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Sample records for national longitudinal mortality

  1. NATIONAL LONGITUDINAL MORTALITY STUDY- NATIONAL DEATH INDEX RECORD LINKAGE (NLMS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    National Longitudinal Mortality Study is to investigate social, economic, demographic and occupational differentials in mortality (total and by cause) within a national sample of the U.S. population. In a collaboration begun in 1999 with the Census Bureau and other federal agenci...

  2. NATIONAL MORTALITY FOLLOWBACK SURVEY (NMFS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 1993 National Mortality Followback Survey (NMFS) is the latest in a series of periodic surveys designed to supplement information routinely collected on the death certificate. The Mortality Followback Survey Program, begun in the 1960's by the National Center for Health Stati...

  3. The National Longitudinal Surveys Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Human Resource Research.

    This volume discussed the research methodology used in the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Ecperience (NLS). The survey studied employment market conditions for four groups in the labor force: men, aged 45-59; women, aged 30-44; young men, aged 14-24; and young women, aged 14-24. Data were collected on 20,000 individuals over a five…

  4. Unified baseline and longitudinal mortality prediction in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Ley, Brett; Bradford, Williamson Z; Weycker, Derek; Vittinghoff, Eric; du Bois, Roland M; Collard, Harold R

    2015-05-01

    The Gender-Age-Physiology (GAP) model is a validated, baseline-risk prediction model for mortality in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Longitudinal variables have been shown to contribute to risk prediction in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and may improve the predictive performance of the baseline GAP model. Our aims were to further validate the GAP model and evaluate whether the addition of longitudinal variables improves its predictive performance. The study population was derived from a large clinical trials cohort of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (n=1109). Model performance was determined by improvement in the C-statistic, net reclassification improvement, clinical net reclassification improvement, and a goodness-of-fit test. The GAP model had good discriminative performance with a C-statistic of 0.757 (95% CI 0.750-0.764). However, the original GAP model tended to overestimate risk in this cohort. A novel, easy to use model, consisting of the original GAP predictors plus history of respiratory hospitalisation and 24-week change in forced vital capacity (the longitudinal GAP model) improved model performance with a C-statistic of 0.785 (95% CI 0.780-0.790), net reclassification improvement of 8.5%, clinical net reclassification improvement of 25%, and a goodness-of-fit test of 0.929. The Longitudinal GAP model, along with the original GAP model, may unify baseline and longitudinal mortality risk prediction in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:25614172

  5. Poverty or income inequality as predictor of mortality: longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed Central

    Fiscella, K.; Franks, P.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of inequality in income between communities independent of household income on individual all cause mortality in the United States. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study. SUBJECTS: A nationally representative sample of 14,407 people aged 25-74 years in the United States from the first national health and nutrition examination survey. SETTING: Subjects were followed from initial interview in 1971-5 until 1987. Complete follow up information was available for 92.2% of the sample. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Relation between both household income and income inequality in community of residence and individual all cause mortality at follow up was examined with Cox proportional hazards survival analysis. RESULTS: Community income inequality showed a significant association with subsequent community mortality, and with individual mortality after adjustment for age, sex, and mean income in the community of residence. After adjustment for individual household income, however, the association with mortality was lost. CONCLUSIONS: In this nationally representative American sample, family income, but not community income inequality, independently predicts mortality. Previously reported ecological associations between income inequality and mortality may reflect confounding between individual family income and mortality. PMID:9185498

  6. Longitudinal Trends in Hypertension Management and Mortality Among Octogenarians

    PubMed Central

    Ravindrarajah, Rathi; Hazra, Nisha; Hamada, Shota; Jackson, Stephen H.D.; Gulliford, Martin C.

    2016-01-01

    The role of hypertension management among octogenarians is controversial. In this long-term follow-up (>10 years) study, we estimated trends in hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control among octogenarians, and evaluated the relationship of systolic blood pressure (SBP) ranges with mortality. Data were based on the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). Outcome measures were hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment and control, and cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality events. Participants were separated into 8 categories of SBP values (<110, 110–119, 120–129, 130–139, 140–149, 150–159, 160–169, and >169 mm Hg). Among 2692 octogenarians, mean SBP levels declined from 147 mm Hg in 1998/2000 to 134 mm Hg in 2012/2013. The decline was of lower magnitude in the 50 to 79 years old subgroup (n=22007). Hypertension prevalence and awareness were 40% and 13%, respectively, higher among octogenarians than the 50 to 79 years of age subgroup, but hypertension treatment rates were similar (≈90%). Around 47% of the treated octogenarians achieved conventional BP targets (<140/90 mm Hg), increasing to 59% when assessed against revised targets (<150/90 mm Hg). All-cause mortality rates were higher (hazard ratio, 1.55; 95% confidence interval, 0.89–2.72) at lower extremes of SBP values (<110 mm Hg). The lowest cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality risk among treated octogenarians was observed for an SBP range of 140 to 149 mm Hg (1.04, 0.60–1.78) and 160 to 169 mm Hg (0.78, 0.51–1.21). An increasing trend in hypertension awareness and treatment was observed in a large sample of community-dwelling octogenarians. The results do not support the view that more stringent BP targets may be associated with lower mortality. PMID:27160194

  7. Hearing, mobility, and pain predict mortality: a longitudinal population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Feeny, David; Huguet, Nathalie; McFarland, Bentson H.; Kaplan, Mark S.; Orpana, Heather; Eckstrom, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Objective Measures of health-related quality of life (HRQL), including the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3) are predictive of mortality. HUI3 includes eight attributes, vision, hearing, speech, ambulation, dexterity, cognition, emotion, and pain and discomfort, with five or six levels per attribute that vary from no to severe disability. This study examined associations between individual HUI3 attributes and mortality. Study Design and Setting Baseline data and 12 years of follow-up data from a closed longitudinal cohort study, the 1994/95 Canadian National Population Health Survey, consisting of 12,375 women and men aged 18 and older. A priori hypotheses were that ambulation, cognition, emotion, and pain would predict mortality. Cox proportional hazards regression models were applied controlling for standard determinants of health and risk factors. Results Single-attribute utility scores for ambulation (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.10; 0.04–0.22), hearing (HR = 0.18; 0.06–0.57), and pain (HR = 0.53; 0.29–0.96) were statistically significantly associated with an increased risk of mortality; ambulation and hearing were predictive for the 60+ cohort. Conclusion Few studies have identified hearing or pain as risk factors for mortality. This study is innovative because it identifies specific components of HRQL that predict mortality. Further research is needed to understand better the mechanisms through which deficits in hearing and pain affect mortality risks. PMID:22521576

  8. Education and Mortality in the Rome Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Cacciani, Laura; Bargagli, Anna Maria; Cesaroni, Giulia; Forastiere, Francesco; Agabiti, Nera; Davoli, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Background A large body of evidence supports an inverse association between socioeconomic status and mortality. We analysed data from a large cohort of residents in Rome followed-up between 2001 and 2012 to assess the relationship between individual education and mortality. We distinguished five causes of death and investigated the role of age, gender, and birthplace. Methods From the Municipal Register we enrolled residents of Rome on October 21st 2001 and collected information on educational level attained from the 2001 Census. We selected Italian citizens aged 30–74 years and followed-up their vital status until 2012 (n = 1,283,767), identifying the cause of death from the Regional Mortality Registry. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for overall and cause-specific mortality in relation to education. We used age, gender, and birthplace for adjusted or stratified analyses. We used the inverse probability weighting approach to account for right censoring due to emigration. Results We observed an inverse association between education (none vs. post-secondary+ level) and overall mortality (HRs(95%CIs): 2.1(1.98–2.17), males; 1.5(1.46–1.59), females) varying according to demographic characteristics. Cause-specific analysis also indicated an inverse association with education, in particular for respiratory, digestive or circulatory system related-mortality, and the youngest people seemed to be more vulnerable to low education. Conclusion Our results confirm the inverse association between education and overall or cause-specific mortality and show differentials particularly marked among young people compared to the elderly. The findings provide further evidence from the Mediterranean area, and may contribute to national and cross-country comparisons in Europe to understand the mechanisms generating socioeconomic differentials especially during the current recession period. PMID:26376166

  9. Mortality and refusal in the longitudinal 90+ project.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío; Zamarrón, María Dolores; Díez-Nicolás, Juan; Lopez-Bravo, María Dolores; Molina, María Ángeles; Schettini, Rocío

    2011-01-01

    Attrition is one of the most important threats for longitudinal studies on aging mainly due to refusal and mortality. This study deals with those individuals who were assessed in the base line of 90+ project but died, dropped out or were examined in the follow-up. Participants of the 90+ project baseline consist of a sample of 188 older than 90 years, independent individuals (mean age = 92.9; 67 men and 121 women) living in the community (n = 76) or in residences (n = 112). They were assessed through the European Survey on Aging Protocol (ESAP) by collecting anthropometric, health and life styles, bio-behavioral, psychological and social data. After 6-14 months from the baseline, 55% individuals were re-assessed, 11% died and 34% dropped out for several reasons. Comparisons between the individuals deceased, interviewed and those who dropped out yielded significant differences mainly due to contextual variables. The mortality rate of participants living in residences is three times greater than those of participants living in the community. Trying to determine the differences between these three groups due to bio-psycho-social variables, we found that regular physical activity, mental status, leisure activities, fitness, perceived control and openness assessed at the baseline differentiate our three groups. Finally, 90% of those individuals who died were identified at the baseline as "non successful agers", while more than a half of those who participated and a third of the non-participants were identified as "successful agers". It can be concluded that among those independent but very old people, mortality is less important than willing to participate and contextual, behavioral and psychological factors are relevant for distinguishing mortality, survival and participation. PMID:20943279

  10. [Inequalities in mortality in the Italian longitudinal studies].

    PubMed

    Cardano, M; Costa, G; Demaria, M; Merler, E; Biggeri, A

    1999-01-01

    The article presents some of the most relevant results on inequalities in mortality, obtained by the two Italian longitudinal studies carried out in Turin, and Tuscany (in Leghorn and Florence). The two studies share the same methodology. Each database contains census data, information from population register and from death certificates. The authors approach this issue not in an analytical way (as they did in the works cited in the reference list), but answering some questions, relevant both from a scientific and a political point of view. How big are the health inequalities in Italy? Are the health inequalities in Italy increasing or decreasing? Are the health inequalities due to absolute or to relative deprivation? Does the mortality profile of the Italian population express the presence of old or new health inequalities? Can the health inequalities be reduced? The study's results prove that the health inequalities in Italy are deep and strictly related to individuals' position in the social fabric. Facing the other questions the authors focus only in the Turin data. From the 1970's to the 1990's the health inequalities in Turin have increased, despite of general improvement of population's health condition and the progressive reduction of the size of deprived groups. Turin data support both the hypotheses on the source of health inequalities, using long term unemployment as absolute deprivation's indicator, and status' inconsistency as (a row) indicator of relative deprivation. The growth of drug-related causes of death (AIDS and overdose) shows that in the Turin and--quite reasonably--Italian population old and new health inequalities live together. The essay closes offering evidence on the possibility to reduce health inequalities. For this purpose the authors analyses the Turin trend of avoidable deaths and infant and adolescent mortality. PMID:10605247

  11. Air Pollution and Mortality in Seven Million Adults: The Dutch Environmental Longitudinal Study (DUELS)

    PubMed Central

    Marra, Marten; Ameling, Caroline B.; Hoek, Gerard; Beelen, Rob; de Hoogh, Kees; Breugelmans, Oscar; Kruize, Hanneke; Janssen, Nicole A.H.; Houthuijs, Danny

    2015-01-01

    Background Long-term exposure to air pollution has been associated with mortality in urban cohort studies. Few studies have investigated this association in large-scale population registries, including non-urban populations. Objectives The aim of the study was to evaluate the associations between long-term exposure to air pollution and nonaccidental and cause-specific mortality in the Netherlands based on existing national databases. Methods We used existing Dutch national databases on mortality, individual characteristics, residence history, neighborhood characteristics, and national air pollution maps based on land use regression (LUR) techniques for particulates with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Using these databases, we established a cohort of 7.1 million individuals ≥ 30 years of age. We followed the cohort for 7 years (2004–2011). We applied Cox proportional hazard models adjusting for potential individual and area-specific confounders. Results After adjustment for individual and area-specific confounders, for each 10-μg/m3 increase, PM10 and NO2 were associated with nonaccidental mortality [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.08; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.09 and HR = 1.03; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.03, respectively], respiratory mortality (HR = 1.13; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.17 and HR = 1.02; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.03, respectively), and lung cancer mortality (HR = 1.26; 95% CI: 1.21, 1.30 and HR = 1.10 95% CI: 1.09, 1.11, respectively). Furthermore, PM10 was associated with circulatory disease mortality (HR = 1.06; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.08), but NO2 was not (HR = 1.00; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.01). PM10 associations were robust to adjustment for NO2; NO2 associations remained for nonaccidental mortality and lung cancer mortality after adjustment for PM10. Conclusions Long-term exposure to PM10 and NO2 was associated with nonaccidental and cause-specific mortality in the Dutch population of ≥ 30 years of age. Citation Fischer PH, Marra M, Ameling CB, Hoek G, Beelen R, de

  12. Snakebite Mortality in India: A Nationally Representative Mortality Survey

    PubMed Central

    Mohapatra, Bijayeeni; Warrell, David A.; Suraweera, Wilson; Bhatia, Prakash; Dhingra, Neeraj; Jotkar, Raju M.; Rodriguez, Peter S.; Mishra, Kaushik; Whitaker, Romulus; Jha, Prabhat

    2011-01-01

    Background India has long been thought to have more snakebites than any other country. However, inadequate hospital-based reporting has resulted in estimates of total annual snakebite mortality ranging widely from about 1,300 to 50,000. We calculated direct estimates of snakebite mortality from a national mortality survey. Methods and Findings We conducted a nationally representative study of 123,000 deaths from 6,671 randomly selected areas in 2001–03. Full-time, non-medical field workers interviewed living respondents about all deaths. The underlying causes were independently coded by two of 130 trained physicians. Discrepancies were resolved by anonymous reconciliation or, failing that, by adjudication. A total of 562 deaths (0.47% of total deaths) were assigned to snakebites. Snakebite deaths occurred mostly in rural areas (97%), were more common in males (59%) than females (41%), and peaked at ages 15–29 years (25%) and during the monsoon months of June to September. This proportion represents about 45,900 annual snakebite deaths nationally (99% CI 40,900 to 50,900) or an annual age-standardised rate of 4.1/100,000 (99% CI 3.6–4.5), with higher rates in rural areas (5.4/100,000; 99% CI 4.8–6.0), and with the highest state rate in Andhra Pradesh (6.2). Annual snakebite deaths were greatest in the states of Uttar Pradesh (8,700), Andhra Pradesh (5,200), and Bihar (4,500). Conclusions Snakebite remains an underestimated cause of accidental death in modern India. Because a large proportion of global totals of snakebites arise from India, global snakebite totals might also be underestimated. Community education, appropriate training of medical staff and better distribution of antivenom, especially to the 13 states with the highest prevalence, could reduce snakebite deaths in India. PMID:21532748

  13. The National Longitudinal Surveys Handbook. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Human Resource Research.

    Designed as a comprehensive guide to the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience (NLS), this handbook is intended for two major categories of readers. For persons who wish to ascertain whether their research interests can be served by the NLS data, the handbook can provide the detailed description of the objectives of the surveys,…

  14. The National Longitudinal Surveys Handbook. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Human Resource Research.

    This volume is designed as a comprehensive guide to the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience (NLS) which are concerned with the labor market experience of middle-aged and young men and women. Detailed descriptions of the objectives of the surveys, the samples covered, and the types of information collected are presented.…

  15. NLS Handbook, 2005. National Longitudinal Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS), sponsored by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), are a set of surveys designed to gather information at multiple points in time on the labor market experiences of groups of men and women. Each of the cohorts has been selected to represent all people living in the United States at the initial…

  16. Association between resting heart rate across the life course and all-cause mortality: longitudinal findings from the Medical Research Council (MRC) National Survey of Health and Development (NSHD)

    PubMed Central

    Hartaigh, Bríain Ó; Gill, Thomas M; Shah, Imran; Hughes, Alun D; Deanfield, John E; Kuh, Diana; Hardy, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Background Resting heart rate (RHR) is an independent risk factor for mortality. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether elevations in childhood and mid-adulthood RHR, including changes over time, are associated with mortality later in life. We sought to evaluate the association between RHR across the life course, along with its changes and all-cause mortality. Methods We studied 4638 men and women from the Medical Research Council (MRC) National Survey of Health and Development (NSHD) cohort born during 1 week in 1946. RHR was obtained during childhood at ages 6, 7 and 11, and in mid-adulthood at ages 36 and 43. Using multivariable Cox regression, we calculated the HR for incident mortality according to RHR measured at each time point, along with changes in mid-adulthood RHR. Results At age 11, those in the top fifth of the RHR distribution (≥97 bpm) had an increased adjusted hazard of 1.42 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.93) for all-cause mortality. A higher adjusted risk (HR, 95% CI 2.17, 1.40 to 3.36) of death was also observed for those in the highest fifth (≥81 bpm) at age 43. For a > 25 bpm increased change in the RHR over the course of 7 years (age 36–43), the adjusted hazard was elevated more than threefold (HR, 95% CI 3.26, 1.54 to 6.90). After adjustment, RHR at ages 6, 7 and 36 were not associated with all-cause mortality. Conclusions Elevated RHR during childhood and midlife, along with greater changes in mid-adulthood RHR, are associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality. PMID:24850484

  17. Global determinants of mortality in under 5s: 10 year worldwide longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Nacher, Mathieu; Guihenneuc, Chantal; Tubert-Bitter, Pascale; Chavance, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess at country level the association of mortality in under 5s with a large set of determinants. Design Longitudinal study. Setting 193 United Nations member countries, 2000-09. Methods Yearly data between 2000 and 2009 based on 12 world development indicators were used in a multivariable general additive mixed model allowing for non-linear relations and lag effects. Main outcome measure National rate of deaths in under 5s per 1000 live births Results The model retained the variables: gross domestic product per capita; percentage of the population having access to improved water sources, having access to improved sanitation facilities, and living in urban areas; adolescent fertility rate; public health expenditure per capita; prevalence of HIV; perceived level of corruption and of violence; and mean number of years in school for women of reproductive age. Most of these variables exhibited non-linear behaviours and lag effects. Conclusions By providing a unified framework for mortality in under 5s, encompassing both high and low income countries this study showed non-linear behaviours and lag effects of known or suspected determinants of mortality in this age group. Although some of the determinants presented a linear action on log mortality indicating that whatever the context, acting on them would be a pertinent strategy to effectively reduce mortality, others had a threshold based relation potentially mediated by lag effects. These findings could help designing efficient strategies to achieve maximum progress towards millennium development goal 4, which aims to reduce mortality in under 5s by two thirds between 1990 and 2015. PMID:24212105

  18. Duration of depressive symptoms and mortality risk: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA)

    PubMed Central

    White, James; Zaninotto, Paola; Walters, Kate; Kivimäki, Mika; Demakakos, Panayotes; Biddulph, Jane; Kumari, Meena; De Oliveira, Cesar; Gallacher, John; Batty, G. David

    2016-01-01

    Background The relationship between the duration of depressive symptoms and mortality remains poorly understood. Aims To examine whether the duration of depressive symptoms is associated with mortality risk. Method Data (n = 9560) came from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). We assessed depressive symptom duration as the sum of examinations with an eight-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale score of ⩾3; we ascertained mortality from linking our data to a national register. Results Relative to those participants who never reported symptoms, the age- and gender-adjusted hazard ratios for elevated depressive symptoms over 1, 2, 3 and 4 examinations were 1.41 (95% CI 1.15–1.74), 1.80 (95% CI 1.44–2.26), 1.97 (95% CI 1.57–2.47) and 2.48 (95% CI 1.90–3.23), respectively (P for trend <0.001). This graded association can be explained largely by differences in physical activity, cognitive function, functional impairments and physical illness. Conclusions In this cohort of older adults, the duration of depressive symptoms was associated with mortality in a dose–response manner. PMID:26795425

  19. Longitudinal Changes in Vascular Risk Markers and Mortality Rates among a Latino Population with Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Pflederer, Matthew C.; Long, Carlin S.; Beaty, Brenda; Havranek, Edward P.; Mehler, Philip S.; Keniston, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Vascular markers such as pulse-wave velocity and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) might improve the prediction of incident cardiovascular disease beyond traditional risk factors. These vascular markers have not been well characterized in minority populations and might be more useful than inflammatory biomarkers. We conducted a prospective, longitudinal cohort study among hypertensive patients in an urban safety-net hospital. We evaluated inflammatory biomarkers, arterial pulse-wave velocity, and carotid intima-media thickness at baseline, 1 year, and 2 years. The primary outcome variable was CIMT. Generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate associations between CIMT and predictive variables accounting for the correlation of multiple measurements within subjects over time. For our secondary outcome, we used administrative and National Death Index data to determine all-cause death, and univariate relationships were evaluated. Among 175 subjects, 117 were Latino (67%) and 117 were female (67%). Pulse-wave velocity and CIMT regressed over time (both P <0.001) and were highly correlated (P <0.001). Only pulse-wave velocity (P=0.002) and total cholesterol (P=0.03) were associated with CIMT in time-varying covariate analysis. At a median follow-up period of 80 months, 17 of 175 subjects had died (10%). Higher baseline CIMT and pulse-wave velocity were associated with increased mortality rates (both P <0.01). No serum inflammatory marker was significantly correlated with longitudinal changes in CIMT or death. In conclusion, both arterial stiffness and preclinical carotid atherosclerosis were associated with increased mortality rates and might be useful risk-stratification markers among this minority population. PMID:27127427

  20. Longitudinal Changes in Vascular Risk Markers and Mortality Rates among a Latino Population with Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Pflederer, Matthew C; Long, Carlin S; Beaty, Brenda; Havranek, Edward P; Mehler, Philip S; Keniston, Angela; Krantz, Mori J

    2016-04-01

    Vascular markers such as pulse-wave velocity and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) might improve the prediction of incident cardiovascular disease beyond traditional risk factors. These vascular markers have not been well characterized in minority populations and might be more useful than inflammatory biomarkers. We conducted a prospective, longitudinal cohort study among hypertensive patients in an urban safety-net hospital. We evaluated inflammatory biomarkers, arterial pulse-wave velocity, and carotid intima-media thickness at baseline, 1 year, and 2 years. The primary outcome variable was CIMT. Generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate associations between CIMT and predictive variables accounting for the correlation of multiple measurements within subjects over time. For our secondary outcome, we used administrative and National Death Index data to determine all-cause death, and univariate relationships were evaluated. Among 175 subjects, 117 were Latino (67%) and 117 were female (67%). Pulse-wave velocity and CIMT regressed over time (both P <0.001) and were highly correlated (P <0.001). Only pulse-wave velocity (P=0.002) and total cholesterol (P=0.03) were associated with CIMT in time-varying covariate analysis. At a median follow-up period of 80 months, 17 of 175 subjects had died (10%). Higher baseline CIMT and pulse-wave velocity were associated with increased mortality rates (both P <0.01). No serum inflammatory marker was significantly correlated with longitudinal changes in CIMT or death. In conclusion, both arterial stiffness and preclinical carotid atherosclerosis were associated with increased mortality rates and might be useful risk-stratification markers among this minority population. PMID:27127427

  1. Mortality in Autism: A Prospective Longitudinal Community-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillberg, Christopher; Billstedt, Eva; Sundh, Valter; Gillberg, I. Carina

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were to establish the mortality rate in a representative group of individuals (n = 120) born in the years 1962-1984, diagnosed with autism/atypical autism in childhood and followed up at young adult age (greater than or equal to 18 years of age), and examine the risk factors and causes of death. The study group,…

  2. Objectives, Design, and History of the National Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, J. A.; Collins, Elmer

    The National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS) is a federally supported longitudinal study of a national sample of some 23,000 young people first surveyed as high school seniors in the spring of 1972. The historical precedents of such a study include the work of Friend and Haggert in a Boston settlement house, Louis…

  3. Do hassles and uplifts trajectories predict mortality? Longitudinal findings from the VA Normative Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yu-Jin; Aldwin, Carolyn M; Igarashi, Heidi; Spiro, Avron

    2016-06-01

    We examined whether longitudinal patterns of hassles and uplifts trajectories predicted mortality, using a sample of 1315 men from the VA Normative Aging Study (mean age = 65.31, SD = 7.6). In prior work, we identified different trajectory classes of hassles and uplifts exposure and intensity scores over a period of 16 years. In this study, we used the probabilities of these exposure and intensity class memberships to examine their ability to predict mortality. Men with higher probabilities of high hassle intensity trajectory class and high uplift intensity class had higher mortality risks. In a model combining the probabilities of hassle and uplift intensities, the probability of high intensity hassle class membership significantly increased the risk of mortality. This suggests that appraisals of hassles intensity are better predictors of mortality than simple exposure measures, and that uplifts have no independent effects. PMID:26721518

  4. Historic air pollution exposure and long-term mortality risks in England and Wales: prospective longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hansell, Anna; Ghosh, Rebecca E; Blangiardo, Marta; Perkins, Chloe; Vienneau, Danielle; Goffe, Kayoung; Briggs, David; Gulliver, John

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Long-term air pollution exposure contributes to mortality but there are few studies examining effects of very long-term (>25 years) exposures. Methods This study investigated modelled air pollution concentrations at residence for 1971, 1981, 1991 (black smoke (BS) and SO2) and 2001 (PM10) in relation to mortality up to 2009 in 367 658 members of the longitudinal survey, a 1% sample of the English Census. Outcomes were all-cause (excluding accidents), cardiovascular (CV) and respiratory mortality. Results BS and SO2 exposures remained associated with mortality decades after exposure—BS exposure in 1971 was significantly associated with all-cause (OR 1.02 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.04)) and respiratory (OR 1.05 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.09)) mortality in 2002–2009 (ORs expressed per 10 μg/m3). Largest effect sizes were seen for more recent exposures and for respiratory disease. PM10 exposure in 2001 was associated with all outcomes in 2002–2009 with stronger associations for respiratory (OR 1.22 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.44)) than CV mortality (OR 1.12 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.25)). Adjusting PM10 for past BS and SO2 exposures in 1971, 1981 and 1991 reduced the all-cause OR to 1.16 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.26) while CV and respiratory associations lost significance, suggesting confounding by past air pollution exposure, but there was no evidence for effect modification. Limitations include limited information on confounding by smoking and exposure misclassification of historic exposures. Conclusions This large national study suggests that air pollution exposure has long-term effects on mortality that persist decades after exposure, and that historic air pollution exposures influence current estimates of associations between air pollution and mortality. PMID:26856365

  5. ADDHEALTH - NATIONAL LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study provides a comprehensive view of the health and health behaviors of adolescents and the antecedents - personal, interpersonal, familial, and environmental of these outcomes. The study features a longitudinal, multi-level design with independent measurement at the indiv...

  6. Relationships of Suicide Ideation with Cause-Specific Mortality in a Longitudinal Study of South Koreans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khang, Young-Ho; Kim, Hye-Ryun; Cho, Seong-Jin

    2010-01-01

    Using 7-year mortality follow-up data (n = 341) from the 1998 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys of South Korean individuals (N = 5,414), the authors found that survey participants with suicide ideation were at increased risk of suicide mortality during the follow-up period compared with those without suicide ideation. The…

  7. The Effect of Interview Length on Attrition in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. National Longitudinal Surveys Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branden, Laura; And Others

    The effect of interview length on wave nonresponse in a longitudinal survey was studied, controlling for respondent-specific characteristics known to affect survey response. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth were used, for a sample of over 10,000 people who were 14 to 22 years old when first interviewed in 1979. These individuals…

  8. Cardiovascular mortality in Dutch men during 1996 European football championship: longitudinal population study

    PubMed Central

    Witte, Daniel R; Bots, Michiel L; Hoes, Arno W; Grobbee, Diederick E

    2000-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether an important football match increases stress to such an extent that it triggers acute myocardial infarction and stroke. Design Longitudinal study of mortality around 22 June 1996 (the day the Dutch football team was eliminated from the European football championship). Mortality on 22 June was compared with the five days before and after the match and in the same period in 1995 and 1997. Setting Netherlands. Subjects Dutch population aged 45 years or over in June 1996. Main outcome measures All cause mortality and mortality due to coronary heart disease and stroke. Results Mortality from coronary heart disease and stroke was increased in men on the day of the match (relative risk 1.51, 95% confidence interval 1.08 to 2.09). No clear rise in mortality was observed for women (1.11, 0.80 to 1.56). Among men, about 14 excess cardiovascular deaths occurred on the day of the match. Conclusion Important sporting events may provoke a sufficient level of stress to trigger symptomatic cardiovascular disease. The difference between men and women requires further investigation. PMID:11124170

  9. High Basal Metabolic Rate Is a Risk Factor for Mortality: The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Ruggiero, Carmelinda; Metter, E. Jeffrey; Melenovsky, Vojtech; Cherubini, Antonio; Najjar, Samer S.; Ble, Alessandro; Senin, Umberto; Longo, Dan L.; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite longstanding controversies from animal studies on the relationship between basal metabolic rate (BMR) and longevity, whether BMR is a risk factor for mortality has never been tested in humans. We evaluate the longitudinal changes in BMR and the relationship between BMR and mortality in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) participants. Methods BMR and medical information were collected at the study entry and approximately every 2 years in 1227 participants (972 men) over a 40-year follow-up. BMR, expressed as kcal/m2/h, was estimated from the basal O2 consumption and CO2 production measured by open-circuit method. Data on all-cause and specific-cause mortality were also obtained. Result BMR declined with age at a rate that accelerated at older ages. Independent of age, participants who died had a higher BMR compared to those who survived. BMR was a significant risk factor for mortality independent of secular trends in mortality and other well-recognized risk factors for mortality, such as age, body mass index, smoking, white blood cell count, and diabetes. BMR was nonlinearly associated with mortality. The lowest mortality rate was found in the BMR range 31.3–33.9 kcal/m2/h. Participants with BMR in the range 33.9–36.4 kcal/m2/h and above the threshold of 36.4 kcal/m2/h experienced 28% (hazard ratio: 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.02–1.61) and 53% (hazard ratio: 1.53; 95% confidence interval, 1.19–1.96) higher mortality risk compared to participants with BMR 31.3–33.9 kcal/m2/h. Conclusion We confirm previous findings of an age-related decline of BMR. In our study, a blunted age-related decline in BMR was associated with higher mortality, suggesting that such condition reflects poor health status. PMID:18693224

  10. Migration, urbanisation and mortality: 5-year longitudinal analysis of the PERU MIGRANT study

    PubMed Central

    Pena, Melissa S Burroughs; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M; Sánchez, Juan F; Quispe, Renato; Pillay, Timesh D; Málaga, Germán; Gilman, Robert H; Smeeth, Liam; Miranda, J Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare all-cause and cause-specific mortality among 3 distinct groups: within-country, rural-to-urban migrants, and rural and urban dwellers in a longitudinal cohort in Peru. Methods The PERU MIGRANT Study, a longitudinal cohort study, used an age-stratified and sex-stratified random sample of urban dwellers in a shanty town community in the capital city of Peru, rural dwellers in the Andes, and migrants from the Andes to the shanty town community. Participants underwent a questionnaire and anthropomorphic measurements at a baseline evaluation in 2007–2008 and at a follow-up visit in 2012–2013. Mortality was determined by death certificate or family interview. Results Of the 989 participants evaluated at baseline, 928 (94%) were evaluated at follow-up (mean age 48 years; 53% female). The mean follow-up time was 5.1 years, totalling 4732.8 person-years. In a multivariable survival model, and relative to urban dwellers, rural participants had lower all-cause mortality (HR=0.27; 95% CI 0.07 to 0.98), and both the rural (HR=0.07; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.87) and migrant (HR=0.13; 95% CI 0.02 to 0.81) groups had lower cardiovascular mortality. Conclusions Cardiovascular mortality of migrants remains similar to that of the rural group, suggesting that rural-to-urban migrants do not appear to catch up with urban mortality in spite of having a more urban cardiovascular risk factor profile. PMID:25987723

  11. An integrated national mortality surveillance system for death registration and mortality surveillance, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shiwei; Wu, Xiaoling; Lopez, Alan D; Wang, Lijun; Cai, Yue; Page, Andrew; Yin, Peng; Liu, Yunning; Li, Yichong; Liu, Jiangmei; You, Jinling; Zhou, Maigeng

    2016-01-01

    In China, sample-based mortality surveillance systems, such as the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention's disease surveillance points system and the Ministry of Health's vital registration system, have been used for decades to provide nationally representative data on health status for health-care decision-making and performance evaluation. However, neither system provided representative mortality and cause-of-death data at the provincial level to inform regional health service needs and policy priorities. Moreover, the systems overlapped to a considerable extent, thereby entailing a duplication of effort. In 2013, the Chinese Government combined these two systems into an integrated national mortality surveillance system to provide a provincially representative picture of total and cause-specific mortality and to accelerate the development of a comprehensive vital registration and mortality surveillance system for the whole country. This new system increased the surveillance population from 6 to 24% of the Chinese population. The number of surveillance points, each of which covered a district or county, increased from 161 to 605. To ensure representativeness at the provincial level, the 605 surveillance points were selected to cover China's 31 provinces using an iterative method involving multistage stratification that took into account the sociodemographic characteristics of the population. This paper describes the development and operation of the new national mortality surveillance system, which is expected to yield representative provincial estimates of mortality in China for the first time. PMID:26769996

  12. Unintentional injury mortality in India, 2005: Nationally representative mortality survey of 1.1 million homes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Unintentional injuries are an important cause of death in India. However, no reliable nationally representative estimates of unintentional injury deaths are available. Thus, we examined unintentional injury deaths in a nationally representative mortality survey. Methods Trained field staff interviewed a living relative of those who had died during 2001-03. The verbal autopsy reports were sent to two of the130 trained physicians, who independently assigned an ICD-10 code to each death. Discrepancies were resolved through reconciliation and adjudication. Proportionate cause specific mortality was used to produce national unintentional injury mortality estimates based on United Nations population and death estimates. Results In 2005, unintentional injury caused 648 000 deaths (7% of all deaths; 58/100 000 population). Unintentional injury mortality rates were higher among males than females, and in rural versus urban areas. Road traffic injuries (185 000 deaths; 29% of all unintentional injury deaths), falls (160 000 deaths, 25%) and drowning (73 000 deaths, 11%) were the three leading causes of unintentional injury mortality, with fire-related injury causing 5% of these deaths. The highest unintentional mortality rates were in those aged 70years or older (410/100 000). Conclusions These direct estimates of unintentional injury deaths in India (0.6 million) are lower than WHO indirect estimates (0.8 million), but double the estimates which rely on police reports (0.3 million). Importantly, they revise upward the mortality due to falls, particularly in the elderly, and revise downward mortality due to fires. Ongoing monitoring of injury mortality will enable development of evidence based injury prevention programs. PMID:22741813

  13. Relationships of suicide ideation with cause-specific mortality in a longitudinal study of South Koreans.

    PubMed

    Khang, Young-Ho; Kim, Hye-Ryun; Cho, Seong-Jin

    2010-10-01

    Using 7-year mortality follow-up data (n = 341) from the 1998 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys of South Korean individuals (N = 5,414), the authors found that survey participants with suicide ideation were at increased risk of suicide mortality during the follow-up period compared with those without suicide ideation. The cause-specific analyses showed that, in men, suicide ideation was significantly associated with mortality due to cardiovascular disease, external causes, and other causes. However, there was no significant association between suicide ideation and cause-specific mortality in women. The relationship between suicide ideation and cause-specific mortality in men was not fully explained by baseline health status, socioeconomic status, health behavior, or psychosocial factors. PMID:21034209

  14. Number of Teeth and Mortality Risk in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Padilha, Dalva Maria Pereira; Hilgert, Juliana Balbinot; Hugo, Fernando Neves; Bós, Ângelo José Gonçalves; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Background Findings from several studies suggested an association between oral health and several health outcomes including cardiovascular disease, aspiration pneumonia, malnutrition, poor quality of life, and mortality. Using data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA), we tested the hypothesis that number of teeth is indicative of mortality risk independent of other confounders. Methods Dentists conducted a standardized oral examination that included tooth count, tooth with coronal and cervical caries count, and gingival and periodontal index. Blood tests used in the analysis included fasting glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, and white blood cell counts. Physical activity, skin fold thickness, body mass index and chronic diseases were also evaluated. Results Of the 500 BLSA participants evaluated, 198 died an average of 130 (±75) months postdental evaluation, and 302 survivors were followed for a mean of 185 (±90) months. Based on multivariate Cox regression models, being edentulous or having than 20 teeth was independently associated with mortality. Conclusion The results of this study support the notion that number of teeth is a significant and independent risk indicator for early mortality. These findings suggest that the improvement of oral health may have a positive impact on general health and may delay mortality. PMID:18693229

  15. NATIONAL VITAL STATISTICS SYSTEM - MORTALITY DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the United States, State laws require death certificates to be completed for all deaths, and Federal law mandates national collection and publication of deaths and other vital statistics data. The National Vital Statistics System, the Federal compilation of this data, is the r...

