Science.gov

Sample records for national network leads

  1. Hyperbranched lead selenide nanowire networks.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jia; Peng, Hailin; Chan, Candace K; Jarausch, Konrad; Zhang, Xiao Feng; Cui, Yi

    2007-04-01

    Lead chalcogenide nanostructures are good potential candidates for applications in multiexciton solar cells, infrared photodetectors, and electroluminescence devices. Here we report the synthesis and electrical measurements of hyperbranched PbSe nanowire networks. Hyperbranched PbSe nanowire networks are synthesized via a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. The branching is induced by continuously feeding the PbSe reactant with the vapor of a low-melting-point metal catalyst including In, Ga, and Bi. The branches show very regular orientation relationships: either perpendicular or parallel to each other. The diameter of the individual NWs depends on the size of the catalyst droplets, which can be controlled by the catalyst vapor pressure. Significantly, the hyperbranched networks can be grown epitaxially on NaCl, a low-cost substrate for future device array applications. Electrical measurements across branched NWs show the evolution of charge carrier transport with distance and degree of branching. PMID:17348716

  2. National Highway Planning Network

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-02-02

    NHPN, the National Highway Planning Network, is a database of major highways in the continental United States that is used for national-level analyses of highway transportation issues that require use of a network, such as studies of highway performance, network design, social and environmental impacts of transportation, vehicle routing and scheduling, and mapping. The network is based on a set of roadways digitized by the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) from the 1980 National Atlasmore » and has been enhanced with additional roads, attribute detail, and topological error corrections to produce a true analytic network. All data have been derived from or checked against information obtained from state and Federal governmental agencies. Two files comprise this network: one describing links and the other nodes. This release, NHPN1.0, contains 44,960 links and 28,512 nodes representing approximately 380,000 miles of roadway.« less

  3. National law enforcement telecommunications network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reilly, N. B.; Garrison, G. W.; Sohn, R. L.; Gallop, D. L.; Goldstein, B. L.

    1975-01-01

    Alternative approaches are analyzed to a National Law Enforcement Telecommunications Network (NALECOM) designed to service all state-to-state and state-to-national criminal justice communications traffic needs in the United States. Network topology options were analyzed, and equipment and personnel requirements for each option were defined in accordance with NALECOM functional specifications and design guidelines. Evaluation criteria were developed and applied to each of the options leading to specific conclusions. Detailed treatments of methods for determining traffic requirements, communication line costs, switcher configurations and costs, microwave costs, satellite system configurations and costs, facilities, operations and engineering costs, network delay analysis and network availability analysis are presented. It is concluded that a single regional switcher configuration is the optimum choice based on cost and technical factors. A two-region configuration is competitive. Multiple-region configurations are less competitive due to increasing costs without attending benefits.

  4. United States National Seismographic Network

    SciTech Connect

    Buland, R.

    1993-09-01

    The concept of a United States National Seismograph Network (USNSN) dates back nearly 30 years. The idea was revived several times over the decades. but never funded. For, example, a national network was proposed and discussed at great length in the so called Bolt Report (U. S. Earthquake Observatories: Recommendations for a New National Network, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1980, 122 pp). From the beginning, a national network was viewed as augmenting and complementing the relatively dense, predominantly short-period vertical coverage of selected areas provided by the Regional Seismograph Networks (RSN`s) with a sparse, well-distributed network of three-component, observatory quality, permanent stations. The opportunity finally to begin developing a national network arose in 1986 with discussions between the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Under the agreement signed in 1987, the NRC has provided $5 M in new funding for capital equipment (over the period 1987-1992) and the USGS has provided personnel and facilities to develop. deploy, and operate the network. Because the NRC funding was earmarked for the eastern United States, new USNSN station deployments are mostly east of 105{degree}W longitude while the network in the western United States is mostly made up of cooperating stations (stations meeting USNSN design goals, but deployed and operated by other institutions which provide a logical extension to the USNSN).

  5. National Geodetic Survey Gravity Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moose, R. E.

    1986-12-01

    In 1966, the U.S. National Gravity Base Network was established through the cooperative efforts of several government agencies and academic institutions involved in nationwide gravity observations. The network was reobserved between 1975 and 1979 by the National Geodetic Survey (NGS) using field procedures designed to give high-quality gravity differences. The report discusses the adjustment and the areas where apparent gravity change was observed. NGS plans to densify and maintain this network and to improve the accuracy of the station values by additional high-quality relative ties and by making observations with a new, absolute gravity meter in each of the states.

  6. Mexico's National Educational Videoconferencing Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pisanty, Alejandro

    This paper begins with background on the National University of Mexico (UNAM) and its networks. Other distance education projects in Mexico are described, including projects of the Instituto Politecnico Nacional (IPN), the National Distance Education Program operated by the Secretary of Education, and the Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios…

  7. United States National seismograph network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masse, R.P.; Filson, J.R.; Murphy, A.

    1989-01-01

    The USGS National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) has planned and is developing a broadband digital seismograph network for the United States. The network will consist of approximately 150 seismograph stations distributed across the contiguous 48 states and across Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Data transmission will be via two-way satellite telemetry from the network sites to a central recording facility at the NEIC in Golden, Colorado. The design goal for the network is the on-scale recording by at least five well-distributed stations of any seismic event of magnitude 2.5 or greater in all areas of the United States except possibly part of Alaska. All event data from the network will be distributed to the scientific community on compact disc with read-only memory (CD-ROM). ?? 1989.

  8. National research and education network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villasenor, Tony

    1991-01-01

    Some goals of this network are as follows: Extend U.S. technological leadership in high performance computing and computer communications; Provide wide dissemination and application of the technologies both to the speed and the pace of innovation and to serve the national economy, national security, education, and the global environment; and Spur gains in the U.S. productivity and industrial competitiveness by making high performance computing and networking technologies an integral part of the design and production process. Strategies for achieving these goals are as follows: Support solutions to important scientific and technical challenges through a vigorous R and D effort; Reduce the uncertainties to industry for R and D and use of this technology through increased cooperation between government, industry, and universities and by the continued use of government and government funded facilities as a prototype user for early commercial HPCC products; and Support underlying research, network, and computational infrastructures on which U.S. high performance computing technology is based.

  9. Improving Network Structure can lead to Functional Failures.

    PubMed

    Pade, Jan Philipp; Pereira, Tiago

    2015-01-01

    In many real-world networks the ability to synchronize is a key property for their performance. Recent work on undirected networks with diffusive interaction revealed that improvements in the network connectivity such as making the network more connected and homogeneous enhances synchronization. However, real-world networks have directed and weighted connections. In such directed networks, understanding the impact of structural changes on the network performance remains a major challenge. Here, we show that improving the structure of a directed network can lead to a failure in the network function. For instance, introducing new links to reduce the minimum distance between nodes can lead to instabilities in the synchronized motion. This effect only occurs in directed networks. Our results allow to identify the dynamical importance of a link and thereby have a major impact on the design and control of directed networks. PMID:25989294

  10. The Austrian National Network 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Nikolaus; Hausmann, Helmut; Jia, Yan

    2015-04-01

    In the year 2014, the Austrian National Network( network code OE ), operated by the Austrian Seismological Service at the Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik, consists of 21 strong-motion sites (FBA-23 and Episensor, triggered data acquisition) and 16 broadband stations (STS-2 or STS-2.5, continuous data acquisition). Among the 16 broadband stations there are 14 sites collocated with accelerometers (FAB-23 or Episensor). The Research Group Geophysics at the Vienna University of Technology and the Department of Meteorology and Geophysics at the University of Vienna are operating temporary seismic stations, data from these instruments is integrated in the processing at the Austrian Seismic Network. Data from instruments in neighboring countries is also integrated in the processing. The Austrian Seismological Service collects and evaluates felt reports. A major upgrade of both hard- and software used for processing (Antelope 5.4, Intel based hardware) is planned for the year 2015. Some new tools for data processing processing and evaluation are presented. An overview of the seismic monitoring at the Austrian Seismological Service will be presented for the year 2014. We compare automatic processing and manual evaluation results. Performance of the automated data processing (rate of valid, false and missed events), statistics and information about significant earthquakes and earthquake sequences in Austria will be presented.

  11. Steps toward a National Research Telecommunications Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Gordon

    1988-01-01

    Summarizes the recommendations of the Computer Network Study Planning Group formed by the Office of Science and Technology Policy under the provisions of PL99-383 to study the networking needs of the nation's academic and federal research computer programs. The benefits and importance of the recommended National Research Network are discussed.…

  12. Bulgarian National Digital Seismological Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, L.; Solakov, D.; Nikolova, S.; Stoyanov, S.; Simeonova, S.; Zimakov, L. G.; Khaikin, L.

    2011-12-01

    The Bulgarian National Digital Seismological Network (BNDSN) consists of a National Data Center (NDC), 13 stations equipped with RefTek High Resolution Broadband Seismic Recorders - model DAS 130-01/3, 1 station equipped with Quanterra 680 and broadband sensors and accelerometers. Real-time data transfer from seismic stations to NDC is realized via Virtual Private Network of the Bulgarian Telecommunication Company. The communication interruptions don't cause any data loss at the NDC. The data are backed up in the field station recorder's 4Mb RAM memory and are retransmitted to the NDC immediately after the communication link is re-established. The recorders are equipped with 2 compact flash disks able to save more than 1 month long data. The data from the flash disks can be downloaded remotely using FTP. The data acquisition and processing hardware redundancy at the NDC is achieved by two clustered SUN servers and two Blade Workstations. To secure the acquisition, processing and data storage processes a three layer local network is designed at the NDC. Real-time data acquisition is performed using REFTEK's full duplex error-correction protocol RTPD. Data from the Quanterra recorder and foreign stations are fed into RTPD in real-time via SeisComP/SeedLink protocol. Using SeisComP/SeedLink software the NDC transfers real-time data to INGV-Roma, NEIC-USA, ORFEUS Data Center. Regional real-time data exchange with Romania, Macedonia, Serbia and Greece is established at the NDC also. Data processing is performed by the Seismic Network Data Processor (SNDP) software package running on the both Servers. SNDP includes subsystems: Real-time subsystem (RTS_SNDP) - for signal detection; evaluation of the signal parameters; phase identification and association; source estimation; Seismic analysis subsystem (SAS_SNDP) - for interactive data processing; Early warning subsystem (EWS_SNDP) - based on the first arrived P-phases. The signal detection process is performed by

  13. The National Network of Libraries of Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... New England Region: University of Massachusetts Bringing the World of Medical Information to Your Neighborhood By Angela ... D., Head, NN/LM National Network Office The world's largest medical library is the National Library of ...

  14. The Italian National Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelini, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The Italian National Seismic Network is composed by about 400 stations, mainly broadband, installed in the Country and in the surrounding regions. About 110 stations feature also collocated strong motion instruments. The Centro Nazionale Terremoti, (National Earthquake Center), CNT, has installed and operates most of these stations, although a considerable number of stations contributing to the INGV surveillance has been installed and is maintained by other INGV sections (Napoli, Catania, Bologna, Milano) or even other Italian or European Institutions. The important technological upgrades carried out in the last years has allowed for significant improvements of the seismic monitoring of Italy and of the Euro-Mediterranean Countries. The adopted data transmission systems include satellite, wireless connections and wired lines. The Seedlink protocol has been adopted for data transmission. INGV is a primary node of EIDA (European Integrated Data Archive) for archiving and distributing, continuous, quality checked data. The data acquisition system was designed to accomplish, in near-real-time, automatic earthquake detection and hypocenter and magnitude determination (moment tensors, shake maps, etc.). Database archiving of all parametric results are closely linked to the existing procedures of the INGV seismic monitoring environment. Overall, the Italian earthquake surveillance service provides, in quasi real-time, hypocenter parameters which are then revised routinely by the analysts of the Bollettino Sismico Nazionale. The results are published on the web page http://cnt.rm.ingv.it/ and are publicly available to both the scientific community and the the general public. This presentation will describe the various activities and resulting products of the Centro Nazionale Terremoti. spanning from data acquisition to archiving, distribution and specialised products.

  15. Description of the National Highway Planning Network

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, B.E.

    1990-09-01

    The National Highway Planning Network is a data base of major highways in the continental United States. It is a foundation for analytic studies of highway performance, for vehicle routing and scheduling problems, and for mapping purposes. The network is based on a set of roadways digitized from the National Atlas by the US Geological Survey. It has been enhanced at Oak Ridge National Laboratory by adding additional roads and attribute detail and correcting topological errors to produce a true analytic network. This documentation is intended primarily to assist users of this data base by describing its structure, data elements, and development.

  16. The "Golden Projects": China's National Networking Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovelock, Peter; Clark, Theodore C.; Petrazzini, Ben A.

    1996-01-01

    For China, information technology and communications networks are a new solution to an old problem, reconstituting hierarchical state power. This article examines China's National Networking Initiative, "Golden Projects," within the context of economic and political reform to demonstrate an alternative to traditional economic based networking…

  17. 23 CFR 658.21 - Identification of National Network.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Identification of National Network. 658.21 Section 658... Identification of National Network. (a) To identify the National Network, a State may sign the routes or provide maps of lists of highways describing the National Network. (b) Exceptional local conditions on...

  18. 23 CFR 658.21 - Identification of National Network.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Identification of National Network. 658.21 Section 658... Identification of National Network. (a) To identify the National Network, a State may sign the routes or provide maps of lists of highways describing the National Network. (b) Exceptional local conditions on...

  19. 23 CFR 658.21 - Identification of National Network.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Identification of National Network. 658.21 Section 658... Identification of National Network. (a) To identify the National Network, a State may sign the routes or provide maps of lists of highways describing the National Network. (b) Exceptional local conditions on...

  20. 23 CFR 658.21 - Identification of National Network.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Identification of National Network. 658.21 Section 658... Identification of National Network. (a) To identify the National Network, a State may sign the routes or provide maps of lists of highways describing the National Network. (b) Exceptional local conditions on...

  1. 23 CFR 658.21 - Identification of National Network.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Identification of National Network. 658.21 Section 658... Identification of National Network. (a) To identify the National Network, a State may sign the routes or provide maps of lists of highways describing the National Network. (b) Exceptional local conditions on...

  2. SREB States Continue to Lead the Nation in Teachers with National Board Certification. Challenge to Lead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board, 2004

    2004-01-01

    How will you know if your state is making progress toward having a qualified teacher in every classroom? One indicator of progress in Goals for Education relates to licensure and certification: "Licensure and certification focus on performance and lead to sufficient numbers of teachers with content knowledge and proven teaching skills to improve…

  3. HNET - A National Computerized Health Network

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Mark; Hamilton, Richard

    1988-01-01

    The HNET system demonstrated conceptually and technically a national text (and limited bit mapped graphics) computer network for use between innovative members of the health care industry. The HNET configuration of a leased high speed national packet switching network connecting any number of mainframe, mini, and micro computers was unique in it's relatively low capital costs and freedom from obsolescence. With multiple simultaneous conferences, databases, bulletin boards, calendars, and advanced electronic mail and surveys, it is marketable to innovative hospitals, clinics, physicians, health care associations and societies, nurses, multisite research projects libraries, etc.. Electronic publishing and education capabilities along with integrated voice and video transmission are identified as future enhancements.

  4. The National Writing Project Technology Network: Informed Exuberance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Stephen

    1993-01-01

    Describes the National Writing Project's Technology Network. Outlines two specific national efforts of this network: (1) the National Writing Project/Polaroid Education Program Pilot Project, and (2) America's Smartest Home Videos. (HB)

  5. Random lasing in organo-lead halide perovskite microcrystal networks

    SciTech Connect

    Dhanker, R.; Brigeman, A. N.; Giebink, N. C.; Larsen, A. V.; Stewart, R. J.; Asbury, J. B.

    2014-10-13

    We report optically pumped random lasing in planar methylammonium lead iodide perovskite microcrystal networks that form spontaneously from spin coating. Low thresholds (<200 μJ/cm{sup 2}) and narrow linewidths (Δλ < 0.5 nm) reflect lasing from closed quasi-modes that result from ballistic waveguiding in linear network segments linked by scattering at the junctions. Spatio-spectral imaging indicates that these quasi-modes extend over lateral length scales >100 μm and spatially overlap with one another, resulting in chaotic pulse-to-pulse intensity fluctuations due to gain competition. These results demonstrate this class of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite as a platform to study random lasing with well-defined, low-level disorder, and support the potential of these materials for use in semiconductor laser applications.

  6. National airspace data interchange network (NADIN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falato, A. J.

    In order to implement the National Airspace Plan and meet future comunications requirements in the most cost-effective manner, it has become necessary to replace and modernize the existing data communications systems with the foundation of a totally integrated system. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) will initiate cut-over of the National Airspace Data Interchange Network (NADIN) in late 1983. NADIN is not only an operational data communications system for all Air Traffic control facilities, but also an International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) subsystem, and a growth plan for transportation telecommunications, using modular expansion techniques.

  7. 23 CFR 658.9 - National Network criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false National Network criteria. 658.9 Section 658.9 Highways... AND WEIGHT, ROUTE DESIGNATIONS-LENGTH, WIDTH AND WEIGHT LIMITATIONS § 658.9 National Network criteria. (a) The National Network listed in the appendix to this part is available for use by commerical...

  8. 23 CFR 658.9 - National Network criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false National Network criteria. 658.9 Section 658.9 Highways... AND WEIGHT, ROUTE DESIGNATIONS-LENGTH, WIDTH AND WEIGHT LIMITATIONS § 658.9 National Network criteria. (a) The National Network listed in the appendix to this part is available for use by commerical...

  9. 23 CFR 658.9 - National Network criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false National Network criteria. 658.9 Section 658.9 Highways... AND WEIGHT, ROUTE DESIGNATIONS-LENGTH, WIDTH AND WEIGHT LIMITATIONS § 658.9 National Network criteria. (a) The National Network listed in the appendix to this part is available for use by commerical...

  10. 23 CFR 658.9 - National Network criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false National Network criteria. 658.9 Section 658.9 Highways... AND WEIGHT, ROUTE DESIGNATIONS-LENGTH, WIDTH AND WEIGHT LIMITATIONS § 658.9 National Network criteria. (a) The National Network listed in the appendix to this part is available for use by commerical...

  11. 23 CFR 658.9 - National Network criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false National Network criteria. 658.9 Section 658.9 Highways... AND WEIGHT, ROUTE DESIGNATIONS-LENGTH, WIDTH AND WEIGHT LIMITATIONS § 658.9 National Network criteria. (a) The National Network listed in the appendix to this part is available for use by commerical...

  12. National Seismic Network System of Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zunbul, S.; Kadirioğlu, F. T.; Holoğlu, N.; Kartal, R. F.; Kiliç, T.; Yatman, A.; Iravul, Y.; Tüzel, B.

    2009-04-01

    In order to mitigate disaster losses, it is necessary to establish an effective disaster management and risk system. The first step of the management is constituted by preparedness studies before the earthquake (disaster). In order to determinate disaster and risk information it is necessary to have a seismological observation network. Due to the monitoring of the earhquakes in the country-wide scale, recording, evaluation, archieving and to inform to the public autority, the project named "Development of the National Seismic Network Project-USAG" has been started. 6 Three Component Short Period, 63 Broad-band, 13 One Component Short Period stations, 65 Local Network- Broad-band, and 247 accelerometers have been operated in the frame of this project. All of the stations transmit continuously their signal to the ERD (Earthquake Research Department) seismic data center in Ankara. Capability of the network is to determine an earthquake which is minimum local magnitude ML= 2.8 generally, in some region local magnitude threshold is ML=1.5 (the places where the stations are concentrated). Earthquake activity in Turkey and surrounding region has been observed 7 days / 24 hours, in ERD data center in Ankara. After the manuel location of an earthquake, If the magnitude is over 4.0, system sends to SMS message automaticaly to the authorized people and immediately press, public and national-local crisis center, scientific institutions are informed by fax and e-mail. Data exchange has been carried out to EMSC-CSEM. During the İnstallation of the broad-band stations, the seismotectonics of the region has been taken into consideration. Earthqauke record stations are concentrated at the most important fault zones in Turkey; North Anatolian Fault System, East Anatolian Fault System, Bitlis Overlap Belt and Aegean Graben (or opening) System. After 1999 İzmit and Düzce earthquakes, the number of the seismic stations in Turkey have been increased each passing year. In this study

  13. Creating a national home visiting research network.

    PubMed

    Duggan, Anne; Minkovitz, Cynthia S; Chaffin, Mark; Korfmacher, Jon; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Crowne, Sarah; Filene, Jill; Gonsalves, Kay; Landsverk, John; Harwood, Robin

    2013-11-01

    Home visiting can play a key role in the early childhood system of services. For home visiting to achieve its potential, decision-makers must make informed choices regarding adoption, adaptation, coordination, scale-up, and sustainment. We need a coordinated, focused, and theory-based home visiting research infrastructure to inform such decisions. The transdisciplinary Home Visiting Research Network (HVRN) was established in July 2012 with funding from the Health Resources and Services Administration. Its goal is to promote the translation of research findings into policy and practice. Its objectives are to (1) develop a national home visiting research agenda, (2) advance the use of innovative research methods; and (3) provide a research environment that is supportive of the professional development of emerging researchers interested in home visiting. A Management Team designs and directs activities to achieve these objectives through Work Teams. A Steering Committee of national leaders representing stakeholder groups oversees progress. HVRN's Coordinating Center supports the Work Teams and HVRN's Home visiting Applied Research Collaborative, a practice-based research network of home visiting programs. This article describes HVRN's rationale, approach, and anticipated products. We use home visiting-primary care coordination as an illustration, noting potential roles for pediatric practices and pediatric researchers and research educators in HVRN activities. HVRN creates the infrastructure for a rigorous program of research to inform policy and practice on home visiting as part of the system of services to improve family functioning, parenting, and child outcomes. PMID:24187127

  14. 78 FR 8686 - Establishment of the National Freight Network

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... Federal Highway Administration Establishment of the National Freight Network AGENCY: Federal Highway... of the national freight network as required by Section 1115 of the Moving Ahead for Progress in the... freight network, the designation of additional miles critical to future efficient movement of goods on...

  15. A national streamflow network gap analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiang, Julie E.; Stewart, David W.; Archfield, Stacey A.; Osborne, Emily B.; Eng, Ken

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a gap analysis to evaluate how well the USGS streamgage network meets a variety of needs, focusing on the ability to calculate various statistics at locations that have streamgages (gaged) and that do not have streamgages (ungaged). This report presents the results of analysis to determine where there are gaps in the network of gaged locations, how accurately desired statistics can be calculated with a given length of record, and whether the current network allows for estimation of these statistics at ungaged locations. The analysis indicated that there is variability across the Nation’s streamflow data-collection network in terms of the spatial and temporal coverage of streamgages. In general, the Eastern United States has better coverage than the Western United States. The arid Southwestern United States, Alaska, and Hawaii were observed to have the poorest spatial coverage, using the dataset assembled for this study. Except in Hawaii, these areas also tended to have short streamflow records. Differences in hydrology lead to differences in the uncertainty of statistics calculated in different regions of the country. Arid and semiarid areas of the Central and Southwestern United States generally exhibited the highest levels of interannual variability in flow, leading to larger uncertainty in flow statistics. At ungaged locations, information can be transferred from nearby streamgages if there is sufficient similarity between the gaged watersheds and the ungaged watersheds of interest. Areas where streamgages exhibit high correlation are most likely to be suitable for this type of information transfer. The areas with the most highly correlated streamgages appear to coincide with mountainous areas of the United States. Lower correlations are found in the Central United States and coastal areas of the Southeastern United States. Information transfer from gaged basins to ungaged basins is also most likely to be successful

  16. School Reform through PBIS. National Dropout Prevention Center/Network Newsletter. Volume 21, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckenfield, Marty, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The "National Dropout Prevention Newsletter" is published quarterly by the National Dropout Prevention Center/Network. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Intercepting the Dropout Trajectory (JoAnne Malloy); (2) The NH APEX Dropout Prevention Model; (3) How PBIS Can Lead to School Improvement (Julie King and JoAnne Malloy); and (4)…

  17. Celebrating 25 Years. National Dropout Prevention Center/Network Newsletter. Volume 22, Number 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckenfield, Marty, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The "National Dropout Prevention Newsletter" is published quarterly by the National Dropout Prevention Center/Network. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Leading the Way in Dropout Prevention; (2) The 15 Effective Strategies in Action; (3) Technology Changes 1986-2011 (Marty Duckenfield); (4) 25 Years of Research and Support (Terry…

  18. Following the ASE Lead: A Working Model for National Certification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutphin, Everett

    1994-01-01

    The National Institute of Automotive Service Excellence conducts the only industrywide, national certification program for automotive technicians. As other industries explore standards, this program serves as a model. (JOW)

  19. "Getting Practical" and the National Network of Science Learning Centres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Georgina; Langley, Mark; Skilling, Gus; Walker, John

    2011-01-01

    The national network of Science Learning Centres is a co-ordinating partner in the Getting Practical--Improving Practical Work in Science programme. The principle of training provision for the "Getting Practical" programme is a cascade model. Regional trainers employed by the national network of Science Learning Centres trained the cohort of local…

  20. 40 CFR 50.12 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air quality standards for lead. 50.12 Section 50.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead. (a) National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead and its compounds, measured as elemental lead by a reference...

  1. 40 CFR 50.12 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air quality standards for lead. 50.12 Section 50.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead. (a) National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead and its compounds, measured as elemental lead by a reference...

  2. 40 CFR 50.12 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air quality standards for lead. 50.12 Section 50.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead. (a) National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead and its compounds, measured as elemental lead by a reference...

  3. Privacy Issues of a National Research and Education Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, James E.; Graveman, Richard F.

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of the right to privacy of communications focuses on privacy expectations within a National Research and Education Network (NREN). Highlights include privacy needs in scientific and education communications; academic and research networks; network security and privacy concerns; protection strategies; and consequences of privacy…

  4. ESTABLISHING A NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH TRACKING NETWORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the CDC's efforts to develop a National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network Tracking Network) with particular focus on air related issues and collaboration with EPA. A Tracking Network is needed in the United States to improve the health of communit...

  5. The National Biomedical Communications Network as a Developing Structure *

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Ruth M.

    1971-01-01

    The National Biomedical Communications Network has evolved both from a set of conceptual recommendations over the last twelve years and an accumulation of needs manifesting themselves in the requests of members of the medical community. With a short history of three years this network and its developing structure have exhibited most of the stresses of technology interfacing with customer groups, and of a structure attempting to build itself upon many existing fragmentary unconnected segments of a potentially viable resourcesharing capability. In addition to addressing these topics, the paper treats a design appropriate to any network devoted to information transfer in a special interest user community. It discusses fundamentals of network design, highlighting that network structure most appropriate to a national information network. Examples are given of cost analyses of information services and certain conjectures are offered concerning the roles of national networks. PMID:5542912

  6. National Stream Quality Accounting Network and National Monitoring Network Basin Boundary Geospatial Dataset, 2008–13

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, Nancy T.

    2011-01-01

    This report and the accompanying geospatial data were created to assist in analysis and interpretation of water-quality data provided by the U.S. Geological Survey's National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) and by the U.S. Coastal Waters and Tributaries National Monitoring Network (NMN), which is a cooperative monitoring program of Federal, regional, and State agencies. The report describes the methods used to develop the geospatial data, which was primarily derived from the National Watershed Boundary Dataset. The geospatial data contains polygon shapefiles of basin boundaries for 33 NASQAN and 5 NMN streamflow and water-quality monitoring stations. In addition, 30 polygon shapefiles of the closed and noncontributing basins contained within the NASQAN or NMN boundaries are included. Also included is a point shapefile of the NASQAN and NMN monitoring stations and associated basin and station attributes. Geospatial data for basin delineations, associated closed and noncontributing basins, and monitoring station locations are available at http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/metadata/usgswrd/XML/ds641_nasqan_wbd12.xml.

  7. Geophysicist picked to lead US National Science Board

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Maria Zuber, a planetary geophysicist who is vice-president for research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), US, has been elected chair of the country's National Science Board (NSB) – the body that oversees the National Science Foundation (NSF).

  8. Young People Take the Lead: Cherokee Nation's Approach to Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, McClellan; Kielsmeier, James A.

    1985-01-01

    Oklahoma's Cherokee Nation Youth Leadership Program (CNYLP) began in 1982 with the vision of drawing elements of the tribe together through an innovative youth program designed to instill self-confidence, positive regard for Cherokee identity, and a sense of community spirit through service to others. Patterned after the National Youth Leadership…

  9. Cancer Now Leading Killer in 12 European Nations

    MedlinePlus

    ... be collected and compared between countries "so that health professionals and national governments can target interventions more effectively to reduce inequalities," he said. SOURCE: European Heart Journal , news release, ...

  10. Former Fermilab boss to lead Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Particle physicist Michael Witherell - current vice-chancellor for research at the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) - has been appointed the next director of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBL).

  11. 40 CFR 50.16 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air quality standards for lead. 50.16 Section 50.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead. (a) The national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead (Pb) and its compounds are 0.15 micrograms per cubic...

  12. 40 CFR 50.16 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air quality standards for lead. 50.16 Section 50.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead. (a) The national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead (Pb) and its compounds are 0.15 micrograms per cubic...

  13. Lead shot contribution to blood lead of First Nations people: the use of lead isotopes to identify the source of exposure.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Leonard J S; Wainman, Bruce C; Martin, Ian D; Sutherland, Celine; Weber, Jean-Philippe; Dumas, Pierre; Nieboer, Evert

    2008-11-01

    Although lead isotope ratios have been used to identify lead ammunition (lead shotshell pellets and bullets) as a source of exposure for First Nations people of Canada, the actual source of lead exposure needs to be further clarified. Whole blood samples for First Nations people of Ontario, Canada, were collected from participants prior to the traditional spring harvest of water birds, as well as post-harvest. Blood-lead levels and stable lead isotope ratios prior to, and after the harvest were determined by ICP-MS. Data were analyzed by paired t-tests and Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks tests. All participants consumed water birds harvested with lead shotshell during the period of study. For the group excluding six males who were potentially exposed to other sources of lead (as revealed through a questionnaire), paired t-tests and Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks tests showed consistent results: significant (p<0.05) increases in blood-lead concentrations and blood levels of (206)Pb/(204)Pb and (206)Pb/(207)Pb towards the mean values we previously reported for lead shotshell pellets; and a significant decrease in (208)Pb/(206)Pb values towards the mean for lead shotshell pellets. However, when we categorized the group further into a group that did not use firearms and did not eat any other traditional foods harvested with lead ammunition other than waterfowl, our predictions for (206)Pb/(204)Pb, (206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(206)Pb hold true, but there was not a significant increase in blood-lead level after the hunt. It appears that the activity of hunting (i.e., use of a shotgun) was also an important route of lead exposure. The banning of lead shotshell for all game hunting would eliminate a source of environmental lead for all people who use firearms and/or eat wild game. PMID:18678397

  14. 76 FR 38124 - Applications for New Awards; Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) National Network Regional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... Applications for New Awards; Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) National Network Regional Centers and ADA National Network Collaborative Research Projects AGENCY: Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative... Program--Disability Rehabilitation Research Projects (DRRP)--ADA National Network Regional...

  15. Youth Take the Lead: Cherokee Nation's Approach to Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, McClellan; Kielsmeier, James

    1986-01-01

    The Cherokee Nation Youth Leadership Program began in 1982 to address the issue of leadership and to instill self-confidence, a positive regard for Cherokee identity, and a sense of community spirit by means of a multicultural camp experience. Program development, evaluation, and community impact are discussed. (JMM)

  16. Education Nation: Six Leading Edges of Innovation in Our Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Milton

    2010-01-01

    As a result of constant innovation, learning is no longer limited by traditional confines and we're moving beyond students tied to their chairs, desks, and textbooks-and teachers locked away in classrooms. In "Education Nation" author Milton Chen draws from extensive experience in media-from his work on Sesame Street in its nascent years to his…

  17. Building National Capacity for Climate Change Interpretation: The Role of Leaders, Partnerships, and Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitzer, W.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2007, the New England Aquarium has led a national effort to increase the capacity of informal science venues to effectively communicate about climate change. We are now leading the NSF-funded National Network for Ocean and Climate Change Interpretation (NNOCCI), partnering with the Association of Zoos and Aquariums, FrameWorks Institute, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Monterey Bay Aquarium, and National Aquarium, with evaluation conducted by the New Knowledge Organization, Pennsylvania State University, and Ohio State University. NNOCCI enables teams of informal science interpreters across the country to serve as "communication strategists" - beyond merely conveying information they can influence public perceptions, given their high level of commitment, knowledge, public trust, social networks, and visitor contact. We provide in-depth training as well as an alumni network for ongoing learning, implementation support, leadership development, and coalition building. Our goals are to achieve a systemic national impact, embed our work within multiple ongoing regional and national climate change education networks, and leave an enduring legacy. Our project represents a cross-disciplinary partnership among climate scientists, social and cognitive scientists, and informal education practitioners. We have built a growing national network of more than 250 alumni, including approximately 15-20 peer leaders who co-lead both in-depth training programs and introductory workshops. We have found that this alumni network has been assuming increasing importance in providing for ongoing learning, support for implementation, leadership development, and coalition building. As we look toward the future, we are exploring potential partnerships with other existing networks, both to sustain our impact and to expand our reach. This presentation will address what we have learned in terms of network impacts, best practices, factors for success, and future directions.

  18. NATIONAL CROP LOSS ASSESSMENT NETWORK: QUALITY ASSURANCE PROGRAM (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A quality assurance program was incorporated into the National Crop Loss Assessment Network (NCLAN) program, designed to assess the economic impacts of gaseous air pollutants on major agricultural crops in the United States. The quality assurance program developed standardized re...

  19. SREB States Lead the Nation in Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate Programs. Challenge to Lead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Crystal; Lenard, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    Advanced Placement (AP) and International Baccalaureate (IB) courses continue to receive national recognition for their rigorous curricula, and many colleges and universities award credit to students who score well on end-of-course exams in AP classes. Research suggests that students are better prepared for college if they take these courses and…

  20. A Network Approach to Preparing Underrepresented Students: The LEAD Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Results are reported from an empirical study of an interorganizational collaboration to prepare underrepresented students for elite postsecondary education and beyond. The LEAD (Leadership Education and Development) Program in Business is an initiative involving twelve U.S. universities, nearly forty multinational corporations, a federal…

  1. Implementation of the NCI’s National Clinical Trials Network

    Cancer.gov

    NCI is launching a new clinical trials research network intended to improve treatment for the more than 1.6 million Americans diagnosed with cancer each year. The new system, NCI’s National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN), will facilitate the rapid initia

  2. The National Research and Education Network (NREN): A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodson, James, Comp.

    This bibliography brings together sources, through August 1991, on the National Research and Education Network (NREN) and related topics, including computer networks, databases, information technology, library automation, microcomputers, and online systems. Where possible, a brief biographical note on the author is included, and most of the…

  3. NATIONAL DRY DEPOSITION NETWORK SECOND ANNUAL PROGRESS REPORT (1988)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Progress in the National Dry Deposition Network during calendar year 1988 is presented. The network configuration and operating procedures for the field, laboratory, and data management center are described and data are summarized. Forty-three sites were operational at the close ...

  4. Virtual Round Table on ten leading questions for network research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-03-01

    The following discussion is an edited summary of the public debate started during the conference “Growing Networks and Graphs in Statistical Physics, Finance, Biology and Social Systems” held in Rome in September 2003. Drafts documents were circulated electronically among experts in the field and additions and follow-up to the original discussion have been included. Among the scientists participating to the discussion L.A.N. Amaral, A. Barrat, A.L. Barabasi, G. Caldarelli, P. De Los Rios, A. Erzan, B. Kahng, R. Mantegna, J.F.F. Mendes, R. Pastor-Satorras, A. Vespignani are acknowledged for their contributions and editing.

  5. Do US Ambient Air Lead Levels Have a Significant Impact on Childhood Blood Lead Levels: Results of a National Study

    PubMed Central

    Brink, LuAnn L.; Talbott, Evelyn O.; Sharma, Ravi K.; Marsh, Gary M.; Wu, Wen Chi; Rager, Judith R.; Strosnider, Heather M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Although lead paint and leaded gasoline have not been used in the US for thirty years, thousands of US children continue to have blood lead levels (BLLs) of concern. Methods. We investigated the potential association of modeled air lead levels and BLLs ≥ 10 μg/dL using a large CDC database with BLLs on children aged 0–3 years. Percent of children with BLLs ≥ 10 μg/dL (2000–2007) by county and proportion of pre-50 housing and SES variables were merged with the US EPA's National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) modeled air lead data. Results. The proportion with BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL was 1.24% in the highest air lead counties, and the proportion with BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL was 0.36% in the lowest air lead counties, resulting in a crude prevalence ratio of 3.4. Further analysis using multivariate negative binomial regression revealed that NATA lead was a significant predictor of % BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL after controlling for percent pre-l950 housing, percent rural, and percent black. A geospatial regression revealed that air lead, percent older housing, and poverty were all significant predictors of % BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL. Conclusions. More emphasis should be given to potential sources of ambient air lead near residential areas. PMID:23983719

  6. Frederick National Lab and the Pancreatic Cancer Action Network Award Fellowships for KRAS Research | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer The Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR) recently formed a partnership with the Pancreatic Cancer Action Network (PanCAN) to award a one-year fellowship to two scientists whose research will help lead to new therapies for pancreatic cancer. The scientists will focus on KRAS, a gene in the RAS family that is mutated in 95 percent of pancreatic cancers, according to the National Cancer Institute (NCI).

  7. Lead

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lead Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Lead Poisoning is Preventable If your home was built before ... of the RRP rule. Read more . Learn about Lead Poisoning Prevention Week . Report Uncertified Contractors and Environmental Violations ...

  8. The transition to non-lead rifle ammunition in Denmark: National obligations and policy considerations.

    PubMed

    Kanstrup, Niels; Thomas, Vernon G; Krone, Oliver; Gremse, Carl

    2016-09-01

    The issue of Denmark regulating use of lead-free rifle ammunition because of potential risks of lead exposure in wildlife and humans was examined from a scientific and objective policy perspective. The consequences of adopting or rejecting such regulation were identified. Denmark is obliged to examine this topic because of its national policy on lead reduction, its being a Party to the UN Bonn Convention on Migratory Species, and its role in protecting White-tailed Sea Eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla), a species prone to lead poisoning from lead ingestion. Lead-free bullets suited for deer hunting are available at comparable cost to lead bullets, and have been demonstrated to be as effective. National adoption of lead-free bullets would complete the Danish transition to lead-free ammunition use. It would reduce the risk of lead exposure to scavenging wildlife, and humans who might eat lead-contaminated wild game meat. Opposition from hunting organizations would be expected. PMID:27040101

  9. Leading the Nation in Clean Energy Deployment (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-07-01

    This document summarizes key efforts and projects that are part of the DOE/NREL Integrated Deployment effort to integrated energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies in cities, states, island locations, and communities around the world. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is pursuing an aggressive, scalable, and replicable strategy to accelerate market adoption of clean energy solutions to power homes, businesses, and vehicles. Using the comprehensive Integrated Deployment approach developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), DOE partners with communities, cities, states, federal agencies, and territories to identify and implement a variety of efficiency and renewable energy technology solutions.

  10. Lead

    MedlinePlus

    ... obvious symptoms, it frequently goes unrecognized. CDC’s Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program is committed to the Healthy People ... Lead Levels Information for Parents Tips for preventing lead poisoning About Us Overview of CDC’s Childhood Lead Poisoning ...

  11. Review of the USA National Phenology Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2015-01-01

    The panel recommends that the USA–NPN National Coordinating Office (NCO) establish an implementation plan that addresses all of the panel recommendations, with priorities, timelines, and assumptions to move the program forward successfully.

  12. The impact of capacity growth in national telecommunications networks.

    PubMed

    Lord, Andrew; Soppera, Andrea; Jacquet, Arnaud

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses both UK-based and global Internet data bandwidth growth, beginning with historical data for the BT network. We examine the time variations in consumer behaviour and how this is statistically aggregated into larger traffic loads on national core fibre communications networks. The random nature of consumer Internet behaviour, where very few consumers require maximum bandwidth simultaneously, provides the opportunity for a significant statistical gain. The paper looks at predictions for how this growth might continue over the next 10-20 years, giving estimates for the amount of bandwidth that networks should support in the future. The paper then explains how national networks are designed to accommodate these traffic levels, and the various network roles, including access, metro and core, are described. The physical layer network is put into the context of how the packet and service layers are designed and the applications and location of content are also included in an overall network overview. The specific role of content servers in alleviating core network traffic loads is highlighted. The status of the relevant transmission technologies in the access, metro and core is given, showing that these technologies, with adequate research, should be sufficient to provide bandwidth for consumers in the next 10-20 years. PMID:26809568

  13. National Geographic Society Kids Network: Report on 1994 teacher participants

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    In 1994, National Geographic Society Kids Network, a computer/telecommunications-based science curriculum, was presented to elementary and middle school teachers through summer programs sponsored by NGS and US DOE. The network program assists teachers in understanding the process of doing science; understanding the role of computers and telecommunications in the study of science, math, and engineering; and utilizing computers and telecommunications appropriately in the classroom. The program enables teacher to integrate science, math, and technology with other subjects with the ultimate goal of encouraging students of all abilities to pursue careers in science/math/engineering. This report assesses the impact of the network program on participating teachers.

  14. "It Takes a Network": Building National Capacity for Climate Change Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitzer, W.

    2014-12-01

    Since 2007, the New England Aquarium has led a national effort to increase the capacity of informal science venues to effectively communicate about climate change. We are now leading the NSF-funded National Network for Ocean and Climate Change Interpretation (NNOCCI), partnering with the Association of Zoos and Aquariums, FrameWorks Institute, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Monterey Bay Aquarium, and National Aquarium, with evaluation conducted by the New Knowledge Organization, Pennsylvania State University, and Ohio State University. More than 1,500 informal science venues (science centers, museums, aquariums, zoos, nature centers, national parks) are visited annually by 61% of the U.S. population. These visitors expect reliable information about environmental issues and solutions. NNOCCI enables teams of informal science interpreters across the country to serve as "communication strategists" - beyond merely conveying information they can influence public perceptions, given their high level of commitment, knowledge, public trust, social networks, and visitor contact. Beyond providing in-depth training, we have found that our "alumni network" is assuming an increasingly important role in achieving our goals: 1. Ongoing learning - Training must be ongoing given continuous advances in climate and social science research. 2. Implementation support - Social support is critical as interpreters move from learning to practice, given complex and potentially contentious subject matter. 3. Leadership development - We rely on a national cadre of interpretive leaders to conduct workshops, facilitate study circle trainings, and support alumni. 4. Coalition building - A peer network helps to build and maintain connections with colleagues, and supports further dissemination through the informal science community. We are experimenting with a variety of online and face to face strategies to support the growing alumni network. Our goals are to achieve a systemic national

  15. Network-Based Study Reveals Potential Infection Pathways of Hepatitis-C Leading to Various Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Anirban; Maulik, Ujjwal

    2014-01-01

    Protein-protein interaction network-based study of viral pathogenesis has been gaining popularity among computational biologists in recent days. In the present study we attempt to investigate the possible pathways of hepatitis-C virus (HCV) infection by integrating the HCV-human interaction network, human protein interactome and human genetic disease association network. We have proposed quasi-biclique and quasi-clique mining algorithms to integrate these three networks to identify infection gateway host proteins and possible pathways of HCV pathogenesis leading to various diseases. Integrated study of three networks, namely HCV-human interaction network, human protein interaction network, and human proteins-disease association network reveals potential pathways of infection by the HCV that lead to various diseases including cancers. The gateway proteins have been found to be biologically coherent and have high degrees in human interactome compared to the other virus-targeted proteins. The analyses done in this study provide possible targets for more effective anti-hepatitis-C therapeutic involvement. PMID:24743187

  16. The Belgian National Seismic Monitoring Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Camp, M.; Lecocq, T.; Vanneste, K.; Rapagnani, G.; Martin, H.; Devos, F.; Bukasa, B.; Hendrickx, M.; Collin, F.; Camelbeeck, T.

    2009-04-01

    The Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB) is responsible for the seismic activity monitoring in Belgium. For this purpose the ROB operates a network of 24 seismic stations. In addition 18 accelerographs have been installed since 2001 in the most seismic active zones. Seismometers allow detecting and localizing any earthquake of magnitude larger than 1.0 in Belgium and surrounding regions. The location of the accelerometric stations is chosen in function of the type of sub-soil and in some places in function of the nearness of important infrastructures as well. Seven seismic stations are now sending their data in real time to the Observatory (in Uccle) using ADSL lines. This will be increased in a near future. Among them 3 broad-band stations are also sending data to the ORFEUS and IRIS data centres. IRIS also receives data from the Belgian superconducting gravimeter. In addition, in 2010, a broadband borehole seismometer is to be installed at the Princess Elizabeth Antarctic station (71°57' S - 23°20' E), on the bedrock, 180 km away from the coastline. Recently a low-cost seismic alert system was developed for the Belgian territory, based on the connection flow on the ROB website (http://www.seismology.be), in parallel to an automatic control of the "Did you feel it ?" macroseismic inquiries, implemented in 2002. The alert is then confirmed at the latest by the seismic signals from five seismic stations that appear on the website with a delay of more or less ten minutes. It was successfully tested during the earthquake sequence that has been observed in the region at the southwest of Brussels since July 2008.

  17. THE NATIONAL AIR POLLUTION BACKGROUND NETWORK 1976-1980

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service has established a network of air monitoring stations designed to measure levels of ozone in remote areas within the contiguous 48 states. There are currently eight sites, at various National Fore...

  18. 78 FR 10249 - Establishment of the National Freight Network

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Establishment of the National Freight Network Correction In notice document 2013-02580 appearing on pages 8686-8689, in the issue of Wednesday, February 6, 2013, make...

  19. A National Network of Neurotechnology Centers for the BRAIN Initiative.

    PubMed

    Alivisatos, A Paul; Chun, Miyoung; Church, George M; Greenspan, Ralph J; Roukes, Michael L; Yuste, Rafael

    2015-11-01

    We propose the creation of a national network of neurotechnology centers to enhance and accelerate the BRAIN Initiative and optimally leverage the effort and creativity of individual laboratories involved in it. As "brain observatories," these centers could provide the critical interdisciplinary environment both for realizing ambitious and complex technologies and for providing individual investigators with access to them. PMID:26481036

  20. Health and Physical Education Programs in the National Diffusion Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliguro, Joseph F.

    This catalog contains descriptions of the Health and Physical Education programs in the National Diffusion Network. These programs are available to school systems or other educational institutions for implementation in their classrooms. While all of the programs have been validated as effective by the U.S. Department of Education's Program…

  1. NATIONAL DRY DEPOSITION NETWORK THIRD ANNUAL PROGRESS REPORT (1989)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Dry Deposition Network is ultimately to provide long-term estimates of dry acidic deposition across the continental United States. ifty sites operated during 1989, 41 in the east and 9 in the west. eekly average atmospheric concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, ammoniu...

  2. The National Research and Education Network: Two Meetings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cisler, Steve

    This article discusses two meetings which dealt with developments regarding the National Research and Education Network (NREN). In November 1990, the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University held a symposium entitled "Information Infrastructure for the 1990s," whose participants represented a wide spectrum of economic, political,…

  3. NATIONAL CROP LOSS ASSESSMENT NETWORK (NCLAN) 1982 ANNUAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Crop Loss Assessment Network (NCLAN) is a group of organizations cooperating in research to assess the short- and long-term economic impact of air pollution on crop production. The primary objectives are (1) to define relationships between yield of major agricultural...

  4. A National Interlibrary Loan Network: The OCLC Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Mary Ellen

    1979-01-01

    Describes the objectives, testing, procedures, and effects on document delivery systems of the OCLC interlibrary loan (ILL) subsystem, an uncoordinated national ILL network which provides users with immediate access to the OCLC On-Line Union Catalog, the ILL Transaction File, and the ILL Message Waiting File. (CWM)

  5. Successful neural network projects at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Cordes, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents recent and current projects at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) that research and apply neural network technology. The projects are summarized in the paper and their direct application to space reactor power and propulsion systems activities is discussed. 9 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. The National Clean Plant Network for Berries in Corvallis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The clean plant program at the USDA-ARS in Corvallis, Oregon was initiated in 1967 in cooperation with the Oregon and Washington State Departments of Agriculture and berry growers in the region. The program officially became part of the National Clean Plant Network (NCPN) in 2009 with the establish...

  7. CASTNET NATIONAL DRY DEPOSITION NETWORK - 1990-1992 STATUS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Dry Deposition Network (NDDN) was established to provide long-term estimates of dry acidic deposition across the continental United States. ifty routine sites were operational from 1990 to 1992, including 41 sites in the eastern United States and 9 sites in the weste...

  8. Database Software Selection for the Egyptian National STI Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slamecka, Vladimir

    The evaluation and selection of information/data management system software for the Egyptian National Scientific and Technical (STI) Network are described. An overview of the state-of-the-art of database technology elaborates on the differences between information retrieval and database management systems (DBMS). The desirable characteristics of…

  9. SpecialNet. A National Computer-Based Communications Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morin, Alfred J.

    1986-01-01

    "SpecialNet," a computer-based communications network for educators at all administrative levels, has been established and is managed by National Systems Management, Inc. Users can send and receive electronic mail, share information on electronic bulletin boards, participate in electronic conferences, and send reports and other documents to each…

  10. Launching PCORnet, a national patient-centered clinical research network

    PubMed Central

    Fleurence, Rachael L; Curtis, Lesley H; Califf, Robert M; Platt, Richard; Selby, Joe V; Brown, Jeffrey S

    2014-01-01

    The Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) has launched PCORnet, a major initiative to support an effective, sustainable national research infrastructure that will advance the use of electronic health data in comparative effectiveness research (CER) and other types of research. In December 2013, PCORI's board of governors funded 11 clinical data research networks (CDRNs) and 18 patient-powered research networks (PPRNs) for a period of 18 months. CDRNs are based on the electronic health records and other electronic sources of very large populations receiving healthcare within integrated or networked delivery systems. PPRNs are built primarily by communities of motivated patients, forming partnerships with researchers. These patients intend to participate in clinical research, by generating questions, sharing data, volunteering for interventional trials, and interpreting and disseminating results. Rapidly building a new national resource to facilitate a large-scale, patient-centered CER is associated with a number of technical, regulatory, and organizational challenges, which are described here. PMID:24821743

  11. 77 FR 555 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Secondary Lead Smelting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ...This action finalizes the residual risk and technology review conducted for the secondary lead smelting source category regulated under national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants. These final amendments include revisions to the emissions limits for lead compounds; revisions to the standards for fugitive emissions; the addition of total hydrocarbon and dioxin and furan emissions......

  12. 76 FR 14636 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ... Air Pollutants for Primary Lead Smelting (76 FR 9410). The EPA is extending the deadline for written... Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting, was published February 17, 2011 (76 FR 9410). EPA has established the... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 RIN 2060-AQ42 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants:...

  13. 76 FR 21692 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... Air Pollutants for Primary Lead Smelting (76 FR 9410). The EPA is extending the deadline for written... Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting, was published February 17, 2011 (76 FR 9410). EPA has established the... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 RIN 2060-AQ43 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants:...

  14. 76 FR 38591 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Lead Smelting; Extension of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Secondary Lead Smelting (76 FR 29032... current rule. DATES: Comments on the proposed rule published May 19, 2011 (76 FR 29032) must be received... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Lead Smelting, was published May 19, 2011 (76 FR...

  15. The USA National Phenology Network: Overview and Recent Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weltzin, Jake

    2010-05-01

    Patterns of phenology for plants and animals control ecosystem processes, determine land surface properties, control biosphere-atmosphere interactions, and affect food production, health, conservation, and recreation. The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN; www.usanpn.org) is an emerging and exciting partnership between federal agencies, the academic community, and the general public to establish a national science and monitoring initiative focused on phenology as a tool to understand how plants, animals and landscapes respond to climate variation, and as a tool to facilitate human adaptation to ongoing and potential future climate change. In its second year of operation, USA-NPN produced many new phenology products and venues for phenology research and citizen involvement. A new web-page contains an advanced on-line user interface to facilitate entry of contemporary data into the National Phenology Database. The new plant phenology monitoring program provides standardized methods and monitoring protocols for 215 local, regional, and nationally distributed plant species. Monitoring methods have been modified to facilitate collection of sampling intensity and absence data for both plants and animals; animal monitoring protocols will be added in March 2010. Coordinated development of regional networks will facilitate focused communication and interaction around regional phenology issues. Future directions include increased integration with national and international formal and informal science networks; enhanced consistency and availability of remote sensing of phenology terminology, methods, products and services; tools for discovery, description, ingestion, curation and distribution of historic phenology datasets; and, improvement of tools for data entry, download and visualization.

  16. Dynamite Networking for Dynamite Jobs. 101 Interpersonal, Telephone and Electronic Techniques for Getting Job Leads, Interviews and Offers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krannich, Caryl Rae; Krannich, Ronald L.

    This book guides job seekers in using communication approaches that will generate useful information, advice, and referrals that lead to job interviews and offers. The book provides guidance on how to do the following: organize effective job networks; prospect for job leads; write networking letters; make cold calls; join electronic networks;…

  17. Stations in the USGS's National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hitt, Keri

    2000-01-01

    This is a point coverage of stations in the U.S. Geological Survey's National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN). NASQAN was established in 1973. Water-quality data currently is collected at NASQAN sites on bimonthly and quarterly intervals. However, some of the bimonthly stations will be sampled only five times a year beginning in 1992. Separate coverages exist for the conterminous United States, Alaska, Hawaii/Guam, and Puerto Rico. The coverages attempt to represent all of the stations that are or have been in the network (some are inactive or discontinued) as of spring 1992.

  18. National Ignition Facility (NIF) Control Network Design and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, R M; Carey, R W; Claybourn, R V; Pavel, G; Schaefer, W J

    2001-10-19

    The control network for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is designed to meet the needs for common object request broker architecture (CORBA) inter-process communication, multicast video transport, device triggering, and general TCP/IP communication within the NIF facility. The network will interconnect approximately 650 systems, including the embedded controllers, front-end processors (FEPs), supervisory systems, and centralized servers involved in operation of the NIF. All systems are networked with Ethernet to serve the majority of communication needs, and asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) is used to transport multicast video and synchronization triggers. CORBA software infra-structure provides location-independent communication services over TCP/IP between the application processes in the 15 supervisory and 300 FEP systems. Video images sampled from 500 video cameras at a 10-Hz frame rate will be multicast using direct ATM Application Programming Interface (API) communication from video FEPs to any selected operator console. The Ethernet and ATM control networks are used to broadcast two types of device triggers for last-second functions in a large number of FEPs, thus eliminating the need for a separate infrastructure for these functions. Analysis, design, modeling, and testing of the NIF network has been performed to provide confidence that the network design will meet NIF control requirements.

