiety disorders, predicted drug related premature death while chronic psychosis and personality disorders did not. Chronic alcohol addiction was associated with increased risk of non drug related death. Conclusions The cohort of drug abusers had an increased risk of premature death to the age of 69. Drug related premature death was predicted by male gender, the use of opiates or barbiturates and depression and anxiety

  16. Cross-Temporal and Cross-National Poverty and Mortality Rates among Developed Countries

    PubMed Central

    Fritzell, Johan; Kangas, Olli; Bacchus Hertzman, Jennie; Blomgren, Jenni; Hiilamo, Heikki

    2013-01-01

    A prime objective of welfare state activities is to take action to enhance population health and to decrease mortality risks. For several centuries, poverty has been seen as a key social risk factor in these respects. Consequently, the fight against poverty has historically been at the forefront of public health and social policy. The relationship between relative poverty rates and population health indicators is less self-evident, notwithstanding the obvious similarity to the debated topic of the relationship between population health and income inequality. In this study we undertake a comparative analysis of the relationship between relative poverty and mortality across 26 countries over time, with pooled cross-sectional time series analysis. We utilize data from the Luxembourg Income Study to construct age-specific poverty rates across countries and time covering the period from around 1980 to 2005, merged with data on age- and gender-specific mortality data from the Human Mortality Database. Our results suggest not only an impact of relative poverty but also clear differences by welfare regime that partly goes beyond the well-known differences in poverty rates between welfare regimes. PMID:23840235

  17. The Impact of a National Clinician-led Audit Initiative on Care and Mortality after Hip Fracture in England

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Colin; Wakeman, Robert; Tsang, Carmen; Plant, Fay; De Stavola, Bianca; Cromwell, David A.; van der Meulen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hip fracture is the most common serious injury of older people. The UK National Hip Fracture Database (NHFD) was launched in 2007 as a national collaborative, clinician-led audit initiative to improve the quality of hip fracture care, but has not yet been externally evaluated. Methods: We used routinely collected data on 471,590 older people (aged 60 years and older) admitted with a hip fracture to National Health Service (NHS) hospitals in England between 2003 and 2011. The main variables of interest were the use of early surgery (on day of admission, or day after) and mortality at 30 days from admission. We compared time trends in the periods 2003–2007 and 2007–2011 (before and after the launch of the NHFD), using Poisson regression models to adjust for demographic changes. Findings: The number of hospitals participating in the NHFD increased from 11 in 2007 to 175 in 2011. From 2007 to 2011, the rate of early surgery increased from 54.5% to 71.3%, whereas the rate had remained stable over the period 2003–2007. Thirty-day mortality fell from 10.9% to 8.5%, compared with a small reduction from 11.5% to 10.9% previously. The annual relative reduction in adjusted 30-day mortality was 1.8% per year in the period 2003–2007, compared with 7.6% per year over 2007–2011 (P<0.001 for the difference). Interpretation: The launch of a national clinician-led audit initiative was associated with substantial improvements in care and survival of older people with hip fracture in England. PMID:26172938

  18. Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotypes and Mortality in Adults and Adolescents in South Africa: Analysis of National Surveillance Data, 2003 - 2008

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Cheryl; Naidoo, Nireshni; Meiring, Susan; de Gouveia, Linda; von Mollendorf, Claire; Walaza, Sibongile; Naicker, Preneshni; Madhi, Shabir A.; Feldman, Charles; Klugman, Keith P.; Dawood, Halima; von Gottberg, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Background An association between pneumococcal serotypes and mortality has been suggested. We aimed to investigate this among individuals aged ≥15 years with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in South Africa. Methods IPD cases were identified through national laboratory-based surveillance at 25 sites, pre-pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) introduction, from 2003–2008. We assessed the association between the 20 commonest serotypes and in-hospital mortality using logistic regression with serotype 4 (the third commonest serotype with intermediate case-fatality ratio (CFR)) as referent. Results Among 3953 IPD cases, CFR was 55% (641/1166) for meningitis and 23% (576/2484) for bacteremia (p<0.001). Serotype 19F had the highest CFR (48%, 100/207), followed by serotype 23F (39%, 99/252) and serotype 1 (38%, 246/651). On multivariable analysis, factors independently associated with mortality included serotype 1 (OR 1.9, 95%CI 1.1–3.5) and 19F (OR 2.9, 95%CI 1.4–6.1) vs. serotype 4; increasing age (25–44 years, OR 1.8, 95%CI 1.0–3.0; 45–64 years, OR 3.6, 95%CI 2.0–6.4; ≥65 years, OR 5.2, 95%CI 1.9–14.1; vs. 15–24 years); meningitis (OR 4.1, 95%CI 3.0–5.6) vs. bacteremic pneumonia; and HIV infection (OR1.7, 95%CI 1.0–2.8). On stratified multivariate analysis, serotype 19F was associated with increased mortality amongst bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia cases, while no serotype was associated with increased mortality in meningitis cases. Conclusion Mortality was increased in HIV-infected individuals, which may be reduced by increased antiretroviral therapy availability. Serotypes associated with increased mortality are included in the 10-and-13-valent PCV and may become less common in adults due to indirect effects following routine infant immunization. PMID:26460800

  19. The effects of raking on sugar pine mortality following prescribed fire in Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nesmith, Jonathan C. B.; O'Hara, Kevin L.; van Mantgem, Phillip J.; de Valpine, Perry

    2010-01-01

    Prescribed fire is an important tool for fuel reduction, the control of competing vegetation, and forest restoration. The accumulated fuels associated with historical fire exclusion can cause undesirably high tree mortality rates following prescribed fires and wildfires. This is especially true for sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana Douglas), which is already negatively affected by the introduced pathogen white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch. ex Rabenh). We tested the efficacy of raking away fuels around the base of sugar pine to reduce mortality following prescribed fire in Sequoia and Kings Canyon national parks, California, USA. This study was conducted in three prescribed fires and included 457 trees, half of which had the fuels around their bases raked away to mineral soil to 0.5 m away from the stem. Fire effects were assessed and tree mortality was recorded for three years after prescribed fires. Overall, raking had no detectable effect on mortality: raked trees averaged 30% mortality compared to 36% for unraked trees. There was a significant effect, however, between the interaction of raking and average pre-treatment forest floor fuel depth: the predicted probability of survival of a 50 cm dbh tree was 0.94 vs. 0.96 when average pre-treatment fuel depth was 0 cm for a raked and unraked tree, respectively. When average pre-treatment forest floor fuel depth was 30 cm, the predicted probability of survival for a raked 50 cm dbh tree was 0.60 compared to only 0.07 for an unraked tree. Raking did not affect mortality when fire intensity, measured as percent crown volume scorched, was very low (0% scorch) or very high (>80% scorch), but the raking treatment significantly increased the proportion of trees that survived by 9.6% for trees that burned under moderate fire intensity (1% to 80% scorch). Raking significantly reduced the likelihood of bole charring and bark beetle activity three years post fire. Fuel depth and anticipated fire intensity need

  20. Prostate Cancer in South Africa: Pathology Based National Cancer Registry Data (1986–2006) and Mortality Rates (1997–2009)

    PubMed Central

    Babb, Chantal; Urban, Margaret; Kielkowski, Danuta; Kellett, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common male cancers globally; however little is known about prostate cancer in Africa. Incidence data for prostate cancer in South Africa (SA) from the pathology based National Cancer Registry (1986–2006) and data on mortality (1997–2009) from Statistics SA were analysed. World standard population denominators were used to calculate age specific incidence and mortality rates (ASIR and ASMR) using the direct method. Prostate cancer was the most common male cancer in all SA population groups (excluding basal cell carcinoma). There are large disparities in the ASIR between black, white, coloured, and Asian/Indian populations: 19, 65, 46, and 19 per 100 000, respectively, and ASMR was 11, 7, 52, and 6 per 100 000, respectively. Prostate cancer was the second leading cause of cancer death, accounting for around 13% of male deaths from a cancer. The average age at diagnosis was 68 years and 74 years at death. For SA the ASIR increased from 16.8 in 1986 to 30.8 in 2006, while the ASMR increased from 12.3 in 1997 to 16.7 in 2009. There has been a steady increase of incidence and mortality from prostate cancer in SA. PMID:24955252

  1. Prostate cancer in South Africa: pathology based national cancer registry data (1986-2006) and mortality rates (1997-2009).

    PubMed

    Babb, Chantal; Urban, Margaret; Kielkowski, Danuta; Kellett, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common male cancers globally; however little is known about prostate cancer in Africa. Incidence data for prostate cancer in South Africa (SA) from the pathology based National Cancer Registry (1986-2006) and data on mortality (1997-2009) from Statistics SA were analysed. World standard population denominators were used to calculate age specific incidence and mortality rates (ASIR and ASMR) using the direct method. Prostate cancer was the most common male cancer in all SA population groups (excluding basal cell carcinoma). There are large disparities in the ASIR between black, white, coloured, and Asian/Indian populations: 19, 65, 46, and 19 per 100 000, respectively, and ASMR was 11, 7, 52, and 6 per 100 000, respectively. Prostate cancer was the second leading cause of cancer death, accounting for around 13% of male deaths from a cancer. The average age at diagnosis was 68 years and 74 years at death. For SA the ASIR increased from 16.8 in 1986 to 30.8 in 2006, while the ASMR increased from 12.3 in 1997 to 16.7 in 2009. There has been a steady increase of incidence and mortality from prostate cancer in SA. PMID:24955252

  2. Joint Effect of Hypertension and Elevated Serum Phosphorus on the Risk of Mortality in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey-III

    PubMed Central

    Vart, Priya; Nigatu, Yeshambel T; Jaglan, Ajay; van Zon, Sander K R; Shafique, Kashif

    2015-01-01

    Background Elevated serum phosphorus might aggravate the effect of hypertension on mortality. The objective of this study was to examine the joint effect of hypertension and serum phosphorus on the risk of mortality. Methods and Results A large prospective (n=15 833), population-based cohort of participants from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey III was examined to test potential synergism between hypertension, elevated serum phosphorus, and the risk of mortality. Interaction on additive scale and multiplicative scale was estimated. After a median follow-up of 14.3 years, 1691 cases of cardiovascular mortality and 3875 cases of all-cause mortality were identified. Interaction was observed between hypertension and elevated serum phosphorus on the additive scale for cardiovascular mortality (relative excess risk due to interaction, 0.99, 95% CI: 0.06; 1.92, adjusted for age, gender, race, and estimated glomerular filtration rate). No statistically significant interaction was found between hypertension and serum phosphorus for all-cause mortality on the additive scale. No significant interaction was detected on the multiplicative scale. In sensitivity analysis, excluding participants who died in first 2 years and adjustment for additional confounders resulted in essentially similar findings. Conclusions The joint effect of hypertension and elevated serum phosphorus was larger than the sum of the independent effects on cardiovascular mortality but not on all-cause mortality. Future studies should investigate whether controlling elevated serum phosphorus in hypertensive individuals helps in prevention of extra risk of cardiovascular mortality. PMID:25994440

  3. National and subnational mortality effects of metabolic risk factors and smoking in Iran: a comparative risk assessment

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mortality from cardiovascular and other chronic diseases has increased in Iran. Our aim was to estimate the effects of smoking and high systolic blood pressure (SBP), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), total cholesterol (TC), and high body mass index (BMI) on mortality and life expectancy, nationally and subnationally, using representative data and comparable methods. Methods We used data from the Non-Communicable Disease Surveillance Survey to estimate means and standard deviations for the metabolic risk factors, nationally and by region. Lung cancer mortality was used to measure cumulative exposure to smoking. We used data from the death registration system to estimate age-, sex-, and disease-specific numbers of deaths in 2005, adjusted for incompleteness using demographic methods. We used systematic reviews and meta-analyses of epidemiologic studies to obtain the effect of risk factors on disease-specific mortality. We estimated deaths and life expectancy loss attributable to risk factors using the comparative risk assessment framework. Results In 2005, high SBP was responsible for 41,000 (95% uncertainty interval: 38,000, 44,000) deaths in men and 39,000 (36,000, 42,000) deaths in women in Iran. High FPG, BMI, and TC were responsible for about one-third to one-half of deaths attributable to SBP in men and/or women. Smoking was responsible for 9,000 deaths among men and 2,000 among women. If SBP were reduced to optimal levels, life expectancy at birth would increase by 3.2 years (2.6, 3.9) and 4.1 years (3.2, 4.9) in men and women, respectively; the life expectancy gains ranged from 1.1 to 1.8 years for TC, BMI, and FPG. SBP was also responsible for the largest number of deaths in every region, with age-standardized attributable mortality ranging from 257 to 333 deaths per 100,000 adults in different regions. Discussion Management of blood pressure through diet, lifestyle, and pharmacological interventions should be a priority in Iran. Interventions for

  4. The Demographics of Alcohol Use among Young Americans: Results from the 1983 National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience of Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Joan E.

    This document gives results of research on alcohol use by young Americans from the 1983 National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience of Youth, a survey of a large, nationally representative sample supplemented by samples of blacks, Hispanics, and economically disadvantaged non-black, non-Hispanic youth and covering the entire range of…

  5. Perceptions and Expectations of Youth with Disabilities. A Special Topic Report of Findings from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2). NCSER 2007-3006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Mary; Newman, Lynn; Cameto, Renee; Levine, Phyllis; Marder, Camille

    2007-01-01

    The National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) was initiated to provide a national picture of the characteristics and experiences of youth with disabilities, including their self-representations, their schooling, their personal relationships, and their hopes for the future. This report presents findings drawn from the first time (2003) data…

  6. Excess mortality in women of reproductive age from low-income countries: a Swedish national register study

    PubMed Central

    Haglund, Bengt; Högberg, Ulf; Essén, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cause-of-death statistics is widely used to monitor the health of a population. African immigrants have, in several European studies, shown to be at an increased risk of maternal death, but few studies have investigated cause-specific mortality rates in female immigrants. Methods: In this national study, based on the Swedish Cause of Death Register, we studied 27 957 women of reproductive age (aged 15–49 years) who died between 1988 and 2007. Age-standardized mortality rates per 100 000 person years and relative risks for death and underlying causes of death, grouped according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision, were calculated and compared between women born in Sweden and in low-, middle- and high-income countries. Results: The total age-standardized mortality rate per 100 000 person years was significantly higher for women born in low-income (84.4) and high-income countries (83.7), but lower for women born in middle-income countries (57.5), as compared with Swedish-born women (68.1). The relative risk of dying from infectious disease was 15.0 (95% confidence interval 10.8–20.7) and diseases related to pregnancy was 6.6 (95% confidence interval 2.6–16.5) for women born in low-income countries, as compared to Swedish-born women. Conclusions: Women born in low-income countries are at the highest risk of dying during reproductive age in Sweden, with the largest discrepancy in mortality rates seen for infectious diseases and diseases related to pregnancy, a cause of death pattern similar to the one in their countries of birth. The World Bank classification of economies may be a useful tool in migration research. PMID:22850186

  7. A Prospective Study of Mortality and Trauma-Related Risk Factors Among a Nationally Representative Sample of Vietnam Veterans.

    PubMed

    Schlenger, William E; Corry, Nida H; Williams, Christianna S; Kulka, Richard A; Mulvaney-Day, Norah; DeBakey, Samar; Murphy, Catherine M; Marmar, Charles R

    2015-12-15

    Because Vietnam veterans comprise the majority of all living veterans and most are now older adults, the urgency and potential value of studying the long-term health effects of service in the Vietnam War, including effects on mortality, is increasing. The present study is the first prospective mortality assessment of a representative sample of Vietnam veterans. We used one of the longest follow-up periods to date (spanning older adulthood) and conducted one of the most comprehensive assessments of potential risk factors. Vital status and cause of death were ascertained for the 1,632 veterans who fought in the Vietnam theater (hereafter referred to as theater veterans) and for 716 Vietnam War-era veterans (hereafter referred to as era veterans) who participated in the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study (1987-2011). As of April 2011, 16.0% (95% confidence interval: 13.1, 19.0) of all Vietnam veterans who were alive in the 1980s were deceased. Male theater veterans with a high probability of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were nearly 2 times more likely to have died than were those without PTSD, even after adjustment for sociodemographic and other characteristics. A high level of exposure to war zone stress was independently associated with mortality for both male and female theater veterans after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, PTSD, and physical comorbid conditions. Theater veterans with a high level of exposure to war zone stress and a high probability of PTSD had the greatest mortality risk (adjusted hazard ratio = 2.34, 95% confidence interval: 1.24, 4.43). PMID:26634285

  8. Medico-social and socio-demographic factors associated with maternal mortality at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Makokha, A E

    1991-01-01

    To identify the most significant determinants of maternal mortality in Kenya, a prospective study involving 49,335 deliveries occurring at Kenyatta National Hospital from January 1978-87 was conducted. There were 156 maternal deaths in this series, for a maternal mortality rate of 3.2/1000 deliveries. The 5 most frequent causes of death were abortion (24%), hypertensive disease of pregnancy (13%), sepsis (13%), anemia (10%), and cardiac disease (7%). 24% of women who died were age 19 years or under, 27% were 20-24 years, 23% were 25-29 years, and 11% were 30-34 years. The largest percentage (24%) of deaths involved nulliparous women; 16% were to women of parity 5 and above. 28% of the women who died were single, and single women contributed the majority of deaths from abortion. 66% of the women who died had received no prenatal care. The proportion of avoidable deaths was 19% among clinic attenders compared to 29% among non-attenders. Overall, age, parity, and marital status--traditionally regarded as the key factors associated with maternal mortality--vary in their impact, given the cause of death and medical services received. The assumption that high parity is associated with maternal mortality was not confirmed in this study due to the significant number of deaths from abortion that involved single, nulliparous women. In addition, many women who died were in the optimum age group for childbearing, but were more prone to suffer from anemia, hypertension, ectopic pregnancy, and cardiac disease than women over 30 years old. Overall, 126 deaths were considered avoidable. Contributory factors were slowness of surgical management of emergencies, prolonged confinement of women with cardiac disease, and a lack of emergency supplies of blood and drugs for complicated deliveries. PMID:12316813

  9. Educational mismatch and mortality among native-born workers in Sweden. A 19-year longitudinal study of 2.5 million over-educated, matched and under-educated individuals, 1990-2008.

    PubMed

    Garcy, Anthony M

    2015-11-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that a disjuncture between an individual's attained level of education and that held by average workers in the individual's occupation leads to higher mortality among those with a prolonged mismatched status. Swedish register data are used in a 19-year longitudinal mortality follow-up study of all causes and specific causes of mortality. Participants were all men and women born between 1926 and 1985 who were alive on 1 September 1990, who had concurrent information on their attained level of education and the specific occupation or industry they were employed in during this period for at least a consecutive year. An objective measure of educational and occupational mismatch was constructed from these data. Those with a stable, over-educated matched, or under-educated employment status are included in the final analysis (N = 2,482,696). Independent of social, family, employers' characteristics and prior health problems, the findings from a multivariate, stratified Cox regression analysis suggest there is excessive mortality among the over-educated, and a protective effect of under-education among native-born Swedish men and women. PMID:26235293

  10. Ranking risk factors for perinatal mortality. Analysis of a nation-wide study.

    PubMed

    Samueloff, A; Mor-Yosef, S; Seidman, D S; Adler, I; Persitz, E; Schenker, J G

    1989-01-01

    This paper analyses data from the Israeli nationwide perinatal census, with the aim of revealing the possible causes of perinatal death, and to assess the effects of risk factors, using a logistic regression analysis. The analysis provided an estimate of the net effect of each characteristic independently, thus identifying high-risk pregnancies that should be monitored with greater intensity. Five variables were found to have a significant effect on perinatal death. Among these, in order of decreasing risk: fetal presentation, maternal diseases complicating pregnancy, number of fetuses, ethnic origin, and maternal age. Other variables such as parity, standard of hospital, the mother's country of birth and domiciliary circumstances, did not significantly affect perinatal mortality. PMID:2631538

  11. Religious Participation is Associated with Increases in Religious Social Support in a National Longitudinal Study of African Americans.

    PubMed

    Le, Daisy; Holt, Cheryl L; Hosack, Dominic P; Huang, Jin; Clark, Eddie M

    2016-08-01

    This study reports on the association between religious beliefs and behaviors and the change in both general and religious social support using two waves of data from a national sample of African Americans. The Religion and Health in African Americans (RHIAA) study is a longitudinal telephone survey designed to examine relationships between various aspects of religious involvement and psychosocial factors over time. RHIAA participants were 3173 African American men (1281) and women (1892). A total of 1251 men (456) and women (795) participated in wave 2 of data collection. Baseline religious behaviors were associated with increased overall religious social support from baseline to wave 2 (p < .001) and with increased religious social support from baseline to wave 2 in each of the following religious social support subscales: emotional support received (p < .001), emotional support provided (p < .001), negative interaction (p < .001), and anticipated support (p < .001). Religious beliefs did not predict change in any type of support, and neither beliefs nor behaviors predicted change in general social support. African Americans who are active in faith communities showed increases in all types of religious social support, even the negative aspects, over a relatively modest longitudinal study period. This illustrates the strength of the church as a social network and the role that it plays in people's lives. PMID:26493343

  12. Child Psychiatry Branch of the National Institute of Mental Health Longitudinal Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Human Brain Development

    PubMed Central

    Giedd, Jay N; Raznahan, Armin; Alexander-Bloch, Aaron; Schmitt, Eric; Gogtay, Nitin; Rapoport, Judith L

    2015-01-01

    The advent of magnetic resonance imaging, which safely allows in vivo quantification of anatomical and physiological features of the brain, has revolutionized pediatric neuroscience. Longitudinal studies are useful for the characterization of developmental trajectories (ie, changes in imaging measures by age). Developmental trajectories (as opposed to static measures) have proven to have greater power in discriminating healthy from clinical groups and in predicting cognitive/behavioral measures, such as IQ. Here we summarize results from an ongoing longitudinal pediatric neuroimaging study that has been conducted at the Child Psychiatry Branch of the National Institute of Mental Health since 1989. Developmental trajectories of structural MRI brain measures from healthy youth are compared and contrasted with trajectories in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and childhood-onset schizophrenia. Across ages 5–25 years, in both healthy and clinical populations, white matter volumes increase and gray matter volumes follow an inverted U trajectory, with peak size occurring at different times in different regions. At a group level, differences related to psychopathology are seen for gray and white matter volumes, rates of change, and for interconnectedness among disparate brain regions. PMID:25195638

  13. A longitudinal population-based analysis of relationship status and mortality in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa 2001–2011

    PubMed Central

    Channon, Melanie; Hosegood, Victoria; McGrath, Nuala

    2016-01-01

    Background Mortality risk is lower in married than in unmarried men and women. However, little is known about the association between mortality and relationship status in South Africa where marriage rates are low, migration is common, many couples are not co-resident and HIV prevalence is high. Method Using demographic surveillance data collected from 2001 to 2011, relationship status was categorised as conjugal (partners belong to the same household), non-conjugal (partners do not belong to the same household) or not partnered. Rates of relationship formation and dissolution were calculated by age and sex. Controlling for antiretroviral treatment (ART) introduction in 2005 as well as education, sex-specific and age-specific Cox proportional hazards models were used to investigate the association between relationship status and (1) all-cause mortality and (2) non-AIDS mortality. Results Before 2005, individuals in conjugal relationships had a lower hazard of all-cause mortality in all age groups than not partnered men and women. Non-conjugal relationships lowered the risk of dying compared with not partnered men and women in fewer age groups. After ART introduction, the protective association of conjugal relationships was weaker but remained generally significant for men and women but not in non-conjugal relationships. In the later period, the association is reversed in young men (20–29 years) with mortality higher in conjugal and non-conjugal relationships compared with men not partnered. The analysis of non-AIDS deaths provided similar results. Conclusions The higher degree of social connections within a shared household environment that characterises conjugal relationships affords men and women greater protection against mortality. PMID:26254290

  14. The Longitudinal Relation Between Peer Violent Victimization and Delinquency: Results From a National Representative Sample of U.S. Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Corrie L.; Hanson, Rochelle F.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2014-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of adolescents from the United States aged 12 to 17 years (Wave 1, n = 3,614; Wave 2, n = 2,511), this study examined (a) demographic and descriptive information about peer violent victimization (PVV); and (b) the longitudinal relation between a history of PVV and delinquency. Results indicated that 12.4% of adolescents reported lifetime exposure to PVV, and many of these adolescents with a previous history of PVV also reported exposure to other forms of interpersonal violence, with witnessing community/school violence being the most commonly endorsed exposure category. Males, older adolescents, African American adolescents, and adolescents from low-income households were significantly more likely to endorse PVV. Regardless of the victim's gender, the majority of the perpetrators were male. After controlling for exposure to other forms of interpersonal violence and a history of delinquency, PVV was related to subsequent delinquency. Implications for policy, practice, and future research are discussed. PMID:23266995

  15. Longitudinal links between spanking and children's externalizing behaviors in a national sample of White, Black, Hispanic, and Asian American families.

    PubMed

    Gershoff, Elizabeth T; Lansford, Jennifer E; Sexton, Holly R; Davis-Kean, Pamela; Sameroff, Arnold J

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether the longitudinal links between mothers' use of spanking and children's externalizing behaviors are moderated by family race/ethnicity, as would be predicted by cultural normativeness theory, once mean differences in frequency of use are controlled. A nationally representative sample of White, Black, Hispanic, and Asian American families (n = 11,044) was used to test a cross-lagged path model from 5 to 8 years old. While race/ethnic differences were observed in the frequency of spanking, no differences were found in the associations of spanking and externalizing over time: Early spanking predicted increases in children's externalizing while early child externalizing elicited more spanking over time across all race/ethnic groups. PMID:22304526

  16. The longitudinal relation between peer violent victimization and delinquency: results from a national representative sample of u.s. Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Corrie L; Hanson, Rochelle F; Amstadter, Ananda B; Saunders, Benjamin E; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2013-05-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of adolescents from the United States aged 12 to 17 years (Wave 1, n = 3,614; Wave 2, n = 2,511), this study examined (a) demographic and descriptive information about peer violent victimization (PVV); and (b) the longitudinal relation between a history of PVV and delinquency. Results indicated that 12.4% of adolescents reported lifetime exposure to PVV, and many of these adolescents with a previous history of PVV also reported exposure to other forms of interpersonal violence, with witnessing community/school violence being the most commonly endorsed exposure category. Males, older adolescents, African American adolescents, and adolescents from low-income households were significantly more likely to endorse PVV. Regardless of the victim's gender, the majority of the perpetrators were male. After controlling for exposure to other forms of interpersonal violence and a history of delinquency, PVV was related to subsequent delinquency. Implications for policy, practice, and future research are discussed. PMID:23266995

  17. Relation between income inequality and mortality: empirical demonstration.

    PubMed

    Wolfson, M C; Kaplan, G; Lynch, J; Ross, N; Backlund, E

    2000-01-01

    Objective To assess the extent to which observed associations between income inequality and mortality at population level are statistical artifacts. Design Indirect "what if" simulation using observed risks of mortality at individual level as a function of income to construct hypothetical state-level mortality specific for age and sex as if the statistical artifact argument were 100% correct. Method Data from the 1990 census for the 50 US states plus Washington, DC, were used for population distributions by age, sex, state, and income range; data disaggregated by age, sex, and state from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were used for mortality; and regressions from the national longitudinal mortality study were used for the individual-level relation between income and risk of mortality. Results Hypothetical mortality, although correlated with inequality (as implied by the logic of the statistical artifact argument), showed a weaker association with the level of income inequality in each state than the observed mortality. Conclusions The observed associations in the United States at the state level between income inequality and mortality cannot be entirely or substantially explained as statistical artifacts of an underlying individual-level relation between income and mortality. There remains an important association between income inequality and mortality at state level above anything that could be accounted for by any statistical artifact. This result reinforces the need to consider a broad range of factors, including the social milieu, as fundamental determinants of health. PMID:18751209

  18. [Age, marital status, fecundity and mortality of the population of Colombia: demographic results of the National Household Survey, June 1978].

    PubMed

    1980-06-01

    This paper presents the results of the National Household Survey conducted in Colombia in June 1978, which covered about 0.2% of the total population, and which interviewed 60,000 people in rural and in urban areas. Main findings were: 1) a decrease in the percentage of the population aged 0-4, and 5-9, as compared to the population aged 10-14; 2) a decrease in the number of live births, especially in young women; and, 3) average parity per woman was 3.7, a decrease of 12% since 1976. Crude birth rate was measured to be 27.4/1000, while it was 31.1/1000 in 1976. Life expectancy was estimated to be 65.1 for women, and 55.1 for men, much too low to be acceptable, and possibly caused by wrong information given to interviewers. Total mortality was 6.7/1000, too low to be acceptable, while infant mortality was 69/1000. PMID:12262301

  19. Proximal risk factors and suicide methods among suicide completers from national suicide mortality data 2004-2006 in Korea.

    PubMed

    Im, Jeong-Soo; Choi, Soon Ho; Hong, Duho; Seo, Hwa Jeong; Park, Subin; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine differences in proximal risk factors and suicide methods by sex and age in the national suicide mortality data in Korea. Data were collected from the National Police Agency and the National Statistical Office of Korea on suicide completers from 2004 to 2006. The 31,711 suicide case records were used to analyze suicide rates, methods, and proximal risk factors by sex and age. Suicide rate increased with age, especially in men. The most common proximal risk factor for suicide was medical illness in both sexes. The most common proximal risk factor for subjects younger than 30 years was found to be a conflict in relationships with family members, partner, or friends. Medical illness was found to increase in prevalence as a risk factor with age. Hanging/Suffocation was the most common suicide method used by both sexes. The use of drug/pesticide poisoning to suicide increased with age. A fall from height or hanging/suffocation was more popular in the younger age groups. Because proximal risk factors and suicide methods varied with sex and age, different suicide prevention measures are required after consideration of both of these parameters. PMID:21497215

  20. Wildlife mortality investigation and disease research: contributions of the USGS National Wildlife Health Center to endangered species management and recovery.

    PubMed

    Brand, Christopher J

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey-National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC) provides diagnostic services, technical assistance, applied research, and training to federal, state, territorial, and local government agencies and Native American tribes on wildlife diseases and wildlife health issues throughout the United States and its territories, commonwealth, and freely associated states. Since 1975, >16,000 carcasses and specimens from vertebrate species listed under the Endangered Species Act have been submitted to NWHC for determination of causes of morbidity or mortality or assessment of health/disease status. Results from diagnostic investigations, analyses of the diagnostic database, technical assistance and consultation, field investigation of epizootics, and wildlife disease research by NWHC wildlife disease specialists have contributed importantly to the management and recovery of listed species. PMID:24419670

  1. Wildlife mortality investigation and disease research: contributions of the USGS National Wildlife Health Center to endangered species management and recovery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brand, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey—National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC) provides diagnostic services, technical assistance, applied research, and training to federal, state, territorial, and local government agencies and Native American tribes on wildlife diseases and wildlife health issues throughout the United States and its territories, commonwealth, and freely associated states. Since 1975, >16,000 carcasses and specimens from vertebrate species listed under the Endangered Species Act have been submitted to NWHC for determination of causes of morbidity or mortality or assessment of health/disease status. Results from diagnostic investigations, analyses of the diagnostic database, technical assistance and consultation, field investigation of epizootics, and wildlife disease research by NWHC wildlife disease specialists have contributed importantly to the management and recovery of listed species.

  2. Re-Victimization Patterns in a National Longitudinal Sample of Children and Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelhor, David; Ormrod, Richard K.; Turner, Heather A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To understand to the degree to which a broad variety of victimizations, including child maltreatment, conventional crime, peer, and sexual victimizations, persist for children from 1 year to the next. Design: A national sample of 1467 children aged 2-17 recruited through random digit dialing and assessed via telephone interviews (with…

  3. Analysis of Entry to Teaching Utilizing National Longitudinal Study Data. Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vance, Victor S.

    This study describes the changes in demographic characteristics of beginning teachers who entered the profession between 1956-57 and 1976. Existing literature on beginning teachers is examined to construct an image of the changes that have occurred among those choosing teaching careers. National and statewide samples are reviewed; however,…

  4. Does counterterrorist legislation hurt human rights practices? A longitudinal cross-national analysis.

    PubMed

    Shor, Eran; Filkobski, Ina; Ben-Nun Bloom, Pazit; Alkilabi, Hayder; Su, William

    2016-07-01

    In the aftermath of the 9/11 terrorist attacks, many countries have passed new counterterrorist legislation. One of the common assumptions about such legislation is that it comes with a price: a compromise to practices of human rights. Previous research, looking at a wide range of case studies, suggested that this is indeed the case and that counterterrorist legislation often leads to subsequent repression. However, no large-scale cross-national study has yet assessed this relationship. Relying on a newly assembled database on nation-level counterterrorist legislation for the years 1981-2009, we conduct a cross-national time series analysis of legislation and repression. Our analyses find little evidence for a significant relationships between national counterterrorist legislation and various measures of core human rights in most countries. However, while legislation does not affect repression of physical integrity rights in countries with low and high levels of repression, it is associated with greater state repression in countries with intermediate scores of repression. PMID:27194654

  5. School Predictors of Violent Criminality in Adulthood: Findings from a Nationally Representative Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsiyannis, Antonis; Thompson, Martie P.; Barrett, David E.; Kingree, J. B.

    2013-01-01

    School-related problems such as poor academic performance, truancy, frequent suspensions, and grade repeating have been identified as risk factors for adolescent behavior problems. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effect of school-related factors on violent criminality in adulthood, based on data from the National Longitudinal…

  6. Low serum carotenoid concentrations and carotenoid interactions predict mortality in US adults: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III)

    PubMed Central

    Shardell, Michelle D; Alley, Dawn E; Hicks, Gregory E; El-Kamary, Samer S; Miller, Ram R; Semba, Richard D; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Evidence regarding the health benefits of carotenoids is controversial. Effects of serum carotenoids and their interactions on mortality have not been examined in a representative sample of US adults. The objective was to examine whether serum carotenoid concentrations predict mortality among US adults. The study consisted of adults aged ≥20 years enrolled in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III, 1988–1994, with measured serum carotenoids and mortality follow-up through 2006 (N=13,293). Outcomes were all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer mortality. In adjusted Cox proportional hazards models, participants in the lowest total carotenoid quartile (<1.01µmol/L) had significantly higher all-cause mortality (mortality rate ratio=1.38; 95% confidence interval:1.15—1.65; P=0.005) than those in the highest total carotenoid quartile (>1.75µmol/L). For alpha-carotene, the highest quartile (>0.11µmol/L) had the lowest all-cause mortality rates (P<0.001). For lycopene, the middle two quartiles (0.29–0.58µmol/L) had the lowest all-cause mortality rates (P=0.047). Analyses with continuous carotenoids confirmed associations of serum total carotenoids, alpha-carotene, and lycopene with all-cause mortality (P<0.001). In a random survival forest analysis, very low lycopene was the carotenoid most strongly predictive of all-cause mortality, followed by very low total carotenoids. Alpha-carotene/beta-cryptoxanthin, alpha-carotene/lutein+zeaxanthin and lycopene/lutein+zeaxanthin interactions were significantly related to all-cause mortality (P<0.05). Low alpha-carotene was the only carotenoid associated with CVD mortality (P=0.002). No carotenoids were significantly associated with cancer mortality. Very low serum total carotenoid, alpha-carotene, and lycopene concentrations may be risk factors for mortality, but carotenoids show interaction effects on mortality. Interventions of balanced carotenoid combinations are needed for

  7. Mass mortality events of the coral Balanophyllia europaea (Scleractinia, Dendrophylliidae) in the Mljet National Park (eastern Adriatic Sea) caused by sea temperature anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kružić, P.; Popijač, A.

    2015-03-01

    Recurrent climate-induced mass mortalities of marine animals have been recorded in the Mediterranean Sea over the past 15 years. These mortality outbreaks have been associated with positive thermal anomalies. In this study, we assessed long-term (from 2003 to 2013) responses of the temperate coral Balanophyllia europaea to increasing seawater temperatures in the Mljet National Park in the Adriatic Sea (Northern Mediterranean Sea) and described the relationship between recurrent mortality events and sea temperature regimes in the southern Adriatic Sea. Our results indicate that polyp bleaching and tissue necrosis caused the observed mortality. The first observations of B. europaea mortality within the study area in the Mljet NP were in early September 2003. The Mediterranean area experienced high temperatures and hydrographic stability over a period of several weeks throughout that summer, which resulted in a mass mortality event. In the Mljet National Park, the highest impact of mass mortality started during the exceptionally hot summer of 2012, representing one of the most severe mass mortality events ever observed in the Adriatic Sea. In 2012, sea temperatures at a 5 m depth during the summer period (from June to September) ranged from 24.44 to 30.16 °C in the Mljet NP. The northern sites in the Mljet NP were highly impacted, with up to 80 % of B. europaea specimens affected by necrosis, while the southern sites displayed the highest impact, with 90-100 % of affected individuals. Without any coral adaptation to warming and under the present climate-warming trend, new mass mortality events may occur in the near future, possibly causing a major coral biodiversity crisis in the Mediterranean Sea.

  8. Suicide history and mortality: a follow-up of a national cohort in the United States.

    PubMed

    Al-Sayegh, Hasan; Lowry, Joseph; Polur, Ram N; Hines, Robert B; Liu, Fengqi; Zhang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the cause-specific deaths among young suicide attempters from the general population, and the time window for intervention to reduce the elevated rate of death was unclear. We analyzed a nationally representative sample of young adults (17-39 years old) who participated in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988-1994) and were followed up with vital status through December 31, 2006. The history of attempted suicide was associated with an increased rate for all-cause death (HR = 1.52 [95% CI = 0.92-2.52]) with borderline statistical significance. Previous suicide attempters experienced a 3-fold (HR = 2.68[=1.01-7.09]) increased rate for cardiovascular diseases (CVD), and a 7-fold (HR = 7.10 [95% CI = 1.37-36.9]) increased rate of death due to completed suicide compared with non-attempters. The survival curves of the attempters declined rapidly for the first 3 years of follow-up, and the distance between curves remained consistent starting from the third year to the end of the follow-up. Prevention services should be tailored not only for suicide, but also for cardiovascular diseases among populations with suicidal tendency, and the service should be intensified within first 3 years after suicidal behaviors occur. PMID:25674703

  9. The National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS-72), Fifth Follow-Up (1986) Data File [machine-readable data file].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics (ED), Washington, DC.

    This machine-readable data file (MDRF) contains information from the fifth follow-up survey of the National Longitudinal Survey of the High School Class of 1972. The survey was carried out along with the third survey of the High School and Beyond Study. The fifth follow-up data file consists of 12,841 records. The data tape contains information on…

  10. The National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS-72), Fifth Follow-Up (1986). Teaching Supplement Data File [machine-readable data file].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics (ED), Washington, DC.

    The National Longitudinal Survey of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS-72) Teaching Supplement Data File (TSDF) is presented. Data for the machine-readable data file (MDRF) were collected via a mail questionnaire that was sent to all respondents (N=1,517) to the fifth follow-up survey who indicated that they had a teaching background or training…

  11. The National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS-72) Fifth Follow-Up (1986) Data File User's Manual. Contractor Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tourangeau, Roger; And Others

    This manual was produced to familiarize data users with the procedures followed in data collection and processing of the fifth follow-up survey of the National Longitudinal Survey of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS-72) and to provide documentation for use of the file. The data file is a computerized data base, which is available on magnetic…

  12. Attrition from College: The Class of 1972 Two and One-Half Years After High School Graduation. National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolstad, Andrew

    Some findings about attrition from two- and four-year colleges and universities are presented based on NCES's National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972. Attrition is generally defined as withdrawal from college without completing a degree; in this report, students who had attended courses in the first two years after high school…

  13. National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972. Attrition from College: The Class of 1972 Two and One-Half Years After High School Graduation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolstad, Andrew

    Some findings about attrition from two- and four-year colleges and universities based on the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS) are presented. Attrition is defined as withdrawal from college without completing a degree. After 2 years, the four-year institutions had lost 23.5 percent of their entrants. More two-year…

  14. Symposium on the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88) and the NELS:88 Field Test (New Orleans, Louisiana, April 5-9, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingels, Steven J.; And Others

    The National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88) is a major new panel study of educational outcomes sponsored by the Center for Education Statistics of the United States Department of Education. The NELS:88 is designed to provide trend data about critical transitions experienced by young people as they develop, attend school, and embark…

  15. Adolescents' Use of School-Based Health Clinics for Reproductive Health Services: Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Richard A.; St. Lawrence, Janet

    2000-01-01

    Describes adolescents' use of school-based health clinics (SBCs) for family planning and sexually transmitted disease (STD)-related services, using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Results indicated that 13 percent received family planning and 8.9 percent received STD-related services from SBCs. Factors affecting the…

  16. National Educational Technology Standards and Technology Beliefs and Practices of Social Studies Faculty: Results from a Seven-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Adam; Bolick, Cheryl; Berson, Michael; Porfeli, Erik

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from the third survey administration of a longitudinal study that explores the beliefs, practices, and efficacy of social studies faculty members from across the United States in terms of instructional technology use. The findings of this study demonstrate that familiarity with the "National Educational Technology…

  17. Report on the Data Collection Activities of the First Follow-Up. The National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Triangle Inst., Durham, NC.

    This is a report on the data collection activities of the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972(NLS). This phase of the operation involved the first follow-up contact with the 22,654 seniors selected for participation in this study. The fieldwork for the first follow-up was scheduled between July 1973 and January 1974; it…

  18. Exploring the Relationship between Access Technology and Standardized Test Scores for Youths with Visual Impairments: Secondary Analysis of the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, Amy L.; Emerson, Robert Wall; Curtis, Amy B.; Fogarty, Kieran

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a secondary analysis of the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 that explored the predictive association between training in access technology and performance on the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Academic Achievement: III. The results indicated that the use of access technology had a limited predictive…

  19. Constructed Response Tests in the NELS:88 High School Effectiveness Study. National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 Second Followup. Statistical Analysis Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Judith M.; And Others

    This report describes an experiment in constructed response testing undertaken in conjunction with the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88). Constructed response questions are those that require students to produce their own response rather than selecting the correct answer from several options. Participants in this experiment…

  20. National Longitudinal Study (NLS) of the High School Class of 1972: Base Year (1972) through Fourth Follow-up (1979) [machine-readable data file].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Triangle Inst., Durham, NC. Center for Educational Research and Evaluation.

    The "National Longitudinal Study (NLS) of the High School Class of 1972: Base Year (1972) through Fourth Follow-up (1979)" machine-readable data file (MRDF) is a single merged file of student responses to the original interviews or tests in 1972 and the mail follow-up surveys of 1973, 1974, 1976, and 1979. The 1972 data were gathered by the…

  1. The National Assessment of Educational Progress and the Longitudinal Studies Program: Together or Apart? Report of a Planning Conference (Washington, D.C., December 11, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, George H.; Faupel, Elizabeth M.

    The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) and the Longitudinal Studies Program (LSP) are major survey projects on educational outcomes performed by the Center for Education Statistics. NAEP is a continuing cross-sectional survey of young Americans' skills, knowledge, and attitudes. The LSP studies follow a sample of students as they…

  2. A Capsule Description of Young Adults Seven and One-Half Years After High School. National Longitudinal Study Sponsored Reports Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkheimer, Graham J.; Novak, Thomas P.