  16. Using National Education Longitudinal Data Sets in School Counseling Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Julia A.; Day-Vines, Norma L.; Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl; Moore-Thomas, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    National longitudinal databases hold much promise for school counseling researchers. Several of the more frequently used data sets, possible professional implications, and strategies for acquiring training in the use of large-scale national data sets are described. A 6-step process for conducting research with the data sets is explicated:…

  17. New Data Available for the National Longitudinal Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, William R.

    The National Longitudinal surveys (NLS) of Labor Market Behavior have been conducted by the Center for Human Resource Research at Ohio State University and supported by the Department of Labor since l966. In this paper, data from the fifth and newest NLS cohort, a national cohort of 12,686 youth who were aged 14-21 in 1979, are discussed.…

  18. National variation in United States sepsis mortality: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The regional distribution of a disease may provide important insights regarding its pathophysiology, risk factors and clinical care. While sepsis is a prominent cause of death in the United States (US), few studies have examined regional variations with this malady. We identified the national variation in sepsis deaths in the US. We conducted a descriptive analysis of 1999-2005 national vital statistics data from the National Center for Health Statistics summarized at the state-level. We defined sepsis deaths as deaths attributed to an infection, classified according to the International Classification of Diseases, Version 10. We calculated national and state age-adjusted sepsis-attributed mortality rates. Results National age-adjusted sepsis mortality was 65.5 per 100,000 persons (95% CI: 65.8 - 66.0). State level sepsis mortality varied more than two-fold (range 41 to 88.6 per 100,000 persons; median 60.8 per 100,000, IQR 53.9-74.4 per 100,000). A cluster extending from the Southeastern to the mid-Atlantic US encompassed states with the highest sepsis mortality. Conclusions Sepsis mortality varies across the US. The states with highest sepsis mortality form a contiguous cluster in the Southeastern and mid-Atlantic US. These observations highlight unanswered questions regarding the characteristics and care of sepsis. PMID:20156361

  19. Longitudinal Community-Based Study of QT Interval and Mortality in Southeast Asians

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Jonathan; Jin, Ai Zhen; Nyunt, Shwe Zin; Ng, Tze Pin; Richards, A. Mark; Lam, Carolyn S. P.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The prognostic impact of QT interval prolongation has not been well studied in healthy Asians. We investigated the association between the QT interval with mortality and cardiovascular events in a healthy Southeast Asian population. Methods The QT interval corrected for heart rate using the Bazett’s formula (QTc) was measured in 2536 (825 men, mean age 65.7±7.5 years) Singaporean adults free of cardiovascular disease in the population-based Singapore Longitudinal Ageing Study. Outcomes were all-cause mortality and incident cardiovascular events (cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction (MI) and/or stroke). Results Over a mean 7.78 years (19695 person-years) of follow-up, there were 202 deaths (45 from cardiovascular causes), 62 cases of myocardial infarction and 64 cases of stroke. Adjusting for age, sex, and cardiovascular risk factors, QTcB prolongation remained independently associated with increased all-cause mortality (HR(per standard deviation) 1.27 (1.10–1.48), p = 0.0015), as well as increased risk of cardiovascular events (HR 1.20 (1.01–1.43), p = 0.0415) and MI/stroke (HR 1.22 (1.01–1.47), p = 0.0455), but not cardiovascular mortality alone (HR 1.05 (0.77–1.44), p = 0.7562). Conclusions We provide the first community-based estimates of the independent association of QT prolongation with all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events in Southeast Asians. PMID:27148971

  20. NATIONAL LONGITUDINAL ALCOHOL EPIDEMIOLOGIC SURVEY (NLAES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NLAES is a household survey of 42,862 persons 18 years and older in the coterminous United States. The survey was designed to provide comprehensive information on amounts and patterns of alcohol consumption and on problems associated with alcohol. It is the only nationally-re...

  1. Longitudinal Trends in Hypertension Management and Mortality Among Octogenarians: Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Dregan, Alex; Ravindrarajah, Rathi; Hazra, Nisha; Hamada, Shota; Jackson, Stephen H D; Gulliford, Martin C

    2016-07-01

    The role of hypertension management among octogenarians is controversial. In this long-term follow-up (>10 years) study, we estimated trends in hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control among octogenarians, and evaluated the relationship of systolic blood pressure (SBP) ranges with mortality. Data were based on the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). Outcome measures were hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment and control, and cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality events. Participants were separated into 8 categories of SBP values (<110, 110-119, 120-129, 130-139, 140-149, 150-159, 160-169, and >169 mm Hg). Among 2692 octogenarians, mean SBP levels declined from 147 mm Hg in 1998/2000 to 134 mm Hg in 2012/2013. The decline was of lower magnitude in the 50 to 79 years old subgroup (n=22007). Hypertension prevalence and awareness were 40% and 13%, respectively, higher among octogenarians than the 50 to 79 years of age subgroup, but hypertension treatment rates were similar (≈90%). Around 47% of the treated octogenarians achieved conventional BP targets (<140/90 mm Hg), increasing to 59% when assessed against revised targets (<150/90 mm Hg). All-cause mortality rates were higher (hazard ratio, 1.55; 95% confidence interval, 0.89-2.72) at lower extremes of SBP values (<110 mm Hg). The lowest cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality risk among treated octogenarians was observed for an SBP range of 140 to 149 mm Hg (1.04, 0.60-1.78) and 160 to 169 mm Hg (0.78, 0.51-1.21). An increasing trend in hypertension awareness and treatment was observed in a large sample of community-dwelling octogenarians. The results do not support the view that more stringent BP targets may be associated with lower mortality. PMID:27160194

  2. Secondary Analysis of National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Tyler A.; Knollman, Greg A.

    2015-01-01

    This review examines published secondary analyses of National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 (NLTS2) data, with a primary focus upon statistical objectives, paradigms, inferences, and methods. Its primary purpose was to determine which statistical techniques have been common in secondary analyses of NLTS2 data. The review begins with an…

  3. Connecticut Participation in the National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Department of Education Research Bulletin, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Statewide information concerning the Connecticut eight-grade public school students who particpated in the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS) in the spring of 1988 is presented. Over 900 students in 46 schools in 35 school districts, almost evenly divided between males and females, completed cognitive tests and student surveys about…

  4. Planning Papers for the National Longitudinal Study of Chapter 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Policy Studies Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The Elementary and Secondary School Improvement Amendments of 1988 (P.L. 100-297) require the U.S. Department of Education to conduct a national longitudinal study of Chapter 1 of the Elementary Secondary Education Act (ESEA). The department commissioned the selection of experts qualified to provide design suggestions and advice for the national…

  5. Road traffic related mortality in Vietnam: Evidence for policy from a national sample mortality surveillance system

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are among the leading causes of mortality in Vietnam. However, mortality data collection systems in Vietnam in general and for RTIs in particular, remain inconsistent and incomplete. Underlying distributions of external causes and body injuries are not available from routine data collection systems or from studies till date. This paper presents characteristics, user type pattern, seasonal distribution, and causes of 1,061 deaths attributable to road crashes ascertained from a national sample mortality surveillance system in Vietnam over a two-year period (2008 and 2009). Methods A sample mortality surveillance system was designed for Vietnam, comprising 192 communes in 16 provinces, accounting for approximately 3% of the Vietnamese population. Deaths were identified from commune level data sources, and followed up by verbal autopsy (VA) based ascertainment of cause of death. Age-standardised mortality rates from RTIs were computed. VA questionnaires were analysed in depth to derive descriptive characteristics of RTI deaths in the sample. Results The age-standardized mortality rates from RTIs were 33.5 and 8.5 per 100,000 for males and females respectively. Majority of deaths were males (79%). Seventy three percent of all deaths were aged from 15 to 49 years and 58% were motorcycle users. As high as 80% of deaths occurred on the day of injury, 42% occurred prior to arrival at hospital, and a further 29% occurred on-site. Direct causes of death were identified for 446 deaths (42%) with head injuries being the most common cause attributable to road traffic injuries overall (79%) and to motorcycle crashes in particular (78%). Conclusion The VA method can provide a useful data source to analyse RTI mortality. The observed considerable mortality from head injuries among motorcycle users highlights the need to evaluate current practice and effectiveness of motorcycle helmet use in Vietnam. The high number of deaths occurring on

  6. Longitudinal study of dental caries, tooth mortality and interproximal bone loss in adults with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Gabre, P; Martinsson, T; Gahnberg, L

    2001-02-01

    The investigation focused on longitudinal changes of oral health in a group of adults with intellectual disability. A number of 124 individuals, aged 21-40 yr in 1990, were followed during 8.5 yr. The incidence and prevalence of caries, incidence of tooth mortality, and interproximal bone loss were registered from clinical examinations and bite-wing radiographs. The subjects visited the dental clinic for preventive dental care on average every third month during the period. The caries incidence was low, on average 0.51 new lesions per yr. Persons with mild intellectual disability experienced more caries than other subjects. During the 8.5 yr, the subjects had lost on average 1.82 teeth, with periodontitis dominating as the reason for tooth mortality. Individuals who cooperated poorly with dental treatment had lost the most teeth. The average annual bone loss in all subjects was 0.03 mm. Subjects with Down syndrome had a higher bone loss compared to those with other diagnoses of intellectual disability. Thus, the major part of the persons with intellectual disability showed satisfactory oral health. However, subjects with poor ability to cooperate with dental treatment and subjects with Down syndrome showed an increased risk for impaired oral health. PMID:11330930

  7. Disparities in Cervical Cancer Mortality Rates as Determined by the Longitudinal Hyperbolastic Mixed-Effects Type II Model

    PubMed Central

    Tabatabai, Mohammad A.; Kengwoung-Keumo, Jean-Jacques; Eby, Wayne M.; Bae, Sejong; Guemmegne, Juliette T.; Manne, Upender; Fouad, Mona; Partridge, Edward E.; Singh, Karan P.

    2014-01-01

    Background The main purpose of this study was to model and analyze the dynamics of cervical cancer mortality rates for African American (Black) and White women residing in 13 states located in the eastern half of the United States of America from 1975 through 2010. Methods The cervical cancer mortality rates of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) were used to model and analyze the dynamics of cervical cancer mortality. A longitudinal hyperbolastic mixed-effects type II model was used to model the cervical cancer mortality data and SAS PROC NLMIXED and Mathematica were utilized to perform the computations. Results Despite decreasing trends in cervical cancer mortality rates for both races, racial disparities in mortality rates still exist. In all 13 states, Black women had higher mortality rates at all times. The degree of disparities and pace of decline in mortality rates over time differed among these states. Determining the paces of decline over 36 years showed that Tennessee had the most rapid decline in cervical cancer mortality for Black women, and Mississippi had the most rapid decline for White Women. In contrast, slow declines in cervical cancer mortality were noted for Black women in Florida and for White women in Maryland. Conclusions In all 13 states, cervical cancer mortality rates for both racial groups have fallen. Disparities in the pace of decline in mortality rates in these states may be due to differences in the rates of screening for cervical cancers. Of note, the gap in cervical cancer mortality rates between Black women and White women is narrowing. PMID:25226583

  8. Income Inequality and Child Mortality in Wealthy Nations.

    PubMed

    Collison, David

    2016-01-01

    This chapter presents evidence of a relationship between child mortality data and socio-economic factors in relatively wealthy nations. The original study on child mortality that is reported here, which first appeared in a UK medical journal, was undertaken in a school of business by academics with accounting and finance backgrounds. The rationale explaining why academics from such disciplines were drawn to investigate these issues is given in the first part of the chapter. The findings related to child mortality data were identified as a special case of a wide range of social and health indicators that are systematically related to the different organisational approaches of capitalist societies. In particular, the so-called Anglo-American countries show consistently poor outcomes over a number of indicators, including child mortality. Considerable evidence has been adduced in the literature to show the importance of income inequality as an explanation for such findings. An important part of the chapter is the overview of a relatively recent publication in the epidemiological literature entitled The Spirit Level: Why Equality Is Better for Everyone, which was written by Wilkinson and Pickett. PMID:27197976

  9. Influence of Social Engagement on Mortality in Korea: Analysis of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (2006–2012)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of social engagement and patterns of change in social engagement over time on mortality in a large population, aged 45 years or older. Data from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging from 2006 and 2012 were assessed using longitudinal data analysis. We included 8,234 research subjects at baseline (2006). The primary analysis was based on Cox proportional hazards models to examine our hypothesis. The hazard ratio of all-cause mortality for the lowest level of social engagement was 1.841-times higher (P < 0.001) compared with the highest level of social engagement. Subgroup analysis results by gender showed a similar trend. A six-class linear solution fit the data best, and class 1 (the lowest level of social engagement class, 7.6% of the sample) was significantly related to the highest mortality (HR: 4.780, P < 0.001). Our results provide scientific insight on the effects of the specificity of the level of social engagement and changes in social engagement on all-cause mortality in current practice, which are important for all-cause mortality risk. Therefore, protection from all-cause mortality may depend on avoidance of constant low-levels of social engagement. PMID:27365997

  10. Food Habits, Lifestyle Factors and Mortality among Oldest Old Chinese: The Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS)

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zumin; Zhang, Tuohong; Byles, Julie; Martin, Sean; Avery, Jodie C.; Taylor, Anne W.

    2015-01-01

    There are few studies reporting the association between lifestyle and mortality among the oldest old in developing countries. We examined the association between food habits, lifestyle factors and all-cause mortality in the oldest old (≥80 years) using data from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS). In 1998/99, 8959 participants aged 80 years and older took part in the baseline survey. Follow-up surveys were conducted every two to three years until 2011. Food habits were assessed using an in-person interview. Deaths were ascertained from family members during follow-up. Cox and Laplace regression were used to assess the association between food habits, lifestyle factors and mortality risk. There were 6626 deaths during 31,926 person-years of follow-up. Type of staple food (rice or wheat) was not associated with mortality. Daily fruit and vegetable intake was inversely associated with a higher mortality risk (hazard ratios (HRs): 0.85 (95% CI (confidence interval) 0.77–0.92), and 0.74 (0.66–0.83) for daily intake of fruit and vegetables, respectively). There was a positive association between intake of salt-preserved vegetables and mortality risk (consumers had about 10% increase of HR for mortality). Fruit and vegetable consumption were inversely, while intake of salt-preserved vegetables positively, associated with mortality risk among the oldest old. Undertaking physical activity is beneficial for the prevention of premature death. PMID:26371039

  11. Design and methods of the national Vietnam veterans longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Schlenger, William E; Corry, Nida H; Kulka, Richard A; Williams, Christianna S; Henn-Haase, Clare; Marmar, Charles R

    2015-09-01

    The National Vietnam Veterans Longitudinal Study (NVVLS) is the second assessment of a representative cohort of US veterans who served during the Vietnam War era, either in Vietnam or elsewhere. The cohort was initially surveyed in the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study (NVVRS) from 1984 to 1988 to assess the prevalence, incidence, and effects of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other post-war problems. The NVVLS sought to re-interview the cohort to assess the long-term course of PTSD. NVVLS data collection began July 3, 2012 and ended May 17, 2013, comprising three components: a mailed health questionnaire, a telephone health survey interview, and, for a probability sample of theater Veterans, a clinical diagnostic telephone interview administered by licensed psychologists. Excluding decedents, 78.8% completed the questionnaire and/or telephone survey, and 55.0% of selected living veterans participated in the clinical interview. This report provides a description of the NVVLS design and methods. Together, the NVVRS and NVVLS constitute a nationally representative longitudinal study of Vietnam veterans, and extend the NVVRS as a critical resource for scientific and policy analyses for Vietnam veterans, with policy relevance for Iraq and Afghanistan veterans. PMID:26096554

  12. National cancer incidence and mortality in China, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wanqing; Zheng, Rongshou; Zuo, Tingting; Zeng, Hongmei; Zhang, Siwei

    2016-01-01

    Background Population-based cancer registration data in 2012 from all available cancer registries were collected by the National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR). NCCR estimated the numbers of new cancer cases and cancer deaths in China with compiled cancer incidence and mortality rates. Methods In 2015, there were 261 cancer registries submitted cancer incidence and deaths occurred in 2012. All the data were checked and evaluated based on the NCCR criteria of data quality. Qualified data from 193 registries were used for cancer statistics analysis as national estimation. The pooled data were stratified by area (urban/rural), gender, age group [0, 1–4, 5–9, 10–14, …, 85+] and cancer type. New cancer cases and deaths were estimated using age-specific rates and corresponding national population in 2012. The Chinese census data in 2000 and Segi’s population were applied for age-standardized rates. All the rates were expressed per 100,000 person-year. Results Qualified 193 cancer registries (74 urban and 119 rural registries) covered 198,060,406 populations (100,450,109 in urban and 97,610,297 in rural areas). The percentage of cases morphologically verified (MV%) and death certificate-only cases (DCO%) were 69.13% and 2.38%, respectively, and the mortality to incidence rate ratio (M/I) was 0.62. A total of 3,586,200 new cancer cases and 2,186,600 cancer deaths were estimated in China in 2012. The incidence rate was 264.85/100,000 (289.30/100,000 in males, 239.15/100,000 in females), the age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and by world standard population (ASIRW) were 191.89/100,000 and 187.83/100,000 with the cumulative incidence rate (0–74 age years old) of 21.82%. The cancer incidence, ASIRC and ASIRW in urban areas were 277.17/100,000, 195.56/100,000 and 190.88/100,000 compared to 251.20/100,000, 187.10/100,000 and 183.91/100,000 in rural areas, respectively. The cancer mortality was 161.49/100,000 (198.99/100,000 in

  13. Differences in mortality by immigrant status in Italy. Results of the Italian Network of Longitudinal Metropolitan Studies.

    PubMed

    Pacelli, Barbara; Zengarini, Nicolás; Broccoli, Serena; Caranci, Nicola; Spadea, Teresa; Di Girolamo, Chiara; Cacciani, Laura; Petrelli, Alessio; Ballotari, Paola; Cestari, Laura; Grisotto, Laura; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo

    2016-07-01

    Despite a rapid increase in immigration from low-income countries, studies on immigrants' mortality in Italy are scarce. We aimed to describe differences in all and cause-specific mortality among immigrants and Italians residing in Turin and Reggio Emilia (Northern Italy), two cities participating in the Italian Network of Longitudinal Metropolitan Studies (IN-LiMeS). We used individual data from the municipal population registers linked to the cause of death registers. All people aged 1-64 years residing between 2001 and 2010 were enrolled (open cohort) and followed up until 2013. The mortality of citizens from high migratory pressure countries (as a whole, and for each macro-area group) was compared with that of Italians; differences were estimated by Poisson regression adjusted by age and calendar year mortality rate ratios (MRRs), and by age-standardized mortality ratios for the analysis of cause-specific mortality. Compared with Italians, immigrants had lower overall mortality (MRR for men: 0.82, 95 % CI: 0.75-0.90; for women: 0.71, 95 % CI: 0.63-0.81). Sub-Saharan Africans experienced a significant higher mortality than Italians (MRR for men 1.29, 95 % CI: 1.03-1.61; for women: 1.70, 95 % CI: 1.22-2.36). Higher mortality for immigrants compared to Italians was observed for infectious diseases, congenital anomalies, some site-specific tumours and homicide mortality. Our study showed heterogeneity in mortality across the macro-areas of origin, and in particular Sub-Saharan Africans seemed to be a vulnerable population. The extension to other cohorts of IN-LiMeS will allow the health status of immigrants and vulnerable groups to be studied and monitored in more depth. PMID:27461270

  14. Standardized analysis of German cattle mortality using national register data.

    PubMed

    Pannwitz, Gunter

    2015-03-01

    In a retrospective cohort study of national register data, 1946 randomly selected holdings, with 286,912 individual cattle accumulating 170,416 animal-years were analyzed. The sample was considered to represent the national herd in Germany 2012. Within each holding, individual cattle records were stratified by current age (≤21 days, 3-6 weeks, 6-12 weeks, 3-6 months, 6-12 months, 1-2, 2-4, 4-8, and >8 years), sex, breed (intensive milk, less intensive milk, and beef), and mean monthly air temperature (<10°C and ≥10°C). Holdings were categorized by size (<100 and ≥100 animal-years), calving rate, slaughter rate, and federal state. 8027 on-site deaths (excluding slaughter for human consumption) were recorded, with cattle aged <6 months, 6-24 months, and >2 years contributing 50.0%, 15.4%, and 34.6% of deaths, respectively. Poisson regression and generalized estimating equations (gee) accounting for intra-herd clustering were used to model the number of deaths. In both models, most age bands differed significantly, with highest rates in calves ≤21 days, falling to lowest rates in 1-2 year olds, and rising again thereafter in females. Males exhibited higher mortality than females from birth to 2 years. All breed categories differed significantly with lowest rates in beef and highest in intensive milk breeds. Larger holdings, temperatures ≤10°C, calving rates >0-0.5 per animal year were all associated with higher mortality. Via interaction, intensive and less intensive milk breed cattle aging 6 weeks to 6 months and intensive milk breed females >4 years were associated with higher mortality. There were no significant differences between federal states and slaughter rates. The standardized deviations of modeled dead cattle numbers from occurred deaths per calendar year per holding were calculated and a 95% reference range of deviations constructed. This approach makes a standardized active monitoring and surveillance system regardless of herd size possible

  15. The influence of neighbourhood-level socioeconomic deprivation on cardiovascular disease mortality in older age: longitudinal multilevel analyses from a cohort of older British men

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, S E; Morris, R W; Whincup, P H; Subramanian, S V; Papacosta, A O; Lennon, Lucy T; Wannamethee, S G

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence from longitudinal studies on the influence of neighbourhood socioeconomic factors in older age on cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality is limited. We aimed to investigate the prospective association of neighbourhood-level deprivation in later life with CVD mortality, and assess the underlying role of established cardiovascular risk factors. Methods A socially representative cohort of 3924 men, aged 60–79 years in 1998–2000, from 24 British towns, was followed up until 2012 for CVD mortality. Quintiles of the national Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD), a composite score of neighbourhood-level factors (including income, employment, education, housing and living environment) were used. Multilevel logistic regression with discrete-time models (stratifying follow-up time into months) were used. Results Over 12 years, 1545 deaths occurred, including 580 from CVD. The risk of CVD mortality showed a graded increase from IMD quintile 1 (least deprived) to 5 (most deprived). Compared to quintile 1, the age-adjusted odds of CVD mortality in quintile 5 were 1.71 (95% CI 1.32 to 2.21), and 1.62 (95% CI 1.23 to 2.13) on further adjustment for individual social class, which was attenuated slightly to 1.44 (95% CI 1.09 to 1.89), but remained statistically significant after adjustment for smoking, body mass index, physical activity and use of alcohol. Further adjustment for blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and prevalent diabetes made little difference. Conclusions Neighbourhood-level deprivation was associated with an increased risk of CVD mortality in older people independent of individual-level social class and cardiovascular risk factors. The role of other specific neighbourhood-level factors merits further research. PMID:26285580

  16. Identifying Probable Suicide Clusters in Wales Using National Mortality Data

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Phillip; Gunnell, David; Platt, Stephen; Scourfield, Jonathan; Lloyd, Keith; Huxley, Peter; John, Ann; Kamran, Babar; Wells, Claudia; Dennis, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background Up to 2% of suicides in young people may occur in clusters i.e., close together in time and space. In early 2008 unprecedented attention was given by national and international news media to a suspected suicide cluster among young people living in Bridgend, Wales. This paper investigates the strength of statistical evidence for this apparent cluster, its size, and temporal and geographical limits. Methods and findings The analysis is based on official mortality statistics for Wales for 2000–2009 provided by the UK's Office for National Statistics (ONS). Temporo-spatial analysis was performed using Space Time Permutation Scan Statistics with SaTScan v9.1 for suicide deaths aged 15 and over, with a sub-group analysis focussing on cases aged 15–34 years. These analyses were conducted for deaths coded by ONS as: (i) suicide or of undetermined intent (probable suicides) and (ii) for a combination of suicide, undetermined, and accidental poisoning and hanging (possible suicides). The temporo-spatial analysis did not identify any clusters of suicide or undetermined intent deaths (probable suicides). However, analysis of all deaths by suicide, undetermined intent, accidental poisoning and accidental hanging (possible suicides) identified a temporo-spatial cluster (p = 0.029) involving 10 deaths amongst 15–34 year olds centred on the County Borough of Bridgend for the period 27th December 2007 to 19th February 2008. Less than 1% of possible suicides in younger people in Wales in the ten year period were identified as being cluster-related. Conclusions There was a possible suicide cluster in young people in Bridgend between December 2007 and February 2008. This cluster was smaller, shorter in duration, and predominantly later than the phenomenon that was reported in national and international print media. Further investigation of factors leading to the onset and termination of this series of deaths, in particular the role of the media, is required. PMID

  17. Independent and joint effects of sedentary time and cardiorespiratory fitness on all-cause mortality: the Cooper Center Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Shuval, Kerem; Finley, Carrie E; Barlow, Carolyn E; Nguyen, Binh T; Njike, Valentine Y; Pettee Gabriel, Kelley

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the independent and joint effects of sedentary time and cardiorespiratory fitness (fitness) on all-cause mortality. Design, setting, participants A prospective study of 3141 Cooper Center Longitudinal Study participants. Participants provided information on television (TV) viewing and car time in 1982 and completed a maximal exercise test during a 1-year time frame; they were then followed until mortality or through 2010. TV viewing, car time, total sedentary time and fitness were the primary exposures and all-cause mortality was the outcome. The relationship between the exposures and outcome was examined utilising Cox proportional hazard models. Results A total of 581 deaths occurred over a median follow-up period of 28.7 years (SD=4.4). At baseline, participants’ mean age was 45.0 years (SD=9.6), 86.5% were men and their mean body mass index was 24.6 (SD=3.0). Multivariable analyses revealed a significant linear relationship between increased fitness and lower mortality risk, even while adjusting for total sedentary time and covariates (p=0.02). The effects of total sedentary time on increased mortality risk did not quite reach statistical significance once fitness and covariates were adjusted for (p=0.05). When examining this relationship categorically, in comparison to the reference category (≤10 h/week), being sedentary for ≥23 h weekly increased mortality risk by 29% without controlling for fitness (HR=1.29, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.63); however, once fitness and covariates were taken into account this relationship did not reach statistical significance (HR=1.20, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.51). Moreover, spending >10 h in the car weekly significantly increased mortality risk by 27% in the fully adjusted model. The association between TV viewing and mortality was not significant. Conclusions The relationship between total sedentary time and higher mortality risk is less pronounced when fitness is taken into account. Increased car time, but

  18. Income Inequality, Economic Growth and Stroke Mortality in Brazil: Longitudinal and Regional Analysis 2002-2009

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Stroke accounts for more than 10% of all deaths globally and most of it occurs in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Income inequality and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita has been associated to stroke mortality in developed countries. In LMIC, GDP per capita is considered to be a more relevant health determinant than income inequality. This study aims to investigate if income inequality is associated to stroke mortality in Brazil at large, but also on regional and state levels, and whether GDP per capita modulates the impact of this association. Methods Stroke mortality rates, Gini index and GDP per capita data were pooled for the 2002 to 2009 period from public available databases. Random effects models were fitted, controlling for GDP per capita and other covariates. Results Income inequality was independently associated to stroke mortality rates, even after controlling for GDP per capita and other covariates. GDP per capita reduced only partially the impact of income inequality on stroke mortality. A decrease in 10 points in the Gini index was associated with 18% decrease in the stroke mortality rate in Brazil. Conclusions Income inequality was independently associated to stroke mortality in Brazil. PMID:26352415

  19. Austerity and old-age mortality in England: a longitudinal cross-local area analysis, 2007–2013

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Martin; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Taylor-Robinson, David; Barr, Ben; Stuckler, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective There has been significant concern that austerity measures have negatively impacted health in the UK. We examined whether budgetary reductions in Pension Credit and social care have been associated with recent rises in mortality rates among pensioners aged 85 years and over. Design Cross-local authority longitudinal study. Setting Three hundred and twenty-four lower tier local authorities in England. Main outcome measure Annual percentage changes in mortality rates among pensioners aged 85 years or over. Results Between 2007 and 2013, each 1% decline in Pension Credit spending (support for low income pensioners) per beneficiary was associated with an increase in 0.68% in old-age mortality (95% CI: 0.41 to 0.95). Each reduction in the number of beneficiaries per 1000 pensioners was associated with an increase in 0.20% (95% CI: 0.15 to 0.24). Each 1% decline in social care spending was associated with a significant rise in old-age mortality (0.08%, 95% CI: 0.0006–0.12) but not after adjusting for Pension Credit spending. Similar patterns were seen in both men and women. Weaker associations observed for those aged 75 to 84 years, and none among those 65 to 74 years. Categories of service expenditure not expected to affect old-age mortality, such as transportation, showed no association. Conclusions Rising mortality rates among pensioners aged 85 years and over were linked to reductions in spending on income support for poor pensioners and social care. Findings suggest austerity measures in England have affected vulnerable old-age adults. PMID:26980412

  20. 30-day Mortality after Bariatric Surgery: Independently Adjudicated Causes of Death in the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Mark D.; Patterson, Emma; Wahed, Abdus S.; Belle, Steven H.; Berk, Paul D.; Courcoulas, Anita P.; Dakin, Gregory F.; Flum, David R.; Machado, Laura; Mitchell, James E.; Pender, John; Pomp, Alfons; Pories, Walter; Ramanathan, Ramesh; Schrope, Beth; Staten, Myrlene; Ude, Akuezunkpa; Wolfe, Bruce M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Mortality following bariatric surgery is a rare event in contemporary series, making it difficult for any single center to draw meaningful conclusions as to cause of death. Nevertheless, much of the published mortality data come from single center case series and reviews of administrative databases. These sources tend to produce lower mortality estimates than those obtained from controlled clinical trials. Furthermore, information about the causes of death and how they were determined is not always available. The aim of the present report is to describe in detail all deaths occurring within 30-days of surgery in the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (LABS). Methods LABS is a 10-center observational cohort study of bariatric surgical outcomes. Data were collected prospectively for bariatric surgeries performed between March 2005 and April 2009. All deaths occurring within 30-days of surgery were identified, and cause of death assigned by an independent Adjudication Subcommittee, blinded to operating surgeon and site. Results 6118 patients underwent primary bariatric surgery. 18 deaths (0.3%) occurred within 30-days of surgery. The most common cause of death was sepsis (33% of deaths), followed by cardiac causes (28%) and pulmonary embolism (17%). For one patient cause of death could not be determined despite examination of all available information. Conclusions This study confirms the low 30-day mortality rate following bariatric surgery. The recognized complications of anastomotic leak, cardiac events, and pulmonary emboli accounted for the majority of 30-day deaths. PMID:21866378