  19. The ADVANCE network: accelerating data value across a national community health center network

    PubMed Central

    DeVoe, Jennifer E; Gold, Rachel; Cottrell, Erika; Bauer, Vance; Brickman, Andrew; Puro, Jon; Nelson, Christine; Mayer, Kenneth H; Sears, Abigail; Burdick, Tim; Merrell, Jonathan; Matthews, Paul; Fields, Scott

    2014-01-01

    The ADVANCE (Accelerating Data Value Across a National Community Health Center Network) clinical data research network (CDRN) is led by the OCHIN Community Health Information Network in partnership with Health Choice Network and Fenway Health. The ADVANCE CDRN will ‘horizontally’ integrate outpatient electronic health record data for over one million federally qualified health center patients, and ‘vertically’ integrate hospital, health plan, and community data for these patients, often under-represented in research studies. Patient investigators, community investigators, and academic investigators with diverse expertise will work together to meet project goals related to data integration, patient engagement and recruitment, and the development of streamlined regulatory policies. By enhancing the data and research infrastructure of participating organizations, the ADVANCE CDRN will serve as a ‘community laboratory’ for including disadvantaged and vulnerable patients in patient-centered outcomes research that is aligned with the priorities of patients, clinics, and communities in our network. PMID:24821740

  20. Direct2Experts: a pilot national network to demonstrate interoperability among research-networking platforms

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, William; Conlon, Mike; Eichmann, David; Kibbe, Warren; Falk-Krzesinski, Holly; Halaas, Michael; Johnson, Layne; Meeks, Eric; Mitchell, Donald; Schleyer, Titus; Stallings, Sarah; Warden, Michael; Kahlon, Maninder

    2011-01-01

    Research-networking tools use data-mining and social networking to enable expertise discovery, matchmaking and collaboration, which are important facets of team science and translational research. Several commercial and academic platforms have been built, and many institutions have deployed these products to help their investigators find local collaborators. Recent studies, though, have shown the growing importance of multiuniversity teams in science. Unfortunately, the lack of a standard data-exchange model and resistance of universities to share information about their faculty have presented barriers to forming an institutionally supported national network. This case report describes an initiative, which, in only 6 months, achieved interoperability among seven major research-networking products at 28 universities by taking an approach that focused on addressing institutional concerns and encouraging their participation. With this necessary groundwork in place, the second phase of this effort can begin, which will expand the network's functionality and focus on the end users. PMID:22037890

  1. Direct2Experts: a pilot national network to demonstrate interoperability among research-networking platforms.

    PubMed

    Weber, Griffin M; Barnett, William; Conlon, Mike; Eichmann, David; Kibbe, Warren; Falk-Krzesinski, Holly; Halaas, Michael; Johnson, Layne; Meeks, Eric; Mitchell, Donald; Schleyer, Titus; Stallings, Sarah; Warden, Michael; Kahlon, Maninder

    2011-12-01

    Research-networking tools use data-mining and social networking to enable expertise discovery, matchmaking and collaboration, which are important facets of team science and translational research. Several commercial and academic platforms have been built, and many institutions have deployed these products to help their investigators find local collaborators. Recent studies, though, have shown the growing importance of multiuniversity teams in science. Unfortunately, the lack of a standard data-exchange model and resistance of universities to share information about their faculty have presented barriers to forming an institutionally supported national network. This case report describes an initiative, which, in only 6 months, achieved interoperability among seven major research-networking products at 28 universities by taking an approach that focused on addressing institutional concerns and encouraging their participation. With this necessary groundwork in place, the second phase of this effort can begin, which will expand the network's functionality and focus on the end users. PMID:22037890

  2. Preliminary systems engineering evaluations for the National Ecological Observatory Network.

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Perry J.; Kottenstette, Richard Joseph; Crouch, Shannon M.; Brocato, Robert Wesley; Zak, Bernard Daniel; Osborn, Thor D.; Ivey, Mark D.; Gass, Karl Leslie; Heller, Edwin J.; Dishman, James Larry; Schubert, William Kent; Zirzow, Jeffrey A.

    2008-11-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is an ambitious National Science Foundation sponsored project intended to accumulate and disseminate ecologically informative sensor data from sites among 20 distinct biomes found within the United States and Puerto Rico over a period of at least 30 years. These data are expected to provide valuable insights into the ecological impacts of climate change, land-use change, and invasive species in these various biomes, and thereby provide a scientific foundation for the decisions of future national, regional, and local policy makers. NEON's objectives are of substantial national and international importance, yet they must be achieved with limited resources. Sandia National Laboratories was therefore contracted to examine four areas of significant systems engineering concern; specifically, alternatives to commercial electrical utility power for remote operations, approaches to data acquisition and local data handling, protocols for secure long-distance data transmission, and processes and procedures for the introduction of new instruments and continuous improvement of the sensor network. The results of these preliminary systems engineering evaluations are presented, with a series of recommendations intended to optimize the efficiency and probability of long-term success for the NEON enterprise.

  3. From Caprio's lilacs to the USA National Phenology Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwartz, Mark D.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2012-01-01

    Continental-scale monitoring is vital for understanding and adapting to temporal changes in seasonal climate and associated phenological responses. The success of monitoring programs will depend on recruiting, retaining, and managing members of the public to routinely collect phenological observations according to standardized protocols. Here, we trace the development of infrastructure for phenological monitoring in the US, culminating in the USA National Phenology Network, a program that engages scientists and volunteers.

  4. Development of Cyberinfrastructure to Support the USA National Phenology Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, B. E.; Hruby, T. H.; Meymaris, K.; Grunberg, W.; Crom, B. B.

    2007-12-01

    The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN) is an emerging and exciting partnership among academic communities, federal agencies, and volunteers. The USA-NPN consists of four components, representing different levels of spatial coverage and quality/quantity of phenological and related environmental information: 1) Locally intensive sites focused on process studies; 2) Spatially extensive scientific networks focused on large- scale phenomena; 3) Volunteer and Education Networks; and 4) remote sensing products that can be validated against ground observations and assimilated to extend surface phenological observations to the continental- scale. A critical challenge for the USA-NPN is the development of a robust and cost-effective cyberinfrastructure which supports the distributed collection and management of phenological data across these differing components. In this presentation, we will present the Phase I cyberinfrastructure for USA-NPN, designed to support the most critical needs across these tiers, as well as the structure planned for Phases II and III. Phase I is based on a range of technologies leveraged from several efforts, including the Plant Phenology Network, the National Biological Information Infrastructure Metadata Clearinghouse, Project BudBurst, and the ORNL Distributed Active Archive Center.

  5. 77 FR 22286 - NCAnet: Building a Network of Networks in Support of the National Climate Assessment (NCA)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NCAnet: Building a Network of Networks in Support of the... notice announces the establishment of and invites participation in NCAnet, a network of partners who... Group of the NCADAC has established NCAnet as a network of partner organizations that can support...

  6. 34 CFR 412.4 - What is the National Network of Directors Council?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the National Network of Directors Council? 412...) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NATIONAL NETWORK FOR CURRICULUM COORDINATION IN VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION General § 412.4 What is the National Network of...

  7. 34 CFR 412.4 - What is the National Network of Directors Council?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is the National Network of Directors Council? 412...) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NATIONAL NETWORK FOR CURRICULUM COORDINATION IN VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION General § 412.4 What is the National Network of...

  8. 76 FR 38129 - Applications for New Awards; Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) National Network Knowledge...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... April 28, 2006 (71 FR 25472). The ADA National Network Knowledge Translation Center priority is from the... Applications for New Awards; Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) National Network Knowledge Translation... Rehabilitation Research Projects (DRRP)--The ADA National Network Knowledge Translation Center Notice...

  9. 34 CFR 412.4 - What is the National Network of Directors Council?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is the National Network of Directors Council? 412...) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NATIONAL NETWORK FOR CURRICULUM COORDINATION IN VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION General § 412.4 What is the National Network of...

  10. 34 CFR 412.4 - What is the National Network of Directors Council?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is the National Network of Directors Council? 412...) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NATIONAL NETWORK FOR CURRICULUM COORDINATION IN VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION General § 412.4 What is the National Network of...

  11. 34 CFR 412.4 - What is the National Network of Directors Council?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is the National Network of Directors Council? 412...) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NATIONAL NETWORK FOR CURRICULUM COORDINATION IN VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION General § 412.4 What is the National Network of...

  12. 77 FR 20010 - Notice of Public Workshop: “Designing for Impact: Workshop on Building the National Network for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... on Building the National Network for Manufacturing Innovation'' AGENCY: Advanced Manufacturing... ``Designing for Impact: Workshop on Building the National Network for Manufacturing Innovation.'' The workshops will provide a forum for the AMPNO to introduce the National Network for Manufacturing...

  13. Blood lead concentrations in mallards from Delevan and Colusa National Wildlife Refuges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mauser, David M.; Rocke, Tonie E.; Mensik, John G.; Brand, Christopher J.

    1990-01-01

    Blood samples were taken from 181 (108 adult drakes and 73 individuals of mixed age and sex) mallards, Anas platyrhynchos , from Colusa and Delevan National Wildlife Refuges during late winter and summer of 1987. The percentage of birds with elevated lead concentration was 28.7 for late winter and 16.4 for late summer. For summer trapped birds, a significantly greater proportion of males than females contained elevated lead levels. These findings indicate that lead poisoning may be a year-round event in certain areas of the Sacramento Valley.

  14. Estimating National-scale Emissions using Dense Monitoring Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesan, A.; Manning, A.; Grant, A.; Young, D.; Oram, D.; Sturges, W. T.; Moncrieff, J. B.; O'Doherty, S.

    2014-12-01

    The UK's DECC (Deriving Emissions linked to Climate Change) network consists of four greenhouse gas measurement stations that are situated to constrain emissions from the UK and Northwest Europe. These four stations are located in Mace Head (West Coast of Ireland), and on telecommunication towers at Ridge Hill (Western England), Tacolneston (Eastern England) and Angus (Eastern Scotland). With the exception of Angus, which currently only measures carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), the remaining sites are additionally equipped to monitor nitrous oxide (N2O). We present an analysis of the network's CH4 and N2O observations from 2011-2013 and compare derived top-down regional emissions with bottom-up inventories, including a recently produced high-resolution inventory (UK National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory). As countries are moving toward national-level emissions estimation, we also address some of the considerations that need to be made when designing these national networks. One of the novel aspects of this work is that we use a hierarchical Bayesian inversion framework. This methodology, which has newly been applied to greenhouse gas emissions estimation, is designed to estimate temporally and spatially varying model-measurement uncertainties and correlation scales, in addition to fluxes. Through this analysis, we demonstrate the importance of characterizing these covariance parameters in order to properly use data from high-density monitoring networks. This UK case study highlights the ways in which this new inverse framework can be used to address some of the limitations of traditional Bayesian inverse methods.

  15. 76 FR 76048 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 RIN 2060-AR17 Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards Correction In rule document 2011-29460 appearing on pages 72097-72120 in the issues...

  16. Evolving plans for the USA National Phenology Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Betancourt, Julio L.; Schwartz, Mark D.; Breshears, David D.; Brewer, Carol A.; Frazer, Gary; Gross, John E.; Mazer, Susan J.; Reed, Bradley C.; Wilson, Bruce E.

    2007-01-01

    Phenology is the study of periodic plant and animal life cycle events, how these are influenced by seasonal and interannual variations in climate, and how they modulate the abundance, diversity, and interactions of organisms. The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN) is currently being organized to engage federal agencies, environmental networks and field stations, educational institutions, and citizen scientists. The first USA-NPN planning workshop was held August 2005, in Tucson, Ariz. (Betancourt et al. [2005]; http://www.uwm.edu/Dept/Geography/npn/; by 1 June 2007, also see http://www.usanpn.org). With sponsorship from the U.S. National Science Foundation, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and NASA, the second USA-NPN planning workshop was held at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee on 10–12 October 2006 to (1) develop lists of target species and observation protocols; (2) identify existing networks that could comprise the backbone of nationwide observations by 2008; (3) develop opportunities for education, citizen science, and outreach beginning in spring 2007; (4) design strategies for implementing the remote sensing component of USA-NPN; and (5) draft a data management and cyberinfrastructure plan.

  17. Four health data networks illustrate the potential for a shared national multipurpose big-data network.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Lesley H; Brown, Jeffrey; Platt, Richard

    2014-07-01

    Information in electronic health data that are drawn from large populations of patients is transforming health care, public health practice, and clinical research. This article describes our experience in developing data networks that repurpose electronic health records and administrative data. The four programs we feature are the Food and Drug Administration's Mini-Sentinel program (which focuses on medical product safety), the National Patient-Centered Clinical Research Network (PCORnet, comparative effectiveness research), the National Institutes of Health's Health Care Systems Research Collaboratory Distributed Research Network (biomedical research), and ESPnet (public health surveillance). Challenges to these uses of electronic health data include understanding the factors driving the collection, coding, and preservation of the data; the extensive customization of different systems that collect similar data; the fragmentation of the US health care delivery system and its records; and privacy and proprietary considerations. We view these four programs as examples of the first stage in the development of a shared national big-data resource that leverages the investments of many agencies and organizations for the benefit of multiple networks and users. PMID:25006144

  18. A National Water Network for Future Impacts Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rising, J. A.; Troy, T.; Lall, U.

    2015-12-01

    Water availability is driven by both climate and socioeconomicinteractions, and in some cases needs to be studied at a large scalethat spans multiple watersheds. To understand how regions will beimpacted as precipitation and demand patterns shift, this projectbuilds a national water network for the United States, incorporatinggauges, reservoirs, canals, and their interactions with counties. Thebasic structure of the network follows the HydroSHEDS dataset, anddownstream and demand interactions are modeled using all availablemonthly data from the USGS GAGES II database. As a diagnostic, we usethe database to study the extent that snowmelt supports downstreamstreamflow. Using these models, we can also estimate streamflowsduring unrecorded years, expanding the dataset. We then use thenetwork to develop a model of optimal extraction, and consider athought experiment for reallocating U.S. cropland to generate the mosteconomic benefit for irrigation.

  19. US earthquake observatories: recommendations for a new national network

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This report is the first attempt by the seismological community to rationalize and optimize the distribution of earthquake observatories across the United States. The main aim is to increase significantly our knowledge of earthquakes and the earth's dynamics by providing access to scientifically more valuable data. Other objectives are to provide a more efficient and cost-effective system of recording and distributing earthquake data and to make as uniform as possible the recording of earthquakes in all states. The central recommendation of the Panel is that the guiding concept be established of a rationalized and integrated seismograph system consisting of regional seismograph networks run for crucial regional research and monitoring purposes in tandem with a carefully designed, but sparser, nationwide network of technologically advanced observatories. Such a national system must be thought of not only in terms of instrumentation but equally in terms of data storage, computer processing, and record availability.

  20. A Cyberinfrastructure for the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimel, D.; Berukoff, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is an NSF-funded project designed to provide physical and information infrastructure to support the development of continental-scale, quantitative ecological sciences. The network consists of sixty sites located in the continental US, Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico, each site hosting terrestrial and aquatic sensors and observational apparati that acquire data across multiple ecoclimatic domains. As well, an airborne remote sensing platform provides spectral and LiDAR data, and acquisition of data sets from external agencies allows for land-use studies. Together, this data is ingested, vetted, processed, and curated by a standards-based, provenance-driven, metadata-rich cyberinfrastructure, which will provide not only access to but discovery and manipulation of NEON data, and the construction of integrative data products and inputs for ecological forecasting that address fundamental processual questions in climate change, land use change, and invasive species.

  1. Meditation leads to reduced default mode network activity beyond an active task.

    PubMed

    Garrison, Kathleen A; Zeffiro, Thomas A; Scheinost, Dustin; Constable, R Todd; Brewer, Judson A

    2015-09-01

    Meditation has been associated with relatively reduced activity in the default mode network, a brain network implicated in self-related thinking and mind wandering. However, previous imaging studies have typically compared meditation to rest, despite other studies having reported differences in brain activation patterns between meditators and controls at rest. Moreover, rest is associated with a range of brain activation patterns across individuals that has only recently begun to be better characterized. Therefore, in this study we compared meditation to another active cognitive task, both to replicate the findings that meditation is associated with relatively reduced default mode network activity and to extend these findings by testing whether default mode activity was reduced during meditation, beyond the typical reductions observed during effortful tasks. In addition, prior studies had used small groups, whereas in the present study we tested these hypotheses in a larger group. The results indicated that meditation is associated with reduced activations in the default mode network, relative to an active task, for meditators as compared to controls. Regions of the default mode network showing a Group × Task interaction included the posterior cingulate/precuneus and anterior cingulate cortex. These findings replicate and extend prior work indicating that the suppression of default mode processing may represent a central neural process in long-term meditation, and they suggest that meditation leads to relatively reduced default mode processing beyond that observed during another active cognitive task. PMID:25904238

  2. The USA National Phenology Network Land Surface Phenology/Remote Sensing Phenology Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morisette, J. T.; Brown, J. F.; Henebry, G. M.

    2009-12-01

    The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN) brings together professional scientists, citizen-scientists, government agencies, non-profit groups, educators and students of all ages to monitor the impacts of climate change on plants and animals in the United States. A key initiative of the USA-NPN is to coordinate activities related to monitoring land surface phenology (LSP) across large areas, including, but not limited to, satellite-derived remote sensing phenology (RSP) products. Main objectives for this USA-NPN initiative are: 1) coordinating RSP/LSP activities across US federal agencies, other national programs, and academic scientists and 2) leading research on the utility and accuracy of RSP/LSP products. This poster provides details on these two objectives and information on the current status of three related efforts. One is the coordination and use of a NASA RSP product to assist in the National Science Foundation-led National Ecological Observatory Network aircraft deployment strategy. The second is linking the USA-NPN activities to the USGS-led “Remote Sensing Phenology” web site. The third is addressing how LSP/RSP can inform a National Phenological Assessment.

  3. Ground-water contamination from lead shot at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge, Sussex County, Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soeder, Daniel J.; Miller, Cherie V.

    2003-01-01

    Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge is located in southeastern Delaware in coastal lowlands along the margin of Delaware Bay. For 37 years, the Broadkiln Sportsman?s Club adjacent to the refuge operated a trap-shooting range, with the clay-target launchers oriented so that the expended lead shot from the range dropped into forested wetland areas on the refuge property. Investigators have estimated that up to 58,000 shotgun pellets per square foot are present in locations on the refuge where the lead shot fell to the ground. As part of the environmental risk assessment for the site, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) investigated the potential for lead contamination in ground water. Results from two sampling rounds in 19 shallow wells indicate that elevated levels of dissolved lead are present in ground water at the site. The lead and associated metals, such as antimony and arsenic (common shotgun pellet alloys), are being transported along shallow ground-water flowpaths toward an open-water slough in the forested wetland adjacent to the downrange target area. Water samples from wells located along the bank of the slough contained dissolved lead concentrations higher than 400 micrograms per liter, and as high as 1 milligram per liter. In contrast, a natural background concentration of lead from ground water in a well upgradient from the site is about 1 microgram per liter. Two water samples collected several months apart from the slough directly downgradient of the shooting range contained 24 and 212 micrograms per liter of lead, respectively. The data indicate that lead from a concentrated deposit of shotgun pellets on the refuge has been mobilized through a combination of acidic water conditions and a very sandy, shallow, unconfined aquifer, and is moving along ground-water flowpaths toward the surface-water drainage. Data from this study will be used to help delineate the lead plume, and determine the fate and transport of lead from the source area.

  4. The USA National Phenology Network: A national science and monitoring program for understanding climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weltzin, J.

    2009-04-01

    Patterns of phenology for plants and animals control ecosystem processes, determine land surface properties, control biosphere-atmosphere interactions, and affect food production, health, conservation, and recreation. Although phenological data and models have applications related to scientific research, education and outreach, agriculture, tourism and recreation, human health, and natural resource conservation and management, until recently there was no coordinated effort to understand phenology at the national scale in the United States. The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN; www.usanpn.org), established in 2007, is an emerging and exciting partnership between federal agencies, the academic community, and the general public to establish a national science and monitoring initiative focused on phenology. The first year of operation of USA-NPN produced many new phenology products and venues for phenology research and citizen involvement. Products include a new web-site (www.usanpn.org) that went live in June 2008; the web-site includes a tool for on-line data entry, and serves as a clearinghouse for products and information to facilitate research and communication related to phenology. The new core Plant Phenology Program includes profiles for 200 vetted local, regional, and national plant species with descriptions and (BBCH-consistent) monitoring protocols, as well as templates for addition of new species. A partnership program describes how other monitoring networks can engage with USA-NPN to collect, manage or disseminate phenological information for science, health, education, management or predictive service applications. Project BudBurst, a USA-NPN field campaign for citizen scientists, went live in February 2008, and now includes over 3000 registered observers monitoring 4000 plants across the nation. For 2009 and beyond, we will initiate a new Wildlife Phenology Program, create an on-line clearing-house for phenology education and outreach, strengthen

  5. National Tuberculosis Genotyping and Surveillance Network: Design and Methods

    PubMed Central

    Braden, Christopher R.; Schable, Barbara A.; Onorato, Ida M.

    2002-01-01

    The National Tuberculosis Genotyping and Surveillance Network was established in 1996 to perform a 5-year, prospective study of the usefulness of genotyping Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates to tuberculosis control programs. Seven sentinel sites identified all new cases of tuberculosis, collected information on patients and contacts, and obtained patient isolates. Seven genotyping laboratories performed DNA fingerprinting analysis by the international standard IS6110 method. BioImage Whole Band Analyzer software was used to analyze patterns, and distinct patterns were assigned unique designations. Isolates with six or fewer bands on IS6110 patterns were also spoligotyped. Patient data and genotyping designations were entered in a relational database and merged with selected variables from the national surveillance database. In two related databases, we compiled the results of routine contact investigations and the results of investigations of the relationships of patients who had isolates with matching genotypes. We describe the methods used in the study. PMID:12453342

  6. Building Capacity: The National Network for Ocean and Climate Change Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitzer, W.

    2014-12-01

    In the US, more than 1,500 informal science venues (science centers, museums, aquariums, zoos, nature centers, national parks) are visited annually by 61% of the population. Research shows that these visitors are receptive to learning about climate change, and expect these institutions to provide reliable information about environmental issues and solutions. These informal science venues play a critical role in shaping public understanding. Since 2007, the New England Aquarium has led a national effort to increase the capacity of informal science venues to effectively communicate about climate change. We are now leading the NSF-funded National Network for Ocean and Climate Change Interpretation (NNOCCI), partnering with the Association of Zoos and Aquariums, FrameWorks Institute, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Monterey Bay Aquarium, and National Aquarium, with evaluation conducted by the New Knowledge Organization, Pennsylvania State University, and Ohio State University. After two years of project implementation, key findings include: 1. Importance of adaptive management - We continue to make ongoing changes in training format, content, and roles of facilitators and participants. 2. Impacts on interpreters - We have multiple lines of evidence for changes in knowledge, skills, attitudes, and behaviors. 3. Social radiation - Trained interpreters have a significant influence on their friends, family and colleagues. 4. Visitor impacts - "Exposure to "strategically framed" interpretation does change visitors' perceptions about climate change. 5. Community of practice - We are seeing evidence of growing participation, leadership, and sustainability. 6. Diffusion of innovation - Peer networks are facilitating dissemination throughout the informal science education community. Over the next five years, NNOCCI will achieve a systemic national impact across the ISE community, embed its work within multiple ongoing regional and national climate change education

  7. Preliminary Design Study for a National Digital Seismograph Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Jon; Hutt, Charles R.

    1981-01-01

    Introduction Recently, the National Research Council published a report by the Panel on National, Regional, and Local Seismograph Networks of the Committee on Seismology in which the principal recommendation was for the establishment of a national digital seismograph network (NDSN). The Panel Report (Bolt, 1980) addresses both the need and the scientific requirements for the new national network. The purpose of this study has been to translate the scientific requirements into an instrumentation concept for the NSDS. There are literally hundreds, perhaps thousands, of seismographs in operation within the United States. Each serves an important purpose, but most have limited objectives in time, in region, or in the types of data that are being recorded. The concept of a national network, funded and operated by the Federal Government, is based on broader objectives that include continuity of time, uniform coverage, standardization of data format and instruments, and widespread use of the data for a variety of research purposes. A national digital seismograph network will be an important data resource for many years to come; hence, its design is likely to be of interest to most seismologists. Seismologists have traditionally been involved in the development and field operation of seismic systems and thus have been familiar with both the potential value and the limitations of the data. However, in recent years of increasing technological sophistication, the development of data sstems has fallen more to system engineers, and this trend is likely to continue. One danger in this is that the engineers may misinterpret scientific objectives or subordinate them to purely technological considerations. Another risk is that the data users may misuse or misinterpret the data because they are not aware of the limitations of the data system. Perhaps the most important purpose of a design study such as this is to stimulate a dialogue between system engineers and potential data users

  8. National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Clinical Practice Guidelines for Lung Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Wood, Douglas E

    2015-05-01

    The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN), a not-for-profit alliance of 25 of the world's leading cancer centers devoted to patient care, research, and education, is dedicated to improving the quality, effectiveness, and efficiency of cancer care so that patients can live better lives. The intent of the NCCN Guidelines is to assist in the decision-making process of individuals involved in cancer care-including physicians, nurses, pharmacists, payers, patients, and their families-with the ultimate goal of advancing patient care in the fight against cancer. PMID:25901562

  9. Enhancement of the national strong-motion network in Turkey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gulkan, Polat; Ceken, U.; Colakoglu, Z.; Ugras, T.; Kuru, T.; Apak, A.; Anderson, J.G.; Sucuoglu, H.; Celebi, M.; Akkar, D.S.; Yazgan, U.; Denizlioglu, A.Z.

    2007-01-01

    Two arrays comprising 20 strong-motion sensors were established in western Turkey. The 14 stations of BYTNet follow a N-S trending line about 65 km in length, normal to strands of the North Anatolian fault that runs between the cities of Bursa and Yalova. Here the dominant character of the potential fault movement is a right-lateral transform slip. The DATNet array, comprising a total of eight stations, is arranged along a 110-km-long E-W trending direction along the Menderes River valley between Denizli and Aydin. (Two stations in this array were incorporated from the existing Turkish national strong-motion network.) This is an extensional tectonic environment, and the network mornitors potential large normal-faulting earthquakes on the faults in the valley. The installation of the arrays was supported by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) under its Science for Peace Program. Maintenance and calibration is performed by the General Directorate of Disaster Affairs (GDDA) according to a protocol between Middle East Technical University (METU) and GDDA. Many young engineers and scientists have been trained in network operation and evaluation during the course of the project, and an international workshop dealing with strong-motion instrumentation has been organized as part of the project activities.

  10. 77 FR 35711 - Strong Cities, Strong Communities National Resource Network Pilot Program Advance Notice and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-14

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Strong Cities, Strong Communities National Resource Network Pilot Program Advance..., Strong Communities National Resource Network pilot program with its 19 federal agency and subagency... Resource Network, HUD and its partners will offer a central portal to connect America's most...

  11. 77 FR 33229 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; National Resource Network

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; National Resource Network.... This Notice also lists the following information: Title of Proposal: National Resource Network. OMB... Resource Network. The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development Appropriations Act, 2012 (Pub....

  12. Lead in mule deer forage in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, P.D.; Dyer, M.I.

    1984-01-01

    Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) forage collected from roadsides in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, contained lead (Pb) concentrations ranging from 0.8 to >50 ..mu..g/g. Concentrations were inversely correlated with distance from the roadway. Equations developed to estimate deer absorption of Pb from contaminated roadside vegetation indicate that deer in some age-classes need only to consume 1.4% of their daily intake of forage from roadsides before consuming excessive amounts of Pb.

  13. Meditation leads to reduced default mode network activity beyond an active task

    PubMed Central

    Garrison, Kathleen A.; Zeffiro, Thomas A.; Scheinost, Dustin; Constable, R. Todd; Brewer, Judson A.

    2015-01-01

    Meditation has been associated with relatively reduced activity in the default mode network, a brain network implicated in self-related thinking and mind wandering. However, previous imaging studies have typically compared meditation to rest despite other studies reporting differences in brain activation patterns between meditators and controls at rest. Moreover, rest is associated with a range of brain activation patterns across individuals that has only recently begun to be better characterized. Therefore, this study compared meditation to another active cognitive task, both to replicate findings that meditation is associated with relatively reduced default mode network activity, and to extend these findings by testing whether default mode activity was reduced during meditation beyond the typical reductions observed during effortful tasks. In addition, prior studies have used small groups, whereas the current study tested these hypotheses in a larger group. Results indicate that meditation is associated with reduced activations in the default mode network relative to an active task in meditators compared to controls. Regions of the default mode showing a group by task interaction include the posterior cingulate/precuneus and anterior cingulate cortex. These findings replicate and extend prior work indicating that suppression of default mode processing may represent a central neural process in long-term meditation, and suggest that meditation leads to relatively reduced default mode processing beyond that observed during another active cognitive task. PMID:25904238

  14. A study on precursors leading to geomagnetic storms using artificial neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Gaurav; Singh, A. K.

    2016-06-01

    Space weather prediction involves advance forecasting of the magnitude and onset time of major geomagnetic storms on Earth. In this paper, we discuss the development of an artificial neural network-based model to study the precursor leading to intense and moderate geomagnetic storms, following halo coronal mass ejection (CME) and related interplanetary (IP) events. IP inputs were considered within a 5-day time window after the commencement of storm. The artificial neural network (ANN) model training, testing and validation datasets were constructed based on 110 halo CMEs (both full and partial halo and their properties) observed during the ascending phase of the 24th solar cycle between 2009 and 2014. The geomagnetic storm occurrence rate from halo CMEs is estimated at a probability of 79%, by this model.

  15. A study on precursors leading to geomagnetic storms using artificial neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Gaurav; Singh, A. K.

    2016-07-01

    Space weather prediction involves advance forecasting of the magnitude and onset time of major geomagnetic storms on Earth. In this paper, we discuss the development of an artificial neural network-based model to study the precursor leading to intense and moderate geomagnetic storms, following halo coronal mass ejection (CME) and related interplanetary (IP) events. IP inputs were considered within a 5-day time window after the commencement of storm. The artificial neural network (ANN) model training, testing and validation datasets were constructed based on 110 halo CMEs (both full and partial halo and their properties) observed during the ascending phase of the 24th solar cycle between 2009 and 2014. The geomagnetic storm occurrence rate from halo CMEs is estimated at a probability of 79%, by this model.

  16. Rockfall risk mapping for the entire Swiss national road network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorren, L.; Sandri, A.; Raetzo, H.; Arnold, P.

    2009-04-01

    Since January 2008, the federal roads office (FEDRO) is responsible for the entire national road/highway network of Switzerland. Until then, the national roads were managed by Cantonal road services until 2008. As a result, Swiss-wide, standardized information on natural hazards that threaten national roads was not available. The FEDRO therefore decided to initiate a four year project, with the technical support of the Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN), aiming at quantifying and mapping all risks due to natural hazards threatening Swiss national roads (total length = 1892 km). For rockfall, the frequency and intensity should be determined by geotechnical bureaus that carry out the field investigations and the subsequent hazard and risk modeling. To aim for a homogeneous and comparable dataset, a working method consisting of three steps has been developed. The first step defines how and which event-size scenarios (return period 0 - 10 yrs, 10 - 30 yrs, 30 - 100 yrs, 100 - 300 yrs.) should be determined. The second defines how the potentially affected area given the 4 scenarios and existing protective measures (nets, dams, forest, etc.) should be delimited. The third defines how the risk of having highway closure, damage to cars and infrastructure or casualties due to rockfall affecting the national roads and surroundings should be calculated and visualized. A pilot study started in July 2008, which covers 20 km of the Gotthard highway, in which 2 groups of jointly working geotechnical bureaus are studying the rockfall hazards. Their first results are currently available. We will present the details of each step of the developed method illustrated by the first project results and subsequently discuss gaps in knowledge and methodological differences that emerged and, if possible, potential solutions.

  17. GENASIS national and international monitoring networks for persistent organic pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brabec, Karel; Dušek, Ladislav; Holoubek, Ivan; Hřebíček, Jiří; Kubásek, Miroslav; Urbánek, Jaroslav

    2010-05-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) remain in the centre of scientific attention due to their slow rates of degradation, their toxicity, and potential for both long-range transport and bioaccumulation in living organisms. This group of compounds covers large number of various chemicals from industrial products, such as polychlorinated biphenyls, etc. The GENASIS (Global Environmental Assessment and Information System) information system utilizes data from national and international monitoring networks to obtain as-complete-as-possible set of information and a representative picture of environmental contamination by persistent organic pollutants (POPs). There are data from two main datasets on POPs monitoring: 1.Integrated monitoring of POPs in Košetice Observatory (Czech Republic) which is a long term background site of the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) for the Central Europe; the data reveals long term trends of POPs in all environmental matrices. The Observatory is the only one in Europe where POPs have been monitored not only in ambient air, but also in wet atmospheric deposition, surface waters, sediments, soil, mosses and needles (integrated monitoring). Consistent data since the year 1996 are available, earlier data (up to 1998) are burdened by high variability and high detection limits. 2.MONET network is ambient air monitoring activities in the Central and Eastern European region (CEEC), Central Asia, Africa and Pacific Islands driven by RECETOX as the Regional Centre of the Stockholm Convention for the region of Central and Eastern Europe under the common name of the MONET networks (MONitoring NETwork). For many of the participating countries these activities generated first data on the atmospheric levels of POPs. The MONET network uses new technologies of air passive sampling, which was developed, tested, and calibrated by RECETOX in cooperation with Environment Canada and Lancaster University, and was originally launched as a

  18. Global Reference Frame Realization on National Level Based on the Integration of National CORS Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenyeres, A.; Caporali, A.; Horvath, T.; Baron, A.; Doncker, F. D.; Droscak, B.; Duret, A.; Franke, P.; Georgiev, I.; Gianniou, M.; Hansen, D.; Huisman, L.; Morozova, K.; Nagl, J.; Pihlak, P.; Stangl, G.; Valdes, M.; Ryczywolski, M.; Zurutuza, J.

    2015-12-01

    The national permanent GNSS networks are not only serving the general surveying practice in real-time mode, but they are deployed at reference frame maintenance and geodynamic studies relying on their homogeneously analyzed long-term data series. The ongoing EPN (EUREF Permanent Network) densification targets the integration of the national CORS networks and a homogeneous, dense position and velocity product is derived using the EPN as backbone infrastructure. The homogeneous cumulative solution relies on the national weekly SINEX products in order to minimize inconsistencies (e.g. site naming, discontinuities). The integration is done with the CATREF software (Altamimi et al, IGN) using the Minimum Constraint approach. The derived position and velocity product will be an essential material for various geokinematic studies (PGR, intraplate and plate boundary zone investigations), and also for the better realization of ETRS89 over tectonically active regions. This work is very well inline with the goals of other European initiatives as EPOS and EUPOS. The preparatory work is well in progress, several years of weekly SINEX files are already available and analyzed. The database contains more than 2000 stations stemming from 15 contributing Analysis Centres. A significant effort is devoted to the cleaning and organization of the station metadata and publish on the EPNCB website, which is necessary to improve the quality and reliabilty of the combination product.This presentation, beyond the publication of the state-of the-art combination results partly focuses on the analysis of existing reference frame realization issues caused by the GNSS antenna PCV updates not yet eliminated on the national CORS level.

  19. A National Climate Change Adaptation Network for Protecting Water Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, A.; Sauchyn, D.; Byrne, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    Water security and resource-dependent community-survival are being increasingly challenged as a consequence of climate change, and it is urgent that we plan now for the security of our water supplies which support our lives and livelihoods. However, the range of impacts of climate change on water availability, and the consequent environmental and human adaptations that are required, is so complex and serious that it will take the combined work of natural, health and social scientists working with industries and communities to solve them. Networks are needed that will identify crucial water issues under climate change at a range of scales in order to provide regionally-sensitive, solutions-oriented research and adaptation. We suggest national and supra-national water availability and community sustainability issues must be addressed by multidisciplinary research and adaptation networks. The work must be driven by a bottom-up research paradigm — science in the service of community and governance. We suggest that interdisciplinary teams of researchers, in partnership with community decision makers and local industries, are the best means to develop solutions as communities attempt to address future water demands, protect their homes from infrastructure damage, and meet their food, drinking water, and other essential resource requirements. The intention is to cover: the impact of climate change on Canadian natural resources, both marine and terrestrial; issues of long-term sustainability and resilience in human communities and the environments in which they are embedded; the making and moving of knowledge, be that between members of Indigenous and non-Indigenous communities, researchers of different disciplines, communities, industry, policymakers and the academy and the crucial involvement of the various orders of government in the response to water problems, under conditions of heightened uncertainty. Such an adaptation network must include a national

  20. Castnet national dry deposition network 1990-1992 status report

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgardner, R.

    1995-08-01

    The National Dry Deposition Network (NDDN) was established to provide long-term estimates of dry acidic deposition across the continental United States. Fifty routine sites were operational from 1990 to 1992, including 41 sites in the eastern United States and 9 sites in the western United States. Each site was equipped with sensors for continuous measurements of ozone and meteorological variables required for estimation of dry deposition rates. Weekly average atmospheric concentrations of particulate sulfate, particulate nitrate, particulate ammonium, sulfur dioxide, and nitric acid were measured at all sites and wet deposition of acidity and related species were measured at selected sites. Two methods development sites were installed during 1991 to evaluate: (1) comparability of United States and Canadian air quality measurements, and (2) effects of terrain on pollutant concentration and deposition. Routine application of an inferential model for calculation of deposition velocities and dry deposition fluxes was also begun.

  1. Environmental data for sites in the National Solar Data Network

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    Environmental information collected at the sites of the National Solar Data Network is presented in the form of tables for each solar site. The sites are grouped into 12 zones, each of which consists of several adjacent states. The insolation table presents the total, diffuse, direct, maximum, and extraterrestrial radiation for the solar site. It also shows the ratio of total to extraterrestrial radiation as a percent. The temperature table gives the average, daytime, nighttime, maximum, minimum and inlet-water temperatures for the solar site. All of the passive and some of the active solar sites are equipped with wind sensors which provide information for two wind tables furnishing wind speed and direction. For some sites, a humidity table provides relative humidity values for day and night. It also gives values for the maximum and minimum humidity for each day. A technical discussion of the instruments and measurements used to obtain these data tables is included. (LEW)

  2. Building A National Network for Ocean and Climate Change Interpretation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitzer, W.; Anderson, J.

    2013-12-01

    In the US, more than 1,500 informal science venues (science centers, museums, aquariums, zoos, nature centers, national parks) are visited annually by 61% of the population. Research shows that these visitors are receptive to learning about climate change, and expect these institutions to provide reliable information about environmental issues and solutions. Given that we spend less than 5% of our lifetime in a classroom, informal science venues play a critical role in shaping public understanding. Since 2007, the New England Aquarium (NEAq) has led a national effort to increase the capacity of informal science education institutions (ISEIs) to effectively communicate about the impacts of climate change on the oceans. NEAq is now leading the NSF-funded National Network for Ocean and Climate Change Interpretation (NNOCCI), partnering with the Association of Zoos and Aquariums, FrameWorks Institute, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Monterey Bay Aquarium, and National Aquarium, with evaluation conducted by the New Knowledge Organization, Pennsylvania State University, and Ohio State University. NNOCCI's design is based on best practices in informal science learning, cognitive/social psychology, community and network building: Interpreters as Communication Strategists - Interpreters can serve not merely as educators disseminating information, but can also be leaders in influencing public perceptions, given their high level of commitment, knowledge, public trust, social networks, and visitor contact. Communities of Practice - Learning is a social activity that is created through engagement in a supportive community context. Social support is particularly important in addressing a complex, contentious and distressing subject. Diffusion of Innovation - Peer networks are of primary importance in spreading innovations. Leaders serve as 'early adopters' and influence others to achieve a critical mass of implementation. Over the next five years, NNOCCI will achieve a

  3. 76 FR 20347 - Release of Draft Integrated Review Plan for the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... (75 FR 8934). The draft IRP is being made available for consultation with CASAC and for public comment... AGENCY Release of Draft Integrated Review Plan for the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead... National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead (draft IRP). This document contains the plans for...

  4. Update on Plans to Establish a National Phenology Network in the U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betancourt, J.; Schwartz, M.; Breshears, D.; Cayan, D.; Dettinger, M.; Inouye, D.; Post, E.; Reed, B.; Gray, S.

    2005-12-01

    The passing of the seasons is the most pervasive source of climatic and biological variability on Earth, yet phenological monitoring has been spotty worldwide. Formal phenological networks were recently established in Europe and Canada, and we are now following their lead in organizing a National Phenology Network (NPN) for the U.S.A. With support from federal agencies (NSF, USGS, NPS, USDA-FS, EPA, NOAA, NASA), on Aug. 22-26 we organized a workshop in Tucson, Arizona to begin planning a national-scale, multi-tiered phenological network. A prototype for a web-based NPN and preliminary workshop results are available at http://www.npn.uwm.edu. The main goals of NPN will be to: (1) facilitate thorough understanding of phenological phenomena, including causes and effects; (2) provide ground truthing to make the most of heavy public investment in remote sensing data; (3) allow detection and prediction of environmental change for a wide of variety of applications; (4) harness the power of mass participation and engage tens of thousands of "citizen scientists" in meeting national needs in Education, Health, Commerce, Natural Resources and Agriculture; (5) develop a model system for substantive collaboration across different levels of government, academia and the private sector. Just as the national networks of weather stations and stream gauges are critical for providing weather, climate and water-related information, NPN will help safeguard and procure goods and services that ecosystems provide. We expect that NPN will consist of a four-tiered, expandable structure: 1) a backbone network linked to existing weather stations, run by recruited public observers; 2) A smaller, second tier of intensive observations, run by scientists at established research sites; 3) a much larger network of observations made by citizen scientists; and 4) remote sensing observations that can be validated with surface observations, thereby providing wall-to-wall coverage for the U.S.A. Key to

  5. Improving Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander Health: National Organizations Leading Community Research Initiatives

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Won Kim; Weir, Rosy Chang; Ro, Margeurite; Ko, Kathy Lim; Panapasa, Sela; Bautista, Roxanna; Asato, Lloyd; Chung, Corina; Cabllero, Jeffery; Islam, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    Background Functionally, many CBPR projects operate through a model of academic partners providing research expertise and community partners playing a supporting role. Objectives To demonstrate how national umbrella organizations deeply rooted in communities, cognizant of community needs, and drawing on the insights and assets of community partners, can lead efforts to address health disparities affecting their constituents through research. Methods Case studies of two Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander national organizations Results Strategically engaging a diverse range of partners and securing flexible funding mechanisms that support research were important facilitators. Main challenges included limited interest of local community organizations whose primary missions as service or health care providers may deprioritize research. Conclusions Efforts to make research relevant to the work of community partners and to instill the value of research in community partners, as well as flexible funding mechanisms, may help to promote community-driven research. PMID:22643786

  6. Assessing Interorganizational Networks as a Dimension of Community Capacity: Illustrations from a Community Intervention to Prevent Lead Poisoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Helen Harber; Kegler, Michelle Crozier

    2004-01-01

    Network analysis is often cited as a method for assessing collaboration among organizations as an indicator of community capacity. The purpose of this study was to (1) document patterns of collaboration in organizational networks related to lead poisoning prevention in a Native American community and (2) examine measurement issues in using…

  7. Proposed national strategies for the prevention of leading work-related diseases and injuries. Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary strategies developed at the National Symposium on the Prevention of Leading Work Related Diseases and Injuries, held in Atlanta, Georgia on May 1 to 3, 1985 were revised, elaborated, and further developed. Strategies were developed for the prevention of occupational lung diseases, musculoskeletal injuries, occupational cancers, severe occupational traumatic injuries, and occupational cardiovascular diseases. Lung diseases considered included silicosis, asbestosis, lung cancer mesothelioma, coal workers' pneumoconiosis, byssinosis, occupational asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, asphyxiation, irritation, pulmonary edema, brucellosis, psitticosis, anthrax, mycobacterioses, histoplasmosis, aspergillosis, and coccidioidomycosis. Occupational cancers were discussed as they occur in the lung, pleura, peritoneum, bladder, kidneys, blood, nasal cavity, skin, nasal sinuses, and liver.

  8. Sampling microbial communities in the National Ecological Observatory Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, H. E.; Parnell, J.; Powell, H.

    2012-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a national-scale research platform to enable the community to assess impacts of climate change, land-use change, and invasive species on ecosystem structure and function at regional and continental scales. The NEON Observatory will collect data on aquatic organisms over 30 years in 36 sites across the United States, including Alaska and Puerto Rico as well as terrestrial organisms at 60 sites including Hawaii. Included in the biological measurements are microbial measurements in terrestrial and aquatic environments, including small, wadeable streams and shallow lakes. Microbial sampling in both aquatic and terrestrial habitats is being planned to coincide with biogeochemical sampling due to similarity of time scale and influence of external drivers. Aquatic sampling is geared toward species diversity and function. Terrestrial sampling aims to collect data on diversity, function, and spatial distribution dynamics. We are in the process of prioritizing data products, so that the most dynamic processes such as enzymatic activity will be measured more frequently and more intensive measures such as metagenome sequence data will be measured on a periodic basis. Here we present our initial microbial sampling strategy and invite the community to provide comment on the design and learn about microbial data products from the Observatory.

  9. Integrating Susceptibility into Environmental Policy: An Analysis of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for Lead

    PubMed Central

    Chari, Ramya; Burke, Thomas A.; White, Ronald H.; Fox, Mary A.

    2012-01-01

    Susceptibility to chemical toxins has not been adequately addressed in risk assessment methodologies. As a result, environmental policies may fail to meet their fundamental goal of protecting the public from harm. This study examines how characterization of risk may change when susceptibility is explicitly considered in policy development; in particular we examine the process used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to set a National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for lead. To determine a NAAQS, EPA estimated air lead-related decreases in child neurocognitive function through a combination of multiple data elements including concentration-response (CR) functions. In this article, we present alternative scenarios for determining a lead NAAQS using CR functions developed in populations more susceptible to lead toxicity due to socioeconomic disadvantage. The use of CR functions developed in susceptible groups resulted in cognitive decrements greater than original EPA estimates. EPA’s analysis suggested that a standard level of 0.15 µg/m3 would fulfill decision criteria, but by incorporating susceptibility we found that options for the standard could reasonably be extended to lower levels. The use of data developed in susceptible populations would result in the selection of a more protective NAAQS under the same decision framework applied by EPA. Results are used to frame discussion regarding why cumulative risk assessment methodologies are needed to help inform policy development. PMID:22690184

  10. The USA-National Phenology Network Biophysical Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losleben, M. V.; Crimmins, T. M.; Weltzin, J. F.

    2009-12-01

    On January 1, 2009, the USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN, www.usanpn.org) launched the USA-NPN Biophysical Program. The overarching goal of the Biophysical Program (BP) is to link phenology, the study of recurring plant and animal life cycle stages, with climate through the integration of phenology observations, meteorological, and spectral remote sensing measurements at sites across a broad a spectrum of environments. Phenology is critical for understanding a changing world. Many of the recurring plant and animal life cycle stages such as leafing and flowering of plants, maturation of agricultural crops, emergence of insects, and migration of birds are sensitive to climatic variation and change, and are simple to observe and record. Such changes can effect, for example, timing mismatches between the emergence of food sources and the arrival of migrating populations, or create new disease and invasive species vectors via increasingly suitable growing seasons relative to the climatic life cycle requirements of hosts or the organisms themselves. New vectors or crashing populations can have major repercussions on entire ecosystems and regional economics. Thus, to track phenology and build a national database, the USA-NPN is providing standard phenology monitoring protocols. Further, the integration of weather stations with phenological data provides an opportunity to understand how a changing climate is altering phenology. Thus, the USA-NPN Biophysical Program is developing an integrative biology-climate site template for widespread dissemination, in collaboration with the Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory (RMBL, http://rmbl.org/rockymountainbiolab/). This poster presents the USA-NPN Biophysical Program, and the results of the collaboration with RMBL during the summer of 2009, including the installation of an elevational network of climate stations. The National Science Foundation’s Major Research Instrumentation (NSF’s MRI) program provides funding

  11. Childhood Lead Poisoning. Current Perspectives. Proceedings of the National Conference (Indianapolis, Indiana, December 1-3, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Resources and Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Bureau of Maternal and Child Health and Resources Development.

    Since childhood lead poisoning first gained recognition as an important public health problem, the concept of lead poisoning has been examined and revised repeatedly. This national conference was convened to review and examine the current state of the problem, prevention activities, and recent studies on the toxic effects of lead at very low…

  12. Entrapment of a Pacing Lead within a Chiari Network: Utility of Intracardiac Echo and a Laser Sheath.

    PubMed

    Aung, Htin; Espinosa, Raul E; Powell, Brian D; McLeod, Christopher J

    2016-06-01

    Although rare, Chiari networks are elaborate embryological remnants that can pose distinct challenges for catheter and pacing lead manipulation within the right atrium. Device entrapment may require open thoracotomy for removal, with significant morbidity. We report an unusual case of pacing lead entanglement within this structure, followed by prompt intracardiac echocardiographic identification and laser sheath removal. PMID:26873294

  13. Influence of neutral amine ligands on the network assembly of lead(II) 4-sulfobenzoate complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li-Ping; Zhu, Long-Guan

    2008-02-01

    Two new lead(II) 4-sulfobenzoate complexes with amine ligands, [Pb(4-sb)(2,2'-bipy)] n ( 1) and {[Pb(4-sb)(4,4'-bipy) 1/2] · (4,4'-bipy) 1/2} n ( 2) (2,2'-bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine; 4,4'-bipy = 4,4'-bipyridine; 4-sb = 4-sulfobenzoate dianion), were synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray analyses, IR, TG, elemental analyses and fluorescent studies. Complexes 1 and 2, in addition to previously reported [Pb(4-sb)(H 2O) 2] n ( 3) and {[Pb(4-sb)(phen)] · (H 2O)} n ( 4) where phen is 1,10-phenanthroline, all contain [Pb(4-sb)] building units, while four [Pb(4-sb)] networks in 1- 4 are very different, which is significantly influenced by the neutral ligands. The coordination array of complex 1 is a 2-D network in which each 4-sb acts as a η 5-μ 3 mode while the complex 2 is a 3-D architecture in which each 4-sb performs a η 5-μ 6 mode. Both coordination modes of 4-sb ligands in 1- 2 are novel and first reported in this paper.

  14. The network modifier and former role of the bismuth ions in the bismuth-lead-germanate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rada, M.; Rus, L.; Rada, S.; Culea, E.; Rusu, T.

    2014-11-01

    The present work is focused on the enhancement of network former environment in lead-germanate glasses by bismuth ions doping. A series of bismuth-lead-germanate glasses with the xBi2O3·(100 - x)[7GeO2·3PbO] composition glass where 0 ⩽ x ⩽ 30 mol% Bi2O3 were synthesized by melt-quenching method. The FTIR, UV-VIS spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry were conducted on these samples to evaluate the doping effect of structure of the host matrix network. Our results indicate that direct incorporation of Bi2O3 into the lead-germanate network modifies the lead-germanate network and the internal structure of glass network is rearranged. The structural flexibility of the lead-germanate network is possible due to its incapacity to accommodate with the excess of oxygen atoms and the creation of bridging oxygen ions. Optical gap energy and refractive index were obtained as a function of Bi2O3 content. Gap energy values decrease as Bi2O3 content increased from 0 to 10 mol%. Further increase of Bi2O3 concentration beyond 10 mol% increased the gap energy values. These behaviors of the glass system can be explained by two mechanisms: (i) for x ⩽ 10 mol% Bi2O3 - increase of degree of disorder of the host matrix because Bi2O3 is network modifier and (ii) for x > 10 mol% - Bi2O3 acts as a network former. Cyclic voltammetry measurements using the glass system with 10Bi2O3·90[7GeO2·3PbO] composition as working electrode show the mobility of the lead ions, in agreement with UV-VIS data.

  15. Overview of the new National Near-Road Air Quality Monitoring Network

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2010, EPA promulgated new National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for nitrogen dioxide (NO2). As part of this new NAAQS, EPA required the establishment of a national near-road air quality monitoring network. This network will consist of one NO2 near-road monitoring st...

  16. Enhancing Outreach using Social Networks at the National Seismological Network of Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linkimer, L.; Lücke, O. H.

    2014-12-01

    Costa Rica has a very high seismicity rate and geological processes are part of everyday life. Traditionally, information about these processes has been provided by conventional mass media (television and radio). However, due to the new trends in information flow a new approach towards Science Education is necessary for transmitting knowledge from scientific research for the general public in Costa Rica. Since 1973, the National Seismological Network of Costa Rica (RSN: UCR-ICE) studies the seismicity and volcanic activity in the country. In this study, we describe the different channels to report earthquake information that the RSN is currently using: email, social networks, and a website, as well as the development of a smartphone application. Since the RSN started actively participating in Social Networks, an increase in awareness in the general public has been noticed particularly regarding felt earthquakes. Based on this trend, we have focused on enhancing public outreach through Social Media. We analyze the demographics and geographic distribution of the RSN Facebook Page, the growth of followers, and the significance of their feedback for reporting intensity data. We observe that certain regions of the country have more Facebook activity, although those regions are not the most populated nor have a high Internet connectivity index. We interpret this pattern as the result of a higher awareness to geological hazards in those specific areas. We noticed that the growth of RSN users on Facebook has a strong correlation with the seismic events as opposed to Twitter that displays a steady growth with no clear correlations with specific seismic events. We see the Social Networks as opportunities to engage non-science audiences and encourage the population to participate in reporting seismic observations, thus providing intensity data. With the increasing access to Internet from mobile phones in Costa Rica, we see this approach to science education as an opportunity

  17. The Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Network: a national infrastructure for comparative effectiveness research.

    PubMed

    Califf, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    The current clinical research system does not produce high-quality evidence quickly enough to support health care decision making. The Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Network (PCORnet) embodies a novel strategy for creating a national "network of networks" that is capable of significantly accelerating evidence generation to support a learning health system. PMID:24830497

  18. Joining Forces Between National Scientific Community and National Agencies: The Spanish GEOSS Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maso, J.; Díaz, P.; Pons, X.; Serral, I.; Belda, F.

    2011-12-01

    Currently, 86 countries are Group on Earth Observations (GEO) members. Mainly, GEO points are relevant national agencies that ensure the national participation in the GEOSS implementation efforts. AEMet (the Spanish Meteorological Office) is the direct responsible for GEOSS in Spain and they participate in GEO Committees and tasks. Also, the European Commission is actively funding European research projects to develop GEOSS using innovative conceptual frameworks and technologies. The success of GEO strongly depends on the contributions from science communities. Unfortunately, difficulties in the development and use of GEOSS resources have been identified in these communities including the earth observation one. Furthermore, up to now, these activities resemble a bottom-up approach, and depend on the initiative of national groups and individuals. There is a lack of a comprehensive outreach and engagement program, to which these activities could be linked, and there is a lack of top-down activities. The 7th framework program project "Coordinating Earth and Environmental cross-disciplinary projects to promote GEOSS" (EGIDA) will coordinate and cooperate with national agencies and existing research projects and will provide network methodologies. CREAF is EGIDA partner and will facilitate the implementation of the EGIDA methodology in Spain. Official Spanish representatives in GEOSS were contacted to explore the possibility of creating a permanent GEOSS-Spain network formed by both national administration bodies and relevant research initiatives. Also to assess the situation, CREAF prepared a questionnaire based on 5 simple questions that are conceived to start a dialog. 14 interviews were done so far by phone to public, private organizations and universities from 9 different European funded projects (EARLINETASOS, EuroSITES, ENVIROGRIDS, EuroGEOSS, ECOOP, GeoViQua, GFG2, HEREPLUS, and HERMIONE) and will be extended to other relevant communities in the near future

  19. Long-Lead Quantitative Flood Forecasts in Ungauged Basins Using Bayesian Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barros, A. P.; Yoo, J.