    A summary is presented of some of the results from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School of 1972, which examined the vocational activities, plans, aspirations, and attitudes of young adults after they leave high school, along with their postsecondary experiences and family and community activities. By October 1979, about one-fourth of…

  3. Mortality from and Incidence of Pesticide Poisoning in South Korea: Findings from National Death and Health Utilization Data between 2006 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Eun Shil; Khang, Young-Ho; Lee, Won Jin

    2014-01-01

    Pesticide poisoning has been recognized as an important public health issue around the world. The objectives of this study were to report nationally representative figures on mortality from and the incidence of pesticide poisoning in South Korea and to describe their epidemiologic characteristics. We calculated the age-standardized rates of mortality from and the incidence of pesticide poisoning in South Korea by gender and region from 2006 through 2010 using registered death data obtained from Statistics Korea and national healthcare utilization data obtained from the National Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service of South Korea. During the study period of 2006 through 2010, a total of 16,161 deaths and 45,291 patients related to pesticide poisoning were identified, marking respective mortality and incidence rates of 5.35 and 15.37 per 100,000 population. Intentional self-poisoning was identified as the major cause of death due to pesticides (85.9%) and accounted for 20.8% of all recorded suicides. The rates of mortality due to and incidence of pesticide poisoning were higher in rural than in urban areas, and this rural-urban discrepancy was more pronounced for mortality than for incidence. Both the rate of mortality due to pesticide poisoning and its incidence rate increased with age and were higher among men than women. This study provides the magnitude and epidemiologic characteristics for mortality from and the incidence of pesticide poisoning at the national level, and strongly suggests the need for further efforts to prevent pesticide self-poisonings, especially in rural areas in South Korea. PMID:24743877

  4. Exclusive Breastfeeding and Under-Five Mortality, 2006-2014: A Cross-National Analysis of 57 Low- and-Middle Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Azuine, Romuladus E.; Murray, Janna; Alsafi, Noor; Singh, Gopal K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Few studies have examined the long-term, cross-national, and population-level impacts of exclusive breastfeeding on major global child health indicators. We investigated the overall and independent associations between exclusive breastfeeding and under-five mortality in 57 low- and-middle-income countries. Methods: Data were obtained from the latest World Health Organization, United Nations, and United Nations Children’s Fund databases for 57 low- and middle-income countries covering the periods 2006-2014. Multivariate linear regression was used to estimate the effects of exclusive breastfeeding on under-five mortality after adjusting for differences in socioeconomic, demographic, and health-related factors. Results: In multivariate models, exclusive breastfeeding was independently associated with under-five mortality after adjusting for sociodemographic and health systems-related factors. A 10 percentage-points increase in exclusive breastfeeding was associated with a reduction of 5 child deaths per 1,000 live births. A one-unit increase in Human Development Index was associated with a decrease of 231 under-five child deaths per 1,000 live births. A $100 increase in per capita health care expenditure was associated with a decrease of 2 child deaths per 1,000 live births. One unit increase in physician density was associated with 2.8 units decrease in the under-five mortality rate. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Population-level health system and socioeconomic factors exert considerable effect on the association between exclusive breastfeeding and under-five mortality. Given that the health policy and socioeconomic indicators shown to influence exclusive breastfeeding and under-five mortality are modifiable, policy makers could potentially target specific policies and programs to address national-level deficiencies in these sectors to reduce under-five mortality in their countries.

  5. Recurrence and mortality prognostic factors in childhood adrenocortical tumors: Analysis from the Brazilian National Institute of Cancer experience.

    PubMed

    Bulzico, Daniel; de Faria, Paulo Antônio Silvestre; de Paula, Marcela Pessoa; Bordallo, Maria Alice Neves; Pessoa, Cencita H C N; Corbo, Rossana; Ferman, Sima; Vaisman, Mario; Neto, Leonardo Vieira

    2016-05-01

    Prognostic markers that can help identifying precocious risk of unfavorable outcomes in patients with childhood adrenocortical tumors (ACTs) are still unclear. This observational and retrospective study aimed to identify clinical and pathology prognostic factors of recurrence and death in a tertiary cancer center population. Clinical, pathology, demographic, staging, and therapy data from patients with childhood ACT (median age: 3.6 years) treated at the Brazilian National Institute of Cancer between 1997 and 2015 were assessed. Univariate and bivariate analyses were used to study the association of clinical and pathology characteristics with recurrence and mortality. Recurrence and disease-related mortality were the main outcomes. Twenty-seven patients were included. Complete tumor resection was performed in 21 cases. The median tumor size was 8.2 cm. Mitotane was the most common adjuvant/palliative therapy (n = 13). Recurrence occurred in 6 patients, after a median time of 7.2 months, and was more common among those with larger tumors (P =.008), higher Weiss score (P =.001), and microscopic tumoral necrosis (P =.002). Ten patients died from the disease. Older age (P =.04), larger tumor size (P =.002), metastatic disease (P =.003), previous recurrence (P =.003), incomplete resection (P =.002), intraoperative tumor spillage (P =.005), higher Weiss score (P =.03), microscopic necrosis (P =.005), and capsular invasion (P =.02) were all associated with increased death risk. Even though complete tumor resection was performed in most cases, a considerable number of cases of childhood ACT resulted in recurrence and death. Early identification of unfavorable outcomes is essential to determine ideal therapy and appropriate surveillance. PMID:27246903

  6. Young Adult Outcomes of Children Growing up with Chronic Illness: An analysis of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

    PubMed Central

    Maslow, Gary R.; Haydon, Abigail; Ford, Carol Ann; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine young adult outcomes in a nationally representative US cohort of young adults who grew up with a chronic illness. Design Secondary analysis of nationally representative data from Wave III (2001) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Setting United States Participants The analytic sample included 13,236 young adults 18–28 years old at Wave III. Main Exposure Self-report of a chronic physical illness (asthma, cancer, diabetes or epilepsy) in adolescence. Respondents with (1) asthma or (2) non-asthma chronic illness (cancer, diabetes, or epilepsy) were compared to subjects without these conditions. Main Outcome Measures Self-report of high school graduation, ever having a job, having a current job, living with parents, and ever receiving public assistance. Results Three percent of young adults had non-asthma chronic illness (cancer, diabetes, or epilepsy) and 16% had asthma. The majority of young adults with chronic illness graduated high school (81%) and were currently employed (60%). However, compared to healthy young adults, those with a non-asthma chronic illness were significantly less likely to graduate high school, ever have a job, or have a current job and were more likely to receive public assistance. When compared to young adults with asthma, young adults with non-asthma chronic illness again had significantly worse young adult outcomes on all measures. Conclusions Most young adults growing up with chronic illness graduate high school and are employed. However, these young adults are significantly less likely than their healthy peers to achieve these important educational and vocational milestones. PMID:21383274

  7. Increased risk of alcohol dependency in a cohort of National Guard troops with PTSD: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Kline, Anna; Weiner, Marc D; Ciccone, Donald S; Interian, Alejandro; St Hill, Lauren; Losonczy, Miklos

    2014-03-01

    Studies show high rates of co-morbid post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) but there is no consensus on the causal direction of the relationship. Some theories suggest AUD develops as a coping mechanism to manage PTSD symptoms and others that AUD is a vulnerability factor for PTSD. A third hypothesis posits independent developmental pathways stemming from a shared etiology, such as the trauma exposure itself. We examined these hypotheses using longitudinal data on 922 National Guard soldiers, representing a subsample (56%) of a larger pre- and post-deployment cross-sectional study of New Jersey National Guard soldiers deployed to Iraq. Measures included the PTSD Checklist (PCL), DSM-IV-based measures of alcohol use/misuse from the National Household Survey of Drug Use and Health and other concurrent mental health, military and demographic measures. Results showed no effect of pre-deployment alcohol status on subsequent positive screens for new onset PTSD. However, in multivariate models, baseline PTSD symptoms significantly increased the risk of screening positive for new onset alcohol dependence (AD), which rose 5% with each unit increase in PCL score (AOR = 1.05; 95% CI = 1.02-1.07). Results also supported the shared etiology hypothesis, with the risk of a positive screen for AD increasing by 9% for every unit increase in combat exposure after controlling for baseline PTSD status (AOR = 1.09; 95% CI = 1.03-1.15) and, in a subsample with PCL scores <34, by 17% for each unit increase in exposure (AOR = 1.17; 95% CI = 1.05-1.31). These findings have implications for prevention, treatment and compensation policies governing co-morbidity in military veterans. PMID:24332924

  8. Longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a subsonic, energy-efficient transport configuration in the National Transonic Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Peter F.; Gloss, Blair B.

    1989-01-01

    The Reynolds number, aeroelasticity, boundary layer transition, and nonadiabatic wall temperature effects, and data repeatability was determined in the National Transonic Facility (NTF) for a subsonic, energy efficient transport model. The model was tested over a Mach number range of 0.50 to 0.86 and a Reynolds number range of 1.9 million to approximately 23.0 million (based on mean geometric chord). The majority of the data was taken using cryogenic nitrogen (data at 1.9 million Reynolds number was taken in air). Force and moment, wing pressure, and wing thermocouple data are presented. The data indicate that increasing Reynolds number resulted in greater effective camber of the supercritical wing and horizontal tail, resulting in greater lift and pitching moment coefficients at nearly all angles of attack for M = 0.82. As Reynolds number was increased, untrimmed L/D increased, the angle of attack for maximum L/D decreased, drag creep was reduced significantly, and drag divergence Mach number increased slightly. Data repeatability for both modes of operation of the NTF (air and cryogenic nitrogen) was generally very good, and nonadiabatic wall effects were estimated to be small. Transition-free and transition-fixed configurations had significantly different force and moment data at M = 0.82 for low Reynolds number, and very small differences were noted at high Reynolds numbers.

  9. Changes in Age-Adjusted Mortality Rates and Disparities for Rural Physician Shortage Areas Staffed by the National Health Service Corps: 1984-1998

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathman, Donald E.; Fryer, George E.; Green, Larry A.; Phillips, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study assesses whether the National Health Service Corps's legislated goals to see health improve and health disparities lessen are being met in rural health professional shortage areas for a key population health indicator: age-adjusted mortality. Methods: In a descriptive study using a pre-post design with comparison groups, the…

  10. Changes in Age-Adjusted Mortality Rates and Disparities for Rural Physician Shortage Areas Staffed by the National Health Service Corps: 1984-1998

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathman, Donald E.; Fryer, George E.; Green, Larry A.; Phillips, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    This study assesses whether the National Health Service Corps's legislated goals to see health improve and health disparities lessen are being met in rural health professional shortage areas for a key population health indicator: age-adjusted mortality. In a descriptive study using a pre-post design with comparison groups, the authors calculated…

  11. LOWER CD4 CELL COUNT AND HIGHER VIRUS LOAD, BUT NOT ANTIRETROVIRAL DRUG RESISTANCE, ARE ASSOCIATED WITH AIDS-DEFINING EVENTS AND MORTALITY: AN ACTG LONGITUDINAL LINKED RANDOMIZED TRIALS (ALLRT) ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Swindells, Susan; Jiang, Hongyu; Mukherjee, A. Lisa; Winters, Mark; Bosch, Ronald J.; Katzenstein, David

    2012-01-01

    Background We hypothesized that drug resistance mutations would impact clinical outcomes associated with HIV-1 infection. Methods A matched case-control study of participants in AIDS Clinical Trials Group Longitudinal Linked Randomized Trials (ALLRT). Cases experienced an AIDS-defining event (ADE) or mortality, and controls did not. One hundred thirty four cases were identified and matched to a total of 266 controls by age, sex, treatment regimen, and length of follow-up. Both cases and controls had HIV RNA levels of ≥ 500 copies/mL within 24 weeks of an event. Population-based genotyping at or near the time of the event was used to evaluate the impact of resistance mutations on incidence of ADE and/or death using conditional logistic regression models. Results One hundred and four cases and 183 controls were analyzed. Median time to event was 99 weeks; six cases were deaths. At baseline, cases had lower CD4 (median 117 vs. 235 cells/mm3, p<0.0001) and higher HIV RNA levels (median 205,000 vs. 57,000 copies/mL, p=0.03). No significant differences in resistance were seen between cases and controls. Conclusions In this rigorously designed case-control study, lower CD4 cell counts and higher virus loads, not antiretroviral drug resistance, were strongly associated ADE and mortality. PMID:21498151

  12. Depressed Mood During Early to Middle Adolescence: A Bi-national Longitudinal Study of the Unique Impact of Family Conflict.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Adrian B; Mason, W Alex; Chmelka, Mary B; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Kim, Min Jung; Patton, George C; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Toumbourou, John W; Catalano, Richard F

    2016-08-01

    Adolescent depressed mood is related to the development of subsequent mental health problems, and family problems have been linked to adolescent depression. Longitudinal research on adolescent depressed mood is needed to establish the unique impact of family problems independent of other potential drivers. This study tested the extent to which family conflict exacerbates depressed mood during adolescence, independent of changes in depressed mood over time, academic performance, bullying victimization, negative cognitive style, and gender. Students (13 years old) participated in a three-wave bi-national study (n = 961 from the State of Washington, United States, n = 981 from Victoria, Australia; 98 % retention, 51 % female in each sample). The model was cross-lagged and controlled for the autocorrelation of depressed mood, negative cognitive style, academic failure, and bullying victimization. Family conflict partially predicted changes in depressed mood independent of changes in depressed mood over time and the other controls. There was also evidence that family conflict and adolescent depressed mood are reciprocally related over time. The findings were closely replicated across the two samples. The study identifies potential points of intervention to interrupt the progression of depressed mood in early to middle adolescence. PMID:26861643

  13. Is sprawl associated with a widening urban-suburban mortality gap?

    PubMed

    Fan, Yingling; Song, Yan

    2009-09-01

    This paper examines whether sprawl, featured by low development density, segregated land uses, lack of significant centers, and poor street connectivity, contributes to a widening mortality gap between urban and suburban residents. We employ two mortality datasets, including a national cross-sectional dataset examining the impact of metropolitan-level sprawl on urban-suburban mortality gaps and a longitudinal dataset from Portland examining changes in urban-suburban mortality gaps over time. The national and Portland studies provide the only evidence to date that (1) across metropolitan areas, the size of urban-suburban mortality gaps varies by the extent of sprawl: in sprawling metropolitan areas, urban residents have significant excess mortality risks than suburban residents, while in compact metropolitan areas, urbanicity-related excess mortality becomes insignificant; (2) the Portland metropolitan area not only experienced net decreases in mortality rates but also a narrowing urban-suburban mortality gap since its adoption of smart growth regime in the past decade; and (3) the existence of excess mortality among urban residents in US sprawling metropolitan areas, as well as the net mortality decreases and narrowing urban-suburban mortality gap in the Portland metropolitan area, is not attributable to sociodemographic variations. These findings suggest that health threats imposed by sprawl affect urban residents disproportionately compared to suburban residents and that efforts curbing sprawl may mitigate urban-suburban health disparities. PMID:19533362

  14. Frequency of recording of diabetes on U.S. death certificates: analysis of the 1986 National Mortality Followback Survey.

    PubMed

    Bild, D E; Stevenson, J M

    1992-03-01

    We used data from the 1986 National Mortality Followback Survey to estimate the frequency of recording of diabetes on death certificates and to determine factors associated with recording of diabetes among decedents aged 25 years and older who died in the U.S. in 1986. Among 2766 decedents for whom a history of diabetes was provided by a personal informant, diabetes was recorded on an estimated 38.2% of death certificates and was listed as the underlying cause of death on an estimated 9.6%. The frequency of recording of diabetes was strongly related to age and duration of diabetes--among those aged 25-44 years who had had diabetes for 15 or more years, the frequency of recording was 71.9%. When other listed causes of death included conditions that may have been related to diabetes, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes was recorded between 45 and 70% of the time, depending on the other causes. Diabetes is usually not recorded on death certificates, and the likelihood of recording is related to decedent characteristics, particularly age, duration of diabetes, and co-morbidity. PMID:1569424

  15. The Social Determinants of Infant Mortality and Birth Outcomes in Western Developed Nations: A Cross-Country Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Daniel; Saada, Adrianna

    2013-01-01

    Infant mortality (IM) and birth outcomes, key population health indicators, have lifelong implications for individuals, and are unequally distributed globally. Even among western industrialized nations, striking cross-country and within-country patterns are evident. We sought to better understand these variations across and within the United States of America (USA) and Western Europe (WE), by conceptualizing a social determinants of IM/birth outcomes framework, and systematically reviewing the empirical literature on hypothesized social determinants (e.g., social policies, neighbourhood deprivation, individual socioeconomic status (SES)) and intermediary determinants (e.g., health behaviours). To date, the evidence suggests that income inequality and social policies (e.g., maternal leave policies) may help to explain cross-country variations in IM/birth outcomes. Within countries, the evidence also supports neighbourhood SES (USA, WE) and income inequality (USA) as social determinants. By contrast, within-country social cohesion/social capital has been underexplored. At the individual level, mixed associations have been found between individual SES, race/ethnicity, and selected intermediary factors (e.g., psychosocial factors) with IM/birth outcomes. Meanwhile, this review identifies several methodological gaps, including the underuse of prospective designs and the presence of residual confounding in a number of studies. Ultimately, addressing such gaps including through novel approaches to strengthen causal inference and implementing both health and non-health policies may reduce inequities in IM/birth outcomes across the western developed world. PMID:23739649

  16. Assessing the potential impacts to riparian ecosystems resulting from hemlock mortality in Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Scott W; Tankersley, Roger; Orvis, Kenneth H

    2009-08-01

    Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Adelges tsugae) is spreading across forests in eastern North America, causing mortality of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis [L.] Carr.) and Carolina hemlock (Tsuga caroliniana Engelm.). The loss of hemlock from riparian forests in Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP) may result in significant physical, chemical, and biological alterations to stream environments. To assess the influence of riparian hemlock stands on stream conditions and estimate possible impacts from hemlock loss in GSMNP, we paired hardwood- and hemlock-dominated streams to examine differences in water temperature, nitrate concentrations, pH, discharge, and available photosynthetic light. We used a Geographic Information System (GIS) to identify stream pairs that were similar in topography, geology, land use, and disturbance history in order to isolate forest type as a variable. Differences between hemlock- and hardwood-dominated streams could not be explained by dominant forest type alone as forest type yields no consistent signal on measured conditions of headwater streams in GSMNP. The variability in the results indicate that other landscape variables, such as the influence of understory Rhododendron species, may exert more control on stream conditions than canopy composition. The results of this study suggest that the replacement of hemlock overstory with hardwood species will have minimal impact on long-term stream conditions, however disturbance during the transition is likely to have significant impacts. Management of riparian forests undergoing hemlock decline should, therefore, focus on facilitating a faster transition to hardwood-dominated stands to minimize long-term effects on water quality. PMID:19495859

  17. Impact of smoke-free legislation on perinatal and infant mortality: a national quasi-experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Been, Jasper V; Mackay, Daniel F; Millett, Christopher; Pell, Jill P; van Schayck, Onno CP; Sheikh, Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Smoke-free legislation is associated with improved early-life outcomes; however its impact on perinatal survival is unclear. We linked individual-level data with death certificates for all registered singletons births in England (1995–2011). We used interrupted time series logistic regression analysis to study changes in key adverse perinatal events following the July 2007 national, comprehensive smoke-free legislation. We studied 52,163 stillbirths and 10,238,950 live-births. Smoke-free legislation was associated with an immediate 7.8% (95%CI 3.5–11.8; p < 0.001) reduction in stillbirth, a 3.9% (95%CI 2.6–5.1; p < 0.001) reduction in low birth weight, and a 7.6% (95%CI 3.4–11.7; p = 0.001) reduction in neonatal mortality. No significant impact on SIDS was observed. Using a counterfactual scenario, we estimated that in the first four years following smoke-free legislation, 991 stillbirths, 5,470 cases of low birth weight, and 430 neonatal deaths were prevented. In conclusion, smoke-free legislation in England was associated with clinically important reductions in severe adverse perinatal outcomes. PMID:26268789

  18. Achievements in preventing morbidity and mortality by researchers of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.

    PubMed

    Lipsett, M B

    1983-01-01

    In the 20 years since its creation, the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) has become a world leader in promoting research on fertility, high-risk pregnancy, care of newborns, nutrition, learning disorders, mental retardation, development of better contraceptives, and factors that influence family planning. NICHD also supports basic research that sheds light on normal processes in human development.This research has yielded impressive dividends. Improvement in the treatment of premature infants has contributed to a 22 percent decline in infant mortality in the United States between 1976 and 1980. Between 1962 and 1980, the maternal death rate from pregnancy and childbirth dropped 80 percent, owing largely to NICHD-supported research that has led to improved management of a number of conditions that are life-threatening to pregnant women.NICHD-supported research has led to the development of screening tests and treatments for certain metabolic disorders that cause mental retardation. Grantees of the Institute have also discovered a chromosomal disorder known to be a cause of mental retardation in men and have made research advances leading to better home care and a fuller role in community life for persons with Down's syndrome.Other NICHD studies seek to improve family planning methods and to find safer, more effective contraceptives. A promising development in this area is a class of synthetic brain hormones that could provide a new type of birth control pill for women and the first successful chemical contraceptive for men. PMID:6828637

  19. Incidence and Mortality after Proximal Humerus Fractures Over 50 Years of Age in South Korea: National Claim Data from 2008 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chanmi; Jang, Sunmee; Lee, Areum; Kim, Ha Young; Lee, Yong Beom; Ha, Yong Chan

    2015-01-01

    Background There has been lack of epidemiology of proximal humerus fracture using nationwide database in Asia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of proximal humerus fracture and its mortality following proximal humerus fracture in Korean over 50 years of age. Methods The Korean National Health Insurance data were evaluated to determine the incidence and mortality of proximal humerus fracture aged 50 years or older from 2008 through 2012. Results Proximal humerus fracture increased by 40.5% over 5 year of study. The incidence of fracture increased from 104.7/100,000 in 2008 to 124.7/100,000 in 2012 in women and from 45.3/100,000 in 2008 to 52.0/100,000 in 2012 in men, respectively. One year mortality rate after proximal humerus fracture was 8.0% in 2008 and 7.0% in 2012. One year mortality rate were 10.8% for men and 7.0% for women in 2008 and 8.5% for men and 6.4% for women in 2012. Conclusions Our study showed that the proximal humerus fracture in elderly was recently increasing and associated with high mortality in Korea. Considering proximal humerus fracture was associated with an increased risk of associated fractures and an increased mortality risk, public health strategy to prevent the proximal humerus fracture in elderly will be mandatory. PMID:25774360

  20. Self-Reported Age of Onset and Telescoping for Cigarettes, Alcohol, and Marijuana: Across Eight Years of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shillington, Audrey M.; Woodruff, Susan I.; Clapp, John D.; Reed, Mark B.; Lemus, Hector

    2012-01-01

    Smoking, drinking, and illicit drug use are leading causes of morbidity and mortality, both during adolescence as well as later in life. The determination of how well national and local policy and intervention efforts address teen substance use depends largely on the collection of valid and accurate data. Assessments of substance use rely heavily…

  1. Normal weight obesity and mortality in United States subjects ≥60 years of age (from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey).

    PubMed

    Batsis, John A; Sahakyan, Karine R; Rodriguez-Escudero, Juan P; Bartels, Stephen J; Somers, Virend K; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2013-11-15

    Current body mass index (BMI) strata likely misrepresent the accuracy of true adiposity in older adults. Subjects with normal BMI with elevated body fat may metabolically have higher cardiovascular and overall mortality than previously suspected. We identified 4,489 subjects aged ≥60 years (BMI = 18.5 to 25 kg/m(2)) with anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance measurements from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys III (1988 to 1994) and mortality data linked to the National Death Index. Normal weight obesity (NWO) was classified in 2 ways: creation of tertiles with highest percentage of body fat and body fat percent cutoffs (men >25% and women >35%). We compared overall and cardiovascular mortality rates, models adjusted for age, gender, smoking, race, diabetes, and BMI. The final sample included 1,528 subjects, mean age was 70 years, median (interquartile range) follow-up was 12.9 years (range 7.5 to 15.3) with 902 deaths (46.5% cardiovascular). Prevalence of NWO was 27.9% and 21.4% in men and 20.4% and 31.3% in women using tertiles and cutoffs, respectively. Subjects with NWO had higher rates of abnormal cardiovascular risk factors. Lean mass decreased, whereas leptin increased with increasing tertile. There were no gender-specific differences in overall mortality. Short-term mortality (<140 person-months) was higher in women, whereas long-term mortality (>140 person-months) was higher in men. We highlight the importance of considering body fat in gender-specific risk stratification in older adults with normal weight. In conclusion, NWO in older adults is associated with cardiometabolic dysregulation and is a risk for cardiovascular mortality independent of BMI and central fat distribution. PMID:23993123

  2. In‐Hospital Mortality Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Acute Myocardial Infarction: Results From the National Inpatient Sample, 2000–2010

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Bina; Davis, Herbert T.; Laskey, Warren K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Case‐fatality rates in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have significantly decreased; however, the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM), a risk factor for AMI, has increased. The purposes of the present study were to assess the prevalence and clinical impact of DM among patients hospitalized with AMI and to estimate the impact of important clinical characteristics associated with in‐hospital mortality in patients with AMI and DM. Methods and Results We used the National Inpatient Sample to estimate trends in DM prevalence and in‐hospital mortality among 1.5 million patients with AMI from 2000 to 2010, using survey data‐analysis methods. Clinical characteristics associated with in‐hospital mortality were identified using multivariable logistic regression. There was a significant increase in DM prevalence among AMI patients (year 2000, 22.2%; year 2010, 29.6%, Ptrend<0.0001). AMI patients with DM tended to be older and female and to have more cardiovascular risk factors. However, age‐standardized mortality decreased significantly from 2000 (8.48%) to 2010 (4.95%) (Ptrend<0.0001). DM remained independently associated with mortality (adjusted odds ratio 1.069, 95% CI 1.051 to 1.087; P<0.0001). The adverse impact of DM on in‐hospital mortality was unchanged over time. Decreased death risk over time was greatest among women and elderly patients. Among younger patients of both sexes, there was a leveling off of this decrease in more recent years. Conclusions Despite increasing DM prevalence and disease burden among AMI patients, in‐hospital mortality declined significantly from 2000 to 2010. The adverse impact of DM on mortality remained unchanged overall over time but was age and sex dependent. PMID:25158866

  3. Relation between income inequality and mortality: empirical demonstration.

    PubMed

    Wolfson, M; Kaplan, G; Lynch, J; Ross, N; Backlund, E

    1999-10-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the extent to which observed associations at the population level between income inequality and mortality are statistical artifacts. Data from the 1990 census for the 50 American states plus the District of Columbia were used for population distributions by age, sex, state and income range; data disaggregated by age, sex and state from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were used for mortality; and regressions from the national longitudinal mortality study were used for the individual level relation between income and risk of mortality. Results revealed that hypothetical mortality, while correlated with inequality, displayed a weaker association with state's levels of income inequality than the observed mortality. The associations seen in the US at the state level between income inequality and mortality cannot be entirely or substantially explained as statistical artifacts of an underlying individual level relation between income and mortality. There is still a significant association between income inequality and mortality at state level over and above anything that could be accounted for by any statistical artifact. This finding reinforces the need to consider a broad range of factors, including the social milieu, as fundamental determinants of health. PMID:10514157

  4. Social determinants of child mortality in Niger: Results from the 2012 National Verbal and Social Autopsy Study

    PubMed Central

    Koffi, Alain K; Maina, Abdou; Yaroh, Asma Gali; Habi, Oumarou; Bensaïd, Khaled; Kalter, Henry D

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding the determinants of preventable deaths of children under the age of five is important for accelerated annual declines – even as countries achieve the UN’s Millennium Development Goals and the target date of 2015 has been reached. While research has documented the extent and nature of the overall rapid decline in child mortality in Niger, there is less clear evidence to provide insight into the contributors to such deaths. This issue is the central focus of this paper. Methods We analyzed a nationally representative cross–sectional sample of 620 child deaths from the 2012 Niger Verbal Autopsy/Social Autopsy (VASA) Survey. We conducted a descriptive analysis of the data on preventive and curative care, guided by the coverage of proven indicators along the continuum of well child care and illness recognition and care–seeking for child illnesses encompassed by the BASICS/CDC Pathway to Survival model. Results Six hundred twenty deaths of children (1–59 months of age) were confirmed from the VASA survey. The majority of these children lived in households with precarious socio–economic conditions. Among the 414 children whose fatal illnesses began at age 0–23 months, just 24.4% were appropriately fed. About 24% of children aged 12–59 months were fully immunized. Of 601 children tracked through the Pathway to Survival, 62.4% could reach the first health care provider after about 67 minutes travel time. Of the 306 children who left the first health care provider alive, 161 (52.6%) were not referred for further care nor received any home care recommendations, and just 19% were referred to a second provider. About 113 of the caregivers reported cost (35%), distance (35%) and lack of transport (30%) as constraints to care–seeking at a health facility. Conclusion Despite Niger’s recent major achievements in reducing child mortality, the following determinants are crucial to continue building on the gains the country has made

  5. Mortality Factors in Geriatric Blunt Trauma Patients: Creation of a Highly Predictive Statistical Model for Mortality Using 50,765 Consecutive Elderly Trauma Admissions from the National Sample Project

    PubMed Central

    HRANJEC, TJASA; SAWYER, ROBERT G.; YOUNG, JEFFREY S.; SWENSON, BRIAN R.; CALLAND, JAMES F.

    2013-01-01

    Elderly patients are at high risk for mortality after injury. We hypothesized that trauma benchmarking efforts would benefit from development of a geriatric-specific model for risk-adjusted analyses of trauma center outcomes. A total of 57,973 records of elderly patients (age older than 65 years), which met our selection criteria, were submitted to the National Trauma Database and included within the National Sample Project between 2003 and 2006. These cases were used to construct a multivariable logistic regression model, which was compared with the American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma’s Trauma Quality Improvement Project’s (TQIP) existing model. Additional spline regression analyses were performed to further objectively quantify the physiologic differences between geriatric patients and their younger counterparts. The geriatric-specific and TQIP mortality models shared several covariates: age, Injury Severity Score, motor component of the Glasgow Coma Scale, and systolic blood pressure. Our model additionally used temperature and the presence of mechanical ventilation. Our geriatric-specific regression mode generated a superior c-statistic as compared with the TQIP approximation (0.85 vs 0.77; P = 0.048). Spline analyses demonstrated that elderly patients appear to be less likely to tolerate relative hypotension with higher observed mortality at initial systolic blood pressures of 90 to 130 mmHg. Although the TQIP model includes a single age component, these data suggest that each variable needs to be adjusted for age to more accurately predict mortality in the elderly. Clearly, a separate geriatric model for predicting outcomes is not only warranted, but necessary. PMID:23265126

  6. Examining mutable reform options for urban schools with multilevel analysis in the National Educational Longitudinal Study:88

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, John Kyle

    2000-11-01

    The present study examined the effects of science course taking and school urbanicity on students' science achievement levels. More specifically, this study analyzed the National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS:88) with multilevel techniques to investigate mutable reform options for urban schools in the area of science achievement. This study provided a unique insight into current research because all analyses were conducted with both ordinary least squares regression (OLS) and multilevel modeling techniques. Results from the comparison of OLS and multilevel techniques showed little effect on either overestimation or underestimation between the OLS weighted sample and the multilevel analysis. Although the differences between these two analyses were small, the multilevel techniques were optimized when the differences between schools was largest. Results from the multilevel and weighted analyses produced large differences when compared against the unweighted analysis. The unweighted sample consistently overestimated the coefficients of slope for each of the predictor variables. Because of these findings, researchers should be strongly cautioned against interpreting analyses run with the NELS:88 dataset without a weighted sample or without multilevel techniques. The results from the multiple regression analysis in both multilevel modeling and weighted OLS indicated that students who had parents who attended a school event, were not afraid to ask questions in science class, spent more time on homework each week, did not attend a school where science was taught in a non-English language, and had parents who belonged to a parent/teacher organization scored higher in terms of student science achievement than did their urban counterparts who did not meet these qualifications. From these results, several recommendations were made for schools concerning ways they could improve science education, including fostering attitudes of inquiry in science, increasing the

  7. Association between childhood adversities and adulthood depressive symptoms in South Korea: results from a nationally representative longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung-Sup; Jang, Hyobum; Chang, Hyoung Yoon; Park, Young Su; Lee, Dong-Woo

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine how childhood adversity (ie, parental death, parental divorce, suspension of school education due to financial strain or being raised in a relative's house due to financial strain) is associated with prevalence and incidence of adulthood depressive symptoms and whether this association differs by gender and by age in South Korea. Design Prospective cohort design. Setting Nationally representative longitudinal survey in South Korea. Participants 11 526 participants in South Korea. Outcome measure Prevalence and incidence of adulthood depressive symptoms were assessed as a dichotomous variable using the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale in 2006 and 2007. Results In the prevalence analysis, each of the four childhood adversities was significantly associated with a higher prevalence of adulthood depressive symptoms. The higher incidence of depressive symptoms was associated with suspension of school education (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.32 to 1.82) and parental divorce (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.00 to 2.71). In the age-stratified analyses, prevalence of depressive symptoms was associated with all CAs across different adulthoods, except for parental divorce and late adulthood depressive symptoms. After being stratified by gender, the association was significant for parental divorce (OR 3.76, 95% CI 2.34 to 6.03) in the prevalence analysis and for being raised in a relative’s house (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.21 to 2.94) in the incidence analysis only among women. Conclusions This study suggests that childhood adversity may increase prevalence and incidence of adulthood depressive symptoms, and the impact of parental divorce or being raised in a relative's house due to financial strain on adulthood depressive symptoms may differ by gender. PMID:23878171

  8. A longitudinal aerodynamic data repeatability study for a commercial transport model test in the National Transonic Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahls, R. A.; Adcock, J. B.; Witkowski, D. P.; Wright, F. L.

    1995-01-01

    A high Reynolds number investigation of a commercial transport model was conducted in the National Transonic Facility (NTF) at Langley Research Center. This investigation was part of a cooperative effort to test a 0.03-scale model of a Boeing 767 airplane in the NTF over a Mach number range of 0.70 to 0.86 and a Reynolds number range of 2.38 to 40.0 x 10(exp 6) based on the mean aerodynamic chord. One of several specific objectives of the current investigation was to evaluate the level of data repeatability attainable in the NTF. Data repeatability studies were performed at a Mach number of 0.80 with Reynolds numbers of 2.38, 4.45, and 40.0 x 10(exp 6) and also at a Mach number of 0.70 with a Reynolds number of 40.0 x 10(exp 6). Many test procedures and data corrections are addressed in this report, but the data presented do not include corrections for wall interference, model support interference, or model aeroelastic effects. Application of corrections for these three effects would not affect the results of this study because the corrections are systematic in nature and are more appropriately classified as sources of bias error. The repeatability of the longitudinal stability-axis force and moment data has been accessed. Coefficients of lift, drag, and pitching moment are shown to repeat well within the pretest goals of plus or minus 0.005, plus or minus 0.0001, and plus or minus 0.001, respectively, at a 95-percent confidence level over both short- and near-term periods.

  9. Avian mortality events in the United States caused by anticholinesterase pesticides: a retrospective summary of National Wildlife Health Center records from 1980 to 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleischli, Margaret A.; Franson, J.C.; Thomas, N.J.; Finley, D.L.; Riley, W., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    We reviewed the U.S. Geological Survey National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC) mortality database from 1980 to 2000 to identify cases of poisoning caused by organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides. From the 35,022 cases from which one or more avian carcasses were submitted to the NWHC for necropsy, we identified 335 mortality events attributed to anticholinesterase poisoning, 119 of which have been included in earlier reports. Poisoning events were classified as confirmed (n = 205) when supported by findings of ≥50% inhibition of cholinesterase (ChE) activity in brain tissue and the detection of a specific pesticide in the gastrointestinal contents of one or more carcasses. Suspected poisonings (n = 130) were defined as cases where brain ChE activity was ≥50% inhibited or a specific pesticide was identified in gastrointestinal contents. The 335 avian mortality events occurred in 42 states. Washington, Virginia, and Ohio had the highest frequency of events, with 24 (7.2%), 21 (6.3%), and 20 (6.0%) events, respectively. A total of 8877 carcasses of 103 avian species in 12 orders was recovered. Because carcass counts underestimate total mortality, this represents the minimum actual mortality. Of 24 different pesticides identified, the most frequent were famphur (n = 59; 18%), carbofuran (n = 52; 15%), diazinon (n = 40; 12%), and fenthion (n = 17; 5.1%). Falconiformes were reported killed most frequently (49% of all die-offs) but Anseriformes were found dead in the greatest numbers (64% of 8877 found dead). The majority of birds reported killed by famphur were Passeriformes and Falconiformes, with the latter found dead in 90% of famphur-related poisoning events. Carbofuran and famphur were involved in mortality of the greatest variety of species (45 and 33, respectively). Most of the mortality events caused by diazinon involved waterfowl.

  10. Atherosclerotic Risk Factors and Their Association With Hospital Mortality Among Patients With First Myocardial Infarction (from the National Registry of Myocardial Infarction)

    PubMed Central

    Canto, John G.; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Rogers, William J.; Peterson, Eric D.; Frederick, Paul D.; French, William J.; Gibson, C. Michael; Pollack, Charles V.; Ornato, Joseph P.; Zalenski, Robert J.; Penney, Jan; Tiefenbrunn, Alan J.; Greenland, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have examined associations between atherosclerotic risk factors and short-term mortality after first myocardial infarction (MI). Histories of 5 traditional atherosclerotic risk factors at presentation (diabetes, hypertension, smoking, dyslipidemia, and family history of premature heart disease) and hospital mortality were examined among 542,008 patients with first MIs in the National Registry of Myocardial Infarction (1994 to 2006). On initial MI presentation, history of hypertension (52.3%) was most common, followed by smoking (31.3%). The least common risk factor was diabetes (22.4%). Crude mortality was highest in patients with MI with diabetes (11.9%) and hypertension (9.8%) and lowest in those with smoking histories (5.4%) and dyslipidemia (4.6%). The inclusion of 5 atherosclerotic risk factors in a stepwise multivariate model contributed little toward predicting hospital mortality over age alone (C-statistic = 0.73 and 0.71, respectively). After extensive multivariate adjustments for clinical and sociodemographic factors, patients with MI with diabetes had higher odds of dying (odds ratio [OR] 1.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20 to 1.26) than those without diabetes and similarly for hypertension (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.11). Conversely, family history (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.69 to 0.73), dyslipidemia (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.64), and smoking (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.83 to 0.88) were associated with decreased mortality (C-statistic = 0.82 for the full model). In conclusion, in the setting of acute MI, histories of diabetes and hypertension are associated with higher hospital mortality, but the inclusion of atherosclerotic risk factors in models of hospital mortality does not improve predictive ability beyond other major clinical and sociodemographic characteristics. PMID:22840346

  11. Atherosclerotic risk factors and their association with hospital mortality among patients with first myocardial infarction (from the National Registry of Myocardial Infarction).