  1. Intelligence and early life mortality: Findings from a longitudinal sample of youth.

    PubMed

    Beaver, Kevin M; Schwartz, Joseph A; Connolly, Eric J; Al-Ghamdi, Mohammed Said; Kobeisy, Ahmed Nezar; Barnes, J C; Boutwell, Brian B

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined whether adolescent IQ predicted risk for mortality by the age of 32. Analyses of data from the Add Health revealed that IQ was related to mortality risk, such that respondents with relatively lower IQs were significantly more likely to experience early life mortality when compared to respondents with relatively higher IQs. This association remained statistically significant even after controlling for a host of covariates such as race, gender, involvement in violent behaviors, levels of self-control, and poverty. The average IQ of deceased respondents was approximately 95, whereas the average IQ of living respondents was about 100. PMID:26765521

  2. Stability of alcohol consumption among youth: a National Longitudinal Survey.

    PubMed

    Grant, B F; Harford, T C; Grigson, M B

    1988-05-01

    The present study draws upon the National Longitudinal Survey (NLS) of Labor Market Experience in Youth (ages 17-24) to describe alcohol use patterns over a 2-year period during the transition years between adolescence and young adulthood. Specifically, turnover in current (using any amount of alcohol in any frequency during the past month) and heavier (drinking six or more drinks on at least 2-3 occasions during the past month) drinking levels among panel members was examined by charting incidence, remission, chronicity, and abstinence between 1982 and 1983. The prevalence of each consumption level increased between the ages of 17 and 22 but declined thereafter for each sex until the age of 24. Changes in prevalence from 1982 to 1983 were shown to be a function of changes in drinking level status. The analysis of turnover in current and heavier drinking levels indicated that there was continuity in drinking behavior over time. Sex differences observed in these trends were examined and their implications to internal and external age- and sex-appropriate constraints and paradigmatic development were explicated. PMID:3374139

  3. Surgical Mortality Audit–lessons Learned in a Developing Nation

    PubMed Central

    Bindroo, Sandiya; Saraf, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    Surgical audit is a systematic, critical analysis of the quality of surgical care that is reviewed by peers against explicit criteria or recognized standards. It is used to improve surgical practice with the ultimate goal of improving patient care. As the pattern of surgical care is different in the developing world, we analyzed mortalities in a referral medical institute of India to suggest interventions for improvement. An analysis of total admissions, different surgeries, and mortalities over 1 year in an urban referral medical institute of northern India was performed, followed by “peer review” of the mortalities. Mortality rates as outcomes and classification was done to provide comparative results. Of 10,005 surgical patients, 337 (male = 221, female = 116) deaths were reported over 1 year. The overall mortality rate was 3.36%, while mortality in operative cases was 1.76%. Total deaths were classified into (1) Viable: 153 (45%), (2) Nonviable: 174 (52%), and (3) Indeterminate: 10 (3%). Exclusion of the nonviable group reduced the mortality rate from 3.36% to 1.62%. Trauma was the major cause of mortality (n = 235; 70%) as compared to other surgical patients (n = 102; 30%). Increased mortality was also associated with emergency procedures (3.66%) as compared to elective surgeries (0.34%). In conclusion, audit of mortality and morbidity helps in initiating and implementing preventive strategies to improve surgical practice and patient care, and to reduce mortality rates. The mortality and morbidity forum is an important educational activity. It should be considered a mandatory activity in all postgraduate training programs. PMID:26414825

  4. Substance use disorders, psychiatric disorders, and mortality after release from prison: a nationwide longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Zheng; Lichtenstein, Paul; Larsson, Henrik; Fazel, Seena

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background High mortality rates have been reported in people released from prison compared with the general population. However, few studies have investigated potential risk factors associated with these high rates, especially psychiatric determinants. We aimed to investigate the association between psychiatric disorders and mortality in people released from prison in Sweden. Methods We studied all people who were imprisoned since Jan 1, 2000, and released before Dec 31, 2009, in Sweden for risks of all-cause and external-cause (accidents, suicide, homicide) mortality after prison release. We obtained data for substance use disorders and other psychiatric disorders, and criminological and sociodemographic factors from population-based registers. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) by Cox regression, and then used them to calculate population attributable fractions for post-release mortality. To control for potential familial confounding, we compared individuals in the study with siblings who were also released from prison, but without psychiatric disorders. We tested whether any independent risk factors improved the prediction of mortality beyond age, sex, and criminal history. Findings We identified 47 326 individuals who were imprisoned. During a median follow-up time of 5·1 years (IQR 2·6–7·5), we recorded 2874 (6%) deaths after release from prison. The overall all-cause mortality rate was 1205 deaths per 100 000 person-years. Substance use disorders significantly increased the rate of all-cause mortality (alcohol use: adjusted HR 1·62, 95% CI 1·48–1·77; drug use: 1·67, 1·53–1·83), and the association was independent of sociodemographic, criminological, and familial factors. We identified no strong evidence that other psychiatric disorders increased mortality after we controlled for potential confounders. In people released from prison, 925 (34%) of all-cause deaths in men and 85 (50%) in women were potentially attributable to substance

  5. Adoption Does Not Increase the Risk of Mortality among Taiwanese Girls in a Longitudinal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mattison, Siobhán M.; Brown, Melissa J.; Floyd, Bruce; Feldman, Marcus W.

    2015-01-01

    Adopted children often experience health and well-being disadvantages compared to biological children remaining in their natal households. The degree of genetic relatedness is thought to mediate the level of parental investment in children, leading to poorer outcomes of biologically unrelated children. We explore whether mortality is related to adoption in a historical Taiwanese population where adoption rarely occurred among kin. Using Cox proportional hazards models in which adoption is included as a time-dependent covariate, we show that adoption of girls does not increase the risk of mortality, as previously suggested; in fact, it is either protective or neutral with respect to mortality. These results suggest that socio-structural variables may produce positive outcomes for adopted children, even compared to biological children who remain in the care of their parents. PMID:25923106

  6. Longitudinal study on morbidity and mortality in white veal calves in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mortality and morbidity are hardly documented in the white veal industry, despite high levels of antimicrobial drug use and resistance. The objective of the present study was to determine the causes and epidemiology of morbidity and mortality in dairy, beef and crossbred white veal production. A total of 5853 calves, housed in 15 production cohorts, were followed during one production cycle. Causes of mortality were determined by necropsy. Morbidity was daily recorded by the producers. Results The total mortality risk was 5,3% and was significantly higher in beef veal production compared to dairy or crossbreds. The main causes of mortality were pneumonia (1.3% of the calves at risk), ruminal disorders (0.7%), idiopathic peritonitis (0.5%), enterotoxaemia (0.5%) and enteritis (0.4%). Belgian Blue beef calves were more likely to die from pneumonia, enterotoxaemia and arthritis. Detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus at necropsy was associated with chronic pneumonia and pleuritis. Of the calves, 25.4% was treated individually and the morbidity rate was 1.66 cases per 1000 calf days at risk. The incidence rate of respiratory disease, diarrhea, arthritis and otitis was 0.95, 0.30, 0.11 and 0.07 cases per 1000 calf days at risk respectively. Morbidity peaked in the first three weeks after arrival and gradually declined towards the end of the production cycle. Conclusions The present study provided insights into the causes and epidemiology of morbidity and mortality in white veal calves in Belgium, housed in the most frequent housing system in Europe. The necropsy findings, identified risk periods and differences between production systems can guide both veterinarians and producers towards the most profitable and ethical preventive and therapeutic protocols. PMID:22414223

  7. Increased Mortality for Elective Surgery during Summer Vacation: A Longitudinal Analysis of Nationwide Data

    PubMed Central

    Caillet, Pascal; Payet, Cécile; Polazzi, Stéphanie; Carty, Matthew J.; Lifante, Jean-Christophe; Duclos, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Surgical safety during vacation periods may be influenced by the interplay of several factors, including workers' leave, hospital activity, climate, and the variety of patient cases. This study aimed to highlight an annually recurring peak of surgical mortality during summer in France and explore its main predictors. We selected all elective of open surgical procedures performed in French hospitals between 2007 and 2012. Surgical mortality variation was analyzed over time in relation to workers leaving on vacation, the volume of procedures performed by hospitals, and temperature changes. We ran a multilevel logistic regression for exploring the determinants of surgical mortality, taking into account the clustering of patients within hospitals and adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics. A total of 609 French hospitals had 8,926,120 discharges related to open elective surgery. During 6 years, we found a recurring mortality peak of 1.15% (95% CI 1.09–1.20) in August compared with 0.81% (0.79–0.82, p<.001) in other months. The incidence of worker vacation was 43.0% (38.9–47.2) in August compared with 7.3% (4.6–10.1, p<.001) in other months. Hospital activity decreased substantially in August (78,126 inpatient stays, 75,298–80,954) in relation to other months (128,142, 125,697–130,586, p<.001). After adjusting for all covariates, we found an "August effect" reflecting a higher risk to patients undergoing operations at this time (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.12–1.19, p<.001). The main study limitation was the absence of data linkage between surgical staffing and mortality at the hospital level. The observed, recurring mortality peak in August raises questions about how to maintain hospital activity and optimal staffing through better regulation of human activities. PMID:26407191

  8. A Longitudinal Evaluation of the National Cancer Institute Science Enrichment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Colleen F.; Goodman, Irene F.

    This paper proposes the design and key methodological features of a longitudinal evaluation of the National Cancer Institute Science Enrichment Program (NCISEP). Goodman Research Group's (GRG) five-year longitudinal evaluation is designed as a randomized experiment with a control group and employs both quantitative and qualitative data collection…

  9. Dietary patterns predict mortality in a national cohort: the National Health Interview Surveys, 1987 and 1992.

    PubMed

    Kant, Ashima K; Graubard, Barry I; Schatzkin, Arthur

    2004-07-01

    We examined the association of mortality and dietary patterns using data from the National Health Interview Surveys of 1987 and 1992 (n = 10,084), aged >/=45 y at baseline (with 2287 deaths due to all causes over 5.9 median years of follow-up). The approximately 60-item FFQ administered at baseline was examined for mentions of foods and dietary behaviors recommended in current dietary guidance (fruits, vegetables, lean poultry and alternates, low-fat dairy, and whole grains), and the resulting patterns were expressed as follows: 1) a Recommended Foods and Behavior Score (RFBS), 2) factor scores from factor analysis, and 3) clusters from cluster analysis. The multivariate-adjusted relative risk (RR) of mortality for each of the 3 types of dietary patterns was examined using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. In men, RR of all-cause mortality was 0.72 (95% CI: 0.56, 0.92, P for trend < 0.001) for RFBS, and 0.74 (95% CI: 0.57, 0.95, P for trend = 0.002) for the fruit-vegetable-whole grain factor score when comparing extreme quartiles. Membership in 1 of the 4 clusters also was associated with lower risk in men (RR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.66, 1.01). For women, the RFBS was a modest inverse predictor of mortality after multivariate adjustment (RR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.61, 1.04, P for trend = 0.04), but estimates for factor and cluster patterns were attenuated. The population-attributable fraction due to diet was 0.16 in men and 0.09 in women. Dietary patterns characterized by compliance with prevailing food-based dietary guidance were associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality. PMID:15226471

  10. Longitudinal study of astronaut health: Mortality in the years 1959-1991

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, L.E.; Pepper, L.J.; Hamm, P.B.; Gilbert, S.L. )

    1993-02-01

    We conducted a historical cohort study of mortality among 195 astronauts who were exposed to space and medical sources of radiation between 1959 and 1991. Cumulative occupational and medical radiation exposures were obtained from the astronaut radiation exposure history data base. Causes of death were obtained from obligatory death certificates and autopsy reports that were on file in the medical records. There was a total of 20 deaths that occurred during the 32-year follow-up period of which 16 were due to accidents. The all-cause standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was 181 (95% confidence interval 110, 279). There was 1 cancer death in the buccal cavity and pharyngeal ICD-9 rubric whose occurrence was significantly beyond expectation. Mortality for coronary disease was 53% lower than expected (2 deaths; SMR = 47; 95% confidence limits 5, 168). The crude death rate for 12 occupationally related accidents was 445 deaths per 100,000 person-years and was an order of magnitude greater than accidental death rates in the mining industries. The SMR of 1346 for fatal accidents was significantly beyond expectation (16 deaths; 95% confidence limits 769, 2168) and was similar to SMRs for accidents among aerial pesticide applicators. The 10-year cumulative risk of occupational fatalities based on the exponential, Weibull, Gompertz, and linear-exponential distributions was 10%. Mortality from motor vehicle accidents was slightly higher than expected, but was not significant (1 death; SMR = 165; 95% confidence limits 2,922). Radiation exposures from medical procedures accounted for a majority of cumulative dose when compared with space radiation exposures. Overall, it was found that astronauts are at a health disadvantage as a result of catastrophic accidents.

  11. Longitudinal study of astronaut health: Mortality in the years 1959-1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Leif E.

    1993-01-01

    We conducted a historical cohort study of mortality among 195 astronauts who were exposed to space and medical sources of radiation between 1959 and 1991. Cumulative occupational and medical radiation exposures were obtained from the astronaut radiation exposure history data base. Causes of death were obtained from obligatory death certificates and autopsy reports that were on file in the medical records. A total of 18 deaths occurred during the 32-year follow-up period for which the all-cause standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was 142 (95 percent confidence interval 84 225). There was one cancer death in the buccal cavity and pharynegeal ICD-9 rubric whose occurrence was significantly beyond expectation. Mortality for coronary disease was 59 percent lower than expected (2 deaths; SMR = 41; 95 percent confidence limit 5 147). The crude death rate for 10 occupationally related accidents was 400 deaths per 100,000 person-years, which is an order of magnitude greater than accidental death rates in mining industries. The SMR of 1027 for fatal accidents was significantly beyond expectation (14 deaths; 95 percent confidence limit 561 1723) and was similar to SMRs for accidents among aerial pesticide applications. The 10-year cumulative risk of occupational fatalities based on the exponential, Weibull, Gompertz, and linear-exponential distributions was 10 percent. Mortality from motor vehicle accidents was slightly higher than expected but was not significant (1 death; SMR = 145; 95 percent confidence limit 2 808). Radiation exposures from medical procedures accounted for a majority of cumulative dose when compared with space radiation exposures. The results of the study do not confirm the impression that astronauts are at increased risk of cancer, but this does not obviate the need for further study. Overall, it was found that astronauts are at a health disadvantage as a result of catastrophic accidents.

  12. Longitudinal trends in prostate cancer incidence, mortality, and survival of patients from two Shanghai city districts: a retrospective population-based cohort study, 2000–2009

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer is the fifth most common cancer affecting men of all ages in China, but robust surveillance data on its occurrence and outcome is lacking. The specific objective of this retrospective study was to analyze the longitudinal trends of prostate cancer incidence, mortality, and survival in Shanghai from 2000 to 2009. Methods A retrospective population-based cohort study was performed using data from a central district (Putuo) and a suburban district (Jiading) of Shanghai. Records of all prostate cancer cases reported to the Shanghai Cancer Registry from 2000 to 2009 for the two districts were reviewed. Prostate cancer outcomes were ascertained by matching cases with individual mortality data (up to 2010) from the National Death Register. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to analyze factors associated with prostate cancer survival. Results A total of 1022 prostate cancer cases were diagnosed from 2000 to 2009. The average age of patients was 75 years. A rapid increase in incidence occurred during the study period. Compared with the year 2000, 2009 incidence was 3.28 times higher in Putuo and 5.33 times higher in Jiading. Prostate cancer mortality declined from 4.45 per 105 individuals per year in 2000 to 1.94 per 105 in 2009 in Putuo and from 5.45 per 105 to 3.5 per 105 in Jiading during the same period. One-year and 5-year prostate cancer survival rates were 95% and 56% in Putuo, and 88% and 51% in Jiading, respectively. Staging of disease, Karnofsky Performance Scale Index, and selection of chemotherapy were three independent factors influencing the survival of prostate cancer patients. Conclusions The prostate cancer incidence increased rapidly from 2000 to 2009, and prostate cancer survival rates decreased in urban and suburban Chinese populations. Early detection and prompt prostate cancer treatment is important for improving health and for increasing survival rates of the Shanghai male population. PMID:24731197

  13. Caribou calf mortality in Denali National Park, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, L.G.; Singer, F.J.; Dale, B.W.

    1995-01-01

    Calf mortality is major component of caribou population dynamics, but little is known about the timing or causes of calf losses, or of characteristics that predispose calves to mortality. During 1984-87, we radiocollared 226 calves (less than or equal to 3 days old) in the Denali Caribou Herd (DCH), an unhunted population utilized by a natural complement of predators, to determine the extent, timing, and causes of calf mortality and to evaluate influences of year, sex, birthdate, and birth mass on those losses. Overall, 39% of radio-collared calves died as neonates (less than or equal to 15 days old), and 98% of those deaths were attributed to predation. Most neonatal deaths (85%) occurred within 8 days of birth. Few deaths occurred after the neonatal period (5, 10, and 0% of calves instrumented died during 16-30, 31-150, and greater than 150 days of age, respectively). Survival of neonates was lower (P = 0.038) in 1985, following a severe winter, than during the other 3 years. In years other than 1985, calves born during the peak of calving (approx 50% of the total, born 5-8 days after calving onset) experienced higher (P less than 0.001) neonatal survival than did other calves. Grizzly bears, wolves, and unknown large predators (i.e., grizzly bears or wolves) accounted for 49, 29, and 16% of the neonatal deaths, respectively. The rate of bear-caused mortalities declined (P less than 0.001) with calf age, and bears killed few calves greater than 10 days old. Wolf predation was not related (P greater than 0.05) to calf age and peaked 10 days after onset of calving. Grizzly bear and wolf predation on neonates during the calving season was a limiting factor for the DCH.

  14. Young Stroke Mortality in Fiji Islands: An Economic Analysis of National Human Capital Resource Loss

    PubMed Central

    Maharaj, Jagdish C.; Reddy, Mahendra

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. The objective of this study was to perform an economic analysis in terms of annual national human capital resource loss from young stroke mortality in Fiji. The official retirement age is 55 years in Fiji. Method. Stroke mortality data, for working-age group 15–55 years, obtained from the Ministry of Health and per capita national income figure for the same year was utilised to calculate the total output loss for the economy. The formula of output loss from the economy was used. Results. There were 273 stroke deaths of which 53.8% were of working-age group. The annual national human capital loss from stroke mortality for Fiji for the year was calculated to be F$8.85 million (US$5.31 million). The highest percentage loss from stroke mortality was from persons in their forties; that is, they still had more then 10 years to retirement. Discussion. This loss equates to one percent of national government revenue and 9.7% of Ministry of Health budget for the same year. The annual national human capital loss from stroke mortality is an important dimension in the overall economic equation of total economic burden of stroke. Conclusion. This study demonstrates a high economic burden for Fiji from stroke mortality of young adults in terms of annual national human capital loss. PMID:22778993

  15. The choice of self-rated health measures matter when predicting mortality: evidence from 10 years follow-up of the Australian longitudinal study of ageing

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Self-rated health (SRH) measures with different wording and reference points are often used as equivalent health indicators in public health surveys estimating health outcomes such as healthy life expectancies and mortality for older adults. Whilst the robust relationship between SRH and mortality is well established, it is not known how comparable different SRH items are in their relationship to mortality over time. We used a dynamic evaluation model to investigate the sensitivity of time-varying SRH measures with different reference points to predict mortality in older adults over time. Methods We used seven waves of data from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing (1992 to 2004; N = 1733, 52.6% males). Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between three time-varying SRH measures (global, age-comparative and self-comparative reference point) with mortality in older adults (65+ years). Results After accounting for other mortality risk factors, poor global SRH ratings increased mortality risk by 2.83 times compared to excellent ratings. In contrast, the mortality relationship with age-comparative and self-comparative SRH was moderated by age, revealing that these comparative SRH measures did not independently predict mortality for adults over 75 years of age in adjusted models. Conclusions We found that a global measure of SRH not referenced to age or self is the best predictor of mortality, and is the most reliable measure of self-perceived health for longitudinal research and population health estimates of healthy life expectancy in older adults. Findings emphasize that the SRH measures are not equivalent measures of health status. PMID:20403203

  16. Work Attitudes and Labor Market Experience: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrisani, Paul J.; And Others

    A study was done to examine the influence of several work attitudes on a number of facets of subsequent labor market experience, as well as the influence of labor market experience on the work attitudes. Based on interview data on about 20,000 respondents from the National Longitudinal Surveys representative national samples of men 14 to 24 and 45…

  17. Technological Change and the Skill Acquisition of Young Workers. National Longitudinal Surveys Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartel, Ann P.; Sicherman, Nachum

    Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and several alternative data sets containing proxies for industries' rates of technological change (including the Jorgenson productivity growth series, National Bureau of Economic Research productivity data, and the Census of Manufacturers series on investments in computers, the Research and…

  18. A Longitudinal Examination of Childhood Maltreatment and Adolescent Obesity: Results from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Miller, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: We sought to explore the association between childhood maltreatment (e.g., neglect, physical and sexual abuse) and longitudinal growth trajectories of body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods: We used latent curve modeling to examine data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 8,471),…

  19. Impact of Health System Inputs on Health Outcome: A Multilevel Longitudinal Analysis of Botswana National Antiretroviral Program (2002-2013)

    PubMed Central

    Price, Natalie; El-Halabi, Shenaaz; Mlaudzi, Naledi; Keapoletswe, Koona; Lebelonyane, Refeletswe; Fetogang, Ernest Benny; Chebani, Tony; Kebaabetswe, Poloko; Masupe, Tiny; Gabaake, Keba; Auld, Andrew F.; Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Marlink, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Objective To measure the association between the number of doctors, nurses and hospital beds per 10,000 people and individual HIV-infected patient outcomes in Botswana. Design Analysis of routinely collected longitudinal data from 97,627 patients who received ART through the Botswana National HIV/AIDS Treatment Program across all 24 health districts from 2002 to 2013. Doctors, nurses, and hospital bed density data at district-level were collected from various sources. Methods A multilevel, longitudinal analysis method was used to analyze the data at both patient- and district-level simultaneously to measure the impact of the health system input at district-level on probability of death or loss-to-follow-up (LTFU) at the individual level. A marginal structural model was used to account for LTFU over time. Results Increasing doctor density from one doctor to two doctors per 10,000 population decreased the predicted probability of death for each patient by 27%. Nurse density changes from 20 nurses to 25 nurses decreased the predicted probability of death by 28%. Nine percent decrease was noted in predicted mortality of an individual in the Masa program for every five hospital bed density increase. Conclusion Considerable variation was observed in doctors, nurses, and hospital bed density across health districts. Predictive margins of mortality and LTFU were inversely correlated with doctor, nurse and hospital bed density. The doctor density had much greater impact than nurse or bed density on mortality or LTFU of individual patients. While long-term investment in training more healthcare professionals should be made, redistribution of available doctors and nurses can be a feasible solution in the short term. PMID:27490477

  20. Mortality of women from intimate partner violence in South Africa: a national epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Abrahams, Naeemah; Jewkes, Rachel; Martin, Lorna J; Mathews, Shanaaz; Vetten, Lisa; Lombard, Carl

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe mortality of women from intimate partner violence (IPV) in South Africa using a retrospective national study in a proportionate random sample of 25 mortuaries. Homicides identified from mortuary, autopsy, and police records. There were 3,797 female homicides, of which 50.3% were from IPV. The mortality rate from IPV was 8.8 per 100,000 women. Mortality from IPV were elevated among those 14 to 44 years and women of color. Blunt force injuries were more common, while strangulation or asphyxiation were less common. The national IPV mortality rate was more than twice that found in the United States. The study highlights the value of collecting reliable data across the globe to develop interventions for advocacy of which gender equity is critical. PMID:19694357

  1. A Research Agenda for the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience: Report on the Social Science Research Council's Conference on the National Longitudinal Surveys, October, 1977. Parts I to IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Science Research Council, Washington, DC. Center for Coordination of Research on Social Indicators.

    This report of the Social Science Research Council's Conference on the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience (NLS) begins with a description of the rationale and background for the conference. In the first of four parts, the conference objectives are stated: (1) review previous research based on the National Longitudinal Surveys…

  2. Consequences of maternal mortality on infant and child survival: a 25-year longitudinal analysis in Butajira Ethiopia (1987-2011)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Maternal mortality remains the leading cause of death and disability for reproductive-age women in resource-poor countries. The impact of a mother’s death on child outcomes is likely severe but has not been well quantified. This analysis examines survival outcomes for children whose mothers die during or shortly after childbirth in Butajira, Ethiopia. Methods This study uses data from the Butajira Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) site. Child outcomes were assessed using statistical tests to compare survival trajectories and age-specific mortality rates for children who did and did not experience a maternal death. The analyses leveraged the advantages of a large, long-term longitudinal dataset with a high frequency of data collection; but used a strict date-based method to code maternal deaths (as occurring within 42 or 365 days of childbirth), which may be subject to misclassification or recall bias. Results Between 1987 and 2011, there were 18189 live births to 5119 mothers; and 73 mothers of 78 children died within the first year of their child’s life, with 45% of these (n=30) classified as maternal deaths due to women dying within 42 days of childbirth. Among the maternal deaths, 81% of these infants also died. Children who experienced a maternal death within 42 days of their birth faced 46 times greater risk of dying within one month when compared to babies whose mothers survived (95% confidence interval 25.84-81.92; or adjusted ratio, 57.24 with confidence interval 25.31-129.49). Conclusions When a woman in this study population experienced a maternal death, her infant was much more likely to die than to survive—and the survival trajectory of these children is far worse than those of mothers who do not die postpartum. This highlights the importance of investigating how clinical care and socio-economic support programs can better address the needs of orphans, both throughout the intra- and post-partum periods as well as over

  3. Role of Right Ventricular Global Longitudinal Strain in Predicting Early and Long-Term Mortality in Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Patients

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Vivien Klaudia; Széplaki, Gábor; Apor, Astrid; Kutyifa, Valentina; Kovács, Attila; Kosztin, Annamária; Becker, Dávid; Boros, András Mihály; Gellér, László; Merkely, Béla

    2015-01-01

    Background Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction has been associated with poor prognosis in chronic heart failure (HF). However, less data is available about the role of RV dysfunction in patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). We aimed to investigate if RV dysfunction would predict outcome in CRT. Design We enrolled prospectively ninety-three consecutive HF patients in this single center observational study. All patients underwent clinical evaluation and echocardiography before CRT and 6 months after implantation. We assessed RV geometry and function by using speckle tracking imaging and calculated strain parameters. We performed multivariable Cox regression models to test mortality at 6 months and at 24 months. Results RV dysfunction, characterized by decreased RVGLS (RV global longitudinal strain) [10.2 (7.0–12.8) vs. 19.5 (15.0–23.9) %, p<0.0001] and RVFWS (RV free wall strain) [15.6 (10.0–19.3) vs. 17.4 (10.5–22.2) %, p = 0.04], improved 6 months after CRT implantation. Increasing baseline RVGLS and RVFWS predicted survival independent of other parameters at 6 months [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.37 (0.15–0.90), p = 0.02 and HR = 0.42 (0.19–0.89), p = 0.02; per 1 standard deviation increase, respectively]. RVGLS proved to be a significant independent predictor of mortality at 24 months [HR = 0.53 (0.32–0.86), p = 0.01], and RVFWS showed a strong tendency [HR = 0.64 (0.40–1.00), p = 0.05]. The 24-month survival was significantly impaired in patients with RVGLS below 10.04% before CRT implantation [area under the curve = 0.72 (0.60–0.84), p = 0.002, log-rank p = 0.0008; HR = 5.23 (1.76–15.48), p = 0.003]. Conclusions Our findings indicate that baseline RV dysfunction is associated with poor short-term and long-term prognosis after CRT implantation. PMID:26700308

  4. Consequences of Parenthood in Late Adolescence: Findings from the National Longitudinal Study of High School Seniors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haggstrom, Gus W.; Morrison, Peter A.

    The effects of adolescent parenthood upon certain outcome measures reflecting changes in aspirations, attitudes, and well-being were investigated using data from the National Longitudinal Study of High School Class of 1972. Analyses were computed for expected educational attainment; self-esteem; locus of control; orientation toward work, family,…

  5. High School Employment: Consumption or Investment. National Longitudinal Surveys Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruhm, Christopher J.

    The long-term effects of employment during high school were analyzed by using National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data on 1,067 students who were initially interviewed in 1979 and who remained in the survey sample through 1991. Hours worked by respondents during the week prior to the survey date in their sophomore, junior, and senior years of…

  6. Research Uses of the National Longitudinal Surveys. R&D Monograph 62.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bielby, William T.; And Others

    This report surveys the research done using the National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS) of Labor Market Experience data. It also identifies neglected research opportunities and directions of future research. The content is presented in eleven sections. The focus of sections 2-8 is on research done in major areas of labor market research. The sections…

  7. Institutional Diversity in Higher Education: A Cross-National and Longitudinal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huisman, Jeroen; Meek, Lynn; Wood, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    This paper contributes to the debate on institutional diversity in higher education systems by looking at the phenomenon from a comparative (cross-national) and longitudinal perspective. Despite the attention to diversity in policy debates, surprisingly, only a limited amount of studies address methodological issues. In addition, the number of…

  8. National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988. First Follow-Up: School Component Data File User's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingels, Steven J.; And Others

    This manual has been produced to familiarize data users with the procedures followed for data collection and processing of the first follow-up component of the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88). A corollary objective is to provide the necessary documentation for use of the data file. Use of the data set does not require the…

  9. Pets and Human Health in Germany and Australia: National Longitudinal Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Headey, Bruce; Grabka, Markus M.

    2007-01-01

    The German and Australian "longitudinal" surveys analysed here are the first national representative surveys to show that (1) people who continuously own a pet are the healthiest group and (2) people who cease to have a pet or never had one are less healthy. Most previous studies which have claimed that pets confer health benefits were…

  10. Nonstandard Work and Marital Instability: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalil, Ariel; Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.; Epstein, Jodie Levin

    2010-01-01

    This article replicated and extended Harriet Presser's (2000) investigation of the linkages between nonstandard work and marital instability. We reexplored this question using data from a sample of 2,893 newlywed couples from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) and using different analytic techniques. In contrast to Presser, we found…

  11. Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth: A Unique Research Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This article provides a history of the data set known as "the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY)." Promising research agendas that use the data set are described. These agendas concern maternal employment and child care, adolescent pregnancy and parenthood, divorce, poverty, and multigenerational parenting. (BC)

  12. Does Alcohol Use during High School Affect Educational Attainment?: Evidence from the National Education Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatterji, Pinka

    2006-01-01

    This paper uses data from the National Education Longitudinal Study to estimate the association between high school alcohol use and educational attainment measured around age 26. Initially, the effect of alcohol use on educational attainment is estimated using baseline probit models, which ignore the possibility that unmeasured determinants of…

  13. Analysis of Apprenticeship Training from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Robert F.; And Others

    A study investigated effects of on-the-job or "hands-on" vocational training relative to standard classroom vocational instruction on subsequent employment, earnings, wages, and job satisfaction. The data used were from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 and five follow-up surveys of this population. An analysis of…

  14. Work and Family: Never Too Old To Learn. Data from the National Longitudinal Surveys. Report 856.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Data from the Mature Women's cohort of the National Longitudinal Surveys were used in an analysis of the acquisition of education and training by women at later ages over the 1979-89 period. These data described a sample of women who were between the ages of 30 and 45 in 1967 and who had been interviewed regularly at later intervals. Between the…

  15. Are Measured School Effects Just Sorting? Causality and Correlation in the National Education Longitudinal Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, David I.; Painter, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Youth who share a school and neighborhood often show similar levels of academic achievement, but some studies find all or most of this correlation is due to sorting (not causation). We analyze the National Education Longitudinal Survey (NELS) in three ways to decompose sorting versus causality: We first control for much richer measures of family…

  16. Pathways to the Future, Vol. II. The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Labor Market Experience in 1980. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borus, Michael E., Ed.