    2004-05-01

    Previously, Kim and Barros (2001) demonstrated the use of a hierarchy of neural network models to forecast flood peaks in four small and medium size ungauged basins (750 to about 9,000 km-sq) in the Northern Appalachian Mountains in Pennsylvania. Using regional rainfall, radiosonde and mesoscale infrared (IR) satellite imagery, their approach consisted of identifying the presence and type of convective activity from the IR imagery, information which was subsequently used to characterize the dominant synoptic scale weather patters and predict storm path and evolution using rainfall and radiosonde data far away from the forecast location. In this regard, the organizational skeleton of the inputs is built to mimic our understanding of physical processes associated with rainstorms. The approach was very successful with skill scores on the order of 80-90 per cent for 18-hour lead-time forecasts of winter and spring floods in response to heavy rainfall (i.e. not associated with snowmelt alone). One weakness of this work was however the lack of a measure of forecast uncertainty, or alternatively a measure of forecast reliability that could be used in hydrometeorological operations. To address this question, we have modified and adapted the existing neural network models according to the principles of Bayesian statistics. In this context, forecasts are issued along with an error bar and are associated with a known probability distribution. One additional advantage of this methodology is that it provides an objective basis for selecting the best model during learning based on the posterior distribution of the parameters. In this context, forecasts are issued along with an error bar and are associated with a known probability distribution. An intercomparison study against Kim and Barros (2001) shows that the 18- and 24-hour lead time BNN forecasts are statistically more robust than those generated by the standard backward-learning NNs. We submit that given the consistently

  20. Repertoire Networks among National Board-Certified Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Jesse Lee; Woods, Amelia

    2015-01-01

    Nearly three decades after its publication, "A Nation at Risk" continues to impact our educational establishment. Most notably, the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards was established as a result of "A Nation Prepared," Carnegie's response to "A Nation at Risk." Some contend that the national board has…

  1. The USA National Phenology Network's National Phenology Database Is a Resource Ripe for Picking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crimmins, T. M.; Enquist, C.; Rosemartin, A.; Denny, E. G.; Weltzin, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    The National Phenology Database, maintained by the USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN), is experiencing steady growth in the number of data records it houses. As of July 2011, over 200,000 observation records encompassing three years of plant phenology observations and two years of animal phenology observations have been contributed by participants in Nature's Notebook, the online phenology observation program developed by the National Coordinating Office of the USA-NPN, and are available for download and analysis (www.usanpn.org/results/data). Participants in Nature's Notebook follow protocols that employ phenological "status" monitoring, rather than "event" monitoring. On each visit to their site, the observer indicates the status of each phenophase for an individual plant or an animal species with a 'yes' if the phenophase is occurring and 'no' if it is not. This approach has a number of advantages over event monitoring (e.g., calculation of error, estimation of effort, "negative" or "absence" data, capture of multiple events and duration, flexibility of definitions for phenological metrics, adaptability for animal monitoring). This approach has a number of advantages over event monitoring, enabling researchers to move beyond a focus on first events (e.g., calculation of error, estimation of effort, "negative" or "absence" data, capture of multiple events and duration, flexibility of definitions for phenological metrics, adaptability for animal monitoring). These strengths will ultimately improve our understanding of changes in the timing of seasonal events. We will describe event monitoring and ways this rich form of data can be intepreted in detail in this presentation. Patterns in the data collected by Nature's Notebook participants are beginning to emerge, even at this early stage, demonstrating the value of this data resource. In addition to year to year variability in the dates of onset and commencement of various phenophases, the observations show

  2. A Community-Based Approach to Leading the Nation in Smart Energy Use

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2013-12-31

    Project Objectives The AEP Ohio gridSMART® Demonstration Project (Project) achieved the following objectives: • Built a secure, interoperable, and integrated smart grid infrastructure in northeast central Ohio that demonstrated the ability to maximize distribution system efficiency and reliability and consumer use of demand response programs that reduced energy consumption, peak demand, and fossil fuel emissions. • Actively attracted, educated, enlisted, and retained consumers in innovative business models that provided tools and information reducing consumption and peak demand. • Provided the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) information to evaluate technologies and preferred smart grid business models to be extended nationally. Project Description Ohio Power Company (the surviving company of a merger with Columbus Southern Power Company), doing business as AEP Ohio (AEP Ohio), took a community-based approach and incorporated a full suite of advanced smart grid technologies for 110,000 consumers in an area selected for its concentration and diversity of distribution infrastructure and consumers. It was organized and aligned around: • Technology, implementation, and operations • Consumer and stakeholder acceptance • Data management and benefit assessment Combined, these functional areas served as the foundation of the Project to integrate commercially available products, innovative technologies, and new consumer products and services within a secure two-way communication network between the utility and consumers. The Project included Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI), Distribution Management System (DMS), Distribution Automation Circuit Reconfiguration (DACR), Volt VAR Optimization (VVO), and Consumer Programs (CP). These technologies were combined with two-way consumer communication and information sharing, demand response, dynamic pricing, and consumer products, such as plug-in electric vehicles and smart appliances. In addition, the Project

  3. A statistical summary of data from the U.S. Geological Survey's national water quality networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, R.A.; Alexander, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Operates two nationwide networks to monitor water quality, the National Hydrologic Bench-Mark Network and the National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN). The Bench-Mark network is composed of 51 stations in small drainage basins which are as close as possible to their natural state, with no human influence and little likelihood of future development. Stations in the NASQAN program are located to monitor flow from accounting units (subregional drainage basins) which collectively encompass the entire land surface of the nation. Data collected at both networks include streamflow, concentrations of major inorganic constituents, nutrients, and trace metals. The goals of the two water quality sampling programs include the determination of mean constituent concentrations and transport rates as well as the analysis of long-term trends in those variables. This report presents a station-by-station statistical summary of data from the two networks for the period 1974 through 1981. (Author 's abstract)

  4. Calibration of the National Ecological Observatory Network's Airborne Imaging Spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leisso, N.; Kampe, T. U.; Karpowicz, B. M.

    2014-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is currently under construction by the National Science Foundation. NEON is designed to collect data on the causes and responses to change in the observed ecosystem. The observatory will combine site data collected by terrestrial, instrumental, and aquatic observation systems with airborne remote sensing data. The Airborne Observation Platform (AOP) is designed to collect high-resolution aerial imagery, waveform and discrete LiDAR, and high-fidelity imaging spectroscopic data over the NEON sites annually at or near peak-greenness. Three individual airborne sensor packages will be installed in leased Twin Otter aircraft and used to the collect the NEON sites as NEON enters operations. A key driver to the derived remote sensing data products is the calibration of the imaging spectrometers. This is essential to the overall NEON mission to detect changes in the collected ecosystems over the 30-year expected lifetime. The NEON Imaging Spectrometer (NIS) is a Visible and Shortwave Infrared (VSWIR) grating spectrometer designed by NASA JPL. Spectroscopic data is collected at 5-nm intervals from 380-2500-nm. A single 480 by 640 pixel HgCdTe Focal Plane Array collects dispersed light from a grating tuned for efficiency across the solar-reflective utilized in a push-broom configuration. Primary calibration of the NIS consists of the characterizing the FPA behavior, spectral calibration, and radiometric calibration. To this end, NEON is constructing a Sensor Test Facility to calibrate the NEON sensors. This work discusses the initial NIS laboratory calibration and verification using vicarious calibration techniques during operations. Laboratory spectral calibration is based on well-defined emission lines in conjunction with a scanning monochromator to define the individual spectral response functions. A NIST traceable FEL bulb is used to radiometrically calibrate the imaging spectrometer. An On-board Calibration (OBC) system

  5. 40 CFR 142.19 - EPA review of State implementation of national primary drinking water regulations for lead and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... national primary drinking water regulations for lead and copper. 142.19 Section 142.19 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION Primary Enforcement Responsibility § 142.19 EPA review of...

  6. 40 CFR 142.19 - EPA review of State implementation of national primary drinking water regulations for lead and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... national primary drinking water regulations for lead and copper. 142.19 Section 142.19 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION Primary Enforcement Responsibility § 142.19 EPA review of...

  7. 40 CFR 142.19 - EPA review of State implementation of national primary drinking water regulations for lead and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... national primary drinking water regulations for lead and copper. 142.19 Section 142.19 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION Primary Enforcement Responsibility § 142.19 EPA review of...

  8. 40 CFR 142.19 - EPA review of State implementation of national primary drinking water regulations for lead and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... national primary drinking water regulations for lead and copper. 142.19 Section 142.19 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION Primary Enforcement Responsibility § 142.19 EPA review of...

  9. 40 CFR 142.19 - EPA review of State implementation of national primary drinking water regulations for lead and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... national primary drinking water regulations for lead and copper. 142.19 Section 142.19 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION Primary Enforcement Responsibility § 142.19 EPA review of...

  10. For SREB States--Information and Actions to Lead the Nation in Educational Progress. 2004 Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The Southern Regional Education Board was the first education organization in the nation to stress that states not only should set goals for education but also should measure progress toward those goals and monitor trends. Now, the SREB Challenge to Lead Goals for Education in the 21st century make a dramatic statement: "SREB states can lead the…

  11. Planning and Establishment of a National Teledocumentation Network--Guidelines Based on the Spanish Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahon, F. V., Ed.

    Finding that the promotion of a national information industry can best be pursued through the planning and establishment of a national teledocumentation network, this study (based on the experiences of Spain) offers a model that may be of interest to UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) member states wishing to…

  12. Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) registry--leading the charge for National Cardiovascular Disease (NCVD) Database.

    PubMed

    Chin, S P; Jeyaindran, S; Azhari, R; Wan Azman, W A; Omar, I; Robaayah, Z; Sim, K H

    2008-09-01

    Coronary artery disease is one of the most rampant non-communicable diseases in the world. It begins indolently as a fatty streak in the lining of the artery that soon progresses to narrow the coronary arteries and impair myocardial perfusion. Often the atherosclerotic plaque ruptures and causes sudden thrombotic occlusion and acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-ST-elevation MI (NSTEMI) or unstable angina (UA). This phenomenon is called acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and is the leading cause of death not only in Malaysia but also globally. In order for us to tackle this threat to the health of our nation we must arm ourselves with reliable and accurate information to assess current burden of disease resources available and success of current strategies. The acute coronary syndrome (ACS) registry is the flagship of the National Cardiovascular Disease Database (NCVD) and is the result of the dedicated and untiring efforts of doctors and nurses in both public and private medical institutions and hospitals around the country, ably guided and supported by the National Heart Association, the National Heart Foundation, the Clinical Research Centre and the Ministry of Health of Malaysia. Analyses of data collected throughout 2006 from 3422 patients with ACS admitted to the 12 tertiary cardiac centres and general hospitals spanning nine states in Malaysia in this first report has already revealed surprising results. Mean age of patients was 59 years while the most consistent risk factor for STEMI was active smoking. Utilization of medications was high generally. Thirty-day mortality for STEMI was 11%, for NSTEMI 8% and UA 4%. Thrombolysis (for STEMI only) reduced in-hospital and 30-day mortality by nearly 50%. Percutaneous coronary intervention or PCI also reduced 30-day mortality for patients with non-ST elevation MI and unstable angina. The strongest determinants of mortality appears to be Killip Class and age of the patient. Fewer women received

  13. Mammal Inventory of the Mojave Network Parks-Death Valley and Joshua Tree National Parks, Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Manzanar National Historic Site, and Mojave National Preserve

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drost, Charles A.; Hart, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the results of a mammal inventory study of National Park Service units in the Mojave Desert Network, including Death Valley National Park, Joshua Tree National Park, Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Manzanar National Historic Site, and Mojave National Preserve. Fieldwork for the inventory focused on small mammals, primarily rodents and bats. Fieldwork for terrestrial small mammals used trapping with Sherman and Tomahawk small- and medium-sized mammal traps, along with visual surveys for diurnal species. The majority of sampling for terrestrial small mammals was carried out in 2002 and 2003. Methods used in field surveys for bats included mist-netting at tanks and other water bodies, along with acoustic surveys using Anabat. Most of the bat survey work was conducted in 2003. Because of extremely dry conditions in the first two survey years (and associated low mammal numbers), we extended field sampling into 2004, following a relatively wet winter. In addition to field sampling, we also reviewed, evaluated, and summarized museum and literature records of mammal species for all of the Park units. We documented a total of 59 mammal species as present at Death Valley National Park, with an additional five species that we consider of probable occurrence. At Joshua Tree, we also documented 50 species, and an additional four 'probable' species. At Lake Mead National Recreation Area, 57 mammal species have been positively documented, with 10 additional probable species. Manzanar National Historic Site had not been previously surveyed. We documented 19 mammal species at Manzanar, with an additional 11 probable species. Mojave National Preserve had not had a comprehensive list previously, either. There are now a total of 50 mammal species documented at Mojave, with three additional probable species. Of these totals, 23 occurrences are new at individual park units (positively documented for the first time), with most of these being at Manzanar

  14. 34 CFR 412.1 - What is the National Network for Curriculum Coordination in Vocational and Technical Education?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is the National Network for Curriculum... EDUCATION NATIONAL NETWORK FOR CURRICULUM COORDINATION IN VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION General § 412.1 What is the National Network for Curriculum Coordination in Vocational and Technical Education?...

  15. 34 CFR 412.1 - What is the National Network for Curriculum Coordination in Vocational and Technical Education?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the National Network for Curriculum... EDUCATION NATIONAL NETWORK FOR CURRICULUM COORDINATION IN VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION General § 412.1 What is the National Network for Curriculum Coordination in Vocational and Technical Education?...

  16. 34 CFR 412.1 - What is the National Network for Curriculum Coordination in Vocational and Technical Education?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is the National Network for Curriculum... EDUCATION NATIONAL NETWORK FOR CURRICULUM COORDINATION IN VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION General § 412.1 What is the National Network for Curriculum Coordination in Vocational and Technical Education?...

  17. 34 CFR 412.1 - What is the National Network for Curriculum Coordination in Vocational and Technical Education?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is the National Network for Curriculum... EDUCATION NATIONAL NETWORK FOR CURRICULUM COORDINATION IN VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION General § 412.1 What is the National Network for Curriculum Coordination in Vocational and Technical Education?...

  18. 34 CFR 412.1 - What is the National Network for Curriculum Coordination in Vocational and Technical Education?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is the National Network for Curriculum... EDUCATION NATIONAL NETWORK FOR CURRICULUM COORDINATION IN VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION General § 412.1 What is the National Network for Curriculum Coordination in Vocational and Technical Education?...

  19. External quality-assurance results for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program / National Trends Network and Mercury Deposition Network, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Latysh, Natalie E.; Greene, Shannon M.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) used five programs to provide external quality-assurance monitoring for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) and two programs to provide external quality-assurance monitoring for the NADP/Mercury Deposition Network (NADP/MDN) during 2004. An intersite-comparison program was used to estimate accuracy and precision of field-measured pH and specific-conductance. The variability and bias of NADP/NTN data attributed to field exposure, sample handling and shipping, and laboratory chemical analysis were estimated using the sample-handling evaluation (SHE), field-audit, and interlaboratory-comparison programs. Overall variability of NADP/NTN data was estimated using a collocated-sampler program. Variability and bias of NADP/MDN data attributed to field exposure, sample handling and shipping, and laboratory chemical analysis were estimated using a system-blank program and an interlaboratory-comparison program. In two intersite-comparison studies, approximately 89 percent of NADP/NTN site operators met the pH measurement accuracy goals, and 94.7 to 97.1 percent of NADP/NTN site operators met the accuracy goals for specific conductance. Field chemistry measurements were discontinued by NADP at the end of 2004. As a result, the USGS intersite-comparison program also was discontinued at the end of 2004. Variability and bias in NADP/NTN data due to sample handling and shipping were estimated from paired-sample concentration differences and specific conductance differences obtained for the SHE program. Median absolute errors (MAEs) equal to less than 3 percent were indicated for all measured analytes except potassium and hydrogen ion. Positive bias was indicated for most of the measured analytes except for calcium, hydrogen ion and specific conductance. Negative bias for hydrogen ion and specific conductance indicated loss of hydrogen ion and decreased specific conductance from contact of the sample with

  20. Education, Nation States and the Globalization of Information Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selwyn, Neil; Brown, Philip

    2000-01-01

    Noting the emerging global policyscape toward creating global information networks, this article analyzes policymaking across Europe, the United States, and East Asia. Employing a political-economy perspective, it compares seven countries' networks, highlighting the state's role and varying relationships among education, economy, and society, and…

  1. Collaboration Nation: The Building of the Welsh Repository Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to disseminate information about the Welsh Repository Network (WRN), innovative work being undertaken to build an integrated network of institutional digital repositories. A collaborative approach, in particular through the provision of centralised technical and organisational support, has demonstrated…

  2. Libraries in the Global, National, and Local Networked Information Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Charles R.

    This paper explores the challenges and opportunities facing libraries as they evolve into the electronic networked environment, and looks at options for libraries in the year 2000 and beyond. The internationally networked environment has fundamentally changed the way in which people acquire and use information resources and services. The paper…

  3. Algebraic connectivity of brain networks shows patterns of segregation leading to reduced network robustness in Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Daianu, Madelaine; Jahanshad, Neda; Nir, Talia M.; Leonardo, Cassandra D.; Jack, Clifford R.; Weiner, Michael W.; Bernstein, Matthew A.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Measures of network topology and connectivity aid the understanding of network breakdown as the brain degenerates in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We analyzed 3-Tesla diffusion-weighted images from 202 patients scanned by the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative – 50 healthy controls, 72 with early- and 38 with late-stage mild cognitive impairment (eMCI/lMCI) and 42 with AD. Using whole-brain tractography, we reconstructed structural connectivity networks representing connections between pairs of cortical regions. We examined, for the first time in this context, the network's Laplacian matrix and its Fiedler value, describing the network's algebraic connectivity, and the Fiedler vector, used to partition a graph. We assessed algebraic connectivity and four additional supporting metrics, revealing a decrease in network robustness and increasing disarray among nodes as dementia progressed. Network components became more disconnected and segregated, and their modularity increased. These measures are sensitive to diagnostic group differences, and may help understand the complex changes in AD. PMID:26640830

  4. Climatic and hydrologic processes leading to wetland losses in Yellowstone National Park, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schook, Derek M.; Cooper, David J.

    2014-03-01

    Wetlands are vital habitats and can be used as landscape indicators because they integrate catchment-scale processes. Wetland drying during the recent decades in Yellowstone National Park's Northern Range has incited concern among National Park managers and the public at large. Our research was focused on developing an understanding of the processes controlling wetland water levels and the changes contributing to wetland decline in the Northern Range. We integrated analyses of hydrology, climate, soils, and vegetation. In 2009, 24 study wetlands were instrumented each with an average of five shallow groundwater monitoring well and piezometer nests. We mapped hydric soils, analyzed aerial photographs, and identified geomorphic indicators of higher water to quantify historic wetland area. The Trumpeter Lake study site was intensively studied to resolve watershed processes driving water table changes through time, and it was used to identify the timescale on which a regionally critical wetland varies. Climate data indicated that warming and drying occurred during the last century, but that this pattern was within the natural range of variation for the study region over the past 800 years, as determined from tree ring data. Hydrologic data revealed that study sites included locations of groundwater discharge, recharge, and flow-through as well as water perched above the regional water table. Hydrologic regimes were classified using a shape-magnitude framework and seven wetland classes were characterized, and the robustness of this classification is assessed using longer-term datasets. Aerial photographs and hydric soil delineation both confirmed formerly greater wetland abundance. Changes varied by wetland class and the presence or absence of surface water outlets. Wetland plant species inhabited distinct habitats of water table depth and variation, and can be used to infer subsurface hydrologic regime in the absence of extensive monitoring well networks. A subset of

  5. Computer Network Availability at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque NM: Measurement and Perception

    SciTech Connect

    NELSON,SPENCER D.; TOLENDINO,LAWRENCE F.

    1999-11-01

    The desire to provide a measure of computer network availability at Sandia National Laboratories has existed for along time. Several attempts were made to build this measure by accurately recording network failures, identifying the type of network element involved, the root cause of the problem, and the time to repair the fault. Recognizing the limitations of available methods, it became obvious that another approach of determining network availability had to be defined. The chosen concept involved the periodic sampling of network services and applications from various network locations. A measure of ''network'' availability was then calculated based on the ratio of polling success to failure. The effort required to gather the information and produce a useful metric is not prohibitive and the information gained has verified long held feelings regarding network performance with real data.

  6. National Cancer Institute's Precision Medicine Initiatives for the new National Clinical Trials Network.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Jeffrey; Conley, Barbara; Mooney, Margaret; Zwiebel, James; Chen, Alice; Welch, John J; Takebe, Naoko; Malik, Shakun; McShane, Lisa; Korn, Edward; Williams, Mickey; Staudt, Louis; Doroshow, James

    2014-01-01

    The promise of precision medicine will only be fully realized if the research community can adapt its clinical trials methodology to study molecularly characterized tumors instead of the traditional histologic classification. Such trials will depend on adequate tissue collection, availability of quality controlled, high throughput molecular assays, and the ability to screen large numbers of tumors to find those with the desired molecular alterations. The National Cancer Institute's (NCI) new National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN) is well positioned to conduct such trials. The NCTN has the ability to seamlessly perform ethics review, register patients, manage data, and deliver investigational drugs across its many sites including both in cities and rural communities, academic centers, and private practices. The initial set of trials will focus on different questions: (1) Exceptional Responders Initiative-why do a minority of patients with solid tumors or lymphoma respond very well to some drugs even if the majority do not?; (2) NCI MATCH trial-can molecular markers predict response to targeted therapies in patients with advanced cancer resistant to standard treatment?; (3) ALCHEMIST trial-will targeted epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitors improve survival for adenocarcinoma of the lung in the adjuvant setting?; and (4) Lung Cancer Master Protocol trial for advanced squamous cell lung cancer-is there an advantage to developing drugs for small subsets of molecularly characterized tumors in a single, multiarm trial design? These studies will hopefully spawn a new era of treatment trials that will carefully select the tumors that may respond best to investigational therapy. PMID:24857062

  7. AIR QUALITY DATA FOR METALS 1975 FROM THE NATIONAL AIR SURVEILLANCE NETWORKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate pollutant data gathered during calendar year 1975 by the cooperating stations of the National Air Surveillance Networks provide the basis for listing the urban and nonurban concentrations of 11 metallic components of suspended particulate matter. The data are presente...

  8. Funneled Landscape Leads to Robustness of Cell Networks: Yeast Cell Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin; Huang, Bo; Xia, Xuefeng; Sun, Zhirong

    2006-01-01

    We uncovered the underlying energy landscape for a cellular network. We discovered that the energy landscape of the yeast cell-cycle network is funneled towards the global minimum (G0/G1 phase) from the experimentally measured or inferred inherent chemical reaction rates. The funneled landscape is quite robust against random perturbations. This naturally explains robustness from a physical point of view. The ratio of slope versus roughness of the landscape becomes a quantitative measure of robustness of the network. The funneled landscape can be seen as a possible realization of the Darwinian principle of natural selection at the cellular network level. It provides an optimal criterion for network connections and design. Our approach is general and can be applied to other cellular networks. PMID:17112311

  9. Facilitating Phenological Assessments at Local, Regional and National Scales: Year Two Progress of the USA National Phenology Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weltzin, J. F.

    2009-12-01

    Patterns of phenology for plants and animals control ecosystem processes, determine land surface properties, control biosphere-atmosphere interactions, and affect food production, health, conservation, and recreation. Although directional climate change has already caused documented shifts in organismal, population, community and ecosystem-level patterns and processes, a national phenological assessment requires a comprehensive suite of standardized methodologies to track phenology across a range of spatial and temporal scales (e.g., organismal to landscapes). The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN; www.usanpn.org) is an emerging and exciting partnership between federal agencies, the academic community, and the general public to establish a national science and monitoring initiative focused on phenology as a tool to understand how plants, animals and landscapes respond to climate variation, and as a tool to facilitate human adaptation to ongoing and potential future climate change. USA-NPN will (1) integrate with other formal and informal science observation networks (e.g., NEON, LTER, Ameriflux, NPS I & M, OBFS, GEO, public gardens, conservation groups) including regional phenology networks; (2) utilize and enhance remote sensing products, emerging technologies and data management capabilities; and (3) capitalize on myriad educational opportunities and a new readiness of the public to participate in investigations of nature on a national scale. In its second year of operation, USA-NPN produced many new phenology products and venues for phenology research and citizen involvement that will facilitate local, regional or national assessments of phenology. A new web-page contains an advanced on-line user interface to facilitate entry of contemporary data into the National Phenology Database. The new plant phenology monitoring program provides standardized methodologies and monitoring protocols for 215 local, regional, and nationally distributed plant species

  10. The National Research and Education Network (NREN): Promise of New Information Environments. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Ann P.

    This digest describes proposed legislation for the implementation of the National Research and Education Network (NREN). Issues and implications for teachers, students, researchers, and librarians are suggested and the emergence of the electronic network as a general communication and research tool is described. Developments in electronic…

  11. Planning for National Networking; Proceedings of the EDUCOM Spring Conference, April 6, 1973, Boston, Massachusetts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interuniversity Communications Council (EDUCOM), Princeton, NJ.

    Provided in this report are substantive summaries of the papers presented and discussions held at the Spring 1973 conference convened by EDUCOM, the Interuniversity Communications Council. The general focus is upon issues and obstacles related to the development of national computer networks in higher education; these networks have become more and…

  12. Dust Weight and Asthma Prevalence in the National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing (NSLAH)

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Leslie; Arbes, Samuel J.; Harvey, Eric S.; Lee, Robert C.; Salo, Päivi M.; Cohn, Richard D.; London, Stephanie J.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2007-01-01

    Background Settled dust has been used in studies to assess exposures to allergens and other biologically active components, but it has not been considered in the aggregate in relation to respiratory health outcomes in the general population. Objective We addressed whether total house dust weight, an index of total dust exposure, was associated with respiratory health outcomes in the National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing (1998–1999) (NSLAH). Methods NSLAH was a cross-sectional survey designed to represent permanently occupied housing units in the United States. In each household, a questionnaire was administered and settled dust was vacuumed from five locations. Linear regression models were used to identify predictors of dust weight; logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between dust weight and asthma and wheeze. Results Dust weight samples were available for 829 households, and survey information was available for 2,456 participants (children and adults). Lower income, older homes, household pets, having a smoker in the house, and less frequent cleaning predicted higher dust weight levels in U.S. households. Higher levels of dust weight were associated with greater odds of current asthma and wheeze. The strongest associations were seen for wheeze [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.99; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.21–3.28 for bedroom bed dust; OR = 2.81; 95% CI, 1.52–5.21 for upholstery dust). These associations persisted when adjusting for allergen and endotoxin exposures. Conclusions Dust weight, an index of total dust exposure in the home, may contribute to respiratory outcomes independently of the exposure to specific components. PMID:17384767

  13. BLOOD LEAD LEVELS AND SEXUAL MATURATION IN U.S. GIRLS: THE THIRD NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY, 1988-94

    EPA Science Inventory

    Context. Animal studies suggest that lead exposure may delay sexual maturation, raising concern about children's environmental lead exposure.
    Objective. Assess the realtion between blood lead and sexual maturation in girls.
    Design. Third National and Nutrition Examinatio...

  14. Bias and precision of selected analytes reported by the National Atmospheric Deposition Program and National Trends Network, 1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, M.H.; Schroder, L.J.; Willoughby, T.C.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey operated a blind audit sample program during 1974 to test the effects of the sample handling and shipping procedures used by the National Atmospheric Deposition Program and National Trends Network on the quality of wet deposition data produced by the combined networks. Blind audit samples, which were dilutions of standard reference water samples, were submitted by network site operators to the central analytical laboratory disguised as actual wet deposition samples. Results from the analyses of blind audit samples were used to calculate estimates of analyte bias associated with all network wet deposition samples analyzed in 1984 and to estimate analyte precision. Concentration differences between double blind samples that were submitted to the central analytical laboratory and separate analyses of aliquots of those blind audit samples that had not undergone network sample handling and shipping were used to calculate analyte masses that apparently were added to each blind audit sample by routine network handling and shipping procedures. These calculated masses indicated statistically significant biases for magnesium, sodium , potassium, chloride, and sulfate. Median calculated masses were 41.4 micrograms (ug) for calcium, 14.9 ug for magnesium, 23.3 ug for sodium, 0.7 ug for potassium, 16.5 ug for chloride and 55.3 ug for sulfate. Analyte precision was estimated using two different sets of replicate measures performed by the central analytical laboratory. Estimated standard deviations were similar to those previously reported. (Author 's abstract)

  15. winderosionnetwork.org - Portal to the National Wind Erosion Research Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, N.; Herrick, J. E.; Clingan, S.; Cooper, B.; Courtright, E.; LaPlante, V.; Van Zee, J.

    2015-12-01

    The National Wind Erosion Research Network was established in 2014 as a collaborative effort led by the USDA Agricultural Research Service and Natural Resources Conservation Service, and USDI Bureau of Land Management, to address the need for standardized measurements of wind erosion and its controlling factors. Data will be used to support model development and identification of improved land management strategies that have global applications. By applying standard methods, the Network will overcome the common challenge of synthesizing independent studies to assess local-to-national scale wind erosion and dust emission. Twelve intensively instrumented Network sites will be operational by spring 2016, providing high-resolution measurements of aeolian sediment transport rates, meteorological conditions and soil and vegetation properties. These initial sites are located across rangelands and croplands in New Mexico, Texas, Arizona, California, Nevada, Colorado, Utah, North Dakota, Idaho and Washington. A primary objective of the Network is to facilitate collaboration among Network sites and the wider research community to address basic research questions about aeolian processes, model development, and evaluate practical management options. In support of Network activities, winderosionnetwork.org was developed to serve as a Network data portal, and provide online information about the National Wind Erosion Research Network including protocols and results. The website provides a comprehensive resource for scientists and managers interested in engaging with the Network and accessing Network products. The Network provides exciting opportunities to engage in a national long-term wind erosion research program that promises significant impact for our understanding and ability to predict and evaluate aeolian processes across land cover types and land use systems.

  16. U.S. National PM2.5 Chemical Speciation Monitoring Networks – CSN and IMPROVE: Description of Networks

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initiated the national PM2.5 Chemical Speciation Monitoring Network (CSN) in 2000 to support evaluation of long-term trends and to better quantify the impact of sources on particulate matter (PM) concentrations in the size range belo...

  17. Project UNIFY. National Dropout Prevention Center/Network Newsletter. Volume 22, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckenfield, Marty, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The "National Dropout Prevention Newsletter" is published quarterly by the National Dropout Prevention Center/Network. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Special Olympics Project UNIFY (Andrea Cahn); (2) The Impact of Project UNIFY; (3) Project UNIFY Brings Youth Together to Learn and Graduate (William H. Hughes); (4) Physical…

  18. Effective Instruction. National Dropout Prevention Center/Network Newsletter. Volume 21, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckenfield, Marty, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The "National Dropout Prevention Newsletter" is published quarterly by the National Dropout Prevention Center/Network. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Strategies for Success (Charles W. Hatch); (2) 2009 NDPN Crystal Star Winners; (3) Strategies for More Effective Instruction (Micki Gibson); (4) Some Thoughts on Teaching Strategies…

  19. Native Education. National Dropout Prevention Center/Network Newsletter. Volume 19, Number 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckenfield, Marty, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    The "National Dropout Prevention Newsletter" is published quarterly by the National Dropout Prevention Center/Network. This issue contains the following articles: (1) A Quiet Crisis Indeed (Beverly Sevick); (2) 2007 NDPN Crystal Star Winners; (3) Making Connections: A Means to Native American School Success (Marilyn Iverson); (4) Traditional…

  20. Career and Technical Education. National Dropout Prevention Center/Network Newsletter. Volume 20, Number 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckenfield, Marty, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    The "National Dropout Prevention Newsletter" is published quarterly by the National Dropout Prevention Center/Network. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Why Do I Have to Learn This?; (2) 2008 NDPN Crystal Star Winners; (3) Effective Freshman Transition for School Improvement (David Livingston, John Greene, and Lindy Stahlman); (4)…

  1. Middle College. National Dropout Prevention Center/Network Newsletter. Volume 17, Number 4, Fall 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckenfield, Marty, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    The "National Dropout Prevention Newsletter" is published quarterly by the National Dropout Prevention Center/Network. This issue contains the following articles: (1) College As A Bridge to High School Graduation (Terry Cash); (2) 2005 NDPN Crystal Star Awards of Excellence; (3) Mott Middle College (Chery S. Wagonlander); (4) Gateway to College: A…

  2. Family Engagement. National Dropout Prevention Center/Network Newsletter. Volume 20, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckenfield, Marty, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    The "National Dropout Prevention Newsletter" is published quarterly by the National Dropout Prevention Center/Network. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Family/School Relationships: Relationships That Matter; (2) Program Profile; (3) Engaging Families in the Pathway to College: Lessons From Schools That Are Beating the Odds (Anne T.…

  3. Service-Learning. National Dropout Prevention Center/Network Newsletter. Volume 22, Number 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckenfield, Marty, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The "National Dropout Prevention Newsletter" is published quarterly by the National Dropout Prevention Center/Network. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Dropouts and Democracy (Robert Shumer); (2) 2011 NDPN Crystal Star Winners; (3) Service-Learning as Dropout Intervention and More (Michael VanKeulen); and (4) Teacher Education,…

  4. Literacy. National Dropout Prevention Center/Network Newsletter. Volume 20, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckenfield, Marty, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    The "National Dropout Prevention Newsletter" is published quarterly by the National Dropout Prevention Center/Network. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Reading Is Vital!; (2) The Significance of Early Literacy Efforts in Preventing Later Failure (Susan King Fullerton); (3) Middle School Intervention Strategies For At-Risk Youth…

  5. Teacher Education. National Dropout Prevention Center/Network Newsletter. Volume 21, Number 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckenfield, Marty, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The "National Dropout Prevention Newsletter" is published quarterly by the National Dropout Prevention Center/Network. This issue contains the following articles: (1) At the Crossroads of Teacher Education (Nancy Cassity Dunlap); (2) School Climate--There Should Be No Debate for Teacher Educators (Terry Pickeral); (3) Call Me MISTER: A Unique…

  6. Urban Issues. National Dropout Prevention Center/Network Newsletter. Volume 20, Number 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckenfield, Marty, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    The "National Dropout Prevention Newsletter" is published quarterly by the National Dropout Prevention Center/Network. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Education in the Urban Context (Ed Lambert); (2) An Interview with Paul Reville, Massachusetts Secretary of Education; (3) Communities In Schools of Chicago (Jane Mentzinger); (4) In…

  7. Individual Risk Factors. National Dropout Prevention Center/Network Newsletter. Volume 19, Number 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckenfield, Marty, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    The "National Dropout Prevention Newsletter" is published quarterly by the National Dropout Prevention Center/Network. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Knowledge Is Power; (2) Individual Risk Factors; (3) Program Profiles; (4) 20th Annual At-Risk FORUM; and (5) Dropout Early Warning Systems (Jay Smink) Regular sections include: (1)…

  8. Educational Policies. National Dropout Prevention Center/Network Newsletter. Volume 19, Number 2, Spring 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckenfield, Marty, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    The "National Dropout Prevention Newsletter" is published quarterly by the National Dropout Prevention Center/Network. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Policy Matters; (2) A Conversation With A State Policymaker (Stephen Canessa); (3) Policy Matters at the School Level (Steven W. Edwards); (4) EEDA: Promise or Peril? (Sam F. Drew,…

  9. Summer Learning. National Dropout Prevention Center/Network Newsletter. Volume 21, Number 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckenfield, Marty, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The "National Dropout Prevention Newsletter" is published quarterly by the National Dropout Prevention Center/Network. This issue contains the following articles: (1) A New Vision of Summer Learning (Brenda McLaughlin); (2) Using Summers More Strategically to Bridge the 8th-9th Grade Transition (Brenda McLaughlin and Hillary Hardt); (3) Providing…

  10. Early Childhood Education. National Dropout Prevention Center/Network Newsletter. Volume 22, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckenfield, Marty, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The "National Dropout Prevention Newsletter" is published quarterly by the National Dropout Prevention Center/Network. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Laying the Foundation for Success (Mary Caputo); (2) Ready or Not? (Laura Koenig); (3) Every Child A School-Ready Child (Leah Newkirk Meunier); (4) Parents As Teachers (Erin Garner);…

  11. Native Education. National Dropout Prevention Center/Network Newsletter. Volume 23, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckenfield, Marty, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The "National Dropout Prevention Newsletter" is published quarterly by the National Dropout Prevention Center/Network. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Traditional Native American Education; (2) Who Counts as Native? (Dawn Mackety); (3) GAINS in the Bering Strait (Carl White); (4) SIENA: Comprehensive Education for Native Americans…

  12. Idaho National Laboratory Lead or Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) Test Facility - R&D Requirements, Design Criteria, Design Concept, and Concept Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Eric P. Loewen; Paul Demkowicz

    2005-05-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory Lead-Bismuth Eutectic Test Facility will advance the state of nuclear technology relative to heavy-metal coolants (primarily Pb and Pb-Bi), thereby allowing the U.S. to maintain the pre-eminent position in overseas markets and a future domestic market. The end results will be a better qualitative understanding and quantitative measure of the thermal physics and chemistry conditions in the molten metal systems for varied flow conditions (single and multiphase), flow regime transitions, heat input methods, pumping requirements for varied conditions and geometries, and corrosion performance. Furthering INL knowledge in these areas is crucial to sustaining a competitive global position. This fundamental heavy-metal research supports the National Energy Policy Development Group’s stated need for energy systems to support electrical generation.1 The project will also assist the Department of Energy in achieving goals outlined in the Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee Long Term Nuclear Technology Research and Development Plan,2 the Generation IV Roadmap for Lead Fast Reactor development, and Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative research and development. This multi-unit Lead-Bismuth Eutectic Test Facility with its flexible and reconfigurable apparatus will maintain and extend the U.S. nuclear knowledge base, while educating young scientists and engineers. The uniqueness of the Lead-Bismuth Eutectic Test Facility is its integrated Pool Unit and Storage Unit. This combination will support large-scale investigation of structural and fuel cladding material compatibility issues with heavy-metal coolants, oxygen chemistry control, and thermal hydraulic physics properties. Its ability to reconfigure flow conditions and piping configurations to more accurately approximate prototypical reactor designs will provide a key resource for Lead Fast Reactor research and development. The other principal elements of the Lead-Bismuth Eutectic Test Facility

  13. Lidar vegetation mapping in national parks: Gulf Coast Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brock, John C.; Palaseanu-Lovejoy, Monica; Segura, Martha

    2011-01-01

    Airborne lidar (Light Detection and Ranging) is an active remote sensing technique used to collect accurate elevation data over large areas. Lidar provides an extremely high level of regional topographic detail, which makes this technology an essential component of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) science strategy. The USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP) has collaborated with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Park Service (NPS) to acquire dense topographic lidar data in a variety of coastal environments.

  14. Internet access in the libraries of the National Network of Libraries of Medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, B J; Stavri, P Z; Hochstein, D C; Nardini, H G

    1998-01-01

    As the National Library of Medicine expands access to its products and services by making them available on the Internet, more accurate information about current and future access in medical libraries is needed. The National Network Office of the National Library of Medicine conducted a survey of all network member libraries to determine the extent of connectivity and the barriers preventing 100% connectivity. Respondents called a toll-free number and, using interactive voice technology, answered questions concerning Internet access in their library. Seventy-eight percent of the network member libraries responded. Four percent of academic libraries, 27% of hospital libraries, and 10% of "other" libraries reported that they were not connected. Computer cost, lack of in-house expertise, and lack of management support were the highest ranked barriers to connecting. The National Library of Medicine and the Regional Medical Libraries will use information from this survey to develop strategies to help all member libraries achieve full connectivity. PMID:9803289

  15. 40 CFR Appendix R to Part 50 - Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Pb-PM 10 Data as Surrogate Pb-TSP Data. (a) As stipulated in section 2.10 of Appendix C to 40 CFR... Air Quality Standards for Lead R Appendix R to Part 50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL.... 50, App. R Appendix R to Part 50—Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

  16. Women's Ways of Leading: A Qualitative Content Analysis to Determine Leadership Messages Contained in Literature of National Panhellenic Conference Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fechner, Andrea M.

    2000-01-01

    This study documented the leadership messages sent to women in 16 of the National Panhellenic Conference groups' official literature. The purpose of the study was to provide detailed descriptive analysis using excerpts from the official literature to show both traditional and non-traditional (women's ways of leading) theoretical themes as well as…

  17. National Aquatic Resource Surveys: Multiple objectives and constraints lead to design complexity

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency began conducting the National Aquatic resource Surveys (NARS) in 2007 with a national survey of lakes (NLA 2007) followed by rivers and streams in 2008-9 (NRSA 2008), coastal waters in 2010 (NCCA 2010) and wetlands in 2011 (NWCA). The surve...

  18. The available capacity computation model based on artificial neural network for lead-acid batteries in electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, C. C.; Lo, E. W. C.; Weixiang, Shen

    The available capacity computation model based on the artificial neural network (ANN) for lead-acid batteries in an electric vehicle (EV) is presented. Comparing with the methods based on the Peukert equation, which is often used for the calculation of the available capacity for lead-acid batteries in EVs, this model is more accurate. The results of the experiment have proven the accuracy of the proposed model; the computation values are in good agreement with experimental data, the associated error has been considered acceptable from an engineering point of view.

  19. The National Ambient Air Monitoring Stategy: Rethinking the Role of National Networks

    EPA Science Inventory

    A current re-engineering of the United States routine ambient monitoring networks intended to improve the balance in addressing both regulatory and scientific objectives is addressed in this paper. Key attributes of these network modifications include the addition of collocated ...

  20. Plant gravitropic signal transduction: A network analysis leads to gene discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyatt, Sarah

    Gravity plays a fundamental role in plant growth and development. Although a significant body of research has helped define the events of gravity perception, the role of the plant growth regulator auxin, and the mechanisms resulting in the gravity response, the events of signal transduction, those that link the biophysical action of perception to a biochemical signal that results in auxin redistribution, those that regulate the gravitropic effects on plant growth, remain, for the most part, a “black box.” Using a cold affect, dubbed the gravity persistent signal (GPS) response, we developed a mutant screen to specifically identify components of the signal transduction pathway. Cloning of the GPS genes have identified new proteins involved in gravitropic signaling. We have further exploited the GPS response using a multi-faceted approach including gene expression microarrays, proteomics analysis, and bioinformatics analysis and continued mutant analysis to identified additional genes, physiological and biochemical processes. Gene expression data provided the foundation of a regulatory network for gravitropic signaling. Based on these gene expression data and related data sets/information from the literature/repositories, we constructed a gravitropic signaling network for Arabidopsis inflorescence stems. To generate the network, both a dynamic Bayesian network approach and a time-lagged correlation coefficient approach were used. The dynamic Bayesian network added existing information of protein-protein interaction while the time-lagged correlation coefficient allowed incorporation of temporal regulation and thus could incorporate the time-course metric from the data set. Thus the methods complemented each other and provided us with a more comprehensive evaluation of connections. Each method generated a list of possible interactions associated with a statistical significance value. The two networks were then overlaid to generate a more rigorous, intersected

  1. A state-based national network for effective wildlife conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meretsky, Vicky J.; Maguire, Lynn A.; Davis, Frank W.; Stoms, David M.; Scott, J. Michael; Figg, Dennis; Goble, Dale D.; Griffith, Brad; Henke, Scott E.; Vaughn, Jacqueline; Yaffee, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    State wildlife conservation programs provide a strong foundation for biodiversity conservation in the United States, building on state wildlife action plans. However, states may miss the species that are at the most risk at rangewide scales, and threats such as novel diseases and climate change increasingly act at regional and national levels. Regional collaborations among states and their partners have had impressive successes, and several federal programs now incorporate state priorities. However, regional collaborations are uneven across the country, and no national counterpart exists to support efforts at that scale. A national conservation-support program could fill this gap and could work across the conservation community to identify large-scale conservation needs and support efforts to meet them. By providing important information-sharing and capacity-building services, such a program would advance collaborative conservation among the states and their partners, thus increasing both the effectiveness and the efficiency of conservation in the United States.

  2. Blood lead concentrations of spectacled eiders near the Kashunuk River, Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Petersen, M.R.; Creekmore, L.H.; Flint, P.; Smith, M.R.

    1998-01-01

    We collected, 342 blood samples from spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri) on their breeding grounds in western Alaska from late May through to early August 1993a??1995. Lead concentrations of a?Y0.50 p.p.m. wet weight were found in the blood of 20% of the adult female eiders, 2% of the adult males and 6% of the ducklings. Lead was detected (a?Y0.02 p.p.m.) more frequently in the blood of adult females than in adult males or ducklings and the maximum concentrations were 14.37, 0.50 and 4.28 p.p.m. wet weight, respectively. In adult females, there was a significant difference in the proportion of detectable blood lead concentrations between three collection times (arrival/nesting, hatch and brood rearing), with the highest proportion (92%) occurring at hatch. Nine hens with blood lead concentrations of a?Y0.50 p.p.m. were captured a second time several weeks to 1 year later. In the hens sampled twice at intervals of several weeks, the blood lead concentrations increased and declined at mean daily rates of 1.10 and 0.94, respectively. The lead concentrations in the blood of adults were not correlated with body weights. Radiographs were taken of 119 eiders and corresponding blood samples from 98 of these birds were analysed for lead. Ingested shot was seen in X-rays of 12 adults and three ducklings and, of the 13 blood samples tested, all had detectable lead concentrations. Of the birds without radiographic evidence of ingested shot, 84% of the adult females, 19% of the adult males and 17% of the ducklings had detectable lead concentrations in their blood. Breeding ground exposure of waterfowl to lead shot is unusual and is of particular concern in spectacled eiders because of their threatened status and declining numbers in western Alaska.

  3. National information network and database system of hazardous waste management in China

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Hongchang

    1996-12-31

    Industries in China generate large volumes of hazardous waste, which makes it essential for the nation to pay more attention to hazardous waste management. National laws and regulations, waste surveys, and manifest tracking and permission systems have been initiated. Some centralized hazardous waste disposal facilities are under construction. China`s National Environmental Protection Agency (NEPA) has also obtained valuable information on hazardous waste management from developed countries. To effectively share this information with local environmental protection bureaus, NEPA developed a national information network and database system for hazardous waste management. This information network will have such functions as information collection, inquiry, and connection. The long-term objective is to establish and develop a national and local hazardous waste management information network. This network will significantly help decision makers and researchers because it will be easy to obtain information (e.g., experiences of developed countries in hazardous waste management) to enhance hazardous waste management in China. The information network consists of five parts: technology consulting, import-export management, regulation inquiry, waste survey, and literature inquiry.

  4. How Hepatitis C Virus Leads to Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Network-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Poortahmasebi, Vahdat; Poorebrahim, Mansour; Najafi, Saeideh; Jazayeri, Seyed Mohammad; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Arab, Seyed Shahriar; Ghavami, Saeid; Alavian, Seyed Ehsan; Rezaei Moghadam, Adel; Amiri, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been known as a major cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) worldwide. However, the distinct molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of HCV proteins on the HCC progression have remained unclear. Objectives: In the present study, we studied the possible role of HCV in the HCC initiation and invasion using topological analysis of protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. Materials and Methods: After analysis with GEO2R, a PPI network of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was constructed for both chronic HCV and HCC samples. The STRING and GeneMANIA databases were used to determine the putative interactions between DEGs. In parallel, the functional annotation of DEGs was performed using g: Profiler web tool. The topological analysis and network visualization was carried outperformed using Cytoscape software and the top hub genes were identified. We determined the hub genes-related miRNAs using miRTarBase server and reconstructed a miRNA-Hubgene network. Results: Based on the topological analysis of miRNA-Hubgene network, we identified the key hub miRNAs. In order to identify the most important common sub-network, we aligned two PPI networks using NETAL tool. The c-Jun gene was identified as the most important hub gene in both HCV and HCC networks. Furthermore, the hsa-miR-34a, hsa-miR-155, hsa-miR-24, hsa-miR-744 and hsa-miR-92a were recognized as the most important hub miRNAs with positive correlation in the chronic HCV and HCC samples. Functional annotation of differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) using the tool for annotations of human miRNAs (TAM) revealed that there is a considerable overlap between miRNA gene expression profiles of HCV-infected and HCC cells. Conclusions: Our results revealed the possible crucial genes and miRNAs involved in the initiation and progression of HCC cells infected with HCV. PMID:27148389

  5. 77 FR 59599 - Notice of Public Meeting: Designing for Impact IV: Workshop on Building the National Network for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ...DOE's Advanced Manufacturing Office, as part of the inter- agency Advanced Manufacturing National Program Office (AMNPO) announces the fourth of a series of public workshops entitled ``Designing for Impact: Workshop on Building the National Network for Manufacturing Innovation. This workshop series provides a forum for the AMPNO to present on the proposed National Network for Manufacturing......

  6. Commentary: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Educators Launch National Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Cheryl; Bell, Ellis; Johnson, Margaret; Mattos, Carla; Sears, Duane; White, Harold B.

    2010-01-01

    The American Society of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (ASBMB) has launched an National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded 5 year project to support biochemistry and molecular biology educators learning what and how students learn. As a part of this initiative, hundreds of life scientists will plan and develop a rich central resource for…

  7. Landbird Monitoring Protocol for National Parks in the North Coast and Cascades Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siegel, Rodney B.; Wilkerson, Robert L.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Kuntz, Robert C., II; Boetsch, John R.; Schaberl, James P.; Happe, Patricia J.

    2007-01-01

    This protocol narrative outlines the rationale, sampling design and methods for monitoring landbirds in the North Coast and Cascades Network (NCCN) during the breeding season. The NCCN, one of 32 networks of parks in the National Park System, comprises seven national park units in the Pacific Northwest, including three large, mountainous, natural area parks (Mount Rainier [MORA] and Olympic [OLYM] National Parks, North Cascades National Park Service Complex [NOCA]), and four small historic cultural parks (Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve [EBLA], Lewis and Clark National Historical Park [LEWI], Fort Vancouver National Historical Park [FOVA], and San Juan Island National Historical Park [SAJH]). The protocol reflects decisions made by the NCCN avian monitoring group, which includes NPS representatives from each of the large parks in the Network as well as personnel from the U.S. Geological Survey Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center (USGS-FRESC) Olympic Field Station, and The Institute for Bird Populations, at meetings held between 2000 (Siegel and Kuntz, 2000) and 2005. The protocol narrative describes the monitoring program in relatively broad terms, and its structure and content adhere to the outline and recommendations developed by Oakley and others (2003) and adopted by NPS. Finer details of the methodology are addressed in a set of standard operating procedures (SOPs) that accompany the protocol narrative. We also provide appendixes containing additional supporting materials that do not clearly belong in either the protocol narrative or the standard operating procedures.

  8. Federated queries of clinical data repositories: Scaling to a national network.

    PubMed

    Weber, Griffin M

    2015-06-01

    Federated networks of clinical research data repositories are rapidly growing in size from a handful of sites to true national networks with more than 100 hospitals. This study creates a conceptual framework for predicting how various properties of these systems will scale as they continue to expand. Starting with actual data from Harvard's four-site Shared Health Research Information Network (SHRINE), the framework is used to imagine a future 4000 site network, representing the majority of hospitals in the United States. From this it becomes clear that several common assumptions of small networks fail to scale to a national level, such as all sites being online at all times or containing data from the same date range. On the other hand, a large network enables researchers to select subsets of sites that are most appropriate for particular research questions. Developers of federated clinical data networks should be aware of how the properties of these networks change at different scales and design their software accordingly. PMID:25957825

  9. National Research Networks Facilitate Mutually Beneficial Research at ARS Locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyfried, M. S.; Holbrook, W. S.; Fellows, A.; Kormos, P.; Lohse, K. A.; Marks, D. G.; Flerchinger, G. N.

    2015-12-01

    A major benefit of participation in research networks such as the Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) network is that multidisciplinary research on a broad range of topics is facilitated. The interaction between the Agricultural Research Service long-term experimental watersheds and LTAR exemplifies this. At the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed (RCEW), this is further enhanced by participation in the Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) network. The RCEW has a long history (55 years) of experimentation, modeling and monitoring emphasizing hydrologic processes, which are inevitably related to biogeochemical processes, but rarely linked directly in RCEW research. New research with the Reynolds Creek CZO (RC CZO) emphasizes biogeochemistry. The background research and infrastructure at the RCEW provides an ideal platform for that research. At the same time, RC CZO products are enabling ARS to extend its research activities. We highlight three examples: (i) forcing data sets used to facilitate physical modeling of hydrologic and biogeochemical processes, (ii) linkage of hydrology and geophyscis to extend our understanding of subsurface processes, and (iii) climate/elevation linkages to ecosystem productivity, which are closely related in water limited environments such as the RCEW. The addition of the RCEW to the LTAR is further extended ARS capabilities. For example, the RCEW is now monitoring net carbon balance and productivity at sites along an elevation/climatic gradient. The addition of LTAR research enhances that work by extending the climate gradient and introducing management and land surface change effects. We anticipate that these interactions will grow and that cross-site experiments will be initiated as the results begin to accumulate.

  10. Lead in vegetation, forest floor material, and soils of the spruce-fir zone, Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Bogle, M.A.; Turner, R.R.

    1983-01-01

    Based on a survey during 1982, lead concentrations in vegetation, litter and soils of the spruce-fir zone of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park are generally less than values reported for similar sites in the northeastern United States and western Europe. As expected, lead concentrations increased with increasing age of spruce and fir foliage, and with increasing degree of decomposition of litter. Fir bole wood was higher in lead than spruce bole wood, but both species were far below acutely phytotoxic levels. Although the results of this study indicated no immediate cause for concern, periodic monitoring of lead and other metals in the spruce-fir zone should be continued to provide early detection of significant changes. 32 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  11. Anticipated Ethics and Regulatory Challenges in PCORnet: The National Patient-Centered Clinical Research Network.

    PubMed

    Ali, Joseph; Califf, Robert; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    PCORnet, the National Patient-Centered Clinical Research Network, seeks to establish a robust national health data network for patient-centered comparative effectiveness research. This article reports the results of a PCORnet survey designed to identify the ethics and regulatory challenges anticipated in network implementation. A 12-item online survey was developed by leadership of the PCORnet Ethics and Regulatory Task Force; responses were collected from the 29 PCORnet networks. The most pressing ethics issues identified related to informed consent, patient engagement, privacy and confidentiality, and data sharing. High priority regulatory issues included IRB coordination, privacy and confidentiality, informed consent, and data sharing. Over 150 IRBs and five different approaches to managing multisite IRB review were identified within PCORnet. Further empirical and scholarly work, as well as practical and policy guidance, is essential if important initiatives that rely on comparative effectiveness research are to move forward. PMID:26192996

  12. Review of petroleum transport network models and their applicability to a national refinery model

    SciTech Connect

    Hooker, J. N.

    1982-04-01

    This report examines four petroleum transport network models to determine whether parts of them can be incorporated into the transportation component of a national refinery model. Two questions in particular are addressed. (a) How do the models under examination represent the oil transport network, estimate link capacities, and calculate transport costs. (b) Are any of these network representations, capacity estimates, or cost functions suitable for inclusion in a linear programming model of oil refinery and primary distribution in the US. Only pipeline and waterway transport is discussed. The models examined are the Department of Energy's OILNET model, the Department of Transportation's Freight Energy Model, the Federal Energy Administration Petroleum Transportation Network Model, and an Oak Ridge National Laboratory oil pipeline energy model. Link capacity and cost functions are recommended for each transport mode. The coefficients of the recommended pipeline cost functions remain to be estimated.

  13. Australian national networked tele-test facility for integrated systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshraghian, Kamran; Lachowicz, Stefan W.; Eshraghian, Sholeh

    2001-11-01

    The Australian Commonwealth government recently announced a grant of 4.75 million as part of a 13.5 million program to establish a world class networked IC tele-test facility in Australia. The facility will be based on a state-of-the-art semiconductor tester located at Edith Cowan University in Perth that will operate as a virtual centre spanning Australia. Satellite nodes will be located at the University of Western Australia, Griffith University, Macquarie University, Victoria University and the University of Adelaide. The facility will provide vital equipment to take Australia to the frontier of critically important and expanding fields in microelectronics research and development. The tele-test network will provide state of the art environment for the electronics and microelectronics research and the industry community around Australia to test and prototype Very Large Scale Integrated (VLSI) circuits and other System On a Chip (SOC) devices, prior to moving to the manufacturing stage. Such testing is absolutely essential to ensure that the device performs to specification. This paper presents the current context in which the testing facility is being established, the methodologies behind the integration of design and test strategies and the target shape of the tele-testing Facility.