    PubMed

    Canto, John G; Kiefe, Catarina I; Rogers, William J; Peterson, Eric D; Frederick, Paul D; French, William J; Gibson, C Michael; Pollack, Charles V; Ornato, Joseph P; Zalenski, Robert J; Penney, Jan; Tiefenbrunn, Alan J; Greenland, Philip

    2012-11-01

    Few studies have examined associations between atherosclerotic risk factors and short-term mortality after first myocardial infarction (MI). Histories of 5 traditional atherosclerotic risk factors at presentation (diabetes, hypertension, smoking, dyslipidemia, and family history of premature heart disease) and hospital mortality were examined among 542,008 patients with first MIs in the National Registry of Myocardial Infarction (1994 to 2006). On initial MI presentation, history of hypertension (52.3%) was most common, followed by smoking (31.3%). The least common risk factor was diabetes (22.4%). Crude mortality was highest in patients with MI with diabetes (11.9%) and hypertension (9.8%) and lowest in those with smoking histories (5.4%) and dyslipidemia (4.6%). The inclusion of 5 atherosclerotic risk factors in a stepwise multivariate model contributed little toward predicting hospital mortality over age alone (C-statistic = 0.73 and 0.71, respectively). After extensive multivariate adjustments for clinical and sociodemographic factors, patients with MI with diabetes had higher odds of dying (odds ratio [OR] 1.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20 to 1.26) than those without diabetes and similarly for hypertension (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.11). Conversely, family history (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.69 to 0.73), dyslipidemia (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.64), and smoking (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.83 to 0.88) were associated with decreased mortality (C-statistic = 0.82 for the full model). In conclusion, in the setting of acute MI, histories of diabetes and hypertension are associated with higher hospital mortality, but the inclusion of atherosclerotic risk factors in models of hospital mortality does not improve predictive ability beyond other major clinical and sociodemographic characteristics. PMID:22840346

  12. Timing of surgery for hip fracture and in-hospital mortality: a retrospective population-based cohort study in the Spanish National Health System

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background While the benefits or otherwise of early hip fracture repair is a long-running controversy with studies showing contradictory results, this practice is being adopted as a quality indicator in several health care organizations. The aim of this study is to analyze the association between early hip fracture repair and in-hospital mortality in elderly people attending public hospitals in the Spanish National Health System and, additionally, to explore factors associated with the decision to perform early hip fracture repair. Methods A cohort of 56,500 patients of 60-years-old and over, hospitalized for hip fracture during the period 2002 to 2005 in all the public hospitals in 8 Spanish regions, were followed up using administrative databases to identify the time to surgical repair and in-hospital mortality. We used a multivariate logistic regression model to analyze the relationship between the timing of surgery (< 2 days from admission) and in-hospital mortality, controlling for several confounding factors. Results Early surgery was performed on 25% of the patients. In the unadjusted analysis early surgery showed an absolute difference in risk of mortality of 0.57 (from 4.42% to 3.85%). However, patients undergoing delayed surgery were older and had higher comorbidity and severity of illness. Timeliness for surgery was not found to be related to in-hospital mortality once confounding factors such as age, sex, chronic comorbidities as well as the severity of illness were controlled for in the multivariate analysis. Conclusions Older age, male gender, higher chronic comorbidity and higher severity measured by the Risk Mortality Index were associated with higher mortality, but the time to surgery was not. PMID:22257790

  13. Increased Mortality in Narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Ohayon, Maurice M.; Black, Jed; Lai, Chinglin; Eller, Mark; Guinta, Diane; Bhattacharyya, Arun

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the mortality rate in patients with narcolepsy. Design: Data were derived from a large database representative of the US population, which contains anonymized patient-linked longitudinal claims for 173 million individuals. Setting: Symphony Health Solutions (SHS) Source Lx, an anonymized longitudinal patient dataset. Patients/Participants: All records of patients registered in the SHS database between 2008 and 2010. Interventions: None Measurements and Results: Identification of patients with narcolepsy was based on ≥ 1 medical claim with the diagnosis of narcolepsy (ICD-9 347.xx) from 2002 to 2012. Dates of death were acquired from the Social Security Administration via a third party; the third party information was encrypted in the same manner as the claims data such that anonymity is ensured prior to receipt by SHS. Annual all-cause mortality rates for 2008, 2009, and 2010 were calculated retrospectively for patients with narcolepsy and patients without narcolepsy in the database, and standardized mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated. Mortality rates were also compared with the general US population (Centers for Disease Control data). SMRs of the narcolepsy population were consistent over the 3-year period and showed an approximate 1.5-fold excess mortality relative to those without narcolepsy. The narcolepsy population had consistently higher mortality rates relative to those without narcolepsy across all age groups, stratified by age decile, from 25-34 years to 75+ years of age. The SMR for females with narcolepsy was lower than for males with narcolepsy. Conclusions: Narcolepsy was associated with approximately 1.5-fold excess mortality relative to those without narcolepsy. While the cause of this increased mortality is unknown, these findings warrant further investigation. Citation: Ohayon MM; Black J; Lai C; Eller M; Guinta D; Bhattacharyya A. Increased mortality in narcolepsy. SLEEP 2014;37(3):439-444. PMID:24587565

  14. Widening Socioeconomic and Racial Disparities in Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in the United States, 1969-2013

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gopal K.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Azuine, Romuladus E.; Williams, Shanita D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined trends and socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in the United States between 1969 and 2013. Methods: National vital statistics data and the National Longitudinal Mortality Study were used to estimate racial/ethnic and area- and individual-level socioeconomic disparities in CVD mortality over time. Rate ratios and log-linear regression were used to model mortality trends and differentials. Results: Between 1969 and 2013, CVD mortality rates decreased by 2.66% per year for whites and 2.12% for blacks. Racial disparities and socioeconomic gradients in CVD mortality increased substantially during the study period. In 2013, blacks had 30% higher CVD mortality than whites and 113% higher mortality than Asians/Pacific Islanders. Compared to those in the most affluent group, individuals in the most deprived area group had 11% higher CVD mortality in 1969 but 40% higher mortality in 2007-2011. Education, income, and occupation were inversely associated with CVD mortality in both men and women. Men and women with low education and incomes had 46-76% higher CVD mortality risks than their counterparts with high education and income levels. Men in clerical, service, farming, craft, repair, construction, and transport occupations, and manual laborers had 30-58% higher CVD mortality risks than those employed in executive and managerial occupations. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Socioeconomic and racial disparities in CVD mortality are marked and have increased over time because of faster declines in mortality among the affluent and majority populations. Disparities in CVD mortality may reflect inequalities in the social environment, behavioral risk factors such as smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, disease prevalence, and healthcare access and treatment. With rising prevalence of many chronic disease risk factors, the global burden of cardiovascular diseases is expected to increase

  15. Maternal bereavement: the heightened mortality of mothers after the death of a child.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Javier; Evans, William N

    2013-07-01

    Using a 9-year follow-up of 69,224 mothers aged 20-50 from the National Longitudinal Mortality Survey, we investigate whether there is heightened mortality of mothers after the death of a child. Results from Cox proportional hazard models indicate that the death of a child produces a statistically significant hazard ratio of 2.3. There is suggestive evidence that the heightened mortality is concentrated in the first two years after the death of a child. We find no difference in results based on mother's education or marital status, family size, the child's cause of death or the gender of the child. PMID:22809832

  16. Estimation of genetic effects on BMI during adolescence in an ethnically diverse cohort: The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

    PubMed Central

    Graff, M; North, K E; Mohlke, K L; Lange, L A; Luo, J; Harris, K M; Young, K L; Richardson, A S; Lange, E M; Gordon-Larsen, P

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The contribution of genetic variants to body mass index (BMI) during adolescence across multiethnic samples is largely unknown. We selected genetic loci associated with BMI or obesity in European-descent samples and examined them in a multiethnic adolescent sample. Design and Sample: In 5103 European American (EA), 1748 African American (AfA), 1304 Hispanic American (HA) and 439 Asian American (AsA) participants of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health; ages 12–21 years, 47.5% male), we assessed the association between 41 established obesity-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with BMI using additive genetic models, stratified by race/ethnicity, and in a pooled meta-analysis sample. We also compared the magnitude of effect for BMI–SNP associations in EA and AfA adolescents to comparable effect estimates from 11 861 EA and AfA adults in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study (ages 45–64 years, 43.2% male). Results: Thirty-five of 41 BMI–SNP associations were directionally consistent with published studies in European populations, 18 achieved nominal significance (P<0.05; effect sizes from 0.19 to 0.71 kg m−2 increase in BMI per effect allele), while 4 (FTO, TMEM18, TFAP2B, MC4R) remained significant after Bonferroni correction (P<0.0015). Of 41 BMI–SNP associations in AfA, HA and AsA adolescents, nine, three and five, respectively, were directionally consistent and nominally significant. In the pooled meta-analysis, 36 of 41 effect estimates were directionally consistent and 21 of 36 were nominally significant. In EA adolescents, BMI effect estimates were larger (P<0.05) for variants near TMEM18, PTER and MC4R and smaller for variants near MTIF3 and NRXN3 compared with EA adults. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that obesity susceptibility loci may have a comparatively stronger role during adolescence than during adulthood, with variation across race/ethnic subpopulation. PMID:23168566

  17. The effect of maternal child marriage on morbidity and mortality of children under 5 in India: cross sectional study of a nationally representative sample

    PubMed Central

    Saggurti, Niranjan; Winter, Michael; Labonte, Alan; Decker, Michele R; Balaiah, Donta; Silverman, Jay G

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess associations between maternal child marriage (marriage before age 18) and morbidity and mortality of infants and children under 5 in India. Design Cross-sectional analyses of nationally representative household sample. Generalised estimating equation models constructed to assess associations. Adjusted models included maternal and child demographics and maternal body mass index as covariates. Setting India. Population Women aged 15-49 years (n=124 385); data collected in 2005-6 through National Family Health Survey-3. Data about child morbidity and mortality reported by participants. Analyses restricted to births in past five years reported by ever married women aged 15-24 years (n=19 302 births to 13 396 mothers). Main outcome measures In under 5s: mortality related infectious diseases in the past two weeks (acute respiratory infection, diarrhoea); malnutrition (stunting, wasting, underweight); infant (age <1 year) and child (1-5 years) mortality; low birth weight (<2500 kg). Results The majority of births (73%; 13 042/19 302) were to mothers married as minors. Although bivariate analyses showed significant associations between maternal child marriage and infant and child diarrhoea, malnutrition (stunted, wasted, underweight), low birth weight, and mortality, only stunting (adjusted odds ratio 1.22, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.33) and underweight (1.24, 1.14 to 1.36) remained significant in adjusted analyses. We noted no effect of maternal child marriage on health of boys versus girls. Conclusions The risk of malnutrition is higher in young children born to mothers married as minors than in those born to women married at a majority age. Further research should examine how early marriage affects food distribution and access for children in India. PMID:20093277

  18. The influence of prefire tree growth and crown condition on postfire mortality of sugar pine following prescribed fire in Sequoia National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nesmith, Jonathan C. B.; Das, Adrian J.; O'Hara, Kevin L.; van Mantgem, Phillip J.

    2015-01-01

    Tree mortality is a vital component of forest management in the context of prescribed fires; however, few studies have examined the effect of prefire tree health on postfire mortality. This is especially relevant for sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana Douglas), a species experiencing population declines due to a suite of anthropogenic factors. Using data from an old-growth mixed-conifer forest in Sequoia National Park, we evaluated the effects of fire, tree size, prefire radial growth, and crown condition on postfire mortality. Models based only on tree size and measures of fire damage were compared with models that included tree size, fire damage, and prefire tree health (e.g., measures of prefire tree radial growth or crown condition). Immediately following the fire, the inclusion of different metrics of prefire tree health produced variable improvements over the models that included only tree size and measures of fire damage, as models that included measures of crown condition performed better than fire-only models, but models that included measures of prefire radial growth did not perform better. However, 5 years following the fire, sugar pine mortality was best predicted by models that included measures of both fire damage and prefire tree health, specifically, diameter at breast height (DBH, 1.37 m), crown scorch, 30-year mean growth, and the number of sharp declines in growth over a 30-year period. This suggests that factors that influence prefire tree health (e.g., drought, competition, pathogens, etc.) may partially determine postfire mortality, especially when accounting for delayed mortality following fire.

  19. The Post-High School Outcomes of Young Adults with Disabilities up to 8 Years after High School: A Report from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2). NCSER 2011-3005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Lynn; Wagner, Mary; Knokey, Anne-Marie; Marder, Camille; Nagle, Katherine; Shaver, Debra; Wei, Xin

    2011-01-01

    The National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) funded by the National Center for Special Education Research at the Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, provides a unique source of information to help in developing an understanding of the experiences of secondary school students with disabilities nationally as they…

  20. Deriving causes of child mortality by re–analyzing national verbal autopsy data applying a standardized computer algorithm in Uganda, Rwanda and Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li; Li, Mengying; Cummings, Stirling; Black, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Background To accelerate progress toward the Millennium Development Goal 4, reliable information on causes of child mortality is critical. With more national verbal autopsy (VA) studies becoming available, how to improve consistency of national VA derived child causes of death should be considered for the purpose of global comparison. We aimed to adapt a standardized computer algorithm to re–analyze national child VA studies conducted in Uganda, Rwanda and Ghana recently, and compare our results with those derived from physician review to explore issues surrounding the application of the standardized algorithm in place of physician review. Methods and Findings We adapted the standardized computer algorithm considering the disease profile in Uganda, Rwanda and Ghana. We then derived cause–specific mortality fractions applying the adapted algorithm and compared the results with those ascertained by physician review by examining the individual– and population–level agreement. Our results showed that the leading causes of child mortality in Uganda, Rwanda and Ghana were pneumonia (16.5–21.1%) and malaria (16.8–25.6%) among children below five years and intrapartum–related complications (6.4–10.7%) and preterm birth complications (4.5–6.3%) among neonates. The individual level agreement was poor to substantial across causes (kappa statistics: –0.03 to 0.83), with moderate to substantial agreement observed for injury, congenital malformation, preterm birth complications, malaria and measles. At the population level, despite fairly different cause–specific mortality fractions, the ranking of the leading causes was largely similar. Conclusions The standardized computer algorithm produced internally consistent distribution of causes of child mortality. The results were also qualitatively comparable to those based on physician review from the perspective of public health policy. The standardized computer algorithm has the advantage of requiring minimal

  1. The Impact on National Death Index Ascertainment of Limiting Submissions to Social Security Administration Death Master File Matches in Epidemiologic Studies of Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Hermansen, Sigurd W.; Leitzmann, Michael F.

    2009-01-01

    Although many epidemiologists use the National Death Index (NDI) as the “gold standard” for ascertainment of US mortality, high search costs per year and per subject for large cohorts warrant consideration of less costly alternatives. In this study, for 1995–2001 deaths, the authors compared matches of a random sample of 11,968 National Institutes of Health (NIH)-AARP Diet and Health Study subjects to the Social Security Administration's Death Master File (DMF) and commercial list updates (CLU) with matches of those subjects to the NDI. They examined how varying the lower limits of estimated DMF match probabilities (m scores of 0.60, 0.20, and 0.05) altered the benefits and costs of mortality ascertainment. Observed DMF/CLU ascertainment of NDI-identified decedents increased from 89.8% to 95.1% as m decreased from 0.60 (stringent) to 0.20 (less stringent) and increased further to 96.4% as m decreased to 0.05 (least stringent). At these same cutpoints, the false-match probability increased from 0.4% of the sample to 0.6% and then 2.3%. Limiting NDI cause-of-death searches to subjects found in DMF searches using less stringent match criteria, further supplemented by CLU vital status updates, improves vital status assessment while increasing substantially the cost-effectiveness of ascertaining mortality in large prospective cohort studies. PMID:19251755

  2. Trends in child mortality in India.

    PubMed

    Behl, A S

    2013-01-01

    To assess Indias recent trends in child mortality rates and disparities and identify ways to reduce child mortality and wealth-related health disparities, we analyzed three years of data from Indias National Family Health Survey related to child mortality. Nationally, declines in average child mortality were statistically significant, but declines in inequality were not. Urban areas had lower child mortality rates than rural areas but higher inequalities. Interstate differences in child mortality rates were significant, with rates in the highest-mortality states four to six times higher than in the lowest-mortality states. However, child mortality in most states declined. PMID:23396786

  3. Rising inequality in mortality among working-age men and women in Sweden: a national registry-based repeated cohort study, 1990–2007

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Naoki; Rostila, Mikael; Yngwe, Monica Åberg

    2014-01-01

    Background In the past two decades, health inequality has persisted or increased in states with comprehensive welfare. Methods We conducted a national registry-based repeated cohort study with a 3-year follow-up between 1990 and 2007 in Sweden. Information on all-cause mortality in all working-age Swedish men and women aged between 30 and 64 years was collected. Data were subjected to temporal trend analysis using joinpoint regression to statistically confirm the trajectories observed. Results Among men, age-standardised mortality rate decreased by 38.3% from 234.9 to 145 (per 100 000 population) over the whole period in the highest income quintile, whereas the reduction was only 18.3% (from 774.5 to 632.5) in the lowest quintile. Among women, mortality decreased by 40% (from 187.4 to 112.5) in the highest income group, but increased by 12.1% (from 280.2 to 314.2) in the poorest income group. Joinpoint regression identified that the differences in age-standardised mortality between the highest and the lowest income quintiles decreased among men by 18.85 annually between 1990 and 1994 (p trend=0.02), whereas it increased later, with a 2.88 point increase per year (p trend <0.0001). Among women, it continuously increased by 9.26/year (p trend <0.0001). In relative terms, age-adjusted mortality rate ratios showed a continuous increase in both genders. Conclusions Income-based inequalities among working-age male and female Swedes have increased since the late 1990s, whereas in absolute terms the increase was less remarkable among men. Structural and behavioural factors explaining this trend, such as the economic recession in the early 1990s, should be studied further. PMID:25143429

  4. Widening Geographical Disparities in Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in the United States, 1969-2011

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gopal K.; Azuine, Romuladus E.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Williams, Shanita D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined trends in geographical disparities in cardiovascular-disease (CVD) mortality in the United States between 1969 and 2011. Methods: National vital statistics data and the National Longitudinal Mortality Study were used to estimate regional, state, and county-level disparities in CVD mortality over time. Log-linear, weighted least squares, and Cox regression were used to analyze mortality trends and differentials. Results: During 1969-2011, CVD mortality rates declined fastest in New England and Mid-Atlantic regions and slowest in the Southeast and Southwestern regions. In 1969, the mortality rate was 9% higher in the Southeast than in New England, but the differential increased to 48% in 2011. In 2011, Southeastern states, Mississippi and Alabama, had the highest CVD mortality rates, nearly twice the rates for Minnesota and Hawaii. Controlling for individual-level covariates reduced state differentials. State- and county-level differentials in CVD mortality rates widened over time as geographical disparity in CVD mortality increased by 50% between 1969 and 2011. Area deprivation, smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, diabetes prevalence, urbanization, lack of health insurance, and lower access to primary medical care were all significant predictors of county-level CVD mortality rates and accounted for 52.7% of the county variance. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Although CVD mortality has declined for all geographical areas in the United States, geographical disparity has widened over time as certain regions and states, particularly those in the South, have lagged behind in mortality reduction. Geographical disparities in CVD mortality reflect inequalities in socioeconomic conditions and behavioral risk factors. With the global CVD burden on the rise, monitoring geographical disparities, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, could indicate the extent to which reductions in CVD mortality are achievable and may

  5. Infant Mortality

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infant Mortality Infant Mortality: What is CDC Doing? Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Teen Pregnancy Contraception CDC Contraceptive Guidance for ... and low birth weight Maternal complications of pregnancy Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) Injuries (e.g., suffocation). The top ...

  6. Early-life origins of the race gap in men's mortality.

    PubMed

    Warner, David F; Hayward, Mark D

    2006-09-01

    Using a life course framework, we examine the early life origins of the race gap in men's all-cause mortality. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men (1966-1990), we evaluate major social pathways by which early life conditions differentiate the mortality experiences of blacks and whites. Our findings indicate that early life socioeconomic conditions, particularly parental occupation and family structure, explain part of the race gap in mortality. Black men's higher rates of death are associated with lower socioeconomic standing in early life and living in homes lacking both biological parents. However these effects operate indirectly through adult socioeconomic achievement processes, as education, family income, wealth, and occupational complexity statistically account for the race gap in men's mortality. Our findings suggest that policy interventions to eliminate race disparities in mortality and health should address both childhood and adult socioeconomic conditions. PMID:17066773

  7. Mortality Risk Among Black and White Working Women: The Role of Perceived Work Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Shippee, Tetyana P.; Rinaldo, Lindsay; Ferraro, Kenneth F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Drawing from cumulative inequality theory, the authors examine the relationship between perceived work trajectories and mortality risk among Black and White women over 36 years. Method Panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women (1967-2003) are used to evaluate how objective and subjective elements of work shape mortality risk for Black and White women born between 1923 and 1937. Results Estimates from Cox proportional hazards models reveal that Black working women manifest higher mortality risk than White working women even after accounting for occupation, personal income, and household wealth. Perceived work trajectories were also associated with mortality risk for Black women but not for White women. Discussion The findings reveal the imprint of women’s work life on mortality, especially for Black women, and illustrate the importance of considering personal meanings associated with objective work characteristics. PMID:21956101

  8. The Post-High School Outcomes of Young Adults with Disabilities up to 6 Years after High School: Key Findings from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2). NCSER 2011-3004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanford, Christopher; Newman, Lynn; Wagner, Mary; Cameto, Renee; Knokey, Anne-Marie; Shaver, Debra

    2011-01-01

    The National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) provides a unique source of information to help in developing an understanding of the experiences of secondary school students with disabilities nationally as they go through their early adult years. NLTS2 addresses questions about youth with disabilities in transition by providing information…

  9. Individual Joblessness, Contextual Unemployment, and Mortality Risk

    PubMed Central

    Tapia Granados, José A.; House, James S.; Ionides, Edward L.; Burgard, Sarah; Schoeni, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal studies at the level of individuals find that employees who lose their jobs are at increased risk of death. However, analyses of aggregate data find that as unemployment rates increase during recessions, population mortality actually declines. We addressed this paradox by using data from the US Department of Labor and annual survey data (1979–1997) from a nationally representative longitudinal study of individuals—the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Using proportional hazards (Cox) regression, we analyzed how the hazard of death depended on 1) individual joblessness and 2) state unemployment rates, as indicators of contextual economic conditions. We found that 1) compared with the employed, for the unemployed the hazard of death was increased by an amount equivalent to 10 extra years of age, and 2) each percentage-point increase in the state unemployment rate reduced the mortality hazard in all individuals by an amount equivalent to a reduction of 1 year of age. Our results provide evidence that 1) joblessness strongly and significantly raises the risk of death among those suffering it, and 2) periods of higher unemployment rates, that is, recessions, are associated with a moderate but significant reduction in the risk of death among the entire population. PMID:24993734

  10. Mortality and Readmissions After Cervical Fractures From Falls In Older Adults: A Comparison To Hip Fractures Using National Medicare Data

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Zara; Mitchell, Susan L.; Lipsitz, Stuart; Ayanian, John Z.; Bernacki, Rachelle E.; Harris, Mitchel B.; Jha, Ashish K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cervical fractures from falls are a potentially lethal injury in older patients. Little is known about their epidemiology and outcomes. Objectives To examine the prevalence of cervical spine fractures after falls among older Americans and show changes in recent years. Further, to compare 12-month outcomes in patients with cervical and hip fracture after falls. Design, Setting, and Participants A retrospective study of Medicare data from 2007–2011 including patients ≥65 with cervical fracture and hip fracture after falls treated at acute care hospitals. Measurements Rates of cervical fracture, 12-month mortality and readmission rates after injury. Results Rates of cervical fracture increased from 4.6/10,000 in 2007 to 5.3/10,000 in 2011, whereas rates of hip fracture decreased from 77.3/10,000 in 2007 to 63.5/10,000 in 2011. Patients with cervical fracture without and with spinal cord injury (SCI) were more likely than patients with hip fracture, respectively, to receive treatment at large hospitals (54.1%, 59.4% vs. 28.1%, p< 0.001), teaching hospitals (40.0%, 49.3% vs. 13.4%, p< 0.001), and regional trauma centers (38.5%, 46.3% vs. 13.0%, p< 0.001). Patients with cervical fracture, particularly those with SCI, had higher risk-adjusted mortality rates at one year than those with hip fracture (24.5%, 41.7% vs. 22.7%, p<0.001). By one year, more than half of patients with cervical and hip fracture died or were readmitted to the hospital (59.5%, 73.4% vs. 59.3%, p<0.001). Conclusion Cervical spine fractures occur in one of every 2,000 Medicare beneficiaries annually and appear to be increasing over time. Patients with cervical fractures had higher mortality than those with hip fractures. Given the increasing prevalence and the poor outcomes of this population, hospitals need to develop processes to improve care for these vulnerable patients. PMID:26456855

  11. Infant Mortality: 1989 Research Accomplishments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    Collected in this document are reports of the National Institutes of Health's 1989 accomplishments in research on the problem of infant mortality. Reports are provided by the: (1) National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; (2) National Cancer Institute; (3) National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; (4) National Institute of…

  12. Does Vocational Education Make a Difference? A Review of Previous Research and Reanalyses of National Longitudinal Data Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Elinor M.; Haney, Walt

    Designed to determine whether vocational education appears to make a difference in terms of a variety of outcomes, including opportunities for employment and advanced education and training, this report contains a review of previous national and non-national research concerning the effects of vocational education and a reanalysis of three national…

  13. [Infant mortality in Peru].

    PubMed

    Ramos Padilla, M A

    1987-01-01

    rats are all located in the southern sierra. The departments with higher infant mortality rates than the national average also have the least coverage of potable water and sewage systems in their housing. Between 1965-75, the infant mortality differential by maternal educational level actually increased, as children of more educated mothers made greater improvements. In 1975, the infant mortality rate was 158/1000 live births for children of illiterate mothers, 73 for children of mothers with 4-6 years of schooling, and 44 for those with 7 or more years. A regression analysis demonstrated that illiteracy of the mother was most highly correlated with the infant mortality rate, followed closely by rural residence. PMID:3603217

  14. Racial Disparities in Gastrointestinal Cancers-Related Mortality in the US Population

    PubMed Central

    Jinjuvadia, Raxitkumar; Jinjuvadia, Kartikkumar

    2013-01-01

    Background Racial difference in cancer-related mortality has been described in epidemiological studies and evidence points towards higher mortalities in the minorities. To determine the magnitude of racial disparities and sex differences in GI cancer-related mortalities in the US population, we analyzed the data using the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) and related mortality data files. Methods NHANES III and its related public linked mortality files were used for this study. Our study cohort included subjects who were ≥18 years and were part of the longitudinal mortality follow-up database. The overall GI cancers related mortality was calculated using combined mortality from malignant neoplasm of esophagus, stomach, colon, liver and pancreas. The evaluation of independent predictors of overall GI cancer-related mortality and of each individual GI cancer was carried out using the Cox proportional hazards model. Results A total of 13,221 individuals were included in the analyses with the average person year follow-up of 13.9 years. During the follow-up period, 4,146 subjects died. Of these, 199 were from GI-related cancers. Non-Hispanic black (NHB) had significantly higher overall GI-cancer related mortality compared to non-Hispanic white (NHW, adjusted hazard ratio, aHR: 2.31, 95 % CI 1.57–3.38, p < 0.001). Subgroup analyses by sex demonstrated higher mortality from gastric, colorectal and primary liver cancer related mortality in NHB men compared to NHW men. Esophageal and pancreatic cancer mortalities were higher in NHB women compared to NHW women. Conclusion Overall GI cancer-related mortality is significantly higher among NHB compared to NHW in the US population. PMID:22797822

  15. Early visual language exposure and emergent literacy in preschool deaf children: findings from a national longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Allen, Thomas E; Letteri, Amy; Choi, Song Hoa; Dang, Daqian

    2014-01-01

    Brief review is provided of recent research on the impact of early visual language exposure on a variety of developmental outcomes, including literacy, cognition, and social adjustment. This body of work points to the great importance of giving young deaf children early exposure to a visual language as a critical precursor to the acquisition of literacy. Four analyses of data from the Visual Language and Visual Learning (VL2) Early Education Longitudinal Study are summarized. Each confirms findings from previously published laboratory findings and points to the positive effects of early sign language on, respectively, letter knowledge, social adaptability, sustained visual attention, and cognitive-behavioral milestones necessary for academic success. The article concludes with a consideration of the qualitative similarity hypothesis and a finding that the hypothesis is valid, but only if it can be presented as being modality independent. PMID:25669017

  16. Risk of Nonaccidental and Cardiovascular Mortality in Relation to Long-term Exposure to Low Concentrations of Fine Particulate Matter: A Canadian National-Level Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Paul A.; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Goldberg, Mark S.; Villeneuve, Paul J.; Brion, Orly; Khan, Saeeda; Atari, Dominic Odwa; Jerrett, Michael; Pope, C. Arden; Brauer, Michael; Brook, Jeffrey R.; Martin, Randall V.; Stieb, David; Burnett, Richard T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Few cohort studies have evaluated the risk of mortality associated with long-term exposure to fine particulate matter [≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5)]. This is the first national-level cohort study to investigate these risks in Canada. Objective: We investigated the association between long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 and cardiovascular mortality in nonimmigrant Canadian adults. Methods: We assigned estimates of exposure to ambient PM2.5 derived from satellite observations to a cohort of 2.1 million Canadian adults who in 1991 were among the 20% of the population mandated to provide detailed census data. We identified deaths occurring between 1991 and 2001 through record linkage. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for available individual-level and contextual covariates using both standard Cox proportional survival models and nested, spatial random-effects survival models. Results: Using standard Cox models, we calculated HRs of 1.15 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.16) from nonaccidental causes and 1.31 (95% CI: 1.27, 1.35) from ischemic heart disease for each 10-μg/m3 increase in concentrations of PM2.5. Using spatial random-effects models controlling for the same variables, we calculated HRs of 1.10 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.15) and 1.30 (95% CI: 1.18, 1.43), respectively. We found similar associations between nonaccidental mortality and PM2.5 based on satellite-derived estimates and ground-based measurements in a subanalysis of subjects in 11 cities. Conclusions: In this large national cohort of nonimmigrant Canadians, mortality was associated with long-term exposure to PM2.5. Associations were observed with exposures to PM2.5 at concentrations that were predominantly lower (mean, 8.7 μg/m3; interquartile range, 6.2 μg/m3) than those reported previously. PMID:22313724

  17. The association between childhood sexual and physical abuse with incident adult severe obesity across 13 years of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Andrea S.; Dietz, William H.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2013-01-01

    Background Severe obesity has increased yet childhood antecedents of adult severe obesity are not well understood. Objective Estimate adult-onset severe obesity risk in individuals with history of childhood physical and/or sexual abuse compared to those who did not report abuse. Methods Longitudinal analysis of participants from the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N=10,774) Wave II (1996; aged 12–22 years) followed through Wave IV (2008–09; aged 24–34 years). New cases of adult-onset severe obesity (BMI≥40 kg/m2 using measured height and weight) in individuals followed over 13 years who were not severely obese during adolescence (BMI <120% of 95th percentile CDC/NCHS growth curves). Results The combined occurrence of self-reported sexual and physical abuse during childhood was associated with an increased risk of incident severe obesity in adulthood in non-minority females (Hazard Ratio=2.5; 1.3, 4.8) and males (Hazard Ratio=3.6; 1.5, 8.5) compared to individuals with no history of abuse. Conclusion In addition to other social and emotional risks, exposure to sexual and physical abuse during childhood may increase risk of severe obesity later in life. Consideration of the confluence of childhood abuse might be considered as part of preventive and therapeutic approaches to address severe obesity. PMID:24115589

  18. Pneumonia Mortality among Children under 5 in China from 1996 to 2013: An Analysis from National Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Lei; Li, Qi; Liang, Juan; Li, Xiaohong; Wang, Yanping; Zhu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We investigated the mortality rate of pneumonia (PMR) among children under 5 and its time trend from 1996 to 2013 to determine the priorities for ending preventable deaths from pneumonia in children under 5, and share China’s successful experience in reducing PMR with other developing countries. Methods We used data from China’s Under 5 Child Mortality Surveillance System (U5CMSS) to calculate the PMR and the proportion of pneumonia deaths to total deaths of children under 5. The data were grouped by urban and rural areas with Cochran-Mantel-Haensel (CMH) test and Chi-square test to examine the differences of PMR and proportion. The time trend was tested by Cochran-Armitage trend test. Results The overall PMR of children under 5 was reduced by 85.5% (from 1053.2 to 153.2 per 100,000 live births) from 1996 to 2013, with the urban and rural areas reduced by 69.1% (from 188.4 to 58.2 per 100,000 live births) and 84.7% (from 1252.8 to 191.9 per 100,000 live births), respectively. The overall proportion of pneumonia deaths to total deaths was also declined from 23.4% in 1996 to 12.8% in 2013, with the rural areas decreased from 24.4% to 13.2% and the urban areas decreased from 11.1% to 9.7%. The PMRs in neonates (0-27 days), post-neonates (1-11 months), and childhood (12-59 months) were reduced by 80.7%, 77.4%, and 80.1%, respectively in rural areas, and 71.7%, 69.6%, and 39.0%, respectively in urban areas. During 1996-2013, the PMR in children under 5 years was 4.9 fold higher in rural areas relative to that in urban areas, with relative risk (RR) of 3.6 and 6.4 in neonates and 1- to 59-month-old children, respectively. Conclusions PMR in children under 5 significantly declined in China from 1996 to 2013, especially in rural areas. However, huge disparities still existed between rural and urban areas. Infants had the highest PMR, which indicated that interventions aiming at prevention and control of infant pneumonia should be the priority for further

  19. Changes over Time in the Early Postschool Outcomes of Youth with Disabilities. A Report of Findings from the National Longitudinal Transition Study (NLTS) and the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Mary; Newman, Lynn; Cameto, Renee; Levine, Phyllis

    2005-01-01

    Background: Since the early 1980s, when A Nation at Risk sounded a clear warning about the condition of American education, there have been extensive federal, state, and local efforts to improve schools for all students, including broad policy initiatives intended to change the school experiences of students with disabilities and improve their…

  20. Midlife moderation-quantified healthy diet and 40-year mortality risk from CHD: the prospective National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Twin Study.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jun; Krasnow, Ruth E; Reed, Terry

    2016-07-01

    It is unknown whether influences of midlife whole diet on the long-term CHD mortality risk are independent of genetic and common environmental factors or familial predisposition. We addressed this question prospectively using data from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Twin Study. We included 910 male twins who were middle-aged and had usual diet assessed with nutritionist-administered, cross-checked dietary history interview at baseline (1969-1973). Moderation-quantified healthy diet (MQHD), a dietary pattern, was created to evaluate a whole diet. Primary outcome was time-to-CHD death. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated using frailty survival model. Known CHD risk factors were controlled. During the follow-up of 40 years through 31 December 2009, 113 CHD deaths, 198 total cardiovascular deaths and 610 all-cause deaths occurred. In the entire cohort, the multivariable-adjusted HR for the overall association (equivalent to a general population association) was 0·76 (95 % CI 0·66, 0·88) per 10-unit increment in the MQHD score for CHD, and the multivariable-adjusted HR for a twin with a MQHD score ten units higher than his co-twin brother was 0·79 (95 % CI 0·64, 0·96, P=0·02) for CHD independent of familial predisposition. Similar results were found for a slightly more food-specified alternative moderation-quantified healthy diet (aMQHD). The between-pair association (reflecting familial influence) was significant for CHD for both MQHD and aMQHD. It is concluded that associations of MQHD and aMQHD with a lower long-term CHD mortality risk are both nutritionally and familially affected, supporting their use for dietary planning to prevent CHD mortality. PMID:27188259

  1. Mortality in Prader-Willi Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einfeld, Stewart L.; Kavanagh, Sophie J.; Smith, Arabella; Evans, Elizabeth J.; Tonge, Bruce J.; Taffe, John

    2006-01-01

    Persons with Prader-Willi syndrome have been known to have a high mortality rate. However, intellectual disability, which usually accompanies Prader-Willi syndrome, is also associated with a higher mortality rate than in the general population. In this study, the death rates in a longitudinal cohort of people with Prader-Willi syndrome are…

  2. Analyses of combined mortality data on workers at the Hanford Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, E S; Fry, S A; Wiggs, L D; Voelz, G L; Cragle, D L; Petersen, G R

    1989-10-01

    An important objective of studies of workers exposed occupationally to chronic low doses of ionizing radiation is to provide a direct assessment of health risks resulting from this exposure. This objective is most effectively accomplished by conducting combined analyses that allow evaluation of the totality of evidence from all study populations. In this paper, combined analyses of mortality in workers at the Hanford Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant are presented. These combined analyses provide no evidence of a correlation between radiation exposure and mortality from all cancer or from leukemia. Of 11 other specific types of cancer analyzed, multiple myeloma was the only cancer found to exhibit a statistically significant correlation with radiation exposure. Estimates of the excess risk of all cancer and of leukemia, based on the combined data, were negative. Upper confidence limits based on the combined data were lower than for any single population, and were similar to estimates obtained from recent analyses of A-bomb survivor data. These results strengthen support for the conclusion that estimates obtained through extrapolation from high-dose data do not seriously underestimate risks of low-dose exposure, but leave open the possibility that extrapolation may overestimate risks. PMID:2798781

  3. Analyses of combined mortality data on workers at the Hanford Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, E.S.; Fry, S.A.; Wiggs, L.D.; Voelz, G.L.; Cragle, D.L.; Petersen, G.R. )

    1989-10-01

    An important objective of studies of workers exposed occupationally to chronic low doses of ionizing radiation is to provide a direct assessment of health risks resulting from this exposure. This objective is most effectively accomplished by conducting combined analyses that allow evaluation of the totality of evidence from all study populations. In this paper, combined analyses of mortality in workers at the Hanford Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant are presented. These combined analyses provide no evidence of a correlation between radiation exposure and mortality from all cancer or from leukemia. Of 11 other specific types of cancer analyzed, multiple myeloma was the only cancer found to exhibit a statistically significant correlation with radiation exposure. Estimates of the excess risk of all cancer and of leukemia, based on the combined data, were negative. Upper confidence limits based on the combined data were lower than for any single population, and were similar to estimates obtained from recent analyses of A-bomb survivor data. These results strengthen support for the conclusion that estimates obtained through extrapolation from high-dose data do not seriously underestimate risks of low-dose exposure, but leave open the possibility that extrapolation may overestimate risks.

  4. Does poor school performance cause later psychosocial problems among children in foster care? Evidence from national longitudinal registry data.

    PubMed

    Forsman, Hilma; Brännström, Lars; Vinnerljung, Bo; Hjern, Anders

    2016-07-01

    Research has shown that children in foster care are a high-risk group for adverse economic, social and health related outcomes in young adulthood. Children's poor school performance has been identified as a major risk factor for these poor later life outcomes. Aiming to support the design of effective intervention strategies, this study examines the hypothesized causal effect of foster children's poor school performance on subsequent psychosocial problems, here conceptualized as economic hardship, illicit drug use, and mental health problems, in young adulthood. Using the potential outcomes approach, longitudinal register data on more than 7500 Swedish foster children born 1973-1978 were analyzed by means of doubly robust treatment-effect estimators. The results show that poor school performance has a negative impact on later psychosocial problems net of observed background attributes and potential selection on unobservables, suggesting that the estimated effects allow for causal interpretations. Promotion of school performance may thus be a viable intervention path for policymakers and practitioners interested in improving foster children's overall life chances. PMID:27318971

  5. Child mortality in the Democratic Republic of Congo: cross-sectional evidence of the effect of geographic location and prolonged conflict from a national household survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The child mortality rate is a good indicator of development. High levels of infectious diseases and high child mortality make the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) one of the most challenging environments for health development in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Recent conflicts in the eastern part of the country and bad governance have compounded the problem. This study aimed to examine province-level geographic variation in under-five mortality (U5M), accounting for individual- and household-level risk factors including environmental factors such as conflict. Methods Our analysis used the nationally representative cross-sectional household sample of 8,992 children under five in the 2007 DRC Demographic and Health Survey. In the survey year, 1,005 deaths among this group were observed. Information on U5M was aggregated to the 11 provinces, and a Bayesian geo-additive discrete-time survival mixed model was used to map the geographic distribution of under-five mortality rates (U5MRs) at the province level, accounting for observable and unobservable risk factors. Results The overall U5MR was 159 per 1,000 live births. Significant associations with risk of U5M were found for < 24 month birth interval [posterior odds ratio and 95% credible region: 1.14 (1.04, 1.26)], home birth [1.13 (1.01, 1.27)] and living with a single mother [1.16 (1.03, 1.33)]. Striking variation was also noted in the risk of U5M by province of residence, with the highest risk in Kasaï-Oriental, a non-conflict area of the DRC, and the lowest in the conflict area of North Kivu. Conclusion This study reveals clear geographic patterns in rates of U5M in the DRC and shows the potential role of individual child, household and environmental factors, which are unexplained by the ongoing conflict. The displacement of mothers to safer areas may explain the lower U5MR observed at the epicentre of the conflict in North Kivu, compared with rates in conflict-free areas. Overall, the U5M maps point

  6. The National Survey of Student Engagement as a Predictor of Undergraduate GPA: A Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, M. B.; Wilson, M. A.; Tobin, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    Data from the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE) collected across seven years were used to predict final, cumulative grade point averages (GPA). Cross-product regression was used to explore the predictive abilities of the NSSE benchmark scores for freshmen (n = 2578) and seniors (n = 2293) collected in cross-sectional cohorts.…

  7. Reported Numbers of Patients with Rare Diseases Based on Ten-Year Longitudinal National Disability Registries in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Lan-Ping; Hung, Wen-Jiu

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to describe a general demographic picture of patients with rare diseases in Taiwan and particularly focuses on the prevalence of rare diseases over time, age and gender distributions. We analyzed data mainly from the national disability registry from 2002 to 2011 in Taiwan, Republic of China. The results showed that the number of…

  8. High School Substance Use as a Predictor of College Attendance, Completion, and Dropout: A National Multicohort Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Megan E.; Schulenberg, John E.; O'Malley, Patrick M.

    2016-01-01

    National data from Monitoring the Future were used to examine patterns and predictors of college attendance. Samples of American 12th-grade students from 1977 to 2003 were followed for 7 years (modal ages 18-25; N = 10,020). College attendance and graduation patterns varied considerably over historical time and based on family background.…

  9. The Development of Physical Aggression from Toddlerhood to Pre-Adolescence: A Nation Wide Longitudinal Study of Canadian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote, Sylvana; Vaillancourt, Tracy; LeBlanc, John C.; Nagin, Daniel S.; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to model the developmental trajectories of physical aggression (PA) from toddlerhood to pre-adolescence and to identify risk factors that distinguish typical (normative) from atypical developmental patterns. Ten cohorts of approximately 1,000 children (n = 10,658) drawn form a nationally representative (Canadian)…

  10. National Study of Student Support Services. Third-Year Longitudinal Study Results and Program Implementation Study Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaney, Bradford; Muraskin, Lana; Cahalan, Margaret; Rak, Rebecca

    This follow-up study, part of the National Study of Student Support Services compared the status of 2,900 disadvantaged students receiving student support services (SSS) since entering college 3 years earlier and 2,900 nonparticipating comparable students. Services offered varied among institutions but were all intended to help students stay in…

  11. School Entry Age and Children's Social-Behavioral Skills: Evidence From a National Longitudinal Study of U.S. Kindergartners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Datar, Ashlesha; Gottfried, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Prior research evaluating school entry age effects has largely overlooked the effects on social-behavioral skills despite the growing recognition of returns to such skills. This study is the first to examine the effects of kindergarten entry age on children's social-behavioral outcomes using 9 years of panel data on a national sample of U.S.…

  12. Coming of Age in the 1990s: The Eighth-Grade Class of 1988 12 Years Later. Initial Results from the Fourth Follow-Up to the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988. Statistical Analysis Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingels, Steven J.; Curtin, Thomas R.; Kaufman, Phillip; Alt, Martha Naomi; Chen, Xianglei; Owings, Jeffrey A.

    This report examines the eighth grade cohort of 1888 in the year 2000. It presents findings from the fourth followup survey of the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88), from the year in which most cohort members turned 26. The period in which this cohort attended school saw major initiatives in educational reform in the United…

  13. State and Local Implementation of the "No Child Left Behind Act." Volume I--Title I School Choice, Supplemental Educational Services, and Student Achievement. A Report from the National Longitudinal Study of "No Child Left Behind" (NLS-"NCLB")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer, Ron; Gill, Brian; Razquin; Booker, Kevin; Lockwood, J. R., III

    2007-01-01

    This report presents findings about the relationship between participation in the Title I school choice and supplemental educational services options and student achievement from the National Longitudinal Study of "No Child Left Behind" (NLS-"NCLB"). A key component of the "No Child Left Behind Act of 2001" ("NCLB") was to provide options to…

  14. East with the night: longitudinal migration of the Orinoco goose (Neochen jubata) between Manú National Park, Peru and the Llanos de Moxos, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Lisa C; Nole Bazán, Inés; Carlos Erazo, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    We report on the intra-Amazonian migration of a pair of Orinoco Geese (Neochen jubata) from Manú National Park, Peru. The species is Critically Endangered in Peru, so a major aim of the study was to aid conservation planning by learning the wet season location of the country's last known breeding population. We captured a breeding pair on October 27, 2010, and fitted the birds with Microwave Telemetry, Inc. GPS/Argos satellite PTT's. The pair migrated ∼655 km from Manú National Park to the Llanos de Moxos, Bolivia (Dept. of Bení) in a predominantly longitudinal migration, reaching their final destination on December 23, 2010. Major movements (>5 km per time period) were almost exclusively at night and were undertaken with and without moonlight. Foraging areas used at stopovers in the Llanos de Moxos were remarkably limited, suggesting the importance of grazing lawns maintained by the geese and other herbivores, possibly including cattle. Orinoco Geese are resident in the Llanos de Moxos year-round, so the Manú geese represent a partial migration from the Bení region. We hypothesize that cavity nest limitation explains the partial migration of Orinoco Geese from the Llanos de Moxos. PMID:23056512

  15. East with the Night: Longitudinal Migration of the Orinoco Goose (Neochen jubata) between Manú National Park, Peru and the Llanos de Moxos, Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    Davenport, Lisa C.; Nole Bazán, Inés; Carlos Erazo, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    We report on the intra-Amazonian migration of a pair of Orinoco Geese (Neochen jubata) from Manú National Park, Peru. The species is Critically Endangered in Peru, so a major aim of the study was to aid conservation planning by learning the wet season location of the country's last known breeding population. We captured a breeding pair on October 27, 2010, and fitted the birds with Microwave Telemetry, Inc. GPS/Argos satellite PTT's. The pair migrated ∼655 km from Manú National Park to the Llanos de Moxos, Bolivia (Dept. of Bení) in a predominantly longitudinal migration, reaching their final destination on December 23, 2010. Major movements (>5 km per time period) were almost exclusively at night and were undertaken with and without moonlight. Foraging areas used at stopovers in the Llanos de Moxos were remarkably limited, suggesting the importance of grazing lawns maintained by the geese and other herbivores, possibly including cattle. Orinoco Geese are resident in the Llanos de Moxos year-round, so the Manú geese represent a partial migration from the Bení region. We hypothesize that cavity nest limitation explains the partial migration of Orinoco Geese from the Llanos de Moxos. PMID:23056512

  16. Accuracy of self-reported versus measured weight over adolescence and young adulthood: findings from the national longitudinal study of adolescent health, 1996-2008.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Philippa; Sastry, Narayan; Duffy, Denise; Ailshire, Jennifer

    2014-07-15

    Many studies rely on self-reports to capture population trends and trajectories in weight gain over adulthood, but the validity of self-reports is often considered a limitation. The purpose of this work was to examine long-term trajectories of self-reporting bias in a national sample of American youth. With 3 waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1996-2008), we used growth curve models to examine self-reporting bias in trajectories of weight gain across adolescence and early adulthood (ages 13-32 years). We investigated whether self-reporting bias is constant over time, or whether adolescents become more accurate in reporting their weight as they move into young adulthood, and we examined differences in self-reporting bias by sex, race/ethnicity, and attained education. Adolescent girls underreported their weight by 0.86 kg on average, and this rate of underreporting increased over early adulthood. In contrast, we found no evidence that boys underreported their weight either in adolescence or over the early adult years. For young men, self-reports of weight were unbiased estimates of measured weight among all racial/ethnic and educational subpopulations over adolescence and early adulthood. PMID:24944288

  17. Investigating Sources of Toxicity in Stormwater: Algae Mortality in Runoff Upstream of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, C G; Folks, K; Mathews, S; Martinelli, R

    2003-10-06

    A source evaluation case study is presented for observations of algae toxicity in an intermittent stream passing through the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory near Livermore, California. A five-step procedure is discussed to determine the cause of water toxicity problems and to determine appropriate environmental management practices. Using this approach, an upstream electrical transfer station was identified as the probable source of herbicides causing the toxicity. In addition, an analytical solution for solute transport in overland flow was used to estimate the application level of 40 Kg/ha. Finally, this source investigation demonstrates that pesticides can impact stream water quality regardless of application within levels suggested on manufacturer labels. Environmental managers need to ensure that pesticides that could harm aquatic organisms (including algae) not be used within close proximity to streams or storm drainages and that application timing should be considered for environmental protection.