    This report is based on data from the 1979 and 1980 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Labor Market Experience (NLS). These data were collected for a nationally representative sample of 12,686 youth in 1979 and 12,141 in 1980. Chapter One uses the longitudinal capability of the NLS to examine those youth who were unemployed at the…

  17. Mortality benefits of population-wide adherence to national physical activity guidelines: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Long, Gráinne; Watkinson, Clare; Brage, Søren; Morris, Jerry; Tuxworth, Bill; Fentem, Peter; Griffin, Simon; Simmons, Rebecca; Wareham, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    We quantified the mortality benefits and attributable fractions associated with engaging in physical activity across a range of levels, including those recommended by national guidelines. Data were from the Allied Dunbar National Fitness Survey, a population-based prospective cohort comprising 1,796 male and 2,122 female participants aged 16-96 years, randomly selected from 30 English constituencies in 1990. Participants were tagged for mortality at the Office for National Statistics. Cox multivariable regression quantified the association between self-reported achievement of activity guidelines--150 min of at least moderate activity per week, equivalent here to 30 or more 20-min episodes of at least moderate activity per month--and mortality adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, social class, geographical area, anxiety/depression and interview season. There were 1,175 deaths over a median (IQR) of 22.9 (3.9) years follow-up; a mortality rate of 15.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 14.4-16.1 per 1,000 person years. Compared with being inactive (no 20-min bouts per month), meeting activity guidelines (30+ bouts) was associated with a 25% lower mortality rate, adjusting for measured confounders. If everyone adhered to recommended-, or even low-activity levels, a substantial proportion of premature mortality might be avoided (PAF, 95% CI 20.6, 6.9-32.3 and 8.9, 4.2-13.4%, respectively). Among a representative English population, adherence to activity guidelines was associated with significantly reduced mortality. Efforts to increase population-wide activity levels could produce large public health benefits and should remain a focus of health promotion efforts. PMID:25377532

  18. Evaluating the Quality of National Mortality Statistics from Civil Registration in South Africa, 1997–2007

    PubMed Central

    Joubert, Jané; Rao, Chalapati; Bradshaw, Debbie; Vos, Theo; Lopez, Alan D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Two World Health Organization comparative assessments rated the quality of South Africa’s 1996 mortality data as low. Since then, focussed initiatives were introduced to improve civil registration and vital statistics. Furthermore, South African cause-of-death data are widely used by research and international development agencies as the basis for making estimates of cause-specific mortality in many African countries. It is hence important to assess the quality of more recent South African data. Methods We employed nine criteria to evaluate the quality of civil registration mortality data. Four criteria were assessed by analysing 5.38 million deaths that occurred nationally from 1997–2007. For the remaining five criteria, we reviewed relevant legislation, data repositories, and reports to highlight developments which shaped the current status of these criteria. Findings National mortality statistics from civil registration were rated satisfactory for coverage and completeness of death registration, temporal consistency, age/sex classification, timeliness, and sub-national availability. Epidemiological consistency could not be assessed conclusively as the model lacks the discriminatory power to enable an assessment for South Africa. Selected studies and the extent of ill-defined/non-specific codes suggest substantial shortcomings with single-cause data. The latter criterion and content validity were rated unsatisfactory. Conclusion In a region marred by mortality data absences and deficiencies, this analysis signifies optimism by revealing considerable progress from a dysfunctional mortality data system to one that offers all-cause mortality data that can be adjusted for demographic and health analysis. Additionally, timely and disaggregated single-cause data are available, certified and coded according to international standards. However, without skillfully estimating adjustments for biases, a considerable confidence gap remains for single-cause data

  19. Association of Thyroid Functional Disease With Mortality in a National Cohort of Incident Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Steven; Gillen, Daniel L.; Oztan, Tolga; Wang, Jiaxi; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Kuttykrishnan, Sooraj; Nguyen, Danh V.; Brunelli, Steven M.; Kovesdy, Csaba P.; Brent, Gregory A.; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2015-01-01

    Context: Hypothyroidism is a common condition that disproportionately affects hemodialysis patients. In the general population, hypothyroidism is associated with higher mortality, particularly in populations with underlying cardiovascular risk. Despite their heightened cardiovascular mortality, the impact of hypothyroidism on the survival of hemodialysis patients remains uncertain. Objective: To examine whether hypothyroidism is independently associated with higher mortality in hemodialysis patients. Design, Setting, and Patients: Among 8840 incident hemodialysis patients receiving care from a large national dialysis provider from January 2007 to December 2011, we examined the association of hypothyroidism (TSH >5.0 mIU/L) with mortality. Main Outcome Measures: Associations between baseline and time-dependent hypothyroidism with all-cause mortality were determined using case-mix adjusted Cox models. In secondary analyses, we examined the impact of low-normal, upper-normal, subclinical range, and overt range TSH levels (TSH ≥0.5–3.0, >3.0–5.0, >5.0–10.0, and >10.0 mIU/L, respectively) on mortality risk. Results: The study population consisted of 1928 (22%) hypothyroid and 6912 (78%) euthyroid patients. Baseline and time-dependent hypothyroidism were associated with higher mortality: adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 1.47 (1.34–1.61) and 1.62 (1.45–1.80), respectively. Compared to low-normal TSH, upper-normal, subclinical hypothyroid, and overt hypothyroid TSH levels were associated with incrementally higher adjusted death risk in baseline and time-dependent analyses. In time-dependent analyses, the hypothyroidism-mortality association was increasingly stronger across higher body mass index strata. Conclusions: Hypothyroidism as well as upper-normal TSH levels are associated with higher mortality in hemodialysis patients. Further studies are needed to determine whether restoration of TSH to low-normal levels with thyroid hormone

  20. Predictive Factors of Hospital Mortality Due to Myocardial Infarction: A Multilevel Analysis of Iran's National Data

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Ali; Soori, Hamid; Mehrabi, Yadollah; Etemad, Koorosh; Sajjadi, Homeira; Sadeghi, Mehraban

    2015-01-01

    Background: Regarding failure to establish the statistical presuppositions for analysis of the data by conventional approaches, hierarchical structure of the data as well as the effect of higher-level variables, this study was conducted to determine the factors independently associated with hospital mortality due to myocardial infarction (MI) in Iran using a multilevel analysis. Methods: This study was a national, hospital-based, and cross-sectional study. In this study, the data of 20750 new MI patients between April, 2012 and March, 2013 in Iran were used. The hospital mortality due to MI was considered as the dependent variable. The demographic data, clinical and behavioral risk factors at the individual level and environmental data were gathered. Multilevel logistic regression models with Stata software were used to analyze the data. Results: Within 1-year of study, the frequency (%) of hospital mortality within 30 days of admission was derived 2511 (12.1%) patients. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) of mortality with (95% confidence interval [CI]) was derived 2.07 (95% CI: 1.5–2.8) for right bundle branch block, 1.5 (95% CI: 1.3–1.7) for ST-segment elevation MI, 1.3 (95% CI: 1.1–1.4) for female gender, and 1.2 (95% CI: 1.1–1.3) for humidity, all of which were considered as risk factors of mortality. But, OR of mortality was 0.7 for precipitation (95% CI: 0.7–0.8) and 0.5 for angioplasty (95% CI: 0.4–0.6) were considered as protective factors of mortality. Conclusions: Individual risk factors had independent effects on the hospital mortality due to MI. Variables in the province level had no significant effect on the outcome of MI. Increasing access and quality to treatment could reduce the mortality due to MI. PMID:26730342

  1. Family Structure and Child Mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa: Cross-National Effects of Polygyny

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omariba, D. Walter Rasugu; Boyle, Michael H.

    2007-01-01

    This study applies multilevel logistic regression to Demographic and Health Survey data from 22 sub-Saharan African countries to examine whether the relationship between child mortality and family structure, with a specific emphasis on polygyny, varies cross-nationally and over time. Hypotheses were developed on the basis of competing theories on…

  2. Multinational Corporations, Democracy and Child Mortality: A Quantitative, Cross-National Analysis of Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shandra, John M.; Nobles, Jenna E.; London, Bruce; Williamson, John B.

    2005-01-01

    This study presents quantitative, sociological models designed to account for cross-national variation in child mortality. We consider variables linked to five different theoretical perspectives that include the economic modernization, social modernization, political modernization, ecological-evolutionary, and dependency perspectives. The study is…

  3. Screening Program Reduced Melanoma Mortality at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 1984-1996

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, MD, J S; II, PhD, D; MD, PhD, M

    2006-10-12

    Worldwide incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma has increased substantially, and no screening program has yet demonstrated reduction in mortality. We evaluated the education, self examination and targeted screening campaign at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) from its beginning in July 1984 through 1996. The thickness and crude incidence of melanoma from the years before the campaign were compared to those obtained during the 13 years of screening. Melanoma mortality during the 13-year period was based on a National Death Index search. Expected yearly deaths from melanoma among LLNL employees were calculated by using California mortality data matched by age, sex, and race/ethnicity and adjusted to exclude deaths from melanoma diagnosed before the program began or before employment at LLNL. After the program began, crude incidence of melanoma thicker than 0.75 mm decreased from 18 to 4 cases per 100,000 person-years (p = 0.02), while melanoma less than 0.75mm remained stable and in situ melanoma increased substantially. No eligible melanoma deaths occurred among LLNL employees during the screening period compared with a calculated 3.39 expected deaths (p = 0.034). Education, self examination and selective screening for melanoma at LLNL significantly decreased incidence of melanoma thicker than 0.75 mm and reduced the melanoma-related mortality rate to zero. This significant decrease in mortality rate persisted for at least 3 yr after employees retired or otherwise left the laboratory.

  4. Cadmium Exposure and Cancer Mortality in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Scott V.; Passarelli, Michael N.; Newcomb, Polly A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study examined prospective data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) cohort to investigate the relationship between cadmium exposure and cancer mortality, and the specific cancers associated with cadmium exposure, in the general population. Methods Vital status and cause of death through December 31, 2006 were obtained by the National Center for Health Statistics for NHANES III participants. Cadmium concentration of spot urine samples was measured, and corrected for urine creatinine. Weighted Cox proportional hazards regression with age as the time metric was applied to estimate sex-specific adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) of mortality associated with uCd for all cancers and the cancers responsible for the most deaths in the US. Estimates were stratified by smoking history and adjusted education, body mass index, and race. Results uCd was associated with cancer mortality (aHR per 2-fold higher uCd (95%CI), men: 1.26 (1.07–1.48)); women: 1.21 (1.04–1.42)). In men, mortality from lung, pancreatic cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphoma was associated with uCd; an association with leukemia mortality was suggested. In women, associations were suggested with mortality due to lung cancer, leukemia, ovarian, and uterine cancer, but evidence was weaker than in men. Conclusions Cadmium appears to be associated with overall cancer mortality in men and women, but the specific cancers associated differ between men and women, suggesting avenues for future research. Limitations of the study include the possibility of uncontrolled confounding by cigarette smoking or other factors, and the limited number of deaths due to some cancers. PMID:22068173

  5. Incident Subjective Cognitive Decline Does Not Predict Mortality in the Elderly – Results from the Longitudinal German Study on Ageing, Cognition, and Dementia (AgeCoDe)

    PubMed Central

    Roehr, Susanne; Luck, Tobias; Heser, Kathrin; Fuchs, Angela; Ernst, Annette; Wiese, Birgitt; Werle, Jochen; Bickel, Horst; Brettschneider, Christian; Koppara, Alexander; Pentzek, Michael; Lange, Carolin; Prokein, Jana; Weyerer, Siegfried; Mösch, Edelgard; König, Hans-Helmut; Maier, Wolfgang; Scherer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objective Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) might represent the first symptomatic representation of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), which is associated with increased mortality. Only few studies, however, have analyzed the association of SCD and mortality, and if so, based on prevalent cases. Thus, we investigated incident SCD in memory and mortality. Methods Data were derived from the German AgeCoDe study, a prospective longitudinal study on the epidemiology of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia in primary care patients over 75 years covering an observation period of 7.5 years. We used univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses to examine the relationship of SCD and mortality. Further, we estimated survival times by the Kaplan Meier method and case-fatality rates with regard to SCD. Results Among 971 individuals without objective cognitive impairment, 233 (24.0%) incidentally expressed SCD at follow-up I. Incident SCD was not significantly associated with increased mortality in the univariate (HR = 1.0, 95% confidence interval = 0.8–1.3, p = .90) as well as in the multivariate analysis (HR = 0.9, 95% confidence interval = 0.7–1.2, p = .40). The same applied for SCD in relation to concerns. Mean survival time with SCD was 8.0 years (SD = 0.1) after onset. Conclusion Incident SCD in memory in individuals with unimpaired cognitive performance does not predict mortality. The main reason might be that SCD does not ultimately lead into future cognitive decline in any case. However, as prevalence studies suggest, subjectively perceived decline in non-memory cognitive domains might be associated with increased mortality. Future studies may address mortality in such other cognitive domains of SCD in incident cases. PMID:26766555

  6. Mortality in Adult Offspring of Immigrants: A Swedish National Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Manhica, Hélio; Toivanen, Susanna; Hjern, Anders; Rostila, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Background Higher risks of psychiatric disorders and lower-than-average subjective health in adulthood have been demonstrated in offspring of immigrants in Sweden compared with offspring of native Swedes, and linked to relative socioeconomic disadvantage. The present study investigated mortality rates in relation to this inequity from a gender perspective. Methods We used data from national registers covering the entire Swedish population aged 18-65 years. Offspring of foreign-born parents who were either Swedish born or had received residency in Sweden before school age (<7 years) were defined as “offspring of immigrants.” We used Cox regression models to examine the association between parental country of birth and mortality between 1990 and 2008, with adjustment for education, income, age and family type. Results Male offspring of immigrants from the Middle East (HR:2.00, CI:1.66-2.26), other non-European countries (HR:1.80, CI:1.36-2.36) and Finland (HR:1.56, CI:1.48-1.65) showed an age-adjusted excess mortality risk from all causes of death when compared to offspring with Swedish-born parents. Income, but not education, greatly attenuated these increased mortality risks. No excess mortality rates were found among female offspring of immigrants, with the exception of external cause of death among offspring of Finnish immigrants. Conclusion The study demonstrates high mortality rates in male offspring of immigrants from Finland and non-European countries that are associated with economic, but not educational, disadvantage. No increased mortality rates were found among female offspring of immigrants. Future studies are needed to explain this gender differential and why income, but not education, predicts mortality in male offspring of immigrants. PMID:25706297

  7. Mixed conifer forest mortality and establishment before and after prescribed fire in Sequoia National Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mutch, L.S.; Parsons, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    Pre-and post-burn tree mortality rates, size structure, basal area, and ingrowth were determined for four 1.0 ha mixed conifer forest stands in the Log Creek and Tharp's Creek watersheds of Sequoia National Park. Mean annual mortality between 1986 and 1990 was 0.8% for both watersheds. In the fall of 1990, the Tharp's Creek watershed was treated with a prescribed burn. Between 1991 and 1995, mean annual mortality was 1.4% in the unburned Log Creek watershed and 17.2% in the burned Tharp's Creek watershed. A drought from 1987 to 1992 likely contributed to the mortality increase in the Log Creek watershed. The high mortality in the Tharp's Creek watershed was primarily related to crown scorch from the 1990 fire and was modeled with logistic regression for white fir (Abies concolor [Gord. and Glend.]) and sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana [Dougl.]). From 1989 to 1994, basal area declined an average of 5% per year in the burned Tharp's Creek watershed, compared to average annual increases of less than 1% per year in the unburned Log Creek watershed and in the Tharp's watershed prior to burning. Post-burn size structure was dramatically changed in the Tharp's Creek stands: 75% of trees ???50 cm and 25% of trees >50 cm were killed by the fire.

  8. Causes of mortality in sea ducks (Mergini) necropsied at the USGS-National Wildlife Health Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skerratt, L.F.; Franson, J.C.; Meteyer, C.U.; Hollmén, Tuula E.

    2005-01-01

    A number of factors were identified as causes of mortality in 254 (59%) of 431 sea ducks submitted for necropsy at the USGS-National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, Wisconsin from 1975 until 2003. Bacteria causing large outbreaks of mortality were Pasteurella multocida and Clostridium botulinum Type E. Starvation was responsible for large mortality events as well as sporadic deaths of individuals. Lead toxicity, gunshot and exposure to petroleum were important anthropogenic factors. Other factors that caused mortality were avian pox virus, bacteria (Clostridium botulinum Type C, Riemerella anatipestifer and Clostridium perfringens), fungi (Aspergillus fumigatus and an unidentified fungus), protozoans (unidentified coccidia), nematodes (Eustrongylides spp.), trematodes (Sphaeridiotrema globulus and Schistosoma spp.), acanthocephalans (Polymorphus spp.), predation, cyanide and trauma (probably due to collisions). There were also a number of novel infectious organisms in free-living sea ducks in North America, which were incidental to the death, including avipoxvirus and reovirus, bacteria Mycobacterium avium, protozoans Sarcocystis sp. and nematodes Streptocara sp. Apart from anthropogenic factors, the other important mortality factors listed here have not been studied as possible causes for the decline of sea ducks in North America.

  9. Surveying the Nation: Longitudinal Surveys and the Construction of National Solutions to Educational Inequity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutt, Ethan L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the origins and influences of the introduction of longitudinal student data-sets as a way of gaining insight into the operation of American schools and as a tool for policy-makers. The paper argues that the creation of this new form of data in the 1960s and 1970s represented a relatively new way of thinking about American…

  10. Birth Outcomes and Infant Mortality by the Degree of Rural Isolation among First Nations and Non-First Nations in Manitoba, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Zhong-Cheng; Wilkins, Russell; Heaman, Maureen; Martens, Patricia; Smylie, Janet; Hart, Lyna; Simonet, Fabienne; Wassimi, Spogmai; Wu, Yuquan; Fraser, William D.

    2010-01-01

    Context: It is unknown whether rural isolation may affect birth outcomes and infant mortality differentially for Indigenous versus non-Indigenous populations. We assessed birth outcomes and infant mortality by the degree of rural isolation among First Nations (North American Indians) and non-First Nations populations in Manitoba, Canada, a setting…

  11. Can Two Tongues Live in Harmony: Analysis of the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS88) Longitudinal Data on the Maintenance of Home Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Marsh, Herbert W.; Suliman, Rosemary

    2000-01-01

    Used data from the National Education Longitudinal Study to examine the relationships among first language (not English), maintenance of that home language, English proficiency, and academic achievement. Results do not support speculation that home language proficiency would have persistent negative effects on English and other academic outcomes…

  12. Mortality Associations with Long-Term Exposure to Outdoor Air Pollution in a National English Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Iain M.; Kent, Andrew J.; van Staa, Tjeerd; Cook, Derek G.; Anderson, H. Ross

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Cohort evidence linking long-term exposure to outdoor particulate air pollution and mortality has come largely from the United States. There is relatively little evidence from nationally representative cohorts in other countries. Objectives: To investigate the relationship between long-term exposure to a range of pollutants and causes of death in a national English cohort. Methods: A total of 835,607 patients aged 40–89 years registered with 205 general practices were followed from 2003–2007. Annual average concentrations in 2002 for particulate matter with a median aerodynamic diameter less than 10 (PM10) and less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone, and sulfur dioxide (SO2) at 1 km2 resolution, estimated from emission-based models, were linked to residential postcode. Deaths (n = 83,103) were ascertained from linkage to death certificates, and hazard ratios (HRs) for all- and cause-specific mortality for pollutants were estimated for interquartile pollutant changes from Cox models adjusting for age, sex, smoking, body mass index, and area-level socioeconomic status markers. Measurements and Main Results: Residential concentrations of all pollutants except ozone were positively associated with all-cause mortality (HR, 1.02, 1.03, and 1.04 for PM2.5, NO2, and SO2, respectively). Associations for PM2.5, NO2, and SO2 were larger for respiratory deaths (HR, 1.09 each) and lung cancer (HR, 1.02, 1.06, and 1.05) but nearer unity for cardiovascular deaths (1.00, 1.00, and 1.04). Conclusions: These results strengthen the evidence linking long-term ambient air pollution exposure to increased all-cause mortality. However, the stronger associations with respiratory mortality are not consistent with most US studies in which associations with cardiovascular causes of death tend to predominate. PMID:23590261

  13. The neuropsychological underpinnings to psychopathic personality traits in a nationally representative and longitudinal sample.

    PubMed

    Beaver, Kevin M; Vaughn, Michael G; DeLisi, Matt; Barnes, J C; Boutwell, Brian B

    2012-06-01

    Although psychopathy is a major area of research in psychology and criminology, much remains unknown about its etiological underpinnings. Drawing on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the current study explored the association between neuropsychological deficits and psychopathic personality traits and produced three key findings. First, four neuropsychological deficits measures were consistently related to the measure of psychopathic personality traits both longitudinally and cross-sectionally. Second, neuropsychological deficits measures predicted variation in psychopathic personality traits for both males and females and the magnitude of the association between neuropsychological deficits and psychopathic personality traits did not vary as a function of gender. Third, parental socialization measures had relatively small and inconsistent effects on psychopathic personality traits. Suggestions for future research are offered. PMID:21879360

  14. Cancer incidence, mortality, and stage at diagnosis in First Nations living in Manitoba

    PubMed Central

    Decker, K.M.; Kliewer, E.V.; Demers, A.A.; Fradette, K.; Biswanger, N.; Musto, G.; Elias, B.; Turner, D.

    2016-01-01

    Background In the present study, we examined breast (bca) and colorectal cancer (crc) incidence and mortality and stage at diagnosis for First Nations (fn) individuals and all other Manitobans (aoms). Methods Several population-based databases were linked to determine ethnicity and to calculate age-standardized incidence and mortality rates. Logistic regression was used to compare bca and crc stage at diagnosis. Results From 1984–1988 to 2004–2008, the incidence of bca increased for fn and aom women. Breast cancer mortality increased for fn women and decreased for aom women. First Nations women were significantly more likely than aom women to be diagnosed at stages iii–iv than at stage i [odds ratio (or) for women ≤50 years of age: 3.11; 95% confidence limits (cl): 1.20, 8.06; or for women 50–69 years of age: 1.72; 95% cl: 1.03, 2.88). The incidence and mortality of crc increased for fn individuals, but decreased for aoms. First Nations status was not significantly associated with crc stage at diagnosis (or for stages i–ii compared with stages iii–iv: 0.98; 95% cl: 0.68, 1.41; or for stages i–iii compared with stage iv: 0.91; 95% cl: 0.59, 1.40). Conclusions Our results underscore the need for improved cancer screening participation and targeted initiatives that emphasis collaboration with fn communities to reduce barriers to screening and to promote healthy lifestyles. PMID:27536172

  15. Factors Associated With Mortality of Thyroid Storm: Analysis Using a National Inpatient Database in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ono, Yosuke; Ono, Sachiko; Yasunaga, Hideo; Matsui, Hiroki; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Tanaka, Yuji

    2016-02-01

    Thyroid storm is a life-threatening and emergent manifestation of thyrotoxicosis. However, predictive features associated with fatal outcomes in this crisis have not been clearly defined because of its rarity. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations of patient characteristics, treatments, and comorbidities with in-hospital mortality. We conducted a retrospective observational study of patients diagnosed with thyroid storm using a national inpatient database in Japan from April 1, 2011 to March 31, 2014. Of approximately 21 million inpatients in the database, we identified 1324 patients diagnosed with thyroid storm. The mean (standard deviation) age was 47 (18) years, and 943 (71.3%) patients were female. The overall in-hospital mortality was 10.1%. The number of patients was highest in the summer season. The most common comorbidity at admission was cardiovascular diseases (46.6%). Multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that higher mortality was significantly associated with older age (≥60 years), central nervous system dysfunction at admission, nonuse of antithyroid drugs and β-blockade, and requirement for mechanical ventilation and therapeutic plasma exchange combined with hemodialysis. The present study identified clinical features associated with mortality of thyroid storm using large-scale data. Physicians should pay special attention to older patients with thyrotoxicosis and coexisting central nervous system dysfunction. Future prospective studies are needed to clarify treatment options that could improve the survival outcomes of thyroid storm. PMID:26886648

  16. Oral cancer: the association between nation-based alcohol-drinking profiles and oral cancer mortality.

    PubMed

    Petti, Stefano; Scully, Crispian

    2005-09-01

    The unclear association between different nation-based alcohol-drinking profiles and oral cancer mortality was investigated using, as observational units, 20 countries from Europe, Northern America, Far Eastern Asia, with cross-nationally comparable data. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were run with male age-standardised, mortality rate (ASMR) as explanatory variable and annual adult alcohol consumption, adult smoking prevalence, life expectancy, as explanatory. Large between-country differences in ASMR (range, 0.88-6.87 per 100,000) were found, but the mean value was similar to the global estimate (3.31 vs. 3.09 per 100,000). Differences in alcohol consumption (2.06-21.03 annual litres per capita) and in distribution between beverages were reported. Wine was the most prevalent alcoholic beverage in 45% of cases. Significant increases in ASMR for every litre of pure ethanol (0.15 per 100,000; 95 CI, 0.01-0.29) and spirits (0.26 per 100,000; 95 CI, 0.03-0.49), non-significant effects for beer and wine were estimated. The impact of alcohol on oral cancer deaths would be higher than expected and the drinking profile could affect cancer mortality, probably because of the different drinking pattern of spirit drinkers, usually consuming huge alcohol quantities on single occasions, and the different concentrations of ethanol and cancer-preventing compounds such as polyphenols, in the various beverages. PMID:15979385

  17. Comparison of National Operative Mortality in Gastroenterological Surgery Using Web-based Prospective Data Entry Systems.

    PubMed

    Anazawa, Takayuki; Paruch, Jennifer L; Miyata, Hiroaki; Gotoh, Mitsukazu; Ko, Clifford Y; Cohen, Mark E; Hirahara, Norimichi; Zhou, Lynn; Konno, Hiroyuki; Wakabayashi, Go; Sugihara, Kenichi; Mori, Masaki

    2015-12-01

    International collaboration is important in healthcare quality evaluation; however, few international comparisons of general surgery outcomes have been accomplished. Furthermore, predictive model application for risk stratification has not been internationally evaluated. The National Clinical Database (NCD) in Japan was developed in collaboration with the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP), with a goal of creating a standardized surgery database for quality improvement. The study aimed to compare the consistency and impact of risk factors of 3 major gastroenterological surgical procedures in Japan and the United States (US) using web-based prospective data entry systems: right hemicolectomy (RH), low anterior resection (LAR), and pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD).Data from NCD and ACS-NSQIP, collected over 2 years, were examined. Logistic regression models were used for predicting 30-day mortality for both countries. Models were exchanged and evaluated to determine whether the models built for one population were accurate for the other population.We obtained data for 113,980 patients; 50,501 (Japan: 34,638; US: 15,863), 42,770 (Japan: 35,445; US: 7325), and 20,709 (Japan: 15,527; US: 5182) underwent RH, LAR, and, PD, respectively. Thirty-day mortality rates for RH were 0.76% (Japan) and 1.88% (US); rates for LAR were 0.43% versus 1.08%; and rates for PD were 1.35% versus 2.57%. Patient background, comorbidities, and practice style were different between Japan and the US. In the models, the odds ratio for each variable was similar between NCD and ACS-NSQIP. Local risk models could predict mortality using local data, but could not accurately predict mortality using data from other countries.We demonstrated the feasibility and efficacy of the international collaborative research between Japan and the US, but found that local risk models remain essential for quality improvement. PMID:26656350

  18. Maternal Mortality in India: Causes and Healthcare Service Use Based on a Nationally Representative Survey

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Ann L.; Ram, Usha; Kumar, Rajesh; Jha, Prabhat

    2014-01-01

    Background Data on cause-specific mortality, skilled birth attendance, and emergency obstetric care access are essential to plan maternity services. We present the distribution of India's 2001–2003 maternal mortality by cause and uptake of emergency obstetric care, in poorer and richer states. Methods and Findings The Registrar General of India surveyed all deaths occurring in 2001–2003 in 1.1 million nationally representative homes. Field staff interviewed household members about events that preceded the death. Two physicians independently assigned a cause of death. Narratives for all maternal deaths were coded for variables on healthcare uptake. Distribution of number of maternal deaths, cause-specific mortality and uptake of healthcare indicators were compared for poorer and richer states. There were 10 041 all-cause deaths in women age 15–49 years, of which 1096 (11.1%) were maternal deaths. Based on 2004–2006 SRS national MMR estimates of 254 deaths per 100 000 live births, we estimated rural areas of poorer states had the highest MMR (397, 95%CI 385–410) compared to the lowest MMR in urban areas of richer states (115, 95%CI 85–146). We estimated 69 400 maternal deaths in India in 2005. Three-quarters of maternal deaths were clustered in rural areas of poorer states, although these regions have only half the estimated live births in India. Most maternal deaths were attributed to direct obstetric causes (82%). There was no difference in the major causes of maternal deaths between poorer and richer states. Two-thirds of women died seeking some form of healthcare, most seeking care in a critical medical condition. Rural areas of poorer states had proportionately lower access and utilization to healthcare services than the urban areas; however this rural-urban difference was not seen in richer states. Conclusions Maternal mortality and poor access to healthcare is disproportionately higher in rural populations of the poorer states of India. PMID

  19. Social integration and maternal smoking: A longitudinal analysis of a national birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Mumford, Elizabeth A; Liu, Weiwei

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Social support and engagement are related to smoking behavior in general populations, but it is unknown whether these measures of social integration as experienced by recent mothers are related to longitudinal maternal smoking patterns. The purpose of this study is, first, to describe longitudinal patterns of maternal smoking before, during, and after pregnancy through the early childhood parenting years, as well as variation in these patterns; and second, to examine these patterns in relation to social integration, emotional, behavioral, and sociodemographic factors. Methods Among 9,050 mothers of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (a nationally representative probability sample of children born in 2001), we estimated trajectories of maternal smoking with general growth mixture model (GGMM), and examined how baseline predictors are associated with these patterns over a 5 to 6 year period beginning three months prior to pregnancy. Results A 5-class solution identified trajectories of nonsmokers (70.5%), temporary quitters (9.4%), pregnancy-inspired quitters (3.3%), delayed initiators (5.1%), and persistent smokers (11.7%). Modifiable risk factors included postpartum alcohol consumption and behavioral cues from co-resident smokers, while breastfeeding beyond six months and social engagement through religious service attendance were protective characteristics. Conclusions Prevention of and treatment for maternal perinatal and postpartum smoking is best informed by mothers’ emotional, behavioral and sociodemographic characteristics. Religious service attendance, but not measures of social support or social engagement, is a protective factor for maternal smoking trajectories. PMID:26987858

  20. Mortality and causes of death among violent offenders and victims-a Swedish population based longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Most previous studies on mortality in violent offenders or victims are based on prison or hospital samples, while this study analyzed overall and cause specific mortality among violent offenders, victims, and individuals who were both offenders and victims in a general sample of 48,834 18-20 year-old men conscripted for military service in 1969/70 in Sweden. Methods Each person completed two non-anonymous questionnaires concerning family, psychological, and behavioral factors. The cohort was followed for 35 years through official registers regarding violent offenses, victimization, and mortality. The impact of violence, victimization, early risk factors and hospitalization for psychiatric diagnosis or alcohol and drug misuse during follow up on mortality was investigated using Cox proportional hazard regression analyses. Results Repeat violent offenses were associated with an eleven fold higher hazard of dying from a substance-related cause and nearly fourfold higher hazard of dying from suicide. These figures remained significantly elevated also in multivariate analyses, with a 3.03 and 2.39 hazard ratio (HR), respectively. Participants with experience of violence and inpatient care for substance abuse or psychiatric disorder had about a two to threefold higher risk of dying compared to participants with no substance use or psychiatric disorder. Conclusions Violent offending and being victimized are associated with excess mortality and a risk of dying from an alcohol or drug-related cause or suicide. Consequently, prevention of violent behavior might have an effect on overall mortality and suicide rates. Prevention of alcohol and drug use is also warranted. PMID:22251445

  1. Measuring Personality in Wave I of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

    PubMed Central

    Young, J. Kenneth; Beaujean, and A. Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The researchers sought to develop a personality measure from items in Wave I of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The study found 13 items from three dimensions of personality (neuroticism, extroversion, and conscientiousness), and then examined the factor structure and internal consistency of each of the three dimensions. Within each personality dimension, the items showed a unidimensional factor structure and internal consistency estimates of the summed similar to scores from NEO Personality Inventories. The results can be used to further examine how child/adolescent personality is related to multiple mental and physical health outcomes in the Add Health database. PMID:21808628

  2. Do Hassles Mediate between Life Events and Mortality in Older Men? Longitudinal Findings from the VA Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Aldwin, Carolyn M.; Jeong, Yu-Jin; Igarashi, Heidi; Choun, Soyoung; Spiro, Avron

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether hassles mediated the effect of life events on mortality in a sample of 1,293 men (Mage = 65.58, SD = 7.01), participants in the VA Normative Aging Study. We utilized measures of stressful life event (SLE) and hassles from 1989 to 2004, and men were followed for mortality until 2010. For life events and hassles, previous research identified three and four patterns of change over time, respectively, generally indicating low, moderate, and high trajectories, with one moderate, non-linear pattern for hassles (shallow U curve). Controlling for demographics and health behaviors, we found that those with moderate SLE trajectories (38%) more likely to die than those with low SLE trajectories, HR = 1.42, 95% CI [1.16, 3.45]. Including the hassles classes showed that those with the moderate non-linear hassles trajectory were 63% more likely to die than those with low hassles trajectory, HR = 1.63, 95% CI [1.19, 2.23],, while those with consistently high hassles trajectory were over 3 times more likely to die, HR = 3.30, 95% CI [1.58, 6.89]. However, the HR for moderate SLE trajectory decreased only slightly to 1.38, 95% CI [1.13, 1.68], suggesting that the two types of stress have largely independent effects on mortality. Research is needed to determine the physiological and behavioral pathways through which SLE and hassles differentially affect mortality. PMID:24995936

  3. Mortality Benefit of a Fourth-Generation Synchronous Telehealth Program for the Management of Chronic Cardiovascular Disease: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Chi-Sheng; Yu, Jiun-Yu; Lin, Yen-Hung; Chen, Ying-Hsien; Huang, Ching-Chang; Lee, Jen-Kuang; Chuang, Pao-Yu; Chen, Ming-Fong

    2016-01-01

    Background We have shown that a fourth-generation telehealth program that analyzes and responds synchronously to data transferred from patients is associated with fewer hospitalizations and lower medical costs. Whether a fourth-generation telehealth program can reduce all-cause mortality has not yet been reported for patients with chronic cardiovascular disease. Objective We conducted a clinical epidemiology study retrospectively to determine whether a fourth-generation telehealth program can reduce all-cause mortality for patients with chronic cardiovascular disease. Methods We enrolled 576 patients who had joined a telehealth program and compared them with 1178 control patients. A Cox proportional hazards model was fitted to analyze the impact of risk predictors on all-cause mortality. The model adjusted for age, sex, and chronic comorbidities. Results There were 53 (9.3%) deaths in the telehealth group and 136 (11.54%) deaths in the control group. We found that the telehealth program violated the proportional hazards assumption by the Schoenfeld residual test. Thus, we fitted a Cox regression model with time-varying covariates. The results showed an estimated hazard ratio (HR) of 0.866 (95% CI 0.837-0.896, P<.001; number needed to treat at 1 year=55.6, 95% CI 43.2-75.7 based on HR of telehealth program) for the telehealth program on all-cause mortality after adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities. The time-varying interaction term in this analysis showed that the beneficial effect of telehealth would increase over time. Conclusions The results suggest that our fourth-generation telehealth program is associated with less all-cause mortality compared with usual care after adjusting for chronic comorbidities. PMID:27177497

  4. The National Rural Health Mission in India: its impact on maternal, neonatal, and infant mortality.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Shyama; Paul, Vinod K; Yadav, Namrata; Gupta, Shuchita

    2015-10-01

    The National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) has been a watershed in the history of India's health sector. As a previously unattempted investment, governance, and mobilization effort, the NRHM succeeded in injecting new energy into India's public health system. A huge expansion of infrastructure and human resources is the hallmark of the NRHM action. Demand-side initiatives led to enhanced utilization of public health facilities, especially for facility births. The impact is visible. The Mission has brought Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 within India's grasp. Acceleration in infant and neonatal mortality reduction is especially notable. The NRHM has created conditions for the country to move toward universal health coverage. PMID:26385051

  5. Dengue in Malaysia: Factors Associated with Dengue Mortality from a National Registry

    PubMed Central

    Suli, Zailiza; Mudin, Rose Nani; Goh, Pik Pin; Chinna, Karuthan

    2016-01-01

    Background The increasing incidence and geographical distribution of dengue has had significant impact on global healthcare services and resources. This study aimed to determine the factors associated with dengue-related mortality in a cohort of Malaysian patients. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of patients in the Malaysian National Dengue Registry of 2013. The outcome measure was dengue-related mortality. Associations between sociodemographic and clinical variables with the outcome were analysed using multivariate analysis. Results There were 43 347 cases of which 13081 were serologically confirmed. The mean age was 30.0 years (SD 15.7); 60.2% were male. The incidence of dengue increased towards the later part of the calendar year. There were 92 probable dengue mortalities, of which 41 were serologically confirmed. Multivariate analysis in those with positive serology showed that increasing age (OR 1.03; CI:1.01–1.05), persistent vomiting (OR 13.34; CI: 1.92–92.95), bleeding (OR 5.84; CI 2.17–15.70) and severe plasma leakage (OR 66.68; CI: 9.13–487.23) were associated with mortality. Factors associated with probable dengue mortality were increasing age (OR 1.04; CI:1.03–1.06), female gender (OR 1.53; CI:1.01–2.33), nausea and/or vomiting (OR 1.80; CI:1.17–2.77), bleeding (OR 3.01; CI:1.29–7.04), lethargy and/or restlessness (OR 5.97; CI:2.26–15.78), severe plasma leakage (OR 14.72; CI:1.54–140.70), and shock (OR 1805.37; CI:125.44–25982.98), in the overall study population. Conclusions Older persons and those with persistent vomiting, bleeding or severe plasma leakage, which were associated with mortality, at notification should be monitored closely and referred early if indicated. Doctors and primary care practitioners need to detect patients with dengue early before they develop these severe signs and symptoms. PMID:27336440

  6. Status Variations in Alcohol Use among Young Adults: Results from the 1984 National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Joan E.