  14. The National Cancer Institute's Physical Sciences - Oncology Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espey, Michael Graham

    In 2009, the NCI launched the Physical Sciences - Oncology Centers (PS-OC) initiative with 12 Centers (U54) funded through 2014. The current phase of the Program includes U54 funded Centers with the added feature of soliciting new Physical Science - Oncology Projects (PS-OP) U01 grant applications through 2017; see NCI PAR-15-021. The PS-OPs, individually and along with other PS-OPs and the Physical Sciences-Oncology Centers (PS-OCs), comprise the Physical Sciences-Oncology Network (PS-ON). The foundation of the Physical Sciences-Oncology initiative is a high-risk, high-reward program that promotes a `physical sciences perspective' of cancer and fosters the convergence of physical science and cancer research by forming transdisciplinary teams of physical scientists (e.g., physicists, mathematicians, chemists, engineers, computer scientists) and cancer researchers (e.g., cancer biologists, oncologists, pathologists) who work closely together to advance our understanding of cancer. The collaborative PS-ON structure catalyzes transformative science through increased exchange of people, ideas, and approaches. PS-ON resources are leveraged to fund Trans-Network pilot projects to enable synergy and cross-testing of experimental and/or theoretical concepts. This session will include a brief PS-ON overview followed by a strategic discussion with the APS community to exchange perspectives on the progression of trans-disciplinary physical sciences in cancer research.

  15. Contaminant exposure and potential effects on terrestrial vertebrates residing in the National Capital Region network and Mid-Atlantic network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Ackerson, B.K.

    2006-01-01

    Based upon these and other findings, ecotoxicological monitoring and research investigations of terrestrial vertebrates are warranted at several National Parks. These include Shenandoah National Park, Richmond National Battlefield, Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Historic Park, Valley Forge National Historic Park, Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site, Monocacy National Battlefield, and Harpers Ferry National Historic Park. The types of investigations vary according to the species present at these parks and potential contaminant threats, but should focus on contemporary use pesticides and herbicides, polychlorinated biphenyls, mercury, lead, and perhaps, emerging contaminants including antibiotics, flame retardants, pharmaceuticals, and surfactants. Other management recommendations include additional training for natural resource staff members in the area of ecotoxicology, inclusion of terrestrial vertebrate contaminant monitoring and the Contaminant Assessment Process (U.S. Geological Survey Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends Project) into the National Park Service Vital Signs Program, development of protocols for hand ling and toxicological analysis of dead or seemingly affected wildlife, consideration of some alternative methods and compounds for pest management and weed control

  16. Blood lead concentration and related factors in Korea from the 2008 National Survey for Environmental Pollutants in the Human Body.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seong Wook; Lee, Chae Kwan; Suh, Chun Hui; Kim, Kun Hyung; Son, Byung Chul; Kim, Jeong Ho; Lee, Jong Tae; Lee, Soo Woong; Park, Yeong Beom; Lee, Jong Wha; Yu, Seung-Do; Moon, Chan Seok; Kim, Dae Hwan; Lee, Sang Yoon

    2014-11-01

    This study evaluated blood lead concentrations in the Korean general population and the correlation between various exposure sources using data from the 2008 Korea National Survey for Environmental Pollutants in the Human Body (National Institute of Environmental Research, Korea). The general and occupational characteristics were gathered from 5136 participants who were 20 years of age and older using a structured questionnaire. Blood lead concentrations were analyzed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Statistical analysis was performed using multiple linear regressions of the log lead concentrations to the independent variables such as age, gender, smoke, herbal medication and drug consumption, drinking water, and living area. Geometric mean (GM) blood lead concentrations in Korean adults were 19.7 μg/l. The blood lead concentrations increased with age; the highest concentrations were found in the 50-69-year age group (p<0.001). Males were higher than in females (p<0.001). Current smokers and drinkers had higher concentrations than nonsmokers (p<0.001) and nondrinkers (p<0.001), respectively. People who took herbal medication and drug consumption were higher than those who did not (p<0.001). Education level was negatively associated with blood lead concentration (p<0.001). People living in or around industrial areas had elevated blood lead concentration (p<0.001). Family income was also negatively associated with lead concentration, but not significantly. For drinking water, the underground water (spring or well water) drinking group had higher concentrations than other types of water drinking groups, but not significantly (p=0.063). The blood lead concentrations by occupation were significant (p<0.034): the highest was in laborer and Agricultural-Fishery-Forestry and the lowest in office workers. In women, blood lead concentrations tended to decrease with increasing delivery times, but not significantly. The blood lead concentration (GM) of the

  17. Linking Geophysical Networks to International Economic Development Through Integration of Global and National Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerner-Lam, A.

    2007-05-01

    Outside of the research community and mission agencies, global geophysical monitoring rarely receives sustained attention except in the aftermath of a humanitarian disaster. The recovery and rebuilding period focuses attention and resources for a short time on regional needs for geophysical observation, often at the national or sub-national level. This can result in the rapid deployment of national monitoring networks, but may overlook the longer-term benefits of integration with global networks. Even in the case of multinational disasters, such as the Indian Ocean tsunami, it has proved difficult to promote the integration of national solutions with global monitoring, research and operations infrastructure. More importantly, continuing operations at the national or sub-national scale are difficult to sustain once the resources associated with recovery and rebuilding are depleted. Except for some notable examples, the vast infrastructure associated with global geophysical monitoring is not utilized constructively to promote the integration of national networks with international efforts. This represents a missed opportunity not only for monitoring, but for developing the international research and educational collaborations necessary for technological transfer and capacity building. The recent confluence of highly visible disasters, global multi-hazard risk assessments, evaluations of the relationships between natural disasters and socio-economic development, and shifts in development agency policies, provides an opportunity to link global geophysical monitoring initiatives to central issues in international development. Natural hazard risk reduction has not been the first priority of international development agendas for understandable, mainly humanitarian reasons. However, it is now recognized that the so-called risk premium associated with making development projects more risk conscious or risk resilient is relatively small relative to potential losses. Thus

  18. Keratin network modifications lead to the mechanical stiffening of the hair follicle fiber

    PubMed Central

    Bornschlögl, Thomas; Bildstein, Lucien; Thibaut, Sébastien; Santoprete, Roberto; Fiat, Françoise; Luengo, Gustavo S.; Doucet, Jean; Bernard, Bruno A.; Baghdadli, Nawel

    2016-01-01

    The complex mechanical properties of biomaterials such as hair, horn, skin, or bone are determined by the architecture of the underlying fibrous bionetworks. Although much is known about the influence of the cytoskeleton on the mechanics of isolated cells, this has been less studied in tridimensional tissues. We used the hair follicle as a model to link changes in the keratin network composition and architecture to the mechanical properties of the nascent hair. We show using atomic force microscopy that the soft keratinocyte matrix at the base of the follicle stiffens by a factor of ∼360, from 30 kPa to 11 MPa along the first millimeter of the follicle. The early mechanical stiffening is concomitant to an increase in diameter of the keratin macrofibrils, their continuous compaction, and increasingly parallel orientation. The related stiffening of the material follows a power law, typical of the mechanics of nonthermal bending-dominated fiber networks. In addition, we used X-ray diffraction to monitor changes in the (supra)molecular organization within the keratin fibers. At later keratinization stages, the inner mechanical properties of the macrofibrils dominate the stiffening due to the progressive setting up of the cystine network. Our findings corroborate existing models on the sequence of biological and structural events during hair keratinization. PMID:27162354

  19. Keratin network modifications lead to the mechanical stiffening of the hair follicle fiber.

    PubMed

    Bornschlögl, Thomas; Bildstein, Lucien; Thibaut, Sébastien; Santoprete, Roberto; Fiat, Françoise; Luengo, Gustavo S; Doucet, Jean; Bernard, Bruno A; Baghdadli, Nawel

    2016-05-24

    The complex mechanical properties of biomaterials such as hair, horn, skin, or bone are determined by the architecture of the underlying fibrous bionetworks. Although much is known about the influence of the cytoskeleton on the mechanics of isolated cells, this has been less studied in tridimensional tissues. We used the hair follicle as a model to link changes in the keratin network composition and architecture to the mechanical properties of the nascent hair. We show using atomic force microscopy that the soft keratinocyte matrix at the base of the follicle stiffens by a factor of ∼360, from 30 kPa to 11 MPa along the first millimeter of the follicle. The early mechanical stiffening is concomitant to an increase in diameter of the keratin macrofibrils, their continuous compaction, and increasingly parallel orientation. The related stiffening of the material follows a power law, typical of the mechanics of nonthermal bending-dominated fiber networks. In addition, we used X-ray diffraction to monitor changes in the (supra)molecular organization within the keratin fibers. At later keratinization stages, the inner mechanical properties of the macrofibrils dominate the stiffening due to the progressive setting up of the cystine network. Our findings corroborate existing models on the sequence of biological and structural events during hair keratinization. PMID:27162354

  20. Design and initial deployment of the wireless local area networking infrastructure at Sandia National Laboratories.

    SciTech Connect

    Long, John P.; Hamill, Michael J.; Mitchell, M. G.; Miller, Marc M.; Witzke, Edward L.; Wiener, Dallas J

    2006-11-01

    A major portion of the Wireless Networking Project at Sandia National Laboratories over the last few years has been to examine IEEE 802.11 wireless networking for possible use at Sandia and if practical, introduce this technology. This project team deployed 802.11a, b, and g Wireless Local Area Networking at Sandia. This report examines the basics of wireless networking and captures key results from project tests and experiments. It also records project members thoughts and designs on wireless LAN architecture and security issues. It documents some of the actions and milestones of this project, including pilot and production deployment of wireless networking equipment, and captures the team's rationale behind some of the decisions made. Finally, the report examines lessons learned, future directions, and conclusions.

  1. Dilemmas of Leading National Curriculum Reform in a Global Era: A Chinese Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Hongbiao; Lee, John Chi-Kin; Wang, Wenlan

    2014-01-01

    Since the mid-1980s, a global resurgence of large-scale reform in the field of education has been witnessed. Implementing these reforms has created many dilemmas for change leaders. Following a three-year qualitative research project, the present study explores the dilemmas leaders faced during the implementation of the national curriculum reform…

  2. 75 FR 71033 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... Agency FR Federal Register FRM Federal Reference Method IQ Intelligence Quotient NAAQS National Ambient..., known as the Tribal Authority Rule (TAR), on February 12, 1999. 63 FR 7254, codified at 40 CFR 49 (1999... a notice on July 8, 2010 (75 FR 39254) which invited the public to comment on EPA's...

  3. The International Postal Network and Other Global Flows as Proxies for National Wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Hristova, Desislava; Rutherford, Alex; Anson, Jose; Luengo-Oroz, Miguel; Mascolo, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    The digital exhaust left by flows of physical and digital commodities provides a rich measure of the nature, strength and significance of relationships between countries in the global network. With this work, we examine how these traces and the network structure can reveal the socioeconomic profile of different countries. We take into account multiple international networks of physical and digital flows, including the previously unexplored international postal network. By measuring the position of each country in the Trade, Postal, Migration, International Flights, IP and Digital Communications networks, we are able to build proxies for a number of crucial socioeconomic indicators such as GDP per capita and the Human Development Index ranking along with twelve other indicators used as benchmarks of national well-being by the United Nations and other international organisations. In this context, we have also proposed and evaluated a global connectivity degree measure applying multiplex theory across the six networks that accounts for the strength of relationships between countries. We conclude by showing how countries with shared community membership over multiple networks have similar socioeconomic profiles. Combining multiple flow data sources can help understand the forces which drive economic activity on a global level. Such an ability to infer proxy indicators in a context of incomplete information is extremely timely in light of recent discussions on measurement of indicators relevant to the Sustainable Development Goals. PMID:27248142

  4. The International Postal Network and Other Global Flows as Proxies for National Wellbeing

    PubMed Central

    Rutherford, Alex; Anson, Jose; Luengo-Oroz, Miguel; Mascolo, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    The digital exhaust left by flows of physical and digital commodities provides a rich measure of the nature, strength and significance of relationships between countries in the global network. With this work, we examine how these traces and the network structure can reveal the socioeconomic profile of different countries. We take into account multiple international networks of physical and digital flows, including the previously unexplored international postal network. By measuring the position of each country in the Trade, Postal, Migration, International Flights, IP and Digital Communications networks, we are able to build proxies for a number of crucial socioeconomic indicators such as GDP per capita and the Human Development Index ranking along with twelve other indicators used as benchmarks of national well-being by the United Nations and other international organisations. In this context, we have also proposed and evaluated a global connectivity degree measure applying multiplex theory across the six networks that accounts for the strength of relationships between countries. We conclude by showing how countries with shared community membership over multiple networks have similar socioeconomic profiles. Combining multiple flow data sources can help understand the forces which drive economic activity on a global level. Such an ability to infer proxy indicators in a context of incomplete information is extremely timely in light of recent discussions on measurement of indicators relevant to the Sustainable Development Goals. PMID:27248142

  5. pSCANNER: patient-centered Scalable National Network for Effectiveness Research.

    PubMed

    Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Agha, Zia; Bell, Douglas S; Dahm, Lisa; Day, Michele E; Doctor, Jason N; Gabriel, Davera; Kahlon, Maninder K; Kim, Katherine K; Hogarth, Michael; Matheny, Michael E; Meeker, Daniella; Nebeker, Jonathan R

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the patient-centered Scalable National Network for Effectiveness Research (pSCANNER), which is part of the recently formed PCORnet, a national network composed of learning healthcare systems and patient-powered research networks funded by the Patient Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI). It is designed to be a stakeholder-governed federated network that uses a distributed architecture to integrate data from three existing networks covering over 21 million patients in all 50 states: (1) VA Informatics and Computing Infrastructure (VINCI), with data from Veteran Health Administration's 151 inpatient and 909 ambulatory care and community-based outpatient clinics; (2) the University of California Research exchange (UC-ReX) network, with data from UC Davis, Irvine, Los Angeles, San Francisco, and San Diego; and (3) SCANNER, a consortium of UCSD, Tennessee VA, and three federally qualified health systems in the Los Angeles area supplemented with claims and health information exchange data, led by the University of Southern California. Initial use cases will focus on three conditions: (1) congestive heart failure; (2) Kawasaki disease; (3) obesity. Stakeholders, such as patients, clinicians, and health service researchers, will be engaged to prioritize research questions to be answered through the network. We will use a privacy-preserving distributed computation model with synchronous and asynchronous modes. The distributed system will be based on a common data model that allows the construction and evaluation of distributed multivariate models for a variety of statistical analyses. PMID:24780722

  6. 40 CFR 50.16 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... secondary ambient air quality standards for lead (Pb) and its compounds are 0.15 micrograms per cubic meter, arithmetic mean concentration over a 3-month period, measured in the ambient air as Pb either by: (1) A... primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for Pb are met when the maximum arithmetic...

  7. 76 FR 70833 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Primary Lead Processing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-15

    .... Background Information Document. On February 17, 2011 (76 FR 9410), the EPA proposed revisions to the Primary... June 6, 1999 (64 FR 30204), and codified at 40 CFR part 63, subpart TTT. The primary lead processing..., as noted in the proposal (76 FR 9432), and the risk assessment documents to support the proposed...

  8. Lead exposure from soil in Peruvian mining towns: a national assessment supported by two contrasting examples

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Carolina; Gil, Vladimir; Sherpa, Shaky; Jack, Darby

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the population of Peru living in the vicinity of active or former mining operations that could be exposed to lead from contaminated soil. Methods Geographic coordinates were compiled for 113 active mines, 138 ore processing plants and 3 smelters, as well as 7743 former mining sites. The population living within 5 km of these sites was calculated from census data for 2000. In addition, the lead content of soil in the historic mining town of Cerro de Pasco and around a recent mine and ore processing plant near the city of Huaral was mapped in 2009 using a hand-held X-ray fluorescence analyser. Findings Spatial analysis indicated that 1.6 million people in Peru could be living within 5 km of an active or former mining operation. Two thirds of the population potentially exposed was accounted for by 29 clusters of mining operations, each with a population of over 10 000 each. These clusters included 112 active and 3438 former mining operations. Soil lead levels exceeded 1200 mg/kg, a reference standard for residential soil, in 35 of 74 sites tested in Cerro de Pasco but in only 4 of 47 sites tested around the newer operations near Huaral. Conclusion Soil contamination with lead is likely to be extensive in Peruvian mining towns but the level of contamination is spatially far from uniform. Childhood exposure by soil ingestion could be substantially reduced by mapping soil lead levels, making this information public and encouraging local communities to isolate contaminated areas from children. PMID:23284193

  9. Leading a Learning Organisation: Australian Early Years Centres as Learning Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colmer, Kaye

    2008-01-01

    Established in 1940, Lady Gowrie Child Centres in Australia provide integrated early childhood programs and develop and share project work, information, resources and training at local and national levels. While changes in social policy compromised their provision of integrated programs, the centre in Adelaide has made real strides towards moving…

  10. ICOS Sweden - a national infrastructure network for greenhouse gas research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindroth, Anders; Heliasz, Michal; Klemedtsson, Leif; Friborg, Thomas; Nilsson, Mats; Ottosson Löfvenius, Mikaell; Rutgersson, Anna; Stiegler, Christian

    2015-04-01

    ICOS Sweden operates a measurement network consisting of seven field stations representing major Swedish ecosystems (forests, wetlands, crop sites and marine) and climatic conditions. Three sites also host atmospheric measurements in high towers. In addition to ICOS activities, the stations are open to all researchers wishing to perform complementary studies. The ICOS Sweden ecosystem and atmospheric stations are all equipped according to the ICOS "class 1" criteria, and will be fully operational in beginning of 2015. All ICOS Sweden field stations are equipped with mains power, internet, computers and staff meaning that many other projects, both long-term and short-term, can be linked to them - for example, in the fields of meteorology, hydrology, biodiversity, land and soil studies etc. ICOS Sweden is comprised of the following stations; Abisko-Stordalen (subarctic mire), Degerö (boreal mire), Svartberget (boreal pine/spruce forest + atmospheric observations), Norunda (hemi boreal pine/spruce forest + atmospheric observations), Lanna (cropland), Östergarnsholm (marine) and Hyltemossa (southern boreal spruce + atmospheric observations).

  11. National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) Networks: Data on the chemistry of precipitation

    DOE Data Explorer

    The National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) is a nationwide network of sites collecting data on the chemistry of precipitation for monitoring of geographical and temporal long-term trends. The precipitation at each station is collected weekly according to strict clean-handling procedures. It is then sent to the Central Analytical Laboratory where it is analyzed for hydrogen (acidity as pH), sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, chloride, and base cations (such as calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium). The network is a cooperative effort between many different groups, including the State Agricultural Experiment Stations, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and numerous other governmental and private entities. DOE is one of these cooperating agencies, though it plays a smaller funding role than some of the other federal sources. Since 1978, the NADP/NTN has grown from 22 stations to over 250 sites spanning the continental United States, Alaska, and Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. The National Atmospheric Deposition Program has also expanded its sampling to two additional networks: 1) the Mercury Deposition Network (MDN), currently with over 90 sites, was formed in 1995 to collect weekly samples of precipitation which are analyzed by Frontier Geosciences for total mercury, and 2) the Atmospheric Integrated Research Monitoring Network (AIRMoN), formed for the purpose of studying precipitation chemistry trends with greater temporal resolution than the NTN. [taken from the NADP History and Overview page at http://nadp.sws.uiuc.edu/nadpoverview.asp] Data from these networks are freely available in via customized search interfaces linked to interactive maps of the stations in the three networks. Animated Isopleth maps in Flash and PowerPoint are also available to display concentrations and depositions various substances such as sulfate, nitrate, etc. (Specialized Interface)

  12. Overview of the biomedical and environmental programs at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [Lead abstract

    SciTech Connect

    Pfuderer, H.A.; Moody, J.B.

    1981-07-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for each of the 6 chapters presented by the six divisions involved in the Biomedical and Environmental Sciences Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The introduction is not covered by an abstract and deals with the environmental, health and safety considerations of energy technology decisions, the major initiatives now being taken by these 6 divisions, and recent major accomplishments in the biomedical and environmental science program. (KRM)

  13. Implementing a U.S. national phenology network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Betancourt, J.L.; Schwartz, M.D.; Breshears, D.D.; Cayan, D.R.; Dettinger, M.D.; Inouye, D.W.; Post, E.; Reed, B.C.

    2005-01-01

    The passing of seasons, as gauged by annual events or phenophases in organisms' life cycles, is arguably one of the most pervasive environmental variations on Earth. Shifts in seasonal timing, or phenology, are observed in flowering and other stages of plant development, animal migration and reproduction, hibernation, and the seasonal activity of cold-blooded animals [e.g., Schwartz, 2003; Root et al., 2005]. As an important life history trait, phenology is an object of natural selection; depending on timescales, shifts in phenology can lead to evolutionary change. Thus, phenology is not only an indicator of pattern in environmental science, but also its variation has fitness consequences for individuals, and these can scale up to broader ecological dynamics.

  14. Deployment of the National Transparent Optical Network around the San Francisco Bay Area

    SciTech Connect

    McCammon, K.; Haigh, R.; Armstrong, G.

    1996-06-01

    We report on the deployment and initial operation of the National Transparent Optical Network, an experimental WDM network testbed around the San Francisco Bay Area, during the Optical Fiber Conference (OFC`96) held in San Jose, CA. The deployment aspects of the physical plant, optical and SONET layers are examined along with a discussion of broadband applications which utilized the network during the OFC`96 demonstration. The network features dense WDM technology, transparent optical routing technology using acousto- optic tunable filter based switches, and network modules with add/drop, multicast, and wavelength translation capabilities. The physical layer consisted of over 300 km of Sprint and Pacific Bell conventional single mode fiber which was amplified with I I optical amplifiers deployed in pre-amp, post-amp, and line amp configurations. An out-of-band control network provided datacom channels from remote equipment sites to the SONET network manager deployed at the San Jose Convention Center for the conference. Data transport over five wavelengths was achieved in the 1550 nm window using a variety of signal formats including analog and digital signal transmission on different wavelengths on the same fiber. The network operated throughout the week of OFC`96 and is still in operation today.

  15. The health benefits of network growth: new evidence from a national survey of older adults.

    PubMed

    Cornwell, Benjamin; Laumann, Edward O

    2015-01-01

    Scholars who study how social networks affect older adults' health are often concerned with the prospect of declining social connectedness in late life. This paper shifts the focus to older adults' tendencies to cultivate new social ties. This process of network growth can improve access to social resources, boost self-esteem, reduce loneliness, and increase physical activity. We therefore examine the link between tie cultivation and health using new longitudinal data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), which recorded changes in older adults' confidant network rosters over a period of about five years. Most respondents (81.8%) added at least one new network member during the study period, and most (59.4%) cultivated multiple new confidant relationships. Longitudinal analyses suggest that the addition of new confidants is associated with improvements in functional, self-rated, and psychological health, net of baseline connectedness as well as any network losses that occurred during the same period. Network losses were associated with physical but not psychological well-being. These findings underscore the importance of distinguishing between concurrent processes that underlie social network change in later life, and highlight the need for additional research on the mechanisms by which network change may improve health. PMID:24128674

  16. The Health Benefits of Network Growth: New Evidence from a National Survey of Older Adults*

    PubMed Central

    Cornwell, Benjamin; Laumann, Edward O.

    2013-01-01

    Scholars who study how social networks affect older adults’ health are often concerned with the prospect of declining social connectedness in late life. This paper shifts the focus to older adults’ tendencies to cultivate new social ties. This process of network growth can improve access to social resources, boost self-esteem, reduce loneliness, and increase physical activity. We therefore examine the link between tie cultivation and health using new longitudinal data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), which recorded changes in older adults’ confidant network rosters over a period of about five years. Most respondents (81.8%) added at least one new network member during the study period, and most (59.4%) cultivated multiple new confidant relationships. Longitudinal analyses suggest that the addition of new confidants is associated with improvements in functional, self-rated, and psychological health, net of baseline connectedness as well as any network losses that occurred during the same period. Network losses were associated with physical but not psychological well-being. These findings underscore the importance of distinguishing between concurrent processes that underlie social network change in later life, and highlight the need for additional research on the mechanisms by which network change may improve health. PMID:24128674

  17. Assessment of a National Network: The Case of the French Teacher Training Colleges' Health Education Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guevel, Marie-Renee; Jourdan, Didier

    2009-01-01

    The French teacher training colleges' health education (HE) network was set up in 2005 to encourage the inclusion of HE in courses for primary and secondary school teachers. A systematic process of monitoring the activity and the impact of this initiative was implemented. This analysis was systematically compared with the perceptions of teaching…

  18. The Continuing Growth of Global Cooperation Networks in Research: A Conundrum for National Governments.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Caroline S; Park, Han Woo; Leydesdorff, Loet

    2015-01-01

    Global collaboration continues to grow as a share of all scientific cooperation, measured as coauthorships of peer-reviewed, published papers. The percent of all scientific papers that are internationally coauthored has more than doubled in 20 years, and they account for all the growth in output among the scientifically advanced countries. Emerging countries, particularly China, have increased their participation in global science, in part by doubling their spending on R&D; they are increasingly likely to appear as partners on internationally coauthored scientific papers. Given the growth of connections at the international level, it is helpful to examine the phenomenon as a communications network and to consider the network as a new organization on the world stage that adds to and complements national systems. When examined as interconnections across the globe over two decades, a global network has grown denser but not more clustered, meaning there are many more connections but they are not grouping into exclusive 'cliques'. This suggests that power relationships are not reproducing those of the political system. The network has features an open system, attracting productive scientists to participate in international projects. National governments could gain efficiencies and influence by developing policies and strategies designed to maximize network benefits-a model different from those designed for national systems. PMID:26196296

  19. The Continuing Growth of Global Cooperation Networks in Research: A Conundrum for National Governments

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Caroline S.; Park, Han Woo; Leydesdorff, Loet

    2015-01-01

    Global collaboration continues to grow as a share of all scientific cooperation, measured as coauthorships of peer-reviewed, published papers. The percent of all scientific papers that are internationally coauthored has more than doubled in 20 years, and they account for all the growth in output among the scientifically advanced countries. Emerging countries, particularly China, have increased their participation in global science, in part by doubling their spending on R&D; they are increasingly likely to appear as partners on internationally coauthored scientific papers. Given the growth of connections at the international level, it is helpful to examine the phenomenon as a communications network and to consider the network as a new organization on the world stage that adds to and complements national systems. When examined as interconnections across the globe over two decades, a global network has grown denser but not more clustered, meaning there are many more connections but they are not grouping into exclusive ‘cliques’. This suggests that power relationships are not reproducing those of the political system. The network has features an open system, attracting productive scientists to participate in international projects. National governments could gain efficiencies and influence by developing policies and strategies designed to maximize network benefits—a model different from those designed for national systems. PMID:26196296

  20. Evaluation of the National Diffusion Network: Study Design and Analysis Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emrick, John A.

    Conceptual and operational details of the evaluation of the National Diffusion of Network (NDN) are presented. The NDN promotes the exchange of successful educational practices. The report is divided into five sections, starting with an overview of the report. In the second chapter, a conceptual model for the evaluation is derived. The third…

  1. The National Broadband Network and the Challenges of Creating Connectivity in Education: The Case of Tasmania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Sue; Watson, Jane; Abbott-Chapman, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Tasmania, one of the first locations to have communities connected to the national broadband network (NBN), provided the context within which to ask significant questions about the implications of the NBN for all levels and sectors of education. This paper reports findings from a research project that developed innovative methodology to explore…

  2. METHODS INTERCOMPARISON OF SAMPLERS FOR EPA'S NATIONAL PM 2.5 CHEMICAL SPECIATION NETWORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this sampler intercomparison field study is to determine the performance characteristics for the collection of the chemical components of PM2.5 by the chemical speciation monitors developed for the national PM2.5 network relative to each other, to the Federal R...

  3. Learning Languages: The Journal of the National Network for Early Language Learning, 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbusch, Marcia H., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document, comprising volume 5, issues 1-3 of Learning Languages: The Journal of the National Network for Early Language Learning (NNELL), includes the following articles: "Poverty, Race, and Foreign Language Immersion: Predictors of Math and English Language Arts Performance" (Stephen J. Caldas, Nicole Boudreaux); "Meet a Foreign Language…

  4. U.S. EPA's National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network: Analytical Issues

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA has established a National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (NDAMN) to determine the temporal and geographical variability of atmospheric chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs), furans (CDFs), and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at rural and non-impacted locatio...

  5. winderosionnetwork.org – Portal to the National Wind Erosion Research Network

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Wind Erosion Research Network was established in 2014 as a collaborative effort led by the USDA Agricultural Research Service and Natural Resources Conservation Service, and USDI Bureau of Land Management, to address the need for standardized measurements of wind erosion and its control...

  6. Quality Inservice Education: Final Report of the National Inservice Network, 1978-1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrello, Leonard C.; And Others

    The document comprises the final report of the National Inservice Network (NIN), a program to describe and distribute regular education inservice (REGI) project abstracts, products, and lessons aimed at more effectively working with handicapped students. Initial sections contain an executive summary and an overview explaining the NIN as a…

  7. AIR QUALITY DATA FOR METALS, 1976, FROM THE NATIONAL AIR SURVEILLANCE NETWORKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate pollutant data gathered during calendar year 1976 by the cooperating stations of the National Air Surveillance Networks (NASN) provide the basis for listing the urban and nonurban concentrations of 11 metallic ions in suspended particulate matter. The data are present...

  8. AIR QUALITY DATA FOR METALS 1970 THROUGH 1974 FROM THE NATIONAL AIR SURVEILLANCE NETWORKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report lists the urban and nonurban concentrations of 11 metallic components of suspended particulate matter from samples gathered during calendar years 1970 through 1974 by the cooperating stations of the National Air Surveillance Network (NASN). The data are presented as a...

  9. AIR QUALITY DATA FOR METALS 1977 THROUGH 1979 FROM THE NATIONAL AIR SURVEILLANCE NETWORKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Air Surveillance Network, which has existed for over 20 years, provides air quality information for many urban and nonurban locations within the United States. The data in this publication were collected with the generous support of the many state and local air pollu...

  10. Notes from the National Testing Network in Writing. Volume VIII, November 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenburg, Karen, Ed.; Slaughter, Ginny, Ed.

    This newsletter contains 32 abstracts of approximately 1000 words each of papers presented at the 1988 conference of the National Testing Network in Writing. Abstracts, listed with their authors, include "Instructional Directions from Large Scale K-12 Writing Assessments" (C. Chew); "Portfolio Assessment across the Curriculum: Early Conflicts" (C.…

  11. 77 FR 26509 - Request for Information on Proposed New Program: National Network for Manufacturing Innovation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ..., materials, and equipment for additive manufacturing to enable low- cost, low-volume production using digital... Network for Manufacturing Innovation (NNMI) AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Department of Commerce. ACTION: Request for information. SUMMARY: The NIST-hosted Advanced...

  12. Journal Article: EPA's National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (Ndamn): Design, Implementation, and Final Results

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) established the National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (NDAMN) in June of 1998, and operated it until November of 2004. The objective of NDAMN was to determine background air concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (...

  13. The National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) - Some questions and answers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ficke, John F.; Hawkinson, Richard O.

    1975-01-01

    One of the major new efforts of the U.S. Geological Survey is the National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN). This circular is intended to answer some of the frequently asked questions concerning concepts used in establishing NASQAN, its purposes, design, value, and future plans.

  14. The Best of "Parent News": A Sourcebook on Parenting from the National Parent Information Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Anne S., Comp.

    The National Parent Information Network (NPIN) was created in 1993 to collect and disseminate information about high-quality resources for parents. One of the services provided by NPIN is "Parent News," an Internet magazine that focuses on topics of interest to parents and to professionals who work with parents. Compiled in response to requests…

  15. Certified Trainer Systems in the National Diffusion Network. A Guidebook for Educational Disseminators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Martha

    This guidebook describes procedures followed by National Diffusion Network (NDN) certified trainers when they are helping to disseminate information about the NDN or when they are helping school personnel adopt an NDN program or practice. It is noted that, because NDN certified trainers can help in information dissemination and program…

  16. Disseminating Competency-Based Adult Education through the National Diffusion Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Elaine

    1980-01-01

    Defines competency-based adult education; provides a brief history of the Adult Performance Level (APL) Curriculum and Competency-Based High School Diploma program; explains the National Diffusion Network; examines how the APL staff offers training and technical assistance; and focuses on nontraditional APL program implementation. (CT)

  17. Adult Education. Proven Exemplary Educational Programs and Practices: A Collection from the National Diffusion Network (NDN).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Board of Education, Lansing.

    This booklet provides descriptions of 16 adult education programs that have been validated as successful by the Joint Dissemination Review Panel (JDRP), U.S. Department of Education and that are being promoted by the National Diffusion Network (NDN). Although the programs were developed by individual school districts in response to local needs,…

  18. National Plant Diagnostic Network Five-Year Review: Report of the Review Panel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Plant Diagnostic Network (NPDN) was established by the U.S. Dept of Agriculture, Cooperative State Research Education and Extension Service from federal funds in 2002 to fill a major gap in timely, effective and state-of-the art diagnostic capability for threatening and emerging disease...

  19. THE NATIONAL CENTER FOR RADIOECOLOGY: A NETWORK OF EXCELLENCE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL AND HUMAN RADIATION RISK REDUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Jannik, T.

    2013-01-09

    Radioecology in the United States can be traced back to the early 1950s when small research programs were established to address the fate and effects of radionuclides released in the environment from activities at nuclear facilities. These programs focused primarily on local environmental effects, but global radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing and the potential for larger scale local releases of radioisotopes resulted in major concerns about the threat, not only to humans, but to other species and to ecosystems that support all life. These concerns were shared by other countries and it was quickly recognized that a multi-disciplinary approach would be required to address and understand the implications of anthropogenic radioactivity in the environment. The management, clean-up and long-term monitoring of legacy wastes at Department of Energy (DOE), Department of Defense (DOD), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-regulated facilities continues to be of concern as long as nuclear operations continue. Research conducted through radioecology programs provides the credible scientific data needed for decision-making purposes. The current status of radioecology programs in the United States are: fragmented with little coordination to identify national strategies and direct programs; suffering from a steadily decreasing funding base; soon to be hampered by closure of key infrastructure; hampered by aging and retiring workforce (loss of technical expertise); and in need of training of young scientists to ensure continuation of the science (no formal graduate education program in radioecology remaining in the U.S.). With these concerns in mind, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) took the lead to establish the National Center for Radioecology (NCoRE) as a network of excellence of the remaining radioecology expertise in the United States. As part of the NCoRE mission, scientists at SRNL are working with six key partner universities to re-establish a

  20. External quality-assurance project report for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network and Mercury Deposition Network, 2009-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Martin, RoseAnn; Rhodes, Mark F.; Chesney, Tanya A.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey operated six distinct programs to provide external quality-assurance monitoring for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NTN) and Mercury Deposition Network (MDN) during 2009–2010. The field-audit program assessed the effects of onsite exposure, sample handling, and shipping on the chemistry of NTN samples; a system-blank program assessed the same effects for MDN. Two interlaboratory-comparison programs assessed the bias and variability of the chemical analysis data from the Central Analytical Laboratory (CAL) and Mercury (Hg) Analytical Laboratory (HAL). The blind-audit program was also implemented for the MDN to evaluate analytical bias in total Hg concentration data produced by the HAL. The co-located-sampler program was used to identify and quantify potential shifts in NADP data resulting from replacement of original network instrumentation with new electronic recording rain gages (E-gages) and precipitation collectors that use optical sensors. The results indicate that NADP data continue to be of sufficient quality for the analysis of spatial distributions and time trends of chemical constituents in wet deposition across the United States. Results also suggest that retrofit of the NADP networks with the new precipitation collectors could cause –8 to +14 percent shifts in NADP annual precipitation-weighted mean concentrations and total deposition values for ammonium, nitrate, sulfate, and hydrogen ion, and larger shifts (+13 to +74 percent) for calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride. The prototype N-CON Systems bucket collector is more efficient in the catch of precipitation in winter than Aerochem Metrics Model 301 collector, especially for light snowfall.

  1. U.S. Geological Survey external quality-assurance project report to the National Atmospheric Deposition Program / National Trends Network and Mercury Deposition Network, 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Latysh, Natalie E.; Chesney, Tanya A.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) used six distinct programs to provide external quality-assurance monitoring for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program / National Trends Network (NTN) and Mercury Deposition Network (MDN) during 2007-08. The field-audit program assessed the effects of onsite exposure, sample handling, and shipping on the chemistry of NTN samples, and a system-blank program assessed the same effects for MDN. Two interlaboratory-comparison programs assessed the bias and variability of the chemical analysis data from the Central Analytical Laboratory (CAL), Mercury (Hg) Analytical Laboratory (HAL), and 12 other participating laboratories. A blind-audit program was also implemented for the MDN to evaluate analytical bias in HAL total Hg concentration data. A co-located-sampler program was used to identify and quantify potential shifts in NADP data resulting from replacement of original network instrumentation with new electronic recording rain gages (E-gages) and prototype precipitation collectors. The results indicate that NADP data continue to be of sufficient quality for the analysis of spatial distributions and time trends of chemical constituents in wet deposition across the U.S. NADP data-quality objectives continued to be achieved during 2007-08. Results also indicate that retrofit of the NADP networks with the new E-gages is not likely to create step-function type shifts in NADP precipitation-depth records, except for sites where annual precipitation depth is dominated by snow because the E-gages tend to catch more snow than the original NADP rain gages. Evaluation of prototype precipitation collectors revealed no difference in sample volumes and analyte concentrations between the original NADP collectors and modified, deep-bucket collectors, but the Yankee Environmental Systems, Inc. (YES) collector obtained samples of significantly higher volumes and analyte concentrations than the standard NADP collector.

  2. 77 FR 34023 - Notice of Public Workshop: “Designing for Impact: Workshop on Building the National Network for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... published in the Federal Register and may be found at: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-05-04/pdf/2012... on Building the National Network for Manufacturing Innovation'' AGENCY: Advanced Manufacturing... entitled ``Designing for Impact: Workshop on Building the National Network for Manufacturing...

  3. 77 FR 50469 - Notice of Public Workshop: “Designing for Impact III: Workshop on Building the National Network...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... RFI was published in the Federal Register and may be found at: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-05...: Workshop on Building the National Network for Manufacturing Innovation'' AGENCY: Advanced Manufacturing... entitled ``Designing for Impact: Workshop on Building the National Network for Manufacturing...

  4. External quality-assurance results for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program and the National Trends Network during 1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    See, Randolph B.; Schroder, LeRoy J.; Willoughby, Timothy C.

    1988-01-01

    During 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey operated three programs to provide external quality-assurance monitoring of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program and National Trends Network. An intersite-comparison program was used to assess the accuracy of onsite pH and specific-conductance determinations at quarterly intervals. The blind-audit program was used to assess the effect of routine sample handling on the precision and bias of program and network wet-deposition data. Analytical results from four laboratories, which routinely analyze wet-deposition samples, were examined to determine if differences existed between laboratory analytical results and to provide estimates of the analytical precision of each laboratory. An average of 78 and 89 percent of the site operators participating in the intersite-comparison met the network goals for pH and specific conductance. A comparison of analytical values versus actual values for samples submitted as part of the blind-audit program indicated that analytical values were slightly but significantly (a = 0.01) larger than actual values for pH, magnesium, sodium, and sulfate; analytical values for specific conductance were slightly less than actual values. The decreased precision in the analyses of blind-audit samples when compared to interlaboratory studies indicates that a large amount of uncertainty in network deposition data may be a result of routine field operations. The results of the interlaboratory comparison study indicated that the magnitude of the difference between laboratory analyses was small for all analytes. Analyses of deionized, distilled water blanks by participating laboratories indicated that the laboratories had difficulty measuring analyte concentrations near their reported detection limits. (USGS)

  5. Long-term population, productivity, and energy use trends in the sequence of leading capitalist nations.

    SciTech Connect

    LePoire, D. J.

    2010-10-01

    There are many theories on why sustainable science, technology, and commerce emerged first in Western Europe rather than elsewhere. A general theory is that the geography of Europe facilitated the development of diverse and independent states and resultant competition among them. Over the past 500 years, the sequence of leading states began with Portugal and the Netherlands on the edge of continental Western Europe, then moved to the British Isles, and finally moved across the Atlantic Ocean to the United States. The transitions of leadership from one state to another occurred about every 100 years. This sequence suggests that leadership moves from smaller states to larger states (although not to the largest existing state at the time), perhaps because larger states have the flexibility to develop more complex organizational processes and adapt new technology. To explore this theory further, this paper analyzes state population data at the beginning and end of each leadership period. The data reveal an accelerating initial population sequence. Further understanding is gained from comparing the populations of the preceding and succeeding states at the time of each transition: the succeeding state's population is usually about two times larger than that of the preceding state. It is also seen that over time, the new organizational processes and technologies developed by the leading state are diffused and adapted by other states. Evidence of the effects of this diffusion should be seen in the dynamics of relative productivity and energy use (since the relative advantage of new ideas and technology can be maintained for a short period of about 100 years). This paper investigates these trends in population, trade, and resources to provide insight on possible future transitions.

  6. Bi-national Social Networks and Assimilation: A Test of the Importance of Transnationalism

    PubMed Central

    Mouw, Ted; Chavez, Sergio; Edelblute, Heather; Verdery, Ashton

    2015-01-01

    While the concept of transnationalism has gained widespread popularity among scholars as a way to describe immigrants’ long-term maintenance of cross-border ties to their origin communities, critics have argued that the overall proportion of immigrants who engage in transnational behavior is low and that, as a result, transnationalism has little sustained effect on the process of immigrant adaptation and assimilation. In this paper, we argue that a key shortcoming in the current empirical debate on transnationalism is the lack of data on the social networks that connect migrants to each other and to non-migrants in communities of origin. To address this shortcoming, our analysis uses unique bi-national data on the social network connecting an immigrant sending community in Guanajuato, Mexico, to two destination areas in the United States. We test for the effect of respondents’ positions in cross-border networks on their migration intentions and attitudes towards the United States using data on the opinions of their peers, their participation in cross border and local communication networks, and their structural position in the network. The results indicate qualified empirical support for a network-based model of transnationalism; in the U.S. sample we find evidence of network clustering consistent with peer effects, while in the Mexican sample we find evidence of the importance of cross-border communication with friends. PMID:25750462

  7. Asymmetric friction of nonmotor MAPs can lead to their directional motion in active microtubule networks.

    PubMed

    Forth, Scott; Hsia, Kuo-Chiang; Shimamoto, Yuta; Kapoor, Tarun M

    2014-04-10

    Diverse cellular processes require microtubules to be organized into distinct structures, such as asters or bundles. Within these dynamic motifs, microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) are frequently under load, but how force modulates these proteins' function is poorly understood. Here, we combine optical trapping with TIRF-based microscopy to measure the force dependence of microtubule interaction for three nonmotor MAPs (NuMA, PRC1, and EB1) required for cell division. We find that frictional forces increase nonlinearly with MAP velocity across microtubules and depend on filament polarity, with NuMA's friction being lower when moving toward minus ends, EB1's lower toward plus ends, and PRC1's exhibiting no directional preference. Mathematical models predict, and experiments confirm, that MAPs with asymmetric friction can move directionally within actively moving microtubule pairs they crosslink. Our findings reveal how nonmotor MAPs can generate frictional resistance in dynamic cytoskeletal networks via micromechanical adaptations whose anisotropy may be optimized for MAP localization and function within cellular structures. PMID:24725408

  8. Systemic properties of metabolic networks lead to an epistasis-based model for heterosis.

    PubMed

    Fiévet, Julie B; Dillmann, Christine; de Vienne, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    The genetic and molecular approaches to heterosis usually do not rely on any model of the genotype-phenotype relationship. From the generalization of Kacser and Burns' biochemical model for dominance and epistasis to networks with several variable enzymes, we hypothesized that metabolic heterosis could be observed because the response of the flux towards enzyme activities and/or concentrations follows a multi-dimensional hyperbolic-like relationship. To corroborate this, we used the values of systemic parameters accounting for the kinetic behaviour of four enzymes of the upstream part of glycolysis, and simulated genetic variability by varying in silico enzyme concentrations. Then we "crossed" virtual parents to get 1,000 hybrids, and showed that best-parent heterosis was frequently observed. The decomposition of the flux value into genetic effects, with the help of a novel multilocus epistasis index, revealed that antagonistic additive-by-additive epistasis effects play the major role in this framework of the genotype-phenotype relationship. This result is consistent with various observations in quantitative and evolutionary genetics, and provides a model unifying the genetic effects underlying heterosis. PMID:19916003

  9. Conditions leading to a recent small hydrothermal explosion at Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, R.O.; Thompson, J.M.; Cunningham, C.G.; Hutchinson, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    Porkchop Geyser, in Yellowstone National Park, was the site of a small hydrothermal explosion on September 5, 1989. The geyser column suddenly rose to a height of 20-30 m, followed immediately by the explosive ejection of sinter blocks up to 1.88 m in maximum dimension and formation of an irregular crater 13.9 m long and 11.7 m wide. The ejected blocks show a variety of siliceous deposits indicative of changing environments of deposition with time, and possibly of prior hydrothermal explosive activity at this site. Water samples from Porkchop were collected and analyzed once in the 1920s, again in 1951, ten times between 1960 and mid-1989, and once in January 1990 after the explosion. It is hypothesized that a sudden breaking loose of the constriction at the exit of the geyser tube, likely triggered by a seasonal increase in subsurface boiling throughout Norris Basin, allowed water and steam to be discharged from Porkchop much more rapidly than previously. This resulted in a drop in pressure within the geyser tube, causing water in adjacent connected chambers to become superheated. An ensuing rapid flashing of superheated water to steam within relatively confined spaces resulted in the hydrothermal explosion. -after Authors

  10. An Inventory of Terrestrial Mammals at National Parks in the Northeast Temperate Network and Sagamore Hill National Historic Site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilbert, A.T.; O'Connell, A.F., Jr.; Annand, E.M.; Talancy, N.W.; Sauer, J.R.; Nichols, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    An inventory of mammals was conducted during 2004 at nine national park sites in the Northeast Temperate Network (NETN): Acadia National Park (NP), Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park (NHP), Minute Man NHP, Morristown NHP, Roosevelt-Vanderbilt National Historic Site (NHS), Saint-Gaudens NHS, Saugus Iron Works NHS, Saratoga NHP, and Weir Farm NHS. Sagamore Hill NHS, part of the Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network (NCBN), was also surveyed. Each park except Acadia NP was sampled twice, once in the winter/spring and again in the summer/fall. During the winter/spring visit, indirect measure (IM) sampling arrays were employed at 2 to 16 stations and included sampling by remote cameras, cubby boxes (covered trackplates), and hair traps. IM stations were established and re-used during the summer/fall sampling period. Trapping was conducted at 2 to 12 stations at all parks except Acadia NP during the summer/fall period and consisted of arrays of small-mammal traps, squirrel-sized live traps, and some fox-sized live traps. We used estimation-based procedures and probabilistic sampling techniques to design this inventory. A total of 38 species was detected by IM sampling, trapping, and field observations. Species diversity (number of species) varied among parks, ranging from 8 to 24, with Minute Man NHP having the most species detected. Raccoon (Procyon lotor), Virginia Opossum (Didelphis virginiana), Fisher (Martes pennanti), and Domestic Cat (Felis silvestris) were the most common medium-sized mammals detected in this study and White-footed Mouse (Peromyscus leucopus), Northern Short-tailed Shrew (Blarina brevicauda), Deer Mouse (P. maniculatus), and Meadow Vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus) the most common small mammals detected. All species detected are considered fairly common throughout their range including the Fisher, which has been reintroduced in several New England states. We did not detect any state or federal endangered or threatened species.

  11. An inventory of terrestrial mammals at national parks in the Northeast Temperate Network and Sagamore Hill National Historic Site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilbert, Andrew T.; O'Connell, Allan F.; Annand, Elizabeth M.; Talancy, Neil W.; Sauer, John R.; Nichols, James D.

    2008-01-01

    An inventory of mammals was conducted during 2004 at nine national park sites in the Northeast Temperate Network (NETN): Acadia National Park (NP), Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park (NHP), Minute Man NHP, Morristown NHP, Roosevelt-Vanderbilt National Historic Site (NHS), Saint-Gaudens NHS, Saugus Iron Works NHS, Saratoga NHP, and Weir Farm NHS. Sagamore Hill NHS, part of the Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network (NCBN), was also surveyed. Each park except Acadia NP was sampled twice, once in the winter/spring and again in the summer/fall. During the winter/spring visit, indirect measure (IM) sampling arrays were employed at 2 to 16 stations and included sampling by remote cameras, cubby boxes (covered trackplates), and hair traps. IM stations were established and re-used during the summer/fall sampling period. Trapping was conducted at 2 to 12 stations at all parks except Acadia NP during the summer/fall period and consisted of arrays of small-mammal traps, squirrel-sized live traps, and some fox-sized live traps. We used estimation-based procedures and probabilistic sampling techniques to design this inventory. A total of 38 species was detected by IM sampling, trapping, and field observations. Species diversity (number of species) varied among parks, ranging from 8 to 24, with Minute Man NHP having the most species detected. Raccoon (Procyon lotor), Virginia Opossum (Didelphis virginiana), Fisher (Martes pennanti), and Domestic Cat (Felis silvestris) were the most common medium-sized mammals detected in this study and White-footed Mouse (Peromyscus leucopus), Northern Short-tailed Shrew (Blarina brevicauda), Deer Mouse (P. maniculatus), and Meadow Vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus) the most common small mammals detected. All species detected are considered fairly common throughout their range including the Fisher, which has been reintroduced in several New England states. We did not detect any state or federal endangered or threatened species.

  12. A Case Analysis of INFOMED: The Cuban National Health Care Telecommunications Network and Portal

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Background The Internet and telecommunications technologies contribute to national health care system infrastructures and extend global health care services markets. The Cuban national health care system offers a model to show how a national information portal can contribute to system integration, including research, education, and service delivery as well as international trade in products and services. Objective The objectives of this paper are (1) to present the context of the Cuban national health care system since the revolution in 1959, (2) to identify virtual institutional infrastructures of the system associated with the Cuban National Health Care Telecommunications Network and Portal (INFOMED), and (3) to show how they contribute to Cuban trade in international health care service markets. Methods Qualitative case research methods were used to identify the integrated virtual infrastructure of INFOMED and to show how it reflects socialist ideology. Virtual institutional infrastructures include electronic medical and information services and the structure of national networks linking such services. Results Analysis of INFOMED infrastructures shows integration of health care information, research, and education as well as the interface between Cuban national information networks and the global Internet. System control mechanisms include horizontal integration and coordination through virtual institutions linked through INFOMED, and vertical control through the Ministry of Public Health and the government hierarchy. Telecommunications technology serves as a foundation for a dual market structure differentiating domestic services from international trade. Conclusions INFOMED is a model of interest for integrating health care information, research, education, and services. The virtual infrastructures linked through INFOMED support the diffusion of Cuban health care products and services in global markets. Transferability of this model is contingent upon ideology

  13. Representation of Global and National Conservation Priorities by Colombia's Protected Area Network

    PubMed Central

    Forero-Medina, German; Joppa, Lucas

    2010-01-01

    Background How do national-level actions overlap with global priorities for conservation? Answering this question is especially important in countries with high and unique biological diversity like Colombia. Global biodiversity schemes provide conservation guidance at a large scale, while national governments gazette land for protection based on a combination of criteria at regional or local scales. Information on how a protected area network represents global and national conservation priorities is crucial for finding gaps in coverage and for future expansion of the system. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated the agreement of Colombia's protected area network with global conservation priorities, and the extent to which the network reflects the country's biomes, species richness, and common environmental and physical conditions. We used this information to identify priority biomes for conservation. We find the dominant strategy in Colombia has been a proactive one, allocating the highest proportion of protected land on intact, difficult to access and species rich areas like the Amazon. Threatened and unique areas are disproportionately absent from Colombia's protected lands. We highlight six biomes in Colombia as conservation priorities that should be considered in any future expansion of Colombia's protected area network. Two of these biomes have less than 3% of their area protected and more than 70% of their area transformed for human use. One has less than 3% protected and high numbers of threatened vertebrates. Three biomes fall in both categories. Conclusions Expansion of Colombia's Protected Area Network should consider the current representativeness of the network. We indicate six priority biomes that can contribute to improving the representation of threatened species and biomes in Colombia. PMID:20967270

  14. The time and frequency comparisons via Loran-C and National TV Network in Yugoslavia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markovic, Z. M.; Hajdukovic, S.

    1984-01-01

    Time comparisons were made between cesium clocks in Yugoslavia and other cesium clocks in the country by the Laboratory of Federal Bureau of Measures and Precious Metals. Regional standard frequency and time signals dissemination is over National TV network by so called active TV system. International comparisons are performed via Loran-C system and by clock transportation. The method of calculation and approximation of the time signal propagation delays is given. Settled comparison results of the cesium clocks via TV network, Loran-C, and by clock transportation are also discussed in this paper.

  15. A geodetic network in the Novarupta area, Katmai National Park, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kleinman, J.W.; Iwatsubo, E.Y.

    1991-01-01

    A small geodetic network was established in 1989 and 1990 to monitor ground deformation in the Novarupta area, Katmai National Park, Alaska. Slope distances and zenith angles for three lines were repeated in 1990. A comparison of the two surveys indicates changes that are within the error of the measurements. Mean mark-to-mark slope distance changes are 1.17 ?? 1.46 ppm. Two benchmarks were added to the network in 1990 to configure a five-endpoint braced quadrilateral centered about the Novarupta dome. -Authors

  16. Artificial Neural Network Analysis of Pharmacokinetic and Toxicity Properties of Lead Molecules for Dengue Fever, Tuberculosis and Malaria.

    PubMed

    Nilar, Shahul H; Lakshminarayana, Suresh B; Ma, Ngai Ling; Keller, Thomas H; Blasco, Francesca; Smith, Paul W

    2016-01-01

    Poor pharmacokinetic and toxicity profiles are major reasons for the low rate of advancing lead drug candidates into efficacy studies. The In-silico prediction of primary pharmacokinetic and toxicity properties in the drug discovery and development process can be used as guidance in the design of candidates. In-silico parameters can also be used to choose suitable compounds for in-vivo testing thereby reducing the number of animals used in experiments. At the Novartis Institute for Tropical Diseases, a data set has been curated from in-house measurements in the disease areas of Dengue, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Volume of distribution, half-life, total in-vivo clearance, in-vitro human plasma protein binding and in-vivo oral bioavailability have been measured for molecules in the lead optimization stage in each of these three disease areas. Data for the inhibition of the hERG channel using the radio ligand binding dofetilide assay was determined for a set of 300 molecules in these therapeutic areas. Based on this data, Artificial Neural Networks were used to construct In-silico models for each of the properties listed above that can be used to prioritize candidates for lead optimization and to assist in selecting promising molecules for in-vivo pharmacokinetic studies. PMID:26777113

  17. Effects of equipment performance on data quality from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network and the Mercury Deposition Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Rhodes, Mark F.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Branch of Quality Systems operates the Precipitation Chemistry Quality Assurance project (PCQA) to provide independent, external quality-assurance for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP). NADP is composed of five monitoring networks that measure the chemical composition of precipitation and ambient air. PCQA and the NADP Program Office completed five short-term studies to investigate the effects of equipment performance with respect to the National Trends Network (NTN) and Mercury Deposition Network (MDN) data quality: sample evaporation from NTN collectors; sample volume and mercury loss from MDN collectors; mercury adsorption to MDN collector glassware, grid-type precipitation sensors for precipitation collectors, and the effects of an NTN collector wind shield on sample catch efficiency. Sample-volume evaporation from an NTN Aerochem Metrics (ACM) collector ranged between 1.1–33 percent with a median of 4.7 percent. The results suggest that weekly NTN sample evaporation is small relative to sample volume. MDN sample evaporation occurs predominantly in western and southern regions of the United States (U.S.) and more frequently with modified ACM collectors than with N-CON Systems Inc. collectors due to differences in airflow through the collectors. Variations in mercury concentrations, measured to be as high as 47.5 percent per week with a median of 5 percent, are associated with MDN sample-volume loss. Small amounts of mercury are also lost from MDN samples by adsorption to collector glassware irrespective of collector type. MDN 11-grid sensors were found to open collectors sooner, keep them open longer, and cause fewer lid cycles than NTN 7-grid sensors. Wind shielding an NTN ACM collector resulted in collection of larger quantities of precipitation while also preserving sample integrity.