  18. LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF AGING (LSOA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Longitudinal Study of Aging (LSOA) is a collaborative effort of the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) and the National Institute on Aging (NIA). The Supplement on Aging (SOA), conducted in conjunction with the 1984 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), served as...

  19. Self-reported exposure to pesticides and radiation related to pregnancy outcome--results from National Natality and Fetal Mortality Surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Savitz, D.A.; Whelan, E.A.; Kleckner, R.C. )

    1989-09-01

    Although fetal development is known to be sensitive to environmental agents, relatively little epidemiologic research has addressed this concern. Effects on pregnancy outcome of self-reported parental exposure to pesticides and to radiation were examined using data from the National Natality and Fetal Mortality Surveys, large national probability samples of live births and stillbirths occurring in 1980. In case-control analyses, maternal exposure to pesticides at home or work was associated with increased risk of stillbirth (odds ratios (ORs) = 1.5-1.6). Paternal pesticide exposure was associated with stillbirth (ORs = 1.2-1.4) and delivery of small-for-gestational-age infants (ORs = 1.4-2.0). A small increased risk of stillbirth (OR = 1.3) was found in relation to either parent's reported exposure to radiation. In spite of limitations in the quality of exposure data and the possibility of biased recall related to pregnancy outcome, associations of reported pesticide exposure to either parent with risk of stillbirth and small-for-gestational-age infants warrant further evaluation.

  20. Prediction of coronary heart disease mortality in Busselton, Western Australia: an evaluation of the Framingham, national health epidemiologic follow up study, and WHO ERICA risk scores.

    PubMed Central

    Knuiman, M W; Vu, H T

    1997-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the performance of the Framingham, national health epidemiologic follow up study, and the WHO ERICA risk scores in predicting death from coronary heart disease (CHD) in an Australian population. DESIGN: Cohort follow up study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The cohort consisted of 1923 men and 1968 women who participated in health surveys in the town of Busselton in Western Australia over the period 1966-81. Baseline assessment included cardiovascular risk factor measurement. Mortality follow up to 31 December 1994 was used. MAIN RESULTS: Risk scores for death from CHD within 10 years based on age, systolic blood pressure, cholesterol, smoking, and BMI were derived from the Busselton study data using logistic regression analysis. Similar risk scores developed from the Framingham, the national health epidemiologic follow up study, and the WHO ERICA cohorts were found to perform just as well in Busselton as the Busselton-derived scores, both before and after controlling the effect of age. There was considerable overlap across the different risk scores in the identification of individuals in the highest quintile of risk. Those in the top 20% of scores included about 41% of deaths from CHD among men and about 63% of deaths from CHD among women. CONCLUSION: Although there is variation in risk score coefficients across the studies, the relative risk predictive performance of the scores is similar. The use of Framingham and other similar risk scores will not be misleading in white Australian populations. PMID:9425461

  1. County Differences in Mortality among Foreign-Born Compared to Native Swedes 1970–1999

    PubMed Central

    Albin, Björn; Hjelm, Katarina; Ekberg, Jan; Elmståhl, Sölve

    2012-01-01

    Background. Regional variations in mortality and morbidity have been shown in Europe and USA. Longitudinal studies have found increased mortality, dissimilarities in mortality pattern, and differences in utilization of healthcare between foreign- and native-born Swedes. No study has been found comparing mortality among foreign-born and native-born Swedes in relation to catchment areas/counties. Methods. The aim was to describe and compare mortality among foreign-born persons and native Swedes during 1970–1999 in 24 counties in Sweden. Data from the Statistics Sweden and the National Board of Health and Welfare was used, and the database consisted of 723,948 persons, 361,974 foreign-born living in Sweden in 1970 and aged 16 years and above and 361,974 matched Swedish controls. Results. Latest county of residence independently explained higher mortality among foreign-born persons in all but four counties; OR varied from 1.01 to 1.29. Counties with a more rural structure showed the highest differences between foreign-born persons and native controls. Foreign-born persons had a lower mean age (1.0–4.3 years) at time of death. Conclusion. County of residence influences mortality; higher mortality is indicated among migrants than native Swedes in counties with a more rural structure. Further studies are needed to explore possible explanations. PMID:23029609

  2. County Differences in Mortality among Foreign-Born Compared to Native Swedes 1970-1999.

    PubMed

    Albin, Björn; Hjelm, Katarina; Ekberg, Jan; Elmståhl, Sölve

    2012-01-01

    Background. Regional variations in mortality and morbidity have been shown in Europe and USA. Longitudinal studies have found increased mortality, dissimilarities in mortality pattern, and differences in utilization of healthcare between foreign- and native-born Swedes. No study has been found comparing mortality among foreign-born and native-born Swedes in relation to catchment areas/counties. Methods. The aim was to describe and compare mortality among foreign-born persons and native Swedes during 1970-1999 in 24 counties in Sweden. Data from the Statistics Sweden and the National Board of Health and Welfare was used, and the database consisted of 723,948 persons, 361,974 foreign-born living in Sweden in 1970 and aged 16 years and above and 361,974 matched Swedish controls. Results. Latest county of residence independently explained higher mortality among foreign-born persons in all but four counties; OR varied from 1.01 to 1.29. Counties with a more rural structure showed the highest differences between foreign-born persons and native controls. Foreign-born persons had a lower mean age (1.0-4.3 years) at time of death. Conclusion. County of residence influences mortality; higher mortality is indicated among migrants than native Swedes in counties with a more rural structure. Further studies are needed to explore possible explanations. PMID:23029609

  3. Ostreid herpesvirus 1 detection and relationship with Crassostrea gigas spat mortality in France between 1998 and 2006

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Since its molecular characterisation, Ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) has been regularly detected in Crassostrea gigas in France. Although its pathogenicity was demonstrated on larval stages, its involvement during mortality outbreaks at the juvenile stage was highly suspected but not evidenced. To investigate mortality outbreaks, the French National Network for Surveillance and Monitoring of Mollusc Health (REPAMO) carried out two surveys in juvenile C. gigas. The first survey lasted from 1998 to 2006 and was an epidemiological inquiry occurring when oyster farmers reported mortality outbreaks. The second survey, a longitudinal one, was set up in 1998 to complete the network observations on OsHV-1. Data analysis showed a specific pattern of mortality outbreaks associated with OsHV-1 detection. Ostreid herpesvirus 1 detection mainly appeared during the summer, suggesting the influence of the seawater temperature on its occurrence. It mostly presented a patchy distribution in the field in contrast to the nursery. Significant relationship between OsHV-1 detection and spat mortality was found, preferentially in sheltered and closed environments. The longitudinal survey confirmed most of the network observations. Although subsequent works particularly epidemiological surveys would be useful to confirm the causal link between the detection of OsHV-1 and the mortality outbreaks in juvenile C. gigas, the role of OsHV-1 in oyster mortality is progressing. PMID:21635731

  4. Prevalence of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose in Peru: report from PERUDIAB, a national urban population-based longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Seclen, Segundo N; Rosas, Moises E; Arias, Arturo J; Huayta, Ernesto; Medina, Cecilia A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to estimate the prevalences of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in a national sample in Peru and assess the relationships with selected sociodemographic variables. Methods We estimated prevalence in PERUDIAB study participants, a nationwide, stratified urban and suburban population selected by random cluster sampling. Between 2010 and 2012, questionnaires were completed and blood tests obtained from 1677 adults ≥25 years of age. Known diabetes was defined as participants having been told so by a doctor or nurse and/or receiving insulin or oral antidiabetic agents. Newly diagnosed diabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dL determined during the study and without a previous diabetes diagnosis. IFG was defined as fasting plasma glucose of 100–125 mg/dL. Results The estimated national prevalence of diabetes was 7.0% (95% CI 5.3% to 8.7%) and it was 8.4% (95% CI 5.6% to 11.3%) in metropolitan Lima. No gender differences were detected. Known and newly diagnosed diabetes prevalences were estimated as 4.2% and 2.8%, respectively. A logistic regression response surface model showed a complex trend for an increased prevalence of diabetes in middle-aged individuals and in those with no formal education. Diabetes prevalence was higher in coastal (8.2%) than in highlands (4.5%; p=0.03), and jungle (3.5%; p<0.02) regions. The estimated national prevalence of IFG was 22.4%, higher in males than in females (28.3% vs 19.1%; p<0.001), and higher in coastal (26.4%) than in highlands (17.4%; p=0.03), but not jungle regions (14.9%; p=0.07). Conclusions This study confirms diabetes as an important public health problem, especially for middle-aged individuals and those with no formal education. 40% of the affected individuals were undiagnosed. The elevated prevalence of IFG shows that nearly a quarter of the adult population of Peru has an increased risk of diabetes. PMID:26512325

  5. Saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea) Mortality and Population Regeneration in the Cactus Forest of Saguaro National Park: Seventy-Five Years and Counting.

    PubMed

    Orum, Thomas V; Ferguson, Nancy; Mihail, Jeanne D

    2016-01-01

    Annual census data spanning seventy-five years document mortality and regeneration in a population of saguaro cactus (Carnegiea gigantea) in the Cactus Forest of the Rincon Mountain District of Saguaro National Park near Tucson, AZ. On 6 four-hectare plots, each saguaro was censused and a methodical search for new saguaros was conducted annually each year from 1942 through 2016, with the exception of 1955. Regeneration has been episodic with 828 plants established from 1959 through 1993 compared with 34 plants established between 1942 and 1958 and only three plants established after 1993. The years preceding 1959 and following 1993, include some of the driest decades in centuries in southern Arizona. While woodcutting and cattle grazing are believed to be among the causes of decades of failed regeneration prior to 1958, neither of these factors contributed to the failed regeneration following 1993. The height structure of the population from 1942 to 2016 shifted dramatically from a population dominated by large saguaros (> 5.4 m tall) in the first three decades of the study to a population dominated by small saguaros (< 1.8 m tall) in the most recent two decades. Mortality is shown to be strongly age dependent. In the year following the 2011 catastrophic freeze, 21 of 59 plants older than 80 years died compared with zero deaths in 270 plants between the ages of 29 and 80 years. Saguaros under 40 years old, growing under small shrubs or in the open, have a lower probability of survival than better protected saguaros. Long-term population monitoring is essential to understanding the complex impacts of human and environmental factors on the population dynamics of long-lived species. PMID:27505437

  6. Saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea) Mortality and Population Regeneration in the Cactus Forest of Saguaro National Park: Seventy-Five Years and Counting

    PubMed Central

    Orum, Thomas V.; Ferguson, Nancy; Mihail, Jeanne D.

    2016-01-01

    Annual census data spanning seventy-five years document mortality and regeneration in a population of saguaro cactus (Carnegiea gigantea) in the Cactus Forest of the Rincon Mountain District of Saguaro National Park near Tucson, AZ. On 6 four-hectare plots, each saguaro was censused and a methodical search for new saguaros was conducted annually each year from 1942 through 2016, with the exception of 1955. Regeneration has been episodic with 828 plants established from 1959 through 1993 compared with 34 plants established between 1942 and 1958 and only three plants established after 1993. The years preceding 1959 and following 1993, include some of the driest decades in centuries in southern Arizona. While woodcutting and cattle grazing are believed to be among the causes of decades of failed regeneration prior to 1958, neither of these factors contributed to the failed regeneration following 1993. The height structure of the population from 1942 to 2016 shifted dramatically from a population dominated by large saguaros (> 5.4 m tall) in the first three decades of the study to a population dominated by small saguaros (< 1.8 m tall) in the most recent two decades. Mortality is shown to be strongly age dependent. In the year following the 2011 catastrophic freeze, 21 of 59 plants older than 80 years died compared with zero deaths in 270 plants between the ages of 29 and 80 years. Saguaros under 40 years old, growing under small shrubs or in the open, have a lower probability of survival than better protected saguaros. Long-term population monitoring is essential to understanding the complex impacts of human and environmental factors on the population dynamics of long-lived species. PMID:27505437

  7. Do heads of government age more quickly? Observational study comparing mortality between elected leaders and runners-up in national elections of 17 countries

    PubMed Central

    Olenski, Andrew R; Abola, Matthew V

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether being elected to head of government is associated with accelerated mortality by studying survival differences between people elected to office and unelected runner-up candidates who never served. Design Observational study. Setting Historical survival data on elected and runner-up candidates in parliamentary or presidential elections in Australia, Austria, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom, and United States, from 1722 to 2015. Participants Elected and runner-up political candidates. Main outcome measure Observed number of years alive after each candidate’s last election, relative to what would be expected for an average person of the same age and sex as the candidate during the year of the election, based on historical French and British life tables. Observed post-election life years were compared between elected candidates and runners-up, adjusting for life expectancy at time of election. A Cox proportional hazards model (adjusted for candidate’s life expectancy at the time of election) considered years until death (or years until end of study period for those not yet deceased by 9 September 2015) for elected candidates versus runners-up. Results The sample included 540 candidates: 279 winners and 261 runners-up who never served. A total of 380 candidates were deceased by 9 September 2015. Candidates who served as a head of government lived 4.4 (95% confidence interval 2.1 to 6.6) fewer years after their last election than did candidates who never served (17.8 v 13.4 years after last election; adjusted difference 2.7 (0.6 to 4.8) years). In Cox proportional hazards analysis, which considered all candidates (alive or deceased), the mortality hazard for elected candidates relative to runners-up was 1.23 (1.00 to 1.52). Conclusions Election to head of government is associated with a substantial increase in mortality risk compared

  8. Caregiving Behavior Is Associated With Decreased Mortality Risk

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Stephanie L.; Smith, Dylan M.; Schulz, Richard; Kabeto, Mohammed U.; Ubel, Peter A.; Poulin, Michael; Yi, Jaehee; Kim, Catherine; Langa, Kenneth M.

    2010-01-01

    Traditional investigations of caregiving link it to increased caregiver morbidity and mortality, but do not disentangle the effects of providing care from those of being continuously exposed to an ailing loved one with serious health problems. We explored this possible confound in a national, longitudinal survey of elderly married individuals (N = 3,376). Results showed that spending at least 14 hr per week providing care to a spouse predicted decreased mortality for the caregiver, independently of behavioral and cognitive limitations of the care recipient (spouse), and of other demographic and health variables. These findings suggest that it may be premature to conclude that health risks for caregivers are due to providing active help. Indeed, under some circumstances, caregivers may actually benefit from providing care. PMID:19320860

  9. Has the Rate of Reduction in Infant Mortality Increased in India Since the Launch of National Rural Health Mission? Analysis of Time Trends 2000-2009 with Projection to 2015

    PubMed Central

    Narwal, Rajesh; Gram, Lu

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) - India was launched in 2005 to tackle urban-rural health inequalities, especially in maternal and child health. We examined national and state level trends in Infant Mortality Rates (IMR) from 2000 through 2009 to: 1) assess whether the NRHM had increased the average annual reduction rate (AARR) of IMR 2) evaluate state-wise progress towards Millennium Development Goals (MDG4) and estimate required AARRs for ‘off track’ states. Methods: Log-linear regression models were applied to national and state IMR data collated from the Sample Registration System (SRS)-India to estimate average annual reduction rates and compare AAARs before and after introduction of NRHM. The log-linear trend of infant mortality rates was also projected forward to 2015. Results: The infant mortality rate in rural India declined from 74 to 55/1000 live births between 2000 and 2009, with AARR of 3.0% (95% CI=2.6%-3.4%) and the urban-rural gap in infant mortality narrowed (p =0.036). However there was no evidence (p=0.49) that AARR in rural India increased post NRHM (3.4%, 95% CI 2.0-4.7%) compared to pre NRHM (2.8%, 95% CI 2.1%-3.5%). States varied widely in rates of infant mortality reduction. Projections of infant mortality rates suggested that only eight states might be on track to help India achieve MDG4 by 2015. Conclusions and Public Health Implications: Despite a narrowing urban-rural gap and high AARRs in some states, there was no evidence that the rate of reduction in infant mortality has increased in rural India post NRHM introduction. India appears unlikely to achieve child survival-related NRHM and millennium development goals. Government should revisit the child survival related NRHM strategies and ensure equitable access to health services. More robust monitoring and evaluation mechanisms must be inbuilt for following years.

  10. U.S. MORTALITY DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S. Mortality data, collected and maintained by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), can be analyzed with the SEER*Stat software. The data covers all causes of death, not just cancer deaths. NCHS granted the SEER program limited permission to provide the mortality d...

  11. The Diffusion of Acamprosate for the Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder: Results From a National Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Hannah K; Roman, Paul M

    2016-03-01

    To consider how the Affordable Care Act may impact the diffusion of acamprosate, an evidence-based treatment for alcohol use disorder (AUD), the present study estimated the associations between acamprosate availability, Medicaid revenues, and private insurance revenues. Data were collected from organizational leaders of national samples of 307 specialty treatment centers in 2009-2012 and 372 treatment centers in 2011-2013. Notably, there was not a significant change in the percentage of organizations offering acamprosate over the study period. However, greater reliance on Medicaid and private insurance as sources of revenue was positively associated with the availability of acamprosate. In addition, acamprosate availability was positively associated with access to physicians and the presence of on-site primary medical care, while centers that placed greater emphasis on confrontational group therapy were significantly less likely to offer acamprosate for AUD treatment. To the extent that the ACA is expanding the number of insured individuals enrolled in Medicaid and commercial insurance sold through health insurance exchanges, this study suggests that the ACA may hold promise for expanding the availability of this EBP for AUD treatment. Future research is needed to measure whether this potential impact actually occurs within the specialty treatment system over time. PMID:26689318

  12. The risk of burn injury during long-term oxygen therapy: a 17-year longitudinal national study in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Tanash, Hanan A; Huss, Fredrik; Ekström, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Background Long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) improves the survival time in hypoxemic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Despite warnings about potential dangers, a considerable number of patients continue to smoke while on LTOT. The incidence of burn injuries related to LTOT is unknown. The aim of this study was to estimate the rate of burn injury requiring health care contact during LTOT. Methods Prospective, population-based, consecutive cohort study of people starting LTOT from any cause between January 1, 1992 and December 31, 2009 in the Swedish National Register of Respiratory Failure (Swedevox). Results In total, 12,497 patients (53% women) were included. The mean (standard deviation) age was 72±9 years. The main reasons for starting LTOT were chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (75%) and pulmonary fibrosis (15%). Only 269 (2%) were active smokers when LTOT was initiated. The median follow-up time to event was 1.5 years (interquartile range, 0.55–3.1). In total, 17 patients had a diagnosed burn injury during 27,890 person-years of LTOT. The rate of burn injury was 61 (95% confidence interval, 36–98) per 100,000 person-years. There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of burn injury between ever-smokers and never-smokers, or between men and women. Conclusion The rate of burn injuries in patients on LTOT seems to be low in Sweden. The strict requirements in Sweden for smoking cessation before LTOT initiation may contribute to this finding. PMID:26622175

  13. National record linkage study of mortality for a large cohort of opioid users ascertained by drug treatment or criminal justice sources in England, 2005–2009

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Matthias; Bird, Sheila M.; Hickman, Matthew; Millar, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Background Globally, opioid drug use is an important cause of premature mortality. In many countries, opioid using populations are ageing. The current study investigates mortality in a large cohort of opioid users; with a focus on testing whether excess mortality changes with age. Methods 198,247 opioid users in England were identified from drug treatment and criminal justice sources (April, 2005 to March, 2009) and linked to mortality records. Mortality rates and standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated by age-group and gender. Results There were 3974 deaths from all causes (SMR 5.7, 95% Confidence Interval: 5.5 to 5.9). Drug-related poisonings (1715) accounted for 43% of deaths. Relative to gender-and-age-appropriate expectation, mortality was elevated for a range of major causes including: infectious, respiratory, circulatory, liver disease, suicide, and homicide. Drug-related poisoning mortality risk continued to increase beyond 45 years and there were age-related increases in SMRs for specific causes of death (infectious, cancer, liver cirrhosis, and homicide). A gender by age-group interaction revealed that whilst men have a greater drug-related poisoning mortality risk than women at younger ages, the difference narrows with increasing age. Conclusion Opioid users’ excess mortality persists into old age and for some causes is exacerbated. This study highlights the importance of managing the complex health needs of older opioid users. PMID:25454405

  14. The Relationship of Violence and Traumatic Stress to Changes in Weight and Waist Circumference: Longitudinal Analyses from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN)

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Lorena; Qi, Lihong; Rasor, Marianne; Gold, Ellen B; Clark, Cari; Bromberger, Joyce

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the associations of violence and traumatic stress with changes in weight and waist circumference, hypothesizing that violence in midlife would be associated with increases or decreases in weight and waist circumference. Methods The longitudinal cohort of the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN) comprised the study sample, which included an ethnically/racially and socially diverse group of 2870 women between the ages of 42 and 52 years at baseline. Women were followed annually for 10 years and assessments included weight and waist circumference measures and data on violence, health outcomes and confounders. Results At baseline, 8.6% Caucasian, 10.8% African American, 9.2% Chinese and 5.0% Japanese women reported violence and traumatic stress. Reporting violence and traumatic stress during follow-up was significantly associated with weight gain (OR=2.39, 95% CI= 1.28, 4.47), weight loss (OR=3.54, 95% CI=1.73, 7.22), and gain (OR=2.44, 95% CI =1.37, 4.37) or loss (OR=2.66, 95% CI=1.23, 5.77) in waist circumference, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, and smoking. Conclusion Violence and traumatic stress against midlife women was associated with gains or losses in weight and waist circumference. PMID:24212978

  15. Sexual Orientation and Involvement in Nonviolent and Violent Delinquent Behaviors: Findings From the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health.

    PubMed

    Beaver, Kevin M; Connolly, Eric J; Schwartz, Joseph A; Boutwell, Brian B; Barnes, J C; Nedelec, Joseph L

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the association between sexual orientation and nonviolent and violent delinquency across the life course. We analyzed self-reported nonviolent and violent delinquency in a sample of heterosexual males (N = 5220-7023) and females (N = 5984-7875), bisexuals (N = 34-73), gay males (N = 145-189), and lesbians (N = 115-150) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). The analyses revealed, in general, that bisexuals were the most delinquent of the sexual orientation categories for both males and females. Additional analyses revealed that heterosexual males reported significantly higher levels of both violent and nonviolent delinquency than gay males, whereas lesbians reported more involvement in nonviolent delinquency and, to a lesser extent, violent delinquency relative to heterosexual females. Analyses also revealed that lesbians reported significantly more delinquent behavior, particularly for nonviolent delinquency, than gay males. Future research should explore the mechanisms that account for these observed patterns and how they can be used to more fully understand the etiology of delinquency. PMID:27056045

  16. A Longitudinal Investigation of Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Psychosocial Mediators of Allostatic Load in Midlife Women: Findings from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation

    PubMed Central

    Upchurch, Dawn M.; Stein, Judith; Greendale, Gail A.; Chyu, Laura; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Huang, Mei-Hua; Lewis, Tené T.; Kravitz, Howard M.; Seeman, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This research sought to assess racial and SES differences in level and change in allostatic load (AL) over time in midlife women and to test whether psychosocial factors mediate these relationships. These factors were: discrimination, perceived stress, and hostility. Methods Longitudinal data obtained from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation SWAN were used (n = 2063; mean age at baseline = 46.0). Latent growth curve (LGC) models evaluated the impact of demographic, menopausal, and psychosocial variables on level and change in AL over 8 years. Results Direct effects: High levels of discrimination and hostility significantly predicted higher AL (path coefficients 0.05, 0.05 respectively). High perceived stress significantly predicted a faster rate of increase of AL (path coefficient 0.06). Racial and socioeconomic status (SES) differentials were present, with African American race (path coefficient 0.23), low income (path coefficient −0.15), and low education (path coefficient −0.08) significantly predicted high AL level. Indirect effects: Significant indirect effects were found for African American race, less income, and lower education through higher discrimination, perceived stress, and hostility on level and rate of AL. Conclusion This was one of the first studies that investigated AL over multiple time periods and results supported AL as a cumulative phenomenon, affected by multiple psychosocial and demographic factors. The results suggest the complex ways in which race, SES, and psychosocial factors operate to influence AL. PMID:25886828

  17. Social support and mobility limitation as modifiable predictors of improvement in depressive symptoms in the elderly: results of a national longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chun-Te; Yeh, Chih-Jung; Lee, Meng-Chih; Lin, Hui-Sheng; Chen, Vincent Chin-Hung; Hsieh, Ming-Hong; Yen, Chi-Hua; Lai, Te-Jen

    2012-01-01

    Few national longitudinal studies have investigated the predictors of a better depression outcome in geriatric depression. This study examined the predictors of improvement in case-level depressive symptoms in the elderly. In this prospective cohort and population-based study in Taiwan, 206 non-demented and case-level depressed subjects aged 65 and older were interviewed at baseline in 2003 and follow-up in 2007. The independent variables included demographics, chronic medical diseases, and health-related behaviors assessed at baseline. The dependent variable was depressive symptoms, assessed using the 10-item short form of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD-10) assessed at follow-up. Multivariate analyses were used to identify the predictors of improvement in depression. The independent predictors of improvement in depression over a 4-year follow-up period are more social support and fewer mobility limitations at baseline. With regards to practical health-related behaviors, the 2 items of social support most associated with improvement in depression were willingness of significant others to talk with you and satisfaction with dependence upon significant others; the 2 items of mobility limitations most associated with non-improvement of depression were difficulty in carrying things and squatting. These findings suggested that health-related behaviors were important to the depression outcome in the elderly; moreover, interventions to improve depression should include practical health-related behaviors aimed at these modifiable risk factors. PMID:22459317

  18. Smoking Initiation Associated With Specific Periods in the Life Course From Birth to Young Adulthood: Data From the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xinguang

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Guided by the life-course perspective, we examined whether there were subgroups with different likelihood curves of smoking onset associated with specific developmental periods. Methods. Using 12 waves of panel data from 4088 participants in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, we detected subgroups with distinctive risk patterns by employing developmental trajectory modeling analysis. Results. From birth to age 29 years, 72% of female and 74% of US males initiated smoking. We detected 4 exclusive groups with distinctive risk patterns for both genders: the Pre-Teen Risk Group initiated smoking by age 12 years, the Teenage Risk Group initiated smoking by age 18 years, the Young Adult Risk Group initiated smoking by age 25 years, and the Low Risk Group experienced little or no risk over time. Groups differed on several etiological and outcome variables. Conclusions. The process of smoking initiation from birth to young adulthood is nonhomogeneous, with distinct subgroups whose risk of smoking onset is linked to specific stages in the life course. PMID:24328611

  19. The distinct roles of spirituality and religiosity in physical and mental health after collective trauma: a national longitudinal study of responses to the 9/11 attacks.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Daniel N; Poulin, Michael J; Silver, Roxane Cohen; Holman, E Alison

    2011-12-01

    Researchers have identified health implications of religiosity and spirituality but have rarely addressed differences between these dimensions. The associations of religiosity and spirituality with physical and mental health were examined in a national sample (N = 890) after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks (9/11). Health information was collected before 9/11 and health, religiosity, and spirituality were assessed longitudinally during six waves of data collection over the next 3 years. Religiosity (i.e., participation in religious social structures) predicted higher positive affect (β = .12), fewer cognitive intrusions (β = -.07), and lower odds of new onset mental (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = .88) and musculoskeletal (IRR = .94) ailments. Spirituality (i.e., subjective commitment to spiritual or religious beliefs) predicted higher positive affect (β = .09), lower odds of new onset infectious ailments (IRR = 0.83), more intrusions (β = .10) and a more rapid decline in intrusions over time (β = -.10). Religiosity and spirituality independently predict health after a collective trauma, controlling for pre-event health status; they are not interchangeable indices of religion. PMID:21344318

  20. Parental incarceration and gender-based risks for increased body mass index: evidence from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health in the United States.

    PubMed

    Roettger, Michael E; Boardman, Jason D

    2012-04-01

    Although recent studies suggest that 13% of young adults, including at least one-fourth of African Americans, experience parental incarceration, little research has examined links between parental incarceration and physical health. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1994-2008) and gender-based theories of stress, the authors examined whether parental incarceration is associated with increased body mass index among women but not men. Panel analysis spanning adolescence and adulthood, controlling for stressful life events, internalizing behaviors, and a range of individual, familial, and neighborhood characteristics, reveals that body mass index for women who have experienced parental incarceration is 0.49 units (P < 0.004) higher than that for women whose parents have never been incarcerated. This association is not evident among men. Similarly, in change score models between waves II and IV, women experiencing parental incarceration have a 0.92-unit increase in body mass index (P < 0.026) relative to women who did not have a parent undergo incarceration. In supplemental analysis examining if gender differences in incarceration stress response (externalizing vs. internalizing) explain these findings, the authors found that obesity status moderates the relation between depression and parental incarceration. Results suggest a stress internalization process that, for the first time, links parental incarceration with obesity among women. PMID:22437187

  1. Parental Incarceration and Gender-based Risks for Increased Body Mass Index: Evidence From the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Roettger, Michael E.; Boardman, Jason D.

    2012-01-01

    Although recent studies suggest that 13% of young adults, including at least one-fourth of African Americans, experience parental incarceration, little research has examined links between parental incarceration and physical health. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1994–2008) and gender-based theories of stress, the authors examined whether parental incarceration is associated with increased body mass index among women but not men. Panel analysis spanning adolescence and adulthood, controlling for stressful life events, internalizing behaviors, and a range of individual, familial, and neighborhood characteristics, reveals that body mass index for women who have experienced parental incarceration is 0.49 units (P < 0.004) higher than that for women whose parents have never been incarcerated. This association is not evident among men. Similarly, in change score models between waves II and IV, women experiencing parental incarceration have a 0.92-unit increase in body mass index (P < 0.026) relative to women who did not have a parent undergo incarceration. In supplemental analysis examining if gender differences in incarceration stress response (externalizing vs. internalizing) explain these findings, the authors found that obesity status moderates the relation between depression and parental incarceration. Results suggest a stress internalization process that, for the first time, links parental incarceration with obesity among women. PMID:22437187

  2. The relationship of violence and traumatic stress to changes in weight and waist circumference: longitudinal analyses from the study of women's health across the nation.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Lorena; Qi, Lihong; Rasor, Marianne; Clark, Cari Jo; Bromberger, Joyce; Gold, Ellen B

    2014-05-01

    This article investigates the associations of violence and traumatic stress with changes in weight and waist circumference, hypothesizing that violence in midlife would be associated with increases or decreases in weight and waist circumference. The longitudinal cohort of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation comprised the study sample, which included an ethnically/racially and socially diverse group of 2,870 women between the ages of 42 and 52 years at baseline. Women were followed annually for 10 years, and assessments included weight and waist circumference measures and data on violence, health outcomes, and confounders. At baseline, 8.6% Caucasian, 10.8% African American, 9.2% Chinese, and 5.0% Japanese women reported violence and traumatic stress. Reporting violence and traumatic stress during follow-up was significantly associated with weight gain (odds ratio [OR] = 2.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.28-4.47]), weight loss (OR = 3.54, 95% CI = [1.73-7.22]), and gain (OR = 2.44, 95% CI = [1.37-4.37]) or loss (OR = 2.66, 95% CI = [1.23-5.77]) in waist circumference, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, and smoking. Violence and traumatic stress against midlife women were associated with gains or losses in weight and waist circumference. PMID:24212978

  3. Longitudinal Analysis of the Association Between Vasomotor Symptoms and Race/Ethnicity Across the Menopausal Transition: Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Ellen B.; Colvin, Alicia; Avis, Nancy; Bromberger, Joyce; Greendale, Gail A.; Powell, Lynda; Sternfeld, Barbara; Matthews, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated whether vasomotor symptom reporting or patterns of change in symptom reporting over the perimenopausal transition among women enrolled in a national study differed according to race/ethnicity. We also sought to determine whether racial/ethnic differences were explained by sociodemographic, health, or lifestyle factors. Methods. We followed 3198 women enrolled in the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation during 1996 through 2002. We analyzed frequency of vasomotor symptom reporting using longitudinal multiple logistic regressions. Results. Rates of vasomotor symptom reporting were highest among African Americans (adjusted odds ratio [OR]=1.63; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.21, 2.20). The transition to late perimenopause exhibited the strongest association with vasomotor symptoms (adjusted OR = 6.64; 95% CI = 4.80, 9.20). Other risk factors were age (adjusted OR=1.17; 95% CI=1.13, 1.21), having less than a college education (adjusted OR = 1.91; 95% CI = 1.40, 2.61), increasing body mass index (adjusted OR=1.03 per unit of increase; 95% CI=1.01, 1.04), smoking (adjusted OR=1.63; 95% CI=1.25, 2.12), and anxiety symptoms at baseline (adjusted OR=3.10; 95% CI=2.33, 4.12). Conclusions. Among the risk factors assessed, vasomotor symptoms were most strongly associated with menopausal status. After adjustment for covariates, symptoms were reported most often in all racial/ethnic groups in late perimenopause and nearly as often in postmenopause. PMID:16735636

  4. How national institutions influence firms' knowledge-building alliance strategies: A longitudinal study of fuel cell technology development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasudeva, Gurneeta

    This study posited knowledge-building alliance strategies as a function of the national institutional environment characterizing the firm's location of innovation. Hypotheses were grounded in two dimensions of institutional theory---the location of authority in a strong state apparatus or statism, and organization of society along communitarian principles or corporatism. Based on their utility in explaining both innovation and collaboration, these institutional dimensions were conceptualized as influencing firms' knowledge-building alliance strategies directly, and by interacting with firm-, dyad- and network-level characteristics such as size, technological achievement, technological distance and social capital. Results showed that corporatism did not contribute to significantly more alliances, though a positive and significant relationship was observed in estimating alliances with research institutions. Similarly, statism was found to be associated with increased alliances with foreign actors. Large, technologically accomplished firms engaged in more alliances across polities, however, smaller, less technologically accomplished firms engaged in greater number of alliances in corporatist polities than associational polities. Technological distance between partners reduced the odds of alliance formation; this relationship, however, was stronger in societal polities than statist polities. Alliances served as a significant mechanism for knowledge spillovers across both polity types. Even though alliance counts did not vary according to the degree of corporatism, the motivation to build on both direct and indirect partners' knowledge did. Firms in associational polities built on their partners' knowledge more successfully than firms from corporatist polities; however, the proportion of knowledge acquired from foreign partners was lower in statist polities. The social capital generated from strong brokerage positions spanned by the firms was associated with greater

  5. Incidence and Mortality Trends in German Women with Breast Cancer Using Age, Period and Cohort 1999 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Berkemeyer, Shoma; Lemke, Dorothea; Hense, Hans Werner

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal analysis investigates period (P), often as years. Additional scales of time are age (A) and birth cohort (C) Aim of our study was to use ecological APC analysis for women breast cancer incidence and mortality in Germany. Nation-wide new cases and deaths were obtained from Robert Koch Institute and female population from federal statistics, 1999–2008. Data was stratified into ten 5-years age-groups starting 20–24 years, ten birth cohorts starting 1939–43, and two calendar periods 1999–2003 and 2004–2008. Annual incidence and mortality were calculated: cases to 100,000 women per year. Data was analyzed using glm and apc packages of R. Breast cancer incidence and mortality increased with age. Secular rise in breast cancer incidence and decline in mortality was observed for period1999-2008. Breast cancer incidence and mortality declined with cohorts; cohorts 1950s showed highest incidence and mortality. Age-cohort best explained incidence and mortality followed by age-period-cohort with overall declining trends. Declining age-cohort mortality could be probable. Declining age-cohort incidence would require future biological explanations or rendered statistical artefact. Cohorts 1949–1958 could be unique in having highest incidence and mortality in recent time or future period associations could emerge relatively stronger to cohort to provide additional explanation of temporal change over cohorts. PMID:26933878

  6. National Patterns of Risk-Standardized Mortality and Readmission for Acute Myocardial Infarction and Heart Failure: Update on Publicly Reported Outcomes Measures Based on the 2010 Release

    PubMed Central

    Bernheim, Susannah M.; Grady, Jacqueline N.; Lin, Zhenqiu; Wang, Yun; Wang, Yongfei; Savage, Shantal V.; Bhat, Kanchana R.; Ross, Joseph S.; Desai, Mayur M.; Merrill, Angela R.; Han, Lein F.; Rapp, Michael T.; Drye, Elizabeth E.; Normand, Sharon-Lise T.; Krumholz, Harlan M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Patient outcomes provide a critical perspective on quality of care. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) is publicly-reporting 30-day risk-standardized mortality rates (RSMRs) and risk-standardized readmission rates (RSRRs) for patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and heart failure (HF). We provide a national perspective on hospital performance for the 2010 release of these measures. Methods and Results The RSMRs and RSRRs are calculated from Medicare claims data for fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries, 65 years or older, hospitalized with AMI or HF between July 1, 2006 and June 30, 2009. The rates are calculated using hierarchical logistic modeling to account for patient clustering, and are risk-adjusted for age, sex and patient comorbidities. The median RSMR for AMI was 16.0% and for HF was 10.8%. Both measures had a wide range of hospital performance with an absolute 5.2% difference between hospitals in the 5th versus 95th percentile for AMI and 5.0% for HF. The median RSRR for AMI was 19.9%, and for HF was 24.5% (3.9% range for 5–95th percentile for AMI, 6.7% for HF). Distinct regional patterns were evident for both measures and both conditions. Conclusions High RSRRs persist for AMI and HF and clinically meaningful variation exists for RSMRs and RSRRs for both conditions. Our results suggest continued opportunities for improvement in patient outcomes for HF and AMI. PMID:20736442

  7. Updated analyses of combined mortality data for workers at the Hanford Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Rocky Flats Weapons Plant.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, E S; Cragle, D L; Wiggs, L D

    1993-12-01

    Updated analyses of mortality data on workers at the Hanford Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Rocky Flats Weapons Plant are presented with the objective of providing a direct assessment of health risks resulting from protracted low-dose exposure to ionizing radiation. For leukemia, the combined excess relative risk estimate was negative (-1.0 per Sv), and confidence limits excluded risks that were more than slightly larger than those forming the basis of ICRP recommendations. For all cancer except leukemia, the excess relative risk estimate was 0.0 per Sv, but confidence limits indicated consistency with estimates several times those forming the basis of ICRP recommendations. Of 24 cancer types tested, 12 showed positive correlations with radiation dose and 12 showed negative correlations, as would be expected by chance fluctuation. Cancer of the esophagus, cancer of the larynx, and Hodgkin's disease showed statistically significant correlations with radiation dose (P < 0.05), but these correlations were interpreted as likely to have resulted from bias or chance fluctuation. Evidence of an increase in the excess relative risk with increasing age at risk was found for all cancer in both Hanford and ORNL, and both populations showed significant correlations of all cancer with radiation dose among those 75 years and older. Although this age effect may have resulted from bias in the data, its presence suggests that risk estimates based on nuclear worker data be interpreted cautiously. PMID:8278584

  8. Pansteatitis of unknown etiology associated with large-scale Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) mortality in Kruger National Park, South Africa: pathologic findings.

    PubMed

    Lane, Emily P; Huchzermeyer, Fritz W; Govender, Danny; Bengis, Roy G; Buss, Peter E; Hofmeyr, Markus; Myburgh, Jan G; Steyl, Johan C A; Pienaar, Daniel J; Kotze, Antoinette

    2013-12-01

    Annual mortality events in Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) in the Olifants River Gorge in Kruger National Park, South Africa, were experienced between 2008 and 2012, during which at least 216 crocodiles died. Live crocodiles were lethargic. Necropsy examination of 56 affected crocodiles showed dark yellow-brown firm nodules in both somatic fat and the abdominal fat body. In all of the 11 crocodiles submitted for histology, degenerative, necrotic, and inflammatory changes supported a diagnosis of steatitis in both fat types. Crocodiles are apex predators in this anthropogenically changed aquatic ecosystem that is used by humans upstream and downstream from the park for domestic, agricultural, fishing, and recreational purposes. This pathologic review of pansteatitis in crocodiles in the Olifants River system was part of a broad multidisciplinary research program. To date, no definitive causative agent has been identified. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that this event may have been a one-time event with long-standing repercussions on the health of the crocodiles. Pathologic findings are rarely documented in wild crocodilians. This study also reports on other conditions, including the presence of coccidian oocysts, capillarid and filaroid nematodes, digenetic trematodes, and pentastomes. PMID:24450048

  9. Beyond lung cancer: a strategic approach to interpreting screening computed tomography scans on the basis of mortality data from the National Lung Screening Trial.

    PubMed

    Chiles, Caroline; Paul, Narinder S

    2013-11-01

    Low-dose computed tomography screening in older patients with a heavy-smoking history can be viewed as an opportunity to screen for smoking-related illnesses and not just for lung cancer. Within the National Lung Screening Trial, 24.1% of all deaths were attributed to lung cancer, but there were significant competing causes of mortality in this patient population. Cardiovascular illness caused 24.8% of deaths. Other neoplasms were listed as the cause of death in 22.3%, and respiratory illness was the cause of death in 10.4%. All of these illnesses might be attributed to smoking. Low-dose computed tomography of the thorax may provide information about these diseases, which could be used to guide therapeutic intervention and, hopefully, alter the courses of these diseases. Information about coronary artery calcification, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and potential extrapulmonary malignancy should be provided in the report of the screening examination. This must be balanced against the risk of the burden of false-positive findings and the costs, both psychological and financial, associated with additional investigative evaluations. PMID:24071622

  10. Mortality rates or sociomedical indicators? The work of the League of Nations on standardizing the effects of the Great Depression on health.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Monica

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the first international effort by the League of Nations Health Organization (LNHO) to standardize the study of the effects of the economic crisis of the 1930s on health. Instead of analysing this effort with the benefit of hindsight, this article takes into account the actors' perspectives and, therefore, it relies on the documents produced by the LNHO and public health experts of the 1930s, as well as on the historical scholarship on this subject. This article shows that, despite the declining death rates in Europe and in the US during the crisis, the LNHO considered that death rates concealed a more subtle effect of the crisis on health; hence, they launched a project aimed at making the effect visible. It describes the LNHO programme and the guidelines and methods set out by the organization in 1932 to observe this subtle effect through sociomedical investigations. The results of these surveys are summarized and the article discusses how the eugenic arguments used to explain them were not accepted by the LNHO. The article also shows how some members of the LNHO considered the results of the sociomedical surveys inconclusive and questioned the usefulness of socioeconomic indicators; in so doing, they raised concerns about the intervention of the LNHO in national matters and about the risks of crossing the established limits between science and politics. This article shows that an historical analysis, which takes into account the points of view of the actors involved, illuminates the factors that led the LNHO to conclude that mortality rates were the best method for measuring the effects of the economic crisis on health and that, as they were declining, the Great Depression was not having any deleterious effect on public health. PMID:23132917

  11. Preventing Infant Mortality: Intergovernmental Dimensions of a National Problem. Joint Hearings and Report on S. 1209: To Establish the National Commission To Prevent Infant Mortality, before the Subcommittee on Intergovernmental Relations of the Committee on Governmental Affairs and the Committee on the Budget. United States Senate, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session (Miami, Florida, September 11, 1985; Pensacola, Florida, October 11, 1985; Washington, D.C., October 31, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs.