    This document gives descriptive results on alcohol use patterns among young adults from the 1984 National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market of Youth, a survey of a large, nationally representative sample supplemented by samples of blacks, Hispanics, and economically disadvantaged non-black, non-Hispanic youth and covering the entire range of…

  7. The Intergenerational Effects of Fatherlessness on Educational Attainment and Entry-Level Wages. National Longitudinal Surveys Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grogger, Jeff; Ronan, Nick

    The effects of fatherlessness on children's educational attainment and entry-level wages were examined through a method-of-moments analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), a national panel study of 12,686 youths who were aged 14-22 in 1979. Two special features of the NLSY were used: its subsample of siblings and its…

  8. Longitudinal Blood Pressure Control, Long-Term Mortality, and Predictive Utility of Serum Liver Enzymes and Bilirubin in Hypertensive Patients.

    PubMed

    McCallum, Linsay; Panniyammakal, Jeemon; Hastie, Claire E; Hewitt, Jonathan; Patel, Rajan; Jones, Gregory C; Muir, Scott; Walters, Matthew; Sattar, Naveed; Dominiczak, Anna F; Padmanabhan, Sandosh

    2015-07-01

    There is accruing evidence from general population studies that serum bilirubin and liver enzymes affect blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular risk, but it is unclear whether these have an impact on hypertensive patients in terms of long-term survival or BP control. We analyzed 12 000 treated hypertensive individuals attending a tertiary care clinic followed up for 35 years for association between baseline liver function tests and cause-specific mortality after adjustment for conventional cardiovascular covariates. Generalized estimating equations were used to study the association of liver tests and follow-up BP. The total time at risk was 173 806 person years with median survival 32.3 years. Follow-up systolic BP over 5 years changed by -0.4 (alanine transaminase and bilirubin), +2.1(alkaline phosphatase), +0.9(γ-glutamyl transpeptidase) mm Hg for each standard deviation increase. Serum total bilirubin and alanine transaminase showed a significant negative association with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, whereas alkaline phosphatase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase showed a positive association and aspartate transaminase showed a U-shapedassociation. Serum bilirubin showed an incremental improvement of continuous net reclassification improvement by 8% to 26% for 25 year and 35 year cardiovascular mortality, whereas all liver markers together improved continuous net reclassification improvement by 19% to 47% compared with reference model. In hypertensive patients, serum liver enzymes and bilirubin within 4 standard deviations of the mean show independent effects on mortality and BP control. Our findings would support further studies to elucidate the mechanisms by which liver enzymes and bilirubin may exert an effect on BP and cardiovascular risk, but there is little support for using them in risk stratification. PMID:25941342

  9. Active social participation and mortality risk among older people in Japan: results from a nationally representative sample.

    PubMed

    Minagawa, Yuka; Saito, Yasuhiko

    2015-07-01

    A large literature suggests that active social participation contributes to the well-being of older people. Japan provides a compelling context to test this hypothesis due to its rapidly growing elderly population and the phenomenal health of the population. Using the Nihon University Japanese Longitudinal Study of Aging, this study examines how social participation, measured by group membership, is related to the risk of overall mortality among Japanese elders aged 65 and older. Results from Cox proportional hazards models show that group affiliation confers advantages against mortality risk, even after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, physical health measures, and family relationship variables. In particular, activities geared more toward self-development, such as postretirement employment and lifelong learning, are strongly associated with lower levels of mortality. Findings suggest that continued social participation at advanced ages produces positive health consequences, highlighting the importance of active aging in achieving successful aging in the Japanese context. PMID:25651580

  10. Causes of mortality in eagles submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center 1975-2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Russell, Robin E.; Franson, J. Christian

    2014-01-01

    We summarized the cause of death for 2,980 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and 1,427 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center in Madison, Wisconsin, USA, for diagnosis between 1975 and the beginning of 2013. We compared the proportion of eagles with a primary diagnosis as electrocuted, emaciated, traumatized, shot or trapped, diseased, poisoned, other, and undetermined among the 4 migratory bird flyways of the United States (Atlantic, Mississippi, Central, and Pacific). Additionally, we compared the proportion of lead-poisoned bald eagles submitted before and after the autumn 1991 ban on lead shot for waterfowl hunting. Trauma and poisonings (including lead poisoning) were the leading causes of death for bald eagles throughout the study period, and a greater proportion of bald eagles versus golden eagles were diagnosed as poisoned. For golden eagles, the major causes of mortality were trauma and electrocution. The proportion of lead poisoning diagnoses for bald eagles submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center displayed a statistically significant increase in all flyways after the autumn 1991 ban on the use of lead shot for waterfowl hunting. Thus, lead poisoning was a significant cause of mortality in our necropsied eagles, suggesting a continued need to evaluate the trade-offs of lead ammunition for use on game other than waterfowl versus the impacts of lead on wildlife populations. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  11. Longitudinal Association of Registered Nurse National Nursing Specialty Certification and Patient Falls in Acute Care Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Diane K.; Cramer, Emily; Potter, Catima; Staggs, Vincent S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Researchers have studied inpatient falls in relation to aspects of nurse staffing, focusing primarily on staffing levels and proportion of nursing care hours provided by registered nurses (RNs). Less attention has been paid to other nursing characteristics, such as RN national nursing specialty certification. Objective The aim of the study was to examine the relationship over time between changes in RN national nursing specialty certification rates and changes in total patient fall rates at the patient care unit level. Methods We used longitudinal data with standardized variable definitions across sites from the National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators. The sample consisted of 7,583 units in 903 hospitals. Relationships over time were examined using multilevel (units nested in hospitals) latent growth curve modeling. Results The model indices indicated a good fit of the data to the model. At the unit level, there was a small statistically significant inverse relationship (r = −.08, p = .04) between RN national nursing specialty certification rates and total fall rates; increases in specialty certification rates over time tended to be associated with improvements in total fall rates over time. Discussion Our findings may be supportive of promoting national nursing specialty certification as a means of improving patient safety. Future study recommendations are (a) modeling organizational leadership, culture, and climate as mediating variables between national specialty certification rates and patient outcomes and (b) investigating the association of patient safety and specific national nursing specialty certifications which test plans include patient safety, quality improvement, and diffusion of innovation methods in their certifying examinations. PMID:26049719

  12. Social Integration and Maternal Smoking: A Longitudinal Analysis of a National Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Mumford, Elizabeth A; Liu, Weiwei

    2016-08-01

    Objectives Social support and engagement are related to smoking behavior in general populations, but it is unknown whether these measures of social integration as experienced by recent mothers are related to longitudinal maternal smoking patterns. The purpose of this study is, first, to describe longitudinal patterns of maternal smoking before, during, and after pregnancy through the early childhood parenting years, as well as variation in these patterns; and second, to examine these patterns in relation to social integration, emotional, behavioral, and sociodemographic factors. Methods Among 9050 mothers of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (a nationally representative probability sample of children born in 2001), we estimated trajectories of maternal smoking with a general growth mixture model and examined how baseline predictors are associated with these patterns over a 5-6 year period beginning 3 months prior to pregnancy. Results A 5-class solution identified trajectories of nonsmokers (70.5 %), temporary quitters (9.4 %), pregnancy-inspired quitters (3.3 %), delayed initiators (5.1 %), and persistent smokers (11.7 %). Modifiable risk factors included postpartum alcohol consumption and behavioral cues from co-resident smokers, while breastfeeding beyond 6 months and social engagement through religious service attendance were protective characteristics. Conclusions for Practice Prevention of and treatment for maternal perinatal and postpartum smoking is best informed by mothers' emotional, behavioral and sociodemographic characteristics. Religious service attendance, but not measures of social support or social engagement, was a protective factor for maternal smoking trajectories. PMID:26987858

  13. Who Is Hurt by Procyclical Mortality?

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Ryan D.

    2014-01-01

    There is renewed interest in understanding how fluctuations in mortality or health are related to fluctuations in economic conditions. The traditional perspective that economic recessions lower health and raise mortality has been challenged by recent findings that reveal mortality is actually procyclical. The epidemiology of the phenomenon — traffic accidents, cardiovascular disease, and smoking and drinking — suggests that socioeconomically vulnerable populations might be disproportionately at risk of “working themselves to death” during periods of heightened economic activity. In this paper, I examine mortality by individual characteristic during the 1980s and 1990s using the U.S. National Longitudinal Mortality Study. I find scant evidence that disadvantaged groups are significantly more exposed to procyclical mortality. Rather, working-age men with more education appear to bear a heavier burden, while those with little education experience countercyclical mortality. PMID:18977577

  14. Longitudinal Patterns of Blood Pressure, Incident Cardiovascular Events, and All-Cause Mortality in Normotensive Diabetic People.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhijun; Jin, Cheng; Vaidya, Anand; Jin, Wei; Huang, Zhe; Wu, Shouling; Gao, Xiang

    2016-07-01

    Lower blood pressure (BP) within the normotensive range has been suggested to be deleterious in diabetic people using antihypertensive drugs. We hypothesized that BP <120/80 mm Hg and BP trajectories may predict further risk of all-cause mortality or cardiovascular events in normotensive diabetic individuals. We included 3159 diabetic adults, free of hypertension, atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases, or cancer in 2006 (baseline), from a community-based cohort including 101 510 participants. A total of 831 participants with BP <120/80 mm Hg and 2328 participants with BP of 120 to 139/80 to 89 mm Hg were included. BP and other clinical covariates were repeatedly measured every 2 years. During 7 years of follow-up, we documented 247 deaths and 177 cardiovascular events. Diabetic people with BP <120/80 mm Hg had a 46% increased risk of all-cause mortality (95% confidence interval, 10%-93%) compared with those with BP of 120 to 139/80 to 89 mm Hg at baseline. We then estimated the association between BP trajectories from 2006 to 2008 and adverse events among 2311 diabetic people who had both BP measures at 2006 and 2008. Relative to stable BP of 120 to 139/80 to 89 mm Hg, having persistently BP <120/80 mm Hg (hazard ratio: 2.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-5.01) or a spontaneous decrease in BP from 120 to 139/80 to 89 to <120/80 mm Hg (hazard ratio: 3.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.56-5.92) was significantly associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality during 2008 to 2014. A rise in BP from 120 to 139/80 to 89 to ≥140/90 mm Hg conferred a high risk of cardiovascular events (hazard ratio: 1.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.24-3.17). In normotensive diabetic people having a low BP or a decline in BP was both associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality, whereas development of incident hypertension increased the risk of cardiovascular events. PMID:27217407

  15. Early childbearing, human capital attainment and mortality risk: Evidence from a longitudinal demographic surveillance area in rural-KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ardington, Cally; Menendez, Alicia; Mutevedzi, Tinofa

    2014-01-01

    Using a rich longitudinal dataset, we examine the relationship between teen fertility and both subsequent educational outcomes and HIV related mortality risk in rural South Africa. Human capital deficits among teen mothers are large and significant, with earlier births associated with greater deficits. In contrast to many other studies from developed countries, we find no clear evidence of selectivity into teen childbearing in either schooling trajectories or pre-fertility household characteristics. Enrolment rates among teen mothers only begin to drop in the period immediately preceding the birth and future teen mothers are not behind in their schooling relative to other girls. Older teen mothers and those further ahead in school for their age pre-birth are more likely to continue schooling after the birth. In addition to adolescents’ higher biological vulnerability to HIV infection, pregnancy also appears to increase the risk of contracting HIV. Following women over an extended period, we document a higher HIV related mortality risk for teen mothers that cannot be explained by household characteristics in early adulthood. Controlling for age at sexual debut, we find that teen mothers report lower condom use and older partners than other sexually active adolescents. PMID:26028690

  16. Reflecting on the Delivery of a Longitudinal Coping Intervention Amongst Junior National Netball Players

    PubMed Central

    Devonport, Tracey J.; Lane, Andrew M.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research suggests that appropriately-tailored interventions can assist adolescents enhance their coping skills (Frydenberg and Lewis, 2004). The present paper reflects upon the delivery of a longitudinal coping intervention utilized by junior national netball players. Reflection is focused on issues such as the rationale for the intervention, operational issues surrounding the delivery and management of the work. It is also focused on interpersonal issues relating to intervention implementation. We contend that being explicit about developmental and applied processes may enable theoretically sound and efficacious practices to be identified. In addition, unpacking operational issues related to delivery may assist applied sport and exercise psychologists in the development of related work. Key points This paper exemplifies the potential benefits of reflective practice and offers an insight into the lessons learned during longitudinal applied research. We conclude that intervention-based research must accommodate the idiosyncrasies of an organization and requires the sport organisation to buy into the value of the work. Whilst thoughts and associations are offered, readers are encouraged to consider these and alternative associations. PMID:24149523

  17. Rotavirus mortality in India: estimates based on a nationally representative survey of diarrhoeal deaths

    PubMed Central

    Awasthi, Shally; Khera, Ajay; Bassani, Diego G; Kang, Gagandeep; Parashar, Umesh D; Kumar, Rajesh; Shet, Anita; Glass, Roger I; Jha, Prabhat

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the number of rotavirus-associated deaths among Indian children younger than five years. Methods We surveyed more than 23 000 child deaths from a nationally representative survey of 1.1 million Indian households during 2001–2003. Diarrhoeal deaths were characterized by region, age and sex and were combined with the proportion of deaths attributable to rotavirus, as determined by hospital microbiologic data collected by the Indian Rotavirus Strain Surveillance Network from December 2005 to November 2007. Rotavirus vaccine efficacy data from clinical trials in developing countries were used to estimate the number of deaths preventable by a national vaccination programme. Data were analysed using Stata SE version 10. Findings Rotavirus caused an estimated 113 000 deaths (99% confidence interval, CI: 86 000–155 000); 50% (54 700) and 75% (85 400) occurred before one and two years of age, respectively. One child in 242 died from rotavirus infection before five years of age. Rotavirus-associated mortality rates overall, among girls and among boys were 4.14 (99% CI: 3.14–5.68), 4.89 (99% CI: 3.75–6.79) and 3.45 (99% CI: 2.58–4.66) deaths per 1000 live births, respectively. Rates were highest in Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, which together accounted for > 50% of deaths (64 400) nationally. Rotavirus vaccine could prevent 41 000–48 000 deaths among children aged 3–59 months. Conclusion The burden of rotavirus-associated mortality is high among Indian children, highlighting the potential benefits of rotavirus vaccination. PMID:23109739

  18. Cohabitation and U.S Adult Mortality: An Examination by Gender and Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Hui; Reczek, Corinne

    2012-01-01

    This study is the first to explore the relationship between cohabitation and U.S. adult mortality using a nationally representative sample. Using data from the National Health Interview Survey-Longitudinal Mortality Follow-up files 1997-2004 (N = 193,851), the authors found that divorced, widowed, and never-married White men had higher mortality…

  19. Risk factors for maternal death and trends in maternal mortality in low- and middle-income countries: a prospective longitudinal cohort analysis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Because large, prospective, population-based data sets describing maternal outcomes are typically not available in low- and middle-income countries, it is difficult to monitor maternal mortality rates over time and to identify factors associated with maternal mortality. Early identification of risk factors is essential to develop comprehensive intervention strategies preventing pregnancy-related complications. Our objective was to describe maternal mortality rates in a large, multi-country dataset and to determine maternal, pregnancy-related, delivery and postpartum characteristics that are associated with maternal mortality. Methods We collected data describing all pregnancies from 2010 to 2013 among women enrolled in the multi-national Global Network for Women’s and Children’s Health Research Maternal and Neonatal Health Registry (MNHR). We reported the proportion of mothers who died per pregnancy and the maternal mortality ratio (MMR). Generalized linear models were used to evaluate the relationship of potential medical and social factors and maternal mortality and to develop point and interval estimates of relative risk associated with these factors. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for the correlation of outcomes within cluster to develop appropriate confidence intervals. Results We recorded 277,736 pregnancies and 402 maternal deaths for an MMR of 153/100,000 live births. We observed an improvement in the total MMR from 166 in 2010 to 126 in 2013. The MMR in Latin American sites (91) was lower than the MMR in Asian (178) and African sites (125). When adjusted for study site and the other variables, no formal education (RR 3.2 [1.5, 6.9]), primary education only (RR 3.4 [1.6, 7.5]), secondary education only (RR 2.5 [1.1, 5.7]), lack of antenatal care (RR 1.8 [1.2, 2.5]), caesarean section delivery (RR 1.9 [1.3, 2.8]), hemorrhage (RR 3.3 [2.2, 5.1]), and hypertensive disorders (RR 7.4 [5.2, 10.4]) were associated with higher

  20. Racial Differences in Effects of Religiosity and Mastery on Psychological Distress: Evidence from National Longitudinal Data.

    PubMed

    Oates, Gary L; Goode, Jennifer

    2013-03-01

    This research engages nationally representative longitudinal data and a multipopulation LISREL model to investigate variation among black and white Americans in the impact of religiosity and mastery on psychological distress. Guided by the stress and coping perspective and prominent theorizing about how religiosity influences mental health, the model assesses not only direct effects of religiosity and mastery on distress but also the possibility of religiosity and mastery inhibiting distress indirectly (via effects on other coping resources or stressors) and attenuating the distress-inducing properties of individual stressors. Findings solidly support the endorsed proposition of religiosity's being particularly beneficial to blacks' emotional well-being and moderately support the prediction of mastery's being primarily helpful to whites'. Public religiosity substantially eclipses private and subjective religiosity as a facilitator of blacks' emotional well-being, and although main effects dominate, there are significant mediation and moderation effects of religiosity or mastery within each race. PMID:23762783

  1. Racial Differences in Effects of Religiosity and Mastery on Psychological Distress: Evidence from National Longitudinal Data

    PubMed Central

    Oates, Gary L.; Goode, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This research engages nationally representative longitudinal data and a multipopulation LISREL model to investigate variation among black and white Americans in the impact of religiosity and mastery on psychological distress. Guided by the stress and coping perspective and prominent theorizing about how religiosity influences mental health, the model assesses not only direct effects of religiosity and mastery on distress but also the possibility of religiosity and mastery inhibiting distress indirectly (via effects on other coping resources or stressors) and attenuating the distress-inducing properties of individual stressors. Findings solidly support the endorsed proposition of religiosity’s being particularly beneficial to blacks’ emotional well-being and moderately support the prediction of mastery’s being primarily helpful to whites’. Public religiosity substantially eclipses private and subjective religiosity as a facilitator of blacks’ emotional well-being, and although main effects dominate, there are significant mediation and moderation effects of religiosity or mastery within each race. PMID:23762783

  2. The biosocial correlates of neuropsychological deficits: results from the national longitudinal study of adolescent health.

    PubMed

    Beaver, Kevin M; Vaughn, Michael G; DeLisi, Matt; Higgins, George E

    2010-12-01

    A body of empirical research has revealed that neuropsychological functioning is one of the most consistent predictors of antisocial behavior. It is somewhat surprising however that criminological research has been slow to examine the different factors that are implicated in the development of neuropsychological deficits. This study addresses this gap in the literature by examining the effects that a number of social and biological variables have on neuropsychological functioning. Analysis of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) indicates that postnatal exposure to cigarette smoke, duration of breastfeeding, maternal involvement, and household income predicts variation in adolescent and adulthood levels of neuropsychological functioning. Implications of the findings are noted and discussed. PMID:19741153

  3. Participant Retention in a Longitudinal National Telephone Survey of African American Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Cheryl L.; Le, Daisy; Calvanelli, Joe; Huang, Jin; Clark, Eddie M.; Roth, David L.; Williams, Beverly; Schulz, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this article is to describe participant demographic factors related to retention, and to report on retention strategies in a national study of African Americans re-contacted 2.5 years after an initial baseline telephone interview. Design & Setting The Religion and Health in African Americans (RHIAA) study was originally developed as a cross-sectional telephone survey to examine relationships between religious involvement and health-related factors in a national sample of African Americans. The cohort was re-contacted on average of 2.5 years later for a follow-up interview. Participants RHIAA participants were 2,803 African American men (1,202) and women (1,601). Interventions RHIAA used retention strategies consistent with recommendations from Hunt and White.1 Participants also received a lay summary of project findings. Main outcome measures Retention at the follow-up interview. Results Retention rates ranged from 39%–41%. Retained participants tended to be older and female. In age- and sex-adjusted analyses, retained participants were more educated, single, and in better health status than those not retained. There was no difference in religious involvement in adjusted analyses. Conclusions Although overall retention rates are lower than comparable longitudinal studies, RHIAA was not originally designed as a longitudinal study and so lacked a number of structures associated with long-term studies. However, this project illustrates the feasibility of conducting lengthy cold call telephone interviews with an African American population and helps to identify some participant factors related to retention and study strategies that may aid in retention. PMID:26118147

  4. Challenges of maternal mortality reduction and opportunities under National Rural Health Mission--a critical appraisal.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Satish

    2005-01-01

    Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) continues to remain high in our country without showing any declining trend over a period of two decades. The proportions of maternal deaths contributed by direct obstetric causes have also remained more or less the same in rural areas. There is a strong need to improve coverage of antenatal care, promote institutional deliveries and provide emergency obstetric care. Delays occur in seeking care for obstetric complications and levels of 'met obstetric need' continue to be low in many parts of the country. Most of the First Referral Units (FRUs) and CHCs function at sub-optimal level in the country. National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) offers institutional mechanism and strategic options to reduce high MMR. 'Janani Suraksha Yojna', strengthening of CHCs (as per Indian Public Health standards) to offer 24 hours quality services including that of anesthetists and Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA) are important proposals in this regard. District Health Mission can play an important role in monitoring maternal deaths occurring in hospitals or in community and thus create a social momentum to prevent and reduce maternal deaths. NRHM, however, depends largely on Panchayati Raj Institutions for effective implementation of proposed interventions and utilization of resources. In most parts of our country, State Governments have not empowered PRIs with real devolution of power. Therefore, much needs to be done locally to build the capacity of PRIs and develop state-specific guidelines in operational terms to implement interventions under NRHM for reducing maternal mortality ratio. PMID:16468281

  5. Foliar injury, tree growth and mortality, and lichen studies in Mammoth Cave National Park. Final report, 1985-1986

    SciTech Connect

    McCune, B.; Cloonan, C.L.; Armentano, T.V.

    1987-03-01

    Foliar condition, tree growth, tree mortality, and lichen communities were studied in Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky, to document the present forest condition and to provide a basis for detecting future changes. Foliar injury by ozone was common on many plant species in 1985. Species showing the most injury were white ash, green ash, redbud, sycamore, tulip poplar, milkweed, and wild grape. Injury apparently depended on canopy position and vigor. Tree growth was equivocally related to visible symptoms in 1986, probably because of the low ozone levels in that year. Tree mortality rates from 1966-1985 in two natural stands were somewhat lower than mortality rates known for other midwestern woods.

  6. Maternal morbidity and mortality from severe sepsis: a national cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Acosta, Colleen D; Harrison, David A; Rowan, Kathy; Lucas, D Nuala; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J; Knight, Marian

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe the incidence, characteristics and risk factors for critical care admission with severe maternal sepsis in the UK. Design National cohort study. Setting 198 critical care units in the UK. Participants 646 pregnant and recently pregnant women who had severe sepsis within the first 24 hours of admission in 2008–2010. Primary and secondary outcome measures Septic shock, mortality. Results Of all maternal critical care admissions, 14.4% (n=646) had severe sepsis; 10.6% (n=474) had septic shock. The absolute risk of maternal critical care admission with severe sepsis was 4.1/10 000 maternities. Pneumonia/respiratory infection (irrespective of the H1N1 pandemic influenza strain) and genital tract infection were the most common sources of sepsis (40% and 24%, respectively). We identified a significant gradient in the risk of severe maternal sepsis associated with increasing deprivation (RR=6.5; 95% CI 4.9 to 8.5 most deprived compared with most affluent women). The absolute risk of mortality was 1.8/100 000 maternities. The most common source of infection among women who died was pneumonia/respiratory infection (41%). Known risk factors for morbidity supported by this study were: younger age, multiple gestation birth and caesarean section. Significant risk factors for mortality in unadjusted analysis were: age ≥35 years (unadjusted OR (uOR)=3.5; 95% CI 1.1 to 10.6), ≥3 organ system dysfunctions (uOR=12.7; 95% CI 2.9 to 55.1), respiratory dysfunction (uOR=6.5; 95% CI1.9 to 21.6), renal dysfunction (uOR=5.6; 95% CI 2.3 to 13.4) and haematological dysfunction (uOR=6.5; 95% CI 2.9 to 14.6). Conclusions This study suggests a need to improve timely recognition of severe respiratory tract and genital tract infection in the obstetric population. The social gradient associated with the risk of severe sepsis morbidity and mortality raises important questions regarding maternal health service provision and usage. PMID:27554107

  7. Application of Capture-Recapture for Fine-tuning Uncertainties About National Maternal Mortality Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Yazdizadeh, Bahareh; Mohammad, Kazem; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Changizi, Nasrin; Azemikhah, Arash; Jafari, Nahid; Radpoyan, Laleh; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Maternal mortality ratio (MMR) is one of the main indicators of the millennium development goals and its accurate estimation is very important for the countries concerned. The objective of this study is to evaluate the applicability of capture-recapture (CRC) as an analytical method to estimate MMR in countries. Methods: We used the CRC method to estimate MMR in Iran for 2004 and 2005, using two data sources: The maternal mortality surveillance system and the National Death Registry (NDR). Because the data registry contains errors, we defined three levels of matching criteria to enable matching of cases between the two systems. Increasing the matching level makes the matching criteria less conservative. Because NDR data were missing or incomplete for some provinces, we calculated estimates for two conditions: With and without missing/incomplete data. Results: According to the CRC method, MMR in 2004 and 2005 were 33 and 25 in the best-case scenarios respectively and 86 and 59 in the worst-case scenarios respectively. These estimates are closer to the ones reported by United Nations Agencies published in 2010, 38 and Hogan's study, 30 in 100,000 live births in 2005. Conclusions: The MMR estimation by CRC method is slightly different from the international studies. CRC can be considered as a cost-effective method, in comparison with cross-sectional studies or improvement of vital registration systems, which are both costly and difficult. However, to achieve accurate estimates of MMR with CRC method and decrease the uncertainty we need to have valid databases and the absence of such capacities will limit the applicability of this method in developing countries with poor quality health databases. PMID:24932395

  8. A Comparison of Single-Sex and Coeducational Catholic Secondary Schooling: Evidence from the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LePore, Paul C.; Warren, John Robert

    1997-01-01

    Results from a comparison of single-sex and coeducational Catholic secondary schools using data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988 suggest that single-sex Catholic high schools are not especially favorable academic settings, and that any advantages of the schools only benefited boys. Pre-enrollment differences may explain…

  9. Longitudinal Links between Spanking and Children's Externalizing Behaviors in a National Sample of White, Black, Hispanic, and Asian American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Sexton, Holly R.; Davis-Kean, Pamela; Sameroff, Arnold J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether the longitudinal links between mothers' use of spanking and children's externalizing behaviors are moderated by family race/ethnicity, as would be predicted by cultural normativeness theory, once mean differences in frequency of use are controlled. A nationally representative sample of White, Black, Hispanic, and Asian…

  10. National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988: Second Follow-up Questionnaire Content Areas and Research Issues. Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingels, Steven; Dowd, Katy

    The National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88) provides a wealth of information about factors that influence academic performance and social development of students. The focus of this content overview is the research issues addressed by the NELS:88 second followup in 1992. In 1988, by surveying nearly 25,000 eighth graders, their…

  11. The Longitudinal Association of Childhood School Engagement with Adult Educational and Occupational Achievement: Findings from an Australian National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott-Chapman, Joan; Martin, Kara; Ollington, Nadia; Venn, Alison; Dwyer, Terry; Gall, Seana

    2014-01-01

    The research investigated the association between school engagement and adult education and occupation outcomes, within the context of a 1985 Australian longitudinal national cohort study of the factors affecting children's long-term health and well-being. School engagement may be more modifiable than other factors related to academic…

  12. Base Year, First, Second, and Third Follow-up. Data File Users Manual. Volume II. National Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinsohn, Jay; And Others

    This Users Manual is the supporting documentation for the Public Use Data File from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS). The data file contains certain merged data from the base year (1972), and first, second, and third follow-up NLS surveys for 22,652 cases. This volume contains only appendices K through Q, as…

  13. Work Patterns of Women near Retirement. Data from the National Longitudinal Surveys. Work and Family. Report 830.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    The work patterns of women with some work experience over the 1976 to 1989 period were examined as they approach retirement, using data from the Mature Women's cohort of the National Longitudinal Surveys. The data provided information on a sample of women who were between the ages of 30 and 45 in 1967 and who have been interviewed regularly since…

  14. The Stability of Self-Reported Marijuana Use across Eight Years of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shillington, Audrey M.; Clapp, John D.; Reed, Mark B.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined teen marijuana report stability over 8 years. The stability of self-reports refers to the consistency of self-reported use across several years. This study used fives waves of data across 8 years from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Analyses were conducted to examine the internal or within-wave consistency as well as…

  15. The African Development Bank, structural adjustment, and child mortality: a cross-national analysis of Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Pandolfelli, Lauren E; Shandra, John M

    2013-01-01

    We conduct a cross-national analysis to test the hypothesis that African Development Bank (AfDB) structural adjustment adversely impacts child mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. We use generalized least square random effects regression models and two-step Heckman models that correct for selection bias using data on 35 nations with up to four time points (1990, 1995, 2000, and 2005). We find substantial support for our hypothesis, which indicates that Sub-Saharan African nations that receive an AfDB structural adjustment loan tend to have higher levels of child mortality than Sub-Saharan African nations that do not receive such a loan. This finding remains stable even when controlling for selection bias on whether or not a Sub-Saharan African nation receives an AfDB structural adjustment loan. We conclude by discussing the methodological implications of the article, policy suggestions, and possible directions for future research. PMID:23821909

  16. School Social Capital and Body Mass Index in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

    PubMed Central

    RICHMOND, TRACY K.; MILLIREN, CARLY; WALLS, COURTNEY E.; KAWACHI, ICHIRO

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Social capital in neighborhoods and workplaces positively affects health. Less is known about the inAuence of school social capital on student health outcomes, in particular weight status. We sought to examine the association between individual- and school-level social capital and student body mass index (BMI). METHODS Analyzing data from The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a nationally representative sample of adolescents in grades 7-12 (N = 13,428), we used principal components analysis to define 3 school social capital factors: “connectedness” (feel part of/close to people/safe in school), “treatment” (get along with teachers/students, teachers treat students fairly), and “parental involvement” (school administrator reported percent family/parent self-reported participation in Parent Teacher Organization, average daily school attendance). We examined the associations between individual- and school-level social capital and individual BMI using multilevel modeling techniques. RESULTS In girls, both feeling connected to one's school (b = −0.06, p < .05) and attending schools with overall high connectedness (b = −0.43, p < .01) were associated with lower BM Is. In boys only attending a school with high "treatment" was inversely associated with BMI (b = −0.61, p < .01), adjusting for individual and school demographics. CONCLUSIONS Although further studies are needed, our findings suggest enhancing school social capital as a novel approach to addressing student obesity. PMID:25388592

  17. The Relationship Between Marijuana Use and Intimate Partner Violence in a Nationally Representative, Longitudinal Sample

    PubMed Central

    Reingle, Jennifer M.; Staras, Stephanie A. S.; Jennings, Wesley G.; Branchini, Jennifer; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.