  18. Integrated global background monitoring network. Preliminary results from Torres del Paine and Olympic National Parks

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, G.B.; Kohler, A.; Boelcke, C.; Baker, G.; Harmon, M.; Weber, C.; Gonzales, J.

    1985-10-01

    During 1984, a pilot project was initiated for monitoring pollution at Torres del Paine National Park in southern Chile and Olympic National Park in the United States. These are two of three initial sites that are to be established as part of an integrated global backgound monitoring network. Eventually, the plan is to establish a world-wide system of such sites. We collected and analyzed samples of the soil, water, air, and two species of plants (moss and lichen). We also collected and analyzed samples of the forest litter. We compared the samples of soil and vegetation against reference samples. We also compared samples of soil, vegetation, and of organic material from Torres del Paine against similar samples from Olympic and Sequoia-Kings Canyon National Parks in the United States. Although the data is preliminary, it is in agreement with out initial hypothesis that Torres del Paine and Olympic National Parks are not a polluted sites.

  19. Strategic factors in the development of the National Technology Transfer Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Root, Jonathan F.; Stone, Barbara A.

    1993-01-01

    Broad consensus among industry and government leaders has developed over the last decade on the importance of applying the U.S. leadership in research and development (R&D) to strengthen competitiveness in the global marketplace, and thus enhance national prosperity. This consensus has emerged against the backdrop of increasing economic competition, and the dramatic reduction of military threats to national security with the end of the Cold War. This paper reviews the key factors and considerations that shaped - and continue to influence - the development of the Regional Technoloty Transfer Centers (RTTC) and the National Technology Transfer Center (NTTC). Also, the future role of the national network in support of emerging technology policy initiatives will be explored.

  20. The interplay of covalency, hydrogen bonding, and dispersion leads to a long range chiral network: The example of 2-butanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liriano, Melissa L.; Carrasco, Javier; Lewis, Emily A.; Murphy, Colin J.; Lawton, Timothy J.; Marcinkowski, Matthew D.; Therrien, Andrew J.; Michaelides, Angelos; Sykes, E. Charles H.

    2016-03-01

    The assembly of complex structures in nature is driven by an interplay between several intermolecular interactions, from strong covalent bonds to weaker dispersion forces. Understanding and ultimately controlling the self-assembly of materials requires extensive study of how these forces drive local nanoscale interactions and how larger structures evolve. Surface-based self-assembly is particularly amenable to modeling and measuring these interactions in well-defined systems. This study focuses on 2-butanol, the simplest aliphatic chiral alcohol. 2-butanol has recently been shown to have interesting properties as a chiral modifier of surface chemistry; however, its mode of action is not fully understood and a microscopic understanding of the role non-covalent interactions play in its adsorption and assembly on surfaces is lacking. In order to probe its surface properties, we employed high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory (DFT) simulations. We found a surprisingly rich degree of enantiospecific adsorption, association, chiral cluster growth and ultimately long range, highly ordered chiral templating. Firstly, the chiral molecules acquire a second chiral center when adsorbed to the surface via dative bonding of one of the oxygen atom lone pairs. This interaction is controlled via the molecule's intrinsic chiral center leading to monomers of like chirality, at both chiral centers, adsorbed on the surface. The monomers then associate into tetramers via a cyclical network of hydrogen bonds with an opposite chirality at the oxygen atom. The evolution of these square units is surprising given that the underlying surface has a hexagonal symmetry. Our DFT calculations, however, reveal that the tetramers are stable entities that are able to associate with each other by weaker van der Waals interactions and tessellate in an extended square network. This network of homochiral square pores grows to cover the whole Au(111) surface. Our data

  1. The interplay of covalency, hydrogen bonding, and dispersion leads to a long range chiral network: The example of 2-butanol.

    PubMed

    Liriano, Melissa L; Carrasco, Javier; Lewis, Emily A; Murphy, Colin J; Lawton, Timothy J; Marcinkowski, Matthew D; Therrien, Andrew J; Michaelides, Angelos; Sykes, E Charles H

    2016-03-01

    The assembly of complex structures in nature is driven by an interplay between several intermolecular interactions, from strong covalent bonds to weaker dispersion forces. Understanding and ultimately controlling the self-assembly of materials requires extensive study of how these forces drive local nanoscale interactions and how larger structures evolve. Surface-based self-assembly is particularly amenable to modeling and measuring these interactions in well-defined systems. This study focuses on 2-butanol, the simplest aliphatic chiral alcohol. 2-butanol has recently been shown to have interesting properties as a chiral modifier of surface chemistry; however, its mode of action is not fully understood and a microscopic understanding of the role non-covalent interactions play in its adsorption and assembly on surfaces is lacking. In order to probe its surface properties, we employed high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory (DFT) simulations. We found a surprisingly rich degree of enantiospecific adsorption, association, chiral cluster growth and ultimately long range, highly ordered chiral templating. Firstly, the chiral molecules acquire a second chiral center when adsorbed to the surface via dative bonding of one of the oxygen atom lone pairs. This interaction is controlled via the molecule's intrinsic chiral center leading to monomers of like chirality, at both chiral centers, adsorbed on the surface. The monomers then associate into tetramers via a cyclical network of hydrogen bonds with an opposite chirality at the oxygen atom. The evolution of these square units is surprising given that the underlying surface has a hexagonal symmetry. Our DFT calculations, however, reveal that the tetramers are stable entities that are able to associate with each other by weaker van der Waals interactions and tessellate in an extended square network. This network of homochiral square pores grows to cover the whole Au(111) surface. Our data

  2. First National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing: survey design and methods for the allergen and endotoxin components.

    PubMed Central

    Vojta, Patrick J; Friedman, Warren; Marker, David A; Clickner, Robert; Rogers, John W; Viet, Susan M; Muilenberg, Michael L; Thorne, Peter S; Arbes, Samuel J; Zeldin, Darryl C

    2002-01-01

    From July 1998 to August 1999, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences conducted the first National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing. The purpose of the survey was to assess children's potential household exposure to lead, allergens, and bacterial endotoxins. We surveyed a sample of 831 homes, representing 96 million permanently occupied, noninstitutional housing units that permit resident children. We administered questionnaires to household members, made home observations, and took environmental samples. This article provides general background information on the survey, an overview of the survey design, and a description of the data collection and laboratory methods pertaining to the allergen and endotoxin components. We collected dust samples from a bed, the bedroom floor, a sofa or chair, the living room floor, the kitchen floor, and a basement floor and analyzed them for cockroach allergen Bla g 1, the dust mite allergens Der f 1 and Der p 1, the cat allergen Fel d 1, the dog allergen Can f 1, the rodent allergens Rat n 1 and mouse urinary protein, allergens of the fungus Alternaria alternata, and endotoxin. This article provides the essential context for subsequent reports that will describe the prevalence of allergens and endotoxin in U.S. households, their distribution by various housing characteristics, and their associations with allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis. PMID:12003758

  3. Development of a Domain Map for Nodes of the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargrove, W. W.; Hoffman, F. M.; Hayden, B. P.; Urban, D. L.; MacMahon, J. A.; Franklin, J. F.

    2005-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will be the first ecological measurement system designed both to answer regional- to national-scale scientific questions and to have the interdisciplinary participation necessary to achieve credible ecological forecasting and prediction. Capabilities provided by this infrastructural investment will transform the science of ecology by enabling the integration of research and education from natural and human systems. A National Network Design Committee (NNDC) of 15 individuals has been tasked with providing a baseline design for NEON, including the continental-scale deployment of NEON network resources. A system of identical nodes, each representing environments within a mother geographic "domain" was envisioned. Each node would itself consist of sub-node components, and all nodes would be focused in unison on a few transformational ecological questions of national relevance. The NNDC adopted a strategy of pre-stratification to help determine an optimum number of nodes and to maximize node representativeness. To better sample a phenomenon as diverse as the ecological environments of the United States, those environments were first divided into a set of more homogeneous "strata." Samples could then be arrayed within each stratum, ensuring that NEON nodes are representative of the entire range of environments within the United States. Ecoregions have classically been used by ecologists for such national stratification. Ecoregions have historically been drawn using human expertise in a qualitative, weight-of-evidence approach. To construct NEON domains, a more transparent and repeatable process was needed. Multivariate clustering based on national maps of 9 ecologically relevant climatic "state" variables was used to repeatably define 25 national climatic zones. These 25 climate zones were combined with dynamic air mass seasonality data to create 20 NEON domains, each having similar climate. Such domains are defensible

  4. [A proposal for the prevention of ethical problems related to drug promotion: a national network for drug information].

    PubMed

    Civaner, Murat

    2008-01-01

    The promotional activities of pharmaceutical companies are becoming an increasingly hot topic among healthcare workers and the general public. There are many studies in the literature claiming that drug promotion may lead to ethical problems, irrational use of medication, and increased costs, as well as negative effects on the patient-physician relationship and the medical profession. When considering that healthcare workers generally acquire their knowledge from the pharmaceutical industry, the problems mentioned, which are indeed of paramount importance, and the need for effective and sustainable interventions are clearly revealed. Many kinds of interventions have been recommended by various authorities and studies in order to prevent the kinds of problems mentioned above, including training healthcare workers, publishing professional codes to serve as guidelines about which professional values should be protected and how to cope with different situations in relationship to the pharmaceutical industry, or applying the business ethics codes of the pharmaceutical companies. Studies that assessed the effectiveness of different interventions, however, revealed that educating healthcare workers about marketing methods and state regulations are the only effective interventions. In this article, after defining the problem, a proposed national network for drug information is to decrease the negative effects of drug promotion and to promote the rational choice of medicines is described. According to the World Health Organization, rational use of medicine is the most effective, safe, applicable/suitable, and, lastly, the most cost effective option. A national network that will gather drug information by compiling evidence-based knowledge and taking rational use of medicine measures into account should be established. It should transmit information to all healthcare workers in a fast, equal, up to date, easily accessible, and free way. The network should also support

  5. Implications of different residential lead standards on children's blood lead levels in France: predictions based on a national cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Oulhote, Youssef; LeTertre, Alain; Etchevers, Anne; Le Bot, Barbara; Lucas, Jean-Paul; Mandin, Corinne; Le Strat, Yann; Lanphear, Bruce; Glorennec, Philippe

    2013-11-01

    Despite the dramatic reductions in children's blood lead levels (BLLs), there is considerable evidence that low-level lead exposure is associated with intellectual deficits and behavioral problems, without apparent threshold. There are limited data, however, about the contribution of residential sources of lead to contemporary children's blood lead levels. The aim of this study is to calculate the contributions of residential sources of lead to assess the potential impact of setting new standards for lead levels in residential dust, soil and water. We enrolled 484 French children aged from 6 months to 6 years, and collected data on social, housing and individual characteristics. Lead concentrations in blood and environmental samples (water, soils, and dusts) were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Data were analyzed using a multivariate generalized additive model accounting for the sampling design and the sampling weights. We found that exceedingly low concentrations of lead in dust, soil and water were significant predictors of children's BLLs, after adjustment for potential confounding variables. Lead-contaminated floor dust was the main source of lead in blood. BLLs (GM: 14μg/L) increased by 65%, 13%, 25%, and 5% when lead content in floor dust, loose soil, hard soil and water increased from their 25th percentile to their 95th percentile, respectively. We also observed that the steepest increase in BLLs occurred at the lowest levels of lead-contaminated floor dust, which indicates that lead contamination should be kept as low as possible. Impact of different possible standards on children's BLLs was also tabulated and indicated that unless standards are set low, they will only benefit a small proportion of children who have the highest exposures. PMID:23528234

  6. Hourly use profiles for solar domestic hot water heaters in the National Solar Data Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barvir, E. J.; Doak, L. G.; Waterman, R. E.; Gervasio, C.

    Daily hot water rates of consumption and the Hourly Profiles of Daily Hot Water Consumption for single and multiple family dwellings are provided. These new statistics obtained from the National Solar Data Network (NSDN) are significantly different from the statistics currently being used in TRNSYS, SOLCOST and F-Chart. The NSDN statistics suggest that both the daily demand and hourly use profiles used in performance models should be revised.

  7. Hourly use profiles for solar domestic hot water heaters in the National Solar Data Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barvir, E. J.; Doak, L. G.; Waterman, R. E.; Gervasio, C.

    Daily hot water rates of consumption and the Hourly Profiles of Daily Hot Water Consumption for single and multiple family dwellings are provided in this paper. These new statistics obtained from the National Solar Data Network (NSDN) are significantly different from the statistics currently being used in TRNSYS, SOLCOST and F-Chart. The NSDN statistics suggest that both the daily demand and hourly use profiles used in performance models should be revised.

  8. 75 FR 50987 - Privacy Act System of Records; National Animal Health Laboratory Network (NAHLN)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ...The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) proposes to add a new Privacy Act system of records to its inventory of records systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, as amended, and invites public comment on this new records system. The system of records being proposed is the National Animal Health Laboratory Network. This notice is necessary to meet the requirements of the Privacy Act to......

  9. Evaluation of national seismograph network detection capabilities: Final report. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, K.L.; Barker, T.G.; Bennett, T.J.

    1997-10-01

    This final report presents detection thresholds, detection probabilities, and location error ellipse projections for the US National Seismic Network (USNSN) with and without real-time cooperative stations in the eastern US. Network simulation methods are used with spectral noise levels at stations in the USNSN and other stations to simulate the processes of excitation, propagation, detection, and processing of seismic phases. The USNSN alone should be capable of detecting 4 or more P waves for shallow crustal earthquakes in nearly all of the eastern and central US at the magnitude 3.8 level. When real-time cooperative stations are used in conjunction with the USNSN, the network should be capable of detecting 4 or more P waves from events 0.2 to 0.3 magnitude units lower. The planned expansion of the USNSN and cooperative stations should improve detection levels by an additional 0.2 to 0.3 magnitudes units in many areas. Location uncertainties for the USNSN should be significantly improved by addition of real-time cooperative stations. Median error ellipses for magnitude 4.5 earthquakes in the eastern and central US depend strongly upon location, but uncertainties should be less than 100 square km in the central US and degrade to 200 square km or more offshore and to the south and north of the international boundaries. Close cooperation with the Canadian National Network should substantially improve detection thresholds and location uncertainties along the Canadian border.

  10. Evaluation of National Seismograph Network detection capabilities. Annual report, July 1994--July 1995: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, K.L.; Bennett, T.J.

    1996-03-01

    This first annual report presents detection thresholds and probabilities, and location error ellipse projects for the United States National Seismic Network (USNSN) with and without cooperative stations in the eastern US. Network simulation methods are used with spectral noise levels at stations to simulate the processes of excitation, propagation, detection, and processing of seismic phases. USNSN alone should be capable of detecting 4 or more P waves for shallow crustal earthquakes in nearly all the eastern and central US at magnitude 3.8 level. When cooperative stations are added, the network should be able to detect 4 or more P waves from events 0.2 to 0.3 magnitude units lower. Planned expansion of USNSN and cooperative stations should improve detection levels by an additional 0.2-0.3 magnitudes units in many areas. Location uncertainties for USNSN can be improved by adding real-time cooperative stations. Median error ellipses for magnitude 4.5 earthquakes depend strongly on location, but uncertainties should be less than 100 km{sup 2} in the central US and degrade to 200 km{sup 2} or more offshore and sosuth and north of the international boundaries. Close cooperation with the Canadian National Network should substantially improve detection thresholds and location uncertainties along the Canadian border.

  11. Purpose, structure, and function of the United States National Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Gregg H.; Williams, O. Dale; Korelitz, James J.; Fellows, Jeffrey L.; Gordan, Valeria V.; Makhija, Sonia K.; Meyerowitz, Cyril; Oates, Thomas W.; Rindal, D. Brad; Benjamin, Paul L.; Foy, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Following a successful2005–2012 phase with three regional practice-based research networks (PBRNs), a single, unified national network called “The National Dental PBRN” was created in 2012 in the United States to improve oral health by conducting practice-based research and serving dental professionals through education and collegiality. Methods Central administration is based in Alabama. Regional centres are based in Alabama, Florida, Minnesota, Oregon, New York and Texas, with a Coordinating Centre in Maryland. Ideas for studies are prioritized by the Executive Committee, comprised mostly of full-time clinicians. Results To date, 2736 persons have enrolled, from all six network regions; enrollment continues to expand. They represent a broad range of practitioners, practice types, and patient populations. Practitioners are actively improving every step of the research process, from idea generation, to study development, field testing, data collection, and presentation and publication. Conclusions Practitioners from diverse settings are partnering with fellow practitioners and academics to improve clinical practice and meet the needs of clinicians and their patients. Clinical significance This “nation’s network” aims to serve as a precious national resource to improve the scientific basis for clinical decision-making and foster movement of the latest evidence into routine practice. PMID:23597500

  12. First nations health networks: a collaborative system approach to health transfer.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ross; Lavoie, Josée G

    2008-11-01

    The Health Transfer Policy (HTP) of Health Canada's First Nations and Inuit Health Branch (FNIHB) offers First Nations the opportunity to assume a degree of administrative control over community-based health services. Although shortcomings of the policy have been documented, certain elements, particularly second- ("zone") and third- ("regional") level transfer (Health Canada 2001), have provided First Nations the flexibility to create novel organizations. These First Nations Health Networks (FNHNs), which have emerged through grassroots movements and interjurisdictional processes, have brought together a number of communities under a planning body, tribal council or health authority. The authors discuss the concept of First Nations Health Networks as variously implemented across Canada. In this study, the FNHNs may be defined as health authorities, fall under the auspices of a tribal council or be limited to a planning instrument. Yet, they all aspire to similar principles: cooperation, collaboration and sharing, under a consensus of optimizing health resources (Warry 1998). The authors explore these health management entities, look at their perceived strengths and challenges and identify key issues that may define the inherent risks and benefits or illuminate best practices for the benefit of other First Nation groups considering such a collaborative undertaking. The paper begins with a discussion of the emergence of the FNHN concept, followed by detailed case studies of six collaborative First Nation initiatives. The third section explores common themes, regional differences and jurisdictional challenges faced by these organizations. The authors conclude with an exploration of the FNHN as a health management concept and recommendations for further analysis. PMID:19377374

  13. Integrated verification experiment data collected as part of the Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Source Region program. Appendix F: Regional data from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratory Seismic Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, S.R.

    1993-06-11

    A dataset of regional seismograms assembled for a series of Integrated Verification Experiments conducted by the Los Alamos National Laboratory Source Region program is described. The seismic data has been assembled from networks operated by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratory. Examples of the data are shown and basic recording characteristics of the network are described. The seismograms are available on a data tape in SAC format upon request.

  14. A centralized informatics infrastructure for the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Jeng-Jong; Nahm, Meredith; Wakim, Paul; Cushing, Carol; Poole, Lori; Tai, Betty; Pieper, Carl F.

    2009-01-01

    Background Clinical trial networks were created to provide a sustaining infrastructure for the conduct of multisite clinical trials. As such, they must withstand changes in membership. Centralization of infrastructure including knowledge management, portfolio management, information management, process automation, work policies, and procedures in clinical research networks facilitates consistency and ultimately research. Purpose In 2005, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Clinical Trials Network (CTN) transitioned from a distributed data management model to a centralized informatics infrastructure to support the network’s trial activities and administration. We describe the centralized informatics infrastructure and discuss our challenges to inform others considering such an endeavor. Methods During the migration of a clinical trial network from a decentralized to a centralized data center model, descriptive data were captured and are presented here to assess the impact of centralization. Results We present the framework for the informatics infrastructure and evaluative metrics. The network has decreased the time from last patient-last visit to database lock from an average of 7.6 months to 2.8 months. The average database error rate decreased from 0.8% to 0.2%, with a corresponding decrease in the interquartile range from 0.04%–1.0% before centralization to 0.01%–0.27% after centralization. Centralization has provided the CTN with integrated trial status reporting and the first standards-based public data share. A preliminary cost-benefit analysis showed a 50% reduction in data management cost per study participant over the life of a trial. Limitations A single clinical trial network comprising addiction researchers and community treatment programs was assessed. The findings may not be applicable to other research settings. Conclusions The identified informatics components provide the information and infrastructure needed for our clinical trial

  15. The USA National Phenology Network; taking the pulse of our planet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weltzin, Jake F.

    2011-01-01

    People have tracked phenology for centuries and for the most practical reasons: it helped them know when to hunt and fish, when to plant and harvest crops, and when to navigate waterways. Now phenology is being used as a tool to assess climate change and its effects on both natural and modified ecosystems. How is the timing of events in plant and animal life cycles, like flowering or migration, responding to climate change? And how are those responses, in turn, affecting people and ecosystems? The USA National Phenology Network (the Network) is working to answer these questions for science and society by promoting a broad understanding of plant and animal phenology and their relationship to environmental change. The Network is a consortium of organizations and individuals that collect, share, and use phenology data, models, and related information to enable scientists, resource managers, and the public to adapt in response to changing climates and environments. In addition, the Network encourages people of all ages and backgrounds to observe and record phenology as a way to discover and explore the nature and pace of our dynamic world. The National Coordinating Office (NCO) of the Network is a resource center that facilitates and encourages widespread collection, integration, and sharing of phenology data and related information (for example, meteorological and hydrological data). The NCO develops and promotes standardized methods for field data collection and maintains several online user interfaces for data upload and download, as well as data exploration, visualization, and analysis. The NCO also facilitates basic and applied research related to phenology, the development of decision-support tools for resource managers and planners, and the design of educational and outreach materials

  16. Holding-based network of nations based on listed energy companies: An empirical study on two-mode affiliation network of two sets of actors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huajiao; Fang, Wei; An, Haizhong; Gao, Xiangyun; Yan, Lili

    2016-05-01

    Economic networks in the real world are not homogeneous; therefore, it is important to study economic networks with heterogeneous nodes and edges to simulate a real network more precisely. In this paper, we present an empirical study of the one-mode derivative holding-based network constructed by the two-mode affiliation network of two sets of actors using the data of worldwide listed energy companies and their shareholders. First, we identify the primitive relationship in the two-mode affiliation network of the two sets of actors. Then, we present the method used to construct the derivative network based on the shareholding relationship between two sets of actors and the affiliation relationship between actors and events. After constructing the derivative network, we analyze different topological features on the node level, edge level and entire network level and explain the meanings of the different values of the topological features combining the empirical data. This study is helpful for expanding the usage of complex networks to heterogeneous economic networks. For empirical research on the worldwide listed energy stock market, this study is useful for discovering the inner relationships between the nations and regions from a new perspective.

  17. Lead Poisoning Prevention Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC.gov . Lead Home Calendar of Events National Lead Poisoning Prevention Week Archived Materials CDC's Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program Advisory Committee (ACCLPP) Current Activities Blood ...

  18. Los Alamos National Laboratory summary plan to fabricate mixed oxide lead assemblies for the fissile material disposition program

    SciTech Connect

    Buksa, J.J.; Eaton, S.L.; Trellue, H.R.; Chidester, K.; Bowidowicz, M.; Morley, R.A.; Barr, M.

    1997-12-01

    This report summarizes an approach for using existing Los Alamos National Laboratory (Laboratory) mixed oxide (MOX) fuel-fabrication and plutonium processing capabilities to expedite and assure progress in the MOX/Reactor Plutonium Disposition Program. Lead Assembly MOX fabrication is required to provide prototypic fuel for testing in support of fuel qualification and licensing requirements. It is also required to provide a bridge for the full utilization of the European fabrication experience. In part, this bridge helps establish, for the first time since the early 1980s, a US experience base for meeting the safety, licensing, safeguards, security, and materials control and accountability requirements of the Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission. In addition, a link is needed between the current research and development program and the production of disposition mission fuel. This link would also help provide a knowledge base for US regulators. Early MOX fabrication and irradiation testing in commercial nuclear reactors would provide a positive demonstration to Russia (and to potential vendors, designers, fabricators, and utilities) that the US has serious intent to proceed with plutonium disposition. This report summarizes an approach to fabricating lead assembly MOX fuel using the existing MOX fuel-fabrication infrastructure at the Laboratory.

  19. Drought-induced enrichment of soil nitrogen leads to record high nitrate loading to agricultural river networks (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgin, A. J.; Loecke, T. D.; Davis, C.; Ward, A. S.; St. Clair, M.; Riveros-Iregui, D.; Thomas, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization is a cornerstone of modern agriculture, but the practice also leads to eutrophication, hypoxia, and harmful algal blooms in both inland and coastal waters. Several studies identify Iowa, Illinois and Indiana as major source areas of N discharged by the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico where large-scale hypoxia develops annually. Continental-scale management of nitrogen requires a comprehensive understanding of watershed-specific hydrologic dynamics and their consequences for nitrate flushing from agricultural landscapes, as well as quantification of fertilizer export in relation to interannual climate variability. This study addresses the following questions: (1) How do climate and precipitation patterns control the magnitude and timing of nitrate flushing from agricultural landscapes; and (2) How does the stream nitrate pulse change in relation to position within the stream network? We instrumented five streams of varying order (1st to 4th) and watershed size (5 ha to 3240000 ha) with real-time nitrate sensors. We combined this information with 15 existing USGS stations, located throughout the Iowa-Cedar River basin (Iowa, USA). We then coupled 15-min nitrate measurements at selected streams with seasonal (May, July, September) synoptic sampling at 100+ locations through the basin. We demonstrate that drought-induced accumulation of soil N over winter (2012), followed by an unseasonably cool, wet spring (2013) sent record levels of stream N into the Mississippi River. Our results show extreme variations in nitrate concentrations and flux associated with pronounced wet/dry cycles, and rapid shifts in hydrologic connectivity within the same year. Information connecting storm events, antecedent environmental conditions and nutrient dynamics is critical for improving our predictions of nitrate loading to riverine networks under increased climatic variation. Furthermore, our findings clearly demonstrate that understanding and

  20. First-year Progress and Future Directions of the USA National Phenology Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weltzin, J. F.; Losleben, M. V.

    2008-12-01

    Background Periodic plant and animal cycles driven by seasonal variations in climate (i.e., phenology) set the stage for dynamics of ecosystem processes, determine land surface properties, control biosphere-atmosphere interactions, and affect food production, health, conservation, and recreation. Phenological data and models have applications related to scientific research, education and outreach, as well as to stakeholders interested in agriculture, tourism and recreation, human health, and natural resource conservation and management. The predictive potential of phenology requires a new data resource-a national network of integrated phenological observations and the tools to access and analyze them at multiple scales. The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN) is an emerging and exciting partnership between federal agencies, the academic community, and the general public to monitor and understand the influence of seasonal cycles on the Nation's resources. The USA-NPN will establish a wall-to-wall science and monitoring initiative focused on phenology as a tool to understand how plants, animals and landscapes respond to climate variation, and as a tool to facilitate human adaptation to ongoing and potential future climate change. Results The National Coordinating Office of the USA-NPN began operation in August 2007 at the University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ. This first year of operation produced many new phenology products and venues for phenology research and citizen involvement, as well as identification of future directions for the USA NPN. Products include a new web-site (www.usanpn.org) that went live in June 2008; the web-site includes a tool for on-line data entry, and serves as a clearinghouse for products and information to facilitate research and communication related to phenology. The new core Plant Phenology Program includes profiles for 185 vetted local, regional, and national plant species with descriptions and monitoring protocols, as well as

  1. The national improvement partnership network: state-based partnerships that improve primary care quality.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Judith S; Norlin, Chuck; Gillespie, R J; Weissman, Mark; McGrath, Jane

    2013-01-01

    . Since 2008, IPs have offered credit toward Part 4 of Maintenance of Certification for participants in some of their projects. To date, IPs have focused on achieving improvements in care delivery through individual projects. Rigorous measurement and evaluation of their efforts and impact will be essential to understanding, spreading, and sustaining state/regional child health care QI programs. We describe the origins, evolution to date, and hopes for the future of these partnerships and the National Improvement Partnership Network (NIPN), which was established to support existing and nurture new IPs. PMID:24268091

  2. The USA National Phenology Network's Model for Collaborative Data Generation and Dissemination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosemartin, A.; Lincicome, A.; Denny, E. G.; Marsh, L.; Wilson, B. E.

    2010-12-01

    The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN) serves science and society by promoting a broad understanding of plant and animal phenology and the relationships among phenological patterns and all aspects of environmental change. The Network was founded as an NSF-funded Research Coordination Network, for the purpose of fostering collaboration among scientists, policy-makers and the general public to address the challenges posed by global change and its impact on ecosystems and human health. With this mission in mind, the USA-NPN has developed an Information Management System (IMS) to facilitate collaboration and participatory data collection and digitization. The IMS includes components for data storage, such as the National Phenology Database, as well as a Drupal website for information-sharing and data visualization, and a Java application for collection of contemporary observational data. The National Phenology Database is designed to efficiently accommodate large quantities of phenology data and to be flexible to the changing needs of the network. The database allows for the collection, storage and output of phenology data from multiple sources (e.g., partner organizations, researchers and citizen observers), as well as integration with legacy data sets. Participants in the network can submit records (as Drupal content types) for publications, legacy data sets and phenology-related festivals. The USA-NPN’s contemporary phenology data collection effort, Nature’s Notebook also draws on the contributions of participants. Citizen scientists around the country submit data through this Java application (paired with the Drupal site through a shared login) on the life cycle stages of plants and animals in their yards and parks. The North American Bird Phenology Program, now a part of the USA-NPN, also relies on web-based crowdsourcing. Participants in this program are transcribing 6 million scanned paper cards that were collected by observers across the United States

  3. The National COSEE Network's decade of assisting scientists to achieve high-quality Broader Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotaling, L. A.; Yoder, J. A.; Scowcroft, G.

    2012-12-01

    Many ocean scientists struggle with defining Broader Impact (BI) activities that will satisfy reviewers or fit within budget and time constraints, and many scientists are uncertain as to how to find assistance in crafting sound BI plans. In 2002, the National Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Network began engaging and connecting scientists and educators to transform ocean sciences education. COSEE's success in engaging scientists in BI activities is due to the Network's ability to find and create opportunities for education and outreach, assist scientists in designing programs that feature their research, and support scientists with courses, workshops and tools, which assist them in becoming better communicators of their research to non-scientific audiences. Among its most significant accomplishments to date is the development of a network of ocean scientists that is connected to education and outreach professionals, formal K-12 educators and students, informal science professionals, learning sciences experts, and graduate and undergraduate students. In addition to networking, COSEE Centers have developed and implemented the Ocean Literacy Principles and Fundamental Concepts and the Ocean Literacy Scope and Sequence for grades K-12. COSEE has also helped engage scientists with public audiences, facilitating the use of real-time ocean observing systems (OOS) data in formal and informal education settings, creating new distance learning and online resources for ocean sciences education, and promoting high quality ocean sciences education and outreach in universities and formal/informal venues. The purpose of this presentation is to review several tools that the COSEE Network has developed to assist ocean scientists with BI activities and to describe the Network's efforts to prepare young scientists to communicate their research to non-expert audiences.

  4. Work-related psychological health and psychological type among lead elders within the Newfrontiers network of churches in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Francis, Leslie J; Gubb, Sean; Robbins, Mandy

    2012-01-01

    Building on a series of recent studies concerned with assessing work-related psychological health and psychological type among various groups of church leaders, this study reports new data provided by 134 Lead Elders within the Newfrontiers network of churches in the United Kingdom who completed the Francis Psychological Type Scales (FPTS) together with the two scales of the Francis Burnout Inventory (FBI) concerned with emotional exhaustion and satisfaction in ministry. Compared with other groups of church leaders, Lead Elders within the Newfrontiers network of churches reported lower levels of emotional exhaustion and higher levels of satisfaction in ministry. Compared with other groups of church leaders, there was a higher proportion of extraverts among Lead Elders within the Newfrontiers network of churches. There was only a weak association between psychological type and burnout. PMID:22694160

  5. [The inter-university learning website: a national university network for online teaching of pathology].

    PubMed

    Gauchotte, Guillaume; Ameisen, David; Boutonnat, Jean; Battistella, Maxime; Copie, Christiane; Garcia, Stéphane; Rigau, Valérie; Galateau-Sallé, Françoise; Terris, Benoit; Vergier, Béatrice; Wendum, Dominique; Bertheau, Philippe

    2013-06-01

    Building online teaching materials is a highly time and energy consuming task for teachers of a single university. With the help of the Collège des pathologistes, we initiated a French national university network for building mutualized online teaching pathology cases, tests and other pedagogic resources. Nineteen French universities are associated to this project, initially funded by UNF3S (http://www.unf3s.org/). One national e-learning Moodle platform (http://virtual-slides.univ-paris7.fr/moodle/) contains texts, medias and URL pointing toward decentralized virtual slides. The Moodle interface has been explained to the teachers since september 2011 using web-based conferences with screen-sharing. The following contents have been created: 20 clinical cases, several tests with multiple choices and short answer questions, and gross examination videos. A survey with 16 teachers and students showed a 94 % satisfaction rate, most of the 16 participants being favorable to the development of e-learning, in parallel with other courses in classroom. These tools will be further developed for the different study levels of pathology. In conclusion, these tools offer very interesting perspectives for pathology teaching. The organization of a national inter-university network is a useful way to create and share numerous and good-quality pedagogic resources. PMID:23790654

  6. Development of a Coordinated National Soil Moisture Network: A Pilot Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quiring, S. M.; Lucido, J. M.; Winslow, L.; Ford, T.; Bijoy Baruah, P.; Verdin, J. P.; Pulwarty, R. S.; Strobel, M.

    2015-12-01

    Soil moisture is critical for accurate drought assessment and forecasting, identifying flood potential, climate modeling, estimation of crop yields and water budgeting. However, soil moisture data are collected by many agencies and organizations in the United States using a variety of instruments and methods for varying applications. These data are often distributed and represented in disparate formats, posing significant challenges for reuse. Recognizing this need, the President's Climate Action Plan called for the creation of a coordinated national soil moisture network. In response, a team led by the National Integrated Drought Information System has completed a proof-of-concept pilot project. The pilot comprises both in-situ and assimilated soil moisture datasets. It focuses on providing real-time soil moisture data via standard web services to feed map-based visualization tools in order to meet the following use cases: operational drought monitoring, experimental land surface modeling, and operational hydrological modeling. The result of this pilot is a reference architecture that will inform the implementation of the national network.

  7. LEADING WITH LEADING INDICATORS

    SciTech Connect

    PREVETTE, S.S.

    2005-01-27

    This paper documents Fluor Hanford's use of Leading Indicators, management leadership, and statistical methodology in order to improve safe performance of work. By applying these methods, Fluor Hanford achieved a significant reduction in injury rates in 2003 and 2004, and the improvement continues today. The integration of data, leadership, and teamwork pays off with improved safety performance and credibility with the customer. The use of Statistical Process Control, Pareto Charts, and Systems Thinking and their effect on management decisions and employee involvement are discussed. Included are practical examples of choosing leading indicators. A statistically based color coded dashboard presentation system methodology is provided. These tools, management theories and methods, coupled with involved leadership and employee efforts, directly led to significant improvements in worker safety and health, and environmental protection and restoration at one of the nation's largest nuclear cleanup sites.

  8. [Establishment of Networks of National Reference Centres and associated Consiliary Laboratories in Germany].

    PubMed

    Laude, G; Kist, M; Krause, G

    2009-10-01

    The German Federal Ministry of Health has funded National Reference Centres (NRC) for laboratory-based surveillance of selected infection pathogens and infections disease syndromes. This selection is based on the epidemiologic relevance of the pathogens, specific diagnostic requirements, antimicrobial resistance and need for public health measures. Currently there are 18 NRC, nominated for a duration of 3 years. Toward the end of a nomination period, each NRC is evaluated by an expert committee, based on the catalogue of core tasks. In order to expand the spectrum of competencies 47 consiliary laboratories on additional pathogens of special epidemiologic importance have been named. Their main function is to provide information and consultation on special diagnostic issues. In order to further improve the effectiveness and cooperation of the system Networks have been created. The aim of the Networks is to facilitate exchange of diagnostic methods and prevention concepts and to improve the geographic coverage of the services. PMID:19760248

  9. Contribution of particle-size-fractionated airborne lead to blood lead during National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2008

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated associations between blood Pb (PbB) and a broad range of adverse health effects. The national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) for Pb is set for air Pb (PbA) not PbB, to protect public health. Therefore, assessment of the association be...

  10. Modifications on the hydrogen bond network by mutations of Escherichia coli copper efflux oxidase affect the process of proton transfer to dioxygen leading to alterations of enzymatic activities

    SciTech Connect

    Kajikawa, Takao; Kataoka, Kunishige; Sakurai, Takeshi

    2012-05-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proton transfer pathway to dioxygen in CueO was identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Glu506 is the key amino acid to transport proton. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Ala mutation at Glu506 formed a compensatory proton transfer pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Ile mutation at Glu506 shut down the hydrogen bond network. -- Abstract: CueO has a branched hydrogen bond network leading from the exterior of the protein molecule to the trinuclear copper center. This network transports protons in the four-electron reduction of dioxygen. We replaced the acidic Glu506 and Asp507 residues with the charged and uncharged amino acid residues. Peculiar changes in the enzyme activity of the mutants relative to the native enzyme indicate that an acidic amino acid residue at position 506 is essential for effective proton transport. The Ala mutation resulted in the formation of a compensatory hydrogen bond network with one or two extra water molecules. On the other hand, the Ile mutation resulted in the complete shutdown of the hydrogen bond network leading to loss of enzymatic activities of CueO. In contrast, the hydrogen bond network without the proton transport function was constructed by the Gln mutation. These results exerted on the hydrogen bond network in CueO are discussed in comparison with proton transfers in cytochrome oxidase.

  11. Regional Densification of the ITRF through the Integration of National Active GNSS Network Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenyeres, Ambrus; Horvath, Tivadar; Stangl, Gunter; Garayt, Bruno; Hansen, Dionne; Valdes, Marcellino; Caporali, Alessandro; Figurski, Mariusz; Georgiev, Ivan; Droscak, Branislav; Franke, Peter; Jumare, Izolde; Nagl, Jaroslav; Pihlak, Priit; Huisman, Lennard

    2015-04-01

    The actual realization of the ITRS represents the most precise station positions and velocities at selected set of sites. The scientific and practical applications may require the access to the global 3D reference frame in a dense network without loss of consistency and reliability. Relying on the long term homogeneously analyzed data the dense national permanent GNSS networks shall be the ideal tool for such reference frame densification. In the frame of the ongoing EPN densification the national active networks are integrated and a homogeneous, dense position and velocity product is being derived based on the actual ITRS realization and using the EPN as backbone infrastructure. In order to minimize inconsistencies (e.g. site naming, discontinuities, constraint handling) the only way to get a uniform, homogeneous cumulative solution from national to global scales is the integration done relying on the weekly SINEX product level. The integration is being performed using the CATREF software (Altamimi et al, IGN) and based on the Minimum Constraint approach. The derived position and velocity product will be an essential material for various geokinematic studies (PGR, intraplate and plate boundary zone investigations), and also for the better definition and realization of ETRS89. This work is very well inline with the goals of relevant European initiatives in the frame of EPOS, EUREF (WG on Deformation Models), CEGRN, EUPOS, IAG (WG on Unified Dense Velocity Fields). The work is well in progress, up to 15 years of weekly SINEX files are already available and analyzed from 17 countries, and considering the countries in negotiation phase the full continental coverage will be reached within few years. The actual database contains more close to 3000 sites. In this presentation a status report is shown and the first version of the position/velocity product with related interpretation options are introduced as well.

  12. Development of a Coordinated National Soil Moisture Network: A Pilot Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucido, J. M.; Quiring, S. M.; Verdin, J. P.; Pulwarty, R. S.; Baker, B.; Cosgrove, B.; Escobar, V. M.; Strobel, M.

    2014-12-01

    Soil moisture data is critical for accurate drought prediction, flood forecasting, climate modeling, prediction of crop yields and water budgeting. However, soil moisture data are collected by many agencies and organizations in the United States using a variety of instruments and methods for varying applications. These data are often distributed and represented in disparate formats, posing significant challenges for use. In recognition of these challenges, the President's Climate Action Plan articulated the need for a coordinated national soil moisture network. In response to this action plan, a team led by the National Integrated Drought Information System has begun to develop a framework for this network and has instituted a proof-of-concept pilot study. This pilot is located in the south-central plains of the US, and will serve as a reference architecture for the requisite data systems and inform the design of the national network. The pilot comprises both in-situ and modeled soil moisture datasets (historical and real-time) and will serve the following use cases: operational drought monitoring, experimental land surface modeling, and operational hydrological modeling. The pilot will be implemented using a distributed network design in order to serve dispersed data in real-time directly from data providers. Standard service protocols will be used to enable future integration with external clients. The pilot network will additionally contain a catalog of data sets and web service endpoints, which will be used to broker web service calls. A mediation and aggregation service will then intelligently request, compile, and transform the distributed datasets from their native formats into a standardized output. This mediation framework allows data to be hosted and maintained locally by the data owners while simplifying access through a single service interface. These data services will then be used to create visualizations, for example, views of the current soil

  13. Design for mosquito abundance, diversity, and phenology sampling within the National Ecological Observatory Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoekman, D.; Springer, Yuri P; Barker, C.M.; Barrera, R.; Blackmore, M.S.; Bradshaw, W.E.; Foley, D. H.; Ginsberg, Howard; Hayden, M. H.; Holzapfel, C. M.; Juliano, S. A.; Kramer, L. D.; LaDeau, S. L.; Livdahl, T. P.; Moore, C. G.; Nasci, R.S.; Reisen, W.K.; Savage, H. M.

    2016-01-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) intends to monitor mosquito populations across its broad geographical range of sites because of their prevalence in food webs, sensitivity to abiotic factors and relevance for human health. We describe the design of mosquito population sampling in the context of NEON’s long term continental scale monitoring program, emphasizing the sampling design schedule, priorities and collection methods. Freely available NEON data and associated field and laboratory samples, will increase our understanding of how mosquito abundance, demography, diversity and phenology are responding to land use and climate change.

  14. The EPA National Fuels Surveillance Network. I. Trace constituents in gasoline and commercial gasoline fuel additives.

    PubMed

    Jungers, R H; Lee, R E; von Lehmden, D J

    1975-04-01

    A National Fuels Surveillance Network has been established to collect gasoline and other fuels through the 10 regional offices of the Environmental Protection Agency. Physical, chemical, and trace element analytical determinations are made on the collected fuel samples to detect components which may present an air pollution hazard or poison exhaust catalytic control devices. A summary of trace elemental constituents in over 50 gasoline samples and 18 commercially marketed consumer purchased gasoline additives is presented. Quantities of Mn, Ni, Cr, Zn, Cu, Fe, Sb, B, Mg, Pb, and S were found in most regular and premium gasoline. Environmental implications of trace constituents in gasoline are discussed. PMID:1157783

  15. The EPA National Fuels Surveillance Network. I. Trace constituents in gasoline and commercial gasoline fuel additives.

    PubMed Central

    Jungers, R H; Lee, R E; von Lehmden, D J

    1975-01-01

    A National Fuels Surveillance Network has been established to collect gasoline and other fuels through the 10 regional offices of the Environmental Protection Agency. Physical, chemical, and trace element analytical determinations are made on the collected fuel samples to detect components which may present an air pollution hazard or poison exhaust catalytic control devices. A summary of trace elemental constituents in over 50 gasoline samples and 18 commercially marketed consumer purchased gasoline additives is presented. Quantities of Mn, Ni, Cr, Zn, Cu, Fe, Sb, B, Mg, Pb, and S were found in most regular and premium gasoline. Environmental implications of trace constituents in gasoline are discussed. PMID:1157783

  16. Ghana's experience in the establishment of a national digital seismic network observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahulu, Sylvanus; Danuor, Sylvester Kojo

    2015-07-01

    The Government of Ghana has established a National Digital Seismic Network Observatory in Ghana with the aim of monitoring events such as earthquakes, blasts from mining and quarrying, nuclear tests, etc. The Digital Observatory was commissioned on 19 December 2012, and was dedicated to Geosciences in Ghana. Previously Ghana did not have any operational, digital seismic network acquisition system with the capability of monitoring and analysing data for planning and research purposes. The Ghana Geological Survey has been monitoring seismic events with an analogue system which was not efficient and does not deliver real-time data. Hence, the importance of setting up the National Digital Seismic Network System which would enable the Geological Survey to constantly monitor, manage and coordinate both natural and man-made seismic activities in the country and around the globe, to some extent on real-time basis. The Network System is made up of six remote digital stations that transmit data via satellite to the central observatory. Sensors used are 3× Trillium Compact and 3× Trillium 120PA with Trident digitizers. The department has also acquired strong motion equipment: Titan accelerometers with Taurus digitizers from Nanometrics. Three of each of these instruments have been installed at the Akosombo and Kpong hydrodams, and also at the Weija water supply dam. These instruments are used to monitor dams. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) values established from the analysed data from the accelerometers will be used to retrofit or carry out maintenance work of the dam structures to avoid collapse. Apart from these, the observatory also assesses and analyses seismic waveforms relevant to its needs from the Global Seismographic Network (GSN) system operated by the US Geological Survey. The Ghana Geological Survey, through its Seismic Network Observatory makes data available to its stakeholder institutions for earthquake disaster mitigation; reports on all aspects of

  17. Dustborne Alternaria alternata antigens in U.S. homes: Results from the National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing

    PubMed Central

    Salo, Päivi M.; Yin, Ming; Arbes, Samuel J.; Cohn, Richard D.; Sever, Michelle; Muilenberg, Michael; Burge, Harriet A.; London, Stephanie J.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Alternaria alternata is one of the most common fungi associated with allergic disease. However, Alternaria exposure in indoor environments is not well characterized. Objective: The primary goals of this study were to examine the prevalence of Alternaria exposure and identify independent predictors of Alternaria antigen concentrations in U.S. homes. Methods: Data for this cross-sectional study were obtained from the National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing. A nationally representative sample of 831 housing units in 75 different locations throughout the U.S. completed the survey. Information on housing and household characteristics was obtained by questionnaire and environmental assessments. Concentrations of Alternaria antigens in dust collected from various indoor sites were assessed with a polyclonal anti-Alternaria antibody assay. Results: Alternaria antigens were detected in most (95-99%) of the dust samples. The geometric mean concentration, reflecting the average Alternaria concentration in homes, was 4.88 μg/g (SE=0.13 μg/g). In the multivariable linear regression analysis, the age of the housing unit, geographic region, urbanization, poverty, family race, observed mold and moisture problems, use of dehumidifier, and presence of cats and dogs were independent predictors of Alternaria antigen concentrations. Less frequent cleaning and smoking indoors also contributed to higher Alternaria antigen levels in homes. Conclusion: Exposure to Alternaria alternata antigens in U.S. homes is common. Antigen levels in homes are not only influenced by regional factors but also by residential characteristics. Preventing mold and moisture problems, avoiding smoking indoors, and regular household cleaning may help reduce exposure to Alternaria antigens indoors. PMID:16159634

  18. Indirect economic impact of landslide hazards by disruption to national road transportation networks; Scotland, United Kingdom.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postance, Benjamin; Hillier, John; Dijkstra, Tom; Dixon, Neil

    2016-04-01

    The failure of engineered or natural slopes which support or are adjacent to transportation systems often inflicts costly direct physical damage and indirect system disruption. The consequences and severity of indirect impacts vary according to which links, nodes or network facilities are physically disrupted. Moreover, it is often the case that multiple slope failure disruptions are triggered simultaneously following prolonged or intense precipitation events due to a degree of local homogeneity of slope characteristics and materials. This study investigates the application of national commuter statistics and network agent simulation to evaluate indirect impacts of landslide events disrupting the Scottish trunk road transportation network (UK). Previous studies often employ shortest pathway analysis whereas agent simulation has received relatively little attention. British Geological Survey GeoSure landslide susceptibility data is used to select 35 susceptible trunk road segments by means of neighbouring total area at risk. For each of the candidate 35 segments the network and zonal variation in travel time is calculated for a single day of disruption, economic impact is approximated using established governmental and industry transport planning and appraisal values. The results highlight that a number of trunk road segments incur indirect economic losses in the order of tens of thousands of pounds for each day of closure. Calculated losses at the A83 Rest and Be Thankful are 50% greater than previous estimates at £75 thousand per day of closure. Also highlighted are events in which economic impact is relatively minor, yet concentrating on particular communities that can become substantially isolated as a consequence of a single event. The findings of this study are of interest and support wider investigations exploring cost considerations for decision makers and mitigation strategies, in addition to identifying network topological and demand indicators conducive

  19. The Sky is the Limit!: The Benefits from Partnering with the Project ASTRO National Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zevin, D.; Walker, C.; Wilson, R.; van der Veen, W.; Moody, T. R.; Fraknoi, A.; Gurton, S.; White, V.; Harvey, J.; Cooper, L.; Regas, D.; Guttman, P.; Smith, R.

    2008-06-01

    Project ASTRO is a national program that partners professional and amateur astronomers with local educators at regional sites around the country. Developed by the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Project ASTRO provides training for astronomer-educator partnerships in hands-on, inquiry-based science activities while emphasizing the importance of student preconceptions as a starting point for learning. During an intensive two-day training workshop, a partnership is forged that blends the teacher's knowledge of instructional methods and classroom management with the astronomer's knowledge of and passion for science and astronomy. The regional sites' directors and coordinators are part of a ``National Network'' whose aims are to foster communication and cooperation among its members and with other science education and research communities. Nationwide, over 500 active astronomer-educator partnerships bring the excitement of astronomy to over 20,000 students annually.

  20. Modeling Air Traffic Management Technologies with a Queuing Network Model of the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Dou; Lee, David; Johnson, Jesse; Gaier, Eric; Kostiuk, Peter

    1999-01-01

    This report describes an integrated model of air traffic management (ATM) tools under development in two National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) programs -Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) and Advanced Air Transport Technologies (AATT). The model is made by adjusting parameters of LMINET, a queuing network model of the National Airspace System (NAS), which the Logistics Management Institute (LMI) developed for NASA. Operating LMINET with models of various combinations of TAP and AATT will give quantitative information about the effects of the tools on operations of the NAS. The costs of delays under different scenarios are calculated. An extension of Air Carrier Investment Model (ACIM) under ASAC developed by the Institute for NASA maps the technologies' impacts on NASA operations into cross-comparable benefits estimates for technologies and sets of technologies.

  1. QUALITY ASSURANCE PROGRAM FOR WET DEPOSITION SAMPLING AND CHEMICAL ANALYSES FOR THE NATIONAL TRENDS NETWORK.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroder, LeRoy J.; Malo, Bernard A.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of the National Trends Network is to delineate the major inorganic constituents in the wet deposition in the United States. The approach chosen to monitor the Nation's wet deposition is to install approximately 150 automatic sampling devices with at least one collector in each state. Samples are collected at one week intervals, removed from collectors, and transported to an analytical laboratory for chemical analysis. The quality assurance program has divided wet deposition monitoring into 5 parts: (1) Sampling site selection, (2) sampling device, (3) sample container, (4) sample handling, and (5) laboratory analysis. Each of these five components is being examined using existing designs or new designs. Each existing or proposed sampling site is visited and a criteria audit is performed.

  2. [Information system of the national network of public health laboratories in Peru (Netlab)].

    PubMed

    Vargas-Herrera, Javier; Segovia-Juarez, José; Garro Nuñez, Gladys María

    2015-01-01

    Clinical laboratory information systems produce improvements in the quality of information, reduce service costs, and diminish wait times for results, among other things. In the construction process of this information system, the National Institute of Health (NIH) of Peru has developed and implemented a web-based application to communicate to health personnel (laboratory workers, epidemiologists, health strategy managers, physicians, etc.) the results of laboratory tests performed at the Peruvian NIH or in the laboratories of the National Network of Public Health Laboratories which is called NETLAB. This article presents the experience of implementing NETLAB, its current situation, perspectives of its use, and its contribution to the prevention and control of diseases in Peru. PMID:26338402

  3. High-Performance Workforce. National Dropout Prevention Center/Network Newsletter. Volume 19, Number 1, Winter 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckenfield, Marty, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    The "National Dropout Prevention Newsletter" is published quarterly by the National Dropout Prevention Center/Network. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Preparing for the Demands of the New World Economy (Patrick J. O'Connor); (2) Connecting At-Risk Youth to the High-Performance Workforce (Patrick J. O'Connor); (3) Butler Tech…

  4. FIELD EVALUATION OF SAMPLERS FOR EPA'S NATIONAL PM 2.5 CHEMICAL SPECIATION NETWORK-PRELIMINARY RESULTS FROM ATLANTA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA bas established a national network at nearly 1100 sites to monitor PM2.5 mass for testing compliance with the PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards. The objective of the field evaluation is to determine the performance characteristics for the collection of the...

  5. 76 FR 43347 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; Network Centric...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; Network Centric Operations Industry Consortium, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on June 9, 2011, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National...

  6. 77 FR 71399 - Notice of Public Workshop: Blueprint for Action: Workshop on the Design of the National Network...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... NNMI and IMIs. The RFI was published in the Federal Register (77 FR 26509) and may be found at: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-05-04/pdf/2012-10809.pdf . Comments in response to the RFI were due on... the Design of the National Network for Manufacturing Innovation (NNMI) AGENCY: National Institute...

  7. Disruption of Rhino Demography by Poachers May Lead to Population Declines in Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Sam M; Greaver, Cathy; Knight, Grant A; Knight, Mike H; Smit, Izak P J; Pienaar, Danie

    2015-01-01

    The onslaught on the World's rhinoceroses continues despite numerous initiatives aimed at curbing it. When losses due to poaching exceed birth rates, declining rhino populations result. We used previously published estimates and growth rates for black rhinos (2008) and white rhinos (2010) together with known poaching trends at the time to predict population sizes and poaching rates in Kruger National Park, South Africa for 2013. Kruger is a stronghold for the south-eastern black rhino and southern white rhino. Counting rhinos on 878 blocks 3x3 km in size using helicopters, estimating availability bias and collating observer and detectability biases allowed estimates using the Jolly's estimator. The exponential escalation in number of rhinos poached per day appears to have slowed. The black rhino estimate of 414 individuals (95% confidence interval: 343-487) was lower than the predicted 835 individuals (95% CI: 754-956). The white rhino estimate of 8,968 individuals (95% CI: 8,394-9,564) overlapped with the predicted 9,417 individuals (95% CI: 7,698-11,183). Density- and rainfall-dependent responses in birth- and death rates of white rhinos provide opportunities to offset anticipated poaching effects through removals of rhinos from high density areas to increase birth and survival rates. Biological management of rhinos, however, need complimentary management of the poaching threat as present poaching trends predict detectable declines in white rhino abundances by 2018. Strategic responses such as anti-poaching that protect supply from illegal harvesting, reducing demand, and increasing supply commonly require crime network disruption as a first step complimented by providing options for alternative economies in areas abutting protected areas. PMID:26121681

  8. Disruption of Rhino Demography by Poachers May Lead to Population Declines in Kruger National Park, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Sam M.; Greaver, Cathy; Knight, Grant A.; Knight, Mike H.; Smit, Izak P. J.; Pienaar, Danie

    2015-01-01

    The onslaught on the World’s rhinoceroses continues despite numerous initiatives aimed at curbing it. When losses due to poaching exceed birth rates, declining rhino populations result. We used previously published estimates and growth rates for black rhinos (2008) and white rhinos (2010) together with known poaching trends at the time to predict population sizes and poaching rates in Kruger National Park, South Africa for 2013. Kruger is a stronghold for the south-eastern black rhino and southern white rhino. Counting rhinos on 878 blocks 3x3 km in size using helicopters, estimating availability bias and collating observer and detectability biases allowed estimates using the Jolly’s estimator. The exponential escalation in number of rhinos poached per day appears to have slowed. The black rhino estimate of 414 individuals (95% confidence interval: 343-487) was lower than the predicted 835 individuals (95% CI: 754-956). The white rhino estimate of 8,968 individuals (95% CI: 8,394-9,564) overlapped with the predicted 9,417 individuals (95% CI: 7,698-11,183). Density- and rainfall-dependent responses in birth- and death rates of white rhinos provide opportunities to offset anticipated poaching effects through removals of rhinos from high density areas to increase birth and survival rates. Biological management of rhinos, however, need complimentary management of the poaching threat as present poaching trends predict detectable declines in white rhino abundances by 2018. Strategic responses such as anti-poaching that protect supply from illegal harvesting, reducing demand, and increasing supply commonly require crime network disruption as a first step complimented by providing options for alternative economies in areas abutting protected areas. PMID:26121681

  9. Construction and development of IGP DMC of China National Seismological Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, X.; Zheng, J.; Lin, P.; Yao, Z.; Liang, J.