    A subcommittee report introduces the subject of these joint hearings--the problem of infant mortality in the United States; addresses the need for the legislation; summarizes the proposed legislation; and lists endorsing organizations. The hearings examine both the scope of the problem and S. 1209, legislation to create a national commission to…

  12. Child Mortality Rate in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Susuman, A Sathiya

    2012-01-01

    Ethiopia’s childhood mortality has continued to decline although at a swift pace. The drop in urban childhood mortality decline, duration of breastfeeding is the principle reason for the overall decline in mortality trends in Ethiopia. Data from the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys 2000 and 2005 were used. Indirect estimation of Brass and Trussell’s methods were adopted. Selected demographic and socio-economic variables were included in the analysis with statistically significant effects. Findings clearly show neonatal and post neonatal mortality decline gradually. Even though, Ethiopia’s childhood mortality rates are still high. The result shows less than 2 years birth interval have higher infant mortality rates than higher birth interval (113 deaths per 1000). The proper spacing of births allows more time for childcare to make more maternal resources available for the care of the child and mother. Therefore, further research is urgent for regional level and national level investigation. PMID:23113145

  13. Predictive Validity of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Pooled Cohort Equations in Predicting All-Cause and Cardiovascular Disease-Specific Mortality in a National Prospective Cohort Study of Adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Addoh, Ovuokerie

    2016-06-01

    The predictive validity of the Pooled Cohort risk (PCR) equations for cardiovascular disease (CVD)-specific and all-cause mortality among a national sample of US adults has yet to be evaluated, which was this study's purpose. Data from the 1999-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used, with participants followed up through December 31, 2011, to ascertain mortality status via the National Death Index probabilistic algorithm. The analyzed sample included 11,171 CVD-free adults (40-79 years of age). The 10-year risk of a first atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) event was determined from the PCR equations. For the entire sample encompassing 849,202 person-months, we found an incidence rate of 1.00 (95% CI, 0.93-1.07) all-cause deaths per 1000 person-months and an incidence rate of 0.15 (95% CI, 0.12-0.17) CVD-specific deaths per 1000 person-months. The unweighted median follow-up duration was 72 months. For nearly all analyses (unadjusted and adjusted models with ASCVD expressed as a continuous variable as well as dichotomized at 7.5% and 20%), the ASCVD risk score was significantly associated with all-cause and CVD-specific mortality (P<.05). In the adjusted model, the increased all-cause mortality risk ranged from 47% to 77% based on an ASCVD risk of 20% or higher and 7.5% or higher, respectively. Those with an ASCVD score of 7.5% or higher had a 3-fold increased risk of CVD-specific mortality. The 10-year predicted risk of a first ASCVD event via the PCR equations was associated with all-cause and CVD-specific mortality among those free of CVD at baseline. In this American adult sample, the PCR equations provide evidence of predictive validity. PMID:27180122

  14. Occupational class and ischemic heart disease mortality in the United States and 11 European countries.

    PubMed Central

    Kunst, A E; Groenhof, F; Andersen, O; Borgan, J K; Costa, G; Desplanques, G; Filakti, H; Giraldes, M do R; Faggiano, F; Harding, S; Junker, C; Martikainen, P; Minder, C; Nolan, B; Pagnanelli, F; Regidor, E; Vågerö, D; Valkonen, T; Mackenbach, J P

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Twelve countries were compared with respect to occupational class differences in ischemic heart disease mortality in order to identify factors that are associated with smaller or larger mortality differences. METHODS: Data on mortality by occupational class among men aged 30 to 64 years were obtained from national longitudinal or cross-sectional studies for the 1980s. A common occupational class scheme was applied to most countries. Potential effects of the main data problems were evaluated quantitatively. RESULTS: A north-south contrast existed within Europe. In England and Wales, Ireland, and Nordic countries, manual classes had higher mortality rates than nonmanual classes. In France, Switzerland, and Mediterranean countries, manual classes had mortality rates as low as, or lower than, those among nonmanual classes. Compared with Northern Europe, mortality differences in the United States were smaller (among men aged 30-44 years) or about as large (among men aged 45-64 years). CONCLUSIONS: The results underline the highly variable nature of socioeconomic inequalities in ischemic heart disease mortality. These inequalities appear to be highly sensitive to social gradients in behavioral risk factors. These risk factor gradients are determined by cultural as well as socioeconomic developments. PMID:9987464

  15. Increasing Area Deprivation and Socioeconomic Inequalities in Heart Disease, Stroke, and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality Among Working Age Populations, United States, 1969-2011

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gopal K.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Azuine, Romuladus E.; Williams, Shanita D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: We examined the extent to which area- and individual-level socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular-disease (CVD), heart disease, and stroke mortality among United States men and women aged 25-64 years changed between 1969 and 2011. Methods: National vital statistics data and the National Longitudinal Mortality Study were used to estimate area- and individual-level socioeconomic gradients in mortality over time. Rate ratios and log-linear and Cox regression were used to model mortality trends and differentials. Results: Area socioeconomic gradients in mortality from CVD, heart disease, and stroke increased substantially during the study period. Compared to those in the most affluent group, individuals in the most deprived area group had, respectively 35%, 29%, and 73% higher CVD, heart disease, and stroke mortality in 1969, but 120-121% higher mortality in 2007-2011. Gradients were steeper for women than for men. Education, income, and occupation were inversely associated with CVD, heart disease, and stroke mortality, with individual-level socioeconomic gradients being steeper during 1990-2002 than in 1979-1989. Individuals with low education and incomes had 2.7 to 3.7 times higher CVD, heart disease, and stroke mortality risks than their counterparts with high education and income levels. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Although mortality declined for all US groups during 1969-2011, socioeconomic disparities in mortality from CVD, heart disease and stroke remained marked and increased over time because of faster declines in mortality among higher socioeconomic groups. Widening disparities in mortality may reflect increasing temporal areal inequalities in living conditions, behavioral risk factors such as smoking, obesity and physical inactivity, and access to and use of health services. With social inequalities and prevalence of smoking, obesity, and physical inactivity on the rise, most segments of the working-age population in low

  16. Mortality Risks Among Persons Reporting Same-Sex Sexual Partners: Evidence From the 2008 General Social Survey—National Death Index Data Set

    PubMed Central

    Mays, Vickie M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the possibility that men who have sex with men (MSM) and women who have sex with women (WSW) may be at higher risk for early mortality associated with suicide and other sexual orientation–associated health risks. Methods. We used data from the 1988–2002 General Social Surveys, with respondents followed up for mortality status as of December 31, 2008. The surveys included 17 886 persons aged 18 years or older, who reported at least 1 lifetime sexual partner. Of these, 853 reported any same-sex partners; 17 033 reported only different-sex partners. Using gender-stratified analyses, we compared these 2 groups for all-cause mortality and HIV-, suicide-, and breast cancer–related mortality. Results. The WSW evidenced greater risk for suicide mortality than presumptively heterosexual women, but there was no evidence of similar sexual orientation–associated risk among men. All-cause mortality did not appear to differ by sexual orientation among either women or men. HIV-related deaths were not elevated among MSM or breast cancer deaths among WSW. Conclusions. The elevated suicide mortality risk observed among WSW partially confirms public health concerns that sexual minorities experience greater burden from suicide-related mortality. PMID:25033136

  17. Comparing health inequality in men and women: prospective study of mortality 1986-96

    PubMed Central

    Sacker, Amanda; Firth, David; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Lynch, Kevin; Bartley, Mel

    2000-01-01

    Objectives To study prospectively the differences in health inequality in men and women from 1986-96 using the Office for National Statistics' longitudinal study and new socioeconomic classification. To assess the relative importance of social class (based on employment characteristics) and social position according to the general social advantage of the household to mortality risk in men and women. Design Prospective study. Setting England and Wales. Subjects Men and women of working age at the time of the 1981 census, with a recorded occupation. Main outcome measures Mortality. Results In men, social class based on employment relations, measured according to the Office for National Statistics' socioeconomic classification, was the most important influence on mortality. In women, social class based on individual employment relations and conditions showed only a weak gradient. Large differences in risk of mortality in women were found, however, when social position was measured according to the general social advantage in the household. Conclusions Comparisons of the extent of health inequality in men and women are affected by the measures of social inequality used. For women, even those in paid work, classifications based on characteristics of the employment situation may give a considerable underestimate. The Office for National Statistics' new measure of socioeconomic position is useful for assessing health inequality in men, but in women a more important predictor of mortality is inequality in general social advantage of the household. PMID:10807620

  18. Depressive Symptoms and SES among the Mid-Aged and Elderly in China: Evidence from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study National Baseline

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Xiaoyan; Sun, Xiaoting; Zhang, Peng; Zhao, Yaohui

    2015-01-01

    We examine the prevalence of depressive symptoms among the mid-aged and elderly in China and examine relationships between depression and current SES factors such as gender, age, education and income (per capita expenditures). In addition, we explore associations of depressive symptoms with measures of early childhood health, recent family deaths and current chronic health conditions. We use data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) national baseline, fielded in 2011/12, which contains the ten question version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D) for 17,343 respondents aged 45 and older. We fill a major gap by using the CHARLS data to explore the general patterns of depression and risk factors among the Chinese elderly nationwide, which has never been possible before. We find that depressive symptoms are significantly associated with own education and per capita expenditure, and the associations are robust to the inclusion of highly disaggregated community fixed effects and to the addition of several other risk factors. Factors such as good general health during childhood are negatively associated with later depression. There exist strong gender differences, with females having higher depression scores. Being a recent widow or widower is associated with more depressive symptoms, as is having a series of chronic health problems, notably having moderate or severe pain, disability or problems with measures of physical functioning. Adding the chronic health problems to the specification greatly reduces the SES associations with depressive symptoms, suggesting that part of the pathways behind these associations are through these chronic health factors. PMID:25261616

  19. Depression, Stressful Life Events, and the Impact of Variation in the Serotonin Transporter: Findings from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health)

    PubMed Central

    Haberstick, Brett C.; Boardman, Jason D.; Wagner, Brandon; Smolen, Andrew; Hewitt, John K.; Killeya-Jones, Ley A.; Tabor, Joyce; Halpern, Carolyn T.; Brummett, Beverly H.; Williams, Redford B.; Siegler, Ilene C.; Hopfer, Christian J.; Mullan Harris, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Background The low transcriptionally efficient short-allele of the 5HTTLPR serotonin transporter polymorphism has been implicated to moderate the relationship between the experience of stressful life events (SLEs) and depression. Despite numerous attempts at replicating this observation, results remain inconclusive. Methods We examined this relationship in young-adult Non-Hispanic white males and females between the ages of 22 and 26 (n = 4724) participating in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) with follow-up information every six years since 1995. Results Linear and logistic regression models, corrected for multiple testing, indicated that carriers of one or more of the S-alleles were more sensitive to stress than those with two L-alleles and at a higher risk for depression. This relationship behaved in a dose-response manner such that the risk for depression was greatest among those who reported experiencing higher numbers of SLEs. In post-hoc analyses we were not able to replicate an interaction effect for suicide ideation but did find suggestive evidence that the effects of SLEs and 5HTTLPR on suicide ideation differed for males and females. There were no effects of childhood maltreatment. Discussion Our results provide partial support for the original hypothesis that 5-HTTLPR genotype interacts with the experience of stressful life events in the etiology of depression during young adulthood. However, even with this large sample, and a carefully constructed a priori analysis plan, the results were still not definitive. For the purposes of replication, characterizing the 5HTTLPR in other large data sets with extensive environmental and depression measures is needed. PMID:26938215

  20. ST-segment depression on the initial electrocardiogram in acute myocardial infarction-prognostic significance and its effect on short-term mortality: A report from the National Registry of Myocardial Infarction (NRMI-2, 3, 4).

    PubMed

    Pitta, Sridevi R; Grzybowski, Mary; Welch, Robert D; Frederick, Paul D; Wahl, Robert; Zalenski, Robert J

    2005-04-01

    This study analyzed 255,256 patients who had acute myocardial infarction and were enrolled in the National Registry of Myocardial Infarction 2, 3, and 4 (1994 to 2002). The objective was to determine in-hospital mortality rate among patients who had ST-segment depression on the initial electrocardiogram. Patients who had ST-segment depression had an in-hospital mortality rate (15.8%) similar to that of patients who had ST-segment elevation or left bundle branch block (15.5%). After adjusting for observed differences, ST-segment depression was associated with only a slightly lower odds ratio (0.91) of mortality compared with ST-segment elevation or left bundle branch block. PMID:15781012

  1. Mortality rates decline in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    1991-11-01

    Experiencing remarkable decreases in mortality rates over the past 3 decades, Malaysia currently has one of the lowest mortality rates among developing countries, a rate that compares favorably with those of developed countries. Between 1957 and 1989, the crude death rate dropped from 12.4/1000 population to 4.6. Over the same period, Malaysia recorded even greater decreases in the infant mortality rate, from 75.5/1000 births to 15.2. The Maternal mortality rate also declined from 1.48 in 1970 to 0.24 in 1988. The data indicates that mortality rates vary from state to state, and that rural areas have a higher mortality than urban areas. According to a study by the National Population and Family Development Board, the use of maternal and child health services has played an important role in reducing neonatal, perinatal, infant, child, and maternal mortality rates. Nearly all women in Malaysia receive antenatal services. While the country has achieved great gains on mortality rates, programs focusing on specific age and socioeconomic groups could lead to even greater reductions. The Minister for National Unity and Social Development, Dato Napsiah Omar, has called for the development of programs designed to improve the population's quality of life. PMID:12284509

  2. The Association between IQ in Adolescence and a Range of Health Outcomes at 40 in the 1979 US National Longitudinal Study of Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Der, Geoff; Batty, G. David; Deary, Ian J.

    2009-01-01

    A link between pre-morbid intelligence and all cause mortality is becoming well established, but the aetiology of the association is not understood. Less is known about links with cause specific mortality and with morbidity. The aim of this study is to examine the association between intelligence measured in adolescence and a broad range of health…

  3. Early Mortality Was Highly and Strongly Associated with Functional Status in Incident Japanese Hemodialysis Patients: A Cohort Study of the Large National Dialysis Registry

    PubMed Central

    Ohira, Seiji; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Tsubakihara, Yoshiharu

    2016-01-01

    Background Although dialysis is typically started in an effort to prolong survival, mortality is reportedly high in the first few months. However, it remains unclear whether this is true in Japanese patients who tend to have a better prognosis than other ethnicities, and if health conditions such as functional status (FS) at initiation of dialysis influence prognosis. Methods We investigated the epidemiology of early death and its association with FS using Japanese national registry data in 2007, which included 35,415 patients on incident dialysis and 7,664 with FS data. The main outcome was early death, defined as death within 3 months after initiation of hemodialysis (HD). The main predictor was FS at initiation of HD. Levels of functional disability were categorized as follows: severe (bedridden), moderate (overt difficulties in exerting basic activities of daily living), or mild/none (none or some functional disabilities). Results Early death remained relatively common, especially among elderly patients (overall: 7.1%; those aged ≥80 years: 15.8%). Severely and even only a moderately impaired FS were significantly associated with early death after starting dialysis (adjusted risk ratios: 3.93 and 2.38, respectively). The incidence of early death in those with impaired FS increased with age (36.5% in those with severely impaired FS and aged ≥80 years). Conclusions Early death after starting dialysis was relatively common, especially among the elderly, even in Japanese patients. Further, early death was significantly associated with impaired FS at initiation of HD. PMID:27270615

  4. Pre- and Postdiagnosis Physical Activity, Television Viewing, and Mortality Among Patients With Colorectal Cancer in the National Institutes of Health–AARP Diet and Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Arem, Hannah; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Engels, Eric A.; Alfano, Catherine M.; Hollenbeck, Albert; Park, Yikyung; Matthews, Charles E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Physical inactivity has been associated with higher mortality risk among survivors of colorectal cancer (CRC), but the independent effects of pre- versus postdiagnosis activity are unclear, and the association between watching television (TV) and mortality in survivors of CRC is previously undefined. Methods We analyzed the associations between prediagnosis (n = 3,797) and postdiagnosis (n = 1,759) leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and TV watching and overall and disease-specific mortality among patients with CRC. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs, adjusting for known mortality risk factors. Results Comparing survivors of CRC reporting more than 7 hours per week (h/wk) of prediagnosis LTPA with those reporting no LTPA, we found a 20% lower risk of all-cause mortality (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.68 to 0.95; P for trend = .021). Postdiagnosis LTPA of ≥ 7 h/wk, compared with none, was associated with a 31% lower all-cause mortality risk (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.49 to 0.98; P for trend = .006), independent of prediagnosis activity. Compared with 0 to 2 TV hours per day (h/d) before diagnosis, those reporting ≥ 5 h/d of TV before diagnosis had a 22% increased all-cause mortality risk (HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.41; P trend = .002), and more postdiagnosis TV watching was associated with a nonsignificant 25% increase in all-cause mortality risk (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 0.93 to 1.67; P for trend = .126). Conclusion LTPA was inversely associated with all-cause mortality, whereas more TV watching was associated with increased mortality risk. For both LTPA and TV watching, postdiagnosis measures independently explained the association with mortality. Clinicians should promote both minimizing TV time and increasing physical activity for longevity among survivors of CRC, regardless of previous behaviors. PMID:25488967

  5. Health impact of the 2008 cold spell on mortality in subtropical China: the climate and health impact national assessment study (CHINAs)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many studies have investigated heat wave related mortality, but less attention has been given to the health effects of cold spells in the context of global warming. The 2008 cold spell in China provided a unique opportunity to estimate the effects of the 2008 cold spell on mortality in subtropical regions, spatial heterogeneity of the effects, stratification effect and added effects caused by sustained cold days. Methods Thirty-six study communities were selected from 15 provinces in subtropical China. Daily mortality and meteorological data were collected for each community from 2006 to 2010. A distributed lag linear non-linear model (DLNM) with a lag structure of up to 27 days was used to analyze the association between the 2008 cold spell and mortality. Multivariate meta-analyses were used to combine the cold effects across each community. Results The 2008 cold spell increased mortality by 43.8% (95% CI: 34.8% ~ 53.4%) compared to non-cold spell days with the highest effects in southern and central China. The effects were more pronounced for respiratory mortality (RESP) than for cardiovascular (CVD) or cerebrovascular mortality (CBD), for females more than for males, and for the elderly aged ≥75 years old more than for younger people. Overall, 148,279 excess deaths were attributable to the 2008 cold spell. The cold effect was mainly from extreme low temperatures rather than sustained cold days during this 2008 cold spell. Conclusions The 2008 cold spell increased mortality in subtropical China, which was mainly attributable to the low temperature rather than the sustained duration of the cold spell. The cold effects were spatially heterogeneous and modified by individual-specific characteristics such as gender and age. PMID:25060645

  6. Mortality and development revisited.

    PubMed

    Preston, S H

    1985-01-01

    This paper attempts to update results reported in 2 earlier papers about the role of socioeconomic factors in worldwide mortality declines since the 1930s. Preston (1975) demonstrated that the relationship between life expectancy at birth and per capita income (in constant dollars) had shifted between the 1930s and the 1960s. A country at a particular level of national income per capita was estimated to have a level of life expectancy at birth that was, on average, 9.7 years higher in the 1960s than it would have been in the 1930s at the same level of income. That shift clearly was attributable to factors other than measured income gains. To identify the contribution of advances in literacy and nutrition to the apparent shift, Preston (1980) added those variables to income in regression equations estimated with data on 36 countries around 1940 and 120 countries around 1970. For the less developed countries (LDCs), the shift in the relationship between 1940-70 was estimated to be 8.8 years after those variables were introduced along with income. Thus, literacy and nutritional gains were responsible for relatively little of the shift. The goal here is to estimate the amount of shift in the relation between mortality and other development indicators during the 1965-69 to 1975-79 period. The focus is on the 70% of the developing world (exclude China) where, in the aggregate, there are indications of a slowdown in the pace of mortality change during the 1960s and the early 1970s. In all cases a mortality indicator was used as the dependent variable in a cross-national regression analysis that includes data from LDCs and from developed countries. Also, in all cases, the set of independent variables included some transformation of the following: the percentage of adults who were literate, gross domestic product per capita in constant dollars, and the excess of per capita daily calories supplied above 1500. Data were drawn from the standard UN, UNESCO, and World Bank

  7. Relationship of Self-Rated Health to Stroke Incidence and Mortality in Older Individuals with and without a History of Stroke: A Longitudinal Study of the MRC Cognitive Function and Ageing (CFAS) Population

    PubMed Central

    Mavaddat, Nahal; van der Linde, Rianne; Parker, Richard; Savva, George; Kinmonth, Ann Louise; Brayne, Carol; Mant, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Poor self-rated health (SRH) has been associated with increased risk of death and poor health outcomes even after adjusting for confounders. However its’ relationship with disease-specific mortality and morbidity has been less studied. SRH may also be particularly predictive of health outcomes in those with pre-existing conditions. We studied whether SRH predicts new stroke in older people who have never had a stroke, or a recurrence in those with a prior history of stroke. Methods MRC CFAS I is a multicentre cohort study of a population representative sample of people in their 65th year and older. A comprehensive interview at baseline included questions about presence of stroke, self-rated health and functional disability. Follow-up at 2 years included self-report of stroke and stroke death obtained from death certificates. Multiple logistical regression determined odds of stroke at 2 years adjusting for confounders including disability and health behaviours. Survival analysis was performed until June 2014 with follow-up for up to 13 years. Results 11,957 participants were included, of whom 11,181 (93.8%) had no history of stroke and 776 (6.2%) one or more previous strokes. Fewer with no history of stroke reported poor SRH than those with stroke (5 versus 21%). In those with no history of stroke, poor self-rated health predicted stroke incidence (OR 1.5 (1.1–1.9)), but not stroke mortality (OR 1.2 (0.8–1.9)) at 2 years nor for up to 13 years (OR 1.2(0.9–1.7)). In those with a history of stroke, self-rated health did not predict stroke incidence (OR 0.9(0.6–1.4)), stroke mortality (OR 1.1(0.5–2.5)), or survival (OR 1.1(0.6–2.1)). Conclusions Poor self-rated health predicts risk of stroke at 2 years but not stroke mortality among the older population without a previous history of stroke. SRH may be helpful in predicting who may be at risk of developing a stroke in the near future. PMID:26928666

  8. Mortal assets

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, Geoffrey R.; Zablotska, Lydia B.; Fix, John J.; Egel, John N.; Buchanan, Jeffrey A.

    2005-11-01

    Workers employed in 15 utilities that generate nuclear power in the United States have been followed for up to 18 years between 1979 and 1997. Their cumulative dose from whole-body ionizing radiation has been determined from the dose records maintained by the facilities themselves and the REIRS and REMS systems maintained by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Department of Energy, respectively. Mortality in the cohort from a number of causes has been analyzed with respect to individual radiation doses. The cohort displays a very substantial healthy worker effect, i.e. considerably lower cancer and noncancer mortality than the general population. Based on 26 and 368 deaths, respectively, positive though statistically nonsignificant associations were seen for mortality from leukemia (excluding chronic lymphocytic leukemia) and all solid cancers combined, with excess relative risks per sievert of 5.67 (95% confidence interval (CI) -2.56, 30.4) and 0.596 (95% CI -2.01, 4.64), respectively. These estimates are very similar to those from the atomic bomb survivors study, though the wide confidence intervals are also consistent with lower or higher risk estimates. A strong positive and statistically significant association between radiation dose and deaths from arteriosclerotic heart disease including coronary heart disease was also observed in the cohort, with an ERR of 8.78 (95% CI 2.10, 20.0). Whle associations with heart disease have been reported in some other occupational studies, the magnitude of the present association is not consistent with them and therefore needs cautious interpretation and merits further attention. At present, the relatively small number of deaths and the young age of the cohort (mean age at end of follow-up is 45 years) limit the power of the study, but further follow-up is 45 years) limit the power of the study, but further follow-up and the inclusion of the present data in an ongoing IARC combined analysis of nuclear workers from 15

  9. Do Weight Status and Television-Viewing Influence Children’s Subsequent Dietary Changes? A National Longitudinal Study in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hsin-Jen; Wang, Youfa

    2015-01-01

    Objective It is unknown how children’s dietary changes would vary by overweight/obese status and length of TV-viewing. This study examined whether US children’s weight status and TV-viewing duration influenced their subsequent dietary behavioral changes. Methods A national representative sample of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study – Kindergarten Cohort were followed between 5th and 8th grades during 2004–2007 (N=7,720). Children’s daily TV-viewing hour and weight status were measured at 5th grade. Children reported their dietary behaviors at the 5th and 8th grades, including fruit/vegetable consumption ≥5 times/day (five-a-day), daily fast food and soft drink consumption. Logistic models were used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) of dietary behavioral changes by children’s baseline weight status and TV-viewing duration. Gender and race/ethnicity differences in the ORs were examined. Sampling weight and design effect were considered for the analysis. Results Among those without five-a-day at 5th grade, overweight/obese children were more likely to develop the five-a-day behavior at 8th grade than normal weight children (for overweight: OR=1.65, 95% CI=1.14-2.39; obese: OR=1.35, 95% CI=0.81-2.23). Among girls, overweight group was more likely to develop eating vegetable ≥3 times/day than normal weight group, but 1 more hour/day of TV-viewing at baseline was associated with lower odds of developing eating vegetable ≥3 times/day. Overweight/obese black and Hispanic children were significantly more likely to develop five-a-day than their normal weight counterparts. TV-viewing did not show modification effect on the association between weight status and subsequent dietary changes. Conclusions Overweight/obese children were more likely to improve their subsequent FV consumption than normal weight children, but TV-viewing’s independent relationship with dietary changes may counteract the weight status-associated dietary improvement. PMID:25666531

  10. Risk of spinal cord injury in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy and ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament: a national cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Fu; Tu, Tsung-Hsi; Chen, Yu-Chun; Wu, Jau-Ching; Chang, Peng-Yuan; Liu, Laura; Huang, Wen-Cheng; Lo, Su-Shun; Cheng, Henrich

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE This study aimed to estimate the risk of spinal cord injury (SCI) in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) with and without ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL). Also, the study compared the incidence rates of SCI in patients who were managed surgically and conservatively. METHODS This retrospective cohort study covering 15 years analyzed the incidence of SCI in patients with CSM. All patients, identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database, were hospitalized with the diagnosis of CSM and followed up during the study period. These patients with CSM were categorized into 4 groups according to whether they had OPLL or not and whether they received surgery or not: 1) surgically managed CSM without OPLL; 2) conservatively managed CSM without OPLL; 3) surgically managed CSM with OPLL; and 4) conservatively managed CSM with OPLL. The incidence rates of subsequent SCI in each group during follow-up were then compared. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were performed to compare the risk of SCI between the groups. RESULTS Between January 1, 1999, and December 31, 2013, there were 17,258 patients with CSM who were followed up for 89,003.78 person-years. The overall incidence of SCI in these patients with CSM was 2.022 per 1000 person-years. Patients who had CSM with OPLL and were conservatively managed had the highest incidence of SCI, at 4.11 per 1000 person-years. Patients who had CSM with OPLL and were surgically managed had a lower incidence of SCI, at 3.69 per 1000 person-years. Patients who had CSM without OPLL and were conservatively managed had an even lower incidence of SCI, at 2.41 per 1000 person-years. Patients who had CSM without OPLL and were surgically managed had the lowest incidence of SCI, at 1.31 per 1000 person-years. The Cox regression model demonstrated that SCIs are significantly more likely to happen in male patients and in those with OPLL (HR 2.00 and 2.24, p < 0.001 and p = 0

  11. How Possibly Do Leisure and Social Activities Impact Mental Health of Middle-Aged Adults in Japan?: An Evidence from a National Longitudinal Survey

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Fumi; Noguchi, Haruko; Monma, Takafumi; Tamiya, Nanako

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to investigate longitudinal relations between leisure and social activities and mental health status, considering the presence or absence of other persons in the activity as an additional variable, among middle-aged adults in Japan. This study used nationally representative data in Japan with a five-year follow-up period. Methods This study focused on 16,642 middle-aged adults, age 50–59 at baseline, from a population-based, six-year panel survey conducted by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. To investigate the relations between two leisure activities (‘hobbies or cultural activities’ and ‘exercise or sports’) and four social activities (‘community events’, ‘support for children’, ‘support for elderly individuals’ and ‘other social activities’) at baseline and mental health status at follow-up, multiple logistic regression analysis was used. We also used multiple logistic regression analysis to investigate the association between ways of participating in these activities (‘by oneself’, ‘with others’, or ‘both’ (both ‘by oneself’ and ‘with others’)) at baseline and mental health status at follow-up. Results Involvement in both leisure activity categories, but not in social activities, was significantly and positively related to mental health status in both men and women. Furthermore, in men, both ‘hobbies or cultural activities’ and ‘exercise or sports’ were significantly related to mental health status only when conducted ‘with others’. In women, the effects of ‘hobbies or cultural activities’ on mental health status were no differences regardless of the ways of participating, while the result of ‘exercise or sports’ was same as that in men. Conclusions Leisure activities appear to benefit mental health status among this age group, whereas specific social activities do not. Moreover, participation in leisure activities would be effective especially if

  12. Positive Affect Is Inversely Associated with Mortality in Individuals without Depression

    PubMed Central

    Martín-María, Natalia; Caballero, Francisco Félix; Olaya, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Haro, Josep Maria; Miret, Marta; Ayuso-Mateos, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Some studies have analyzed the relation between well-being and mortality but none of them have attempted to disentangle the differential influence that positive affect, negative affect, and evaluative well-being might have on mortality using a longitudinal design in the general population and measuring independently and accurately each component of well-being. The aim of the present study is to assess the association of these well-being components with mortality after adjusting for health and other lifestyle factors and to analyze whether this association is different in people with and without depression. Methods: A nationally representative sample of 4753 people from Spain was followed up after 3 years. Analyses were performed with Cox regression models among the total sample and separately in people with and without depression. Results: In the analyses adjusted for age, sex, and years of education, all three well-being variables showed separately a statistically significant association with mortality. However, after adjustment for health status and other confounders including the other well-being components, only positive affect remained as marginally associated with a decreased risk of mortality in the overall sample [HR = 0.87; 95% CI = 0.73–1.03], in particular among individuals without depression [HR = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.68–0.99]. Conclusion: Positive affect is inversely associated with mortality in individuals without depression. Future research should focus on assessing interventions associated with a higher level of positive affect. PMID:27462289

  13. Nonhunting mortality in sandhill cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Windingstad, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    Records of 170 sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) necropsied at the National Wildlife Health Research Center, Wisconsin, from 1976 through 1985 were reviewed as representative samples to determine causes of nonhunting mortality in the mid-continent and Rocky Mountain populations of sandhill cranes. Avian cholera, avian botulism, and ingestion of mycotoxins were leading causes of nonhunting mortality. Hailstorms, lightning, lead poisoning, predation, avian tuberculosis, and collisions with power lines also killed cranes.

  14. Reliability Of A Surgeon-Reported Morbidity And Mortality Database: A Comparison Of Short-Term Morbidity Between The Scoliosis Research Society And National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Databases

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Christopher T.; Pugely, Andrew J.; Gao, Yubo; Skovrlj, Branko; Lee, Nathan J.; Cho, Samuel K.; Mendoza-Lattes, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Background There exists a lack of comparison between large national healthcare databases reporting surgical morbidity and mortality. Prior authors have expressed concern that the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) membership may have underreported complications in spinal surgery. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to compare the incidence of morbidity between the SRS and National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) databases. Methods We reviewed patients enrolled between 2012 and 2013, with a total of 96,875 patients identified in the SRS dataset and 15,909 in the combined adult and pediatric NSQIP dataset. Patients were matched based on diagnostic category,and a univariate analysis was used to compare reported complication rates in the categories of perioperative infection, neurologic injury, and mortality. The SRS database only requires detailed demographic data reporting on patients that have had a complication event. We compared the demographics and comorbidities of this subgroup, and used this as a surrogate to assess the potential magnitude of confounders. Results Small differences existed between the SRS and NSQIP databases in terms of mortality (0.1% v. 0.2%), infection (1.2% v. 2%), and neurologic injury (0.8% v. 0.1%) (p<0.001 for each comparison). Infection rates were consistently lower across multiple diagnostic sub-categories in the SRS database, whereas neurologic injury rates were consistently lower in the NSQIP database. These differences reached statistical significance across several diagnostic subcategories, but the clinical magnitude of the differences was small. Amongst the patients with a complication, modest differences in comorbidities existed between the two cohorts. Conclusion Overall, the incidence of short-term morbidity and mortality was similar between the two databases. There were modest differences in comorbidities, which may explain the small differences observed in morbidity. Concerns regarding possible under

  15. Reducing Infant Mortality. KIDS COUNT Indicator Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Rima; Shore, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Despite the wide range of expertise that has been brought to bear on reducing infant mortality across the nation, the first year of life remains a time of considerable risk for many babies. Although the U.S. spends more on health care than any other country, its infant mortality rate remains higher than that of most other industrialized nations.…

  16. Age- and Sex-Specific Trends in Lung Cancer Mortality over 62 Years in a Nation with a Low Effort in Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    John, Ulrich; Hanke, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Background: A decrease in lung cancer mortality among females below 50 years of age has been reported for countries with significant tobacco control efforts. The aim of this study was to describe the lung cancer deaths, including the mortality rates and proportions among total deaths, for females and males by age at death in a country with a high smoking prevalence (Germany) over a time period of 62 years. Methods: The vital statistics data were analyzed using a joinpoint regression analysis stratified by age and sex. An age-period-cohort analysis was used to estimate the potential effects of sex and school education on mortality. Results: After an increase, lung cancer mortality among women aged 35–44 years remained stable from 1989 to 2009 and decreased by 10.8% per year from 2009 to 2013. Conclusions: Lung cancer mortality among females aged 35–44 years has decreased. The potential reasons include an increase in the number of never smokers, following significant increases in school education since 1950, particularly among females. PMID:27023582

  17. Global, regional, and national levels of neonatal, infant, and under-5 mortality during 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haidong; Liddell, Chelsea A; Coates, Matthew M; Mooney, Meghan D; Levitz, Carly E; Schumacher, Austin E; Apfel, Henry; Iannarone, Marissa; Phillips, Bryan; Lofgren, Katherine T; Sandar, Logan; Dorrington, Rob E; Rakovac, Ivo; Jacobs, Troy A; Liang, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Maigeng; Zhu, Jun; Yang, Gonghuan; Wang, Yanping; Liu, Shiwei; Li, Yichong; Ozgoren, Ayse Abbasoglu; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Achoki, Tom; Adelekan, Ademola; Ademi, Zanfina; Alemu, Zewdie Aderaw; Allen, Peter J; AlMazroa, Mohammad AbdulAziz; Alvarez, Elena; Amankwaa, Adansi A; Amare, Azmeraw T; Ammar, Walid; Anwari, Palwasha; Cunningham, Solveig Argeseanu; Asad, Majed Masoud; Assadi, Reza; Banerjee, Amitava; Basu, Sanjay; Bedi, Neeraj; Bekele, Tolesa; Bell, Michelle L; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Blore, Jed; Basara, Berrak Bora; Boufous, Soufiane; Breitborde, Nicholas; Bruce, Nigel G; Bui, Linh Ngoc; Carapetis, Jonathan R; Cárdenas, Rosario; Carpenter, David O; Caso, Valeria; Castro, Ruben Estanislao; Catalá-Lopéz, Ferrán; Cavlin, Alanur; Che, Xuan; Chiang, Peggy Pei-Chia; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Christophi, Costas A; Chuang, Ting-Wu; Cirillo, Massimo; Leite, Iuri da Costa; Courville, Karen J; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; Davis, Adrian; Dayama, Anand; Deribe, Kebede; Dharmaratne, Samath D; Dherani, Mukesh K; Dilmen, Uğur; Ding, Eric L; Edmond, Karen M; Ermakov, Sergei Petrovich; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fijabi, Daniel Obadare; Foigt, Nataliya; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Garcia, Ana C; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Gessner, Bradford D; Goginashvili, Ketevan; Gona, Philimon; Goto, Atsushi; Gouda, Hebe N; Green, Mark A; Greenwell, Karen Fern; Gugnani, Harish Chander; Gupta, Rahul; Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi; Hammami, Mouhanad; Harb, Hilda L; Hay, Simon; Hedayati, Mohammad T; Hosgood, H Dean; Hoy, Damian G; Idrisov, Bulat T; Islami, Farhad; Ismayilova, Samaya; Jha, Vivekanand; Jiang, Guohong; Jonas, Jost B; Juel, Knud; Kabagambe, Edmond Kato; Kazi, Dhruv S; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Kereselidze, Maia; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khalifa, Shams Eldin Ali Hassan; Khang, Young-Ho; Kim, Daniel; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kinge, Jonas M; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kosen, Soewarta; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Kumar, G Anil; Kumar, Kaushalendra; Kumar, Ravi B; Lai, Taavi; Lan, Qing; Larsson, Anders; Lee, Jong-Tae; Leinsalu, Mall; Lim, Stephen S; Lipshultz, Steven E; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Lotufo, Paulo A; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Lyons, Ronan Anthony; Ma, Stefan; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Marzan, Melvin Barrientos; Mashal, Mohammad Taufiq; Mazorodze, Tasara T; McGrath, John J; Memish, Ziad A; Mendoza, Walter; Mensah, George A; Meretoja, Atte; Miller, Ted R; Mills, Edward J; Mohammad, Karzan Abdulmuhsin; Mokdad, Ali H; Monasta, Lorenzo; Montico, Marcella; Moore, Ami R; Moschandreas, Joanna; Msemburi, William T; Mueller, Ulrich O; Muszynska, Magdalena M; Naghavi, Mohsen; Naidoo, Kovin S; Narayan, KM Venkat; Nejjari, Chakib; Ng, Marie; Ngirabega, Jean de Dieu; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Nyakarahuka, Luke; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Omer, Saad B; Caicedo, Angel J Paternina; Wyk, Victoria Pillay-van; Pope, Dan; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Rahman, Sajjad UR; Rana, Saleem M; Reilly, Robert Quentin; Rojas-Rueda, David; Ronfani, Luca; Rushton, Lesley; Saeedi, Mohammad Yahya; Salomon, Joshua; Sampson, Uchechukwu; Santos, Itamar S; Sawhney, Monika; Schmidt, Jürgen C; Nazarova, Marina Shakh; She, Jun; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Shibuya, Kenji; Shin, Hwashin Hyun; Shishani, Kawkab; Shiue, Ivy; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Singh, Jasvinder A; Skirbekk, Vegard; Sliwa, Karen; Soshnikov, Sergey S; Sposato, Luciano A; Stathopoulou, Vasiliki Kalliopi; Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos; Tabb, Karen M; Talongwa, Roberto Tchio; Teixeira, Carolina Maria; Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman; Thomson, Alan J; Lyman, Andrew L Thorne; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Dimbuene, Zacharie Tsala; Uwaliraye, Parfait; Uzun, Selen Begüm; Vasankari, Tommi J; Vasconcelos, Ana Maria Nogales; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Vollset, Stein Emil; Vos, Theo; Waller, Stephen; Wan, Xia; Weichenthal, Scott; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weintraub, Robert G; Westerman, Ronny; Wilkinson, James D; Williams, Hywel C; Yang, Yang C; Yentur, Gokalp Kadri; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Younis, Mustafa; Yu, Chuanhua; Jin, Kim Yun; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Zhu, Shankuan; Lopez, Alan D; Murray, Christopher J L

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Remarkable financial and political efforts have been focused on the reduction of child mortality during the past few decades. Timely measurements of levels and trends in under-5 mortality are important to assess progress towards the Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG 4) target of reduction of child mortality by two thirds from 1990 to 2015, and to identify models of success. Methods We generated updated estimates of child mortality in early neonatal (age 0–6 days), late neonatal (7–28 days), postneonatal (29–364 days), childhood (1–4 years), and under-5 (0–4 years) age groups for 188 countries from 1970 to 2013, with more than 29 000 survey, census, vital registration, and sample registration datapoints. We used Gaussian process regression with adjustments for bias and non-sampling error to synthesise the data for under-5 mortality for each country, and a separate model to estimate mortality for more detailed age groups. We used explanatory mixed effects regression models to assess the association between under-5 mortality and income per person, maternal education, HIV child death rates, secular shifts, and other factors. To quantify the contribution of these different factors and birth numbers to the change in numbers of deaths in under-5 age groups from 1990 to 2013, we used Shapley decomposition. We used estimated rates of change between 2000 and 2013 to construct under-5 mortality rate scenarios out to 2030. Findings We estimated that 6·3 million (95% UI 6·0–6·6) children under-5 died in 2013, a 64% reduction from 17·6 million (17·1–18·1) in 1970. In 2013, child mortality rates ranged from 152·5 per 1000 livebirths (130·6–177·4) in Guinea-Bissau to 2·3 (1·8–2·9) per 1000 in Singapore. The annualised rates of change from 1990 to 2013 ranged from −6·8% to 0·1%. 99 of 188 countries, including 43 of 48 countries in sub-Saharan Africa, had faster decreases in child mortality during 2000–13 than during 1990

  18. Excess mortality associated with alcohol consumption.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, P.

    1988-01-01

    To estimate the excess mortality due to alcohol in England and Wales death rates specific to alcohol consumption that had been derived from five longitudinal studies were applied to the current population divided into categories of alcohol consumption. Because of the J shaped relation between alcohol consumption and death the excess mortality used as a baseline was an alcohol consumption of 1-10 units/week and an adjustment was made for the slight excess mortality of abstainers. The number of excess deaths was obtained by subtracting the number of deaths expected if all the population had the consumption of the lowest risk group; correction for the total observed mortality in the population was made. This resulted in an estimate of 28,000 deaths each year in England and Wales as the excess mortality among people aged 15-74 associated with alcohol consumption. PMID:3140936

  19. Symposium Overview: Preliminary Report on the Longitudinal Comparison Study of the National Evaluation of the Comprehensive Community Mental Health Services for Children and Their Families Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, E. Wayne; Osher, Trina W.; Santiago, Rolando L.; Hernandez, Mario; Brannan, Ana Maria

    This brief paper summarizes three papers and a response presented at a symposium examining longitudinal comparison studies of federally funded community mental health services (CMHS) for children and their families. Emphasis was on comparing the system of care approach to a more traditional approach. The symposium provided an update on the status…

  20. Two Years after High School: A Capsule Description of 1980 Seniors. High School and Beyond. A National Longitudinal Study for the 1980's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics (ED), Washington, DC.