    2013-01-01

    Intimate partner violence is a significant public health problem, as these behaviors have been associated with a number of negative health outcomes including illicit drug use, physical injury, chronic pain, sexually transmitted diseases, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder. The current study examined the association between marijuana use and intimate partner violence using a longitudinal survey of adolescents and young adults ages 15 to 26 years. Data were obtained from 9,421 adolescents in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) Waves 1 through 4 (1995–2008). Marijuana use was measured in the past year at each wave and participants were categorized as “users” or “nonusers.” Partner violence was constructed using six items (three pertaining to victimization and three concerning perpetration) from Wave 4 (2007–2008). Using these six items, participants were categorized as “victims only,” “perpetrators only,” or “victims and perpetrators.” Survey multinomial regression was used to examine the relationship between marijuana use and intimate partner violence. Consistent use of marijuana during adolescence was most predictive of intimate partner violence (OR = 2.08, p < .001). Consistent marijuana use (OR = 1.85, p < .05) was related to an increased risk of intimate partner violence perpetration. Adolescent marijuana use, particularly consistent use throughout adolescence, is associated with perpetration or both perpetration of and victimization by intimate partner violence in early adulthood. These findings have implications for intimate partner violence prevention efforts, as marijuana use should be considered as a target of early intimate partner violence intervention and treatment programming. PMID:22080574

  18. Factors predicting depression across multiple domains in a national longitudinal sample of Canadian youth.

    PubMed

    Bellamy, Sherry; Hardy, Cindy

    2015-05-01

    This prospective longitudinal study aimed to investigate the strength and relative importance of multiple predictors of depression in youth aged 16 to 20 years. Data were drawn from Statistics Canada's National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (Statistics Canada 2007a, b). Hierarchical regressions were conducted separately by child gender (N = 796 boys; N = 919 girls) for two overlapping samples: mixed parent-child dyads (e.g., biological mothers, fathers and other caregivers; N = 1,715) and a subsample containing only biological mother-child dyads (N = 1,425). Parent-reported data were used from Cycle 1 when the children were aged 4 to 8 years. Parent and child-reported data were used from Cycle 4 when children were aged 10 to 14 years. The outcome measure of depressive symptoms was taken from Cycle 7 when the youth were aged 16 to 20 years. Adolescents reported more depression symptoms than young adults and girls reported more than boys. For boys, higher anxiety/depression scores at ages 4 to 8 years and 10 to 14 years, along with lower self-esteem at 10 to 14 years, predicted higher depression scores. Girls' depression was predicted by loss of a parent by ages 4 to 8 years and higher self-reported anxiety/depression and aggression at ages 10 to 14 years. Among biological mother-child dyads, maternal depression reported by mother when child was aged 4 to 8 years and 10 to 14 years significantly predicted depression for girls. At 10 to 14 years, child-reported lower parental monitoring (girls only) and greater parental rejection (boys and girls) predicted depression at ages 16 to 20 years. PMID:25240908

  19. SOCIOECONOMIC DISPARITIES IN MORTALITY AMONG CHINESE ELDERLY*

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Weixiang; Xie, Yu

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the association of three different SES indicators (education, economic independence, and household per-capita income) with mortality, using a large, nationally representative longitudinal sample of 12,437 Chinese ages 65 and older. While the results vary by measures used, we find overall strong evidence for a negative association between SES and all-cause mortality. Exploring the association between SES and cause-specific mortality, we find that SES is more strongly related to a reduction of mortality from more preventable causes (i.e., circulatory disease and respiratory disease) than from less preventable causes (i.e., cancer). Moreover, we consider mediating causal factors such as support networks, health-related risk behaviors, and access to health care in contributing to the observed association between SES and mortality. Among these mediating factors, medical care is of greatest importance. This pattern holds true for both all-cause and cause-specific mortality. PMID:25098961

  20. Economic cycles and child mortality: A cross-national study of the least developed countries.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Moreno, Salvador; Blanco-Arana, María C; Bárcena-Martín, Elena

    2016-09-01

    This paper examines the effects of growth and recession periods on child mortality in the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) during the period 1990-2010. We provide empirical evidence of uneven effects of variations in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita on the evolution of child mortality rate in periods of economic recession and expansion. A decrease in GDP per capita entails a significant rise in child mortality rates, whereas an increase does not affect child mortality significantly. In this context, official development assistance seems to play a crucial role in counteracting the increment in child mortality rates in recession periods, at least in those LDCs receiving greater aid. PMID:26998938

  1. The association between IQ in adolescence and a range of health outcomes at 40 in the 1979 US National Longitudinal Study of Youth

    PubMed Central

    Der, Geoff; Batty, G. David; Deary, Ian J.

    2009-01-01

    A link between pre-morbid intelligence and all cause mortality is becoming well established, but the aetiology of the association is not understood. Less is known about links with cause specific mortality and with morbidity. The aim of this study is to examine the association between intelligence measured in adolescence and a broad range of health outcomes ascertained at 40 years of age. We use data on 7476 participants in the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 who had their cognitive ability measured at baseline and completed the ‘Health at 40’ interview module between 1998 and 2004. The Health at 40 module includes assessments of general health and depression, nine medically diagnosed conditions, and 33 common health problems. Higher mental test scores were associated with lower depression scores, better general health, significantly lower odds of having five of the nine diagnosed conditions and 15 of the 33 health problems. A health disadvantage of higher cognitive ability was evident for only three of the 33 health problems. PMID:19907663

  2. Genetic Influences on Language, Reading, and Mathematics Skills in a National Sample: An Analysis Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Sara A.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Kamp Dush, Claire M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The present study had two purposes: provide an illustration of use of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Children's (CNLSY; U.S. Department of Labor, 2009) database and use the database to seek convergent evidence regarding the magnitude and significance of genetic effects influencing low and typical performers on measures of…

  3. Mortality and Treatment Patterns Among Patients Hospitalized With Acute Cardiovascular Conditions During Dates of National Cardiology Meetings

    PubMed Central

    Jena, Anupam B.; Prasad, Vinay; Goldman, Dana P.; Romley, John

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Thousands of physicians attend scientific meetings annually. Although hospital physician staffing and composition may be affected by meetings, patient outcomes and treatment patterns during meeting dates are unknown. OBJECTIVE To analyze mortality and treatment differences among patients admitted with acute cardiovascular conditions during dates of national cardiology meetings compared with nonmeeting dates. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Retrospective analysis of 30-day mortality among Medicare beneficiaries hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), heart failure, or cardiac arrest from 2002 through 2011 during dates of 2 national cardiology meetings compared with identical nonmeeting days in the 3 weeks before and after conferences (AMI, 8570 hospitalizations during 82 meeting days and 57 471 during 492 nonmeeting days; heart failure, 19 282 during meeting days and 11 4591 during nonmeeting days; cardiac arrest, 1564 during meeting days and 9580 during nonmeeting days). Multivariable analyses were conducted separately for major teaching hospitals and nonteaching hospitals and for low-and high-risk patients. Differences in treatment utilization were assessed. EXPOSURES Hospitalization during cardiology meeting dates. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Thirty-day mortality, procedure rates, charges, length of stay. RESULTS Patient characteristics were similar between meeting and nonmeeting dates. In teaching hospitals, adjusted 30-day mortality was lower among high-risk patients with heart failure or cardiac arrest admitted during meeting vs nonmeeting dates (heart failure, 17.5% [95% CI, 13.7%–21.2%] vs 24.8% [95% CI, 22.9%–26.6%]; P < .001; cardiac arrest, 59.1% [95% CI, 51.4%–66.8%] vs 69.4% [95% CI, 66.2%–72.6%]; P = .01). Adjusted mortality for high-risk AMI in teaching hospitals was similar between meeting and nonmeeting dates (39.2% [95% CI, 31.8%–46.6%] vs 38.5% [95% CI, 35.0%–42.0%]; P = .86), although adjusted percutaneous

  4. Trajectories of Delinquency from Age 14 to 23 in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Sample

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Debra A.; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Huang, David; Herbeck, Diane M.

    2012-01-01

    This study utilized data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to investigate risk trajectories for delinquency and factors associated with different trajectories, particularly substance use. The sample (N = 8,984) was 49% female. A group-based trajectory model was applied, which identified four distinct trajectories for both males and females: (1) a High group with delinquency rates consistently higher than other groups, with some decrease across the age range; (2) a Decreased group, beginning at high levels with substantial decrease to near zero; (3) a Moderate group experiencing some decline but remaining at moderate rates of delinquency through most of the age range; and (4) a consistently Low group, having low rates of delinquency declining to near zero by mid- to late-teens. The Low group was distinguished by several protective factors, including higher rates of maternal authoritative parenting style, possible lower acculturation (higher rates of non-English spoken at home), higher rates of religious activity, later substance use initiation, lower rates of early delinquent activity, less early experience with neighborhood or personal violence, and higher rates of perceiving penalty for wrongdoing. Conversely, the High group was characterized by several vulnerability factors—essentially the converse of the protective factors above. PMID:23105164

  5. Trajectories of Delinquency from Age 14 to 23 in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Sample.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Debra A; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Huang, David; Herbeck, Diane M

    2012-03-01

    This study utilized data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to investigate risk trajectories for delinquency and factors associated with different trajectories, particularly substance use. The sample (N = 8,984) was 49% female. A group-based trajectory model was applied, which identified four distinct trajectories for both males and females: (1) a High group with delinquency rates consistently higher than other groups, with some decrease across the age range; (2) a Decreased group, beginning at high levels with substantial decrease to near zero; (3) a Moderate group experiencing some decline but remaining at moderate rates of delinquency through most of the age range; and (4) a consistently Low group, having low rates of delinquency declining to near zero by mid- to late-teens. The Low group was distinguished by several protective factors, including higher rates of maternal authoritative parenting style, possible lower acculturation (higher rates of non-English spoken at home), higher rates of religious activity, later substance use initiation, lower rates of early delinquent activity, less early experience with neighborhood or personal violence, and higher rates of perceiving penalty for wrongdoing. Conversely, the High group was characterized by several vulnerability factors-essentially the converse of the protective factors above. PMID:23105164

  6. Informal Care and Inter-vivos Transfers: Results from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women.

    PubMed

    Norton, Edward C; Nicholas, Lauren H; Huang, Sean Sheng-Hsiu

    2013-05-01

    Informal care is the largest source of long-term care for elderly, surpassing home health care and nursing home care. By definition, informal care is unpaid. It remains a puzzle why so many adult children give freely of their time. Transfers of time to the older generation may be balanced by financial transfers going to the younger generation. This leads to the question of whether informal care and inter-vivos transfers are causally related. We analyze data from the 1999 and 2003 waves of National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women. We examine whether the elderly parents give more inter-vivos monetary transfers to adult children who provide informal care, by examining both the extensive and intensive margins of financial transfers and of informal care. We find statistically significant results that a child who provides informal care is more likely to receive inter-vivos transfers than a sibling who does not. If a child does provide care, there is no statistically significant effect on the amount of the transfer. PMID:25285181

  7. Academic performance, educational aspiration and birth outcomes among adolescent mothers: a national longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Maternal educational attainment has been associated with birth outcomes among adult mothers. However, limited research explores whether academic performance and educational aspiration influence birth outcomes among adolescent mothers. Methods Data from Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) were used. Adolescent girls whose first pregnancy occurred after Wave I, during their adolescence, and ended with a singleton live birth were included. Adolescents’ grade point average (GPA), experience of ever skipping a grade and ever repeating a grade, and their aspiration to attend college were examined as predictors of birth outcomes (birthweight and gestational age; n = 763). Univariate statistics, bivariate analyses and multivariable models were run stratified on race using survey procedures. Results Among Black adolescents, those who ever skipped a grade had higher offspring’s birthweight. Among non-Black adolescents, ever skipping a grade and higher educational aspiration were associated with higher offspring’s birthweight; ever skipping a grade was also associated with higher gestational age. GPA was not statistically significantly associated with either birth outcome. The addition of smoking during pregnancy and prenatal care visit into the multivariable models did not change these associations. Conclusions Some indicators of higher academic performance and aspiration are associated with better birth outcomes among adolescents. Investing in improving educational opportunities may improve birth outcomes among teenage mothers. PMID:24422664

  8. Longitudinal trends in organophosphate incidents reported to the National Pesticide Information Center, 1995–2007

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Regulatory decisions to phase-out the availability and use of common organophosphate pesticides among the general public were announced in 2000 and continued through 2004. Based on revised risk assessments, chlorpyrifos and diazinon were determined to pose unacceptable risks. To determine the impact of these decisions, organophosphate (OP) exposure incidents reported to the National Pesticide Information Center (NPIC) were analyzed for longitudinal trends. Methods Non-occupational human exposure incidents reported to NPIC were grouped into pre- (1995–2000) and post-announcement periods (2001–2007). The number of total OP exposure incidents, as well as reports for chlorpyrifos, diazinon and malathion, were analyzed for significant differences between these two periods. The number of informational inquiries from the general public was analyzed over time as well. Results The number of average annual OP-related exposure incidents reported to NPIC decreased significantly between the pre- and post-announcement periods (p < 0.001). A significant decrease in the number of chlorpyrifos and diazinon reports was observed over time (p < 0.001). No significant difference in the number of incident reports for malathion was observed (p = 0.4), which was not phased-out of residential use. Similar to exposure incidents, the number of informational inquiries received by NPIC declined over time following the phase-out announcement. Conclusion Consistent with other findings, the number of chlorpyrifos and diazinon exposure incidents reported to NPIC significantly decreased following public announcement and targeted regulatory action. PMID:19379510

  9. Evaluation of the National Tips From Former Smokers Campaign: the 2014 Longitudinal Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Deesha; Davis, Kevin; Ridgeway, William; Shafer, Paul; Cox, Shanna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Since 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has aired a national tobacco education campaign to encourage quitting, Tips From Former Smokers (Tips), which consists of graphic antismoking advertisements that feature former cigarette smokers. We evaluated phase 2 of the 2014 campaign by using a nationally representative longitudinal cohort. Methods Cigarette smokers who participated in a baseline survey were re-contacted for follow-up (n = 4,248) approximately 4 months later, immediately after the campaign’s conclusion. The primary outcomes were incidence of a quit attempt in the previous 3 months, intention to quit within 30 days, and intention to quit within 6 months during the postcampaign period. We used multivariate logistic regression models to estimate the odds of each outcome. We also stratified models by race/ethnicity, education, and mental health status. Postcampaign rates of quit attempts, intentions to quit, and sustained quits were also estimated. Results Exposure to the campaign was associated with increased odds of a quit attempt in the previous 3 months (OR, 1.17; P = .03) among baseline smokers and intentions to quit within the next 6 months (OR, 1.28; P = .01) among current smokers at follow-up. The Tips campaign was associated with an estimated 1.83 million additional quit attempts, 1.73 million additional smokers intending to quit within 6 months, and 104,000 sustained quits of at least 6 months. Conclusion The Tips campaign continued to have a significant impact on cessation-related behaviors, providing further justification for the continued use of tobacco education campaigns to accelerate progress toward the goal of reducing adult smoking in the United States. PMID:27010845

  10. The association between development assistance for health and malaria, HIV and tuberculosis mortality: a cross-national analysis.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Allan J; Emdin, Connor A

    2015-03-01

    Development assistance for health (DAH) and foreign aid have been criticized for being poorly associated with health and economic outcomes on a national level. This study is an attempt to examine whether DAH targeted specifically to malaria, HIV and tuberculosis (TB) is associated with changes in malaria, HIV and TB mortality, respectively. A dataset of DAH targeted to malaria, HIV and TB and corresponding malaria-, HIV- and TB-specific mortality was compiled for 120 low- and middle-income countries. Regression analysis was performed using country and time-period fixed effects and control variables. While malaria and HIV DAH were associated with reductions in malaria and HIV mortality, respectively, TB DAH was not significantly associated with reductions in TB mortality. Estimates were consistent in various sensitivity analyses, including generalized method of moments estimation, addition of extra controls and analysis of a multiply imputed dataset. In conclusion, targeted DAH is associated with reduction of HIV and malaria mortality on a national level. PMID:25700922

  11. Trends in varicella mortality in the United States: Data from vital statistics and the national surveillance system

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Jessica; Bialek, Stephanie R; Marin, Mona

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript describes trends in US varicella mortality using national vital statistics system data for 2008–2011, the first years of the routine 2-dose varicella vaccination program, and characteristics of varicella deaths reported to CDC during 1996–2013. We obtained data on deaths with varicella as underlying or contributing cause from the 2008–2011 Mortality Multiple Cause-of Death records and calculated rates to compare with the prevaccine and mature 1-dose varicella vaccination program eras. We also reviewed available records of varicella deaths reported to CDC through the national varicella death surveillance. The annual average age-adjusted mortality rate for varicella as the underlying cause was 0.05 per million population during 2008–2011, an 87% reduction from the prevaccine years. Varicella deaths among persons aged <20 y declined by 99% in 2008–2011 compared with prevaccine years. There was a 70% decline in varicella mortality rates among those <20 y in 2008–2011 compared to 2005–2007. Among the 83 deaths reported to CDC during 1996–2013 classified as likely due to varicella, 24 (29%) were among immunocompromised individuals. Five were among persons previously vaccinated with 1 dose of varicella vaccine. In conclusion, although the US varicella vaccination program has significantly reduced varicella disease burden, there are still opportunities to prevent varicella and its associated morbidity and mortality through routine varicella vaccination, catch-up vaccination, and ensuring that household contacts of immunocompromised persons have evidence of immunity. PMID:25714052

  12. Trends in varicella mortality in the United States: Data from vital statistics and the national surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Leung, Jessica; Bialek, Stephanie R; Marin, Mona

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript describes trends in US varicella mortality using national vital statistics system data for 2008-2011, the first years of the routine 2-dose varicella vaccination program, and characteristics of varicella deaths reported to CDC during 1996-2013. We obtained data on deaths with varicella as underlying or contributing cause from the 2008-2011 Mortality Multiple Cause-of Death records and calculated rates to compare with the prevaccine and mature 1-dose varicella vaccination program eras. We also reviewed available records of varicella deaths reported to CDC through the national varicella death surveillance. The annual average age-adjusted mortality rate for varicella as the underlying cause was 0.05 per million population during 2008-2011, an 87% reduction from the prevaccine years. Varicella deaths among persons aged <20 y declined by 99% in 2008-2011 compared with prevaccine years. There was a 70% decline in varicella mortality rates among those <20 y in 2008-2011 compared to 2005-2007. Among the 83 deaths reported to CDC during 1996-2013 classified as likely due to varicella, 24 (29%) were among immunocompromised individuals. Five were among persons previously vaccinated with 1 dose of varicella vaccine. In conclusion, although the US varicella vaccination program has significantly reduced varicella disease burden, there are still opportunities to prevent varicella and its associated morbidity and mortality through routine varicella vaccination, catch-up vaccination, and ensuring that household contacts of immunocompromised persons have evidence of immunity. PMID:25714052

  13. Clinical Significance of National Patients Sample Analysis: Factors Affecting Mortality and Length of Stay of Organophosphate and Carbamate Poisoned Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Lee, Jun Yeob; Yeo, Woon Hyung; Park, Ha Young; Park, Kyung Hye; Cho, Junho; Kim, Hyunjong; Kim, Gun Bea; Park, Deuk Hyun; Yoon, Yoo Sang; Kim, Yang Weon

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study considered whether there could be a change of mortality and length of stay as a result of inter-hospital transfer, clinical department, and size of hospital for patients with organophosphates and carbamates poisoning via National Patients Sample data of the year 2009, which was obtained from Health Insurance Review and Assessment Services (HIRA). The utility and representativeness of the HIRA data as the source of prognosis analysis in poisoned patients were also evaluated. Methods Organophosphate and carbamate poisoned patients' mortality and length of stay were analyzed in relation to the initial and final treating hospitals and departments, as well as the presence of inter-hospital transfers. Results Among a total of 146 cases, there were 17 mortality cases, and the mean age was 56.8 ± 19.2 years. The median length of stay was 6 days. There was no inter-hospital or inter-departmental difference in length of stay. However, it significantly increased when inter-hospital transfer occurred (transferred 11 days vs. non-transferred 6 days; p = 0.037). Overall mortality rate was 11.6%. The mortality rate significantly increased when inter-hospital transfer occurred (transferred 23.5% vs. non-transferred 7.0%; p = 0.047), but there was no statistical difference in mortality on inter-hospital and inter-department comparison at the initial treating facility. However, at the final treating facility, there was a significant difference between tertiary and general hospitals (5.1% for tertiary hospitals and 17.3% for general hospitals; p = 0.024), although there was no significant inter-departmental difference. Conclusions We demonstrated that hospital, clinical department, length of stay, and mortality could be analyzed using insurance claim data of a specific disease group. Our results also indicated that length of stay and mortality according to inter-hospital transfer could be analyzed, which was previously unknown. PMID:24523992

  14. The Effect of Burn Center Volume on Mortality in a Pediatric Population: An Analysis of the National Burn Repository

    PubMed Central

    Hodgman, Erica I.; Saeman, Melody R.; Subramanian, Madhu

    2016-01-01

    The effect of burn center volume on mortality has been demonstrated in adults. The authors sought to evaluate whether such a relationship existed in burned children. The National Burn Repository, a voluntary registry sponsored by the American Burn Association, was queried for all data points on patients aged 18 years or less and treated from 2002 to 2011. Facilities were divided into quartiles based on average annual burn volume. Demographics and clinical characteristics were compared across groups, and univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to evaluate relationships between facility volume, patient characteristics, and mortality. The authors analyzed 38,234 patients admitted to 88 unique facilities. Children under age 4 years or with larger burns were more likely to be managed at high-volume and very high–volume centers (57.12 and 53.41%, respectively). Overall mortality was low (0.85%). Comparing mortality across quartiles demonstrated improved unadjusted mortality rates at the low- and high-volume centers compared with the medium-volume and very high–volume centers although univariate logistic regression did not find a significant relationship. However, multivariate analysis identified burn center volume as a significant predictor of decreased mortality after controlling for patient characteristics including age, mechanism of injury, burn size, and presence of inhalation injury. Mortality among pediatric burn patients is low and was primarily related to patient and injury characteristics, such as burn size, inhalation injury, and burn cause. Average annual admission rate had a significant but small effect on mortality when injury characteristics were considered. PMID:26146907

  15. Development and Validation of a National System for Routine Monitoring of Mortality in People Recently Released from Prison

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, Simon J.

    2016-01-01

    Background People released from prison are at increased risk of death. However, no country has established a system for routine monitoring of mortality in this population. The aims of this study were to (a) evaluate a system for routine monitoring of deaths after release from prison in Australia and (b) estimate the number of deaths annually within 28 and 365 days of prison release from 2000 to 2013. Methods Persons released from prison and deaths were identified in records held by Centrelink, Australia’s national provider of unemployment benefits. Estimates generated in this manner were compared with those from a study that probabilistically linked correctional records with the National Death Index (NDI), for each calendar year 2000 to 2007. Using Centrelink data, national estimates of mortality within 28 and 365 days of release were produced for each calendar year 2000 to 2013. Findings Compared with estimates based on linkage with the NDI, the estimated crude mortality rate based on Centrelink records was on average 52% lower for deaths within 28 days of release and 24% lower for deaths within 365 days of release. Nationally, over the period 2000 to 2013, we identified an average of 32 deaths per year within 28 days of release and 188 deaths per year within 365 days of release. The crude mortality rate for deaths within both 28 and 365 days of release increased over this time. Conclusions Using routinely collected unemployment benefits data we detected the majority of deaths in people recently released from prison in Australia. These data may be sufficient for routine monitoring purposes and it may be possible to adopt a similar approach in other countries. Routine surveillance of mortality in ex-prisoners serves to highlight their extreme vulnerability and provides a basis for evaluating policy reforms designed to reduce preventable deaths. PMID:27309540

  16. Environmental Predictors of US County Mortality Patterns on a National Basis

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Reuben; Gohlke, Julia M.; Portier, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of evidence has found that mortality rates are positively correlated with social inequalities, air pollution, elevated ambient temperature, availability of medical care and other factors. This study develops a model to predict the mortality rates for different diseases by county across the US. The model is applied to predict changes in mortality caused by changing environmental factors. A total of 3,110 counties in the US, excluding Alaska and Hawaii, were studied. A subset of 519 counties from the 3,110 counties was chosen by using systematic random sampling and these samples were used to validate the model. Step-wise and linear regression analyses were used to estimate the ability of environmental pollutants, socio-economic factors and other factors to explain variations in county-specific mortality rates for cardiovascular diseases, cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), all causes combined and lifespan across five population density groups. The estimated models fit adequately for all mortality outcomes for all population density groups and, adequately predicted risks for the 519 validation counties. This study suggests that, at local county levels, average ozone (0.07 ppm) is the most important environmental predictor of mortality. The analysis also illustrates the complex inter-relationships of multiple factors that influence mortality and lifespan, and suggests the need for a better understanding of the pathways through which these factors, mortality, and lifespan are related at the community level. PMID:26629706

  17. Environmental Predictors of US County Mortality Patterns on a National Basis.

    PubMed

    Chan, Melissa P L; Weinhold, Robert S; Thomas, Reuben; Gohlke, Julia M; Portier, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of evidence has found that mortality rates are positively correlated with social inequalities, air pollution, elevated ambient temperature, availability of medical care and other factors. This study develops a model to predict the mortality rates for different diseases by county across the US. The model is applied to predict changes in mortality caused by changing environmental factors. A total of 3,110 counties in the US, excluding Alaska and Hawaii, were studied. A subset of 519 counties from the 3,110 counties was chosen by using systematic random sampling and these samples were used to validate the model. Step-wise and linear regression analyses were used to estimate the ability of environmental pollutants, socio-economic factors and other factors to explain variations in county-specific mortality rates for cardiovascular diseases, cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), all causes combined and lifespan across five population density groups. The estimated models fit adequately for all mortality outcomes for all population density groups and, adequately predicted risks for the 519 validation counties. This study suggests that, at local county levels, average ozone (0.07 ppm) is the most important environmental predictor of mortality. The analysis also illustrates the complex inter-relationships of multiple factors that influence mortality and lifespan, and suggests the need for a better understanding of the pathways through which these factors, mortality, and lifespan are related at the community level. PMID:26629706

  18. Early-Life Origins of the Race Gap in Men's Mortality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, David F.; Hayward, Mark D.

    2006-01-01

    Using a life course framework, we examine the early life origins of the race gap in men's all-cause mortality. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men (1966-1990), we evaluate major social pathways by which early life conditions differentiate the mortality experiences of blacks and whites. Our findings indicate that early life…

  19. Risk factors for total tooth loss in the United States; longitudinal analysis of national data.

    PubMed

    Eklund, S A; Burt, B A

    1994-01-01

    The NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study (NHEFS) of 1982-84 collected longitudinal data from 10,523 individuals initially seen during the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I) of 1971-75. Among this additional data was information on the incidence of total tooth loss during the 10 years between the surveys, which could then be added to NHANES I data to identify risk factors. In this analysis, a series of bivariate analyses were carried out, followed by logistic regression analysis to assess the simultaneous effect of major variables. Results showed that 7.4 percent of dentate Americans aged 25-74 at NHANES I became edentulous over the next 10 years. In bivariate analyses, the incidence of edentulism was correlated with baseline measures of lower income and education status, poorer oral health, self-perceptions of poor general health and oral health, absence of a regular dentist, and a lower number of remaining teeth at baseline. No correlation was found with gender and geographic region, nor with self-reported diabetes and arthritis, and age was not a factor when the number of remaining teeth at baseline were taken into account. In a logistic regression model assessing the effect of these variables simultaneously, none of the demographic variables retained significance; the only variable statistically significant in both age groups was the number of teeth remaining at baseline. Other significant variables in younger persons were higher periodontal disease scores, perceived poor dental health, perceived need for extractions, history of smoking, and low ascorbic acid intake. Some of these variables were reflections of negative health behavior and attitudes rather than direct correlates. Principal findings from this study were the importance of early tooth loss in eventual edentulism and the virtual disappearance of gender and age as determinants of total tooth loss. PMID:8164192

  20. Effect of Governance Indicators on Under-Five Mortality in OECD Nations: Generalized Method of Moments

    PubMed Central

    Emamgholipour, Sara; Asemane, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Today, it is recognized that factors other than health services are involved in health improvement and decreased inequality so identifying them is the main concern of policy makers and health authorities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of governance indicators on health outcomes. Methods A panel data study was conducted to investigate the effect of governance indicators on child mortality rate in 27 OECD countries from 1996 to 2012 using the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) model and EVIEWS.8 software. Results According to the results obtained, under-five mortality rate was significantly related to all of the research variables (p < 0.05). One percent increase in under-five mortality in the previous period resulted in a 0.83% increase in the mortality rate in the next period, and a 1% increase in total fertility rate, increased the under-five mortality rate by 0.09%. In addition, a 1% increase in GDP per capita decreased the under-five mortality rate by 0.07%, and a 1% improvement in control of corruption and rule of law indicators decreased child mortality rate by 0.05 and 0.08%, respectively. Furthermore, 1% increase in public health expenditure per capita resulted in a 0.03% decrease in under-five mortality rate. Conclusion The results of the study suggest that considering control variables, including GDP per capita, public health expenditure per capita, total fertility rate, and improvement of governance indicators (control of corruption and rule of law) would decrease the child mortality rate. PMID:26952194

  1. Attitudes and adolescent nonmarital childbearing: evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth.

    PubMed

    Plotnick, R D; Butler, S S

    1991-10-01

    The 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) provided data for the analysis of the impact of self-esteem, locus of control, attitudes towards women's family roles, work, and school on the probability of a nonmarital birth. The study avoided methodological problems of prior studies by using a national data base with attitude measured before nonmarital childbearing occurs. No prior studies included these 5 factors. Previous research on attitudes and nonmarital childbearing is summarized. Theoretical models imply that self-esteem, high educational goals, and an internal locus of control are associated with a lower likelihood of a nonmarital birth. The conceptual model for this study is described. It does not include how attitudes develop or estimate the linkage between family background variables and attitudes. A reduced from approach was used and controls were included for 6 family background and personal variables. The sample of 1184 girls was restricted to those aged 14 or 15 years in 1979 who were never married or had a child. 16.9% of the sample had a nonmarital child by 19 years. Measurement of explanatory variables is indicated as the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale and the Rotter scale for internal-external locus of control. A 7-item scale measured women's roles, an 8-item scale measured attitudes toward school, and 3 items assessed views on the importance of improving one's employment prospects. Background control variables were race/ethnicity, mother's education, presence of welfare income, family income, family structure, and religiosity. The standard logistics technique was used to estimate the logarithm of the odds of having a nonmarital birth as a linear function of both attitude and family background variables. Models were estimated both with and without the educational expectation variable. The results appear to indicate that self-esteem and attitudes toward school are associated with nonmarital childbearing, as predicted by theory. Locus of

  2. The National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972: Selected Results from the Base-Year and the First Follow-Up Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peng, Samuel S.; And Others

    The National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 has completed two phases of data collection: the Base-Year and the First Follow-Up Surveys. This paper summarizes some of the findings from cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of that data. A cross-sectional analysis of the base-year results yielded information on grades, work,…

  3. Mortality of San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes velox macrotis) at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site, California

    SciTech Connect

    Standley, W.G.; Berry, W.H.; O'Farrell, T.P.; Kato, T.T.

    1992-09-01

    Sources and rates of mortality of a San Joaquin kit fox population (Vulpes velox macrotis) were investigated at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site, California, from November 1988 through September 1991. National Guard-authorized activities, including military training, caused the death of three of the 94 (3%) kit foxes radiocollared, and do not appear to jeopardize the continued existence of the population. Predation by larger carnivores, primarily coyotes (Canis latrans), caused the death of 75% of the 32 radiocollared kit foxes recovered dead for which a cause of death could be determined; vehicle impacts, disease (rabies), poisoning, and shooting were each responsible for the deaths of 6.3%. Adult annual mortality rate was 0.47 and the juvenile mortality rate was 0.80, and both rates are similar to rates reported for kit foxes in other locations. There was no significant difference between male and female mortality rates in either age class. The proportions of dead kit foxes recovered in different habitat types were similar to the availability of the habitat types within the distribution of kit fox on the installation.