    2011-12-01

    In 2003, CEA (China Earthquake Administration) commenced the construction of China Digital Seismological Observation Network. By the end of 2007, a new-generation digital seismological observation system had been established, which consists of 1 National Seismic Network, 32 regional seismic networks, 2 small-aperture seismic arrays, 6 volcano monitoring networks and 19 mobile seismic networks, as well as CENC (China Earthquake Network Center) DMC (Data Management Centre) and IGP (Institute of Geophysics) DMC. Since then, the seismological observation system of China has completely entered a digital time. For operational, data backup and data security considerations, the DMC at the Institute of Geophysics (IGP), CEA was established at the end of 2007. IGP DMC now receives and archives waveform data from more than 1000 permanent seismic stations around China in real-time. After the great Wenchuan and Yushu earthquakes, the real-time waveform data from 56 and 8 portable seismic stations deployed in the aftershock area are added to IGP DMC. The technical system of IGP DMC is designed to conduct data management, processing and service through the network of CEA. We developed and integrated a hardware system with high-performance servers, large-capacity disc arrays, tape library and other facilities, as well as software packages for real-time waveform data receiving, storage, quality control, processing and service. Considering the demands from researchers for large quantities of seismic event waveform data, IGP DMC adopts an innovative "user order" method to extract event waveform data. Users can specify seismic stations, epicenter distance and record length. In a short period of 3 years, IGP DMC has supplied about 350 Terabytes waveform data to over 200 researches of more than 40 academic institutions. According to incomplete statistics, over 40 papers have been published in professional journals, in which 30 papers were indexed by SCI. Now, IGP DMC has become an

  10. A quality-assurance assessment for constituents reported by the national atmospheric deposition program and the national trends network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    See, Randolph B.; Schroder, LeRoy J.; Willoughby, Timothy C.

    A continuing quality-assurance program has been operated by the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate any bias introduced by routine handling, shipping, and laboratory analyses of wet-deposition samples collected in the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) and National Trends Network (NTN). Blind-audit samples having a variety of constituent concentrations and values were selected. Only blind-audit samples with constituent concentrations and values less than the 95th-percentile concentration for natural wet-deposition samples were included in the analysis. Of the major ions, there was a significant increase of Ca 2+, Mg 2+, Na 2+, K +, SO 42- and Cl -1 in samples handled according to standard protocols and shipped in NADP/NTN sample-collection buckets. For 1979-1987, graphs of smoothed data showing the estimated contamination in blind-audit samples indicate a decrease in the median concentration and ranges of Ca 2+, Mg 2+ and SO 42- contamination of blind-audit samples shipped in sample-collection buckets. Part of the contamination detected in blind-audit samples can be attributed to contact with the sample-collection bucket and lid; however, additional sources also seem to contaminate the blind-audit sample. Apparent decreases in the magnitude and range of sample contamination may be caused by differences in sample-collection bucket- and lid-washing procedures by the NADP/NTN Central Analytical Laboratory. Although the degree of bias is minimal for most constituents, summaries of the NADP/NTN data base may contain overestimates of Ca 2+, Mg 2+, Na -, K + and SO 42- and Cl - concentrations, and underestimates of H + concentrations.

  11. Results of external quality-assurance program for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program and National Trends Network during 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, M.H.; Schroder, L.J.; Willoughby, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    External quality assurance monitoring of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) and National Trends Network (NTN) was performed by the U.S. Geological Survey during 1985. The monitoring consisted of three primary programs: (1) an intersite comparison program designed to assess the precision and accuracy of onsite pH and specific conductance measurements made by NADP and NTN site operators; (2) a blind audit sample program designed to assess the effect of routine field handling on the precision and bias of NADP and NTN wet deposition data; and (3) an interlaboratory comparison program designed to compare analytical data from the laboratory processing NADP and NTN samples with data produced by other laboratories routinely analyzing wet deposition samples and to provide estimates of individual laboratory precision. An average of 94% of the site operators participated in the four voluntary intersite comparisons during 1985. A larger percentage of participating site operators met the accuracy goal for specific conductance measurements (average, 87%) than for pH measurements (average, 67%). Overall precision was dependent on the actual specific conductance of the test solution and independent of the pH of the test solution. Data for the blind audit sample program indicated slight positive biases resulting from routine field handling for all analytes except specific conductance. These biases were not large enough to be significant for most data users. Data for the blind audit sample program also indicated that decreases in hydrogen ion concentration were accompanied by decreases in specific conductance. Precision estimates derived from the blind audit sample program indicate that the major source of uncertainty in wet deposition data is the routine field handling that each wet deposition sample receives. Results of the interlaboratory comparison program were similar to results of previous years ' evaluations, indicating that the participating laboratories

  12. A quality-assurance assessment for constituents reported by the National Atmospheric Deposition Program and the National Trends Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    See, R.B.; Schroder, L.J.; Willoughby, T.C.

    1989-01-01

    A continuing quality-assurance program has been operated by the U.S. Geographical Survey to evaluate any bias introduced by routine handling, shipping, and laboratory analyses of wet-deposition samples collected in the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) and National Trends Network (NTN). Blind-audit samples having a variety of constituent concentrations and values were selected. Only blind-audit samples with constituent concentrations and values less than the 95th-percentile concentration for natural wet-deposition samples were included in the analysis. Of the major ions, there was a significant increase of Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ SO42+ and Cl- in samples handled according to standard protocols and shipped in NADP/NTN sample-collection buckets. For 1979-1987, graphs of smoothed data showing the estimated contaminations in blind-audit samples indicate a decrease in the median concentration and ranges of Ca2+, Mg2+ and SO42- contamination of blind-audit samples shipped in sample-collection buckets. Part of the contamination detected in blind-audit samples can be attributed to contact with the sample-collection bucket and lid; however, additional sources also seem to contaminate the blind-audit sample. Apparent decreases in the magnitude and range of sample contamination may be caused by differences in sample-collection bucket- and lid-washing procedures by the NADP/NTN Central Analytical Laboratory. Although the degree of bias is minimal for most constituents, summaries of the NADP/NTN data base may contain overestimates of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na-, K+, SO42- and Cl- concentrations, and underestimates of H+ concentrations.

  13. Data from selected U.S. Geological Survey National Stream Water Quality Monitoring Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Richard B.; Slack, James R.; Ludtke, Amy S.; Fitzgerald, Kathleen K.; Schertz, Terry L.

    1998-09-01

    A nationally consistent and well-documented collection of water quality and quantity data compiled during the past 30 years for streams and rivers in the United States is now available on CD-ROM and accessible over the World Wide Web. The data include measurements from two U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) national networks for 122 physical, chemical, and biological properties of water collected at 680 monitoring stations from 1962 to 1995, quality assurance information that describes the sample collection agencies, laboratories, analytical methods, and estimates of laboratory measurement error (bias and variance), and information on selected cultural and natural characteristics of the station watersheds. The data are easily accessed via user-supplied software including Web browser, spreadsheet, and word processor, or may be queried and printed according to user-specified criteria using the supplied retrieval software on CD-ROM. The water quality data serve a variety of scientific uses including research and educational applications related to trend detection, flux estimation, investigations of the effects of the natural environment and cultural sources on water quality, and the development of statistical methods for designing efficient monitoring networks and interpreting water resources data.

  14. Toward a national animal telemetry network for aquatic observations in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Block, Barbara A.; Holbrook, Christopher; Simmons, Samantha E; Holland, Kim N; Ault, Jerald S.; Costa, Daniel P.; Mate, Bruce R; Seitz, Andrew C; Arendt, Michael D.; Payne, John; Mahmoudi, Behzad; Moore, Peter L.; Price, James; J. J. Levenson; Wilson, Doug; Kochevar, Randall E

    2016-01-01

    Animal telemetry is the science of elucidating the movements and behavior of animals in relation to their environment or habitat. Here, we focus on telemetry of aquatic species (marine mammals, sharks, fish, sea birds and turtles) and so are concerned with animal movements and behavior as they move through and above the world’s oceans, coastal rivers, estuaries and great lakes. Animal telemetry devices (“tags”) yield detailed data regarding animal responses to the coupled ocean–atmosphere and physical environment through which they are moving. Animal telemetry has matured and we describe a developing US Animal Telemetry Network (ATN) observing system that monitors aquatic life on a range of temporal and spatial scales that will yield both short- and long-term benefits, fill oceanographic observing and knowledge gaps and advance many of the U.S. National Ocean Policy Priority Objectives. ATN has the potential to create a huge impact for the ocean observing activities undertaken by the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) and become a model for establishing additional national-level telemetry networks worldwide.

  15. A Combined TOA/MDF Technology Upgrade of the U.S. National Lightning Detection Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummins, Kenneth L.; Murphy, Martin J.; Bardo, Edward A.; Hiscox, William L.; Pyle, Richard B.; Pifer, Alburt E.

    1998-04-01

    The U.S. National Lightning Detection NetworkTM (NLDN) has provided lightning data covering the continental United States since 1989. Using information gathered from more than 100 sensors, the NLDN provides both real-time and historical lightning data to the electric utility industry, the National Weather Service, and other government and commercial users. It is also the primary source of lightning data for use in research and climatological studies in the United States. In this paper we discuss the design, implementation, and data from the time-of-arrival/magnetic direction finder (TOA/MDF) network following a recent system-wide upgrade. The location accuracy (the maximum dimension of a confidence region around the stroke location) has been improved by a factor of 4 to 8 since 1991, resulting in a median accuracy of 500 m. The expected flash detection efficiency ranges from 80% to 90% for those events with peak currents above 5 kA, varying slightly by region. Subsequent strokes and strokes with peak currents less than 5 kA can now be detected and located; however, the detection efficiency for these events is not quantified in this study because their peak current distribution is not well known.

  16. An Asymmetrical Network: National and International Dimensions of the Development of Mexican Physiology.

    PubMed

    Cueto, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the history of Mexican physiology during the period 1910-60 when two noted investigators, José J. Izquierdo, first, and Arturo Rosenblueth, second, inscribed their work into an international network of medical research. The network had at its center the laboratory of Walter B. Cannon at Harvard University. The Rockefeller Foundation was its main supporter. Rosenblueth was quite familiar with the network because he worked with Cannon at Harvard for over ten years before returning to Mexico in the early 1940s. Izquierdo and Rosenblueth developed different strategies to face adverse conditions such as insufficient laboratory equipment, inadequate library resources, a small scientific community, and ephemeral political support. Both acquired local influence and international prestige, but the sources of financial and academic power remained in the United States. This case study provides insight into the circulation of scientific ideas and practices in an important Latin American country and suggests that the world's circulation of science among industrial and developing nations during the mid-twentieth century was intrinsically asymmetric but opened temporary opportunities for talented individuals and groups of researchers. PMID:26041142

  17. Wet Deposition Measurements across the Continent: Observations from The National Ecological Observatory Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J. R.; Goodman, K. J.; Luo, H.; Roehm, C. L.

    2013-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is responsible for making observations of terrestrial, aquatic, and organismal ecology at 106 sites in 20 different eco-climatic domains across the North American continent. NEON will provide data on key local, meteorological, climate, and chemical variables, as well as their associated biogeochemical and biotic responses, in an effort to better understand and predict the effects of climate change, land-use change, and invasive species. The volume of data collected is expected to exceed hundreds of Terabytes per year and will be freely available via a web portal for use by researchers, educators, and policy makers. Chemical scavenging by wet deposition is a principle means of chemical inputs into an ecosystem. By the time NEON becomes fully operational in 2017; wet deposition will be collected and measured at 55 sites across the US. It is expected that these measurements will capture, among other compounds, the deposition of sulfate, ammonium, and nitrate spanning gradients and 'hot spots' across terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. This poster will highlight the network planning for these measurements, the instrumentation and observational details, as well as opportunities to link these data products with external networks. Particular emphasis will be placed on how these measurements complement and link with other biogeochemical and climatological data products at NEON.

  18. Application of a series of artificial neural networks to on-site quantitative analysis of lead into real soil samples by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Haddad, J.; Bruyère, D.; Ismaël, A.; Gallou, G.; Laperche, V.; Michel, K.; Canioni, L.; Bousquet, B.

    2014-07-01

    Artificial neural networks were applied to process data from on-site LIBS analysis of soil samples. A first artificial neural network allowed retrieving the relative amounts of silicate, calcareous and ores matrices into soils. As a consequence, each soil sample was correctly located inside the ternary diagram characterized by these three matrices, as verified by ICP-AES. Then a series of artificial neural networks were applied to quantify lead into soil samples. More precisely, two models were designed for classification purpose according to both the type of matrix and the range of lead concentrations. Then, three quantitative models were locally applied to three data subsets. This complete approach allowed reaching a relative error of prediction close to 20%, considered as satisfying in the case of on-site analysis.

  19. The National Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence Network: Building Bridges Between Ocean Scientists and Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scowcroft, G.; Hotaling, L. A.

    2009-12-01

    Since 2002 the National Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Network, funded by the National Science Foundation with support from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, has worked to increase the understanding of the ocean and its relevance to society. The Network is currently comprised of twelve Centers located throughout the United States and a Central Coordinating Office. COSEE focuses on innovative activities that transform and broaden participation in the ocean science education enterprise. A key player in the national ocean literacy movement, COSEE’s objectives are to develop partnerships between ocean scientists and educators and foster communication and coordination among ocean science education programs nationwide. COSEE has grown into the nation's most comprehensive ocean science and education network with over 200 partners, including universities and research institutions, community colleges, school districts, informal science education institutions, and state/federal agencies. Each Center is a consortium of one or more ocean science research institutions, informal science education organizations, and formal education entities. The mission of the National COSEE Network is to engage scientists and educators to transform ocean sciences education. Center activities include the development of catalytic partnerships among diverse institutions, the integration of ocean science research into high-quality educational materials, and the establishment of pathways that enable ocean scientists to interact with educators, students, and the public. In addition to the work and projects implemented locally and regionally by the Centers, Network-level efforts occur across Centers, such as the national promotion of Ocean Literacy Principals and encouragement of our nation’s youth to pursue ocean related areers. This presentation will offer several examples of how the National COSEE Network is playing an important and evolving role in

  20. The USA National Phenology Network's National Phenology Database: a multi-taxa, continental-scale dataset for scientific inquiry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weltzin, J. F.

    2012-12-01

    The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN; www.usanpn.org) serves science and society by promoting a broad understanding of plant and animal phenology and the relationships among phenological patterns and all aspects of environmental change. The National Phenology Database, maintained by the USA-NPN, is experiencing steady growth in the number of data records it houses. As of August 2012, participants in the USA-NPN national-scale, multi-taxa phenology observation program Nature's Notebook had contributed over 1.3 million observation records (encompassing four and three years of observations for plants and for animals, respectively). Data are freely available www.usanpn.org/results/data, and include FGDC-compliant metadata, data-use and data-attribution policies, vetted and documented methodologies and protocols, and version control. Quality assurance and quality control, and metadata data associated with field observations (e.g., effort and method reporting, site and organism condition) are also documented. Data are also available for exploration, visualization and preliminary analysis at www.usanpn.org/results/visualizations. Participants in Nature's Notebook, who include both professional and volunteer scientists, follow vetted protocols that employ phenological "status" monitoring rather than "event" monitoring: when sampling, observers indicate the status of each phenophase (e.g., "breaking leaf buds" or "active individuals"). This approach has a number of advantages over event monitoring (including estimation of error, estimation of effort, "negative" or "absence" data, capture of multiple events and phenophase duration) and is especially well-suited for integrated multi-taxa monitoring. Further, protocols and a user interface to facilitate the description of development or abundance data (e.g., tree canopy development, animal abundance) create a robust ecological dataset. We demonstrate several types of questions that can be addressed with this observing

  1. The Climate Voices Speakers Network: Collaborating with Nontraditional, National Networks to Develop Climate Literacy on a Local Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegner, K.; Schmidt, C.; Herrin, S.

    2015-12-01

    How can we leverage the successes of the numerous organizations in the climate change communication arena to build momentum rather than reinvent the wheel? Over the past two years, Climate Voices (climatevoices.org) has established a network of nearly 400 speakers and established partnerships to scale programs that address climate change communication and community engagement. In this presentation, we will present how we have identified and fostered win-win partnerships with organizations, such as GreenFaith Interfaith Partners for the Environment and Rotary International, to reach the broader general public. We will also share how, by drawing on the resources from the National Climate Assessment and the expertise of our own community, we developed and provided our speakers the tools to provide their audiences access to basic climate science - contributing to each audience's ability to understand local impacts, make informed decisions, and gain the confidence to engage in solutions-based actions in response to climate change. We will also discuss how we have created webinar coaching presentations by speakers who aren't climate scientists- and why we have chosen to do so.

  2. Global monitoring of influenza: potential contribution of national networks from a French perspective.

    PubMed

    Flahault, Antoine

    2006-06-01

    The aim of global monitoring of influenza is to help decision making in regular seasonal influenza and in the case of a new pandemic. FluNet is the main tool for information sharing among the WHO Global Influenza Surveillance Network, as well as the public. It allows 112 WHO National Influenza Centers in 83 countries access to remote data entry. Weekly information on recent isolates and epidemiological situations are available to the public through many functionalities, for example, maps (animated or static), charts and raw data are embedded in the system for data display. Thus far, FluNet has collected weekly influenza surveillance data from up to 1997. A major outcome of this global network is the influenza vaccine composition, which is proposed twice a year (i.e., for both hemispheres) on the basis of the collected data. However, FluNet is far from performing comprehensive monitoring of influenza at a global level; 109 WHO member states still do not participate in the network and participating national influenza centers have only limited resources, which do not allow them to implement a reliable, accurate and real-time epidemiology of influenza in the areas they deserve. By following the time and space dynamics of an influenza strain, an epidemiologically valid system would make assessment of decisions after adopting preventive measures (e.g., closing schools, travel restriction, use of antivirals or of protective masks and mass immunization) possible. This international cooperation in public health fields must be considerably reinforced in the future, and should encourage database linkage with environmental information, allowing for the evaluation of the role of climate change, animal behavior or pollution involvement in disease. PMID:16771616

  3. Study of IDC infrasound REB solutions using Egyptian National Seismic Network data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Sherif M.; Polich, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Infrasound is one of three waveform technologies which are part of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification regime. The International Monitoring System (IMS) of the CTBT consists of 337 monitoring stations and laboratories world-wide. These facilities include 45 infrasound stations, installed world-wide and transmitting data to the International Data Centre (IDC). Since early 2010, the IDC began routine automatic and interactive processing of infrasound data; the detected and located events are systematically included in the Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB). Infrasound events are frequently characterized by a small number of infrasound phase associations. This poses a challenge to obtaining high-confidence event solutions during routine processing of infrasound data. This study focuses on six infragenic events from the REB, occurring between January 2011 and December 2014, which were thoroughly analyzed at the IDC. The selected events were characteristically seismo-acoustic, and corroborated by seismic recordings of the Egyptian National Seismic Network (ENSN) operated by the National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics (NRIAG). Utilizing this additional local network data of ENSN enables sharper assessment of the IDC published event solutions. Notably, the events were recorded within Egypt and regional surroundings where infrasound waves were generated. The events were detected by IMS infrasound stations located up to 7000 kilometers away. Additional analyses, beyond the six infragenic events from the REB, will also consider some valid infragenic events that fall short of stringent REB Event Definition Criteria. The events will primarily consist of two defining stations with lower-confidence event solutions. The selected events, when confirmed by the seismic observations at ENSN, provide a unique dataset for evaluating IDC infrasound event solutions. Further objectives of the study seek to measure the performance of the IMS network for

  4. Establishing a Canadian national clinical trials network for kidney disease: proceedings of a planning workshop.

    PubMed

    Rigatto, Claudio; Walsh, Michael; Zalunardo, Nadia; Clase, Catherine M; Manns, Braden J; Madore, François; Samuel, Susan M; Morgan, Catherine J; Wolfs, Wim; Suri, Rita S

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge generation through randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is critical to advance the medical evidence base, inform decision-making, and improve care and outcomes. Unfortunately, nephrology has typically lagged behind other medical specialties in this regard. The establishment of formal clinical trial networks can facilitate the successful conduct of RCTs and has significantly increased the number of RCTs performed worldwide in other medical specialties. No such formal network of nephrology trialists exists in Canada. On April 24, 2014, the Canadian Kidney Knowledge Translation and Generation Network (CANN-NET) Clinical Trials Committee held a stakeholder engagement meeting to address this gap and improve the nephrology clinical trial landscape in Canada. The meeting was held in Vancouver in association with the 2014 Canadian Society of Nephrology Annual General Meeting and was co-sponsored by the Kidney Foundation of Canada and CANN-NET. Attendees included nephrologists from university- and non-university-affiliated nephrology practices, administrators, and representatives from the Kidney Foundation of Canada. Through structured presentations and facilitated group discussions, the group explored the extent to which nephrology trials are currently happening in Canada, barriers to leading or participating in larger investigator-initiated trials, and strategies to improve clinical trial output in nephrology in Canada. The themes and action items arising from this meeting are discussed. PMID:26583070

  5. The National Network forTechnology Entrepreneurship and Commercialization (N2TEC): Bringing New Technologies to Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Kathleen

    2003-03-01

    N2TEC, the National Network for Technology Entrepreneurship and Commercialization, is a National Science Foundation "Partnerships for Innovation" initiative designed to raise the level of innovation and technology commercialization in colleges, universities, and communities across the nation. N2TEC is creating a network of people and institutions, and a set of technology tools that will facilitate the pooling of resources and knowledge and enable faculty and students to share those resources and collaborate without regard to geographic boundaries. N2TEC will become the backbone by which educational institutions across the nation can move their technologies into new venture startups. The ultimate goal is to create new wealth and strengthen local, regional and national economies.

  6. National Ecological Observatory Network's (NEON) future role in US carbon cycling and budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loescher, H. W.

    2015-12-01

    The US National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a National Science Foundation investment designed to observe the impacts of large-scale environment changes on the nation's ecosystems for 30 years with rigorous consistency. NEON does this through the construction (and operations) of new physical infrastructure and data infrastructure distributed across the North American Continent. This includes 47 terrestrial and 32 aquatic sites. Key to its design is its ability to provide ecosystem-scale carbon measurements of carbon stores, fluxes, processes—and the means to scale them from the local-to regional scales via remote sensed aircraft. NEON design NEON will be collecting these carbon data as a facility and providing openly providing them. NEON will not preform any high-level synthesis, rather the carbon data is an open resource for research, private and public communities, alike. Overall, these data are also harmonized with other international carbon-based infrastructures to facilitate cross-continental understanding and global carbon syntheses. Products, engagement and harmonization of data to facilitate syntheses will be discussed.

  7. Hydrogeochemistry of the shallow dutch groundwater: Interpretation of the National Groundwater Quality Monitoring Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frapporti, G.; Vriend, P.; Van Gaans, P. F. M.

    1993-09-01

    Since 1979 the Dutch National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM) has been developing the Dutch Groundwater Quality Monitoring Network (LMG). This network presently consists of about 350 monitoring sites. At each site, well screens are placed at two depths: 10 and 25 m below surface level. Samples are collected every year and are analyzed for all macrochemical parameters and some trace elements. Tritium contents were measured in the first sampling round. The geochemistry of Dutch groundwater is complex, due to the different sources (seawater, surface water and rainwater), complicated hydrogeology, and human impact on flow systems and pollution. Structuring or data analysis is required for the interpretation of the large number of hydrogeochemical data from such a monitoring network. An exploratory approach is to look within the data set for homogeneous groups, each with a typical (macro)chemistry. The selection criteria for the location of the monitoring sites of the LMG are mainly based on soil type and land use, and to some extent on the hydrogeological situation. However, a classification based on the two most reliable criteria, soil type and land use, does not result in chemically distinguishable homogeneous groups or water types. Fuzzy c means clustering was successfully used to discern structure and natural groups in the LMG data for 1 year. A seven-cluster model was adopted. The number of clusters was decided heuristically with the aid of nonlinear mapping, on the basis of the geographic distribution, the hydrogeochemical interpretability, and the unimodality of the distribution of the parameters per cluster. The consistency of the model is illustrated by the reproducibility of the clusters in different years. The clusters are related to geochemical processes, natural sources, and anthropogenic input and are designated as follows: (1) "seawater" in coastal areas, (2) "desalinization" in organic-rich Holocene marine and peat

  8. External quality-assurance results for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network during 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nilles, M.A.; Gordon, J.D.; Schroder, L.J.; Paulin, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey used four programs in 1991 to provide external quality assurance for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). An intersite-comparison program was used to evaluate onsite pH and specific-conductance determinations. The effects of routine sample handling, processing, and shipping of wet-deposition samples on analyte determinations and an estimated precision of analyte values and concentrations were evaluated in the blind-audit program. Differences between analytical results and an estimate of the analytical precision of four laboratories routinely measuring wet deposition were determined by an interlaboratory-comparison program. Overall precision estimates for the precipitation-monitoring system were determined for selected sites by a collocated-sampler program. Results of the intersite-comparison program indicated that 93 and 86 percent of the site operators met the NADP/NTN accuracy goal for pH determinations during the two intersite-comparison studies completed during 1991. The results also indicated that 96 and 97 percent of the site operators met the NADP/NTN accuracy goal for specific-conductance determinations during the two 1991 studies. The effects of routine sample handling, processing, and shipping, determined in the blind-audit program indicated significant positive bias (a=.O 1) for calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, nitrate, and sulfate. Significant negative bias (or=.01) was determined for hydrogen ion and specific conductance. Only ammonium determinations were not biased. A Kruskal-Wallis test indicated that there were no significant (*3t=.01) differences in analytical results from the four laboratories participating in the interlaboratory-comparison program. Results from the collocated-sampler program indicated the median relative error for cation concentration and deposition exceeded eight percent at most sites, whereas the median relative error for sample volume

  9. External quality-assurance results for the national atmospheric deposition program/national trends network, 2000-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Latysh, Natalie E.; Gordon, John D.

    2004-01-01

    Five external quality-assurance programs were operated by the U.S. Geological Survey for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) from 2000 through 2001 (study period): the intersite-comparison program, the blind-audit program, the field-audit program, the interlaboratory-comparison program, and the collocated-sampler program. Each program is designed to measure specific components of the total error inherent in NADP/NTN wet-deposition measurements. The intersite-comparison program assesses the variability and bias of pH and specific-conductance determinations made by NADP/NTN site operators with respect to accuracy goals. The accuracy goals are statistically based using the median of all of the measurements obtained for each of four intersite-comparison studies. The percentage of site operators responding on time that met the pH accuracy goals ranged from 84.2 to 90.5 percent. In these same four intersite-comparison studies, 88.9 to 99.0 percent of the site operators met the accuracy goals for specific conductance. The blind-audit program evaluates the effects of routine sample handling, processing, and shipping on the chemistry of weekly precipitation samples. The blind-audit data for the study period indicate that sample handling introduced a small amount of sulfate contamination and slight changes to hydrogen-ion content of the precipitation samples. The magnitudes of the paired differences are not environmentally significant to NADP/NTN data users. The field-audit program (also known as the 'field-blank program') was designed to measure the effects of field exposure, handling, and processing on the chemistry of NADP/NTN precipitation samples. The results indicate potential low-level contamination of NADP/NTN samples with calcium, ammonium, chloride, and nitrate. Less sodium contamination was detected by the field-audit data than in previous years. Statistical analysis of the paired differences shows that contaminant ions

  10. Performance enhancements of the CMCC"s national mesh network using the intelligent optical cross-connect switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Qian; Xu, Rong; Lin, JinTong L.

    2004-04-01

    In the last five years, the traffic growth rate in China has been extremely fast. By 2005, the number of wired telephone customers is estimated to reach 220 to 260 million, while the number of expected cellular customers will reach 260 to 290 million. To meet these challenges, we will continue evolving with more wavelengths and higher speed. By evolving point-to-point WDM systems to OTN/ASON systems, we can eliminate the throughput bottleneck of network nodes caused by electronics, provide optical-layer bandwidth- management capability, provide scalability (which allows continuous traffic growth and network expansion), and provide reconfigurability (which allows semi-dynamic and dynamic optical networking). We can also simplify and speed up provisioning of high-speed circuits and services and offer fast network protection and restoration on the order of tens or hundreds of milliseconds to guarantee excellent network and service survivability. The CMCC (China Mobile Communication Company) will build its OTN network towards the ASON. The CMCC"s long-haul national network utilizing OXC has clearly becomes an intelligent network. It offers end-to-end point-and-click provisioning, shared mesh restoration with a few tens to a couple of hundred msec restoration times, re-provisioning of connections in the event of double failures and network capacity that is not optimally used. In this paper, first we present the CMCC network situation, The network planning tool will be introduced, Then we compare ring with mesh solution in terms of the cost, network performance, protection and restoration, network re-optimization. At last we derive a desired conclusion.

  11. A National Network to Advance the Field of Cancer and Female Sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Goldfarb, Shari B.; Abramsohn, Emily; Andersen, Barbara L.; Baron, Shirley R.; Carter, Jeanne; Dickler, Maura; Florendo, Judith; Freeman, Leslie; Githens, Katherine; Kushner, David; Makelarski, Jennifer A.; Yamada, Diane; Lindau, Stacy Tessler

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Understanding sexual health issues in cancer patients is integral to care for the continuously growing cancer survivor population. Aim To create a national network of active clinicians and researchers focusing on the prevention and treatment of sexual problems in woman and girls with cancer. Methods Interdisciplinary teams from the University of Chicago and Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center jointly developed the mission for a national conference to convene clinicians and researchers in the field of cancer and female sexuality. The invitee list was developed by both institutions and further iterated through suggestions from invitees. The conference agenda focused on three high-priority topics under the guidance of a professional facilitator. Breakout groups were led by attendees recognized by collaborators as experts in those topics. Conference costs were shared by both institutions. Main Outcome Measure Development of Scientific Working Groups (SWGs) Results One hundred two clinicians and researchers were invited to attend the 1st National Conference on Cancer and Female Sexuality. Forty-three individuals from 20 different institutions across 14 states attended, including representation from eight NCI-funded cancer centers. Attendees included PhD researchers (n=19), physicians (n=16), and other health care professionals (n=8). Breakout groups included: 1) Defining Key Life Course Sexuality Issues; 2) Building a Registry; and 3) Implementing Sexual Health Assessment. Breakout group summaries incorporated group consensus on key points and priorities. These generated six SWGs with volunteer leaders to accelerate future research and discovery: 1) Technology-Based Interventions; 2) Basic Science; 3) Clinical Trials; 4) Registries; 5) Measurement; and 6) Secondary Data Analysis. Most attendees volunteered for at least one SWG (n=35), and many volunteered for two (n=21). Conclusion This 1st National Conference demonstrated high motivation and broad

  12. Information system evolution at the French National Network of Seismic Survey (BCSF-RENASS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engels, F.; Grunberg, M.

    2013-12-01

    The aging information system of the French National Network of Seismic Survey (BCSF-RENASS), located in Strasbourg (EOST), needed to be updated to satisfy new practices from Computer science world. The latter means to evolve our system at different levels : development method, datamining solutions, system administration. The new system had to provide more agility for incoming projects. The main difficulty was to maintain old system and the new one in parallel the time to validate new solutions with a restricted team. Solutions adopted here are coming from standards used by the seismological community and inspired by the state of the art of devops community. The new system is easier to maintain and take advantage of large community to find support. This poster introduces the new system and choosen solutions like Puppet, Fabric, MongoDB and FDSN Webservices.

  13. The National Ecological Observatory Network's Atmospheric and Terrestrial Instrumentation: Quality Control Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J. R.; Luo, H.; Ayres, E.; Metzger, S. R.; Loescher, H. W.

    2012-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network's Fundamental Instrument Unit (NEON-FIU) is responsible for making automated terrestrial observations at 60 different sites across the continent. FIU will provide data on key local physical, chemical, and climate forcing, as well as associated biotic responses (CO2, H2O, and energy exchanges). The sheer volume of data that will be generated far exceeds that of any other observatory network or agency, (i.e., > 45 Tb/year from 10's of thousands of remotely deployed sensors). We address the question of how to develop and implement a large ecological observatory that can accommodate such a large volume of data while maintaining high quality. Here, we describe our quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) program to produce quality data while leveraging cyber infrastructure tools and optimizing technician time. Results focus on novel approaches that advance the quality control techniques that have been historically employed in other networks (DOE-ARM, AmeriFlux, USDA ARS, OK Mesonet) to new state-of-the-art functionality. These automated and semi-automated approaches are also used to inform automated problem tracking to efficiently deploy field staff. Ultimately, NEON will define its own standards for QA/QC and maintenance by building upon these existing frameworks. The overarching philosophy relies on attaining the highest levels of accuracy, precision, and operational time, while efficiently optimizing the effort needed to produce quality data products. Our preliminary results address the challenges associated with automated implementation of sensor command/control, plausibility testing, despiking, and data verification of FIU observations.

  14. The Engineering Strong Ground Motion Network of the National Autonomous University of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco Miranda, J. M.; Ramirez-Guzman, L.; Aguilar Calderon, L. A.; Almora Mata, D.; Ayala Hernandez, M.; Castro Parra, G.; Molina Avila, I.; Mora, A.; Torres Noguez, M.; Vazquez Larquet, R.

    2014-12-01

    The coverage, design, operation and monitoring capabilities of the strong ground motion program at the Institute of Engineering (IE) of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) is presented. Started in 1952, the seismic instrumentation intended initially to bolster earthquake engineering projects in Mexico City has evolved into the largest strong ground motion monitoring system in the region. Today, it provides information not only to engineering projects, but also to the near real-time risk mitigation systems of the country, and enhances the general understanding of the effects and causes of earthquakes in Mexico. The IE network includes more than 100 free-field stations and several buildings, covering the largest urban centers and zones of significant seismicity in Central Mexico. Of those stations, approximately one-fourth send the observed acceleration to a processing center in Mexico City continuously, and the rest require either periodic visits for the manual recovery of the data or remote interrogation, for later processing and cataloging. In this research, we document the procedures and telecommunications systems used systematically to recover information. Additionally, we analyze the spatial distribution of the free-field accelerographs, the quality of the instrumentation, and the recorded ground motions. The evaluation criteria are based on the: 1) uncertainty in the generation of ground motion parameter maps due to the spatial distribution of the stations, 2) potential of the array to provide localization and magnitude estimates for earthquakes with magnitudes greater than Mw 5, and 3) adequacy of the network for the development of Ground Motion Prediction Equations due to intra-plate and intra-slab earthquakes. We conclude that the monitoring system requires a new redistribution, additional stations, and a substantial improvement in the instrumentation and telecommunications. Finally, we present an integral plan to improve the current network

  15. Meteorology and hydrology in Yosemite National Park: A sensor network application

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lundquist, J.D.; Cayan, D.R.; Dettinger, M.D.

    2003-01-01

    Over half of California's water supply comes from high elevations in the snowmelt-dominated Sierra Nevada. Natural climate fluctuations, global warming, and the growing needs of water consumers demand intelligent management of this water resource. This requires a comprehensive monitoring system across and within the Sierra Nevada. Unfortunately, because of severe terrain and limited access, few measurements exist. Thus, meteorological and hydrologic processes are not well understood at high altitudes. However, new sensor and wireless communication technologies are beginning to provide sensor packages designed for low maintenance operation, low power consumption and unobtrusive footprints. A prototype network of meteorological and hydrological sensors has been deployed in Yosemite National Park, traversing elevation zones from 1,200 to 3,700 m. Communication techniques must be tailored to suit each location, resulting in a hybrid network of radio, cell-phone, land-line, and satellite transmissions. Results are showing how, in some years, snowmelt may occur quite uniformly over the Sierra, while in others it varies with elevation. ?? Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003.

  16. Low-Cost, Robust, Threat-Aware Wireless Sensor Network for Assuring the Nation's Energy Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Carols H. Rentel

    2007-03-31

    Eaton, in partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has completed a project that applies a combination of wireless sensor network (WSN) technology, anticipatory theory, and a near-term value proposition based on diagnostics and process uptime to ensure the security and reliability of critical electrical power infrastructure. Representatives of several Eaton business units have been engaged to ensure a viable commercialization plan. Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), American Electric Power (AEP), PEPCO, and Commonwealth Edison were recruited as partners to confirm and refine the requirements definition from the perspective of the utilities that actually operate the facilities to be protected. Those utilities have cooperated with on-site field tests as the project proceeds. Accomplishments of this project included: (1) the design, modeling, and simulation of the anticipatory wireless sensor network (A-WSN) that will be used to gather field information for the anticipatory application, (2) the design and implementation of hardware and software prototypes for laboratory and field experimentation, (3) stack and application integration, (4) develop installation and test plan, and (5) refinement of the commercialization plan.

  17. SANDS: A Service-Oriented Architecture for Clinical Decision Support in a National Health Information Network

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Adam; Sittig, Dean F.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we describe and evaluate a new distributed architecture for clinical decision support called SANDS (Service-oriented Architecture for NHIN Decision Support), which leverages current health information exchange efforts and is based on the principles of a service-oriented architecture. The architecture allows disparate clinical information systems and clinical decision support systems to be seamlessly integrated over a network according to a set of interfaces and protocols described in this paper. The architecture described is fully defined and developed, and six use cases have been developed and tested using a prototype electronic health record which links to one of the existing prototype National Health Information Networks (NHIN): drug interaction checking, syndromic surveillance, diagnostic decision support, inappropriate prescribing in older adults, information at the point of care and a simple personal health record. Some of these use cases utilize existing decision support systems, which are either commercially or freely available at present, and developed outside of the SANDS project, while other use cases are based on decision support systems developed specifically for the project. Open source code for many of these components is available, and an open source reference parser is also available for comparison and testing of other clinical information systems and clinical decision support systems that wish to implement the SANDS architecture. PMID:18434256

  18. SANDS: a service-oriented architecture for clinical decision support in a National Health Information Network.

    PubMed

    Wright, Adam; Sittig, Dean F

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we describe and evaluate a new distributed architecture for clinical decision support called SANDS (Service-oriented Architecture for NHIN Decision Support), which leverages current health information exchange efforts and is based on the principles of a service-oriented architecture. The architecture allows disparate clinical information systems and clinical decision support systems to be seamlessly integrated over a network according to a set of interfaces and protocols described in this paper. The architecture described is fully defined and developed, and six use cases have been developed and tested using a prototype electronic health record which links to one of the existing prototype National Health Information Networks (NHIN): drug interaction checking, syndromic surveillance, diagnostic decision support, inappropriate prescribing in older adults, information at the point of care and a simple personal health record. Some of these use cases utilize existing decision support systems, which are either commercially or freely available at present, and developed outside of the SANDS project, while other use cases are based on decision support systems developed specifically for the project. Open source code for many of these components is available, and an open source reference parser is also available for comparison and testing of other clinical information systems and clinical decision support systems that wish to implement the SANDS architecture. The SANDS architecture for decision support has several significant advantages over other architectures for clinical decision support. The most salient of these are: PMID:18434256

  19. Nitrogen impacts on vascular plants in Britain: an analysis of two national observation networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henrys, P. A.; Stevens, C. J.; Smart, S. M.; Maskell, L. C.; Walker, K. J.; Preston, C. D.; Crowe, A.; Rowe, E.; Gowing, D. J.; Emmett, B. A.

    2011-07-01

    Large areas of the United Kingdom currently have nitrogen (N) deposition at rates which exceed the thresholds above which there is risk of damage to sensitive components of the ecosystem (critical loads), and are predicted to continue to do so. Previous studies have shown that this excess N can be very damaging to semi-natural ecosystems. However, such studies have focussed primarily on the relationship of species richness to nitrogen, possibly missing the risk that increased deposition can have on individual plant species. To address this gap in knowledge, we used data from two national observation networks over Great Britain: the vascular plant database and the Botanical Society of the British Isles local change network to examine the response of individual vascular plant species to nitrogen in acid grasslands, calcareous grasslands and heathlands. Presence absence records of individual species, along with mean Ellenberg scores, within 10 km hectads were modelled against N deposition whilst at the same time controlling for the effects of climate, land use and sulphur deposition using generalised additive models. Ellenberg N showed a significant increase with increasing N deposition in almost all habitats across both surveys. Many individual species showed strong relationships with N deposition and clear negative trends in species prevalence to increasing nitrogen were found in all habitats. Species that showed negative relationships to N showed signs of decline at low levels, far below the current critical load levels.

  20. The collaborative experience of creating the National Capital Region Disease Surveillance Network.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Sheri H; Holtry, Rekha S; Loschen, Wayne A; Wojcik, Richard; Hung, Lang; Lombardo, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) implemented state and district surveillance nodes in a central aggregated node in the National Capital Region (NCR). Within this network, de-identified health information is integrated with other indicator data and is made available to local and state health departments for enhanced disease surveillance. Aggregated data made available to the central node enable public health practitioners to observe abnormal behavior of health indicators spanning jurisdictions and view geographical spread of outbreaks across regions.Forming a steering committee, the NCR Enhanced Surveillance Operating Group (ESOG), was key to overcoming several data-sharing issues. The committee was composed of epidemiologists and key public health practitioners from the 3 jurisdictions. The ESOG facilitated early system development and signing of the cross-jurisdictional data-sharing agreement. This agreement was the first of its kind at the time and provided the legal foundation for sharing aggregated health information across state/district boundaries for electronic disease surveillance.Electronic surveillance system for the early notification of community-based epidemics provides NCR users with a comprehensive regional view to ascertain the spread of disease, estimate resource needs, and implement control measures. This article aims to describe the creation of the NCR Disease Surveillance Network as an exceptional example of cooperation and potential that exists for regional surveillance activities. PMID:21464687

  1. What are entrepreneurial dietitians charging? The Consulting Dietitians Network National Fee Survey.

    PubMed

    Davison, Karen; Mor, Anet; Charlebois, Helene

    2004-01-01

    To respond to a need to develop a national fee guideline, the Consulting Dietitians Network conducted a membership fee survey. A questionnaire requesting fee information for various nutrition consulting services was distributed to members as an insert with the Consulting Dietitians Network quarterly newsletter and by electronic mail. The response rate was 38.4% (98 respondents) and most respondents (74.5%) had urban practices. The most frequently charged fees (mode) for individual counselling ($75/hour), industry and commercial firm consultations ($150/hour), group facilitation ($150/hour), and media consultations ($150/article) were highest in the region of Ontario, Quebec, and the Atlantic provinces. The most frequently charged fees (mode) for home visits ($100/hour), writing for newspapers ($250/hour), and menu reviews ($60/hour) were highest in the region of Saskatchewan and Manitoba. The minimum and maximum fees were significantly different for the three regions (Ontario, Quebec, and the Atlantic provinces; Manitoba and Saskatchewan; and Alberta, British Columbia, and Yukon Territory) studied for initial client consultations, industry and commercial firm consultations, and menu reviews (p<0.05). For home visits, teaching in an institution, seminar presentations, group facilitation, media consultations, and writing media articles, the differences in the minimum and maximum fees charged were highly significant (p<0.001). Entrepreneurial dietitians may use these data as a reference to establish and negotiate consultation fees. PMID:15596038

  2. Transfer of telemedical support to Cornwall from a national telemedicine network during a solar eclipse.

    PubMed

    Wootton, R; McKelvey, A; McNicholl, B; Loane, M; Hore, D; Howarth, P; Tachakra, S; Rocke, L; Martin, J; Page, G; Ferguson, J; Chambers, D; Hassan, H

    2000-01-01

    During late 1998 and early 1999, planning officers in Cornwall predicted a huge increase in summer visitors to the county to observe the August solar eclipse. There was the possibility that a mass gathering in Cornwall could overload existing arrangements for handling accident and emergency patients. We therefore set up a telemedicine system to support the county's minor injury units (MIUs) from hospitals throughout the UK. Six main hospital accident and emergency departments outside Cornwall with existing links to their own MIUs were twinned with 10 of the 11 MIUs in Cornwall before the expected date of the gathering. The network was live for nine days, starting four days before the eclipse, and 2045 patients were seen in the 10 MIUs. There were 93 telemedicine calls from the 10 MIUs, involving 91 patients. Overall, 4.6% of the patients required a telemedicine consultation. Fifty-seven calls were made during working hours. Thirty-four patients were referred for further management, of whom 18 were referred on the same day. The transfer of telemedical support to a national network was successful. PMID:10794014

  3. Drug-drug Interaction Discovery Using Abstraction Networks for “National Drug File – Reference Terminology” Chemical Ingredients

    PubMed Central

    Ochs, Christopher; Zheng, Ling; Gu, Huanying; Perl, Yehoshua; Geller, James; Kapusnik-Uner, Joan; Zakharchenko, Aleksandr

    2015-01-01

    The National Drug File – Reference Terminology (NDF-RT) is a large and complex drug terminology. NDF-RT provides important information about clinical drugs, e.g., their chemical ingredients, mechanisms of action, dosage form and physiological effects. Within NDF-RT such information is represented using tens of thousands of roles. It is difficult to comprehend large, complex terminologies like NDF-RT. In previous studies, we introduced abstraction networks to summarize the content and structure of terminologies. In this paper, we introduce the Ingredient Abstraction Network to summarize NDF-RT’s Chemical Ingredients and their associated drugs. Additionally, we introduce the Aggregate Ingredient Abstraction Network, for controlling the granularity of summarization provided by the Ingredient Abstraction Network. The Ingredient Abstraction Network is used to support the discovery of new candidate drug-drug interactions (DDIs) not appearing in First Databank, Inc.’s DDI knowledgebase. PMID:26958234

  4. Guideline-defining asthma clinical trials of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Asthma Clinical Research Network and Childhood Asthma Research and Education Network.

    PubMed

    Denlinger, Loren C; Sorkness, Christine A; Chinchilli, Vernon M; Lemanske, Robert F

    2007-01-01

    Because of an increasing prevalence, morbidity, and mortality associated with asthma, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute created the Asthma Clinical Research Network and the Childhood Asthma Research and Education Network to improve public health. The objectives of these clinical research networks are to conduct multiple, well-designed clinical trials for rapid evaluation of new and existing therapeutic approaches to asthma and to disseminate laboratory and clinical findings to the health care community. These trials comprise a large proportion of the data driving the treatment guidelines established and reviewed by the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program. This article will review the basic design and major findings of selected Asthma Clinical Research Network and Childhood Asthma Research and Education Network trials involving both adults and children with asthma. Collectively, these studies have helped refine the therapeutic role of existing controller medications, establish standard models for side-effect evaluation and risk-benefit models, validate symptom-based assessments for asthma control, and identify baseline characteristics that might predict individual patient responses. Remaining challenges include shaping the role of novel therapeutics in future guidelines, incorporating pharmacogenomic data in treatment decisions, and establishing better implementation strategies for translation to community settings, all with the goal of reducing the asthma burden on society. PMID:17141853

  5. INTERIM REPORT: QUALITY ASSURANCE SUPPORT FOR THE NATIONAL ASMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION PROGRAM AND NATIONAL TRENDS NETWORK MONITORING ACTIVITIES: 1987-1990

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the quality assurance activities of the NADP/NTN network from mid-1987 through mid-1988. The report presents some accomplishments and makes recommendations for the network. The report discusses data quality issues relating to site representativeness, field ...

  6. Reference values of lead in blood and related factors among Korean adolescents: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2013

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Min-Gyu; Park, Mi-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to assess the reference values and factors influencing blood lead levels among Korean adolescents. Methods The study population consisted of 1,585 adolescents (801 males, 784 females; aged 10-19 years) who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2013. We analyzed blood lead concentrations in relation to demographic/lifestyle characteristics for all participants. "Reference values" of blood lead levels were calculated as the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval of the 95th percentile. Results The average "reference value" for blood lead concentrations among Korean adolescents was 2.25 µg/dL (2.49 µg/dL for males, 2.07 µg/dL for females), and the geometric mean of the blood lead concentrations was 1.34 µg/dL. Males had higher blood lead concentrations than females (male, 1.48 µg/dL; female, 1.19 µg/dL; P<0.001). Elementary school students had higher blood lead concentrations than junior and senior high school students (1.44 µg/dL vs. 1.31 µg/dL, P<0.001). Participants living in detached houses had higher blood lead concentrations than those living in apartments (P<0.001) and current smokers had higher concentrations than nonsmokers or participants with secondhand smoke exposure (P<0.05). Additionally, participants with excessive alcohol consumption had higher levels than non-drinkers (P<0.001). Conclusion This study provides national reference data on blood lead concentrations stratified by demographic and lifestyle factors among Korean adolescents. Further studies are needed to elucidate the relationship between increased lead exposure and demographic factors including type of housing. PMID:27186217

  7. Water-quality data collected to determine the presence, source, and concentration of lead in the drinking water supply at Pipe Spring National Monument, northern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Macy, Jamie P.; Sharrow, David; Unema, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Pipe Spring National Monument in northern Arizona contains historically significant springs. The groundwater source of these springs is the same aquifer that presently is an important source of drinking water for the Pipe Spring National Monument facilities, the Kaibab Paiute Tribe, and the community of Moccasin. The Kaibab Paiute Tribe monitored lead concentrations from 2004 to 2009; some of the analytical results exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency action level for treatment technique for lead of 15 parts per billion. The National Park Service and the Kaibab Paiute Tribe were concerned that the local groundwater system that provides the domestic water supply might be contaminated with lead. Lead concentrations in water samples collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from three springs, five wells, two water storage tanks, and one faucet were less than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency action level for treatment technique. Lead concentrations of rock samples representative of the rock units in which the local groundwater resides were less than 22 parts per million.

  8. Treatment Programs in the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network

    PubMed Central

    McCarty, Dennis; Fuller, Bret; Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Wendt, William W.; Nunes, Edward V.; Miller, Michael; Forman, Robert; Magruder, Kathryn M.; Arfken, Cynthia; Copersino, Marc; Floyd, Anthony; Sindelar, Jody; Edmundson, Eldon

    2008-01-01

    Drug abuse treatment programs and university-based research centers collaborate to test emerging therapies for alcohol and drug disorders in the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN). Programs participating in the CTN completed organizational (n = 106 of 112; 95% response rate) and treatment unit surveys (n = 348 of 384; 91% response rate) to describe the levels of care, ancillary services, patient demographics, patient drug use and co-occurring conditions. Analyses describe the corporations participating in the CTN and provide an exploratory assessment of variation in treatment philosophies. A diversity of treatment centers participate in the CTN; not for profit organizations with a primary mission of treating alcohol and drug disorders dominate. Compared to N-SSATS (National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services), programs located in medical settings are over-represented and centers that are mental health clinics are under-represented. Outpatient, methadone, long-term residential and inpatient treatment units differed on patients served and services proved. Larger programs with higher counselor caseloads in residential settings reported more social model characteristics. Programs with higher social model scores were more likely to offer self-help meetings, vocational services and specialized services for women. Conversely, programs with accreditation had less social model influence. The CTN is an ambitious effort to engage community-based treatment organizations into research and more fully integrate research and practice. PMID:17875368

  9. [Optimising care structures for severe hand trauma and replantation and chances of launching a national network].

    PubMed

    Haas, E M; Volkmer, E; Holzbach, T; Wallmichrath, J; Engelhardt, T O; Giunta, R E

    2013-12-01

    Severe hand traumata have a significant impact on our health system and on insurance companies, respectively. It is estimated that 33% of all occupational injuries and 9% of all invalidity pensions are due to severe hand trauma. Unfortunately, these high numbers are not only due to the severity of the trauma but to organisational deficiencies. Usually, the patient is treated at the general surgical emergency in the first place and only then forwarded to a microsurgeon. This redirection increases the time that is required for the patient to finally arrive at an expert for hand surgery. On the one hand, this problem can be explained by the population's lack of awareness for distinguished experts for hand and microsurgery, on the other hand, the emergency network, or emergency doctors in particular are not well informed about where to take a patient with a severe hand trauma - clearly a problem of communication between the hospitals and the ambulance. It is possible to tackle this problem, but put participating hand trauma centres have to work hand in hand as a network and thus exploit synergy effects. The French system "FESUM" is a good example for such a network and even comprises centres in Belgium and Switzerland. To improve the treatment of severe hand trauma, a similar alliance was initiated in Germany just recently. The pilot project "Hand Trauma Alliance" (www.handverletzung.com) was started in April 2013 and currently comprises two hospitals within the region of upper Bavaria. The network provides hand trauma replantation service on a 24/7 basis and aims at shortening the way from the accident site to the fully qualified hand surgeon, to improve the therapy of severe hand injuries and to optimise acute patient care in general. In order to further increase the alliance's impact it is intended to extend the project's scope from regional to national coverage - nevertheless, such an endeavour can only be done in collaboration with the German Society for Hand

  10. 40 CFR Appendix R to Part 50 - Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Pb-PM 10 Data as Surrogate Pb-TSP Data. (a) As stipulated in section 2.10 of Appendix C to 40 CFR... Air Quality Standards for Lead R Appendix R to Part 50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Lead 1. General. (a) This appendix explains the data handling conventions and computations...

  11. SREB States Remain on Top in the Number of Teachers Achieving National Board Certification. Challenge to Lead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Jenny, Comp.

    2006-01-01

    How is it known if states are making progress toward having a qualified teacher in every classroom? One indicator of progress in the Southern Regional Education Board's (SREB) "Challenge to Lead" Goals for Education is when: "Licensure and certification focus on performance and lead to sufficient numbers of teachers with content knowledge and…

  12. 40 CFR Appendix R to Part 50 - Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Pb-PM 10 Data as Surrogate Pb-TSP Data. (a) As stipulated in section 2.10 of Appendix C to 40 CFR... Air Quality Standards for Lead R Appendix R to Part 50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Lead 1. General. (a) This appendix explains the data handling conventions and computations...

  13. How Structured Is the Entangled Bank? The Surprisingly Simple Organization of Multiplex Ecological Networks Leads to Increased Persistence and Resilience.

    PubMed

    Kéfi, Sonia; Miele, Vincent; Wieters, Evie A; Navarrete, Sergio A; Berlow, Eric L

    2016-08-01

    Species are linked to each other by a myriad of positive and negative interactions. This complex spectrum of interactions constitutes a network of links that mediates ecological communities' response to perturbations, such as exploitation and climate change. In the last decades, there have been great advances in the study of intricate ecological networks. We have, nonetheless, lacked both the data and the tools to more rigorously understand the patterning of multiple interaction types between species (i.e., "multiplex networks"), as well as their consequences for community dynamics. Using network statistical modeling applied to a comprehensive ecological network, which includes trophic and diverse non-trophic links, we provide a first glimpse at what the full "entangled bank" of species looks like. The community exhibits clear multidimensional structure, which is taxonomically coherent and broadly predictable from species traits. Moreover, dynamic simulations suggest that this non-random patterning of how diverse non-trophic interactions map onto the food web could allow for higher species persistence and higher total biomass than expected by chance and tends to promote a higher robustness to extinctions. PMID:27487303

  14. Incorporating Animals in Phenological Assessments: USA National Phenology Network Methods to Observe Animal Phenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller-Rushing, A. J.; Weltzin, J. F.