    This report contains a summary of descriptive information about 1980 seniors two years after leaving high school--their educational, vocational, socioeconomic, and familial status and their plans and attitudes. Chapter I is an introduction to the High School and Beyond (HS&B) longitudinal surveys. Chapter II indicates the percentages of male and…

  1. Unlocking Learning: Chapter 1 in Correctional Facilities. Longitudinal Study Findings: National Study of the ECIA Chapter 1 Neglected or Delinquent Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, Linda A.; Ratnofsky, Alexander

    Part of a 3-year study of the Chapter 1 Neglected or Delinquent (Chapter 1 N or D) Program providing compensatory education services to youth in state-operated juvenile and adult correctional facilities, this report presents findings of a longitudinal component designed to assess prerelease services and postrelease experiences. Participants in the…

  2. Characteristics of High School Students Who Identify Themselves as Handicapped. High School and Beyond: A National Longitudinal Study for the 1980's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owings, Jeffrey; Stocking, Carol

    The report presents data from the base year (1980) and first followup (1982) of a longitudinal study of U.S. high school seniors and sophomores. Students were asked in self-administered questionnaires whether they had any of seven specific handicaps; whether they had a condition that limited the kinds or amounts of work or education they could…

  3. Predictors of Parent-Reported Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children Aged 6-7 Years: A National Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sciberras, Emma; Ukoumunne, Obioha C.; Efron, Daryl

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the prenatal, postnatal and demographic predictors of parent-reported attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in an Australian population-based sample. Participants were families participating in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. There were approximately even numbers of males (51%) and females (49%) in the…

  4. Youth Employment During High School. An Analysis of High School and Beyond: A National Longitudinal Study for the 1980's. Contractor Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin-Epstein, Noah

    The data and analyses presented in this report are from the first (1980) wave of a longitudinal study of U.S. high school seniors and sophomores. A total of 58,728 students from 1,016 high schools participated in the survey. Special emphasis was placed on Hispanic students, Catholic schools with high proportions of black students, non-Catholic…

  5. Causes of maternal mortality decline in Matlab, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Ahmed, Anisuddin; Kalim, Nahid; Koblinsky, Marge

    2009-04-01

    Bangladesh is distinct among developing countries in achieving a low maternal mortality ratio (MMR) of 322 per 100,000 livebirths despite the very low use of skilled care at delivery (13% nationally). This variation has also been observed in Matlab, a rural area in Bangladesh, where longitudinal data on maternal mortality are available since the mid-1970s. The current study investigated the possible causes of the maternal mortality decline in Matlab. The study analyzed 769 maternal deaths and 215,779 pregnancy records from the Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) and other sources of safe motherhood data in the ICDDR,B and government service areas in Matlab during 1976-2005. The major interventions that took place in both the areas since the early 1980s were the family-planning programme plus safe menstrual regulation services and safe motherhood interventions (midwives for normal delivery in the ICDDR,B service area from the late 1980s and equal access to comprehensive emergency obstetric care [EmOC] in public facilities for women from both the areas). National programmes for social development and empowerment of women through education and microcredit programmes were implemented in both the areas. The quantitative findings were supplemented by a qualitative study by interviewing local community care providers for their change in practices for maternal healthcare over time. After the introduction of the safe motherhood programme, reduction in maternal mortality was higher in the ICDDR,B service area (68.6%) than in the government service area (50.4%) during 1986-1989 and 2001-2005. Reduction in the number of maternal deaths due to the fertility decline was higher in the government service area (30%) than in the ICDDR,B service area (23%) during 1979-2005. In each area, there has been substantial reduction in abortion-related mortality--86.7% and 78.3%--in the ICDDR,B and government service areas respectively. Education of women was a strong predictor

  6. Distribution of geriatric disease-related genotypes in the National Institute for Longevity Sciences, Longitudinal Study of Aging (NILS-LSA).

    PubMed

    Shimokata, H; Yamada, Y; Nakagawa, M; Okubo, R; Saido, T; Funakoshi, A; Miyasaka, K; Ohta, S; Tsujimoto, G; Tanaka, M; Ando, F; Niino, N

    2000-04-01

    Phenotypes of various genes related to geriatric diseases and the aging process were assessed in the National Institute for Longevity Sciences, Longitudinal Study of Aging (NILS-LSA). The subjects were 1,297 participants in the NILS-LSA. They were community-living males and females aged 40 to 79 years who were randomly selected from the area of the NILS. Genotypic and allelic frequencies of genes in the subjects were analyzed. Age and gender differences in the distribution of genotypes were also tested. The genotypic frequencies were as follows: (1) Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) genotype was I/I 46.2%, I/D 38.3% and D/D 15.5%. (2) alpha 1-adrenoreceptor genotype was C/C 84.4%, C/T 12.7%, and T/T 3.0%. (3) Apolipoprotein E genotype was epsilon 2/epsilon 2 0%, epsilon 2/epsilon 3 7.9%, epsilon 3/epsilon 3 70.0%, epsilon 3/epsilon 4 20.8%, epsilon 2/epsilon 4 0%, and epsilon 4/epsilon 4 1.4%. (4) Cholecystokinin type-A receptor (CCKAR) nucleotide-81 (nt-81) genotype was A/A 59.1%, A/G 35.1%, and G/G 5.9%. The CCKAR nucleotide-128 genotype (nt-128) was G/G 74.3%, G/T 23.6%, and T/T 2.2%. The combination of nucleotide (nt-81, nt-128) was (A/A, G/G) 59.1%, (A/G, G/G) 14.1%, (G/G, G/G) 1.1%, (A/G, G/T) 21.0%, (G/G, G/T) 2.6%, and (G/G, T/T) 2.1%. There were no subjects with (A/A, G/T), (A/A, T/T) or (A/G, T/T) genotypic combinations. (5) beta 3-adrenoreceptor genotype was T/T 66.8%, T/A 28.5%, and A/A 4.7%. (6) Dihydrolipoamide succinyltransferase (DLST) nucleotide 19117 genotype was A/A 25.1%, A/G 49.7%, and G/G 25.1%. The DLST nucleotide 19183 genotype was C/C 55.8%, C/T 38.2%, and T/T 5.9%. The combination of nucleotide (nt19117, nt19183) was (A/A, C/C) 6.7%, (A/G, C/C) 24.1%, (G/G, C/C) 25.1%, (A/G, C/T) 25.6%, (A/A, T/T) 5.9%, and (A/A, C/T) 12.6%. There were no subjects with (A/G, T/T), (G/G, T/T) or (G/G, T/C) genotypic combinations. (7) Transforming growth factor-beta 1 genotype T/T 35.2%, T/C 44.6%, and C/C 20.2%. (8) The platelet-activating factor

  7. Rheumatic Heart Disease-Attributable Mortality at Ages 5–69 Years in Fiji: A Five-Year, National, Population-Based Record-Linkage Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Tom; Kado, Joseph; Miller, Anne E.; Ward, Brenton; Heenan, Rachel; Colquhoun, Samantha M.; Bärnighausen, Till W.; Mirabel, Mariana; Bloom, David E.; Bailey, Robin L.; Tukana, Isimeli N.; Steer, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is considered a major public health problem in developing countries, although scarce data are available to substantiate this. Here we quantify mortality from RHD in Fiji during 2008–2012 in people aged 5–69 years. Methods and Findings Using 1,773,999 records derived from multiple sources of routine clinical and administrative data, we used probabilistic record-linkage to define a cohort of 2,619 persons diagnosed with RHD, observed for all-cause mortality over 11,538 person-years. Using relative survival methods, we estimated there were 378 RHD-attributable deaths, almost half of which occurred before age 40 years. Using census data as the denominator, we calculated there were 9.9 deaths (95% CI 9.8–10.0) and 331 years of life-lost (YLL, 95% CI 330.4–331.5) due to RHD per 100,000 person-years, standardised to the portion of the WHO World Standard Population aged 0–69 years. Valuing life using Fiji’s per-capita gross domestic product, we estimated these deaths cost United States Dollar $6,077,431 annually. Compared to vital registration data for 2011–2012, we calculated there were 1.6-times more RHD-attributable deaths than the number reported, and found our estimate of RHD mortality exceeded all but the five leading reported causes of premature death, based on collapsed underlying cause-of-death diagnoses. Conclusions Rheumatic heart disease is a leading cause of premature death as well as an important economic burden in this setting. Age-standardised death rates are more than twice those reported in current global estimates. Linkage of routine data provides an efficient tool to better define the epidemiology of neglected diseases. PMID:26371755

  8. Mortality of tuberculosis patients in Chennai, India.

    PubMed Central

    Kolappan, C.; Subramani, R.; Karunakaran, K.; Narayanan, P. R.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to measure the mortality rate and excess general mortality as well as identify groups at high risk for mortality among a cohort of tuberculosis patients treated in Chennai Corporation clinics in south India. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study we followed up 2674 patients (1800 males and 874 females) who were registered and treated under the DOTS strategy in Chennai Corporation clinics in 2000. The follow-up period from the date of start of treatment to either the date of interview, or death was 600 days. FINDINGS: The mortality rate among this cohort of tuberculosis patients was 60/1000 person-years. The excess general mortality expressed as standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was 6.1 (95% confidence interval (CI)=5.4-6.9). Younger patients, men, patients with Category II disease, patients who defaulted on, or failed courses of treatment, and male smokers who were alcoholics, all had higher mortality ratios when compared to the rest of the cohort. CONCLUSION: The excess mortality in this cohort was six times more than that in the general population. Young age, male sex, smear-positivity, treatment default, treatment failure and the combination of smoking and alcoholism were identified as risk factors for tuberculosis mortality. We suggest that mortality rate and excess mortality be routinely used as a monitoring tool for evaluating the efficiency of the national control programme. PMID:16878229

  9. Human mortality improvement in evolutionary context.

    PubMed

    Burger, Oskar; Baudisch, Annette; Vaupel, James W

    2012-10-30

    Life expectancy is increasing in most countries and has exceeded 80 in several, as low-mortality nations continue to make progress in averting deaths. The health and economic implications of mortality reduction have been given substantial attention, but the observed malleability of human mortality has not been placed in a broad evolutionary context. We quantify the rate and amount of mortality reduction by comparing a variety of human populations to the evolved human mortality profile, here estimated as the average mortality pattern for ethnographically observed hunter-gatherers. We show that human mortality has decreased so substantially that the difference between hunter-gatherers and today's lowest mortality populations is greater than the difference between hunter-gatherers and wild chimpanzees. The bulk of this mortality reduction has occurred since 1900 and has been experienced by only about 4 of the roughly 8,000 human generations that have ever lived. Moreover, mortality improvement in humans is on par with or greater than the reductions in mortality in other species achieved by laboratory selection experiments and endocrine pathway mutations. This observed plasticity in age-specific risk of death is at odds with conventional theories of aging. PMID:23071331

  10. Human mortality improvement in evolutionary context

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Oskar; Baudisch, Annette; Vaupel, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Life expectancy is increasing in most countries and has exceeded 80 in several, as low-mortality nations continue to make progress in averting deaths. The health and economic implications of mortality reduction have been given substantial attention, but the observed malleability of human mortality has not been placed in a broad evolutionary context. We quantify the rate and amount of mortality reduction by comparing a variety of human populations to the evolved human mortality profile, here estimated as the average mortality pattern for ethnographically observed hunter-gatherers. We show that human mortality has decreased so substantially that the difference between hunter-gatherers and today’s lowest mortality populations is greater than the difference between hunter-gatherers and wild chimpanzees. The bulk of this mortality reduction has occurred since 1900 and has been experienced by only about 4 of the roughly 8,000 human generations that have ever lived. Moreover, mortality improvement in humans is on par with or greater than the reductions in mortality in other species achieved by laboratory selection experiments and endocrine pathway mutations. This observed plasticity in age-specific risk of death is at odds with conventional theories of aging. PMID:23071331

  11. Jewish mortality reconsidered.

    PubMed

    Staetsky, Laura Daniel; Hinde, Andrew

    2015-05-01

    It is known that mortality of Jews is different from the mortality of the populations that surround them. However, the existence of commonalities in mortality of different Jewish communities across the world has not received scholarly attention. This paper aims to identify common features of the evolution of Jewish mortality among Jews living in Israel and the Diaspora. In the paper the mortality of Jews in Israel is systematically compared with the mortality of the populations of developed countries, and the findings from the earlier studies of mortality of Jews in selected Diaspora communities are re-examined. The outcome is a re-formulation and extension of the notion of the 'Jewish pattern of mortality'. The account of this pattern is based on the consistently low level of behaviourally induced mortality, the migration history of Jewish populations and the enduring influence of early-life conditions on mortality at older ages. PMID:24784140

  12. Global, regional, and national incidence and mortality for HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria during 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    PubMed Central

    Ortblad, Katrina F; Guinovart, Caterina; Lim, Stephen S; Wolock, Timothy M; Roberts, D Allen; Dansereau, Emily A; Graetz, Nicholas; Barber, Ryan M; Brown, Jonathan C; Wang, Haidong; Duber, Herbert C; Naghavi, Mohsen; Dicker, Daniel; Dandona, Lalit; Salomon, Joshua A; Heuton, Kyle R; Foreman, Kyle; Phillips, David E; Fleming, Thomas D; Flaxman, Abraham D; Phillips, Bryan K; Johnson, Elizabeth K; Coggeshall, Megan S; Abd-Allah, Foad; Ferede, Semaw; Abraham, Jerry P; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Abu-Raddad, Laith J; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen Me; Achoki, Tom; Adeyemo, Austine Olufemi; Adou, Arsène Kouablan; Adsuar, José C; Agardh, Emilie Elisabet; Akena, Dickens; Al Kahbouri, Mazin J; Alasfoor, Deena; Albittar, Mohammed I; Alcalá-Cerra, Gabriel; Alegretti, Miguel Angel; Alemu, Zewdie Aderaw; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Alhabib, Samia; Ali, Raghib; Alla, Francois; Allen, Peter J; Alsharif, Ubai; Alvarez, Elena; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Amankwaa, Adansi A; Amare, Azmeraw T; Amini, Hassan; Ammar, Walid; Anderson, Benjamin O; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T; Anwari, Palwasha; Ärnlöv, Johan; Arsenijevic, Valentina S Arsic; Artaman, Ali; Asghar, Rana J; Assadi, Reza; Atkins, Lydia S; Badawi, Alaa; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Banerjee, Amitava; Basu, Sanjay; Beardsley, Justin; Bekele, Tolesa; Bell, Michelle L; Bernabe, Eduardo; Beyene, Tariku Jibat; Bhala, Neeraj; Bhalla, Ashish; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Abdulhak, Aref Bin; Binagwaho, Agnes; Blore, Jed D; Basara, Berrak Bora; Bose, Dipan; Brainin, Michael; Breitborde, Nicholas; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos A; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Chadha, Vineet K; Chang, Jung-Chen; Chiang, Peggy Pei-Chia; Chuang, Ting-Wu; Colomar, Mercedes; Cooper, Leslie Trumbull; Cooper, Cyrus; Courville, Karen J; Cowie, Benjamin C; Criqui, Michael H; Dandona, Rakhi; Dayama, Anand; De Leo, Diego; Degenhardt, Louisa; Del Pozo-Cruz, Borja; Deribe, Kebede; Jarlais, Don C Des; Dessalegn, Muluken; Dharmaratne, Samath D; Dilmen, Uğur; Ding, Eric L; Driscoll, Tim R; Durrani, Adnan M; Ellenbogen, Richard G; Ermakov, Sergey Petrovich; Esteghamati, Alireza; Faraon, Emerito Jose A; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fijabi, Daniel Obadare; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Paleo, Urbano Fra.; Gaffikin, Lynne; Gamkrelidze, Amiran; Gankpé, Fortuné Gbètoho; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Gessner, Bradford D; Gibney, Katherine B; Ginawi, Ibrahim Abdelmageem Mohamed; Glaser, Elizabeth L; Gona, Philimon; Goto, Atsushi; Gouda, Hebe N; Gugnani, Harish Chander; Gupta, Rajeev; Gupta, Rahul; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi; Hammami, Mouhanad; Hankey, Graeme J; Harb, Hilda L; Haro, Josep Maria; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hay, Simon I; Hedayati, Mohammad T; Pi, Ileana B Heredia; Hoek, Hans W; Hornberger, John C; Hosgood, H Dean; Hotez, Peter J; Hoy, Damian G; Huang, John J; Iburg, Kim M; Idrisov, Bulat T; Innos, Kaire; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Jensen, Paul N; Jha, Vivekanand; Jiang, Guohong; Jonas, Jost B; Juel, Knud; Kan, Haidong; Kankindi, Ida; Karam, Nadim E; Karch, André; Karema, Corine Kakizi; Kaul, Anil; Kawakami, Norito; Kazi, Dhruv S; Kemp, Andrew H; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Keren, Andre; Kereselidze, Maia; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khalifa, Shams Eldin Ali Hassan; Khan, Ejaz Ahmed; Khang, Young-Ho; Khonelidze, Irma; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kinge, Jonas M; Knibbs, Luke; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kosen, S; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Kulkarni, Veena S; Kulkarni, Chanda; Kumar, Kaushalendra; Kumar, Ravi B; Kumar, G Anil; Kwan, Gene F; Lai, Taavi; Balaji, Arjun Lakshmana; Lam, Hilton; Lan, Qing; Lansingh, Van C; Larson, Heidi J; Larsson, Anders; Lee, Jong-Tae; Leigh, James; Leinsalu, Mall; Leung, Ricky; Li, Yichong; Li, Yongmei; De Lima, Graça Maria Ferreira; Lin, Hsien-Ho; Lipshultz, Steven E; Liu, Shiwei; Liu, Yang; Lloyd, Belinda K; Lotufo, Paulo A; Machado, Vasco Manuel Pedro; Maclachlan, Jennifer H; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Majdan, Marek; Mapoma, Christopher Chabila; Marcenes, Wagner; Marzan, Melvin Barrientos; Masci, Joseph R; Mashal, Mohammad Taufiq; Mason-Jones, Amanda J; Mayosi, Bongani M; Mazorodze, Tasara T; Mckay, Abigail Cecilia; Meaney, Peter A; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Mejia-Rodriguez, Fabiola; Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Memish, Ziad A; Mendoza, Walter; Miller, Ted R; Mills, Edward J; Mohammad, Karzan Abdulmuhsin; Mokdad, Ali H; Mola, Glen Liddell; Monasta, Lorenzo; Montico, Marcella; Moore, Ami R; Mori, Rintaro; Moturi, Wilkister Nyaora; Mukaigawara, Mitsuru; Murthy, Kinnari S; Naheed, Aliya; Naidoo, Kovin S; Naldi, Luigi; Nangia, Vinay

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background The Millennium Declaration in 2000 brought special global attention to HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria through the formulation of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 6. The Global Burden of Disease 2013 study provides a consistent and comprehensive approach to disease estimation for between 1990 and 2013, and an opportunity to assess whether accelerated progress has occurred since the Millennium Declaration. Methods To estimate incidence and mortality for HIV, we used the UNAIDS Spectrum model appropriately modified based on a systematic review of available studies of mortality with and without antiretroviral therapy (ART). For concentrated epidemics, we calibrated Spectrum models to fit vital registration data corrected for misclassification of HIV deaths. In generalised epidemics, we minimised a loss function to select epidemic curves most consistent with prevalence data and demographic data for all-cause mortality. We analysed counterfactual scenarios for HIV to assess years of life saved through prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) and ART. For tuberculosis, we analysed vital registration and verbal autopsy data to estimate mortality using cause of death ensemble modelling. We analysed data for corrected case-notifications, expert opinions on the case-detection rate, prevalence surveys, and estimated cause-specific mortality using Bayesian meta-regression to generate consistent trends in all parameters. We analysed malaria mortality and incidence using an updated cause of death database, a systematic analysis of verbal autopsy validation studies for malaria, and recent studies (2010–13) of incidence, drug resistance, and coverage of insecticide-treated bednets. Findings Globally in 2013, there were 1·8 million new HIV infections (95% uncertainty interval 1·7 million to 2·1 million), 29·2 million prevalent HIV cases (28·1 to 31·7), and 1·3 million HIV deaths (1·3 to 1·5). At the peak of the epidemic in 2005, HIV caused 1

  13. MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY WEEKLY REPORT (MMWR)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) is used to disseminate weekly provisional data on nationally notifiable infectious diseases. These provisional data are used for program planning and evaluation, monitoring trends in incidence, and detecting disease outbreaks.

  14. Formaldehyde Exposure and Mortality Risks From Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Lymphohematopoietic Malignancies in the US National Cancer Institute Cohort Study of Workers in Formaldehyde Industries

    PubMed Central

    Dell, Linda D.; Boffetta, Paolo; Gallagher, Alexa E.; Crawford, Lori; Lees, Peter SJ.; Mundt, Kenneth A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate associations between cumulative and peak formaldehyde exposure and mortality from acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and other lymphohematopoietic malignancies. Methods: Cox proportional hazards analyses. Results: Acute myeloid leukemia was unrelated to cumulative exposure. Hodgkin lymphoma relative risk estimates in the highest exposure categories of cumulative and peak exposures were, respectively, 3.76 (Ptrend = 0.05) and 5.13 (Ptrend = 0.003). There were suggestive associations with peak exposure observed for chronic myeloid leukemia, albeit based on very small numbers. No other lymphohematopoietic malignancy was associated with either chronic or peak exposure. Conclusions: Insofar as there is no prior epidemiologic evidence supporting associations between formaldehyde and either Hodgkin leukemia or chronic myeloid leukemia, any causal interpretations of the observed risk patterns are at most tentative. Findings from this re-analysis do not support the hypothesis that formaldehyde is a cause of AML. PMID:26147546

  15. An assessment of composite measures of hospital performance and associated mortality for patients with acute myocardial infarction. Analysis of individual hospital performance and outcome for the National Institute for Cardiovascular Outcomes Research (NICOR)

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Paul D; Cattle, Brian A; Batin, Phillip D; Wilson, John I; West, Robert M; Hall, Alistair S; Weston, Clive F; Deanfield, John E; Fox, Keith A; Gale, Chris P

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether a hospital-specific opportunity-based composite score (OBCS) was associated with mortality in 136,392 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) using data from the Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project (MINAP) 2008–2009. Methods and results: For 199 hospitals a multidimensional hospital OBCS was calculated on the number of times that aspirin, thienopyridine, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi), statin, β-blocker, and referral for cardiac rehabilitation was given to individual patients, divided by the overall number of opportunities that hospitals had to give that care. OBCS and its six components were compared using funnel plots. Associations between OBCS performance and 30-day and 6-month all-cause mortality were quantified using mixed-effects regression analysis. Median hospital OBCS was 95.3% (range 75.8–100%). By OBCS, 24.1% of hospitals were below funnel plot 99.8% CI, compared to aspirin (11.1%), thienopyridine (15.1%), β-blockers (14.7%), ACEi (19.1%), statins (12.1%), and cardiac rehabilitation (17.6%) on discharge. Mortality (95% CI) decreased with increasing hospital OBCS quartile at 30 days [Q1, 2.25% (2.07–2.43%) vs. Q4, 1.40% (1.25–1.56%)] and 6 months [Q1, 7.93% (7.61–8.25%) vs. Q4, 5.53% (5.22–5.83%)]. Hospital OBCS quartile was inversely associated with adjusted 30-day and 6-month mortality [OR (95% CI), 0.87 (0.80–0.94) and 0.92 (0.88–0.96), respectively] and persisted after adjustment for coronary artery catheterization [0.89 (0.82–0.96) and 0.95 (0.91–0.98), respectively]. Conclusions: Multidimensional hospital OBCS in AMI survivors are high, discriminate hospital performance more readily than single performance indicators, and significantly inversely predict early and longer-term mortality. PMID:24062929

  16. Mortality table construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutawanir

    2015-12-01

    Mortality tables play important role in actuarial studies such as life annuities, premium determination, premium reserve, valuation pension plan, pension funding. Some known mortality tables are CSO mortality table, Indonesian Mortality Table, Bowers mortality table, Japan Mortality table. For actuary applications some tables are constructed with different environment such as single decrement, double decrement, and multiple decrement. There exist two approaches in mortality table construction : mathematics approach and statistical approach. Distribution model and estimation theory are the statistical concepts that are used in mortality table construction. This article aims to discuss the statistical approach in mortality table construction. The distributional assumptions are uniform death distribution (UDD) and constant force (exponential). Moment estimation and maximum likelihood are used to estimate the mortality parameter. Moment estimation methods are easier to manipulate compared to maximum likelihood estimation (mle). However, the complete mortality data are not used in moment estimation method. Maximum likelihood exploited all available information in mortality estimation. Some mle equations are complicated and solved using numerical methods. The article focus on single decrement estimation using moment and maximum likelihood estimation. Some extension to double decrement will introduced. Simple dataset will be used to illustrated the mortality estimation, and mortality table.

  17. The healthy immigrant effect and mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Ng, Edward

    2011-12-01

    According to the 2006 Census, almost the Canadian population were foreign-born, a percentage that is projected to reach at least 25% by 2031. Studies based on age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) have found a healthy immigrant effect, with lower overall rates among immigrants. A duration effect has also been observed-immigrants' mortality advantage lessened as their time in Canada increased. ASMRs based on the 1991 to 2001 census mortality follow-up study indicate a healthy immigrant effect and a duration effect at the national level for all-cause mortality for both sexes. However, at the national level, the mortality rate among women from the United States and from Sub-Saharan Africa was similar to that of Canadian-born women. For the three largest Census Metropolitan Areas (Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver), a healthy immigrant effect was not observed among women or among most men from the United States or Sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:22352149

  18. Death before Life: The Tragedy of Infant Mortality. Report. [With] Appendix and Testimonies at the National Hearing (4th, Chicago, Illinois, April 25, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission To Prevent Infant Mortality, Washington, DC.

    A child born in Japan, Finland, Hong Kong, Ireland, Australia, Canada, Singapore, or any of 12 other industrialized nations has a better chance of surviving his or her first year than does a child born in the United States. This is because too many babies are born too small, too many are born too soon, and too many mothers never get decent care…

  19. Morbidity and Mortality following Traditional Uvulectomy among Children Presenting to the Muhimbili National Hospital Emergency Department in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Sawe, H. R.; Mfinanga, J. A.; Ringo, F. H.; Mwafongo, V.; Reynolds, T. A.; Runyon, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Traditional uvulectomy is performed as a cultural ritual or purported medical remedy. We describe the associated emergency department (ED) presentations and outcomes. Methods. This was a subgroup analysis of a retrospective review of all pediatric visits to our ED in 2012. Trained abstracters recorded demographics, clinical presentations, and outcomes. Results. Complete data were available for 5540/5774 (96%) visits and 56 (1.0%, 95% CI: 0.7–1.3%) were related to recent uvulectomy, median age 1.3 years (interquartile range: 7 months–2 years) and 30 (54%) were male. Presenting complaints included cough (82%), fever (46%), and hematemesis (38%). Clinical findings included fever (54%), tachypnea (30%), and tachycardia (25%). 35 patients (63%, 95% CI: 49–75%) received intravenous antibiotics, 11 (20%, 95% CI: 10–32%) required blood transfusion, and 3 (5%, 95% CI: 1–15%) had surgical intervention. All were admitted to the hospital and 12 (21%, 95% CI: 12–34%) died. By comparison, 498 (9.1%, 95% CI: 8–10%) of the 5484 children presenting for reasons unrelated to uvulectomy died (p = 0.003). Conclusion. In our cohort, traditional uvulectomy was associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Emergency care providers should advocate for legal and public health interventions to eliminate this dangerous practice. PMID:26161270

  20. Global, regional, and national levels and causes of maternal mortality during 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    PubMed Central

    Kassebaum, Nicholas J; Bertozzi-Villa, Amelia; Coggeshall, Megan S; Shackelford, Katya A; Steiner, Caitlyn; Heuton, Kyle R; Gonzalez-Medina, Diego; Barber, Ryan; Huynh, Chantal; Dicker, Daniel; Templin, Tara; Wolock, Timothy M; Ozgoren, Ayse Abbasoglu; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Achoki, Tom; Adelekan, Ademola; Ademi, Zanfina; Adou, Arsène Kouablan; Adsuar, José C; Agardh, Emilie E; Akena, Dickens; Alasfoor, Deena; Alemu, Zewdie Aderaw; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Alhabib, Samia; Ali, Raghib; Al Kahbouri, Mazin J; Alla, François; Allen, Peter J; AlMazroa, Mohammad A; Alsharif, Ubai; Alvarez, Elena; Alvis-Guzmán, Nelson; Amankwaa, Adansi A; Amare, Azmeraw T; Amini, Hassan; Ammar, Walid; Antonio, Carl A T; Anwari, Palwasha; Ärnlöv, Johan; Arsenijevic, Valentina S Arsic; Artaman, Ali; Asad, Majed Masoud; Asghar, Rana J; Assadi, Reza; Atkins, Lydia S; Badawi, Alaa; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Basu, Arindam; Basu, Sanjay; Beardsley, Justin; Bedi, Neeraj; Bekele, Tolesa; Bell, Michelle L; Bernabe, Eduardo; Beyene, Tariku J; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Abdulhak, Aref Bin; Blore, Jed D; Basara, Berrak Bora; Bose, Dipan; Breitborde, Nicholas; Cárdenas, Rosario; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos A; Castro, Ruben Estanislao; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Cavlin, Alanur; Chang, Jung-Chen; Che, Xuan; Christophi, Costas A; Chugh, Sumeet S; Cirillo, Massimo; Colquhoun, Samantha M; Cooper, Leslie Trumbull; Cooper, Cyrus; da Costa Leite, Iuri; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; Davis, Adrian; Dayama, Anand; Degenhardt, Louisa; De Leo, Diego; del Pozo-Cruz, Borja; Deribe, Kebede; Dessalegn, Muluken; deVeber, Gabrielle A; Dharmaratne, Samath D; Dilmen, Uğur; Ding, Eric L; Dorrington, Rob E; Driscoll, Tim R; Ermakov, Sergei Petrovich; Esteghamati, Alireza; Faraon, Emerito Jose A; Farzadfar, Farshad; Felicio, Manuela Mendonca; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; de Lima, Graça Maria Ferreira; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; França, Elisabeth B; Gaffikin, Lynne; Gambashidze, Ketevan; Gankpé, Fortuné Gbètoho; Garcia, Ana C; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Gibney, Katherine B; Giroud, Maurice; Glaser, Elizabeth L; Goginashvili, Ketevan; Gona, Philimon; González-Castell, Dinorah; Goto, Atsushi; Gouda, Hebe N; Gugnani, Harish Chander; Gupta, Rahul; Gupta, Rajeev; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi; Hammami, Mouhanad; Hankey, Graeme J; Harb, Hilda L; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hay, Simon I; Heredia Pi, Ileana B; Hoek, Hans W; Hosgood, H Dean; Hoy, Damian G; Husseini, Abdullatif; Idrisov, Bulat T; Innos, Kaire; Inoue, Manami; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Jahangir, Eiman; Jee, Sun Ha; Jensen, Paul N; Jha, Vivekanand; Jiang, Guohong; Jonas, Jost B; Juel, Knud; Kabagambe, Edmond Kato; Kan, Haidong; Karam, Nadim E; Karch, André; Karema, Corine Kakizi; Kaul, Anil; Kawakami, Norito; Kazanjan, Konstantin; Kazi, Dhruv S; Kemp, Andrew H; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Kereselidze, Maia; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khalifa, Shams Eldin Ali Hassan; Khan, Ejaz Ahmed; Khang, Young-Ho; Knibbs, Luke; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kosen, Soewarta; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Kulkarni, Chanda; Kulkarni, Veena S; Kumar, G Anil; Kumar, Kaushalendra; Kumar, Ravi B; Kwan, Gene; Lai, Taavi; Lalloo, Ratilal; Lam, Hilton; Lansingh, Van C; Larsson, Anders; Lee, Jong-Tae; Leigh, James; Leinsalu, Mall; Leung, Ricky; Li, Xiaohong; Li, Yichong; Li, Yongmei; Liang, Juan; Liang, Xiaofeng; Lim, Stephen S; Lin, Hsien-Ho; Lipshultz, Steven E; Liu, Shiwei; Liu, Yang; Lloyd, Belinda K; London, Stephanie J; Lotufo, Paulo A; Ma, Jixiang; Ma, Stefan; Machado, Vasco Manuel Pedro; Mainoo, Nana Kwaku; Majdan, Marek; Mapoma, Christopher Chabila; Marcenes, Wagner; Marzan, Melvin Barrientos; Mason-Jones, Amanda J; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Mejia-Rodriguez, Fabiola; Memish, Ziad A; Mendoza, Walter; Miller, Ted R; Mills, Edward J; Mokdad, Ali H; Mola, Glen Liddell; Monasta, Lorenzo; de la Cruz Monis, Jonathan; Hernandez, Julio Cesar Montañez; Moore, Ami R; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Mori, Rintaro; Mueller, Ulrich O; Mukaigawara, Mitsuru; Naheed, Aliya; Naidoo, Kovin S; Nand, Devina; Nangia, Vinay; Nash, Denis; Nejjari, Chakib; Nelson, Robert G; Neupane, Sudan Prasad; Newton, Charles R; Ng, Marie; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Nisar, Muhammad Imran; Nolte, Sandra; Norheim, Ole F; Nyakarahuka, Luke; Oh, In-Hwan; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Olusanya, Bolajoko O; Omer, Saad B; Opio, John Nelson; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere; Pandian, Jeyaraj D; Papachristou, Christina; Park, Jae-Hyun; Caicedo, Angel J Paternina; Patten, Scott B; Paul, Vinod K; Pavlin, Boris Igor

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background The fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 5) established the goal of a 75% reduction in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR; number of maternal deaths per 100 000 livebirths) between 1990 and 2015. We aimed to measure levels and track trends in maternal mortality, the key causes contributing to maternal death, and timing of maternal death with respect to delivery. Methods We used robust statistical methods including the Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODEm) to analyse a database of data for 7065 site-years and estimate the number of maternal deaths from all causes in 188 countries between 1990 and 2013. We estimated the number of pregnancy-related deaths caused by HIV on the basis of a systematic review of the relative risk of dying during pregnancy for HIV-positive women compared with HIV-negative women. We also estimated the fraction of these deaths aggravated by pregnancy on the basis of a systematic review. To estimate the numbers of maternal deaths due to nine different causes, we identified 61 sources from a systematic review and 943 site-years of vital registration data. We also did a systematic review of reports about the timing of maternal death, identifying 142 sources to use in our analysis. We developed estimates for each country for 1990–2013 using Bayesian meta-regression. We estimated 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) for all values. Findings 292 982 (95% UI 261 017–327 792) maternal deaths occurred in 2013, compared with 376 034 (343 483–407 574) in 1990. The global annual rate of change in the MMR was −0·3% (−1·1 to 0·6) from 1990 to 2003, and −2·7% (−3·9 to −1·5) from 2003 to 2013, with evidence of continued acceleration. MMRs reduced consistently in south, east, and southeast Asia between 1990 and 2013, but maternal deaths increased in much of sub-Saharan Africa during the 1990s. 2070 (1290–2866) maternal deaths were related to HIV in 2013, 0·4% (0·2–0·6) of the global total. MMR was highest in the

  1. Death, drugs, and disaster: mortality among New Orleans' homeless.

    PubMed

    Rayburn, Rachel L; Pals, Heili; Wright, James D

    2012-01-01

    Tracking homeless individuals over time has proved to be extremely difficult; thus, only limited longitudinal data on the homeless exist. We analyze longitudinal data originally collected from the New Orleans Homeless Substance Abusers Program in 1991-1993, supplemented with mortality data for the same sample by year 2010. We use social bonding theory to examine the effect of conventional social ties on mortality among a sample of substance abusing homeless people. This is of special concern when researching the older homeless persons. We find that social bonding theory does not help to understand mortality among this population. However, alcohol abuse, as compared to crack cocaine, does increase the likelihood of early mortality. PMID:22616445

  2. The Handicapped Student in America's Colleges: A Longitudinal Analysis. Part 2: National Norms for Disabled and Nondisabled College Freshmen, 1978 and 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henson, James W.; And Others

    National normative data on disabled freshmen who entered college in fall 1978 and 1980 and comparative data on nondisabled freshmen are presented, based on data collected through the Cooperative Institutional Research Program. Information was obtained from 566 institutions in 1978 and from 540 institutions in 1980. The following institutional…

  3. Secondary School Programs and Performance of Students with Disabilities: A Special Topic Report of Findings from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2). NCSER 2012-3000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Lynn; Wagner, Mary; Huang, Tracy; Shaver, Debra; Knokey, Anne-Marie; Yu, Jennifer; Contreras, Elidia; Ferguson, Kate; Greene, Sarah; Nagle, Katherine; Cameto, Renee

    2011-01-01

    Since 1982, the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) has periodically surveyed the status of curricula being implemented in America's high schools and the course-taking patterns of high school students, as identified from their transcripts. Data from the High School Transcript Study (HSTS), conducted in…

  4. Breast cancer-specific mortality in small-sized tumor with node-positive breast cancer: a nation-wide study in Korean breast cancer society.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jai Min; Lee, Hyouk Jin; Yoon, Tae In; Lee, Eun Sook; Lee, Soo Jung; Jung, Jin Hyang; Chae, Byung Joo; Nam, Seok Jin; Lee, Jeong Eon; Lee, Se Kyung; Bae, Soo Youn; Yu, Jonghan; Kim, Seok Won

    2016-10-01

    Tumor size and number of lymph node (LN) metastases are well known as the most important prognostic factors of breast cancer. We hypothesized that very small breast cancers with LN metastasis represent a progressive biologic behavior and evaluated tumor size stratified by LN metastasis. Data between 1990 and 2010 were obtained retrospectively from the Korean Breast Cancer Society Registry with inclusion criteria of female, non-metastatic, unilateral, and T1/2 breast cancer. We collected the following variables: age at surgery, tumor size, number of LN metastases, nuclear grade (NG), lymphovascular invasion (LVI), estrogen receptor status, progesterone receptor status, and epidermal growth factor receptor-2 status. Patient characteristics were compared by means of independent t-tests for continuous variables and the Chi-square or Fisher's exact test for categorical variables. Kaplan-Meier curves, with corresponding results of log-rank tests, were constructed for breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS). Five- and eight-year breast cancer-specific mortality (BCSM) was obtained in groups of 300 patients, followed by smoothing according to the confidence interval using the lowess method. We identified 39,826 breast cancer patients who met the inclusion criteria. Among them, 1433 (3.6 %) patients died due to breast cancer. The median follow-up duration was 63.4 (3-255) months. In the multivariate analysis, age at surgery, NG, LVI, subtype, and tumor size-nodal interactions were independently associated with BCSM. The N1 group had lower BCSS for T1a than T1b. The N2+ group also had lower BCSS for T1b than T1c or T2. In the N1 group of tumors smaller than 10 mm, 5- and 8-year BCSM decreased with larger tumor size. Patients with very small tumors with LN metastasis have decreased BCSM according to increase tumor size. Small tumors with LN metastasis could have aggressive biological behavior. PMID:27590199

  5. Psychometric properties of teacher-made science tests used in national examinations for middle-grade students in Benin (West Africa): A longitudinal study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gado, Issaou

    The purpose of this study was to determine the psychometric properties (item difficulty, item discrimination, internal consistency reliability, content validity and construct validity) of teacher-made science tests used in national examinations for Middle Grade students in Benin (West Africa) for three consecutive years. The study also described the assessment methods used in science classrooms. Research data were collected from two sources: first, a survey questionnaire administered to 250 secondary school teachers purposively selected; second, a total of 630 graded physical science copies for three consecutive years of national examinations randomly selected from the Service of Examination and Testing data sources. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the survey questionnaire. Factor analysis was used to explore construct validity of the measurements. Classical test theory methods were used to explore item difficulty, item discrimination, and reliability of examination scores. Generalizability theory provided estimate of variance components and proportions of total variance accounted for by sources of error related to persons, items, and person-by-item interaction. The result of this study shows that teacher-made tests used in large scale high-stakes examination for three consecutive years are highly reliable and have a satisfactory level of difficulty and discrimination. However, even though the items of teacher-made tests are associated with the objectives of the national curriculum standards, the proportion of objectives tested in national examinations and the number of items across three consecutive years show a non uniform and inconsistent distribution of items across years, content domains, and within the fields of chemistry and physics. Therefore, teacher-made tests used in national examinations for three consecutive years lack content validity. Discussion of the results and suggestions about constructing exam items with high validity are provided.