  4. Comparisons across Time of the Outcomes of Youth with Disabilities up to 4 Years after High School. A Report of Findings from the National Longitudinal Transition Study (NLTS) and the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2). NCSER 2010-3008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Lynn; Wagner, Mary; Cameto, Renee; Knokey, Anne-Marie; Shaver, Debra

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to document the secondary school experiences and postsecondary outcomes of students with disabilities over the last two decades, the U.S. Department of Education (ED) sponsored two longitudinal research studies 15 years apart. The first study, the National Longitudinal Transition Study (NLTS) generated nationally representative…

  5. Women's Risk of Repeat Abortions Is Strongly Associated with Alcohol Consumption: A Longitudinal Analysis of a Russian National Panel Study, 1994–2009

    PubMed Central

    Keenan, Katherine; Grundy, Emily; Kenward, Michael G.; Leon, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Abortion rates in Russia, particularly repeat abortions, are among the highest in the world, and abortion complications make a substantial contribution to the country's high maternal mortality rate. Russia also has a very high rate of hazardous alcohol use. However, the association between alcohol use and abortion in Russia remains unexplored. We investigated the longitudinal predictors of first and repeat abortion, focussing on women's alcohol use as a risk factor. Follow-up data from 2,623 women of reproductive age (16–44 years) was extracted from 14 waves of the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS), a nationally representative panel study covering the period 1994–2009. We used discrete time hazard models to estimate the probability of having a first and repeat abortion by social, demographic and health characteristics at the preceding study wave. Having a first abortion was associated with demographic factors such as age and parity, whereas repeat abortions were associated with low education and alcohol use. After adjustment for demographic and socioeconomic factors, the risk of having a repeat abortion increased significantly as women's drinking frequency increased (P<0.001), and binge drinking women were significantly more likely to have a repeat abortion than non-drinkers (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.62–3.20). This association was not accounted for by contraceptive use or a higher risk of pregnancy. Therefore the determinants of first and repeat abortion in Russia between 1994–2009 were different. Women who had repeat abortions were distinguished by their heavier and more frequent alcohol use. The mechanism for the association is not well understood but could be explained by unmeasured personality factors, such as risk taking, or social non-conformity increasing the risk of unplanned pregnancy. Heavy or frequent drinkers constitute a particularly high risk group for repeat abortion, who could be targeted in prevention efforts. PMID:24671000

  6. The National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS-72): Fifth Follow-Up (1986). Sample Design Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Bruce; Sebring, Penny; Campbell, Barbara

    1987-01-01

    This report is the methodology report for the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 follow-up in 1986. The fifth follow-up survey of the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS-72) took place during spring and summer of 1986. A mail questionnaire was sent to a subsample of 14,489 members of the…

  7. Mortality in Iraq Associated with the 2003–2011 War and Occupation: Findings from a National Cluster Sample Survey by the University Collaborative Iraq Mortality Study

    PubMed Central

    Hagopian, Amy; Flaxman, Abraham D.; Takaro, Tim K.; Esa Al Shatari, Sahar A.; Rajaratnam, Julie; Becker, Stan; Levin-Rector, Alison; Galway, Lindsay; Hadi Al-Yasseri, Berq J.; Weiss, William M.; Murray, Christopher J.; Burnham, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous estimates of mortality in Iraq attributable to the 2003 invasion have been heterogeneous and controversial, and none were produced after 2006. The purpose of this research was to estimate direct and indirect deaths attributable to the war in Iraq between 2003 and 2011. Methods and Findings We conducted a survey of 2,000 randomly selected households throughout Iraq, using a two-stage cluster sampling method to ensure the sample of households was nationally representative. We asked every household head about births and deaths since 2001, and all household adults about mortality among their siblings. We used secondary data sources to correct for out-migration. From March 1, 2003, to June 30, 2011, the crude death rate in Iraq was 4.55 per 1,000 person-years (95% uncertainty interval 3.74–5.27), more than 0.5 times higher than the death rate during the 26-mo period preceding the war, resulting in approximately 405,000 (95% uncertainty interval 48,000–751,000) excess deaths attributable to the conflict. Among adults, the risk of death rose 0.7 times higher for women and 2.9 times higher for men between the pre-war period (January 1, 2001, to February 28, 2003) and the peak of the war (2005–2006). We estimate that more than 60% of excess deaths were directly attributable to violence, with the rest associated with the collapse of infrastructure and other indirect, but war-related, causes. We used secondary sources to estimate rates of death among emigrants. Those estimates suggest we missed at least 55,000 deaths that would have been reported by households had the households remained behind in Iraq, but which instead had migrated away. Only 24 households refused to participate in the study. An additional five households were not interviewed because of hostile or threatening behavior, for a 98.55% response rate. The reliance on outdated census data and the long recall period required of participants are limitations of our study. Conclusions Beyond

  8. Subsequent mortality after hyperglycemic crisis episode in the non-elderly: a national population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kao, Yuan; Hsu, Chien-Chin; Weng, Shih-Feng; Lin, Hung-Jung; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Su, Shih-Bin; Huang, Chien-Cheng; Guo, How-Ran

    2016-01-01

    Hyperglycemic crisis episodes (HCEs)-diabetic ketoacidosis and the hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state-are the most serious acute metabolic complications of diabetes. We aimed to investigate the subsequent mortality after HCE in the non-elderly diabetic which is still unclear. This retrospective national population-based cohort study reviewed, in Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database, data from 23,079 non-elder patients (≤65 years) with new-onset diabetes between 2000 and 2002: 7693 patients with HCE and 15,386 patients without HCE (1:2). Both groups were compared, and follow-up prognoses were done until 2011. One thousand eighty-five (14.1%) patients with HCE and 725 (4.71%) patients without HCE died (P < 0.0001) during follow-up. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) of mortality were 3.24 times higher in patients with HCE than in patients without HCE (P < 0.0001). Individual analysis of diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state also showed the similar result with combination of both. After stratification by age, mortality was significant higher in the middle age (40-64 years) [IRR 3.29; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.98-3.64] and young adult (18-39 years) (IRR 3.91; 95% CI 3.28-4.66), but not in the pediatric subgroup (<18 years) (IRR 1.28; 95% CI 0.21-7.64). The mortality risk was highest in the first month (IRR 54.43; 95% CI 27.98-105.89), and still high after 8 years (IRR 2.05; 95% CI 1.55-2.71). After adjusting for age, gender, and selected comorbidities, the mortality hazard ratio for patients with HCE was still four times higher than for patients without HCE. Moreover, older age, male gender, stroke, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, and liver disease were independent mortality predictors. HCE significantly increases the subsequent mortality risk in the non-elderly with diabetes. Strategies for prevention and control of comorbidities are needed as soon as possible. PMID:26115971

  9. Substance abuse and psychiatric co-morbidity as predictors of premature mortality in Swedish drug abusers a prospective longitudinal study 1970 - 2006

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Few longitudinal cohort studies have focused on the impact of substances abused and psychiatric disorders on premature mortality. The aim of the present study was to identify predictors of increased risk of drug related death and non drug related death in substance abusers of opiates, stimulants, cannabis, sedatives/hypnotics, hallucinogens and alcohol over several decades. Methods Follow-up study of a consecutive cohort of 561 substance abusers, admitted to a detoxification unit January 1970 to February 1978 in southern Sweden, and followed up in 2006. Demographic and clinical data, substance diagnoses and three groups of psychiatric diagnoses were identified at first admission. Causes of death were coded according to ICD-10 and classified as drug related deaths or non drug related deaths. To identify the incidence of some probable risk factors of drug related premature death, the data were subjected to a competing risks Cox regression analysis. Results Of 561 patients in the cohort, 11 individuals had either emigrated or could not be located, and 204/561 patients (36.4%) were deceased by 2006. The cumulative risk of drug related death increased more in the first 15 years and leveled out later on when non drug related causes of death had a similar incidence. In the final model, male gender, regular use of opiates or barbiturates at first admission, and neurosis were associated with an increased risk of drug related premature death, while cannabis use and psychosis were associated with a decreased risk. Neurosis, mainly depression and/or anxiety disorders, predicted drug related premature death while chronic psychosis and personality disorders did not. Chronic alcohol addiction was associated with increased risk of non drug related death. Conclusions The cohort of drug abusers had an increased risk of premature death to the age of 69. Drug related premature death was predicted by male gender, the use of opiates or barbiturates and depression and anxiety

  10. Mortality among a national population sentenced to compulsory care for substance use disorders in Sweden: descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Hall, Taylor; Chassler, Deborah; Blom, Björn; Grahn, Robert; Blom-Nilsson, Marcus; Sullivan, Lisa; Lundgren, Lena

    2015-04-01

    Sweden's compulsory addiction system treats individuals with severe alcohol and narcotics use disorders. Merging data from three national level register databases of those sentenced to compulsory care from 2001 to 2009 (n=4515), the aims of this study were to: (1) compute mortality rates to compare to the general Swedish population; (2) identify leading cause of mortality by alcohol or narcotics use; and (3) identify individual level characteristics associated with mortality among alcohol and narcotics users. In this population, 24% were deceased by 2011. The most common cause of death for alcohol users was physical ailments linked to alcohol use, while narcotics users commonly died of drug poisoning or suicide. Average age of death differed significantly between alcohol users (55.0) and narcotics users (32.5). Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified the same three factors predicting mortality: older age (alcohol users OR=1.28, narcotic users OR=1.16), gender [males were nearly 3 times more likely to die among narcotics users (p<.000) and 1.6 times more likely to die among alcohol users (p<.01)] and reporting serious health problems (for alcohol users p<.000, for narcotics users p<.05). Enhanced program and government efforts are needed to implement overdose-prevention efforts and different treatment modalities for both narcotic and alcohol users. PMID:25577663

  11. Radiation and mortality of workers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory: positive associations for doses received at older ages.

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, D B; Wing, S

    1999-01-01

    We examined associations between low-level exposure to ionizing radiation and mortality among 14,095 workers hired at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory between 1943 and 1972. Workers at the facility were individually monitored for external exposure to ionizing radiation and have been followed through 1990 to ascertain cause of death information. Positive associations were observed between low-level exposure to external ionizing radiation and mortality. These associations were larger for doses received after 45 years of age, larger under longer lag assumptions, and primarily due to cancer causes of death. All cancer mortality was estimated to increase 4.98% [standard error (SE) = 1.5] per 10-mSv cumulative dose received after age 45 under a 10-year lag, and 7.31% (SE = 2.2) per 10-mSv cumulative dose received after age 45 under a 20-year lag. Associations between radiation dose and lung cancer were of similar magnitude to associations between radiation dose and all cancers except lung cancer. Nonmalignant respiratory disease exhibited a positive association with cumulative radiation dose received after age 45, whereas ischemic heart disease exhibited no association with radiation dose. These findings suggest increases in cancer mortality associated with low-level external exposure to ionizing radiation and potentially greater sensitivity to the carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation with older ages at exposure. Images Figure 1 PMID:10417363

  12. The Relationship of Walking Intensity to Total and Cause-Specific Mortality. Results from the National Walkers’ Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Paul T.; Thompson, Paul D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Test whether: 1) walking intensity predicts mortality when adjusted for walking energy expenditure, and 2) slow walking pace (≥24-minute mile) identifies subjects at substantially elevated risk for mortality. Methods Hazard ratios from Cox proportional survival analyses of all-cause and cause-specific mortality vs. usual walking pace (min/mile) in 7,374 male and 31,607 female recreational walkers. Survival times were left censored for age at entry into the study. Other causes of death were treated as a competing risk for the analyses of cause-specific mortality. All analyses were adjusted for sex, education, baseline smoking, prior heart attack, aspirin use, diet, BMI, and walking energy expenditure. Deaths within one year of baseline were excluded. Results The National Death Index identified 1968 deaths during the average 9.4-year mortality surveillance. Each additional minute per mile in walking pace was associated with an increased risk of mortality due to all causes (1.8% increase, P=10-5), cardiovascular diseases (2.4% increase, P=0.001, 637 deaths), ischemic heart disease (2.8% increase, P=0.003, 336 deaths), heart failure (6.5% increase, P=0.001, 36 deaths), hypertensive heart disease (6.2% increase, P=0.01, 31 deaths), diabetes (6.3% increase, P=0.004, 32 deaths), and dementia (6.6% increase, P=0.0004, 44 deaths). Those reporting a pace slower than a 24-minute mile were at increased risk for mortality due to all-causes (44.3% increased risk, P=0.0001), cardiovascular diseases (43.9% increased risk, P=0.03), and dementia (5.0-fold increased risk, P=0.0002) even though they satisfied the current exercise recommendations by walking ≥7.5 metabolic equivalent (MET)-hours per week. Conclusions The risk for mortality: 1) decreases in association with walking intensity, and 2) increases substantially in association for walking pace ≥24 minute mile (equivalent to <400m during a six-minute walk test) even among subjects who exercise regularly. PMID

  13. School, Neighborhood, and Family Factors Are Associated with Children's Bullying Involvement: A Nationally Representative Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowes, Lucy; Arseneault, Louise; Maughan, Barbara; Taylor, Alan; Caspi, Ashalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2009-01-01

    School size and problems with neighbors is associated with a greater risk of being a bullying victim while family factors such as maltreatment and domestic violence are associated with involvement in bullying. The findings are based on the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study that involves 2,232 children.

  14. 2012 School Libraries Count! National Longitudinal Survey of School Library Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of School Librarians (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    AASL's School Libraries Count! annual longitudinal survey is an online survey that is open to all primary and secondary school library programs to participate. The 2012 survey was launched on January 24th and closed on March 20th. The survey was publicized through various professional organizations and events and through word of mouth. Data…

  15. School Libraries Count! National Longitudinal Survey of School Library Media Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of School Librarians (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    The American Association of School Librarians' (AASL's) School Libraries Count! annual longitudinal survey is an online survey that is open to all elementary and secondary school library media programs to participate. The 2009 survey was launched on January 30, and closed on March 22. AASL has received a high participation rate during the three…

  16. Cross-Temporal and Cross-National Poverty and Mortality Rates among Developed Countries

    PubMed Central

    Fritzell, Johan; Kangas, Olli; Bacchus Hertzman, Jennie; Blomgren, Jenni; Hiilamo, Heikki

    2013-01-01

    A prime objective of welfare state activities is to take action to enhance population health and to decrease mortality risks. For several centuries, poverty has been seen as a key social risk factor in these respects. Consequently, the fight against poverty has historically been at the forefront of public health and social policy. The relationship between relative poverty rates and population health indicators is less self-evident, notwithstanding the obvious similarity to the debated topic of the relationship between population health and income inequality. In this study we undertake a comparative analysis of the relationship between relative poverty and mortality across 26 countries over time, with pooled cross-sectional time series analysis. We utilize data from the Luxembourg Income Study to construct age-specific poverty rates across countries and time covering the period from around 1980 to 2005, merged with data on age- and gender-specific mortality data from the Human Mortality Database. Our results suggest not only an impact of relative poverty but also clear differences by welfare regime that partly goes beyond the well-known differences in poverty rates between welfare regimes. PMID:23840235

  17. The Impact of a National Clinician-led Audit Initiative on Care and Mortality after Hip Fracture in England

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Colin; Wakeman, Robert; Tsang, Carmen; Plant, Fay; De Stavola, Bianca; Cromwell, David A.; van der Meulen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hip fracture is the most common serious injury of older people. The UK National Hip Fracture Database (NHFD) was launched in 2007 as a national collaborative, clinician-led audit initiative to improve the quality of hip fracture care, but has not yet been externally evaluated. Methods: We used routinely collected data on 471,590 older people (aged 60 years and older) admitted with a hip fracture to National Health Service (NHS) hospitals in England between 2003 and 2011. The main variables of interest were the use of early surgery (on day of admission, or day after) and mortality at 30 days from admission. We compared time trends in the periods 2003–2007 and 2007–2011 (before and after the launch of the NHFD), using Poisson regression models to adjust for demographic changes. Findings: The number of hospitals participating in the NHFD increased from 11 in 2007 to 175 in 2011. From 2007 to 2011, the rate of early surgery increased from 54.5% to 71.3%, whereas the rate had remained stable over the period 2003–2007. Thirty-day mortality fell from 10.9% to 8.5%, compared with a small reduction from 11.5% to 10.9% previously. The annual relative reduction in adjusted 30-day mortality was 1.8% per year in the period 2003–2007, compared with 7.6% per year over 2007–2011 (P<0.001 for the difference). Interpretation: The launch of a national clinician-led audit initiative was associated with substantial improvements in care and survival of older people with hip fracture in England. PMID:26172938

  18. Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotypes and Mortality in Adults and Adolescents in South Africa: Analysis of National Surveillance Data, 2003 - 2008

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Cheryl; Naidoo, Nireshni; Meiring, Susan; de Gouveia, Linda; von Mollendorf, Claire; Walaza, Sibongile; Naicker, Preneshni; Madhi, Shabir A.; Feldman, Charles; Klugman, Keith P.; Dawood, Halima; von Gottberg, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Background An association between pneumococcal serotypes and mortality has been suggested. We aimed to investigate this among individuals aged ≥15 years with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in South Africa. Methods IPD cases were identified through national laboratory-based surveillance at 25 sites, pre-pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) introduction, from 2003–2008. We assessed the association between the 20 commonest serotypes and in-hospital mortality using logistic regression with serotype 4 (the third commonest serotype with intermediate case-fatality ratio (CFR)) as referent. Results Among 3953 IPD cases, CFR was 55% (641/1166) for meningitis and 23% (576/2484) for bacteremia (p<0.001). Serotype 19F had the highest CFR (48%, 100/207), followed by serotype 23F (39%, 99/252) and serotype 1 (38%, 246/651). On multivariable analysis, factors independently associated with mortality included serotype 1 (OR 1.9, 95%CI 1.1–3.5) and 19F (OR 2.9, 95%CI 1.4–6.1) vs. serotype 4; increasing age (25–44 years, OR 1.8, 95%CI 1.0–3.0; 45–64 years, OR 3.6, 95%CI 2.0–6.4; ≥65 years, OR 5.2, 95%CI 1.9–14.1; vs. 15–24 years); meningitis (OR 4.1, 95%CI 3.0–5.6) vs. bacteremic pneumonia; and HIV infection (OR1.7, 95%CI 1.0–2.8). On stratified multivariate analysis, serotype 19F was associated with increased mortality amongst bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia cases, while no serotype was associated with increased mortality in meningitis cases. Conclusion Mortality was increased in HIV-infected individuals, which may be reduced by increased antiretroviral therapy availability. Serotypes associated with increased mortality are included in the 10-and-13-valent PCV and may become less common in adults due to indirect effects following routine infant immunization. PMID:26460800

  19. The effects of raking on sugar pine mortality following prescribed fire in Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nesmith, Jonathan C. B.; O'Hara, Kevin L.; van Mantgem, Phillip J.; de Valpine, Perry

    2010-01-01

    Prescribed fire is an important tool for fuel reduction, the control of competing vegetation, and forest restoration. The accumulated fuels associated with historical fire exclusion can cause undesirably high tree mortality rates following prescribed fires and wildfires. This is especially true for sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana Douglas), which is already negatively affected by the introduced pathogen white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch. ex Rabenh). We tested the efficacy of raking away fuels around the base of sugar pine to reduce mortality following prescribed fire in Sequoia and Kings Canyon national parks, California, USA. This study was conducted in three prescribed fires and included 457 trees, half of which had the fuels around their bases raked away to mineral soil to 0.5 m away from the stem. Fire effects were assessed and tree mortality was recorded for three years after prescribed fires. Overall, raking had no detectable effect on mortality: raked trees averaged 30% mortality compared to 36% for unraked trees. There was a significant effect, however, between the interaction of raking and average pre-treatment forest floor fuel depth: the predicted probability of survival of a 50 cm dbh tree was 0.94 vs. 0.96 when average pre-treatment fuel depth was 0 cm for a raked and unraked tree, respectively. When average pre-treatment forest floor fuel depth was 30 cm, the predicted probability of survival for a raked 50 cm dbh tree was 0.60 compared to only 0.07 for an unraked tree. Raking did not affect mortality when fire intensity, measured as percent crown volume scorched, was very low (0% scorch) or very high (>80% scorch), but the raking treatment significantly increased the proportion of trees that survived by 9.6% for trees that burned under moderate fire intensity (1% to 80% scorch). Raking significantly reduced the likelihood of bole charring and bark beetle activity three years post fire. Fuel depth and anticipated fire intensity need

  20. Prostate Cancer in South Africa: Pathology Based National Cancer Registry Data (1986–2006) and Mortality Rates (1997–2009)

    PubMed Central

    Babb, Chantal; Urban, Margaret; Kielkowski, Danuta; Kellett, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common male cancers globally; however little is known about prostate cancer in Africa. Incidence data for prostate cancer in South Africa (SA) from the pathology based National Cancer Registry (1986–2006) and data on mortality (1997–2009) from Statistics SA were analysed. World standard population denominators were used to calculate age specific incidence and mortality rates (ASIR and ASMR) using the direct method. Prostate cancer was the most common male cancer in all SA population groups (excluding basal cell carcinoma). There are large disparities in the ASIR between black, white, coloured, and Asian/Indian populations: 19, 65, 46, and 19 per 100 000, respectively, and ASMR was 11, 7, 52, and 6 per 100 000, respectively. Prostate cancer was the second leading cause of cancer death, accounting for around 13% of male deaths from a cancer. The average age at diagnosis was 68 years and 74 years at death. For SA the ASIR increased from 16.8 in 1986 to 30.8 in 2006, while the ASMR increased from 12.3 in 1997 to 16.7 in 2009. There has been a steady increase of incidence and mortality from prostate cancer in SA. PMID:24955252

  1. Prostate cancer in South Africa: pathology based national cancer registry data (1986-2006) and mortality rates (1997-2009).

    PubMed

    Babb, Chantal; Urban, Margaret; Kielkowski, Danuta; Kellett, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common male cancers globally; however little is known about prostate cancer in Africa. Incidence data for prostate cancer in South Africa (SA) from the pathology based National Cancer Registry (1986-2006) and data on mortality (1997-2009) from Statistics SA were analysed. World standard population denominators were used to calculate age specific incidence and mortality rates (ASIR and ASMR) using the direct method. Prostate cancer was the most common male cancer in all SA population groups (excluding basal cell carcinoma). There are large disparities in the ASIR between black, white, coloured, and Asian/Indian populations: 19, 65, 46, and 19 per 100 000, respectively, and ASMR was 11, 7, 52, and 6 per 100 000, respectively. Prostate cancer was the second leading cause of cancer death, accounting for around 13% of male deaths from a cancer. The average age at diagnosis was 68 years and 74 years at death. For SA the ASIR increased from 16.8 in 1986 to 30.8 in 2006, while the ASMR increased from 12.3 in 1997 to 16.7 in 2009. There has been a steady increase of incidence and mortality from prostate cancer in SA. PMID:24955252

  2. Joint Effect of Hypertension and Elevated Serum Phosphorus on the Risk of Mortality in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey-III

    PubMed Central

    Vart, Priya; Nigatu, Yeshambel T; Jaglan, Ajay; van Zon, Sander K R; Shafique, Kashif

    2015-01-01

    Background Elevated serum phosphorus might aggravate the effect of hypertension on mortality. The objective of this study was to examine the joint effect of hypertension and serum phosphorus on the risk of mortality. Methods and Results A large prospective (n=15 833), population-based cohort of participants from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey III was examined to test potential synergism between hypertension, elevated serum phosphorus, and the risk of mortality. Interaction on additive scale and multiplicative scale was estimated. After a median follow-up of 14.3 years, 1691 cases of cardiovascular mortality and 3875 cases of all-cause mortality were identified. Interaction was observed between hypertension and elevated serum phosphorus on the additive scale for cardiovascular mortality (relative excess risk due to interaction, 0.99, 95% CI: 0.06; 1.92, adjusted for age, gender, race, and estimated glomerular filtration rate). No statistically significant interaction was found between hypertension and serum phosphorus for all-cause mortality on the additive scale. No significant interaction was detected on the multiplicative scale. In sensitivity analysis, excluding participants who died in first 2 years and adjustment for additional confounders resulted in essentially similar findings. Conclusions The joint effect of hypertension and elevated serum phosphorus was larger than the sum of the independent effects on cardiovascular mortality but not on all-cause mortality. Future studies should investigate whether controlling elevated serum phosphorus in hypertensive individuals helps in prevention of extra risk of cardiovascular mortality. PMID:25994440

  3. National and subnational mortality effects of metabolic risk factors and smoking in Iran: a comparative risk assessment

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mortality from cardiovascular and other chronic diseases has increased in Iran. Our aim was to estimate the effects of smoking and high systolic blood pressure (SBP), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), total cholesterol (TC), and high body mass index (BMI) on mortality and life expectancy, nationally and subnationally, using representative data and comparable methods. Methods We used data from the Non-Communicable Disease Surveillance Survey to estimate means and standard deviations for the metabolic risk factors, nationally and by region. Lung cancer mortality was used to measure cumulative exposure to smoking. We used data from the death registration system to estimate age-, sex-, and disease-specific numbers of deaths in 2005, adjusted for incompleteness using demographic methods. We used systematic reviews and meta-analyses of epidemiologic studies to obtain the effect of risk factors on disease-specific mortality. We estimated deaths and life expectancy loss attributable to risk factors using the comparative risk assessment framework. Results In 2005, high SBP was responsible for 41,000 (95% uncertainty interval: 38,000, 44,000) deaths in men and 39,000 (36,000, 42,000) deaths in women in Iran. High FPG, BMI, and TC were responsible for about one-third to one-half of deaths attributable to SBP in men and/or women. Smoking was responsible for 9,000 deaths among men and 2,000 among women. If SBP were reduced to optimal levels, life expectancy at birth would increase by 3.2 years (2.6, 3.9) and 4.1 years (3.2, 4.9) in men and women, respectively; the life expectancy gains ranged from 1.1 to 1.8 years for TC, BMI, and FPG. SBP was also responsible for the largest number of deaths in every region, with age-standardized attributable mortality ranging from 257 to 333 deaths per 100,000 adults in different regions. Discussion Management of blood pressure through diet, lifestyle, and pharmacological interventions should be a priority in Iran. Interventions for

  4. Educational mismatch and mortality among native-born workers in Sweden. A 19-year longitudinal study of 2.5 million over-educated, matched and under-educated individuals, 1990-2008.

    PubMed

    Garcy, Anthony M

    2015-11-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that a disjuncture between an individual's attained level of education and that held by average workers in the individual's occupation leads to higher mortality among those with a prolonged mismatched status. Swedish register data are used in a 19-year longitudinal mortality follow-up study of all causes and specific causes of mortality. Participants were all men and women born between 1926 and 1985 who were alive on 1 September 1990, who had concurrent information on their attained level of education and the specific occupation or industry they were employed in during this period for at least a consecutive year. An objective measure of educational and occupational mismatch was constructed from these data. Those with a stable, over-educated matched, or under-educated employment status are included in the final analysis (N = 2,482,696). Independent of social, family, employers' characteristics and prior health problems, the findings from a multivariate, stratified Cox regression analysis suggest there is excessive mortality among the over-educated, and a protective effect of under-education among native-born Swedish men and women. PMID:26235293

  5. Perceptions and Expectations of Youth with Disabilities. A Special Topic Report of Findings from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2). NCSER 2007-3006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Mary; Newman, Lynn; Cameto, Renee; Levine, Phyllis; Marder, Camille

    2007-01-01

    The National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) was initiated to provide a national picture of the characteristics and experiences of youth with disabilities, including their self-representations, their schooling, their personal relationships, and their hopes for the future. This report presents findings drawn from the first time (2003) data…

  6. The Demographics of Alcohol Use among Young Americans: Results from the 1983 National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience of Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Joan E.

    This document gives results of research on alcohol use by young Americans from the 1983 National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience of Youth, a survey of a large, nationally representative sample supplemented by samples of blacks, Hispanics, and economically disadvantaged non-black, non-Hispanic youth and covering the entire range of…

  7. Medico-social and socio-demographic factors associated with maternal mortality at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Makokha, A E

    1991-01-01

    To identify the most significant determinants of maternal mortality in Kenya, a prospective study involving 49,335 deliveries occurring at Kenyatta National Hospital from January 1978-87 was conducted. There were 156 maternal deaths in this series, for a maternal mortality rate of 3.2/1000 deliveries. The 5 most frequent causes of death were abortion (24%), hypertensive disease of pregnancy (13%), sepsis (13%), anemia (10%), and cardiac disease (7%). 24% of women who died were age 19 years or under, 27% were 20-24 years, 23% were 25-29 years, and 11% were 30-34 years. The largest percentage (24%) of deaths involved nulliparous women; 16% were to women of parity 5 and above. 28% of the women who died were single, and single women contributed the majority of deaths from abortion. 66% of the women who died had received no prenatal care. The proportion of avoidable deaths was 19% among clinic attenders compared to 29% among non-attenders. Overall, age, parity, and marital status--traditionally regarded as the key factors associated with maternal mortality--vary in their impact, given the cause of death and medical services received. The assumption that high parity is associated with maternal mortality was not confirmed in this study due to the significant number of deaths from abortion that involved single, nulliparous women. In addition, many women who died were in the optimum age group for childbearing, but were more prone to suffer from anemia, hypertension, ectopic pregnancy, and cardiac disease than women over 30 years old. Overall, 126 deaths were considered avoidable. Contributory factors were slowness of surgical management of emergencies, prolonged confinement of women with cardiac disease, and a lack of emergency supplies of blood and drugs for complicated deliveries. PMID:12316813

  8. Excess mortality in women of reproductive age from low-income countries: a Swedish national register study

    PubMed Central

    Haglund, Bengt; Högberg, Ulf; Essén, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cause-of-death statistics is widely used to monitor the health of a population. African immigrants have, in several European studies, shown to be at an increased risk of maternal death, but few studies have investigated cause-specific mortality rates in female immigrants. Methods: In this national study, based on the Swedish Cause of Death Register, we studied 27 957 women of reproductive age (aged 15–49 years) who died between 1988 and 2007. Age-standardized mortality rates per 100 000 person years and relative risks for death and underlying causes of death, grouped according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision, were calculated and compared between women born in Sweden and in low-, middle- and high-income countries. Results: The total age-standardized mortality rate per 100 000 person years was significantly higher for women born in low-income (84.4) and high-income countries (83.7), but lower for women born in middle-income countries (57.5), as compared with Swedish-born women (68.1). The relative risk of dying from infectious disease was 15.0 (95% confidence interval 10.8–20.7) and diseases related to pregnancy was 6.6 (95% confidence interval 2.6–16.5) for women born in low-income countries, as compared to Swedish-born women. Conclusions: Women born in low-income countries are at the highest risk of dying during reproductive age in Sweden, with the largest discrepancy in mortality rates seen for infectious diseases and diseases related to pregnancy, a cause of death pattern similar to the one in their countries of birth. The World Bank classification of economies may be a useful tool in migration research. PMID:22850186

  9. A Prospective Study of Mortality and Trauma-Related Risk Factors Among a Nationally Representative Sample of Vietnam Veterans.

    PubMed

    Schlenger, William E; Corry, Nida H; Williams, Christianna S; Kulka, Richard A; Mulvaney-Day, Norah; DeBakey, Samar; Murphy, Catherine M; Marmar, Charles R

    2015-12-15

    Because Vietnam veterans comprise the majority of all living veterans and most are now older adults, the urgency and potential value of studying the long-term health effects of service in the Vietnam War, including effects on mortality, is increasing. The present study is the first prospective mortality assessment of a representative sample of Vietnam veterans. We used one of the longest follow-up periods to date (spanning older adulthood) and conducted one of the most comprehensive assessments of potential risk factors. Vital status and cause of death were ascertained for the 1,632 veterans who fought in the Vietnam theater (hereafter referred to as theater veterans) and for 716 Vietnam War-era veterans (hereafter referred to as era veterans) who participated in the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study (1987-2011). As of April 2011, 16.0% (95% confidence interval: 13.1, 19.0) of all Vietnam veterans who were alive in the 1980s were deceased. Male theater veterans with a high probability of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were nearly 2 times more likely to have died than were those without PTSD, even after adjustment for sociodemographic and other characteristics. A high level of exposure to war zone stress was independently associated with mortality for both male and female theater veterans after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, PTSD, and physical comorbid conditions. Theater veterans with a high level of exposure to war zone stress and a high probability of PTSD had the greatest mortality risk (adjusted hazard ratio = 2.34, 95% confidence interval: 1.24, 4.43). PMID:26634285

  10. A longitudinal population-based analysis of relationship status and mortality in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa 2001–2011

    PubMed Central

    Channon, Melanie; Hosegood, Victoria; McGrath, Nuala

    2016-01-01

    Background Mortality risk is lower in married than in unmarried men and women. However, little is known about the association between mortality and relationship status in South Africa where marriage rates are low, migration is common, many couples are not co-resident and HIV prevalence is high. Method Using demographic surveillance data collected from 2001 to 2011, relationship status was categorised as conjugal (partners belong to the same household), non-conjugal (partners do not belong to the same household) or not partnered. Rates of relationship formation and dissolution were calculated by age and sex. Controlling for antiretroviral treatment (ART) introduction in 2005 as well as education, sex-specific and age-specific Cox proportional hazards models were used to investigate the association between relationship status and (1) all-cause mortality and (2) non-AIDS mortality. Results Before 2005, individuals in conjugal relationships had a lower hazard of all-cause mortality in all age groups than not partnered men and women. Non-conjugal relationships lowered the risk of dying compared with not partnered men and women in fewer age groups. After ART introduction, the protective association of conjugal relationships was weaker but remained generally significant for men and women but not in non-conjugal relationships. In the later period, the association is reversed in young men (20–29 years) with mortality higher in conjugal and non-conjugal relationships compared with men not partnered. The analysis of non-AIDS deaths provided similar results. Conclusions The higher degree of social connections within a shared household environment that characterises conjugal relationships affords men and women greater protection against mortality. PMID:26254290

  11. Ranking risk factors for perinatal mortality. Analysis of a nation-wide study.

    PubMed

    Samueloff, A; Mor-Yosef, S; Seidman, D S; Adler, I; Persitz, E; Schenker, J G

    1989-01-01

    This paper analyses data from the Israeli nationwide perinatal census, with the aim of revealing the possible causes of perinatal death, and to assess the effects of risk factors, using a logistic regression analysis. The analysis provided an estimate of the net effect of each characteristic independently, thus identifying high-risk pregnancies that should be monitored with greater intensity. Five variables were found to have a significant effect on perinatal death. Among these, in order of decreasing risk: fetal presentation, maternal diseases complicating pregnancy, number of fetuses, ethnic origin, and maternal age. Other variables such as parity, standard of hospital, the mother's country of birth and domiciliary circumstances, did not significantly affect perinatal mortality. PMID:2631538

  12. Child Psychiatry Branch of the National Institute of Mental Health Longitudinal Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Human Brain Development

    PubMed Central

    Giedd, Jay N; Raznahan, Armin; Alexander-Bloch, Aaron; Schmitt, Eric; Gogtay, Nitin; Rapoport, Judith L

    2015-01-01

    The advent of magnetic resonance imaging, which safely allows in vivo quantification of anatomical and physiological features of the brain, has revolutionized pediatric neuroscience. Longitudinal studies are useful for the characterization of developmental trajectories (ie, changes in imaging measures by age). Developmental trajectories (as opposed to static measures) have proven to have greater power in discriminating healthy from clinical groups and in predicting cognitive/behavioral measures, such as IQ. Here we summarize results from an ongoing longitudinal pediatric neuroimaging study that has been conducted at the Child Psychiatry Branch of the National Institute of Mental Health since 1989. Developmental trajectories of structural MRI brain measures from healthy youth are compared and contrasted with trajectories in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and childhood-onset schizophrenia. Across ages 5–25 years, in both healthy and clinical populations, white matter volumes increase and gray matter volumes follow an inverted U trajectory, with peak size occurring at different times in different regions. At a group level, differences related to psychopathology are seen for gray and white matter volumes, rates of change, and for interconnectedness among disparate brain regions. PMID:25195638

  13. Religious Participation is Associated with Increases in Religious Social Support in a National Longitudinal Study of African Americans.