    2009-12-01

    Many assessments of phenology, particularly those operating at large scales, focus on the phenology of plants, in part because of the relevance of plants in cycles of leaf greening and browning that are visible from satellite-based remote sensing, and because plants contribute significantly to global and regional biogeochemical cycles. The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN), a consortium of individuals, agencies, and organizations, promotes integrated assessments of both plant and animal phenology. The network is currently developing standard methods to add animal phenology to existing assessments of plant phenology. The first phase will of the standard methods will be implemented online in spring 2010. The methods for observing animals will be similar to the standard methods for making on-the-ground observations of plants—observers will be asked to monitor a fixed location regularly throughout the year. During each visit, observers will answer a series of “yes-no” questions that address the phenological state of the species of interest: Is the species present? Is it mating? Is it feeding? And so on. We are currently testing this method in several national parks in the northeastern United States, including Acadia National Park and the Appalachian Trail. By collecting new observations of this sort for a range of animals—amphibians, birds, fish, insects, mammals, and reptiles—we will greatly increase the ability of scientists and natural resource managers to understand how temporal relationships among these species and the plants on which they depend may be changing. To bolster the data available, we are collaborating with existing monitoring programs to develop common monitoring techniques, data sharing technologies, and visualizations. We are also beginning to collect legacy datasets, such as one from North American Bird Phenology Program that includes 90 years of observations of bird migration times from across the continent. We believe that

  15. Development of Resource Sharing Networks. Study No. 2. BIBDATA Network: A Draft Proposal for an Australian National Shared Cataloguing System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Library of Australia, Canberra.

    The Australian National Library has responsibility for the development of bibliographic services in Australia. This study is a draft document designed to facilitate discussion of the concept of a national bibliographic support system. It considers the feasibility of a national on-line cataloging system to reduce costs and provide output products.…

  16. What is the National Geothermal Data System (NGDS)? Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

    2012-09-03

    Overview of the National Geothermal Data System, a distributed, interoperable network of data repositories and state geological service providers from across the U.S. and the nation's leading academic geothermal centers.

  17. External quality-assurance results for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Latysh, Natalie E.; Burke, Kevin P.

    2005-01-01

    Six external quality-assurance programs were operated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) External Quality-Assurance (QA) Project for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) from 2002 through 2003. Each program measured specific components of the overall error inherent in NADP/NTN wet-deposition measurements. The intersite-comparison program assessed the variability and bias of pH and specific conductance determinations made by NADP/NTN site operators twice per year with respect to accuracy goals. The percentage of site operators that met the pH accuracy goals decreased from 92.0 percent in spring 2002 to 86.3 percent in spring 2003. In these same four intersite-comparison studies, the percentage of site operators that met the accuracy goals for specific conductance ranged from 94.4 to 97.5 percent. The blind-audit program and the sample-handling evaluation (SHE) program evaluated the effects of routine sample handling, processing, and shipping on the chemistry of weekly NADP/NTN samples. The blind-audit program data indicated that the variability introduced by sample handling might be environmentally significant to data users for sodium, potassium, chloride, and hydrogen ion concentrations during 2002. In 2003, the blind-audit program was modified and replaced by the SHE program. The SHE program was designed to control the effects of laboratory-analysis variability. The 2003 SHE data had less overall variability than the 2002 blind-audit data. The SHE data indicated that sample handling buffers the pH of the precipitation samples and, in turn, results in slightly lower conductivity. Otherwise, the SHE data provided error estimates that were not environmentally significant to data users. The field-audit program was designed to evaluate the effects of onsite exposure, sample handling, and shipping on the chemistry of NADP/NTN precipitation samples. Field-audit results indicated that exposure of NADP/NTN wet-deposition samples

  18. The Structure of Male Adolescent Peer Networks and Risk for Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration: Findings from a National Sample

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Erin A.; Beadnell, Blair

    2015-01-01

    Although peer networks have been implicated as influential in a range of adolescent behaviors, little is known about relationships between peer network structures and risk for intimate partner violence (IPV) among youth. This study is a descriptive analysis of how peer network “types” may be related to subsequent risk for IPV perpetration among adolescents using data from 3,030 male respondents to the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Sampled youth were a mean of 16 years of age when surveyed about the nature of their peer networks, and 21.9 when asked to report about IPV perpetration in their adolescent and early adulthood relationships. A latent class analysis of the size, structure, gender composition and delinquency level of friendship groups identified four unique profiles of peer network structures. Men in the group type characterized by small, dense, mostly male peer networks with higher levels of delinquent behavior reported higher rates of subsequent IPV perpetration than men whose adolescent network type was characterized by large, loosely connected groups of less delinquent male and female friends. Other factors known to be antecedents and correlates of IPV perpetration varied in their distribution across the peer group types, suggesting that different configurations of risk for relationship aggression can be found across peer networks. Implications for prevention programming and future research are addressed. PMID:20422351

  19. Dissolution, transport, and fate of lead on a shooting range in the Jefferson National Forest near Blacksburg, VA, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheetz, Caleb D.; Donald Rimstidt, J.

    2009-08-01

    Samples taken from a shooting range near Blacksburg, VA, USA provide information about the reservoirs and pathways of lead at shooting ranges in an upland setting and humid environment. The metallic lead shot corrodes rapidly and develops a coating of hydrocerussite (Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2). Hydrocerussite dissolution releases soluble lead at concentrations ranging from 2 ppb to 2 ppm depending the soil pH values at this site. This soluble lead is captured by the Fe and Mn oxides and carbonates soil fractions. The highest concentration of extractable lead contained in the soil was directly correlated with the highest concentration of lead shot and bullets measured on the shotgun range surface. Eh-pH and hydrolysis diagrams provide a useful geochemical framework for understanding the corrosion process, recognizing the corrosion product(s), understanding their solubility, and identifying the geochemical barriers to lead migration that provides a basis for selecting best management practices for this and other shooting range.

  20. External quality assurance project report for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program’s National Trends Network and Mercury Deposition Network, 2013–14

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Martin, RoseAnn

    2016-01-01

    The Mercury Deposition Network programs include the system blank program and an interlaboratory comparison program. System blank results indicated that maximum total mercury contamination concentrations in samples were less than the third percentile of all Mercury Deposition Network sample concentrations. The Mercury Analytical Laboratory produced chemical concentration results with low bias and variability compared with other domestic and international laboratories that support atmospheric-deposition monitoring.

  1. NATIONAL HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT SURVEY (NHEXAS): ANALYSIS OF EXPOSURE PATHWAYS AND ROUTES FOR ARSENIC AND LEAD IN EPA REGION 5

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) Phase I field study conducted in EPA Region 5 (Great Lakes Area) provides extensive exposure data on a representative sample of approximately 250 residents of the region. Associated environmental media and biomarker (blood...

  2. Options for the Development of a Voluntary Network of Participants in the National Environmental Data Referral Service. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MAXIMA Corp., Silver Spring, MD.

    Building on the findings of a survey of potential users and a descriptive review of five existing information networks, the present study represents an attempt to characterize several options for a voluntary confederation of participants in operating the National Environmental Data Referral Services (NEDRES) being developed by the Assessment and…

  3. National High-Performance Computing and Networking Act. Report To Accompany S. 343, Senate, 102d Congess, 1st Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources.

    The purpose of the bill (S. 343), as reported by the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, is to establish a federal commitment to the advancement of high-performance computing, improve interagency planning and coordination of federal high-performance computing and networking activities, authorize a national high-speed computer…

  4. Science Education Programs That Work. A Collection of Proven Exemplary Educational Programs and Practices in the National Diffusion Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivertsen, Mary Lewis, Comp.

    These programs are available to school systems or other educational institutions for implementation in the classroom. Some programs may be able to offer consultant services and limited assistance with the training and materials associated with installing one of these programs in schools. Information about the National Diffusion Network (NDN) is…

  5. Science Education Programs That work. A Collection of Proven Exemplary Educational Programs and Practices in the National Diffusion Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Mary G., Comp.

    This catalog contains descriptions of the science education programs in the National Diffusion Network (NDN). These programs are available to school systems or other educational institutions for implementation in their classrooms. Some programs may be able to offer consultant services and limited assistance with the training and materials…

  6. Science Education Programs That Work. A Collection of Proven Exemplary Educational Programs and Practices in the National Diffusion Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Mary G., Comp.

    This catalog contains descriptions of the science education programs and materials in the National Diffusion Network (NDN). These programs and materials are available to school systems or other educational institutions for implementation in their classrooms. Some programs may be able to offer consultant services and limited assistance with the…

  7. Science Education Programs That Work. A Collection of Proven Exemplary Educational Programs and Practices in the National Diffusion Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC. National Diffusion Network.

    The National Diffusion Network (NDN) is a federally funded system that makes exemplary educational programs available for use by schools, colleges, and other institutions. This publication contains information describing the science education programs currently in the NDN, along with procedural information on how to access these programs. The…

  8. Taking Their Show on the Road: Becky Hebert & Siobhan Champ-Blackwell--National Network of Libraries of Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2005

    2005-01-01

    They're two very different women with the same mission: outreach to medically underserved populations. Both work for the National Network of Libraries of Medicine. Becky Hebert (left) covers the Southeast/Atlantic region, and Siobhan Champ-Blackwell, the mid-continental region. They spend much of their lives on the road, exhibiting at minority…

  9. Precision and bias of selected analytes reported by the National Atmospheric Deposition Program and National Trends Network, 1983; and January 1980 through September 1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroder, L.J.; Bricker, A.W.; Willoughby, T.C.

    1985-01-01

    Blind-audit samples with known analyte concentrations have been prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey and distributed to the National Atmospheric Deposition Program 's Central Analytical Laboratory. The difference between the National Atmospheric Deposition Program and National Trends Network reported analyte concentrations and known analyte concentrations have been calculated, and the bias has been determined. Calcium, magnesium , sodium, and chloride were biased at the 99-percent confidence limit; potassium and sulfate were unbiased at the 99-percent confidence limit, for 1983 results. Relative-percent differences between the measured and known analyte concentration for calcium , magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, and sulfate have been calculated for 1983. The median relative percent difference for calcium was 17.0; magnesium was 6.4; sodium was 10.8; potassium was 6.4; chloride was 17.2; and sulfate was -5.3. These relative percent differences should be used to correct the 1983 data before user-analysis of the data. Variances have been calculated for calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, and sulfate determinations. These variances should be applicable to natural-sample analyte concentrations reported by the National Atmospheric Deposition Program and National Trends Network for calendar year 1983. (USGS)

  10. Water quality success stories: Integrated assessments from the IOOS regional associations and national water quality monitoring network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ragsdale, Rob; Vowinkel, Eric; Porter, Dwayne; Hamilton, Pixie; Morrison, Ru; Kohut, Josh; Connell, Bob; Kelsey, Heath; Trowbridge, Phil

    2011-01-01

    The Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS®) Regional Associations and Interagency Partners hosted a water quality workshop in January 2010 to discuss issues of nutrient enrichment and dissolved oxygen depletion (hypoxia), harmful algal blooms (HABs), and beach water quality. In 2007, the National Water Quality Monitoring Council piloted demonstration projects as part of the National Water Quality Monitoring Network (Network) for U.S. Coastal Waters and their Tributaries in three IOOS Regional Associations, and these projects are ongoing. Examples of integrated science-based solutions to water quality issues of major concern from the IOOS regions and Network demonstration projects are explored in this article. These examples illustrate instances where management decisions have benefited from decision-support tools that make use of interoperable data. Gaps, challenges, and outcomes are identified, and a proposal is made for future work toward a multiregional water quality project for beach water quality.

  11. Hyperdigraph-theoretic analysis of the EGFR signaling network: initial steps leading to GTP:Ras complex formation.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Joseph S; Jones-Oliveira, Janet B; Dixon, David A; Bailey, Colin G; Gull, Dean W

    2004-01-01

    We construct an algebraic-combinatorial model of the SOS compartment of the EGFR biochemical network. A Petri net is used to construct an initial representation of the biochemical decision making network, which in turn defines a hyperdigraph. We observe that the linear algebraic structure of each hyperdigraph admits a canonical set of algebraic-combinatorial invariants that correspond to the information flow conservation laws governing a molecular kinetic reaction network. The linear algebraic structure of the hyperdigraph and its sets of invariants can be generalized to define a discrete algebraic-geometric structure, which is referred to as an oriented matroid. Oriented matroids define a polyhedral optimization geometry that is used to determine optimal subpaths that span the nullspace of a set of kinetic chemical reaction equations. Sets of constrained submodular path optimizations on the hyperdigraph are objectively obtained as a spanning tree of minimum cycle paths. This complete set of subcircuits is used to identify the network pinch points and invariant flow subpaths. We demonstrate that this family of minimal circuits also characteristically identifies additional significant biochemical reaction pattern features. We use the SOS Compartment A of the EGFR biochemical pathway to develop and demonstrate the application of our algebraic-combinatorial mathematical modeling methodology. PMID:15700404

  12. How Structured Is the Entangled Bank? The Surprisingly Simple Organization of Multiplex Ecological Networks Leads to Increased Persistence and Resilience

    PubMed Central

    Wieters, Evie A.; Navarrete, Sergio A.

    2016-01-01

    Species are linked to each other by a myriad of positive and negative interactions. This complex spectrum of interactions constitutes a network of links that mediates ecological communities’ response to perturbations, such as exploitation and climate change. In the last decades, there have been great advances in the study of intricate ecological networks. We have, nonetheless, lacked both the data and the tools to more rigorously understand the patterning of multiple interaction types between species (i.e., “multiplex networks”), as well as their consequences for community dynamics. Using network statistical modeling applied to a comprehensive ecological network, which includes trophic and diverse non-trophic links, we provide a first glimpse at what the full “entangled bank” of species looks like. The community exhibits clear multidimensional structure, which is taxonomically coherent and broadly predictable from species traits. Moreover, dynamic simulations suggest that this non-random patterning of how diverse non-trophic interactions map onto the food web could allow for higher species persistence and higher total biomass than expected by chance and tends to promote a higher robustness to extinctions. PMID:27487303

  13. Hyperdigraph-Theoretic Analysis of the EGFR Signaling Network: Initial Steps Leading to GTP:Ras Complex Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, Joseph S.; Jones-Oliveira, Janet B.; Dixon, David A.; Bailey, Colin G.; Gull, Dean W.

    2004-10-15

    We construct an algebraic-combinatorial model of the SOS compartment of the EGFR biochemical network. A Petri net is used to construct an initial representation of the biochemical decision-making network, which in turn defines a hyperdigraph. We observe that the linear algebraic structure of each hyperdigraph admits a canonical set of algebraic-combinatorial invariants that correspond to the information flow conservation laws governing a molecular kinetic reaction network. The linear algebraic structure of the hyperdigraph and its sets of invariants can be generalized to define a discrete algebraic-geometric structure, which is referred to as an oriented matroid. Oriented matroids define a polyhedral optimization geometry that is used to determine optimal subpaths that span the nullspace of a set of kinetic chemical reaction equations. Sets of constrained submodular path optimizations on the hyperdigraph are objectively obtained as a spanning tree of minimum cycle paths. This complete set of subcircuits is used to identify the network pinch points and invariant flow subpaths. We demonstrate that this family of minimal circuits also characteristically identifies additional significant biochemical reaction pattern features. We use the SOS Compartment A of the EGFR biochemical pathway to develop and demonstrate the application of our algebraic-combinatorial mathematical modeling methodology.

  14. Feasibility study of a nation-wide Early Warning System: the application of the EEW software PRESTo on the Italian Strong Motion Network (RAN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zollo, Aldo; Picozzi, Matteo; Elia, Luca; Martino, Claudio; Brondi, Piero; Colombelli, Simona; Emolo, Antonio; Festa, Gaetano; Marcucci, Sandro

    2014-05-01

    The past two decades have witnessed a huge progress in the development, implementation and testing of Earthquakes Early Warning Systems (EEWS) worldwide, as the result of a joint effort of the seismological and earthquake engineering communities to set up robust and efficient methodologies for the real-time seismic risk mitigation. The leading experience of the operational early warning system implemented by the Japan Meteorological Agency showed the effectiveness of a combined onsite and network-based approach to rapidly broadcast the rapid warning after a potential damaging earthquake. At the nation-wide scale, the Japanese system makes use of real-time data streamed by the extremely dense accelerograph array (about 1000 seismic instruments) deployed across Japan. With more than 750 accelerometric stations installed over all the active seismic zones, target cities and strategic infrastructures, Italy has the potential for a nation-wide early warning system, although the communication network and data sharing must be expanded and improved. A significant number of these stations are nodes of the RAN (Italian Accelerometric Network) managed by the Italian national emergency management department (Dipartimento della Protezione Civile, DPC), whose data are used for emergency response services. In the framework of the REAKT-Strategies and tools for Real Time Earthquake RisK ReducTion FP7 European project, the AMRA-RISSCLab group is engaged in a feasibility study on the implementation of the EEW software PRESTo earthquake early warning platforms on the Italian accelerometric network (RAN) PRESTo (PRobabilistic and Evolutionary early warning SysTem) is a highly configurable and easily portable platform for Earthquake Early Warning. The system processes the live accelerometric streams from the stations of a seismic network to promptly provide probabilistic and evolutionary estimates of location and magnitude of detected earthquakes while they are occurring, as well as

  15. The Plant Phenology Monitoring Design for the National Ecological Observatory Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmendorf, Sarah C.; Jones, Katherine D.; Cook, Benjamin I.; Diez, Jeffrey M.; Enquist, Carolyn A. F.; Hufft, Rebecca A.; Jones, Matthew O.; Mazer, Susan J.; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J.; Moore, David J. P.; Schwartz, Mark D.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2016-01-01

    Phenology is an integrative science that comprises the study of recurring biological activities or events. In an era of rapidly changing climate, the relationship between the timing of those events and environmental cues such as temperature, snowmelt, water availability, or day length are of particular interest. This article provides an overview of the observer-based plant phenology sampling conducted by the U.S. National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON), the resulting data, and the rationale behind the design. Trained technicians will conduct regular in situ observations of plant phenology at all terrestrial NEON sites for the 30-yr life of the observatory. Standardized and coordinated data across the network of sites can be used to quantify the direction and magnitude of the relationships between phenology and environmental forcings, as well as the degree to which these relationships vary among sites, among species, among phenophases, and through time. Vegetation at NEON sites will also be monitored with tower-based cameras, satellite remote sensing, and annual high-resolution airborne remote sensing. Ground-based measurements can be used to calibrate and improve satellite-derived phenometrics. NEON's phenology monitoring design is complementary to existing phenology research efforts and citizen science initiatives throughout the world and will produce interoperable data. By collocating plant phenology observations with a suite of additional meteorological, biophysical, and ecological measurements (e.g., climate, carbon flux, plant productivity, population dynamics of consumers) at 47 terrestrial sites, the NEON design will enable continental-scale inference about the status, trends, causes, and ecological consequences of phenological change.

  16. The plant phenology monitoring design for the National Ecological Observatory Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elmendorf, Sarah C; Jones, Katherine D; Cook, Benjamin I.; Diez, Jeffrey M.; Enquist, Carolyn A.F.; Hufft, Rebecca A.; Jones, Matthew O.; Mazer, Susan J.; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J.; Moore, David J. P.; Schwartz, Mark D.; Weltzin, Jake

    2016-01-01

    Phenology is an integrative science that comprises the study of recurring biological activities or events. In an era of rapidly changing climate, the relationship between the timing of those events and environmental cues such as temperature, snowmelt, water availability or day length are of particular interest. This article provides an overview of the plant phenology sampling which will be conducted by the U.S. National Ecological Observatory Network NEON, the resulting data, and the rationale behind the design. Trained technicians will conduct regular in situ observations of plant phenology at all terrestrial NEON sites for the 30-year life of the observatory. Standardized and coordinated data across the network of sites can be used to quantify the direction and magnitude of the relationships between phenology and environmental forcings, as well as the degree to which these relationships vary among sites, among species, among phenophases, and through time. Vegetation at NEON sites will also be monitored with tower-based cameras, satellite remote sensing and annual high-resolution airborne remote sensing. Ground-based measurements can be used to calibrate and improve satellite-derived phenometrics. NEON’s phenology monitoring design is complementary to existing phenology research efforts and citizen science initiatives throughout the world and will produce interoperable data. By collocating plant phenology observations with a suite of additional meteorological, biophysical and ecological measurements (e.g., climate, carbon flux, plant productivity, population dynamics of consumers) at 47 terrestrial sites, the NEON design will enable continentalscale inference about the status, trends, causes and ecological consequences of phenological change.

  17. The National Center for Radioecology (NCoRE): A Network of Excellence for Environmental and Human Radiation Risk Reduction - 13365

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhne, W.W.; Jannik, G.T.; Farfan, E.B.; Knox, A.S.; Mayer, J.J.; Murray, A.M.

    2013-07-01

    Radioecology in the United States can be traced back to the early 1950's when small research programs were established to address the fate and effects of radionuclides released in the environment from activities at nuclear facilities. These programs focused primarily on local environmental effects, but global radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing and the potential for larger scale local releases of radioisotopes resulted in major concerns about the threat, not only to humans, but to other species and to ecosystems that support all life. These concerns were shared by other countries and it was quickly recognized that a multi-disciplinary approach would be required to address and understand the implications of anthropogenic radioactivity in the environment. The management, clean-up and long-term monitoring of legacy wastes at Department of Energy (DOE), Department of Defense (DOD), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-regulated facilities continues to be of concern as long as nuclear operations continue. Research conducted through radioecology programs provides the credible scientific data needed for decision-making purposes. The current status of radioecology programs in the United States are: fragmented with little coordination to identify national strategies and direct programs; suffering from a steadily decreasing funding base; soon to be hampered by closure of key infrastructure; hampered by aging and retiring workforce (loss of technical expertise); and in need of training of young scientists to ensure continuation of the science (no formal graduate education program in radioecology remaining in the U.S.). With these concerns in mind, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) took the lead to establish the National Center for Radioecology (NCoRE) as a network of excellence of the remaining radioecology expertise in the United States. As part of the NCoRE mission, scientists at SRNL are working with six key partner universities to re

  18. Development of a Wireless Network of Temperature Sensors for Yellowstone National Park (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munday, D. A.; Hutter, T.; Minolli, M.; Obraczka, K.; Manduchi, R.; Petersen, S.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Heasler, H.

    2007-12-01

    Temperature sensors deployed at Yellowstone clearly document that thermal features can vary in temperature on a variety of timescales and show regional correlations unrelated to meteorological variables such as air temperature. Yellowstone National Park (YNP) staff currently measures temperatures at over 40 thermal features and streams within the park, utilizing USGS stream gaging stations and portable data loggers deployed in geyser basins. The latter measure temperature every 1 to 15 minutes, and the data are physically downloaded after about 30 days. Installation of a wireless sensor network would: 1) save considerable time and effort in data retrieval, 2) minimize lost data due to equipment failure, and 3) provide a means to monitor thermal perturbations in near-real time. To meet this need, we developed a wireless sensor network capable of in-situ monitoring of air and water temperature. Temperature sensors are dispersed as nodes that communicate among themselves and through relays to a single base-station linked to the Internet. The small, weatherproof sensors operate unattended for over six months at temperatures as low as -40°C. Each uses an ultra-low-power Texas Instruments' MSP430 microcontroller and an SD card as mass storage. They are powered by 15Ah, 3.6 v, inert Li-ion batteries and transmit data via 900MHz radio modules with a 1-km range. The initial prototype consists of 4 nodes, and is designed to scale with additional nodes for finer spatial resolution and broader coverage. Temperature measurements are asynchronous from node to node, with intervals as frequent as 30 seconds. Data are stored internally to withstand temporary communication failures; underlying intelligent software is capable of re-routing data through alternative nodes to the base station and a MySQL data archiving system. We also developed a Google-Maps-based, front-end that displays the data, recent trends and sensor locations. The system was tested in the Santa Cruz Mountains

  19. Location Performance and Detection Threshold of the Spanish National Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alessandro, Antonino; Badal, José; D'Anna, Giuseppe; Papanastassiou, Dimitris; Baskoutas, Ioannis; Özel, Nurcan M.

    2013-11-01

    Spain is a low-to-moderate seismicity area with relatively low seismic hazard. However, several strong shallow earthquakes have shaken the country causing casualties and extensive damage. Regional seismicity is monitored and surveyed by means of the Spanish National Seismic Network, maintenance and control of which are entrusted to the Instituto Geográfico Nacional. This array currently comprises 120 seismic stations distributed throughout Spanish territory (mainland and islands). Basically, we are interested in checking the noise conditions, reliability, and seismic detection capability of the Spanish network by analyzing the background noise level affecting the array stations, errors in hypocentral location, and detection threshold, which provides knowledge about network performance. It also enables testing of the suitability of the velocity model used in the routine process of earthquake location. To perform this study we use a method that relies on P and S wave travel times, which are computed by simulation of seismic rays from virtual seismic sources placed at the nodes of a regular grid covering the study area. Given the characteristics of the seismicity of Spain, we drew maps for M L magnitudes 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0, at a focal depth of 10 km and a confidence level 95 %. The results relate to the number of stations involved in the hypocentral location process, how these stations are distributed spatially, and the uncertainties of focal data (errors in origin time, longitude, latitude, and depth). To assess the extent to which principal seismogenic areas are well monitored by the network, we estimated the average error in the location of a seismic source from the semiaxes of the ellipsoid of confidence by calculating the radius of the equivalent sphere. Finally, the detection threshold was determined as the magnitude of the smallest seismic event detected at least by four stations. The northwest of the peninsula, the Pyrenees, especially the westernmost segment

  20. Ionosphere Threat Model Investigations by Using Turkish National Permanent GPS Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köroǧlu, Meltem; Arikan, Feza; Koroglu, Ozan

    2016-07-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) signal realibity may decrease significantly due to the variable electron density structure of ionosphere. In the literature, ionospheric disturbance is modeled as a linear semi-definite wave which has width, gradient and a constant velocity. To provide precise positioning, Ground Based Augmentation Systems (GBAS) are used. GBAS collects all measurements from GPS network receivers and computes an integrity level for the measurement by comparing the network GPS receivers measurements with the threat models of ionosphere. Threat models are computed according to ionosphere gradient characteristics. Gradient is defined as the difference of slant delays between the receivers. Slant delays are estimated from the STEC (Slant Total Electron Content) values of the ionosphere that is given by the line integral of the electron density between the receiver and GPS satellite. STEC can be estimated over Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals by using IONOLAB-STEC and IONOLAB-BIAS algorithms. Since most of the ionospheric disturbance observed locally, threat models for the GBAS systems must be extracted as locally. In this study, an automated ionosphere gradient estimation algorithm was developed by using Turkish National Permanent GPS Network (TNPGN-Active) data for year 2011. The GPS receivers are grouped within 150 km radius. For each region, for each day and for each satellite all STEC values are estimated by using IONOLAB-STEC and IONOLAB-BIAS softwares (www.ionolab.org). In the gradient estimation, station-pair method is used. Statistical properties of the valid gradients are extracted as tables for each region, day and satellite. By observing the histograms of the maximum gradients and standard deviations of the gradients with respect to the elevation angle for each day, the anomalies and disturbances of the ionosphere can be detected. It is observed that, maximum gradient estimates are less than 40 mm/km and maximum standard

  1. Trend Analysis for Groundwater Quality at Different Depths for National Groundwater Quality Monitoring Network of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Hyeonsil; Jeen, Sung-Wook; Hyun, Yunjung; Lee, Soo Jae; Yoon, Heesung; Kim, Rak-Hyeon

    2015-04-01

    Continuous groundwater monitoring is necessary to investigate the changes of groundwater quality with time, and trend analysis using a statistical method can be used to evaluate if the changes are significant. While groundwater quality is typically monitored and evaluated at one depth, in many cases groundwater quality can be different with depths; thus it is required that monitoring and assessment of trends of groundwater quality should be performed at different depths. In this study, we carried out trend analysis for groundwater quality data of National Groundwater Quality Monitoring Network of Korea to investigate the changes of groundwater quality between 2007 and 2013. The monitoring network has wells with different depths at each site, of which screens are located at about 10 m, 30 m, and 80 m. We analyzed three of the groundwater quality parameters that have sufficient time series data: pH, nitrate-nitrogen, and chloride ion. Sen's test, a non-parametric statistical method for trend analysis, was used to determine the linear trend of groundwater quality data. The trend analyses were conducted at different confidence levels (i.e., at 70, 80, 90, 95, and 99 % confidence levels). The results of groundwater monitoring and trend analysis at each location were compared with groundwater quality management standards and were classified to establish a new groundwater quality management framework of Korea. The results were further plotted in a regional scale to identify whether the trends, if any, can be grouped regionally. The results showed that wells with significant increasing or decreasing trends are far less than wells with no trends, and chloride ion has more wells with significant trends compared to pH and nitrate-nitrogen. The trends were more or less affected by local characteristics rather than reflecting a regional trend. The number of wells with trends decreased as the confidence level increased as expected, indicating that it is necessary to set an

  2. Long term monitoring of mountain sites in the National Ecological Observatory Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorpe, A.; Berukoff, S. J.; Buur, H.; DeNicholas, J.; Denslow, M.; Kampe, T. U.; Roehm, C. L.; Stewart, M.; Taylor, J. R.; Tazik, D.

    2013-12-01

    Currently under construction, the nation's first continental-scale ecological observatory, the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will quantify the impacts of climate change, land use, and biological invasions by collecting instrumental and observational data for 30 years at 106 aquatic and terrestrial sites across the U.S., including Alaska, Hawaii and Puerto Rico. The sites have been strategically selected to represent a range of vegetation, landforms, climates, and land uses. Several are located in high elevation areas, including three terrestrial and two aquatic sites in the central Rocky Mountains situated along a transect from the Great Basin in the west to the Colorado Plateau in the east. In the Intermountain West, dust resulting from urban and agricultural land use is transported over long distances. When deposited on the snowpack in the mountains, it alters the surface albedo, affecting snowmelt timing and altering local and regional feedbacks to climate and impacting water quality of streams. In addition, nitrogen compounds produced in the densely settled Front Range corridor of Colorado can be recirculated back to the mountains, affecting the local biogeochemistry and biodiversity. Standardized measurements of key climate, atmospheric, soil, organismal, and aquatic variables will allow for comparison of responses to dust and nitrogen deposition. In addition, other environmental changes between sites both along the Great Basin-central Rocky Mountains-Colorado Plateau transect and within the observatory as a whole can be evaluated. NEON is applying Systems Engineering, a discipline that uses a requirements-based approach to scope, design, build and manage complex systems throughout their lifecycle, as a critical component of the observatory to ensure standardization across sites. In this talk, we will discuss the benefits and challenges of applying Systems Engineering to an ecological observatory, utilizing the science and technical

  3. Progress in the development of airborne remote sensing instrumentation for the National Ecological Observatory Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampe, Thomas U.; McCorkel, Joel; Hamlin, Louise; Green, Robert O.; Krause, Keith S.; Johnson, Brian R.

    2011-09-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a planned facility of the National Science Foundation with the mission to enable understanding and forecasting of the impacts of climate change, land use change and invasive species on continental-scale ecology. Airborne remote sensing plays a critical role by providing measurements at the scale of individual shrubs and larger plants over hundreds of square kilometers. The NEON Airborne Observation Platform is designed to bridge scales from organism and stand scales, as captured by plot and tower observations, to the scale of satellite based remote sensing. Fused airborne spectroscopy and waveform LiDAR is used to quantify vegetation composition and structure. Panchromatic photography at better than 30 cm resolution will retrieve fine-scale information on land use, roads, impervious surfaces, and built structures. NEON will build three airborne systems to allow for regular coverage of NEON sites and the capacity to respond to investigator requests for specific projects. The system design achieves a balance between performance and development cost and risk, taking full advantage of existing commercial airborne LiDAR and camera components. To reduce risk during NEON construction, an imaging spectrometer design verification unit is being developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to demonstrate that operational and performance requirements can be met. As part of this effort, NEON is also focusing on science algorithm development, computing hardware prototyping and early airborne test flights with similar technologies. This paper presents an overview of the development status of the NEON airborne instrumentation in the context of the NEON mission.

  4. Leading from the Heart: The Passion To Make a Difference. Leadership Stories Told by Kellogg National Fellowship Program Fellows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sublett, Roger H., Ed.

    This document presents the personal narratives of 19 participants in the National Fellowship/Leadership program. In their narratives, the Kellogg fellows recount their experiences developing leadership knowledge, skills, and competencies while addressing human, societal, and community issues. The following papers are included: "Preface" (William…

  5. 40 CFR Appendix R to Part 50 - Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Pb-PM 10 Data as Surrogate Pb-TSP Data. (a) As stipulated in section 2.10 of Appendix C to 40 CFR... collection periods prior to January 1, 2009 (i.e., “pre-rule” data) will also be considered valid for NAAQS... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS...

  6. 76 FR 76972 - Release of Final Integrated Review Plan for the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... available for public comment (76 FR 20347). The final IRP announced today has been prepared after... was issued on February 26, 2010 (75 FR 8934). Dated: December 5, 2011. Mary E. Henigin, Acting... AGENCY Release of Final Integrated Review Plan for the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for...

  7. Toxoplasmosis May Lead to Road Kills of Persian Leopards ( Panthera pardus saxicolor) in Golestan National Park, Iran.

    PubMed

    Namroodi, Somayeh; Gholami, Alireza; Shariat-Bahadori, Ehsan

    2016-04-28

    Three Persian leopards ( Panthera pardus saxicolor) that died from car accidents in Golestan National Park, Iran, were tested for Toxoplasma gondii and rabies virus infection. Acute T. gondii infection was diagnosed in two Persian leopards; no rabies virus was detected. Acute toxoplasmosis may be a factor in Persian leopard road kills. PMID:26981691

  8. Motivational incentives research in the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network.

    PubMed

    Stitzer, Maxine L; Petry, Nancy M; Peirce, Jessica

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to review both main findings and secondary analyses from studies of abstinence incentives conducted in the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN). Previous research has supported the efficacy of tangible incentives provided contingent on evidence of recent drug abstinence. CTN conducted the first multisite effectiveness trial of this novel intervention. Study participants were stimulant abusers (N = 803) participating in treatment at 14 clinical sites and randomly assigned to treatment as usual with or without a prize draw incentive program. Study participants could earn up to $400 over 3 months for submission of drug-free urine and breath (BAL) specimens. Three-month retention was significantly improved by incentives offered to psychosocial counseling clients (50% incentive vs. 35% control retained), whereas ongoing stimulant drug use was significantly reduced in methadone maintenance clients (54.4% incentive vs. 38.7% control samples testing stimulant-negative). In both settings, duration of continuous abstinence achieved was improved in the incentive condition. These studies support effectiveness of one abstinence incentive intervention and highlight the different outcomes that can be expected with application in methadone maintenance versus psychosocial counseling treatment settings. Secondary analyses have shown the importance of early treatment positive versus negative urine screens in moderating the outcome of abstinence incentives and have explored both safety and cost-effectiveness of the intervention. Implications for the use of motivational incentive methods in clinical practice are discussed. PMID:20307797

  9. Actual versus design performance of solar systems in the National Solar Data Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logee, T. L.; Kendall, P. W.

    1984-09-01

    Field measured performance were compared to the designer predicted performance. The field measured data were collected by the National Solar Data Network (NSDN) over a period of 6 years. Data from 25 solar systems were selected from a data pool of some 170 solar systems. Several concerns arose which can be partially allayed by study of the NSDN data. These are: what types of failures occurred and why; how good was the design versus actual performance; why was predicted performance not achieved in the field; and which components should be integrated with a system type for good performance. The measured results were also compared to f-chart 5.1 results. This comparison is a type of normalization in that all systems are modeled with the same process. An added benefit of this normalization is a further validation of the f-Chart model on a fairly large scale. The systems are modeled using equipment design parameters, measured loads, and f-Chart weather data from nearby cities.

  10. Research Coordination Network: Geothermal Biology and Geochemistry in Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inskeep, W. P.; Young, M. J.; Jay, Z.

    2006-12-01

    The number and diversity of geothermal features in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) represent a fascinating array of high temperature geochemical environments that host a corresponding number of unique and potentially novel organisms in all of the three recognized domains of life: Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya. The geothermal features of YNP have long been the subject of scientific inquiry, especially in the fields of microbiology, geochemistry, geothermal hydrology, microbial ecology, and population biology. However, there are no organized forums for scientists working in YNP geothermal areas to present research results, exchange ideas, discuss research priorities, and enhance synergism among research groups. The primary goal of the YNP Research Coordination Network (GEOTHERM) is to develop a more unified effort among scientists and resource agencies to characterize, describe, understand and inventory the diverse biota associated with geothermal habitats in YNP. The YNP RCN commenced in January 2005 as a collaborative effort among numerous university scientists, governmental agencies and private industry. The YNP RCN hosted a workshop in February 2006 to discuss research results and to form three working groups focused on (i) web-site and digital library content, (ii) metagenomics of thermophilic microbial communities and (iii) development of geochemical methods appropriate for geomicrobiological studies. The working groups represent one strategy for enhancing communication, collaboration and most importantly, productivity among the RCN participants. If you have an interest in the geomicrobiology of geothermal systems, please feel welcome to join and or participate in the YNP RCN.

  11. Estimated variability of National Atmospheric Deposition Program/Mercury Deposition Network measurements using collocated samplers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wetherbee, G.A.; Gay, D.A.; Brunette, R.C.; Sweet, C.W.

    2007-01-01

    The National Atmospheric Deposition Program/Mercury Deposition Network (MDN) provides long-term, quality-assured records of mercury in wet deposition in the USA and Canada. Interpretation of spatial and temporal trends in the MDN data requires quantification of the variability of the MDN measurements. Variability is quantified for MDN data from collocated samplers at MDN sites in two states, one in Illinois and one in Washington. Median absolute differences in the collocated sampler data for total mercury concentration are approximately 11% of the median mercury concentration for all valid 1999-2004 MDN data. Median absolute differences are between 3.0% and 14% of the median MDN value for collector catch (sample volume) and between 6.0% and 15% of the median MDN value for mercury wet deposition. The overall measurement errors are sufficiently low to resolve between NADP/MDN measurements by ??2 ng??l-1 and ??2 ????m-2?? year-1, which are the contour intervals used to display the data on NADP isopleths maps for concentration and deposition, respectively. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007.

  12. PEDSnet: how a prototype pediatric learning health system is being expanded into a national network.

    PubMed

    Forrest, Christopher B; Margolis, Peter; Seid, Michael; Colletti, Richard B

    2014-07-01

    Except for a few conditions, pediatric disorders are rare diseases. Because of this, no single institution has enough patients to generate adequate sample sizes to produce generalizable knowledge. Aggregating electronic clinical data from millions of children across many pediatric institutions holds the promise of producing sufficiently large data sets to accelerate knowledge discovery. However, without deliberately embedding these data in a pediatric learning health system (defined as a health care organization that is purposefully designed to produce research in routine care settings and implement evidence at the point of care), efforts to act on this new knowledge, reducing the distress and suffering that children experience when sick, will be ineffective. In this article we discuss a prototype pediatric learning health system, ImproveCareNow, for children with inflammatory bowel disease. This prototype is being scaled up to create PEDSnet, a national network that will support the efficient conduct of clinical trials, observational research, and quality improvement across diseases, specialties, and institutions. PMID:25006143

  13. External quality-assurance results for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network, 1997-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, John D.; Latysh, Natalie E.; Lindholm, Sandy J.

    2003-01-01

    Five external quality-assurance programs were operated by the U.S. Geological Survey for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/ National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) during 1997 through 1999: the intersite-comparison program, the blind-audit program, the field- audit program, the interlaboratory-comparison program, and the collocated-sampler program. The intersite-comparison program assesses the accuracy of pH and specific-conductance determinations made by NADP/NTN site operators. In two 1997 intersite-comparison studies, 83.7 and 85.8 percent of the pH determinations met the NADP/NTN accuracy goals, whereas 97.3 and 92.4 percent of the specific-conductance determinations met the NADP/NTN accuracy goals. The percentage of pH and specific-conductance determinations that met the accuracy goals in 1998 were, for the most part, higher than in 1997. In two 1998 studies, 90.9 and 90.3 percent of the pH determinations met the accuracy goals compared to 94.7 and 96.0 percent of the specific- conductance measurements meeting the accuracy goals. In one 1999 intersite-comparison study, 89.5 percent and 99.4 percent of pH and specific- conductance determinations, respectively, met the NADP/NTN accuracy goals. The blind-audit program evaluates the effects of routine sample handling, processing, and shipping on the analytical bias and precision of weekly precipitation samples. A portion of the blind-audit sample subject to the normal onsite handling and processing of a weekly precipitation sample is referred to as the bucket portion, whereas the portion receiving only minimal handling is referred to as the bottle portion. Positive bias in regard to blind-audit results indicates that the bucket portion has a higher concentration than the bottle portion. The paired t-test for the 1997 through 1999 blind- audit data indicates that routine sample handling, processing, and shipping introduced a positive bias (a=0.05) for calcium and chloride and a negative bias (cz=0.05) for

  14. External quality-assurance results for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network, 1995-96

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, John D.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey operated four external quality-assurance programs for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) in 1995 and 1996: the intersite-comparison program, the blind-audit program, the interlaboratory- comparison program, and the collocated-sampler program. The intersite-comparison program assessed the precision and bias of pH and specific-conductance determinations made by NADP/NTN site operators. The analytical bias introduced during routine handling, processing, and shipping of wet-deposition samples and precision of analyte values was estimated using a blind-audit program. An interlaboratory-comparison program was used to evaluate differences between analytical results and to estimate the analytical precision of five North American laboratories that routinely analyzed wet deposition. A collocated-sampler program estimated the precision of the overall precipitation collection and analysis system from initial sample collection through final storage of the data. Results of two intersite-comparison studies completed in 1995 indicated 94.6 and 94.4 percent of the onsite pH determinations met the NADP/NTN accuracy goals, whereas 97.2 and 98.3 percent of the specific-conductance determinations were within the established limits. The percentages of onsite determinations that met the accuracy goals in 1996 were slightly less for both pH and specific-conductance than in 1995. In 1996, 93.2 and 87.5 percent of onsite pH determinations met the accuracy goals, whereas the percentage of onsite specific-conductance measurements that met the goals was 93.9 and 94.9 percent.The blind audit program utilizes a paired sample design to evaluate the effects of routine sample handling, processing and shipping on the chemistry of weekly precipitation samples. The portion of the blind audit sample subject to all of the normal onsite handling and processing steps of a regular weekly precipitation sample is referred to as the bucket

  15. Cigarette smoking during substance use disorder treatment: Secondary outcomes from a National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network study

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Erin A.; Campbell, Aimee N. C.; Pavlicova, Martina; Hu, Meichen; Winhusen, Theresa; Vandrey, Ryan G.; Ruglass, Lesia M.; Covey, Lirio S.; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Kyle, Tiffany L.; Nunes, Edward V.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The majority of patients enrolled in treatment for substance use disorders (SUDs) also use tobacco. Many will continue to use tobacco even during abstinence from other drugs and alcohol, often leading to smoking-related illnesses. Despite this, little research has been conducted to assess the influence of being a smoker on SUD treatment outcomes and changes in smoking during a treatment episode. Methods In this secondary analysis, cigarette smoking was evaluated in participants completing outpatient SUD treatment as part of a multi-site study conducted by the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network. Analyses included the assessment of changes in smoking and nicotine dependence via the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence during the 12-week study among all smokers (Aim #1), specifically among those in the experimental treatment group (Aim #2), and the moderating effect of being a smoker on treatment outcomes (Aim #3). Results Participants generally did not reduce or quit smoking throughout the course of the study. Among a sub-set of participants with higher baseline nicotine dependence scores randomized to the control arm, scores at the end of treatment were lower compared to the experimental arm, though measures of smoking quantity did not appear to decrease. Further, being a smoker was associated with poorer treatment outcomes compared to non-smokers enrolled in the trial. Conclusions This study provides evidence that patients enrolled in community-based SUD treatment continue to smoke, even when abstaining from drugs and alcohol. These results add to the growing literature encouraging the implementation of targeted, evidence-based interventions to promote abstinence from tobacco among SUD treatment patients. PMID:25595301

  16. Engage the Public in Phenology Monitoring: Lessons Learned from the USA National Phenology Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crimmins, T. M.; Lebuhn, G.; Miller-Rushing, A. J.

    2009-12-01

    The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN) is a recently established network that brings together citizen scientists, government agencies, non-profit groups, educators and students of all ages to monitor the impacts of climate change on plants and animals in the United States. Though a handful of observers participated in the USA-NPN monitoring program in 2008, 2009 was the first truly operational year for the program. With a goal of 100,000 observers for this nationwide effort, we are working to engage participants both directly and through established organizations and agencies. The first year of operational monitoring and program advertisement has yielded many insights that are shaping how we move forward. In this presentation, we will highlight some of our most prominent “lessons learned” from our experience engaging participants, mainly through partnerships with organizations and agencies. One successful partnership that the USA-NPN established in 2009 was with the Great Sunflower Project, a citizen science effort focused on tracking bee activity. By piggy-backing on this established program, we were able to invite tens of thousands of self-selected individuals to learn about plant phenology and to contribute to the program. A benefit to the Great Sunflower Project was that monitoring phenology of their sunflowers gave observers something to do while waiting for the plant to attract bees. Observers’ experiences, data, and comments from the 2009 season are yielding insights into how this partnership can be strengthened and USA-NPN and GSP goals can more effectively be met. A second partnership initiated in 2009 was with the US National Park Service (NPS). Partnering with federal and state agencies offers great opportunities for data collection and education. In return, agencies stand to gain information that can directly influence management decisions. However, such efforts necessitate careful planning and execution. Together the USA-NPN and NPS drafted

  17. Social Network Type and Subjective Well-Being in a National Sample of Older Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litwin, Howard; Shiovitz-Ezra, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The study considers the social networks of older Americans, a population for whom there have been few studies of social network type. It also examines associations between network types and well-being indicators: loneliness, anxiety, and happiness. Design and Methods: A subsample of persons aged 65 years and older from the first wave of…

  18. Announcement: 20th Anniversary of PulseNet: the National Molecular Subtyping Network for Foodborne Disease Surveillance - United States, 2016.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    PulseNet is celebrating 20 years of public health achievements in transforming the way foodborne disease outbreaks are detected and investigated. PulseNet is a national surveillance network of federal, state, and local public health laboratories that work together to detect foodborne disease outbreaks by connecting DNA fingerprints of bacteria that cause illness (1). The network facilitates the early identification of common sources of foodborne outbreaks and helps regulatory agencies identify areas where implementation of new measures are likely to improve the safety of the food supply. PMID:27337605

  19. Reference hydrologic networks I. The status and potential future directions of national reference hydrologic networks for detecting trends

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitfield, Paul H.; Burn, Donald H.; Hannaford, Jamie; Higgins, Hélène; Hodgkins, Glenn A.; Marsh, Terry; Looser, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Identifying climate-driven trends in river flows on a global basis is hampered by a lack of long, quality time series data for rivers with relatively undisturbed regimes. This is a global problem compounded by the lack of support for essential long-term monitoring. Experience demonstrates that, with clear strategic objectives, and the support of sponsoring organizations, reference hydrologic networks can constitute an exceptionally valuable data source to effectively identify, quantify and interpret hydrological change—the speed and magnitude of which is expected to a be a primary driver of water management and flood alleviation strategies through the future—and for additional applications. Reference hydrologic networks have been developed in many countries in the past few decades. These collections of streamflow gauging stations, that are maintained and operated with the intention of observing how the hydrology of watersheds responds to variations in climate, are described. The status of networks under development is summarized. We suggest a plan of actions to make more effective use of this collection of networks.

  20. Atopic dermatitis-associated protein interaction network lead to new insights in chronic sulfur mustard skin lesion mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Mojtaba; Jafari, Mohieddin; Azimzadeh Jamalkandi, Sadegh; Davoodi, Seyed-Masoud

    2013-10-01

    Chronic sulfur mustard skin lesions (CSMSLs) are the most common complications of sulfur mustard exposure; however, its mechanism is not completely understood.According to clinical signs, there are similarities between CSMSL and atopic dermatitis (AD). In this study, proteomic results of AD were reviewed and the AD-associated protein-protein interaction network (PIN) was analyzed. According to centrality measurements, 16 proteins were designated as pivotal elements in AD mechanisms. Interestingly, most of these proteins had been reported in some sulfur mustard-related studies in late and acute phases separately. Based on the gene enrichment analysis, aging, cell response to stress, cancer, Toll- and NOD-like receptor and apoptosis signaling pathways have the greatest impact on the disease. By the analysis of directed protein interaction networks, it is concluded that TNF, IL-6, AKT1, NOS3 and CDKN1A are the most important proteins. It is possible that these proteins play role in the shared complications of AD and CSMSL including xerosis and itching. PMID:24117202

  1. Short-term synaptic plasticity in the deterministic Tsodyks–Markram model leads to unpredictable network dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Cortes, Jesus M.; Desroches, Mathieu; Rodrigues, Serafim; Veltz, Romain; Muñoz, Miguel A.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    2013-01-01

    Short-term synaptic plasticity strongly affects the neural dynamics of cortical networks. The Tsodyks and Markram (TM) model for short-term synaptic plasticity accurately accounts for a wide range of physiological responses at different types of cortical synapses. Here, we report a route to chaotic behavior via a Shilnikov homoclinic bifurcation that dynamically organizes some of the responses in the TM model. In particular, the presence of such a homoclinic bifurcation strongly affects the shape of the trajectories in the phase space and induces highly irregular transient dynamics; indeed, in the vicinity of the Shilnikov homoclinic bifurcation, the number of population spikes and their precise timing are unpredictable and highly sensitive to the initial conditions. Such an irregular deterministic dynamics has its counterpart in stochastic/network versions of the TM model: The existence of the Shilnikov homoclinic bifurcation generates complex and irregular spiking patterns and—acting as a sort of springboard—facilitates transitions between the down-state and unstable periodic orbits. The interplay between the (deterministic) homoclinic bifurcation and stochastic effects may give rise to some of the complex dynamics observed in neural systems. PMID:24062464

  2. Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maughan, George R.; Petitto, Karen R.; McLaughlin, Don

    2001-01-01

    Describes the connectivity features and options of modern campus communication and information system networks, including signal transmission (wire-based and wireless), signal switching, convergence of networks, and network assessment variables, to enable campus leaders to make sound future-oriented decisions. (EV)

  3. Version 2 data of the National Science Foundation's Ultraviolet Radiation Monitoring Network: South Pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhard, G.; Booth, C. R.; Ehramjian, J. C.

    2004-11-01

    Spectral ultraviolet (UV) and visible irradiance has been measured at the South Pole between 1991 and 2003 by a SUV-100 spectroradiometer, which is part of the U.S. National Science Foundation's UV Monitoring Network. Here we present a new data edition, labeled "Version 2." The new version was corrected for wavelength shift errors and deviations of the spectroradiometer from the ideal cosine response. A comprehensive uncertainty budget of the new data set was established. Below 400 nm the expanded standard uncertainty (coverage factor 2) varies between 4.6 and 7.2%, depending on wavelength and sky condition. The uncertainty of biologically relevant UV irradiances is approximately 6%. Compared to the previously published data set, Version 2 UV data are higher by 5-14%, depending on wavelength, solar zenith angle (SZA), and year of observation. By comparing Version 2 data with results of a radiative transfer model, the good consistency and homogeneity of the new data set were confirmed. The data set is used to establish a UV climatology for the South Pole, focusing on the effects of aerosols, clouds, and total column ozone. Clouds are predominantly optically thin; 71% of all clouds have an optical depth between 0 and 1. The average attenuation of UV irradiance at 345 nm by clouds is less than 5% and no attenuations greater than 23% were observed. Attenuation by homogeneous clouds is generally larger in the visible than in the UV. The wavelength dependence of cloud attenuation is quantitatively explained with the wavelength-dependent radiance distribution on top of clouds and the incidence-angle dependence of cloud transmittance. Largest radiation levels occur in late November and early December when low stratospheric ozone amounts coincide with relatively small SZAs. Owing to the large effect of the "ozone hole," short- and long-term variability of UV during the austral spring is very high. When the ozone hole disappears, DNA-damaging irradiance can decrease by more

  4. Designing a national soil erosion monitoring network for England and Wales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lark, Murray; Rawlins, Barry; Anderson, Karen; Evans, Martin; Farrow, Luke; Glendell, Miriam; James, Mike; Rickson, Jane; Quine, Timothy; Quinton, John; Brazier, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Although soil erosion is recognised as a significant threat to sustainable land use and may be a priority for action in any forthcoming EU Soil Framework Directive, those responsible for setting national policy with respect to erosion are constrained by a lack of robust, representative, data at large spatial scales. This reflects the process-orientated nature of much soil erosion research. Recognising this limitation, The UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) established a project to pilot a cost-effective framework for monitoring of soil erosion in England and Wales (E&W). The pilot will compare different soil erosion monitoring methods at a site scale and provide statistical information for the final design of the full national monitoring network that will: provide unbiased estimates of the spatial mean of soil erosion rate across E&W (tonnes ha-1 yr-1) for each of three land-use classes - arable and horticultural grassland upland and semi-natural habitats quantify the uncertainty of these estimates with confidence intervals. Probability (design-based) sampling provides most efficient unbiased estimates of spatial means. In this study, a 16 hectare area (a square of 400 x 400 m) positioned at the centre of a 1-km grid cell, selected at random from mapped land use across E&W, provided the sampling support for measurement of erosion rates, with at least 94% of the support area corresponding to the target land use classes. Very small or zero erosion rates likely to be encountered at many sites reduce the sampling efficiency and make it difficult to compare different methods of soil erosion monitoring. Therefore, to increase the proportion of samples with larger erosion rates without biasing our estimates, we increased the inclusion probability density in areas where the erosion rate is likely to be large by using stratified random sampling. First, each sampling domain (land use class in E&W) was divided into strata; e.g. two sub

  5. Calibration and Validation of the National Ecological Observatory Network's Airborne Imaging Spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leisso, N.

    2015-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is being constructed by the National Science Foundation and is slated for completion in 2017. NEON is designed to collect data to improve the understanding of changes in observed ecosystems. The observatory will produce data products on a variety of spatial and temporal scales collected from individual sites strategically located across the U.S. including Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico. Data sources include standardized terrestrial, instrumental, and aquatic observation systems in addition to three airborne remote sensing observation systems installed into leased Twin Otter aircraft. The Airborne Observation Platforms (AOP) are designed to collect 3-band aerial imagery, waveform and discrete LiDAR, and high-fidelity imaging spectroscopy data over the NEON sites annually at or near peak-greenness. The NEON Imaging Spectrometer (NIS) is a Visible and Shortwave Infrared (VSWIR) sensor designed by NASA JPL for ecological applications. Spectroscopic data is collected at 5-nm intervals across the solar-reflective spectral region (380-nm to 2500-nm) in a 34-degree FOV swath. A key uncertainty driver to the derived remote sensing NEON data products is the calibration of the imaging spectrometers. In addition, the calibration and accuracy of the higher-level data product algorithms is essential to the overall NEON mission to detect changes in the collected ecosystems over the 30-year expected lifetime. The typical calibration workflow of the NIS consists of the characterizing the focal plane, spectral calibration, and radiometric calibration. Laboratory spectral calibration is based on well-defined emission lines in conjunction with a scanning monochromator to define the individual spectral response functions. The radiometric calibration is NIST traceable and transferred to the NIS with an integrating sphere calibrated through the use of transfer radiometers. The laboratory calibration is monitored and maintained through

  6. SU-E-P-19: A National Collaborative Academic Medical Physics Network: Structure, Activity and Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Thwaites, D

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: A national Australian inter-university medical physics (MP) group was formed in 2011/12, supported by Department of Health Better Access to Radiation Oncology BARO) seed funding. Core membership includes the six universities providing postgraduate MP courses. Objectives include increasing capacity, development and efficiency of national academic MP structures/systems and hence supporting education, clinical training and research, for the MP workforce support. Although the BARO scheme focuses on Radiation Oncology, the group has wider MP interests. Methods: Two further BARO seed grants were achieved: 1) for networked academic activities, including shared-resource teaching, eg using virtual reality systems; MP outreach to schools and undergraduates; developing web-based student and registrar education/resources, etc.; and 2) for conjoint ‘translational research’ posts between universities and partner hospitals, to clinically progress advanced RT technologies and to support students and registrars. Each university received 0.5 FTE post from each grant over 2 years (total: $1.75M) and leveraged local additional partner funds. Results: Total funding: $4–5M. Overall there have been 35 (mainly overseas) postholders bringing specific expertise, beginning in early 2013. Periods in Australia have been from 0.25–2 years (median=1). As well as the education activities, research projects include lung/spine SBRT, 4D RT, FFF beams, technology assessment, complex treatment planning, imaging for radiation oncology, DIR, adaptive breast, datamining, radiomics,etc. Observed positive impacts include: increased interest in MP courses, training support, translational research infrastructure and/or clinical practice in the hospitals involved, plus increased collaboration and effectiveness between the universities. Posts are continuing beyond grant end using leveraged funds, providing the basis for sustainability of some posts. Conclusion: The BARO-funded projects have

  7. Opportunities for Condensed Matter Research at the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network (http://www.nnin.org)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Sandip

    2004-03-01

    A major challenge in science and engineering research at the nano-scale, and particularly for condensed matter, is the availability of infrastructure that can allow easy and quick implementation of structures, devices, or more complex systems necessary for making rigorous measurements or for other exploratory directions of interest. The experiments connect across length scales - nanometer and up, employ a variety of materials and techniques of assembly and patterning, and require a complex knowledge-mix derived from other research areas and tools that require skill and are hard to access. The National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network (NNIN; www.nnin.org) is an NSF-funded infrastructure of open shared facilities across the country that enables the national community to pursue research and technology development that can benefit from nanotechnology. The NNIN provides easy hands-on access to external users, remote usage, staff support, low cost usage, knowledge infrastructure, and brings together an extensive coordinated array of instruments for fabrication, synthesis, and characterization together with other infrastructure. Particularly relevant to condensed matter physics (e.g., in experiments involving single-electron transistor or its use in ultra-sensitive measurements, or measurements across a single nano-scale structure such as a molecule or a nanocrystal, development of new apparatus that allows X-ray measurements of soft materials, etc.) is the ability to integrate the small length scale through synthesis and electron-beam lithography, growth and deposition of a variety materials with controlled properties, patterning of complex shapes in the three-dimensions, connecting such structures, characterization, and the ability to achieve this quickly and at low cost. NNIN tool resources that span focused-ion beam, electron microscopy, spectroscopic techniques, etc. for characterization; synthesis, growth, deposition, etc. for assembling; lithography, etching

  8. Big Data for Big Questions: Global Soil Change and the National Soil Carbon Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nave, L. E.; Swanston, C.