  6. Elder Self-neglect and Abuse and Mortality Risk in a Community-Dwelling Population

    PubMed Central

    Dong, XinQi; Simon, Melissa; de Leon, Carlos Mendes; Fulmer, Terry; Beck, Todd; Hebert, Liesi; Dyer, Carmel; Paveza, Gregory; Evans, Denis

    2010-01-01

    Context Both elder self-neglect and abuse have become increasingly prominent public health issues. The association of either elder self-neglect or abuse with mortality remains unclear. Objective To examine the relationship of elder self-neglect or abuse reported to social services agencies with all-cause mortality among a community-dwelling elderly population. Design, Setting, and Participants Prospective, population-based cohort study (conducted from 1993 to 2005) of residents living in a geographically defined community of 3 adjacent neighborhoods in Chicago, Illinois, who were participating in the Chicago Health and Aging Project (CHAP; a longitudinal, population-based, epidemiological study of residents aged ≥65 years). A subset of these participants had suspected elder self-neglect or abuse reported to social services agencies. Main Outcome Measures Mortality ascertained during follow-up and by use of the National Death Index. Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess independent associations of self-neglect or elder abuse reporting with the risk of all-cause mortality using time-varying covariate analyses. Results Of 9318 CHAP participants, 1544 participants were reported for elder self-neglect and 113 participants were reported for elder abuse from 1993 to 2005. All CHAP participants were followed up for a median of 6.9 years (interquartile range, 7.4 years), during which 4306 deaths occurred. In multivariable analyses, reported elder self-neglect was associated with a significantly increased risk of 1-year mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 5.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.20–6.51). Mortality risk was lower but still elevated after 1 year (HR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.67–2.14). Reported elder abuse also was associated with significantly increased risk of overall mortality (HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.07–1.84). Confirmed elder self-neglect or abuse also was associated with mortality. Increased mortality risks associated with either elder self-neglect or

  7. How are spousal depressed mood, distress and quality of life associated with risk of depressed mood in cancer survivors? Longitudinal findings from a national sample

    PubMed Central

    Litzelman, Kristin; Yabroff, K. Robin

    2015-01-01

    Background Spouses of cancer survivors experience both positive and negative effects from caregiving. However, it is less clear what role spousal well-being may have on cancer survivors. This study aimed to determine the impact of spousal psychosocial factors on survivor depressed mood and whether this association differed by gender. Methods We examined longitudinal data on cancer survivors and their spouses (n=910 dyads) from the 2004-2012 Medical Expenditures Panel Survey and a matched sample of cancer-free dyads. Subjects reported depressed mood, psychological distress, and mental and physical health-related quality of life (HRQoL) at two time points (T1/T2). Dyadic multilevel models evaluated the impact of psychosocial factors at T1 on depressed mood at T2, controlling for sociodemographics, cancer type, survivor treatment status, and depressed mood at T1. Results Cancer survivors whose spouses reported depressed mood at T1 were 4.27 times more likely to report depressed mood at T2 (95% CI=2.01-9.07); this was stronger for female survivors (OR=9.49; 95% CI=2.42-37.20). Better spousal mental and physical HRQoL at T1 were associated with a 30% decrease in survivor depressed mood risk at T2. Most spillover effects were not observed in comparison dyads. Conclusion Depressed mood and poor HRQoL in spouses may increase the risk of depressed mood in cancer survivors. The risk may be especially strong for female survivors. Impact Identifying and improving spousal mental health and HRQoL problems may reduce the risk of depressed mood in cancer survivors. Future research should examine whether incorporating spousal care into psycho-oncology and survivorship programs improves survivor outcomes. PMID:26033755

  8. Impact of National Smoke-Free Legislation on Educational Disparities in Smoke-Free Homes: Findings from the SIDRIAT Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Gorini, Giuseppe; Carreras, Giulia; Cortini, Barbara; Verdi, Simona; Petronio, Maria Grazia; Sestini, Piersante; Chellini, Elisabetta

    2015-08-01

    Families with lower socioeconomic status are less likely to adopt household smoking bans (HSB). The aim of this study was to determine whether socioeconomic disparities in HSB prevalence in Italy decreased 7-9 years after the introduction of the Italian ban on smoking in public places. A longitudinal, 12-year, two-wave study was conducted on a sample of 3091 youths aged 6-14 years in 2002; 1763 (57%) were re-interviewed in 2012-2014. A Poisson regression with a robust error variance was used to assess the association between socioeconomic disparities and HSB prevalence. The adoption of HSBs significantly increased from 60% in 2002 to 75% in 2012-2014, with the increase recorded in youths with ≥1 smoking parent only (from 22% at baseline to 46% at follow-up). The presence of HSBs at baseline was more likely in families with ≥1 graduate parent compared to those with no graduate parents (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.15-1.57), either in families with ≥1 smoking parent (PR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.17-1.58) or in families with non-smoking parents (PR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.01-2.56). Conversely, at follow-up socioeconomic disparities dropped since families with no graduate parents were 1.5-fold more likely to introduce a HSB between the two waves. The Italian ban on smoking in public places may have increased the adoption of smoke-free homes in families with smoking and non-graduate parents, causing the drop of the socioeconomic gap in smoke-free homes. PMID:26213956

  9. Association of volunteering with mental well-being: a lifecourse analysis of a national population-based longitudinal study in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Tabassum, Faiza; Mohan, John; Smith, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The association of volunteering with well-being has been found in previous research, but mostly among older people. The aim of this study was to examine the association of volunteering with mental well-being among the British population across the life course. Design British Household Panel Survey, a population-based longitudinal study. Setting UK. Participants 66 343 observations (person-years). Main outcome measures Mental well-being was measured by using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12 or GHQ); high values denote high mental disorder. Four groups of volunteering participation were created: frequent (once a week), infrequent (once a month/several times a year), rare (once or less a year) and never. Multilevel linear models were used to analyse variations in mental well-being over the life course by levels of volunteering. Results When not considering age, those who engaged in volunteering regularly appeared to experience higher levels of mental well-being than those who never volunteered. To explore the association of volunteering with the GHQ across the life course, interaction terms were fitted between age and volunteering. The interactions were significant, demonstrating that these associations vary by age. The association between volunteering and well-being did not emerge during early adulthood to mid-adulthood, instead becoming apparent above the age of 40 years and continuing up to old age. Moreover, in early adulthood, the absence of engagement in voluntary activity was not related to mental well-being, but GHQ scores for this group increased sharply with age, levelling off after the age of 40 and then increasing again above the age of 70 years. The study also indicates variation in GHQ scores (65%) within individuals across time, suggesting evidence of lifecourse effects. Conclusions We conclude that volunteering may be more meaningful for mental well-being at some points of time in the life course. PMID:27503861

  10. Ethnic and religious differentials in Bulgarian mortality, 1993-98.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Iliana V; Preston, Samuel H

    2011-03-01

    We investigated ethnic/religious mortality differentials in Bulgaria during the 1990s. The analyses employed a unique longitudinal data-set covering the entire population of Bulgaria from the census of 1992 until 1998. The mortality of Roma is very high compared to all other ethnic/religious groups. The excess applies to nearly every cause of death examined and is not entirely explained by the adverse location of Roma on social and economic variables. For young men, Muslim mortality is substantially lower than that of non-Muslims when socio-economic differences are controlled. An analysis of causes of death suggests that lower consumption of alcohol may contribute to this 'Muslim paradox'. For older Turkish women, a significant mortality disadvantage remains after controls are imposed. Suicide mortality is lower for Muslims than for Christian groups of the same ethnicity. Consistent with deteriorating economic conditions over the study period, mortality was rising, particularly for women. PMID:21294054

  11. Ethnic and religious differentials in Bulgarian mortality, 1993–98

    PubMed Central

    Kohler, Iliana V.; Preston, Samuel H.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated ethnic/religious mortality differentials in Bulgaria during the 1990s. The analyses employed a unique longitudinal data set covering the entire population of Bulgaria from the census of 1992 until 1998. The mortality of Roma is very high compared to all other ethnic/religious groups. The excess applies to nearly every cause of death examined and is not entirely explained by the adverse location of Roma on social and economic variables. For young men, Muslim mortality is substantially lower than that of non-Muslims when socioeconomic differences are controlled. An analysis of causes of death suggests that lower consumption of alcohol may contribute to this ‘Muslim paradox’. For older Muslim women, a significant mortality disadvantage remains after controls are imposed. Suicide mortality is lower for Muslims than for Christian groups of the same ethnicity. Consistent with deteriorating economic conditions over the study period, mortality was rising, particularly for women. PMID:21294054

  12. The concept of 'intent' within Australian coronial data: factors affecting the National Coronial Information System's classification of mortality attributable to intentional self-harm.

    PubMed

    Dodds, Leonie; Robinson, Kerin M; Daking, Leanne; Paul, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    Within Australia all unexpected deaths are investigated by the Coroners Court; specifically, the coroner investigates the identity of the deceased and the cause and circumstances of death. This 'unexpected death' category inevitably includes cases of self-harm and suicide. Concerns regarding the accurate reporting of national suicide statistics resulted in a review of the coding process undertaken by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), which produces the national statistics, and a formal Commonwealth Government Senate Inquiry in 2009. This article reflects data and opinions collected prior to the Senate Inquiry or the adjustment of the ABS coding processes, and explores the role of the Coroner in determining the intent of the deceased person and the role the National Coronial Information System (NCIS) 1 database plays in the provision of this information. At the Case Notification and Case Closure stages of the coronial process, administrative coders abstract from the coronial file the 'intent' of the deceased and enter the data into relevant administrative systems (which upload to the NCIS). The relevant intent code in the NCIS is 'Intentional Self-Harm', which incorporates deliberate actions of self-harm and suicide. A mixed-method study was employed to investigate anecdotal reports of a problematic coronial coding process surrounding this category of cases. A sample of Australian coroners (n=16), and of the national population of NCIS coders (n=36), were surveyed using separate instruments, and an unobtrusive case review of sampled NCIS cases (n=127) reflecting nine key mechanisms-of-death, was undertaken. Each Australian state and territory has its own Coroners Act, none of which provides legislative direction regarding the determination of intent by the coroner. Neither the coroner-respondents nor the coders favoured a standard proforma to record 'intent'. In order to inform their classificatory decision-making regarding the deceased's 'intent', the

  13. [Mortality. The behavior of mortality through 1987].

    PubMed

    Jimenez, R

    1988-01-01

    Mexico's crude death rate has declined from 33/1000 in the early 20th century to about 6/1000 in 1985-87. Mortality declined sharply from 1640-60. more slowly from 1960-77, and rapidly again beginning around 1980. The explanation for the mortality decline lies both in advances in medical and health care and in economic growth of the country. The mortality declines in the late 1970s and early 1980s probably resulted primarily from extension of primary health care programs in rural areas. The infant mortality rate has declined from 288.6/1000 live births in 1900 to 73.8 in 1960 and 42 in 1986-87. At present 30% of deaths in Mexico are to children under 5, but little is known of the impact of the country's economic crisis on mortality in this age group. The strong mortality decline between 1950-70 was in the economically active age group of 15-64 years. Excess male mortality in this group reached a maximum in 1980: for each death of woman there were 150 male deaths. Between 1960-80 the rate of deaths due to infection, parasfitism, and respiratory disease declined by 5%, the rate of death from cancer remained almost unchanged, and the rate of death from cardiovascular diseases increased by 9%. Deaths from accidents, homicide, suicide, and other violence increased by 38%. Male general mortality rates were 25% higher than female in 1980. Mexican life expectancy increased from 49.6 years in 195 to 67 in 1987. Life expectancy was 65.6 for males and 71.7 for females. Average life expectancy was 69 for the more privileged social sectors and 56.7 for agricultural workers in 1965-79. The life expectancy of urban women was 3 years longer than that of rural women and 10.4 years longer than that of rural men. PMID:12158030

  14. Methodology of China's national study on the evaluation, early recognition, and treatment of psychological problems in the elderly: the China Longitudinal Aging Study (CLAS)

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Shifu; Li, Juan; Tang, Muni; Chen, Wei; Bao, Feng; Wang, Huali; Wang, Yuping; Liu, Ying; Wang, Yaping; Yuan, Yefeng; Zuo, Xiaoyun; Chen, Zhongming; Zhang, Xulai; Cui, Lijuan; Li, Xia; Wang, Tao; Wu, Wenyuan; Zhang, Mingyuan

    2013-01-01

    Summary Cognitive and depressive disorders are common in elderly Chinese and are becoming an increasingly important public health problem, partly because of the rapid aging of the population. To help address this issue China's national government has funded a major study to establish national standards for the early identification, evaluation and treatment of common psychological disorders in the elderly. The present paper describes the overall methodology of this study. Fifteen centers in eight provinces will recruit representative samples of subjects aged 60 and over, collect a detailed history, conduct a physical and neurological examination, administer a comprehensive battery of psychological tests, and carry out a diagnostic exam using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID). These subjects will participate in follow-up evaluations one year and three years after the initial evaluation. Subsamples of subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and subclinical depression will be enrolled in randomized controlled trials of a cognitive training program (for MCI) or group cognitive behavioral therapy (for subclinical depression). The results of the study will be used to estimate the prevalence of cognitive and affective disorders in the elderly, to develop a standard screening procedure for these conditions that can be promulgated nationally, and to promote the use of specific interventions that can prevent the development of dementia in persons with MCI and the development of depressive episodes in elderly individuals with subclinical depression. PMID:24991140

  15. National trends in the morbidity and mortality of asthma in the US. Prevalence, hospitalization and death from asthma over two decades: 1965-1984.

    PubMed

    Evans, R; Mullally, D I; Wilson, R W; Gergen, P J; Rosenberg, H M; Grauman, J S; Chevarley, F M; Feinleib, M

    1987-06-01

    National population-based data systems of the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) were used to study the epidemiology of asthma in the United States over the last 20 years. Asthma is more prevalent among males, those living below the poverty level, persons living in the South and West, and blacks; however, this difference did not attain statistical significance. Death rates from asthma among the older age groups probably increased between 1968 and 1982, with a substantial increase since 1979. For children, the evidence is less clear, but the death rate has increased for children over five years of age during the period from 1979 to 1982. Between 1964 and 1980, asthma has become more prevalent in children under 17 years of age, but this does not reflect an increase in the severity of asthma over this same time period. Hospitalization rates for asthma between 1965 and 1983 increased by 50 percent in adults and by over 200 percent in children. Rates for black patients are 50 percent higher in adults and 150 percent greater in children. It is concluded that there has been a marked increase in hospitalization rates for asthma, a moderate increase in death rates from asthma and a smaller increase in overall prevalence of the disease in the United States. PMID:3581966

  16. Cyclic avian mass mortality in the northeastern United States is associated with a novel Orthomyxovirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 1998, cyclic mortality events in common eiders (Somateria mollissima), numbering in the hundreds to thousands of dead birds, have been documented along the coast of Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA. Although longitudinal disease investigations have uncovered potential contributing factors responsi...

  17. Changes in the lifetime prevalence of suicidal feelings and thoughts among Norwegian doctors from 2000 to 2010: a longitudinal study based on national samples

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Thinking about suicide is an indicator of suicide risk. Suicide rates are higher among doctors than in the population. The main aims of this study are to describe the changes in the lifetime prevalence of suicidal feelings from 2000 to 2010 and the possible predictors of serious suicidal thoughts in 2010 among Norwegian doctors. Differences in lifetime prevalence of suicidal feelings between Norwegian doctors in 2010 and German doctors in 2006 will be also described. Methods Longitudinal and cross-sectional study based on questionnaire data from 2000 and 2010, including approximately 1,600 Norwegian doctors. In Germany, cross-sectional study based on questionnaire data from 2006 among a sample of 3,295 doctors. The main outcome measures were the lifetime prevalence of suicidal feelings (felt life was not worth living, wished own death, had thoughts of taking own life). Results The prevalences in 2000 and 2010 of ever had feelings of life not worth living were 48 (44 to 52) % and 45 (41 to 49) %, of ever wished own death 27 (23 to 30) % and 23 (20 to 26) %, and of ever had thoughts of taking own life 29 (16 to 33) % and 24 (21 to 27) %. Paired t-tests among those who responded both in 2000 and 2010 show significant reductions for felt life not worth living (t = −3.4; p = 0.001), wished own death (t = −3.1; p = 0.002) and had thoughts of taking own life (t = −3.5; p < 0.0001). In 2010, significant predictors of serious suicidal thoughts in a multivariate model were low subjective well-being (OR 0.68; 95% CI 0.52-0.90), poor or average self-rated health (2.36; 1.25-4.45) and high psychosocial work stress (1.92; 1.06-3.46), controlled for age, gender, speciality and job satisfaction. Norwegian doctors in 2010 compared with their German counterparts in 2006 reported quite similar prevalences of suicidal feelings. Conclusions Suicidal feelings among Norwegian doctors decreased from 2000 to 2010. Individual and work-related factors may to certain explain

  18. Primary health care contribution to improve health outcomes in Bogota-Colombia: a longitudinal ecological analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Colombia has a highly segmented and fragmented national health system that contributes to inequitable health outcomes. In 2004 the district government of Bogota initiated a Primary Health Care (PHC) strategy to improve health care access and population health status. This study aims to analyse the contribution of the PHC strategy to the improvement of health outcomes controlling for socioeconomic variables. Methods A longitudinal ecological analysis using data from secondary sources was carried out. The analysis used data from 2003 and 2007 (one year before and 3 years after the PHC implementation). A Primary Health Care Index (PHCI) of coverage intensity was constructed. According to the PHCI, localities were classified into two groups: high and low coverage. A multivariate analysis using a Poisson regression model for each year separately and a Panel Poisson regression model to assess changes between the groups over the years was developed. Dependent variables were infant mortality rate, under-5 mortality rate, infant mortality rate due to acute diarrheal disease and pneumonia, prevalence of acute malnutrition, vaccination coverage for diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus (DPT) and prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding. The independent variable was the PHCI. Control variables were sewerage coverage, health system insurance coverage and quality of life index. Results The high PHCI localities as compared with the low PHCI localities showed significant risk reductions of under-5 mortality (13.8%) and infant mortality due to pneumonia (37.5%) between 2003 and 2007. The probability of being vaccinated for DPT also showed a significant increase of 4.9%. The risk of infant mortality and of acute malnutrition in children under-5 years was lesser in the high coverage group than in the low one; however relative changes were not statistically significant. Conclusions Despite the adverse contextual conditions and the limitations imposed by the Colombian health

  19. Restoration of longitudinal images.

    PubMed

    Hu, Y; Frieden, B R

    1988-01-15

    In this paper, a method of restoring longitudinal images is developed. By using the transfer function for longitudinal objects, and inverse filtering, a longitudinal image may be restored. The Fourier theory and sampling theorems for transverse images cannot be used directly in the longitudinal case. A modification and reasonable approximation are introduced. We have numerically established a necessary relationship between just-resolved longitudinal separation (after inverse filtering), noise level, and the taking conditions of object distance and lens diameter. An empirical formula is also found to well-fit the computed results. This formula may be of use for designing optical systems which are to image longitudinal details, such as in robotics or microscopy. PMID:20523607

  20. Cancer mortality in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Isabelle R.; de Souza, Dyego L.B.; Bernal, María M.; Costa, Íris do C.C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cancer is currently in the spotlight due to their heavy responsibility as main cause of death in both developed and developing countries. Analysis of the epidemiological situation is required as a support tool for the planning of public health measures for the most vulnerable groups. We analyzed cancer mortality trends in Brazil and geographic regions in the period 1996 to 2010 and calculate mortality predictions for the period 2011 to 2030. This is an epidemiological, demographic-based study that utilized information from the Mortality Information System on all deaths due to cancer in Brazil. Mortality trends were analyzed by the Joinpoint regression, and Nordpred was utilized for the calculation of predictions. Stability was verified for the female (annual percentage change [APC] = 0.4%) and male (APC = 0.5%) sexes. The North and Northeast regions present significant increasing trends for mortality in both sexes. Until 2030, female mortality trends will not present considerable variations, but there will be a decrease in mortality trends for the male sex. There will be increases in mortality rates until 2030 for the North and Northeast regions, whereas reductions will be verified for the remaining geographic regions. This variation will be explained by the demographic structure of regions until 2030. There are pronounced regional and sex differences in cancer mortality in Brazil, and these discrepancies will continue to increase until the year 2030, when the Northeast region will present the highest cancer mortality rates in Brazil. PMID:25906105

  1. Long-term disability is associated with lasting changes in subjective well-being: evidence from two nationally representative longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Richard E

    2007-04-01

    Hedonic adaptation refers to the process by which individuals return to baseline levels of happiness following a change in life circumstances. Two nationally representative panel studies (Study 1: N = 39,987; Study 2: N = 27,406) were used to investigate the extent of adaptation that occurs following the onset of a long-term disability. In Study 1, 679 participants who acquired a disability were followed for an average of 7.18 years before and 7.39 years after onset of the disability. In Study 2, 272 participants were followed for an average of 3.48 years before and 5.31 years after onset. Disability was associated with moderate to large drops in happiness (effect sizes ranged from 0.40 to 1.27 standard deviations), followed by little adaptation over time. PMID:17469954

  2. Mortality following Traumatic Brain Injury among Individuals Unable to Follow Commands at the Time of Rehabilitation Admission: A National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems Study.

    PubMed

    Greenwald, Brian D; Hammond, Flora M; Harrison-Felix, Cynthia; Nakase-Richardson, Risa; Howe, Laura L S; Kreider, Scott

    2015-12-01

    Severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been associated with increased mortality. This study characterizes long-term mortality, life expectancy, causes of death, and risk factors for death among patients admitted within the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR) TBI Model Systems Programs (TBIMS) who lack command following at the time of admission for inpatient TBI rehabilitation. Of the 8084 persons enrolled from 1988 and 2009, 387 from 20 centers met study criteria. Individuals with moderate to severe TBI who received inpatient rehabilitation were 2.2 times more likely to die than individuals in the U.S. general population of similar age, gender, and race, with an average life expectancy (LE) reduction of 6.6 years. The subset of individuals who were unable to follow commands on admission to rehabilitation was 6.9 times more likely to die, with an average LE reduction of 12.2 years. Relative to the U.S. general population matched for age, gender, and race/ethnicity, these non-command following individuals were more than four times more likely to die of circulatory conditions, 44 times more likely to die of pneumonia, and 38 times more likely to die of aspiration pneumonia. The subset of individuals with TBI who are unable to follow commands upon admission to inpatient rehabilitation are at a significantly increased risk of death when compared with the U.S. general population and compared with all individuals with moderate to severe TBI receiving inpatient rehabilitation. Respiratory causes of death predominate, compared with the general population. PMID:25518731

  3. Association Between Media Dose, Ad Tagging, and Changes in Web Traffic for a National Tobacco Education Campaign: A Market-Level Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Kevin C; Patel, Deesha; Rodes, Robert; Beistle, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2012, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) launched Tips From Former Smokers (Tips), the first federally funded national tobacco education campaign. In 2013, a follow-up Tips campaign aired on national cable television networks, radio, and other channels, with supporting digital advertising to drive traffic to the Tips campaign website. Objective The objective of this study was to use geographic and temporal variability in 2013 Tips campaign television media doses and ad tagging to evaluate changes in traffic to the campaign website in response to specific doses of campaign media. Methods Linear regression models were used to estimate the dose-response relationship between weekly market-level television gross rating points (GRPs) and weekly Web traffic to the Tips campaign website. This relationship was measured using unique visitors, total visits, and page views as outcomes. Ad GRP effects were estimated separately for ads tagged with the Tips campaign website URL and 1-800-QUIT-NOW. Results In the average media market, an increase of 100 television GRPs per week for ads tagged with the Tips campaign website URL was associated with an increase of 650 unique visitors (P<.001), 769 total visits (P<.001), and 1255 total page views (P<.001) per week. The associations between GRPs for ads tagged with 1-800-QUIT-NOW and each Web traffic measure were also statistically significant (P<.001), but smaller in magnitude. Conclusions Based on these findings, we estimate that the 16-week 2013 Tips television campaign generated approximately 660,000 unique visitors, 900,000 total visits, and 1,390,000 page views for the Tips campaign website. These findings can help campaign planners forecast the likely impact of targeted advertising efforts on consumers’ use of campaign-specific websites. PMID:26887959

  4. Labor migration and child mortality in Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Yabiku, Scott T.; Agadjanian, Victor; Cau, Boaventura

    2013-01-01

    Male labor migration is widespread in many parts of the world, yet its consequences for child outcomes and especially childhood mortality remain unclear. Male labor migration could bring benefits, in the form of remittances, to the families that remain behind and thus help child survival. Alternatively, the absence of a male adult could imperil the household's well-being and its ability to care for its members, increasing child mortality risks. In this analysis, we use longitudinal survey data from Mozambique collected in 2006 and 2009 to examine the association between male labor migration and under-five mortality in families that remain behind. Using a simple migrant/non-migrant dichotomy, we find no difference in mortality rates across migrant and non-migrant men's children. When we separated successful from unsuccessful migration based on the wife's perception, however, stark contrasts emerge: children of successful migrants have the lowest mortality, followed by children of non-migrant men, followed by the children of unsuccessful migrants. Our results illustrate the need to account for the diversity of men's labor migration experience in examining the effects of migration on left-behind households. PMID:23121856

  5. Early Violent Death Among Delinquent Youth: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Teplin, Linda A.; McClelland, Gary M.; Abram, Karen M.; Mileusnic, Darinka

    2005-01-01

    Objective Youth processed in the juvenile justice system are at great risk for early violent death. Groups at greatest risk, ie, racial/ethnic minorities, male youth, and urban youth, are overrepresented in the juvenile justice system. We compared mortality rates for delinquent youth with those for the general population, controlling for differences in gender, race/ethnicity, and age. Methods This prospective longitudinal study examined mortality rates among 1829 youth (1172 male and 657 female) enrolled in the Northwestern Juvenile Project, a study of health needs and outcomes of delinquent youth. Participants, 10 to 18 years of age, were sampled randomly from intake at the Cook County Juvenile Temporary Detention Center in Chicago, Illinois, between 1995 and 1998. The sample was stratified according to gender, race/ethnicity (African American, non-Hispanic white, Hispanic, or other), age (10–13 or ≥14 years), and legal status (processed as a juvenile or as an adult), to obtain enough participants for examination of key subgroups. The sample included 1005 African American (54.9%), 296 non-Hispanic white (16.2%), 524 Hispanic (28.17%), and 4 other-race/ethnicity (0.2%) subjects. The mean age at enrollment was 14.9 years (median age: 15 years). The refusal rate was 4.2%. As of March 31, 2004, we had monitored participants for 0.5 to 8.4 years (mean: 7.1 years; median: 7.2 years; interquartile range: 6.5–7.8 years); the aggregate exposure for all participants was 12 944 person-years. Data on deaths and causes of death were obtained from family reports or records and were then verified by the local medical examiner or the National Death Index. For comparisons of mortality rates for delinquents and the general population, all data were weighted according to the racial/ethnic, gender, and age characteristics of the detention center; these weighted standardized populations were used to calculate reported percentages and mortality ratios. We calculated mortality

  6. Network Type and Mortality Risk in Later Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litwin, Howard; Shiovitz-Ezra, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the association of baseline network type and 7-year mortality risk in later life. Design and Methods: We executed secondary analysis of all-cause mortality in Israel using data from a 1997 national survey of adults aged 60 and older (N = 5,055) that was linked to records from the National Death…

  7. Policies for the reduction of mortality differentials.

    PubMed

    Brass, W

    1980-12-01

    study of child mortality was made in Latin America by Behm who examined its implications for the socioeconomic determinants of fertility. The ratio of mortality up to age 2 for children born to women with no education was 3-4 times that for children born with 10 or more years of education. There were differentials by income, occupational class, and urban-rural residence, but these were smaller than that by education and did not explain it. A longitudinal survey in England and Wales revealed significant mortality differentials by family structure. A little evidence exists that this may be even more important in developing countries. Policies to reduce morality differentials must change the environment or operate on the capacities of the families to control it. The evidence is that broad measures to improve the environment or social and health activities will reduce mortality but not socioeconomic differentials so long as the spread of control capacities over families remains the same. Available evidence supports the view that even a modest effort in family welfare policies for the more disadvantaged among the population could result in a good return in reduced mortality differentials. PMID:12337640

  8. Determinants of national diarrheal disease burden.

    PubMed

    Green, Sean T; Small, Mitchell J; Casman, Elizabeth A

    2009-02-15

    Diarrheal illness is a leading cause of child mortality in developing nations. Previous longitudinal studies have attempted to identify the factors that contribute to child mortality, but few have examined the determinants of diarrheal illness at a country level. Here we demonstrate the use of Classification and Regression Trees (CART) to predict diarrheal illness from a 192-country data set of country-level attributes and compare the performance of CART with a linear regression model. The CART model identifies improvements in rural sanitation as the most important spending priority for reducing diarrheal illness. We estimate that reducing unmet rural sanitation need worldwide by 65% would save the equivalent of 1.2 million lives annually. PMID:19320148

  9. Investigating the relationship between quality of primary care and premature mortality in England: a spatial whole-population study

    PubMed Central

    Springate, David A; Ashworth, Mark; Webb, Roger T; Buchan, Iain E; Doran, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To quantify the relationship between a national primary care pay-for-performance programme, the UK’s Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF), and all-cause and cause-specific premature mortality linked closely with conditions included in the framework. Design Longitudinal spatial study, at the level of the “lower layer super output area” (LSOA). Setting 32482 LSOAs (neighbourhoods of 1500 people on average), covering the whole population of England (approximately 53.5 million), from 2007 to 2012. Participants 8647 English general practices participating in the QOF for at least one year of the study period, including over 99% of patients registered with primary care. Intervention National pay-for-performance programme incentivising performance on over 100 quality-of-care indicators. Main outcome measures All-cause and cause-specific mortality rates for six chronic conditions: diabetes, heart failure, hypertension, ischaemic heart disease, stroke, and chronic kidney disease. We used multiple linear regressions to investigate the relationship between spatially estimated recorded quality of care and mortality. Results All-cause and cause-specific mortality rates declined over the study period. Higher mortality was associated with greater area deprivation, urban location, and higher proportion of a non-white population. In general, there was no significant relationship between practice performance on quality indicators included in the QOF and all-cause or cause-specific mortality rates in the practice locality. Conclusions Higher reported achievement of activities incentivised under a major, nationwide pay-for-performance programme did not seem to result in reduced incidence of premature death in the population. PMID:25733592

  10. Longitudinal impedance of RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J. M.; Mernick, K.

    2015-05-03

    The longitudinal impedance of the two RHIC rings has been measured using the effect of potential well distortion on longitudinal Schottky measurements. For the blue RHIC ring Im(Z/n) = 1.5±0.2Ω. For the yellow ring Im(Z/n) = 5.4±1Ω.

  11. Longitudinal Multistage Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohl, Steffi

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces longitudinal multistage testing (lMST), a special form of multistage testing (MST), as a method for adaptive testing in longitudinal large-scale studies. In lMST designs, test forms of different difficulty levels are used, whereas the values on a pretest determine the routing to these test forms. Since lMST allows for…

  12. Does parity affect mortality among parous women?

    PubMed Central

    Koski‐Rahikkala, H; Pouta, A; Pietiläinen, K; Hartikainen, A‐L

    2006-01-01

    Objective To find out whether there is an association between parity and mortality. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Northern Finland, 1966–2001. Participants and methods 12 055 women in the two northernmost provinces of Finland were followed up from pregnancy in 1966–2001, the coverage percentage being 96%. The data on age, smoking, body mass index, socioeconomic position, age at menarche and age at first birth were collected during pregnancy, and data on deaths were obtained from the National Cause of Death Statistics, maintained by Statistics Finland. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate relative mortality between parity groups. Results Total mortality was lowest among the women with 2–4 children (reference group). High parity was associated with an up to twofold risk of mortality from vascular complications, but after adjustment for all background factors, this significance disappeared. Mortality from haemorrhagic stroke was fourfold higher among the women with ⩾10 births compared with those of the reference group. No differences in cerebral infarction or total cancer mortality were seen between the groups. Primiparity was associated with increased mortality from accidental death (relative risk 2.6, 95% confidence interval 1.6 to 4.4). Conclusions High parity was associated with an increased risk of mortality from vascular complications, especially haemorrhagic stroke, and primiparity with an increased risk of accidental death. PMID:17053286

  13. Strategies for reducing maternal mortality.

    PubMed

    Clark, Steven L

    2012-02-01

    The maternal death rate in the United States has shown no improvement in several decades and may be increasing. On the other hand, hospital systems that have instituted comprehensive programs directed at the prevention of maternal mortality have demonstrated rates that are half of the national average. These programs have emphasized the reduction of variability in the provision of care through the use of standard protocols, reliance on checklists instead of memory for critical processes, and an approach to peer review that emphasizes systems change. In addition, elimination of a small number of repetitive errors in the management of hypertension, postpartum hemorrhage, pulmonary embolism, and cardiac disease will contribute significantly to a reduction in maternal mortality. Attention to these general principles and specific error reduction strategies will be of benefit to every practitioner and more importantly to the patients we serve. PMID:22280865

  14. Increase of perceived frequency of neighborhood domestic violence is associated with increase of women's depression symptoms in a nationally representative longitudinal study in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Meffert, Susan M; McCulloch, Charles E; Neylan, Thomas C; Gandhi, Monica; Lund, Crick

    2015-04-01

    Studies that examine the effects of neighborhood characteristics on mental health show that perceptions of general neighborhood violence are associated with depression across diverse populations (Clark et al., 2008; Velez-Gomez et al., 2013; Wilson-Genderson & Pruchno, 2013). However, to our knowledge, none have examined the specific effect of perceived frequency of neighborhood domestic violence (PFNDV) on residents' mental health, despite knowledge that domestic violence is a potent predictor of depression at the level of the individual. This study investigates the impact of PFNDV on mental health using the South African National Income Dynamics Study (SA-NIDS). NIDS Waves 2 and 3 measure the perceived frequency of six neighborhood violence subtypes through the NIDS household respondent questionnaire and depression through a questionnaire administered to all NIDS participants. Linear regression was used to model the relationship between change in depression symptoms and change in violence subtypes between Waves 2 and 3. We found that two-year increase in PFNDV was significantly correlated with increase of depression symptoms over the same time period for women, independently of individual, household and neighborhood level characteristics, including five other types of neighborhood violence. No other type of violence was associated with increased depression in women in the fully adjusted model. Research and policy implications are discussed. PMID:25769107

  15. Predicting Changes in Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Type 2 Diabetes in the Post-UKPDS Era: Longitudinal Analysis of the Swedish National Diabetes Register

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad Kiadaliri, Aliasghar; Clarke, Philip M.; Gerdtham, Ulf-G.; Nilsson, Peter; Eliasson, Björn; Gudbjörnsdottir, Soffia; Steen Carlsson, Katarina

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to provide updated time-path equations for risk factors of type-2-diabetes-related cardiovascular complications for application in risk calculators and health economic models. Observational data from the Swedish National Diabetes Register were analysed using Generalized Method of Moments estimation for dynamic panel models (N = 5,043, aged 25–70 years at diagnosis in 2001–2004). Validation was performed using persons diagnosed in 2005 (n = 414). Results were compared with the UKPDS outcome model. The value of the risk factor in the previous year was the main predictor of the current value of the risk factor. People with high (low) values of risk factor in the year of diagnosis experienced a decreasing (increasing) trend over time. BMI was associated with elevations in all risk factors, while older age at diagnosis and being female generally corresponded to lower levels of risk factors. Updated time-path equations predicted risk factors more precisely than UKPDS outcome model equations in a Swedish population. Findings indicate new time paths for cardiovascular risk factors in the post-UKPDS era. The validation analysis confirmed the importance of updating the equations as new data become available; otherwise, the results of health economic analyses may be biased. PMID:23671860

  16. Searching for and Finding Meaning in Collective Trauma: Results From a National Longitudinal Study of the 9/11 Terrorist Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Updegraff, John A.; Silver, Roxane Cohen; Holman, E. Alison

    2008-01-01

    The ability to make sense of events in one’s life has held a central role in theories of adaptation to adversity. However, there are few rigorous studies on the role of meaning in adjustment, and those that have been conducted have focused predominantly on direct personal trauma. The authors examined the predictors and long-term consequences of Americans’ searching for and finding meaning in a widespread cultural upheaval—the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001—among a national probability sample of U.S. adults (N = 931). Searching for meaning at 2 months post-9/11 was predicted by demographics and high acute stress response. In contrast, finding meaning was predicted primarily by demographics and specific early coping strategies. Whereas searching for meaning predicted greater posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms across the following 2 years, finding meaning predicted lower PTS symptoms, even after controlling for pre-9/11 mental health, exposure to 9/11, and acute stress response. Mediation analyses suggest that finding meaning supported adjustment by reducing fears of future terrorism. Results highlight the role of meaning in adjustment following collective traumas that shatter people’s fundamental assumptions about security and invulnerability. PMID:18729704

  17. Increase of perceived frequency of neighborhood domestic violence is associated with increase of women's depression symptoms in a nationally representative longitudinal study in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Meffert, Susan M.; McCulloch, Charles E.; Neylan, Thomas C.; Gandhi, Monica; Lund, Crick

    2015-01-01

    Studies that examine the effects of neighborhood characteristics on mental health show that perceptions of general neighborhood violence are associated with depression across diverse populations (Clark et al., 2008; Velez-Gomez et al., 2013; Wilson-Genderson & Pruchno, 2013). However, to our knowledge, none have examined the specific effect of perceived frequency of neighborhood domestic violence (PFNDV) on residents' mental health, despite knowledge that domestic violence is a potent predictor of depression at the level of the individual. This study investigates the impact of PFNDV on mental health using the South African National Income Dynamics Study (SA-NIDS). NIDS Waves 2 and 3 measure the perceived frequency of six neighborhood violence subtypes through the NIDS household respondent questionnaire and depression through a questionnaire administered to all NIDS participants. Linear regression was used to model the relationship between change in depression symptoms and change in violence subtypes between Waves 2 and 3. We found that two-year increase in PFNDV was significantly correlated with increase of depression symptoms over the same time period for women, independently of individual, household and neighborhood level characteristics, including five other types of neighborhood violence. No other type of violence was associated with increased depression in women in the fully adjusted model. Research and policy implications are discussed. PMID:25769107

  18. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtype distribution, geodemographic patterns, and survival in the US: A longitudinal analysis of the National Cancer Data Base from 1998 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Al-Hamadani, Mohammed; Habermann, Thomas M; Cerhan, James R; Macon, William R; Maurer, Matthew J; Go, Ronald S

    2015-09-01

    The World Health Organization classification of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) was introduced in 2001. However, its incorporation into clinical practice is not well-described. We studied the distribution of NHL subtypes in adults diagnosed from 1998 to 2011, evaluated time trends, geo-demographic correlates, and changes in 5-year overall survival (OS). We obtained data prospectively collected by the National Cancer Data Base, which covers 70% of US cancer cases. There were 596,476 patients diagnosed with NHL. The major subtypes were diffuse large B-cell (32.5%), chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL; 18.6%), follicular (17.1%), marginal zone (8.3%), mantle cell (4.1%), peripheral T-cell not-otherwise-specified (1.7%), Burkitt (1.6%), hairy cell (1.1%), lymphoplasmacytic (1.1%), and NHL not-otherwise-specified (10.8%). Over the study period, the proportion of NHL not-otherwise-specified declined by half, while marginal zone lymphoma doubled. The distribution of major and rare NHL subtypes varied according to demographics but less so geographically or by type of treatment facility. We noted several novel findings among Hispanics (lower proportion of CLL/SLL, but higher Burkitt lymphoma and nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma), Asians (higher enteropathy-associated T-cell and angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphomas), Blacks (higher hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma), and Native Americans (similar proportions of CLL/SLL and nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma as Asians). With the exception of peripheral T-cell not-otherwise-specified and hairy cell leukemia, 5-year OS has improved for all the major NHL subtypes. PMID:26096944

  19. The effect of the National Essential Medicines Policy on health expenditures and service delivery in Chinese township health centres: evidence from a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xin; Wu, Qunhong; Liu, Guoxiang; Li, Ye; Gao, Lijun; Guo, Bin; Fu, Wenqi; Hao, Yanhua; Cui, Yu; Huang, Weidong; Coyte, Peter C

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The government of China has introduced a National Essential Medicines Policy (NEMP) in the new round of health system reform. The objective of this paper is to analyse whether the NEMP can play a role in curbing the rise of medical expenditures without disrupting the availability of healthcare services at township hospitals in China. Design This study adopted a pre–post treatment-control study design. A difference-in-differences method and fixed-effects model for panel data were employed to estimate the effect of the NEMP. Setting Chongqing, Jiangsu and Henan Province, in China, in 2009 and 2010. Participants 296 township health centres. Outcome measures Outcomes for health expenditures were average outpatient drug expenses per visit, average inpatient drug expenses per discharged patient, average outpatient expenses per visit and average inpatient expenses per discharged patient. Outcomes for care delivery were the numbers of visits per certified doctor per day and the numbers of hospitalised patients per certified doctor per day. Results The township health centres that were enrolled in the NEMP reported 26% (p<0.01) lower drug expenditures for inpatient care. An 11% (p<0.05) decrease in average inpatient expenditures per discharged patient was found following the implementation of the NEMP. The impacts of the NEMP on average outpatient expenditures and outpatient drug expenditures were not statistically significant at the 5% level. No statistically significant associations were found between the NEMP and reduction in quantity of health service delivery. Conclusions The NEMP was significant in its effect in reducing inpatient medication and health service expenditures. This study shows no evidence that the quantity of healthcare service declined significantly after introduction of the NEMP over the study period, which suggests that if appropriate matching policies are introduced, the side effects of the NEMP can be counteracted to some degree

  20. Using Longitudinal Assessment Data to Improve Retention and Student Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trosset, Carol; Weisler, Steven

    2010-01-01

    The Wabash National Study of Liberal Arts Education presents a longitudinal analysis of how students change on a number of scales that purport to measure many of the outcomes of liberal learning over the span of a college education. The Wabash Study is designed to collect information longitudinally from students at the beginning and end of their…

  1. Longitudinal Trajectories of Perceived Body Weight: Adolescence to Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Li, Kaigang

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine longitudinal trajectories of perceived weight from adolescence to early adulthood by gender. Methods: We analyzed 9 waves (1997-2005) of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 8302) using Mplus. Results: Perceived overweight increased over time among girls and did not level off until 23 years of age. Blacks…

  2. Prospective associations between inflammatory and hemostatic markers and physical functioning limitations in mid-life women: Longitudinal Results of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN)

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Candace K.; El Khoudary, Samar R.; Karvonen-Gutierrez, Carrie A.; Ylitalo, Kelly R.; Tomey, Kristin; VoPham, Trang; Sternfeld, Barbara; Cauley, Jane A.; Harlow, Siobán

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to the public health burden of age-related declines in physical functioning, it is important to identify targets for intervention for the prevention of functional decline. We prospectively examined whether higher levels of inflammatory and hemostatic markers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), tissue plasminogen activator antigen (tPA-ag), fibrinogen, and Factor VIIc (FVIIc)) were prospectively associated with reporting greater limitations in perceived physical functioning, and explored potential racial differences in the associations, in a multi-ethnic sample of mid-life women. Methods Women (45 – 56 years) in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation who completed the physical functioning scale of the Medical Outcome Short Form (SF-36) at follow-up visits 4, 6, or 8 and had inflammatory/hemostatic measures in the preceeding year were included (n=2296). The continuous SF-36 physical function score was categorized as: no limitation (86–100 points), some limitation (51–85 points), and substantial limitation (0–50 points). Physical function category at time t was modeled a function of each biomarker, separately, at time t-1 using ordinal generalized estimating equations. Results After adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, body size, sociodemographic, medical and lifestyle factors, higher levels of tPA-ag and hs-CRP were associated with subsequently reporting greater limitations in physical functioning, although the latter was only marginally significant (p=0.13). For each standard deviation (SD) increase in logtPA-ag, the odds of some or substantial limitations was 1.18 (95%CI 1.09,1.27); for each SD increase in loghs-CRP, the odds of some or substantial limitation was (1.08, 95%CI 0.98,1.19). In African American women only, higher fibrinogen levels were associated with subsequently reporting greater limitations (OR=1.30, 95%CI 1.13,1.50, for each one SD increase in fibrinogen). Conclusions

  3. War and Children's Mortality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlton-Ford, Steve; Houston, Paula; Hamill, Ann

    2000-01-01

    Examines impact of war on young children's mortality in 137 countries. Finds that years recently at war (1990-5) interact with years previously at war (1946-89) to elevate mortality rates. Religious composition interacts with years recently at war to reduce effect. Controlling for women's literacy and access to safe water eliminates effect for…

  4. Avoidable mortality in Lithuania.

    PubMed Central

    Gaizauskiene, A; Gurevicius, R

    1995-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The study aimed to analyse avoidable mortality in Lithuania as an index of the quality of health care and to assess trends in avoidable mortality from 1970-90. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS--All deaths of Lithuanian residents aged between 0 and 64 years between 1970 and 1990 were analysed. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Twenty seven per cent of all deaths in this age group were avoidable. Avoidable deaths were grouped into preventable and treatable ones. Treatable causes of death accounted for 54%, and preventable, 46% of avoidable mortality. Time trends showed that general mortality and mortality from avoidable causes of death in this age group were almost stable between 1970 and 1990. Mortality from treatable causes of death fell, while deaths from preventable causes increased. The results in the preventable group were greatly affected by deaths from malignant neoplasms of trachea, bronchus, and lungs. Differences were noted between the sexes in total mortality as well as in avoidable mortality. CONCLUSIONS--Avoidable causes of death are relatively common and, consequently, they are of practical importance for public health and studies of the health care quality in Lithuania. Reorganisation of health care is to be carried out and considerable emphasis will be placed on health education, promotion, and prevention, as primary prevention measures have not been effective thus far. PMID:7629464

  5. Using the Gompertz-Strehler model of aging and mortality to explain mortality trends in industrialized countries.

    PubMed

    Riggs, J E; Millecchia, R J

    1992-09-01

    Mortality trends in industrialized countries are characterized by declines in vascular disease (ischemic heart disease and stroke) and rises in cancers and degenerative diseases. These trends are typically analyzed by examining each disorder in isolation using the perspective of genetic and environmental influences. However, longitudinal Gompertzian analysis and the Gompertz-Strehler model of aging and mortality as modified by Lestienne suggest that age-specific mortality rates, for both general and disease-specific mortality, are an interrelated deterministic function of aggregate genetic, environmental and competitive influences. Consequently, evolving mortality trends and patterns appear to be influenced by three factors (with deterministic competition being the third factor), rather than just two factors (genetic and environmental) as commonly depicted. PMID:1434950