    PubMed

    Le, Daisy; Holt, Cheryl L; Hosack, Dominic P; Huang, Jin; Clark, Eddie M

    2016-08-01

    This study reports on the association between religious beliefs and behaviors and the change in both general and religious social support using two waves of data from a national sample of African Americans. The Religion and Health in African Americans (RHIAA) study is a longitudinal telephone survey designed to examine relationships between various aspects of religious involvement and psychosocial factors over time. RHIAA participants were 3173 African American men (1281) and women (1892). A total of 1251 men (456) and women (795) participated in wave 2 of data collection. Baseline religious behaviors were associated with increased overall religious social support from baseline to wave 2 (p < .001) and with increased religious social support from baseline to wave 2 in each of the following religious social support subscales: emotional support received (p < .001), emotional support provided (p < .001), negative interaction (p < .001), and anticipated support (p < .001). Religious beliefs did not predict change in any type of support, and neither beliefs nor behaviors predicted change in general social support. African Americans who are active in faith communities showed increases in all types of religious social support, even the negative aspects, over a relatively modest longitudinal study period. This illustrates the strength of the church as a social network and the role that it plays in people's lives. PMID:26493343

  14. Relation between income inequality and mortality: empirical demonstration.

    PubMed

    Wolfson, M C; Kaplan, G; Lynch, J; Ross, N; Backlund, E

    2000-01-01

    Objective To assess the extent to which observed associations between income inequality and mortality at population level are statistical artifacts. Design Indirect "what if" simulation using observed risks of mortality at individual level as a function of income to construct hypothetical state-level mortality specific for age and sex as if the statistical artifact argument were 100% correct. Method Data from the 1990 census for the 50 US states plus Washington, DC, were used for population distributions by age, sex, state, and income range; data disaggregated by age, sex, and state from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were used for mortality; and regressions from the national longitudinal mortality study were used for the individual-level relation between income and risk of mortality. Results Hypothetical mortality, although correlated with inequality (as implied by the logic of the statistical artifact argument), showed a weaker association with the level of income inequality in each state than the observed mortality. Conclusions The observed associations in the United States at the state level between income inequality and mortality cannot be entirely or substantially explained as statistical artifacts of an underlying individual-level relation between income and mortality. There remains an important association between income inequality and mortality at state level above anything that could be accounted for by any statistical artifact. This result reinforces the need to consider a broad range of factors, including the social milieu, as fundamental determinants of health. PMID:18751209

  15. The longitudinal relation between peer violent victimization and delinquency: results from a national representative sample of u.s. Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Corrie L; Hanson, Rochelle F; Amstadter, Ananda B; Saunders, Benjamin E; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2013-05-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of adolescents from the United States aged 12 to 17 years (Wave 1, n = 3,614; Wave 2, n = 2,511), this study examined (a) demographic and descriptive information about peer violent victimization (PVV); and (b) the longitudinal relation between a history of PVV and delinquency. Results indicated that 12.4% of adolescents reported lifetime exposure to PVV, and many of these adolescents with a previous history of PVV also reported exposure to other forms of interpersonal violence, with witnessing community/school violence being the most commonly endorsed exposure category. Males, older adolescents, African American adolescents, and adolescents from low-income households were significantly more likely to endorse PVV. Regardless of the victim's gender, the majority of the perpetrators were male. After controlling for exposure to other forms of interpersonal violence and a history of delinquency, PVV was related to subsequent delinquency. Implications for policy, practice, and future research are discussed. PMID:23266995

  16. Longitudinal links between spanking and children's externalizing behaviors in a national sample of White, Black, Hispanic, and Asian American families.

    PubMed

    Gershoff, Elizabeth T; Lansford, Jennifer E; Sexton, Holly R; Davis-Kean, Pamela; Sameroff, Arnold J

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether the longitudinal links between mothers' use of spanking and children's externalizing behaviors are moderated by family race/ethnicity, as would be predicted by cultural normativeness theory, once mean differences in frequency of use are controlled. A nationally representative sample of White, Black, Hispanic, and Asian American families (n = 11,044) was used to test a cross-lagged path model from 5 to 8 years old. While race/ethnic differences were observed in the frequency of spanking, no differences were found in the associations of spanking and externalizing over time: Early spanking predicted increases in children's externalizing while early child externalizing elicited more spanking over time across all race/ethnic groups. PMID:22304526

  17. The Longitudinal Relation Between Peer Violent Victimization and Delinquency: Results From a National Representative Sample of U.S. Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Corrie L.; Hanson, Rochelle F.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2014-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of adolescents from the United States aged 12 to 17 years (Wave 1, n = 3,614; Wave 2, n = 2,511), this study examined (a) demographic and descriptive information about peer violent victimization (PVV); and (b) the longitudinal relation between a history of PVV and delinquency. Results indicated that 12.4% of adolescents reported lifetime exposure to PVV, and many of these adolescents with a previous history of PVV also reported exposure to other forms of interpersonal violence, with witnessing community/school violence being the most commonly endorsed exposure category. Males, older adolescents, African American adolescents, and adolescents from low-income households were significantly more likely to endorse PVV. Regardless of the victim's gender, the majority of the perpetrators were male. After controlling for exposure to other forms of interpersonal violence and a history of delinquency, PVV was related to subsequent delinquency. Implications for policy, practice, and future research are discussed. PMID:23266995

  18. [Age, marital status, fecundity and mortality of the population of Colombia: demographic results of the National Household Survey, June 1978].

    PubMed

    1980-06-01

    This paper presents the results of the National Household Survey conducted in Colombia in June 1978, which covered about 0.2% of the total population, and which interviewed 60,000 people in rural and in urban areas. Main findings were: 1) a decrease in the percentage of the population aged 0-4, and 5-9, as compared to the population aged 10-14; 2) a decrease in the number of live births, especially in young women; and, 3) average parity per woman was 3.7, a decrease of 12% since 1976. Crude birth rate was measured to be 27.4/1000, while it was 31.1/1000 in 1976. Life expectancy was estimated to be 65.1 for women, and 55.1 for men, much too low to be acceptable, and possibly caused by wrong information given to interviewers. Total mortality was 6.7/1000, too low to be acceptable, while infant mortality was 69/1000. PMID:12262301

  19. Wildlife mortality investigation and disease research: contributions of the USGS National Wildlife Health Center to endangered species management and recovery.

    PubMed

    Brand, Christopher J

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey-National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC) provides diagnostic services, technical assistance, applied research, and training to federal, state, territorial, and local government agencies and Native American tribes on wildlife diseases and wildlife health issues throughout the United States and its territories, commonwealth, and freely associated states. Since 1975, >16,000 carcasses and specimens from vertebrate species listed under the Endangered Species Act have been submitted to NWHC for determination of causes of morbidity or mortality or assessment of health/disease status. Results from diagnostic investigations, analyses of the diagnostic database, technical assistance and consultation, field investigation of epizootics, and wildlife disease research by NWHC wildlife disease specialists have contributed importantly to the management and recovery of listed species. PMID:24419670

  20. Wildlife mortality investigation and disease research: contributions of the USGS National Wildlife Health Center to endangered species management and recovery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brand, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey—National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC) provides diagnostic services, technical assistance, applied research, and training to federal, state, territorial, and local government agencies and Native American tribes on wildlife diseases and wildlife health issues throughout the United States and its territories, commonwealth, and freely associated states. Since 1975, >16,000 carcasses and specimens from vertebrate species listed under the Endangered Species Act have been submitted to NWHC for determination of causes of morbidity or mortality or assessment of health/disease status. Results from diagnostic investigations, analyses of the diagnostic database, technical assistance and consultation, field investigation of epizootics, and wildlife disease research by NWHC wildlife disease specialists have contributed importantly to the management and recovery of listed species.

  1. Proximal risk factors and suicide methods among suicide completers from national suicide mortality data 2004-2006 in Korea.

    PubMed

    Im, Jeong-Soo; Choi, Soon Ho; Hong, Duho; Seo, Hwa Jeong; Park, Subin; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine differences in proximal risk factors and suicide methods by sex and age in the national suicide mortality data in Korea. Data were collected from the National Police Agency and the National Statistical Office of Korea on suicide completers from 2004 to 2006. The 31,711 suicide case records were used to analyze suicide rates, methods, and proximal risk factors by sex and age. Suicide rate increased with age, especially in men. The most common proximal risk factor for suicide was medical illness in both sexes. The most common proximal risk factor for subjects younger than 30 years was found to be a conflict in relationships with family members, partner, or friends. Medical illness was found to increase in prevalence as a risk factor with age. Hanging/Suffocation was the most common suicide method used by both sexes. The use of drug/pesticide poisoning to suicide increased with age. A fall from height or hanging/suffocation was more popular in the younger age groups. Because proximal risk factors and suicide methods varied with sex and age, different suicide prevention measures are required after consideration of both of these parameters. PMID:21497215

  2. Does counterterrorist legislation hurt human rights practices? A longitudinal cross-national analysis.

    PubMed

    Shor, Eran; Filkobski, Ina; Ben-Nun Bloom, Pazit; Alkilabi, Hayder; Su, William

    2016-07-01

    In the aftermath of the 9/11 terrorist attacks, many countries have passed new counterterrorist legislation. One of the common assumptions about such legislation is that it comes with a price: a compromise to practices of human rights. Previous research, looking at a wide range of case studies, suggested that this is indeed the case and that counterterrorist legislation often leads to subsequent repression. However, no large-scale cross-national study has yet assessed this relationship. Relying on a newly assembled database on nation-level counterterrorist legislation for the years 1981-2009, we conduct a cross-national time series analysis of legislation and repression. Our analyses find little evidence for a significant relationships between national counterterrorist legislation and various measures of core human rights in most countries. However, while legislation does not affect repression of physical integrity rights in countries with low and high levels of repression, it is associated with greater state repression in countries with intermediate scores of repression. PMID:27194654

  3. Analysis of Entry to Teaching Utilizing National Longitudinal Study Data. Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vance, Victor S.

    This study describes the changes in demographic characteristics of beginning teachers who entered the profession between 1956-57 and 1976. Existing literature on beginning teachers is examined to construct an image of the changes that have occurred among those choosing teaching careers. National and statewide samples are reviewed; however,…

  4. Re-Victimization Patterns in a National Longitudinal Sample of Children and Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelhor, David; Ormrod, Richard K.; Turner, Heather A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To understand to the degree to which a broad variety of victimizations, including child maltreatment, conventional crime, peer, and sexual victimizations, persist for children from 1 year to the next. Design: A national sample of 1467 children aged 2-17 recruited through random digit dialing and assessed via telephone interviews (with…

  5. School Predictors of Violent Criminality in Adulthood: Findings from a Nationally Representative Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsiyannis, Antonis; Thompson, Martie P.; Barrett, David E.; Kingree, J. B.

    2013-01-01

    School-related problems such as poor academic performance, truancy, frequent suspensions, and grade repeating have been identified as risk factors for adolescent behavior problems. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effect of school-related factors on violent criminality in adulthood, based on data from the National Longitudinal…

  6. Low serum carotenoid concentrations and carotenoid interactions predict mortality in US adults: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III)

    PubMed Central

    Shardell, Michelle D; Alley, Dawn E; Hicks, Gregory E; El-Kamary, Samer S; Miller, Ram R; Semba, Richard D; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Evidence regarding the health benefits of carotenoids is controversial. Effects of serum carotenoids and their interactions on mortality have not been examined in a representative sample of US adults. The objective was to examine whether serum carotenoid concentrations predict mortality among US adults. The study consisted of adults aged ≥20 years enrolled in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III, 1988–1994, with measured serum carotenoids and mortality follow-up through 2006 (N=13,293). Outcomes were all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer mortality. In adjusted Cox proportional hazards models, participants in the lowest total carotenoid quartile (<1.01µmol/L) had significantly higher all-cause mortality (mortality rate ratio=1.38; 95% confidence interval:1.15—1.65; P=0.005) than those in the highest total carotenoid quartile (>1.75µmol/L). For alpha-carotene, the highest quartile (>0.11µmol/L) had the lowest all-cause mortality rates (P<0.001). For lycopene, the middle two quartiles (0.29–0.58µmol/L) had the lowest all-cause mortality rates (P=0.047). Analyses with continuous carotenoids confirmed associations of serum total carotenoids, alpha-carotene, and lycopene with all-cause mortality (P<0.001). In a random survival forest analysis, very low lycopene was the carotenoid most strongly predictive of all-cause mortality, followed by very low total carotenoids. Alpha-carotene/beta-cryptoxanthin, alpha-carotene/lutein+zeaxanthin and lycopene/lutein+zeaxanthin interactions were significantly related to all-cause mortality (P<0.05). Low alpha-carotene was the only carotenoid associated with CVD mortality (P=0.002). No carotenoids were significantly associated with cancer mortality. Very low serum total carotenoid, alpha-carotene, and lycopene concentrations may be risk factors for mortality, but carotenoids show interaction effects on mortality. Interventions of balanced carotenoid combinations are needed for

  7. Mass mortality events of the coral Balanophyllia europaea (Scleractinia, Dendrophylliidae) in the Mljet National Park (eastern Adriatic Sea) caused by sea temperature anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kružić, P.; Popijač, A.

    2015-03-01

    Recurrent climate-induced mass mortalities of marine animals have been recorded in the Mediterranean Sea over the past 15 years. These mortality outbreaks have been associated with positive thermal anomalies. In this study, we assessed long-term (from 2003 to 2013) responses of the temperate coral Balanophyllia europaea to increasing seawater temperatures in the Mljet National Park in the Adriatic Sea (Northern Mediterranean Sea) and described the relationship between recurrent mortality events and sea temperature regimes in the southern Adriatic Sea. Our results indicate that polyp bleaching and tissue necrosis caused the observed mortality. The first observations of B. europaea mortality within the study area in the Mljet NP were in early September 2003. The Mediterranean area experienced high temperatures and hydrographic stability over a period of several weeks throughout that summer, which resulted in a mass mortality event. In the Mljet National Park, the highest impact of mass mortality started during the exceptionally hot summer of 2012, representing one of the most severe mass mortality events ever observed in the Adriatic Sea. In 2012, sea temperatures at a 5 m depth during the summer period (from June to September) ranged from 24.44 to 30.16 °C in the Mljet NP. The northern sites in the Mljet NP were highly impacted, with up to 80 % of B. europaea specimens affected by necrosis, while the southern sites displayed the highest impact, with 90-100 % of affected individuals. Without any coral adaptation to warming and under the present climate-warming trend, new mass mortality events may occur in the near future, possibly causing a major coral biodiversity crisis in the Mediterranean Sea.

  8. Suicide history and mortality: a follow-up of a national cohort in the United States.

    PubMed

    Al-Sayegh, Hasan; Lowry, Joseph; Polur, Ram N; Hines, Robert B; Liu, Fengqi; Zhang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the cause-specific deaths among young suicide attempters from the general population, and the time window for intervention to reduce the elevated rate of death was unclear. We analyzed a nationally representative sample of young adults (17-39 years old) who participated in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988-1994) and were followed up with vital status through December 31, 2006. The history of attempted suicide was associated with an increased rate for all-cause death (HR = 1.52 [95% CI = 0.92-2.52]) with borderline statistical significance. Previous suicide attempters experienced a 3-fold (HR = 2.68[=1.01-7.09]) increased rate for cardiovascular diseases (CVD), and a 7-fold (HR = 7.10 [95% CI = 1.37-36.9]) increased rate of death due to completed suicide compared with non-attempters. The survival curves of the attempters declined rapidly for the first 3 years of follow-up, and the distance between curves remained consistent starting from the third year to the end of the follow-up. Prevention services should be tailored not only for suicide, but also for cardiovascular diseases among populations with suicidal tendency, and the service should be intensified within first 3 years after suicidal behaviors occur. PMID:25674703

  9. The National Assessment of Educational Progress and the Longitudinal Studies Program: Together or Apart? Report of a Planning Conference (Washington, D.C., December 11, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, George H.; Faupel, Elizabeth M.

    The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) and the Longitudinal Studies Program (LSP) are major survey projects on educational outcomes performed by the Center for Education Statistics. NAEP is a continuing cross-sectional survey of young Americans' skills, knowledge, and attitudes. The LSP studies follow a sample of students as they…

  10. National Educational Technology Standards and Technology Beliefs and Practices of Social Studies Faculty: Results from a Seven-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Adam; Bolick, Cheryl; Berson, Michael; Porfeli, Erik

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from the third survey administration of a longitudinal study that explores the beliefs, practices, and efficacy of social studies faculty members from across the United States in terms of instructional technology use. The findings of this study demonstrate that familiarity with the "National Educational Technology…

  11. Report on the Data Collection Activities of the First Follow-Up. The National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Triangle Inst., Durham, NC.

    This is a report on the data collection activities of the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972(NLS). This phase of the operation involved the first follow-up contact with the 22,654 seniors selected for participation in this study. The fieldwork for the first follow-up was scheduled between July 1973 and January 1974; it…

  12. Exploring the Relationship between Access Technology and Standardized Test Scores for Youths with Visual Impairments: Secondary Analysis of the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, Amy L.; Emerson, Robert Wall; Curtis, Amy B.; Fogarty, Kieran

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a secondary analysis of the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 that explored the predictive association between training in access technology and performance on the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Academic Achievement: III. The results indicated that the use of access technology had a limited predictive…

  13. Constructed Response Tests in the NELS:88 High School Effectiveness Study. National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 Second Followup. Statistical Analysis Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Judith M.; And Others

    This report describes an experiment in constructed response testing undertaken in conjunction with the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88). Constructed response questions are those that require students to produce their own response rather than selecting the correct answer from several options. Participants in this experiment…

  14. The National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS-72), Fifth Follow-Up (1986) Data File [machine-readable data file].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics (ED), Washington, DC.

    This machine-readable data file (MDRF) contains information from the fifth follow-up survey of the National Longitudinal Survey of the High School Class of 1972. The survey was carried out along with the third survey of the High School and Beyond Study. The fifth follow-up data file consists of 12,841 records. The data tape contains information on…

  15. The National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS-72), Fifth Follow-Up (1986). Teaching Supplement Data File [machine-readable data file].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics (ED), Washington, DC.

    The National Longitudinal Survey of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS-72) Teaching Supplement Data File (TSDF) is presented. Data for the machine-readable data file (MDRF) were collected via a mail questionnaire that was sent to all respondents (N=1,517) to the fifth follow-up survey who indicated that they had a teaching background or training…

  16. The National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS-72) Fifth Follow-Up (1986) Data File User's Manual. Contractor Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tourangeau, Roger; And Others

    This manual was produced to familiarize data users with the procedures followed in data collection and processing of the fifth follow-up survey of the National Longitudinal Survey of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS-72) and to provide documentation for use of the file. The data file is a computerized data base, which is available on magnetic…

  17. Attrition from College: The Class of 1972 Two and One-Half Years After High School Graduation. National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolstad, Andrew

    Some findings about attrition from two- and four-year colleges and universities are presented based on NCES's National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972. Attrition is generally defined as withdrawal from college without completing a degree; in this report, students who had attended courses in the first two years after high school…

  18. National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972. Attrition from College: The Class of 1972 Two and One-Half Years After High School Graduation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolstad, Andrew

    Some findings about attrition from two- and four-year colleges and universities based on the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS) are presented. Attrition is defined as withdrawal from college without completing a degree. After 2 years, the four-year institutions had lost 23.5 percent of their entrants. More two-year…

  19. Symposium on the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88) and the NELS:88 Field Test (New Orleans, Louisiana, April 5-9, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingels, Steven J.; And Others

    The National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88) is a major new panel study of educational outcomes sponsored by the Center for Education Statistics of the United States Department of Education. The NELS:88 is designed to provide trend data about critical transitions experienced by young people as they develop, attend school, and embark…

  20. Adolescents' Use of School-Based Health Clinics for Reproductive Health Services: Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Richard A.; St. Lawrence, Janet

    2000-01-01

    Describes adolescents' use of school-based health clinics (SBCs) for family planning and sexually transmitted disease (STD)-related services, using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Results indicated that 13 percent received family planning and 8.9 percent received STD-related services from SBCs. Factors affecting the…

  1. National Longitudinal Study (NLS) of the High School Class of 1972: Base Year (1972) through Fourth Follow-up (1979) [machine-readable data file].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Triangle Inst., Durham, NC. Center for Educational Research and Evaluation.

    The "National Longitudinal Study (NLS) of the High School Class of 1972: Base Year (1972) through Fourth Follow-up (1979)" machine-readable data file (MRDF) is a single merged file of student responses to the original interviews or tests in 1972 and the mail follow-up surveys of 1973, 1974, 1976, and 1979. The 1972 data were gathered by the…

  2. A Capsule Description of Young Adults Seven and One-Half Years After High School. National Longitudinal Study Sponsored Reports Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkheimer, Graham J.; Novak, Thomas P.

    A summary is presented of some of the results from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School of 1972, which examined the vocational activities, plans, aspirations, and attitudes of young adults after they leave high school, along with their postsecondary experiences and family and community activities. By October 1979, about one-fourth of…

  3. Exclusive Breastfeeding and Under-Five Mortality, 2006-2014: A Cross-National Analysis of 57 Low- and-Middle Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Azuine, Romuladus E.; Murray, Janna; Alsafi, Noor; Singh, Gopal K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Few studies have examined the long-term, cross-national, and population-level impacts of exclusive breastfeeding on major global child health indicators. We investigated the overall and independent associations between exclusive breastfeeding and under-five mortality in 57 low- and-middle-income countries. Methods: Data were obtained from the latest World Health Organization, United Nations, and United Nations Children’s Fund databases for 57 low- and middle-income countries covering the periods 2006-2014. Multivariate linear regression was used to estimate the effects of exclusive breastfeeding on under-five mortality after adjusting for differences in socioeconomic, demographic, and health-related factors. Results: In multivariate models, exclusive breastfeeding was independently associated with under-five mortality after adjusting for sociodemographic and health systems-related factors. A 10 percentage-points increase in exclusive breastfeeding was associated with a reduction of 5 child deaths per 1,000 live births. A one-unit increase in Human Development Index was associated with a decrease of 231 under-five child deaths per 1,000 live births. A $100 increase in per capita health care expenditure was associated with a decrease of 2 child deaths per 1,000 live births. One unit increase in physician density was associated with 2.8 units decrease in the under-five mortality rate. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Population-level health system and socioeconomic factors exert considerable effect on the association between exclusive breastfeeding and under-five mortality. Given that the health policy and socioeconomic indicators shown to influence exclusive breastfeeding and under-five mortality are modifiable, policy makers could potentially target specific policies and programs to address national-level deficiencies in these sectors to reduce under-five mortality in their countries.

  4. Mortality from and Incidence of Pesticide Poisoning in South Korea: Findings from National Death and Health Utilization Data between 2006 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Eun Shil; Khang, Young-Ho; Lee, Won Jin

    2014-01-01

    Pesticide poisoning has been recognized as an important public health issue around the world. The objectives of this study were to report nationally representative figures on mortality from and the incidence of pesticide poisoning in South Korea and to describe their epidemiologic characteristics. We calculated the age-standardized rates of mortality from and the incidence of pesticide poisoning in South Korea by gender and region from 2006 through 2010 using registered death data obtained from Statistics Korea and national healthcare utilization data obtained from the National Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service of South Korea. During the study period of 2006 through 2010, a total of 16,161 deaths and 45,291 patients related to pesticide poisoning were identified, marking respective mortality and incidence rates of 5.35 and 15.37 per 100,000 population. Intentional self-poisoning was identified as the major cause of death due to pesticides (85.9%) and accounted for 20.8% of all recorded suicides. The rates of mortality due to and incidence of pesticide poisoning were higher in rural than in urban areas, and this rural-urban discrepancy was more pronounced for mortality than for incidence. Both the rate of mortality due to pesticide poisoning and its incidence rate increased with age and were higher among men than women. This study provides the magnitude and epidemiologic characteristics for mortality from and the incidence of pesticide poisoning at the national level, and strongly suggests the need for further efforts to prevent pesticide self-poisonings, especially in rural areas in South Korea. PMID:24743877

  5. Recurrence and mortality prognostic factors in childhood adrenocortical tumors: Analysis from the Brazilian National Institute of Cancer experience.

    PubMed

    Bulzico, Daniel; de Faria, Paulo Antônio Silvestre; de Paula, Marcela Pessoa; Bordallo, Maria Alice Neves; Pessoa, Cencita H C N; Corbo, Rossana; Ferman, Sima; Vaisman, Mario; Neto, Leonardo Vieira

    2016-05-01

    Prognostic markers that can help identifying precocious risk of unfavorable outcomes in patients with childhood adrenocortical tumors (ACTs) are still unclear. This observational and retrospective study aimed to identify clinical and pathology prognostic factors of recurrence and death in a tertiary cancer center population. Clinical, pathology, demographic, staging, and therapy data from patients with childhood ACT (median age: 3.6 years) treated at the Brazilian National Institute of Cancer between 1997 and 2015 were assessed. Univariate and bivariate analyses were used to study the association of clinical and pathology characteristics with recurrence and mortality. Recurrence and disease-related mortality were the main outcomes. Twenty-seven patients were included. Complete tumor resection was performed in 21 cases. The median tumor size was 8.2 cm. Mitotane was the most common adjuvant/palliative therapy (n = 13). Recurrence occurred in 6 patients, after a median time of 7.2 months, and was more common among those with larger tumors (P =.008), higher Weiss score (P =.001), and microscopic tumoral necrosis (P =.002). Ten patients died from the disease. Older age (P =.04), larger tumor size (P =.002), metastatic disease (P =.003), previous recurrence (P =.003), incomplete resection (P =.002), intraoperative tumor spillage (P =.005), higher Weiss score (P =.03), microscopic necrosis (P =.005), and capsular invasion (P =.02) were all associated with increased death risk. Even though complete tumor resection was performed in most cases, a considerable number of cases of childhood ACT resulted in recurrence and death. Early identification of unfavorable outcomes is essential to determine ideal therapy and appropriate surveillance. PMID:27246903

  6. Young Adult Outcomes of Children Growing up with Chronic Illness: An analysis of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

    PubMed Central

    Maslow, Gary R.; Haydon, Abigail; Ford, Carol Ann; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine young adult outcomes in a nationally representative US cohort of young adults who grew up with a chronic illness. Design Secondary analysis of nationally representative data from Wave III (2001) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Setting United States Participants The analytic sample included 13,236 young adults 18–28 years old at Wave III. Main Exposure Self-report of a chronic physical illness (asthma, cancer, diabetes or epilepsy) in adolescence. Respondents with (1) asthma or (2) non-asthma chronic illness (cancer, diabetes, or epilepsy) were compared to subjects without these conditions. Main Outcome Measures Self-report of high school graduation, ever having a job, having a current job, living with parents, and ever receiving public assistance. Results Three percent of young adults had non-asthma chronic illness (cancer, diabetes, or epilepsy) and 16% had asthma. The majority of young adults with chronic illness graduated high school (81%) and were currently employed (60%). However, compared to healthy young adults, those with a non-asthma chronic illness were significantly less likely to graduate high school, ever have a job, or have a current job and were more likely to receive public assistance. When compared to young adults with asthma, young adults with non-asthma chronic illness again had significantly worse young adult outcomes on all measures. Conclusions Most young adults growing up with chronic illness graduate high school and are employed. However, these young adults are significantly less likely than their healthy peers to achieve these important educational and vocational milestones. PMID:21383274

  7. Increased risk of alcohol dependency in a cohort of National Guard troops with PTSD: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Kline, Anna; Weiner, Marc D; Ciccone, Donald S; Interian, Alejandro; St Hill, Lauren; Losonczy, Miklos

    2014-03-01

    Studies show high rates of co-morbid post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) but there is no consensus on the causal direction of the relationship. Some theories suggest AUD develops as a coping mechanism to manage PTSD symptoms and others that AUD is a vulnerability factor for PTSD. A third hypothesis posits independent developmental pathways stemming from a shared etiology, such as the trauma exposure itself. We examined these hypotheses using longitudinal data on 922 National Guard soldiers, representing a subsample (56%) of a larger pre- and post-deployment cross-sectional study of New Jersey National Guard soldiers deployed to Iraq. Measures included the PTSD Checklist (PCL), DSM-IV-based measures of alcohol use/misuse from the National Household Survey of Drug Use and Health and other concurrent mental health, military and demographic measures. Results showed no effect of pre-deployment alcohol status on subsequent positive screens for new onset PTSD. However, in multivariate models, baseline PTSD symptoms significantly increased the risk of screening positive for new onset alcohol dependence (AD), which rose 5% with each unit increase in PCL score (AOR = 1.05; 95% CI = 1.02-1.07). Results also supported the shared etiology hypothesis, with the risk of a positive screen for AD increasing by 9% for every unit increase in combat exposure after controlling for baseline PTSD status (AOR = 1.09; 95% CI = 1.03-1.15) and, in a subsample with PCL scores <34, by 17% for each unit increase in exposure (AOR = 1.17; 95% CI = 1.05-1.31). These findings have implications for prevention, treatment and compensation policies governing co-morbidity in military veterans. PMID:24332924

  8. LOWER CD4 CELL COUNT AND HIGHER VIRUS LOAD, BUT NOT ANTIRETROVIRAL DRUG RESISTANCE, ARE ASSOCIATED WITH AIDS-DEFINING EVENTS AND MORTALITY: AN ACTG LONGITUDINAL LINKED RANDOMIZED TRIALS (ALLRT) ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Swindells, Susan; Jiang, Hongyu; Mukherjee, A. Lisa; Winters, Mark; Bosch, Ronald J.; Katzenstein, David

    2012-01-01

    Background We hypothesized that drug resistance mutations would impact clinical outcomes associated with HIV-1 infection. Methods A matched case-control study of participants in AIDS Clinical Trials Group Longitudinal Linked Randomized Trials (ALLRT). Cases experienced an AIDS-defining event (ADE) or mortality, and controls did not. One hundred thirty four cases were identified and matched to a total of 266 controls by age, sex, treatment regimen, and length of follow-up. Both cases and controls had HIV RNA levels of ≥ 500 copies/mL within 24 weeks of an event. Population-based genotyping at or near the time of the event was used to evaluate the impact of resistance mutations on incidence of ADE and/or death using conditional logistic regression models. Results One hundred and four cases and 183 controls were analyzed. Median time to event was 99 weeks; six cases were deaths. At baseline, cases had lower CD4 (median 117 vs. 235 cells/mm3, p<0.0001) and higher HIV RNA levels (median 205,000 vs. 57,000 copies/mL, p=0.03). No significant differences in resistance were seen between cases and controls. Conclusions In this rigorously designed case-control study, lower CD4 cell counts and higher virus loads, not antiretroviral drug resistance, were strongly associated ADE and mortality. PMID:21498151

  9. Is sprawl associated with a widening urban-suburban mortality gap?

    PubMed

    Fan, Yingling; Song, Yan

    2009-09-01

    This paper examines whether sprawl, featured by low development density, segregated land uses, lack of significant centers, and poor street connectivity, contributes to a widening mortality gap between urban and suburban residents. We employ two mortality datasets, including a national cross-sectional dataset examining the impact of metropolitan-level sprawl on urban-suburban mortality gaps and a longitudinal dataset from Portland examining changes in urban-suburban mortality gaps over time. The national and Portland studies provide the only evidence to date that (1) across metropolitan areas, the size of urban-suburban mortality gaps varies by the extent of sprawl: in sprawling metropolitan areas, urban residents have significant excess mortality risks than suburban residents, while in compact metropolitan areas, urbanicity-related excess mortality becomes insignificant; (2) the Portland metropolitan area not only experienced net decreases in mortality rates but also a narrowing urban-suburban mortality gap since its adoption of smart growth regime in the past decade; and (3) the existence of excess mortality among urban residents in US sprawling metropolitan areas, as well as the net mortality decreases and narrowing urban-suburban mortality gap in the Portland metropolitan area, is not attributable to sociodemographic variations. These findings suggest that health threats imposed by sprawl affect urban residents disproportionately compared to suburban residents and that efforts curbing sprawl may mitigate urban-suburban health disparities. PMID:19533362

  10. Longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a subsonic, energy-efficient transport configuration in the National Transonic Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Peter F.; Gloss, Blair B.

    1989-01-01

    The Reynolds number, aeroelasticity, boundary layer transition, and nonadiabatic wall temperature effects, and data repeatability was determined in the National Transonic Facility (NTF) for a subsonic, energy efficient transport model. The model was tested over a Mach number range of 0.50 to 0.86 and a Reynolds number range of 1.9 million to approximately 23.0 million (based on mean geometric chord). The majority of the data was taken using cryogenic nitrogen (data at 1.9 million Reynolds number was taken in air). Force and moment, wing pressure, and wing thermocouple data are presented. The data indicate that increasing Reynolds number resulted in greater effective camber of the supercritical wing and horizontal tail, resulting in greater lift and pitching moment coefficients at nearly all angles of attack for M = 0.82. As Reynolds number was increased, untrimmed L/D increased, the angle of attack for maximum L/D decreased, drag creep was reduced significantly, and drag divergence Mach number increased slightly. Data repeatability for both modes of operation of the NTF (air and cryogenic nitrogen) was generally very good, and nonadiabatic wall effects were estimated to be small. Transition-free and transition-fixed configurations had significantly different force and moment data at M = 0.82 for low Reynolds number, and very small differences were noted at high Reynolds numbers.