    2010-12-01

    studies, the mean recovery time for forest floor C was 128 yr. In a broader context, these results demonstrate that combining database work with quantitative synthesis (such as meta-analysis) allows scientists to detect large-scale patterns that are obscured by variation within individual studies. And, in addition to improving analytical capacity for addressing large questions, large databases are useful for identifying data gaps in global soil change research. In light of these benefits, now is an opportune time to advance the study of global soil change by networking and sharing data with the National Soil Carbon Network. The NSCN seeks participants in an effort to compile databases, answer big-picture, predictive questions about soil C vulnerability, and identify and fill data gaps and research needs. The NSCN seeks to be a facilitator that links existing resources rather than reinvents them, and offers opportunities for a variety of activities, including sharing sites, data, archives, and lab infrastructure. The NSCN is fundamentally collaborative, and operates under the assumption that our shared scientific interest in global soil change will be best advanced if we work together rather than in isolation.

  9. Between the national and the universal: natural history networks in Latin America in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Regina Horta

    2013-12-01

    This essay examines contemporary Latin American historical writing about natural history from the nineteenth through the twentieth centuries. Natural history is a "network science," woven out of connections and communications between diverse people and centers of scholarship, all against a backdrop of complex political and economic changes. Latin American naturalists navigated a tension between promoting national science and participating in "universal" science. These tensions between the national and the universal have also been reflected in historical writing on Latin America. Since the 1980s, narratives that recognize Latin Americans' active role have become more notable within the renewal of the history of Latin American science. However, the nationalist slant of these approaches has kept Latin American historiography on the margins. The networked nature of natural history and Latin America's active role in it afford an opportunity to end the historiographic isolation of Latin America and situate it within world history. PMID:24783494

  10. An Investigation Into Bayesian Networks for Modeling National Ignition Facility Capsule Implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Mitrani, J

    2008-08-18

    Bayesian networks (BN) are an excellent tool for modeling uncertainties in systems with several interdependent variables. A BN is a directed acyclic graph, and consists of a structure, or the set of directional links between variables that depend on other variables, and conditional probabilities (CP) for each variable. In this project, we apply BN's to understand uncertainties in NIF ignition experiments. One can represent various physical properties of National Ignition Facility (NIF) capsule implosions as variables in a BN. A dataset containing simulations of NIF capsule implosions was provided. The dataset was generated from a radiation hydrodynamics code, and it contained 120 simulations of 16 variables. Relevant knowledge about the physics of NIF capsule implosions and greedy search algorithms were used to search for hypothetical structures for a BN. Our preliminary results found 6 links between variables in the dataset. However, we thought there should have been more links between the dataset variables based on the physics of NIF capsule implosions. Important reasons for the paucity of links are the relatively small size of the dataset, and the sampling of the values for dataset variables. Another factor that might have caused the paucity of links is the fact that in the dataset, 20% of the simulations represented successful fusion, and 80% didn't, (simulations of unsuccessful fusion are useful for measuring certain diagnostics) which skewed the distributions of several variables, and possibly reduced the number of links. Nevertheless, by illustrating the interdependencies and conditional probabilities of several parameters and diagnostics, an accurate and complete BN built from an appropriate simulation set would provide uncertainty quantification for NIF capsule implosions.

  11. Trauma histories among justice-involved youth: findings from the National Child Traumatic Stress Network

    PubMed Central

    Dierkhising, Carly B.; Ko, Susan J.; Woods-Jaeger, Briana; Briggs, Ernestine C.; Lee, Robert; Pynoos, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Up to 90% of justice-involved youth report exposure to some type of traumatic event. On average, 70% of youth meet criteria for a mental health disorder with approximately 30% of youth meeting criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Justice-involved youth are also at risk for substance use and academic problems, and child welfare involvement. Yet, less is known about the details of their trauma histories, and associations among trauma details, mental health problems, and associated risk factors. Objective This study describes detailed trauma histories, mental health problems, and associated risk factors (i.e., academic problems, substance/alcohol use, and concurrent child welfare involvement) among adolescents with recent involvement in the juvenile justice system. Method The National Child Traumatic Stress Network Core Data Set (NCTSN-CDS) is used to address these aims, among which 658 adolescents report recent involvement in the juvenile justice system as indexed by being detained or under community supervision by the juvenile court. Results Age of onset of trauma exposure was within the first 5 years of life for 62% of youth and approximately one-third of youth report exposure to multiple or co-occurring trauma types each year into adolescence. Mental health problems are prevalent with 23.6% of youth meeting criteria for PTSD, 66.1% in the clinical range for externalizing problems, and 45.5% in the clinical range for internalizing problems. Early age of onset of trauma exposure was differentially associated with mental health problems and related risk factors among males and females. Conclusions The results indicate that justice-involved youth report high rates of trauma exposure and that this trauma typically begins early in life, is often in multiple contexts, and persists over time. Findings provide support for establishing trauma-informed juvenile justice systems that can respond to the needs of traumatized youth. PMID:23869252

  12. Physician behaviors to promote informed decisions for prostate cancer screening: a National Research Network study.

    PubMed

    Linder, Suzanne K; Kallen, Michael A; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Galliher, James M; Swank, Paul R; Chan, Evelyn C Y; Volk, Robert J

    2014-06-01

    Clinical guidelines for prostate cancer screening (PCS) advise physicians to discuss the potential harms and benefits of screening. However, there is a lack of training programs for informed decision-making (IDM), and it is unknown which IDM behaviors physicians have the most difficulty performing. Identifying difficult behaviors can help tailor training programs. In the context of developing a physician-IDM program for PCS, we aimed to describe physicians' use of nine key IDM behaviors for the PCS discussion and to examine the relation between the behaviors and physician characteristics. A cross-sectional sample of The American Academy of Family Physicians National Research Network completed surveys about their behavior regarding PCS (N = 246; response rate = 58%). The surveys included nine physician key IDM behaviors for PCS and a single-item question describing their general practice style for PCS. The most common IDM behavior was to invite men to ask questions. The two least common reported behaviors concerned patients uncertain about screening (i.e., arrange follow-up and provide additional information for undecided men). Physicians reported difficulty with these two behaviors regardless whether they reported to discuss or not to discuss PCS with patients. Reported use of key IDM behaviors was associated with a general practice style for PCS and being affiliated with a residency-training program. Physician training programs for IDM should include physician skills to address the needs of patients uncertain about screening. Future research should determine if actual behavior is associated with self-reported behavior for the PCS discussion. PMID:24488590

  13. General Dentists’ Use of Isolation Techniques During Root Canal Treatment: from the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Nathaniel C.; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Funkhouser, Ellen; Eleazer, Paul D.; Benjamin, Paul L.; Worley, Donald C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A preliminary study done by a National Dental Practice-Based Research Network precursor observed that 44% of general dentists (GDs) reported always using a rubber dam (RD) during root canal treatment (RCT). This full-scale study quantified use of all isolation techniques, including RD use. Methods Network practitioners completed a questionnaire about isolation techniques used during RCT. Network Enrollment Questionnaire data provided practitioner characteristics. Results 1,490 of 1,716 eligible GDs participated (87%); 697 (47%) reported always using a RD. This percentage varied by tooth type. These GDs were more likely to always use a RD: do not own a private practice; perform less than 10 RCT/month; have postgraduate training. Conclusions Most GDs do not use a RD all the time. Ironically, RDs are used more frequently by GDs who do not perform molar RCT. RD use varies with tooth type and certain dentist, practice, and patient characteristics. PMID:26015159

  14. Physical Activity and Blood Lead Concentration in Korea: Study Using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008–2013)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity normally has a positive influence on health, however it can be detrimental in the presence of air pollution. Lead, a heavy metal with established adverse health effects, is a major air pollutant. We evaluated the correlation between blood lead concentration and physical activity using data collected from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed after dividing participants according to whether they were in the top 25% in the distribution of blood lead concentration (i.e., ≥ 2.76 µg/dL), with physical activity level as an independent variable and adjusting for factors such as age, sex, drinking, smoking, body mass index, region, and occupation. The high physical activity group had greater odds of having a blood lead concentration higher than 2.76 µg/dL (odds ratio 1.29, 95% CI 1.11–1.51) compared to the low physical activity group. Furthermore, blood lead concentration is correlated with increasing physical activity. PMID:27247492

  15. Physical Activity and Blood Lead Concentration in Korea: Study Using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2013).

    PubMed

    Rhie, Jeongbae; Lee, Hye-Eun

    2016-06-01

    Physical activity normally has a positive influence on health, however it can be detrimental in the presence of air pollution. Lead, a heavy metal with established adverse health effects, is a major air pollutant. We evaluated the correlation between blood lead concentration and physical activity using data collected from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed after dividing participants according to whether they were in the top 25% in the distribution of blood lead concentration (i.e., ≥ 2.76 µg/dL), with physical activity level as an independent variable and adjusting for factors such as age, sex, drinking, smoking, body mass index, region, and occupation. The high physical activity group had greater odds of having a blood lead concentration higher than 2.76 µg/dL (odds ratio 1.29, 95% CI 1.11-1.51) compared to the low physical activity group. Furthermore, blood lead concentration is correlated with increasing physical activity. PMID:27247492

  16. Anti-social networking: crowdsourcing and the cyber defence of national critical infrastructures.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Chris W

    2014-01-01

    We identify four roles that social networking plays in the 'attribution problem', which obscures whether or not cyber-attacks were state-sponsored. First, social networks motivate individuals to participate in Distributed Denial of Service attacks by providing malware and identifying potential targets. Second, attackers use an individual's social network to focus attacks, through spear phishing. Recipients are more likely to open infected attachments when they come from a trusted source. Third, social networking infrastructures create disposable architectures to coordinate attacks through command and control servers. The ubiquitous nature of these architectures makes it difficult to determine who owns and operates the servers. Finally, governments recruit anti-social criminal networks to launch attacks on third-party infrastructures using botnets. The closing sections identify a roadmap to increase resilience against the 'dark side' of social networking. PMID:23826703

  17. MercNet: A national monitoring network to assess responses to changing mercury emissions in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmeltz, D.; Evers, D.C.; Driscoll, C.T.; Artz, R.; Cohen, M.; Gay, D.; Haeuber, R.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Mason, R.; Morris, K.; Wiener, J.G.

    2011-01-01

    A partnership of federal and state agencies, tribes, industry, and scientists from academic research and environmental organizations is establishing a national, policy-relevant mercury monitoring network, called MercNet, to address key questions concerning changes in anthropogenic mercury emissions and deposition, associated linkages to ecosystem effects, and recovery from mercury contamination. This network would quantify mercury in the atmosphere, land, water, and biota in terrestrial, freshwater, and coastal ecosystems to provide a national scientific capability for evaluating the benefits and effectiveness of emission controls. Program development began with two workshops, convened to establish network goals, to select key indicators for monitoring, to propose a geographic network of monitoring sites, and to design a monitoring plan. MercNet relies strongly on multi-institutional partnerships to secure the capabilities and comprehensive data that are needed to develop, calibrate, and refine predictive mercury models and to guide effective management. Ongoing collaborative efforts include the: (1) development of regional multi-media databases on mercury in the Laurentian Great Lakes, northeastern United States, and eastern Canada; (2) syntheses and reporting of these data for the scientific and policy communities; and (3) evaluation of potential monitoring sites. The MercNet approach could be applied to the development of other monitoring programs, such as emerging efforts to monitor and assess global mercury emission controls. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC (outside the USA).

  18. MercNet: a national monitoring network to assess responses to changing mercury emissions in the United States.

    PubMed

    Schmeltz, David; Evers, David C; Driscoll, Charles T; Artz, Richard; Cohen, Mark; Gay, David; Haeuber, Richard; Krabbenhoft, David P; Mason, Robert; Morris, Kristi; Wiener, James G

    2011-10-01

    A partnership of federal and state agencies, tribes, industry, and scientists from academic research and environmental organizations is establishing a national, policy-relevant mercury monitoring network, called MercNet, to address key questions concerning changes in anthropogenic mercury emissions and deposition, associated linkages to ecosystem effects, and recovery from mercury contamination. This network would quantify mercury in the atmosphere, land, water, and biota in terrestrial, freshwater, and coastal ecosystems to provide a national scientific capability for evaluating the benefits and effectiveness of emission controls. Program development began with two workshops, convened to establish network goals, to select key indicators for monitoring, to propose a geographic network of monitoring sites, and to design a monitoring plan. MercNet relies strongly on multi-institutional partnerships to secure the capabilities and comprehensive data that are needed to develop, calibrate, and refine predictive mercury models and to guide effective management. Ongoing collaborative efforts include the: (1) development of regional multi-media databases on mercury in the Laurentian Great Lakes, northeastern United States, and eastern Canada; (2) syntheses and reporting of these data for the scientific and policy communities; and (3) evaluation of potential monitoring sites. The MercNet approach could be applied to the development of other monitoring programs, such as emerging efforts to monitor and assess global mercury emission controls. PMID:21901443

  19. Networking strategies of the microscopy community for improved utilization of advanced instruments: (2) The national network for transmission electron microscopy and atom probe studies in France (METSA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Épicier, Thierry; Snoeck, Étienne

    2014-02-01

    With the development, over the past ten years, of a new generation of electron microscopes with advanced performance, incorporating aberration correctors, monochromators, more sensitive detectors, and innovative specimen environments, quantitative measurements at the subnanometer and, in certain cases, at the unique atom level, are now accessible. However, an optimized use of these possibilities requires access to costly instruments and support by specialized trained experts. For these reasons, a national network (METSA) has been created in France with the support of CNRS and CEA in order to offer, in centres with complementary equipment and expertise, an open access to an enlarged and multidisciplinary community of academic and industrial users.

  20. Asymmetric friction of non-motor MAPs can lead to their directional motion in active microtubule networks

    PubMed Central

    Forth, Scott; Hsia, Kuo-Chiang; Shimamoto, Yuta; Kapoor, Tarun M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Diverse cellular processes require microtubules to be organized into distinct structures, such as asters or bundles. Within these dynamic motifs, microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) are frequently under load, but how force modulates these proteins’ function is poorly understood. Here, we combine optical-trapping with TIRF-based microscopy to measure the force-dependence of microtubule interaction for three non-motor MAPs (NuMA, PRC1, and EB1) required for cell division. We find that frictional forces increase non-linearly with MAP velocity across microtubules and depend on filament polarity, with NuMA’s friction being lower when moving towards minus-ends, EB1’s lower towards plus-ends, and PRC1 exhibiting no directional preference. Mathematical models predict, and experiments confirm, that MAPs with asymmetric friction can move directionally within active microtubule pairs they crosslink. Our findings reveal how non-motor MAPs can generate frictional resistance in dynamic cytoskeletal networks via micromechanical adaptations whose anisotropy may be optimized for MAP localization and function within cellular structures. PMID:24725408

  1. Lone-pair distribution and plumbite network formation in high lead silicate glass, 80PbO·20SiO2.

    PubMed

    Alderman, Oliver L G; Hannon, Alex C; Holland, Diane; Feller, Steve; Lehr, Gloria; Vitale, Adam J; Hoppe, Uwe; Zimmerman, Martin v; Watenphul, Anke

    2013-06-14

    For the first time a detailed structural model has been determined which shows how the lone-pairs of electrons are arranged relative to each other in a glass network containing lone-pair cations. High energy X-ray and neutron diffraction patterns of a very high lead content silicate glass (80PbO·20SiO2) have been used to build three-dimensional models using empirical potential structure refinement. Coordination number and bond angle distributions reveal structural similarity to crystalline Pb11Si3O17 and α- and β-PbO, and therefore strong evidence for a plumbite glass network built from pyramidal [PbO(m)] polyhedra (m ~ 3-4), with stereochemically active lone-pairs, although with greater disorder in the first coordination shell of lead compared to the first coordination shell of silicon. The oxygen atoms are coordinated predominantly to four cations. Explicit introduction of lone-pair entities into some models leads to modification of the local Pb environment, whilst still allowing for reproduction of the measured diffraction patterns, thus demonstrating the non-uniqueness of the solutions. Nonetheless, the models share many features with crystalline Pb11Si3O17, including the O-Pb-O bond angle distribution, which is more highly structured than reported for lower Pb content glasses using reverse Monte Carlo techniques. The lone-pair separation of 2.85 Å in the model glasses compares favourably with that estimated in α-PbO as 2.88 Å, and these lone-pairs organise to create voids in the glass, just as they create channels in Pb11Si3O17 and interlayer spaces in the PbO polymorphs. PMID:23657606

  2. Creating the Evidence through Comparative Effectiveness Research for Interprofessional Education and Collaborative Practice by Deploying a National Intervention Network and a National Data Repository

    PubMed Central

    Pechacek, Judith; Cerra, Frank; Brandt, Barbara; Lutfiyya, May Nawal; Delaney, Connie

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is currently a resurgence of interest in interprofessional education and collaborative practice (IPECP) and its potential to positively impact health outcomes at both the patient level and population level, healthcare delivery, and health professions education. This resurgence of interest led to the creation of the National Center on Interprofessional Collaborative Practice and Education in October 2012. Methods: This paper describes three intertwined knowledge generation strategies of the National Center on Interprofessional Practice and Education: (1) the development of a Nexus Incubator Network, (2) the undertaking of comparative effectiveness research, and (3) the creation of a National Center Data Repository. Results: As these strategies are implemented over time they will result in the production of empirically grounded knowledge regarding the direction and scope of the impact, if any, of IPECP on well-defined health and healthcare outcomes including the possible improvement of the patient experience of care. Conclusions: Among the motivating factors for the National Center and the three strategies adopted and addressed herein is the need for rigorously produced, scientifically sound evidence regarding IPECP and whether or not it has the capacity to positively affect the patient experience of care, the health of populations, and the per capita cost of healthcare. PMID:27417753

  3. How Can the USA National Phenology Network's Data Resource Benefit You? Recent Applications of the Phenology Data and Information Housed in the National Phenology Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crimmins, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN; www.usanpn.org) serves science and society by promoting a broad understanding of plant and animal phenology and the relationships among phenological patterns and all aspects of environmental change. The National Phenology Database, maintained by the USA-NPN, is experiencing steady growth in the number of data records it houses. Since 2009, over 5,500 participants in Nature's Notebook, the national-scale, multi-taxa phenology observation program coordinated by the USA-NPN, have contributed nearly 6 million observation records of plants and animals. The phenology data curated by the USA-NPN are being used in a rapidly growing number of applications for science, conservation and resource management. Data and data products generated by the USA-NPN have been used in 17 peer-reviewed publications to date. Additionally, phenology data collected via Nature's Notebook is actively informing decisions ranging from efficiently scheduling street-sweeping activities to keep dropped leaves from entering inland lakes, to timing the spread of herbicide or other restoration activities to maximize their efficacy. We demonstrate several types of questions that can be addressed with this observing system and the resultant data, and highlight several ongoing local- to national-scale projects as well as some recently published studies. Additional data-mining and exploration by interested researchers and resource managers will undoubtedly continue to demonstrate the value of these data.

  4. Environmental Cadmium and Lead Exposures and Hearing Loss in U.S. Adults: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999 to 2004

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoon-Hyeong; Hu, Howard; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Miller, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although cadmium and lead are known risk factors for hearing loss in animal models, few epidemiologic studies have been conducted on their associations with hearing ability in the general population. Objectives: We investigated the associations between blood cadmium and lead exposure and hearing loss in the U.S. general population while controlling for noise and other major risk factors contributing to hearing loss. Methods: We analyzed data from 3,698 U.S. adults 20–69 years of age who had been randomly assigned to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004 Audiometry Examination Component. Pure-tone averages (PTA) of hearing thresholds at frequencies of 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz were computed, and hearing loss was defined as a PTA > 25 dB in either ear. Results: The weighted geometric means of blood cadmium and lead were 0.40 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.39. 0.42] µg/L and 1.54 (95% CI: 1.49, 1.60) µg/dL, respectively. After adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical risk factors and exposure to occupational and nonoccupational noise, the highest (vs. lowest) quintiles of cadmium and lead were associated with 13.8% (95% CI: 4.6%, 23.8%) and 18.6% (95% CI: 7.4%, 31.1%) increases in PTA, respectively (p-trends < 0.05). Conclusions: Our results suggest that low-level exposure to cadmium and lead found in the general U.S. population may be important risk factors for hearing loss. The findings support efforts to reduce environmental cadmium and lead exposures. PMID:22851306

  5. Networking for Digital Preservation: Current Practice in 15 National Libraries. IFLA Publications 119

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verheul, Ingeborg

    2006-01-01

    In 2004-2005, The National Library of the Netherlands (Koninklijke Bibliotheek) conducted a survey for the IFLA-CDNL Alliance for Bibliographic Standards (ICABS)--an alliance founded jointly by the International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA), the Conference of Directors of National Libraries (CDNL) and the national libraries of…

  6. Association between secondhand smoke exposure and blood lead and cadmium concentration in community dwelling women: the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010–2012)

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Se Young; Kim, Suyeon; Lee, Kiheon; Kim, Ju Young; Bae, Woo Kyung; Lee, Keehyuck; Han, Jong-Soo; Kim, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the association between secondhand smoke exposure and blood lead and cadmium concentration in women in South Korea. Design Population-based cross-sectional study. Setting South Korea (Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V). Participants 1490 non-smoking women who took part in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010–2012), in which blood levels of lead and cadmium were measured. Primary outcome measures The primary outcome was blood levels of lead and cadmium in accordance with the duration of secondhand smoke exposure. Results The adjusted mean level of blood cadmium in women who were never exposed to secondhand smoke was 1.21 (0.02) µg/L. Among women who were exposed less than 1 h/day, the mean cadmium level was 1.13 (0.03) µg/L, and for those exposed for more than 1 h, the mean level was 1.46 (0.06) µg/L. In particular, there was a significant association between duration of secondhand smoke exposure at the workplace and blood cadmium concentration. The adjusted mean level of blood cadmium concentration in the never exposed women's group was less than that in the 1 h and more exposed group, and the 1 h and more at workplace exposed group: 1.20, 1.24 and 1.50 µg/L, respectively. We could not find any association between lead concentration in the blood and secondhand smoke exposure status. Conclusions This study showed that exposure to secondhand smoke and blood cadmium levels are associated. Especially, there was a significant association at the workplace. Therefore, social and political efforts for reducing the exposure to secondhand smoke at the workplace are needed in order to promote a healthier working environment for women. PMID:26185180

  7. Associations of Cadmium and Lead Exposure With Leukocyte Telomere Length: Findings From National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2002

    PubMed Central

    Zota, Ami R.; Needham, Belinda L.; Blackburn, Elizabeth H.; Lin, Jue; Park, Sung Kyun; Rehkopf, David H.; Epel, Elissa S.

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium and lead are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that might increase risks of cardiovascular disease and other aging-related diseases, but their relationships with leukocyte telomere length (LTL), a marker of cellular aging, are poorly understood. In experimental studies, they have been shown to induce telomere shortening, but no epidemiologic study to date has examined their associations with LTL in the general population. We examined associations of blood lead and cadmium (n = 6,796) and urine cadmium (n = 2,093) levels with LTL among a nationally representative sample of US adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2002). The study population geometric mean concentrations were 1.67 µg/dL (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.63, 1.70) for blood lead, 0.44 µg/L (95% CI: 0.42, 0.47) for blood cadmium, and 0.28 µg/L (95% CI: 0.27, 0.30) for urine cadmium. After adjustment for potential confounders, the highest (versus lowest) quartiles of blood and urine cadmium were associated with −5.54% (95% CI: −8.70, −2.37) and −4.50% (95% CI: −8.79, −0.20) shorter LTLs, respectively, with evidence of dose-response relationship (P for trend < 0.05). There was no association between blood lead concentration and LTL. These findings provide further evidence of physiological impacts of cadmium at environmental levels and might provide insight into biological pathways underlying cadmium toxicity and chronic disease risks. PMID:25504027

  8. Networking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duvall, Betty

    Networking is an information giving and receiving system, a support system, and a means whereby women can get ahead in careers--either in new jobs or in current positions. Networking information can create many opportunities: women can talk about how other women handle situations and tasks, and previously established contacts can be used in…

  9. EPA's National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (NDAMN): Design, implementation, and final results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorber, Matthew; Ferrario, Joseph; Byrne, Christian

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) established the National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (NDAMN) in June of 1998, and operated it until November of 2004. The objective of NDAMN was to determine background air concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs). NDAMN started with 10 sampling sites, adding more over time until the final count of 34 sites was reached by the beginning of 2003. Samples were taken quarterly, and the final sample count was 685. All samples were measured for 17 PCDD/PCDF congeners, 8 PCDD/PCDF homologue groups, and 7 dl-PCBs (note: 5 additional dl-PCBs were added for samples starting in the summer of 2002; 317 samples had measurements of 12 dl-PCBs). The overall average total toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentration in the United States was 11.2 fg TEQ m-3 with dl-PCBs contributing 0.8 fg TEQ m-3 (7%) to this total. The archetype dioxin and furan background air congener profile was seen in the survey averages and in most individual samples. This archetype profile is characterized by low and similar concentrations for tetra - through hexa PCDD/PCDF congeners, with elevations in four congeners - a hepta dioxin and furan congener, and both octa congeners. Sites were generally categorized as urban (4 sites), rural (23 sites), or remote (7 sites). The average TEQ concentrations over all sites and samples within these categories were: urban = 15.9 fg TEQ m-3, rural = 13.9 fg TEQ m-3, and remote = 1.2 fg TEQ m-3. Rural sites showed elevations during the fall or winter months when compared to the spring or summer months, and the same might be said for urban sites, but the remote sites appear to show little variation over time. The four highest individual moment measurements were 847, 292, 241, and 132 fg TEQ m-3. For the 847 and 292 fg TEQ m-3 samples, the concentrations of all congeners were elevated over their site averages, but for

  10. An interpretation of differences between field and laboratory pH values reported by the national atmospheric deposition program/national trends network monitoring program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bigelow, D.S.; Sisterson, D.L.; Schroder, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    Differences between field and laboratory pH values reported by the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) monitoring program from 1984 through 1986 are investigated. Median differences in hydrogen ion concentration between laboratory and field pH determinations at sites averaged -4.6 ??equiv/L in natural precipitation samples on an annual basis. The median difference found in external quality assurance samples analyzed during the same time period was -11 ??equiv/L. The results suggest a systematic bias in pH values reported by the NADP/NTN network. The bias appears to have a fixed component of approximately -7 ??equiv/L, which can be attributed to the sampling bucket and lid, and a seasonal and regional component that ranges from +4 to -22 ??equiv/L at the 10th and 90th percentiles. Differences were found to be independent of sample pH and sample volume. The magnitude of the bias has implications for the interpretation of previously published pH and hydrogen ion concentration and deposition values in the western United States.

  11. Sandia`s network for Supercomputing `94: Linking the Los Alamos, Lawrence Livermore, and Sandia National Laboratories using switched multimegabit data service

    SciTech Connect

    Vahle, M.O.; Gossage, S.A.; Brenkosh, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    Supercomputing `94, a high-performance computing and communications conference, was held November 14th through 18th, 1994 in Washington DC. For the past four years, Sandia National Laboratories has used this conference to showcase and focus its communications and networking endeavors. At the 1994 conference, Sandia built a Switched Multimegabit Data Service (SMDS) network running at 44.736 megabits per second linking its private SMDS network between its facilities in Albuquerque, New Mexico and Livermore, California to the convention center in Washington, D.C. For the show, the network was also extended from Sandia, New Mexico to Los Alamos National Laboratory and from Sandia, California to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This paper documents and describes this network and how it was used at the conference.

  12. The national stream quality accounting network: A flux-basedapproach to monitoring the water quality of large rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hooper, R.P.; Aulenbach, Brent T.; Kelly, V.J.

    2001-01-01

    Estimating the annual mass flux at a network of fixed stations is one approach to characterizing water quality of large rivers. The interpretive context provided by annual flux includes identifying source and sink areas for constituents and estimating the loadings to receiving waters, such as reservoirs or the ocean. Since 1995, the US Geological Survey's National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) has employed this approach at a network of 39 stations in four of the largest river basins of the USA: The Mississippi, the Columbia, the Colorado and the Rio Grande. In this paper, the design of NASQAN is described and its effectiveness at characterizing the water quality of these rivers is evaluated using data from the first 3 years of operation. A broad range of constituents was measured by NASQAN, including trace organic and inorganic chemicals, major ions, sediment and nutrients. Where possible, a regression model relating concentration to discharge and season was used to interpolate between chemical observations for flux estimation. For water-quality network design, the most important finding from NASQAN was the importance of having a specific objective (that is, estimating annual mass flux) and, from that, an explicitly stated data analysis strategy, namely the use of regression models to interpolate between observations. The use of such models aided in the design of sampling strategy and provided a context for data review. The regression models essentially form null hypotheses for concentration variation that can be evaluated by the observed data. The feedback between network operation and data collection established by the hypothesis tests places the water-quality network on a firm scientific footing.

  13. The National Stream Quality Accounting Network: a flux-based approach to monitoring the water quality of large rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, Richard P.; Aulenbach, Brent T.; Kelly, Valerie J.

    2001-05-01

    Estimating the annual mass flux at a network of fixed stations is one approach to characterizing water quality of large rivers. The interpretive context provided by annual flux includes identifying source and sink areas for constituents and estimating the loadings to receiving waters, such as reservoirs or the ocean. Since 1995, the US Geological Survey's National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) has employed this approach at a network of 39 stations in four of the largest river basins of the USA: the Mississippi, the Columbia, the Colorado and the Rio Grande. In this paper, the design of NASQAN is described and its effectiveness at characterizing the water quality of these rivers is evaluated using data from the first 3 years of operation. A broad range of constituents was measured by NASQAN, including trace organic and inorganic chemicals, major ions, sediment and nutrients. Where possible, a regression model relating concentration to discharge and season was used to interpolate between chemical observations for flux estimation. For water-quality network design, the most important finding from NASQAN was the importance of having a specific objective (that is, estimating annual mass flux) and, from that, an explicitly stated data analysis strategy, namely the use of regression models to interpolate between observations. The use of such models aided in the design of sampling strategy and provided a context for data review. The regression models essentially form null hypotheses for concentration variation that can be evaluated by the observed data. The feedback between network operation and data collection established by the hypothesis tests places the water-quality network on a firm scientific footing. Published in 2001 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Earthquake source imaging by high-resolution array analysis at regional distances: the 2010 M7 Haiti earthquake as seen by the Venezuela National Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, L.; Ampuero, J. P.; Rendon, H.

    2010-12-01

    Back projection of teleseismic waves based on array processing has become a popular technique for earthquake source imaging,in particular to track the areas of the source that generate the strongest high frequency radiation. The technique has been previously applied to study the rupture process of the Sumatra earthquake and the supershear rupture of the Kunlun earthquakes. Here we attempt to image the Haiti earthquake using the data recorded by Venezuela National Seismic Network (VNSN). The network is composed of 22 broad-band stations with an East-West oriented geometry, and is located approximately 10 degrees away from Haiti in the perpendicular direction to the Enriquillo fault strike. This is the first opportunity to exploit the privileged position of the VNSN to study large earthquake ruptures in the Caribbean region. This is also a great opportunity to explore the back projection scheme of the crustal Pn phase at regional distances,which provides unique complementary insights to the teleseismic source inversions. The challenge in the analysis of the 2010 M7.0 Haiti earthquake is its very compact source region, possibly shorter than 30km, which is below the resolution limit of standard back projection techniques based on beamforming. Results of back projection analysis using the teleseismic USarray data reveal little details of the rupture process. To overcome the classical resolution limit we explored the Multiple Signal Classification method (MUSIC), a high-resolution array processing technique based on the signal-noise orthognality in the eigen space of the data covariance, which achieves both enhanced resolution and better ability to resolve closely spaced sources. We experiment with various synthetic earthquake scenarios to test the resolution. We find that MUSIC provides at least 3 times higher resolution than beamforming. We also study the inherent bias due to the interferences of coherent Green’s functions, which leads to a potential quantification

  15. A National Bibliographic/Resource Sharing Network for Canadian Academic Libraries. Proceedings of the Conference (Ste-Foy, Quebec, October 24-25, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Association of Research Libraries, Montreal (Quebec).

    These papers discuss various options for a computerized national bibliographic network and highlight the problems and potential of developing such a database. Following a brief explanation of the conference purpose and organization, 10 primary papers are presented: (1) "A Brief Overview of Computerized Library Networking in Canada," by Peter…

  16. Where Will LEAD Lead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildman, Louis

    After setting forth eight assumptions concerning the education of educational administrators, findings about the Leadership in Educational Administration Development (LEAD) program are discussed. The analysis is based on the first-year applications, telephone conversations with staff at a majority of the project sites, and additional material…

  17. Exploring mechanisms of spontaneous functional connectivity in MEG: how delayed network interactions lead to structured amplitude envelopes of band-pass filtered oscillations.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Joana; Luckhoo, Henry; Woolrich, Mark; Joensson, Morten; Mohseni, Hamid; Baker, Adam; Kringelbach, Morten L; Deco, Gustavo

    2014-04-15

    Spontaneous (or resting-state) brain activity has attracted a growing body of neuroimaging research over the last decades. Whole-brain network models have proved helpful to investigate the source of slow (<0.1 Hz) correlated hemodynamic fluctuations revealed in fMRI during rest. However, the mechanisms mediating resting-state long-distance correlations and the relationship with the faster neural activity remain unclear. Novel insights coming from MEG studies have shown that the amplitude envelopes of alpha- and beta-frequency oscillations (~8-30 Hz) display similar correlation patterns as the fMRI signals. In this work, we combine experimental and theoretical work to investigate the mechanisms of spontaneous MEG functional connectivity. Using a simple model of coupled oscillators adapted to incorporate realistic whole-brain connectivity and conduction delays, we explore how slow and structured amplitude envelopes of band-pass filtered signals - fairly reproducing MEG data collected from 10 healthy subjects at rest - are generated spontaneously in the space-time structure of the brain network. Our simulation results show that the large-scale neuroanatomical connectivity provides an optimal network structure to support a regime with metastable synchronization. In this regime, different subsystems may temporarily synchronize at reduced collective frequencies (falling in the 8-30 Hz range due to the delays) while the global system never fully synchronizes. This mechanism modulates the frequency of the oscillators on a slow time-scale (<0.1 Hz) leading to structured amplitude fluctuations of band-pass filtered signals. Taken overall, our results reveal that the structured amplitude envelope fluctuations observed in resting-state MEG data may originate from spontaneous synchronization mechanisms naturally occurring in the space-time structure of the brain. PMID:24321555

  18. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime International Network of Drug Dependence Treatment and Rehabilitation Resource Centres: Treatnet.

    PubMed

    Tomás-Rosselló, Juana; Rawson, Richard A; Zarza, Maria J; Bellows, Anne; Busse, Anja; Saenz, Elizabeth; Freese, Thomas; Shawkey, Mansour; Carise, Deni; Ali, Robert; Ling, Walter

    2010-10-01

    Key to the dissemination of evidence-based addiction treatments is the exchange of experiences and mutual support among treatment practitioners, as well as the availability of accurate addiction training materials and effective trainers. To address the shortage of such resources, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) created Treatnet, a network of 20 drug dependence treatment resource centers around the world. Treatnet's primary goal is to promote the use of effective addiction treatment practices. Phase I of this project included (1) selecting and establishing a network of geographically distributed centers; (2) conducting a capacity-building program consisting of a training needs assessment, development of training packages, and the training of 2 trainers per center in 1 content area each; and (3) creating good-practice documents. Data on the training activities conducted by the trainers during their first 6 months in the field are presented. Plans for Phase II of the Treatnet project are also discussed. PMID:21038179

  19. [From the national competence network for viral hepatitis (HepNet) emerged the German Liver Foundation (Deutsche Leberstiftung)].

    PubMed

    Hardtke, S; Wiebner, B; Manns, M P

    2016-04-01

    The competence network for viral hepatitis (HepNet) was founded in 2002 with funding from the German government and has influenced the research on viral hepatitis in Germany. HepNet collaborator sites have been involved in numerous national and international investigator-initiated, as well as industry-sponsored, phase 1-3 studies. Within the HepNet Study-House, many groundbreaking investor-initiated trials have been completed and are still ongoing. For example, the acute hepatitis C trials and trials on chronic hepatitis D (delta), which led to therapy optimization. Continuation of the competence network on viral hepatitis has been achieved by the foundation of the German Liver Foundation, which has been an external cooperation partner of the German Center for Infection Research (DZIF) for two years. The well-established HepNet Study-House acts here as the clinical trial platform for all DZIF hepatitis trials. PMID:26942931

  20. 78 FR 68030 - Draft Guidance on Intellectual Property Rights for the National Network for Manufacturing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... Register (77 FR 26509) and may be found at: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-05-04/pdf/2012-10809.pdf... Additive Manufacturing showed great promise for the defense, energy, space and commercial sectors of the Nation. In August, 2012, the selection of the National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Institute...

  1. Report of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Working Group: An Integrated Network for Congenital Heart Disease Research.

    PubMed

    Pasquali, Sara K; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Farber, Gregory K; Bertoch, David; Blume, Elizabeth D; Burns, Kristin M; Campbell, Robert; Chang, Anthony C; Chung, Wendy K; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Curtis, Lesley H; Forrest, Christopher B; Gaynor, William J; Gaies, Michael G; Go, Alan S; Henchey, Paul; Martin, Gerard R; Pearson, Gail; Pemberton, Victoria L; Schwartz, Steven M; Vincent, Robert; Kaltman, Jonathan R

    2016-04-01

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened a working group in January 2015 to explore issues related to an integrated data network for congenital heart disease research. The overall goal was to develop a common vision for how the rapidly increasing volumes of data captured across numerous sources can be managed, integrated, and analyzed to improve care and outcomes. This report summarizes the current landscape of congenital heart disease data, data integration methodologies used across other fields, key considerations for data integration models in congenital heart disease, and the short- and long-term vision and recommendations made by the working group. PMID:27045129

  2. Social Networks and Physical Activity Behaviors Among Cancer Survivors: Data From the 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey

    PubMed Central

    KIM, BANG HYUN; WALLINGTON, SHERRIE F.; MAKAMBI, KEPHER H.; ADAMS-CAMPBELL, LUCILE L.

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the relation between social networks and physical activity behaviors among cancer survivors. The authors examined 873 cancer survivors (596 women, 277 men) 50 years of age or older who participated in the 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that survivors who talked about health with friends/family were more likely to pay attention to new physical activity recommendations (OR = 2.89, CI [1.01, 8.33]). Female survivors were more likely to pay attention to new physical activity recommendations (OR = 2.65, CI [1.55, 4.53]) and more likely to have seen, heard, or read physical activity/exercise and cancer information within the past 12 months (OR = 2.09, CI [1.13, 3.85]) compared with their male counterparts. For male survivors, those who were a member of at least one community organization were more likely to pay attention to new physical activity/exercise recommendations (OR = 5.31, CI [1.32, 21.22]) than the men who were not members. Overall, cancer survivors with a social network (i.e., talking to family/friends about health) were more likely to pay attention to new exercise recommendations compared with those who did not have a social network. Significant differences were also observed by gender with physical activity levels, knowledge, and attitudes. Social networking is an important component in cancer survivorship and further research is needed to encourage social networking strategies that might facilitate in increasing physical activity behaviors among cancer survivors. PMID:25978562

  3. Social networks and physical activity behaviors among cancer survivors: data from the 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bang Hyun; Wallington, Sherrie F; Makambi, Kepher H; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the relation between social networks and physical activity behaviors among cancer survivors. The authors examined 873 cancer survivors (596 women, 277 men) 50 years of age or older who participated in the 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that survivors who talked about health with friends/family were more likely to pay attention to new physical activity recommendations (OR = 2.89, CI [1.01, 8.33]). Female survivors were more likely to pay attention to new physical activity recommendations (OR = 2.65, CI [1.55, 4.53]) and more likely to have seen, heard, or read physical activity/exercise and cancer information within the past 12 months (OR = 2.09, CI [1.13, 3.85]) compared with their male counterparts. For male survivors, those who were a member of at least one community organization were more likely to pay attention to new physical activity/exercise recommendations (OR = 5.31, CI [1.32, 21.22]) than the men who were not members. Overall, cancer survivors with a social network (i.e., talking to family/friends about health) were more likely to pay attention to new exercise recommendations compared with those who did not have a social network. Significant differences were also observed by gender with physical activity levels, knowledge, and attitudes. Social networking is an important component in cancer survivorship and further research is needed to encourage social networking strategies that might facilitate in increasing physical activity behaviors among cancer survivors. PMID:25978562

  4. Technology Programs That Work. A National Diffusion Network Resource of Exemplary Programs Approved by the Joint Dissemination Review Panel, Department of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Larry, Ed.

    This report presents brief descriptions of exemplary programs validated by the National Diffusion Network (NDN) and approved for national dissemination by the Joint Dissemination Review Panel, which focus specifically on the effective use of technology in education. As exemplary projects called Developer Demonstrators, 12 of the programs described…

  5. Environmental cadmium and lead exposures and age-related macular degeneration in U.S. adults: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005 to 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Erin W.; Schaumberg, Debra A.; Park, Sung Kyun

    2014-08-15

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex disease resulting from the interplay of genetic predisposition and environmental exposures, and has been linked to oxidative stress and inflammatory mechanisms. Lead and cadmium can accumulate in human retinal tissues and may damage the retina through oxidative stress, and may thereby play a role in the development of AMD. We examined associations between blood lead, blood cadmium, and urinary cadmium concentrations and the presence of AMD in 5390 participants aged 40 years and older with blood lead and blood cadmium measures and a subsample of 1548 with urinary cadmium measures in the 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. AMD was identified by grading retinal photographs with a modification of the Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System. The weighted prevalence of AMD was 6.6% (n=426). Controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education and body mass index, adults in the highest blood cadmium quartile had higher odds of AMD compared to the lowest quartile (odds ratio [OR], 1.56; 95% CI, 1.02–2.40), with a significant trend across quartiles (p-trend=0.02). After further adjustment for pack-years of cigarette smoking, estimates were somewhat attenuated (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 0.91–2.27; p-trend=0.08). Similar associations were found with urinary cadmium. The association between urinary cadmium and AMD was stronger in non-Hispanic whites (NHW) than in non-Hispanic blacks (NHB) (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 1.37–8.01 for levels above versus below the median among NHW; OR,1.45; 95% CI, 0.40–5.32 for levels above versus below the median among NHB; p-interaction=0.03). We found no association between blood lead levels and AMD. Higher cadmium body burden may increase risk of AMD, particularly among non-Hispanic white individuals; however, additional studies are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn. - Highlights: • We examined the association of cadmium and lead with age

  6. Issue Obtrusiveness and the Agenda-Setting Effects of National Network News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demers, David Pearce; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examines effects of issue obtrusiveness on network news agenda-setting. Tests two competing models: (1) obtrusive contingency (agenda-setting effects decrease as personal experience with issues increase); and (2) cognitive-priming contingency (agenda-setting effects increase as obtrusiveness increases). Finds no support for obtrusive contingency…

  7. World Bank's Global Development Learning Network: Sharing Knowledge Electronically between Nations To "Fight Poverty."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzo, George

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Global Development Learning Network (GDLN), a satellite-driven global communication system developed by the World Bank to help developing countries fight poverty and share in a global exchange of information. Explains Distance Learning Centers that are used by private and public organizations and institutions for distance education…

  8. 78 FR 24154 - Notice of Availability of a National Animal Health Laboratory Network Reorganization Concept Paper

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... Network Reorganization Concept Paper AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... Plant Health Inspection Service is making available a concept paper that describes a revised structure... paper we are making available for comment presents a structure we believe will give the NAHLN...

  9. Low-Cost, Robust, Threat-aware Wireless Sensor Network for Assuring the Nation's Energy Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Carlos H. Rentel

    2007-03-31

    The objective of this project was to create a low-cost, robust anticipatory wireless sensor network (A-WSN) to ensure the security and reliability of the United States energy infrastructure. This document highlights Eaton Corporation's plan to bring these technologies to market.

  10. Establishing a national knowledge translation and generation network in kidney disease: the CAnadian KidNey KNowledge TraNslation and GEneration NeTwork.

    PubMed

    Manns, Braden; Barrett, Brendan; Evans, Michael; Garg, Amit; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Kappel, Joanne; Klarenbach, Scott; Madore, Francois; Parfrey, Patrick; Samuel, Susan; Soroka, Steven; Suri, Rita; Tonelli, Marcello; Wald, Ron; Walsh, Michael; Zappitelli, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) do not always receive care consistent with guidelines, in part due to complexities in CKD management, lack of randomized trial data to inform care, and a failure to disseminate best practice. At a 2007 conference of key Canadian stakeholders in kidney disease, attendees noted that the impact of Canadian Society of Nephrology (CSN) guidelines was attenuated given limited formal linkages between the CSN Clinical Practice Guidelines Group, kidney researchers, decision makers and knowledge users, and that further knowledge was required to guide care in patients with kidney disease. The idea for the Canadian Kidney Knowledge Translation and Generation Network (CANN-NET) developed from this meeting. CANN-NET is a pan-Canadian network established in partnership with CSN, the Kidney Foundation of Canada and other professional societies to improve the care and outcomes of patients with and at risk for kidney disease. The initial priority areas for knowledge translation include improving optimal timing of dialysis initiation, and increasing the appropriate use of home dialysis. Given the urgent need for new knowledge, CANN-NET has also brought together a national group of experienced Canadian researchers to address knowledge gaps by encouraging and supporting multicentre randomized trials in priority areas, including management of cardiovascular disease in patients with kidney failure. PMID:25780597

  11. Quality of rivers of the United States, 1974 water year: based on the National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hawkinson, Richard O.; Ficke, John F.; Saindon, L.G.

    1977-01-01

    The National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) was established by the U.S Geological Survey to determine and compare the quality at key locations on the Nation 's major rivers. There are 345 stations in the network--data from the first 101 of these (those operating during the 1974 water year) are summarized in this report. Temperature data from NASQAN stations have been summarized for each station. At most stations the harmonic provides an estimate of daily temperatures with a standard error of estimate of 2.5 degrees C or less. According to 1974 water-year data summarized from NASQAN operations, water quality of the rivers of the United States is best (by most standards) in the Northeast, Southeast, and Northwest. Waters there generally are low in dissolved solids and major and minor chemical constitutents, generally are soft (except in Florida), and carry relatively small amounts of sediment. However, many of these waters carry moderate or high levels of major nutrients and have correspondingly high populations of attached and floating plants. High counts of indicator bacteria also show signs of local pollution at some sites. Rivers of most of the Midcontinent and Southwest are characterized by moderate to high levels of dissolved major and minor constituents, sediment, major nutrients, and biota (floating and attached aquatic plants and indicator bacteria. (Woodard-USGS)

  12. Subject bibliography of the PMA205 (Program Manager Air 205) Network Technical Library at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Ayers, M.V.

    1990-05-01

    The PMA205 (Program Manager Air 205) Network Technical Library at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contains documents relating to US Department of Defense standards for computer-based training technology and training and American National Standards Institute international standards for user interfaces and Computer-Aided Acquisition and Logistic Support. The collection emphasizes supporting research in instructional system design, software engineering, user system interfaces, human factors engineering, and cognitive psychology as it differentiates between higher and lower cognitive tasking. The collection currently consists of about 670 documents of various types. These include military standards and specifications, reports, conference proceedings, dissertations, technical manuals, books, journal articles, and military instructions and directives. The documents have been added to the library as the result of literature searches and personal submission from team members. It is a selective collection and not a comprehensive one. A database, written in Procite/PC, contains the cataloged holdings of the library. Each record contains the bibliographic information and an abstract. The database provides access to information in the records by either full text searches using Boolean logic or individual field searching. One-word quick searches'' can be performed on the date, title, or author fields. The browsing capability for retrieved items is by full record or brief format. Search results can be read from the screen, printed to hard copy, or transferred to a disk file for later use. Disks containing the database and printed bibliographies are available to PMA205 network team members upon request.

  13. A National network of schizophrenia expert centres: An innovative tool to bridge the research-practice gap.

    PubMed

    Schürhoff, F; Fond, G; Berna, F; Bulzacka, E; Vilain, J; Capdevielle, D; Misdrahi, D; Leboyer, M; Llorca, P-M

    2015-09-01

    Schizophrenia is probably the most severe psychiatric disorder with much suffering for the patients and huge costs for the society. Efforts to provide optimal care by general practitioners and psychiatrists are undermined by the complexity of the disorder and difficulties in applying clinical practice guidelines and new research findings to the spectrum of cases seen in day-to-day practice. An innovative model of assessment aimed at improving global care of people with schizophrenia provided by the French national network of schizophrenia expert centres is being described. Each centre has established strong links to local health services and provides support to clinicians in delivering personalized care plans. A common set of assessment tools has been adopted by the ten centres spread over the whole French territory. A web application, e-schizo(©) has been created to record data in a common computerized medical file. This network offers systematic, comprehensive, longitudinal, and multi-dimensional assessments of cases including a medical workup and an exhaustive neuropsychological evaluation. This strategy offers an effective way to transfer knowledge and share expertise. This network is a great opportunity to improve the global patient care and is conceived as being an infrastructure for research from observational cohort to translational research. PMID:26072427

  14. Earthquake Monitoring: SeisComp3 at the Swiss National Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clinton, J. F.; Diehl, T.; Cauzzi, C.; Kaestli, P.

    2011-12-01

    The Swiss Seismological Service (SED) has an ongoing responsibility to improve the seismicity monitoring capability for Switzerland. This is a crucial issue for a country with low background seismicity but where a large M6+ earthquake is expected in the next decades. With over 30 stations with spacing of ~25km, the SED operates one of the densest broadband networks in the world, which is complimented by ~ 50 realtime strong motion stations. The strong motion network is expected to grow with an additional ~80 stations over the next few years. Furthermore, the backbone of the network is complemented by broadband data from surrounding countries and temporary sub-networks for local monitoring of microseismicity (e.g. at geothermal sites). The variety of seismic monitoring responsibilities as well as the anticipated densifications of our network demands highly flexible processing software. We are transitioning all software to the SeisComP3 (SC3) framework. SC3 is a fully featured automated real-time earthquake monitoring software developed by GeoForschungZentrum Potsdam in collaboration with commercial partner, gempa GmbH. It is in its core open source, and becoming a community standard software for earthquake detection and waveform processing for regional and global networks across the globe. SC3 was originally developed for regional and global rapid monitoring of potentially tsunamagenic earthquakes. In order to fulfill the requirements of a local network recording moderate seismicity, SED has tuned configurations and added several modules. In this contribution, we present our SC3 implementation strategy, focusing on the detection and identification of seismicity on different scales. We operate several parallel processing "pipelines" to detect and locate local, regional and global seismicity. Additional pipelines with lower detection thresholds can be defined to monitor seismicity within dense subnets of the network. To be consistent with existing processing

  15. On how much biodiversity is covered in Europe by national protected areas and by the Natura 2000 network: insights from terrestrial vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Maiorano, L; Amori, G; Montemaggiori, A; Rondinini, C; Santini, L; Saura, S; Boitani, L

    2015-08-01

    The European Union has made extensive biodiversity conservation efforts with the Habitats and Birds Directives and with the establishment of the Natura 2000 network of protected areas, one of the largest networks of conservation areas worldwide. We performed a gap analysis of the entire Natura 2000 system plus national protected areas and all terrestrial vertebrates (freshwater fish excluded). We also evaluated the level of connectivity of both systems, providing therefore a first estimate of the functionality of the Natura 2000 system as an effective network of protected areas. Together national protected areas and the Natura 2000 network covered more than one-third of the European Union. National protected areas did not offer protection to 13 total gap species (i.e., species not covered by any protected area) or to almost 300 partial gap species (i.e., species whose representation target is not met). Together the Natura 2000 network and national protected areas left 1 total gap species and 121 partial gap species unprotected. The terrestrial vertebrates listed in the Habitats and Birds Directives were relatively well covered (especially birds), and overall connectivity was improved considerably by Natura 2000 sites that act as stepping stones between national protected areas. Overall, we found that the Natura 2000 network represents at continental level an important network of protected areas that acts as a good complement to existing national protected areas. However, a number of problems remain that are mainly linked to the criteria used to list the species in the Habitats and Birds Directives. The European Commission initiated in 2014 a process aimed at assessing the importance of the Birds and Habitats Directives for biodiversity conservation. Our results contribute to this assessment and suggest the system is largely effective for terrestrial vertebrates but would benefit from further updating of the species lists and field management. PMID:25997522

  16. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Experiments Stories Lessons Topics Games Activities Lessons MENU Lead Poisoning Kids Homepage Topics Pollution Lead Poisoning What is ... you can avoid contact with it! Sources of Lead Poisoning HOUSE PAINTS: Before1950, lead-based paint was used ...

  17. Lead Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... to determine lead sources, educating family members about lead poisoning , and instituting follow-up testing to monitor the ... high levels of lead, see the article on Lead Poisoning . The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has ...

  18. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Lead Poisoning What is it and who is affected? Lead is a highly toxic substance, exposure to which ... and children can suffer from the effects of lead poisoning, but childhood lead poisoning is much more frequent. ...

  19. Creating State and National Networks for Adolescent Literacy and Coaching: An Interview with Nancy L. Shanklin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanklin, Nancy L.; Moore, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Nancy L. Shanklin, an associate professor at the University of Colorado Denver, is the former director of the Literacy Coaching Clearinghouse, a joint project of the International Reading Association and National Council of Teachers of English. She advocates secondary-school coaching programs that apply what can be learned from experienced coaches…

  20. A walk through the hydroclimate network in Yosemite National Park: River chemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Dave; Smith, Richard; Hager, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    Visitors to Yosemite National Park (YNP) are fully aware of the weather, snowmelt, waterfalls (Photo 1), and river discharge and river and lake water temperature. They are not, however, thinking about river chemistry because you can’t see, hear, or feel it. So a river chemistry article in Nature Notes needs a familiar background before we break out the instruments.