  6. Residential mobility among foreign-born persons living in Sweden is associated with lower mortality

    PubMed Central

    Albin, Björn; Hjelm, Katarina; Ekberg, Jan; Elmståhl, Sölve

    2010-01-01

    There have been few longitudinal studies on the effect of within-country mobility on patterns of mortality in deceased foreign-born individuals. The results have varied; some studies have found that individuals who move around within the same country have better health status than those who do not change their place of residence. Other studies have shown that changing one’s place of residence leads to more self-reported health problems and diseases. Our aim was to analyze the pattern of mortality in deceased foreign-born persons living in Sweden during the years 1970–1999 in relation to distance mobility. Data from Statistics Sweden and the National Board of Health and Welfare was used, and the study population consisted of 281,412 foreign-born persons aged 16 years and over who were registered as living in Sweden in 1970. Distance mobility did not have a negative effect on health. Total mortality was lower (OR 0.71; 95% CI 0.69–0.73) in foreign-born persons in Sweden who had changed their county of residence during the period 1970–1990. Higher death rates were observed, after adjustment for age, in three ICD diagnosis groups “Injury and poisoning”, “External causes of injury and poisoning”, and “Diseases of the digestive system” among persons who had changed county of residence. PMID:20865116

  7. Predictors of mortality in rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Joshua J; Chung, Jonathan H; Cosgrove, Gregory P; Demoruelle, M Kristen; Fernandez-Perez, Evans R; Fischer, Aryeh; Frankel, Stephen K; Hobbs, Stephen B; Huie, Tristan J; Ketzer, Jill; Mannina, Amar; Olson, Amy L; Russell, Gloria; Tsuchiya, Yutaka; Yunt, Zulma X; Zelarney, Pearlanne T; Brown, Kevin K; Swigris, Jeffrey J

    2016-02-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a common pulmonary manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis. There is lack of clarity around predictors of mortality and disease behaviour over time in these patients.We identified rheumatoid arthritis-related interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD) patients evaluated at National Jewish Health (Denver, CO, USA) from 1995 to 2013 whose baseline high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans showed either a nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) or a "definite" or "possible" usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern. We used univariate, multivariate and longitudinal analytical methods to identify clinical predictors of mortality and to model disease behaviour over time.The cohort included 137 subjects; 108 had UIP on HRCT (RA-UIP) and 29 had NSIP on HRCT (RA-NSIP). Those with RA-UIP had a shorter survival time than those with RA-NSIP (log rank p=0.02). In a model controlling for age, sex, smoking and HRCT pattern, a lower baseline % predicted forced vital capacity (FVC % pred) (HR 1.46; p<0.0001) and a 10% decline in FVC % pred from baseline to any time during follow up (HR 2.57; p<0.0001) were independently associated with an increased risk of death.Data from this study suggest that in RA-ILD, disease progression and survival differ between subgroups defined by HRCT pattern; however, when controlling for potentially influential variables, pulmonary physiology, but not HRCT pattern, independently predicts mortality. PMID:26585429

  8. The Impact of Hospice Care on Survival and Healthcare Costs for Patients with Lung Cancer: A National Longitudinal Population-Based Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Jui-Kun; Kao, Yee-Hsin; Lai, Ning-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Background The healthcare costs of cancer care are highest in the last month of life. The effect of hospice care on end-of-life (EOL) healthcare costs is not clearly understood. Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of hospice care on survival and healthcare costs for lung cancer patients in their final month of life. Methods We adopted Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Claims Database to analyze data for 3399 adult lung cancer patients who died in 1997–2011. A logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the predictors of high healthcare cost, defined as costs falling above the 90th percentile. Patients who received hospice cares were assigned to a hospice (H) group and those who did not were assigned to a non-hospice (non-H) group. Results The patients in the H group had a longer mean (median) survival time than those in the non-H group did (1.40 ± 1.61 y (0.86) vs. 1.10 ± 1.47 (0.61), p<0.001). The non-H group had a lower mean healthcare cost than the H group (US $1,821 ± 2,441 vs. US $1,839 ± 1,638, p<0.001). And, there were a total of 340 patients (10%) with the healthcare costs exceeding the 90th percentile (US $4,721) as the cutoff value of high cost. The non-H group had a higher risk of high cost than the H group because many more cases in the non-H group had lower costs. Moreover, the risk of high health care costs were predicted for patients who did not receive hospice care (odds ratio [OR]: 3.68, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.44–5.79), received chemotherapy (OR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.18–1.96) and intubation (OR: 2.63, 95% CI: 1.64–4.16), and those who had more emergency department visits (OR: 1.78, 95% CI: 1.24–2.52), longer hospital admission in days (OR: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.07–1.09), and received radiotherapy (OR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.00–1.78). Lower risks of high health care costs were observed in patients with low socioeconomic status (OR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.40–0.83), or previous employment (OR: 0

  9. Child mortality in Goa: a cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Rao, S R; Pandey, A; Shajy, K I

    1997-01-01

    This paper is a study of the determinants of child mortality in the relatively developed Indian state of Goa. Data from the National Family Health Survey (NFHS, 1992-93) conducted in the state of Goa have been used to examine the child mortality experiences of 1,331 women who were within a marriage lasting 15 years. An aggregated index of child mortality, which summarizes the mortality experiences of a woman with exposure adjustment, is the study variable. Maternal education and longer birth spacing were found to lower child mortality risks significantly. PMID:9325655

  10. [Mortality of myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Bonnefoy, E; Kirkorian, G

    2011-12-01

    Coronary disease is a major cause of death and disability. From 1975 to 2000, coronary mortality was reduced by half. Better treatments and reduction of risk factors are the main causes. This phenomenon is observed in most developed countries, but mortality from coronary heart disease continues to increase in developing countries. In-hospital mortality of ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is in the range of 7 to 10% in registries. In infarction without ST segment elevation (NSTEMI), in-hospital mortality is around 5%. More recent studies found a similar in-hospital mortality for STEMI and NSTEMI. Because of patient selection and monitoring, mortality in clinical trials is much lower. After adjustment for the extent of coronary disease, age, risk factors, history of myocardial infarction, the excess mortality observed in women is fading. Many clinical, biological and laboratory parameters are associated with mortality in myocardial infarction. They refer to the immediate risk of death (ventricular rhythm disturbances, shock…), the extent of infarction (number of leads with ST elevation on the ECG, release of biomarkers, ejection fraction…), the presence of heart failure, the failure of reperfusion and the patient's baseline risk (age, renal function…). Risk scores, and more specifically the GRACE risk score, synthesize these different markers to predict the risk of death in a given patient. However, their use for the treatment of myocardial only concerns NSTEMI. Only a limited number of mechanical or pharmacological interventions reduces mortality of heart attack. The main benefits are observed with reperfusion by thrombolysis or primary angioplasty in STEMI, aspirin, heparin, beta-blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. Some medications such as bivalirudin and fondaparinux reduce mortality by decreasing the incidence of hemorrhagic complications. The guidelines classify interventions according to their benefit and especially their ability

  11. Dietary intake of vitamin K is inversely associated with mortality risk.

    PubMed

    Juanola-Falgarona, Martí; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Corella, Dolores; Estruch, Ramón; Ros, Emili; Fitó, Montserrat; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Basora, Josep; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa María; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Pintó, Xavier; Muñoz, Miguel Ángel; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Fernández-Ballart, Joan; Bulló, Mònica

    2014-05-01

    Vitamin K has been related to cardiovascular disease and cancer risk. However, data on total mortality are scarce. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between the dietary intake of different types of vitamin K and mortality in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular disease risk. A prospective cohort analysis was conducted in 7216 participants from the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) study (median follow-up of 4.8 y). Energy and nutrient intakes were evaluated using a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire. Dietary vitamin K intake was calculated annually using the USDA food composition database and other published sources. Deaths were ascertained by an end-point adjudication committee unaware of the dietary habits of participants after they had reviewed medical records and linked up to the National Death Index. Cox proportional hazard models were fitted to assess the RR of mortality. Energy-adjusted baseline dietary phylloquinone intake was inversely associated with a significantly reduced risk of cancer and all-cause mortality after controlling for potential confounders (HR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.30, 0.96; and HR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.90, respectively). In longitudinal assessments, individuals who increased their intake of phylloquinone or menaquinone during follow-up had a lower risk of cancer (HR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.43, 0.95; and HR: 0.41; 95% CI: 0.26, 0.64, respectively) and all-cause mortality (HR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.73; and HR: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.73, respectively) than individuals who decreased or did not change their intake. Also, individuals who increased their intake of dietary phylloquinone had a lower risk of cardiovascular mortality risk (HR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.31, 0.86). However, no association between changes in menaquinone intake and cardiovascular mortality was observed (HR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.44, 1.29). An increase in dietary intake of vitamin K is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular

  12. Patient factors associated with 30-day morbidity, mortality, and length of stay after surgery for subdural hematoma: a study of the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program.

    PubMed

    Lukasiewicz, Adam M; Grant, Ryan A; Basques, Bryce A; Webb, Matthew L; Samuel, Andre M; Grauer, Jonathan N

    2016-03-01

    OBJECT Surgery for subdural hematoma (SDH) is a commonly performed neurosurgical procedure. This study identifies patient characteristics associated with adverse outcomes and prolonged length of stay (LOS) in patients who underwent surgical treatment for SDH. METHODS All patients in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) who were treated via craniotomy or craniectomy for SDH between 2005 and 2012 were identified. Patient demographics, comorbidities, and 30-day outcomes were described. Multivariate regression was used to identify predictors of adverse events. RESULTS A total of 746 surgical procedures performed for SDH were identified and analyzed. Patients undergoing this procedure were 64% male with an average age (± SD) of 70.9 ± 14.1 years. The most common individual adverse events were death (17%) and intubation for more than 48 hours (19%). In total, 34% experienced a serious adverse event other than death, 8% of patients returned to the operating room (OR), and the average hospital LOS was 9.8 ± 9.9 days. In multivariate analysis, reduced mortality was associated with age less than 60 years (relative risk [RR] = 0.47, p = 0.017). Increased mortality was associated with gangrene (RR = 3.5, p = 0.044), ascites (RR = 3.00, p = 0.006), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Class 4 or higher (RR = 2.34, p = 0.002), coma (RR = 2.25, p < 0.001), and bleeding disorders (RR = 1.87, p = 0.003). Return to the OR was associated with pneumonia (RR = 3.86, p = 0.044), male sex (RR = 1.85, p = 0.015), and delirium (RR = 1.75, p = 0.016). Serious adverse events were associated with ventilator dependence preoperatively (RR = 1.86, p < 0.001), dialysis (RR = 1.44, p = 0.028), delirium (RR = 1.40, p = 0.005), ASA Class 4 or higher (RR = 1.36, p = 0.035), and male sex (RR = 1.29, p = 0.037). Similarly, LOS was increased in ventilator dependent patients by 1.56-fold (p = 0.002), in patients with ASA Class 4 or higher by

  13. Mortality in Asia.

    PubMed

    1981-01-01

    Although the general trend in mortality between 1950 and 1975 in South and East Asia has been downward, there is considerable country-to-country variation in the rate of decline. In countries where combined economic, social, and political circumstances resulted in controlling the disease spectrum (e.g., China, Malaysia, Sri Lanka), mortality levels declined to those seen in low-mortality countries. In most of the large countries of the region however, mortality declined at a slower rate, even slowing down considerably in the 1970's while the death rates remained high (e.g., India, Bangladesh, Thailand, Philippines); this slowing down of mortality level is attributed essentially to the poverty-stricken masses of society which were not able to take advantage of social, technological, and health-promoting behavioral changes conducive to mortality decline. Infant mortality levels, although declining since 1950, followed the same dismal pattern of the general mortality level. The rate varies from less than 10/1000 live births (Japan) to more than 140/1000 (Bangladesh, Laos, Nepal). Generally, rural areas exhibited higher infant mortality than urban areas. The level of child mortality declines with increases in the mother's educational level in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. The largest decline in child mortality occurs when at least 1 parent has secondary education. The premature retardation of mortality decline is caused by several factors: economic development, nutrition and food supply, provision and adequacy of health services, and demographic trends. The outlook for the year 2000 for most of Asia's countries will depend heavily on significant population increases. In most countries, particularly in South Asia, population is expected to increase by 75%, much of it in rural areas and among poorer socioeconomic groups. In view of this, Asia's health planners and policymakers will have to develop health policies which will strike a balance

  14. Excess mortality among Swedish chimney sweeps.

    PubMed Central

    Gustavsson, P; Gustavsson, A; Hogstedt, C

    1987-01-01

    In a cohort study of 5464 union organised Swedish chimney sweeps employed at any time between 1918 and 1980 mortality was studied from 1951 to 1982 with national statistics used as a reference. Follow up was possible for 98.6% of the individuals: 717 deaths were observed against 540 expected. There was an increased mortality from coronary heart disease, respiratory diseases, and several types of malignant tumours. Lung cancer mortality was significantly increased and positively correlated to the number of years employed. A fivefold risk increase for oesophageal cancer and liver cancer was found. The increased mortality could be attributed to exposure to combustion products in the work environment but not to smoking habits. PMID:3689705

  15. Infant mortality rates declining, but still high.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, M

    1992-10-01

    Family planning can improve infant survival. Specifically, use of family planning methods can minimize family size, increase birth spacing, and reduce the likelihood of pregnancy for teenagers and women aged 40 or older. Immunizations and oral rehydration are responsible for the falling infant mortality rats since 1977 in developing countries, especially among 1-12 month old infants. Yet, neonatal mortality in developing countries had not changed. WHO intends to step up efforts to improve newborn survival. Accurate data are needed, however. Even in developed countries which keep good statistics, infant mortality bias exists. For example, in Japan, some infant deaths are called fetal deaths. In developing countries, much of the data come from hospitals, yet most birth do not occur in hospitals. Even in surveys, bias exists, such as problems with recall. Many researchers use traditional birth attendants (TBAs) to follow up on all births in an area which may eliminate some biases. Such a prospective and longitudinal study in Trairi county in northeastern Brazil shows the infant mortality rate to be less than half of the official rate (65 vs. 142). The major causes of infant death in developed countries, which tends to occur in the neonatal period, are low birth weight, prematurity, birth complications, and congenital defects; developing countries; they are vaccine preventable infectious diseases, diarrhea and dehydration, and respiratory illnesses, all complicated by malnutrition. To make further strides in reducing infant mortality, public health workers must concentrate on the neonatal period. Training TBAs in sterile techniques, appropriate technology, resuscitation of infants, and identification of potential problems is a positive step. Yet, unpredictable conditions (e.g., AIDS) exist and/or will arise which erode improvements. For example, in Nicaragua, within 1 year after the new government introduced health budget cuts which resulted in the poor paying for

  16. Model-based patterns in prostate cancer mortality worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Fontes, F; Severo, M; Castro, C; Lourenço, S; Gomes, S; Botelho, F; La Vecchia, C; Lunet, N

    2013-01-01

    Background: Prostate cancer mortality has been decreasing in several high income countries and previous studies analysed the trends mostly according to geographical criteria. We aimed to identify patterns in the time trends of prostate cancer mortality across countries using a model-based approach. Methods: Model-based clustering was used to identify patterns of variation in prostate cancer mortality (1980–2010) across 37 European, five non-European high-income countries and four leading emerging economies. We characterised the patterns observed regarding the geographical distribution and gross national income of the countries, as well as the trends observed in mortality/incidence ratios. Results: We identified three clusters of countries with similar variation in prostate cancer mortality: pattern 1 (‘no mortality decline'), characterised by a continued increase throughout the whole period; patterns 2 (‘later mortality decline') and 3 (‘earlier mortality decline') depict mortality declines, starting in the late and early 1990s, respectively. These clusters are also homogeneous regarding the variation in the prostate cancer mortality/incidence ratios, while are heterogeneous with reference to the geographical region of the countries and distribution of the gross national income. Conclusion: We provide a general model for the description and interpretation of the trends in prostate cancer mortality worldwide, based on three main patterns. PMID:23660943

  17. Maternal mortality in Sirur.

    PubMed

    Shrotri, A; Pratinidhi, A; Shah, U

    1990-01-01

    The research aim was 1) to determine the incidence of maternal mortality in a rural health center area in Sirur, Maharashtra state, India; 2) to determine the relative risk; and 3) to make suggestions about reducing maternal mortality. The data on deliveries was obtained between 1981 and 1984. Medical care at the Rural Training Center was supervised by the Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, the B.J. Medical College in Pune. Deliveries numbered 5994 singleton births over the four years; 5919 births were live births. 15 mothers died: 14 after delivery and 1 predelivery. The maternal mortality rate was 2.5/1000 live births. The maternal causes of death included 9 direct obstetric causes, 3 from postpartum hemorrhage of anemic women, and 3 from puerperal sepsis of anemic women with prolonged labor. 2 deaths were due to eclampsia, and 1 death was unexplained. There were 5 (33.3%) maternal deaths due to indirect causes (3 from hepatitis and 2 from thrombosis). One woman died of undetermined causes. Maternal jaundice during pregnancy was associated with the highest relative risk of maternal death: 106.4. Other relative risk factors were edema, anemia, and prolonged labor. Attributable risk was highest for anemia, followed by jaundice, edema, and maternal age of over 30 years. Maternal mortality at 30 years and older was 3.9/1000 live births. Teenage maternal mortality was 3.3/1000. Maternal mortality among women 20-29 years old was lowest at 2.1/1000. Maternal mortality for women with a parity of 5 or higher was 3.6/1000. Prima gravida women had a maternal mortality rate of 2.9/1000. Parities between 1 and 4 had a maternal mortality rate of 2.3/1000. The lowest maternal mortality was at parity of 3. Only 1 woman who died had received more than 3 prenatal visits. 11 out of 13 women medically examined prenatally were identified with the following risk factors: jaundice, edema, anemia, young or old maternal age, parity, or poor obstetric history. The local

  18. Academic Performance of Language-Minority Students and All-Day Kindergarten: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Mido

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the effect of all-day kindergarten programs on the academic achievement of students from racial language minority and low socioeconomic class. The study employed a series of 3-level longitudinal multilevel analyses using a nationally representative database, the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS). The study…

  19. Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Up-to-date evidence on levels and trends for age-sex-specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality is essential for the formation of global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) we estimated yearly deaths for 188 countries between 1990, and 2013. We used the results to assess whether there is epidemiological convergence across countries. Methods We estimated age-sex-specific all-cause mortality using the GBD 2010 methods with some refinements to improve accuracy applied to an updated database of vital registration, survey, and census data. We generally estimated cause of death as in the GBD 2010. Key improvements included the addition of more recent vital registration data for 72 countries, an updated verbal autopsy literature review, two new and detailed data systems for China, and more detail for Mexico, UK, Turkey, and Russia. We improved statistical models for garbage code redistribution. We used six different modelling strategies across the 240 causes; cause of death ensemble modelling (CODEm) was the dominant strategy for causes with sufficient information. Trends for Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias were informed by meta-regression of prevalence studies. For pathogen-specific causes of diarrhoea and lower respiratory infections we used a counterfactual approach. We computed two measures of convergence (inequality) across countries: the average relative difference across all pairs of countries (Gini coefficient) and the average absolute difference across countries. To summarise broad findings, we used multiple decrement life-tables to decompose probabilities of death from birth to exact age 15 years, from exact age 15 years to exact age 50 years, and from exact age 50 years to exact age 75 years, and life expectancy at birth into major causes. For all quantities reported, we computed 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). We constrained cause-specific fractions within each age

  20. Mortality among aircraft manufacturing workers

    PubMed Central

    Boice, J. D.; Marano, D. E.; Fryzek, J. P.; Sadler, C. J.; McLaughlin, J. K.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the risk of cancer and other diseases among workers engaged in aircraft manufacturing and potentially exposed to compounds containing chromate, trichloroethylene (TCE), perchloroethylene (PCE), and mixed solvents. METHODS: A retrospective cohort mortality study was conducted of workers employed for at least 1 year at a large aircraft manufacturing facility in California on or after 1 January 1960. The mortality experience of these workers was determined by examination of national, state, and company records to the end of 1996. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were evaluated comparing the observed numbers of deaths among workers with those expected in the general population adjusting for age, sex, race, and calendar year. The SMRs for 40 cause of death categories were computed for the total cohort and for subgroups defined by sex, race, position in the factory, work duration, year of first employment, latency, and broad occupational groups. Factory job titles were classified as to likely use of chemicals, and internal Poisson regression analyses were used to compute mortality risk ratios for categories of years of exposure to chromate, TCE, PCE, and mixed solvents, with unexposed factory workers serving as referents. RESULTS: The study cohort comprised 77,965 workers who accrued nearly 1.9 million person-years of follow up (mean 24.2 years). Mortality follow up, estimated as 99% complete, showed that 20,236 workers had died by 31 December 1996, with cause of death obtained for 98%. Workers experienced low overall mortality (all causes of death SMR 0.83) and low cancer mortality (SMR 0.90). No significant increases in risk were found for any of the 40 specific cause of death categories, whereas for several causes the numbers of deaths were significantly below expectation. Analyses by occupational group and specific job titles showed no remarkable mortality patterns. Factory workers estimated to have been routinely exposed to chromate were

  1. Influence of social support on cognitive change and mortality in old age: results from the prospective multicentre cohort study AgeCoDe

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Social support has been suggested to positively influence cognition and mortality in old age. However, this suggestion has been questioned due to inconsistent operationalisations of social support among studies and the small number of longitudinal studies available. This study aims to investigate the influence of perceived social support, understood as the emotional component of social support, on cognition and mortality in old age as part of a prospective longitudinal multicentre study in Germany. Methods A national subsample of 2,367 primary care patients was assessed twice over an observation period of 18 months regarding the influence of social support on cognitive function and mortality. Perceived social support was assessed using the 14-item version of the FSozU, which is a standardised and validated questionnaire of social support. Cognition was tested by the neuropsychological test battery of the Structured Interview for the Diagnosis of Dementia (SIDAM). The influence of perceived support on cognitive change was analysed by multivariate ANCOVA; mortality was analysed by multivariate logistic and cox regression. Results Sample cognitive change (N = 1,869): Mean age was 82.4 years (SD 3.3) at the beginning of the observation period, 65.9% were female, mean cognition was 49 (SD 4.4) in the SIDAM. Over the observation period cognitive function declined in 47.2% by a mean of 3.4 points. Sample mortality (N = 2,367): Mean age was 82.5 years (SD 3.4), 65.7% were female and 185 patients died during the observation period. Perceived social support showed no longitudinal association with cognitive change (F = 2.235; p = 0.135) and mortality (p = 0.332; CI 0.829-1.743). Conclusions Perceived social support did not influence cognition and mortality over an 18 months observation period. However, previous studies using different operationalisations of social support and longer observation periods indicate that such an influence may exist. This influence is

  2. Longitudinal Lisfranc injury.

    PubMed

    Oak, Nikhil R; Manoli, Arthur; Holmes, James R

    2014-01-01

    Most Lisfranc or tarsometatarsal (TMT) joint injuries result from a horizontally directed force in which the metatarsals are displaced relative to the midfoot. The injury pattern that is described in this article is one of a longitudinal force through the first ray and cuneiform. A reliable measure to recognize the longitudinal Lisfranc variant injury has been the height difference between the distal articular surfaces of the first and second cuneiform bones in an anteroposterior (AP) weight-bearing radiograph. This measure helps identify subtle injuries in which there is a proximal and medial subluxation of the first cuneiform-metatarsal complex. Delayed diagnosis and treatment have been associated with poorer results and significant functional consequences. This article describes a simple radiographic measurement to recognize the longitudinal injury pattern and to aid in determining whether operative intervention is required. PMID:25785475

  3. Liver cancer mortality rate model in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sriwattanapongse, Wattanavadee; Prasitwattanaseree, Sukon

    2013-09-01

    Liver Cancer has been a leading cause of death in Thailand. The purpose of this study was to model and forecast liver cancer mortality rate in Thailand using death certificate reports. A retrospective analysis of the liver cancer mortality rate was conducted. Numbering of 123,280 liver cancer causes of death cases were obtained from the national vital registration database for the 10-year period from 2000 to 2009, provided by the Ministry of Interior and coded as cause-of-death using ICD-10 by the Ministry of Public Health. Multivariate regression model was used for modeling and forecasting age-specific liver cancer mortality rates in Thailand. Liver cancer mortality increased with increasing age for each sex and was also higher in the North East provinces. The trends of liver cancer mortality remained stable in most age groups with increases during ten-year period (2000 to 2009) in the Northern and Southern. Liver cancer mortality was higher in males and increase with increasing age. There is need of liver cancer control measures to remain on a sustained and long-term basis for the high liver cancer burden rate of Thailand.

  4. Allometry of Herring mortality

    SciTech Connect

    McGurk, M.D. )

    1993-11-01

    The author calculated the relationship between instantaneous natural mortality, M (d[sup [minus]1]), and dry body weight, W ([mu]g), for herring larvae and adults using data from the scientific literature. Geometric mean mortality of adult Pacific herring Clupea pallasi (0.52[center dot]year[sup [minus]1]), was about three times greater than that of adult Atlantic herring Clupea harengus (0.18 year[sup [minus]1]), which may reflect greater reproductive effort per unit size by Pacific herring than by Atlantic herring. Geometric mean mortality of Pacific herring larvae (0.083[center dot]d[sup [minus]1]) was 30% greater than that of Atlantic herring larvae (0.064[center dot]d[sup [minus]1]), but the difference was not significant. The functional regression for Atlantic herring was log[sub e](M) = -0.4924 - 0.4064[center dot]log[sub e](W), and the regression for Pacific herring was log[sub e](M) = 0.1553 0.3935[center dot]log[sub e](W). The regressions provide preliminary estimates of average M of herring eggs and juveniles, life history stages for which there are few direct estimates of mortality. They also indicate that the weight exponent of instantaneous growth of herring should be greater than -0.4. Allometry of herring mortality implies that year-class strength of herring should be positively correlated with size at recruitment. 78 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  5. Idiopathic Polydactylous Longitudinal Erythronychia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe the clinical features of idiopathic polydactylous longitudinal erythronychia. Introduction: Longitudinal erythronychia presents as a linear red band on the nail plate. Idiopathic polydactylous longitudinal erythronychia is a rarely described manifestation of longitudinal erythronychia in which one or more linear red bands present on the nails of multiple digits without any associated subungual malignant tumor, dermatological condition, or systemic disease. Methods: As part of a total body skin examination, the fingernails and toenails were evaluated for linear red bands. Results: One or more asymptomatic linear red bands (longitudinal erythronychia) was observed on multiple digits of the hands in one percent (3 men of 134 men and 112 women) of patients examined during a period of 75 days. The author also noted similar changes of his own nails. Between 3 to 10 digits were affected. Multiple linear red bands per nail were usually narrow (less than 1mm wide), whereas a single band on a nail often ranged from 4 to 6mm wide. The intensity of an individual wider linear red band was position-dependent in three individuals in whom the distal portion appeared less prominent when the affected digit was held upward above the level of the patient's heart—pseudolongitudinal erythronychia. Other nail changes in these patients included distal subungual hyperkeratosis, fissuring at the free end of the nail, leukonychia, red lunula, and splinter hemorrhages. Discussion: Idiopathic polydactylous longitudinal erythronychia is a benign, usually asymptomatic, condition of undetermined etiology characterized by one or more linear red bands originating at the proximal nail fold or distal lunula and extending to the free edge of the nail. It appears to be more prevalent in men over 50 years of age and its incidence was noted to be one percent of adults attending a dermatology clinic. Patients are either unaware of the nail changes or seek medical attention because

  6. Fetal, Infant, and Maternal Mortality During Periods of Economic Instability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner, M. H.

    1973-01-01

    One of the most sensitive indicators of the general socioeconomic level of a nation is the infant mortality rate. Evidence indicates that economic recessions and upswings have played a significant role in fetal, infant, and maternal mortality in the last 45 years. (RJ)

  7. Psychological Distress and Mortality: Are Women More Vulnerable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferraro, Kenneth F.; Nuriddin, Tariqah A.

    2006-01-01

    Does psychological distress increase mortality risk? If it does, are women more vulnerable than men to the effect of distress on mortality? Drawing from cumulative disadvantage theory, these questions are addressed with data from a 20-year follow-up of a national sample of adults ages 25-74. Event history analyses were performed to examine…

  8. The mortality of companies.

    PubMed

    Daepp, Madeleine I G; Hamilton, Marcus J; West, Geoffrey B; Bettencourt, Luís M A

    2015-05-01

    The firm is a fundamental economic unit of contemporary human societies. Studies on the general quantitative and statistical character of firms have produced mixed results regarding their lifespans and mortality. We examine a comprehensive database of more than 25 000 publicly traded North American companies, from 1950 to 2009, to derive the statistics of firm lifespans. Based on detailed survival analysis, we show that the mortality of publicly traded companies manifests an approximately constant hazard rate over long periods of observation. This regularity indicates that mortality rates are independent of a company's age. We show that the typical half-life of a publicly traded company is about a decade, regardless of business sector. Our results shed new light on the dynamics of births and deaths of publicly traded companies and identify some of the necessary ingredients of a general theory of firms. PMID:25833247

  9. The mortality of companies

    PubMed Central

    Daepp, Madeleine I. G.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; West, Geoffrey B.; Bettencourt, Luís M. A.

    2015-01-01

    The firm is a fundamental economic unit of contemporary human societies. Studies on the general quantitative and statistical character of firms have produced mixed results regarding their lifespans and mortality. We examine a comprehensive database of more than 25 000 publicly traded North American companies, from 1950 to 2009, to derive the statistics of firm lifespans. Based on detailed survival analysis, we show that the mortality of publicly traded companies manifests an approximately constant hazard rate over long periods of observation. This regularity indicates that mortality rates are independent of a company's age. We show that the typical half-life of a publicly traded company is about a decade, regardless of business sector. Our results shed new light on the dynamics of births and deaths of publicly traded companies and identify some of the necessary ingredients of a general theory of firms. PMID:25833247

  10. Autoantibodies, mortality and ageing.

    PubMed

    Richaud-Patin, Y; Villa, A R

    1995-01-01

    Immunological failure may be the cause of predisposition to certain infections, neoplasms, and vascular diseases in adulthood. Mortality risks through life may reflect an undetermined number of causes. This study describes the prevalence of positivity of autoantibodies through life, along with general and specific mortality causes in three countries with different socioeconomic development (Guatemala, Mexico and the United States). Prevalence of autoantibodies by age was obtained from previous reports. In spite of having involved different ethnic groups, the observed trends in prevalence of autoantibodies, as well as mortality through life, showed a similar behavior. Thus, both the increase in autoantibody production and death risk as age rises, may share physiopathological phenomena related to the ageing process. PMID:7539882

  11. Mortality of Mississippi Sandhill Crane chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, G.H.

    2004-01-01

    Mississippi sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pulla) are a highly endangered species that live in the wild in 1 county in Mississippi. As part of a large effort to restore these endangered cranes, we are conducting a project to look at the causes of mortality in crane chicks on the Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge in Gautier, MS, USA. This includes surgically implanting miniature radio transmitters in crane chicks to gather data on mortality. This article describes some of the practical difficulties in conducting this type of project in a savannah and swamp location along the Gulf Coast of the USA.

  12. Longitudinal discharge laser baffles

    DOEpatents

    Warner, B.E.; Ault, E.R.

    1994-06-07

    The IR baffles placed between the window and the electrode of a longitudinal discharge laser improve laser performance by intercepting off-axis IR radiation from the laser and in doing so reduce window heating and subsequent optical distortion of the laser beam. 1 fig.

  13. Longitudinal discharge laser baffles

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Bruce E.; Ault, Earl R.

    1994-01-01

    The IR baffles placed between the window and the electrode of a longitudinal discharge laser improve laser performance by intercepting off-axis IR radiation from the laser and in doing so reduce window heating and subsequent optical distortion of the laser beam.

  14. Longitudinal discharge laser electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Warner, B.E.; Miller, J.L.; Ault, E.R.

    1994-08-23

    The improved longitudinal discharge laser electrode with IR baffle includes an electrode made up of washers spaced along the laser axis in order to form inter-washer spaces for hollow cathode discharge to take place and for IR radiation to be trapped. Additional IR baffles can be placed between the electrode ann the window. 2 figs.

  15. Longitudinal discharge laser electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Bruce E.; Miller, John L.; Ault, Earl R.

    1994-01-01

    The improved longitudinal discharge laser electrode with IR baffle includes an electrode made up of washers spaced along the laser axis in order to form inter-washer spaces for hollow cathode discharge to take place and for IR radiation to be trapped. Additional IR baffles can be placed between the electrode ann the window.

  16. WISCONSIN LONGITUDINAL STUDY (WLS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) is a long-term study of a random sample of 10,317 men and women who graduated from Wisconsin high schools in 1957. The WLS provides an opportunity to study of the life course, intergenerational transfers and relationships, family functioning...

  17. [Changes in infant mortality].

    PubMed

    Aguirre, A

    1997-01-01

    Mexico's infant mortality rate is estimated to have declined from 189 in 1930 to 129 in 1950 and 30 in 1995. The infant mortality rate has continued its decline despite the economic crisis of recent years. The use of oral rehydration therapy has reduced mortality from diarrhea, and the spread of family planning has reduced the numbers of births at high risk due to maternal age, parity, or short birth intervals. The types of causes of infant death have changed as the numbers have decreased. They can be grouped in ascending order according to the difficulty of prevention: diseases preventable by immunization, acute diarrhea, acute respiratory infections, perinatal disorders, and congenital anomalies. Over two-thirds of infant deaths recorded since 1950 have been due to these causes. Infectious diseases, including diarrhea, acute respiratory infections, and conditions preventable by immunization predominated as causes of infant mortality before 1930. As the epidemiological transition progresses, diseases preventable by immunization lose importance, and diarrhea and respiratory infections occupy the first two places, with perinatal disorders being third. Between 1980 and 1990, in Mexico, diarrhea and acute respiratory infections dropped to second and third place after perinatal disorders, with congenital anomalies in fourth place. In most developed countries, perinatal disorders and congenital anomalies are the two most frequent causes of death, while diarrhea and respiratory infections no longer appear in the top five. In 1995, the four main causes in Mexico in descending order were perinatal disorders, congenital anomalies, acute respiratory infections, and diarrhea. PMID:12158082

  18. Accelerating global forest mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, N. G.

    2014-12-01

    Forest mortality is apparently accelerating globally. The evidence supporting this contention is now substantial, as is the evidence suggesting the acceleration has just begun and will become progressively worse in upcoming decades. I will review the data and models used to make these contentions.

  19. Maternal and perinatal mortality.

    PubMed

    Krishna Menon, M K

    1972-01-01

    A brief analysis of data from the records of the Government Hospital for Women and Children in Madras for a 36-year period (1929-1964) is presented. India with a population of over 550 million has only 1 doctor for each 6000 population. For the 80% of the population which is rural, the doctor ratio is only 88/1 million. There is also a shortage of paramedical personnel. During the earlier years of this study period, abortions, puerperal infections; hemorrhage, and toxemia accounted for nearly 75% of all meternal deaths, while in later years deaths from these causes were 40%. Among associated factors in maternal mortality, anemia was the most frequent, it still accounts for 20% and is a contributory factor in another 20%. The mortality from postpartum hemorrhage was 9.3% but has now decreased to 2.8%. Eclampsia is a preventable disease and a marked reduction in maternal and perinatal mortality from this cause has been achieved. Maternal deaths from puerperal infections have dropped from 25% of all maternal deaths to 7%. Uterine rupture has been reduced from 75% to 9.3% due to modern facilities. Operative deliveries still have an incidence of 2.1% and a mortality rate of 1.4% of all deliveries. These rates would be further reduced by more efficient antenatal and intranatal care. Reported perinatal mortality of infants has been reduced from 182/1000 births to an average of 78/1000 in all areas, but is 60.6/1000 in the city of Madras. Socioeconomic standards play an important role in perinatal mortality, 70% of such deaths occurring in the lowest economic groups. Improvement has been noted in the past 25 years but in rural areas little progress has been made. Prematurity and low birth weights are still larger factors in India than in other countries, with acute infectious diseases, anemia, and general malnutrition among mothers the frequent causes. Problems requiring further efforts to reduce maternal and infant mortality are correct vital statistics, improved

  20. Wealth and mortality at older ages: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Demakakos, Panayotes; Biddulph, Jane P; Bobak, Martin; Marmot, Michael G

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the importance of socioeconomic position for survival, total wealth, which is a measure of accumulation of assets over the life course, has been underinvestigated as a predictor of mortality. We investigated the association between total wealth and mortality at older ages. Methods We estimated Cox proportional hazards models using a sample of 10 305 community-dwelling individuals aged ≥50 years from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Results 2401 deaths were observed over a mean follow-up of 9.4 years. Among participants aged 50–64 years, the fully adjusted HRs for mortality were 1.21 (95% CI 0.92 to 1.59) and 1.77 (1.35 to 2.33) for those in the intermediate and lowest wealth tertiles, respectively, compared with those in the highest wealth tertile. The respective HRs were 2.54 (1.27 to 5.09) and 3.73 (1.86 to 7.45) for cardiovascular mortality and 1.36 (0.76 to 2.42) and 2.53 (1.45 to 4.41) for other non-cancer mortality. Wealth was not associated with cancer mortality in the fully adjusted model. Similar but less strong associations were observed among participants aged ≥65 years. The use of repeated measurements of wealth and covariates brought about only minor changes, except for the association between wealth and cardiovascular mortality, which became less strong in the younger participants. Wealth explained the associations between paternal occupation at age 14 years, education, occupational class, and income and mortality. Conclusions There are persisting wealth inequalities in mortality at older ages, which only partially are explained by established risk factors. Wealth appears to be more strongly associated with mortality than other socioeconomic position measures. PMID:26511887

  1. Leukaemia mortality around French nuclear sites.

    PubMed Central

    Hattchouel, J. M.; Laplanche, A.; Hill, C.

    1995-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate leukaemia mortality in the population under the age of 25 residing around the 13 French nuclear sites operating in 1985. In four geographical zones defined according to the distance from the site, 503 exposed communes were identified and followed up between 1968 and 1989. A total of 4,132,000 person-years of observation were accumulated. The number of leukaemia deaths observed (69) did not differ from the expected number (86.15) estimated according to national mortality statistics. There was no difference in the risks of leukaemia mortality according to sex, age, type of installation and no trend with an increasing distance from installations. PMID:7880754

  2. Experimental Demonstration of Longitudinal Magnification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razpet, Nada; Susman, Katarina; Cepic, Mojca

    2009-01-01

    We describe an experiment which enables the observation of longitudinal magnification for the real image of a three-dimensional (3D) object formed by a converging lens. The experiment also shows the absence of longitudinal inversion. Possible reasons for misconceptions with respect to real images and longitudinal inversions are discussed and a…

  3. Herd factors associated with dairy cow mortality.

    PubMed

    McConnel, C; Lombard, J; Wagner, B; Kopral, C; Garry, F

    2015-08-01

    Summary studies of dairy cow removal indicate increasing levels of mortality over the past several decades. This poses a serious problem for the US dairy industry. The objective of this project was to evaluate associations between facilities, herd management practices, disease occurrence and death rates on US dairy operations through an analysis of the National Animal Health Monitoring System's Dairy 2007 survey. The survey included farms in 17 states that represented 79.5% of US dairy operations and 82.5% of the US dairy cow population. During the first phase of the study operations were randomly selected from a sampling list maintained by the National Agricultural Statistics Service. Only farms that participated in phase I and had 30 or more dairy cows were eligible to participate in phase II. In total, 459 farms had complete data for all selected variables and were included in this analysis. Univariable associations between dairy cow mortality and 162 a priori identified operation-level management practices or characteristics were evaluated. Sixty of the 162 management factors explored in the univariate analysis met initial screening criteria and were further evaluated in a multivariable model exploring more complex relationships. The final weighted, negative binomial regression model included six variables. Based on the incidence rate ratio, this model predicted 32.0% less mortality for operations that vaccinated heifers for at least one of the following: bovine viral diarrhea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza 3, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Haemophilus somnus, leptospirosis, Salmonella, Escherichia coli or clostridia. The final multivariable model also predicted a 27.0% increase in mortality for operations from which a bulk tank milk sample tested ELISA positive for bovine leukosis virus. Additionally, an 18.0% higher mortality was predicted for operations that used necropsies to determine the cause of death for some proportion of dead

  4. The widening gap between socioeconomic status and mortality.

    PubMed

    Queen, S; Pappas, G; Hadden, W; Fisher, G

    1994-01-01

    Despite important declines in U.S. death rates since 1960, poor and less-educated people have not shared equally in this decline. Data from the 1986 National Mortality Followback Survey and the 1986 National Health Interview Survey were compared to data from the 1960 Matched Record Study. The data clearly show an inverse relationship between mortality and socioeconomic status. Results further indicate a widening of differences in mortality by education among both men and women aged 25 to 64. That is, the mortality differential has increased between those with higher levels of education and those with lower educational attainment. The disparity in mortality rates increased between 1960 and 1986 for both sexes. These findings focus attention on the disparity in death rates for subgroups of the population and point to the increasing need to address socioeconomic differentials to close the gap. PMID:8009425

  5. Trends in Infectious Disease Mortality Rates, Spain, 1980–2011

    PubMed Central

    Llácer, Alicia; Palmera-Suárez, Rocio; Gómez-Barroso, Diana; Savulescu, Camelia; González-Yuste, Paloma; Fernández-Cuenca, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Using mortality data from National Institute of Statistics in Spain, we analyzed trends of infectious disease mortality rates in Spain during 1980–2011 to provide information on surveillance and control of infectious diseases. During the study period, 628,673 infectious disease–related deaths occurred, the annual change in the mortality rate was −1.6%, and the average infectious disease mortality rate was 48.5 deaths/100,000 population. Although the beginning of HIV/AIDS epidemic led to an increased mortality rate, a decreased rate was observed by the end of the twentieth century. By codes from the International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, the most frequent underlying cause of death was pneumonia. Emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases continue to be public health problems despite reduced mortality rates produced by various interventions. Therefore, surveillance and control systems should be reinforced with a goal of providing reliable data for useful decision making. PMID:24750997

  6. Perinatal mortality--an analysis of causes and strategies.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Neeru

    2011-04-01

    Perinatal mortality is the most sensitive index while imparting healthcare to mother during pregnancy and delivery and also to the baby in perinatal period. Perinatal mortality is higher in rural areas than in urban areas. Worldover perinatal or infant mortality rate is on decline. Developed countries are ahead of developing nations in giving good antenatal, intrapartal as well as neonatal care. Factors responsible for perinatal mortality in Indian context lie in sociodemographic, maternal and foetal aspects. Regional differences also are there in India while assessing perinatal mortality and delivery practices. The lacunae are to be identified while recommending strategies to be taken to lower the perinatal mortality. A community based data system should be developed so that the information should flow from down to above, from village to subcentre to primary health centre and further from district to state. Some newborns need special care. Since newborns need early recognition of danger signs and prompt treatment measures. PMID:22187796

  7. Mortality Trends Among Working-Age Whites: The Untold Story.

    PubMed

    Squires, David; Blumenthal, David

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has called attention to an unexpected rise in death rates among middle-aged, white Americans between 1999 and 2014. The full extent of the phenomenon may be underappreciated, however. If one assumes, based on historical trends, that mortality rates should have declined by 1.8 percent per year, then whites in 2014 had higher-than-expected mortality rates from age 19 to age 65. Furthermore, while increased substance abuse and suicides explain the elevated mortality rates for younger adults, middle-aged whites also seem to be experiencing stalled or rising mortality rates for most ailments and diseases. While a national phenomenon, middle-aged whites face much more adverse mortality trends in certain states and regions. The especially broad reach of these negative mortality trends suggests there is an urgent need for further investigation of its causes and potential remedies. PMID:26934757

  8. High School Curriculum Structure: Effects on Coursetaking and Achievement in Mathematics for High S