Coronary heart disease (CHD) persists as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States, with more than 40% of all deaths each year directly attributed to the disease. Dyslipidemia is recognized as a major risk factor for the development and progression of CHD, with clinical trials clearly demonstrating the public health and economic benefits of favorable cholesterol modification. As a result of this evidence, the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) has developed guidelines for the detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults. The most recent of the NCEP recommendations, the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) guidelines, were released in May 2001 and build on the earlier editions and reiterate the importance of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction to modify CHD risk. New features of the guidelines include the identification of CHD risk equivalents; lower treatment target goals; an emphasis on conditions conferring a higher risk for CHD, such as the metabolic syndrome; and a scoring system for calculating CHD risk. The ATP III emphasis on risk assessment will result in a substantial increase in the number of patients considered at risk for CHD and will expand the number eligible for lifestyle and drug intervention. PMID:14613351
Lipsy, Robert J
Coronary heart disease (CHD) remains the leading cause of death in the United States with more than 40% of all deaths each year directly attributed to the disease. Current evidence suggests that early identification and aggressive modification of risk factors offer the most promising approach to reducing the burden of CHD. Dyslipidemia has been identified as the primary risk factor leading to the development of CHD. It is estimated that nearly 65 million Americans require some form of lipid-modification therapy. The National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) set of guidelines released in May 2001 provides physicians with evidence-based recommendations on the classification, diagnosis, and treatment of lipid disorders. New features of the guidelines include a scoring system for calculating CHD risk, as well as the identification of CHD risk equivalents, lower treatment target goals, and an emphasis on conditions conferring a higher risk for CHD, such as the metabolic syndrome. The ATP III emphasis on risk assessment substantially increases the number of patients considered at risk for CHD and will expand the number eligible for lifestyle and drug interventions. This article highlights the new recommendations and reviews the impact of ATP III on osteopathic physicians. PMID:12572622
Clearfield, Michael B
In order to elaborate evidence-based, national Danish guidelines for the treatment of diverticular disease the literature was reviewed concerning the epidemiology, staging, diagnosis and treatment of diverticular disease in all its aspects. The presence of colonic diverticula, which is considered to be a mucosal herniation through the intestinal muscle wall, is inversely correlated to the intake of dietary fibre. Other factors in the genesis of diverticular disease may be physical inactivity, obesity, and use of NSAIDs or acetaminophen. Diverticulosis is most common in Western countries with a prevalence of 5% in the population aged 30-39 years and 60% in the part of the population > 80 years. The incidence of hospitalization for acute diverticulitis is 71/100,000 and the incidence of complicated diverticulitis is 3.5-4/100,000. Acute diverticulitis is conveniently divided into uncomplicated and complicated diverticulitis. Complicated diverticulitis is staged by the Hinchey classification 1-4 (1: mesocolic/pericolic abscess, 2: pelvic abscess, 3: purulent peritonitis, 4: faecal peritonitis). Diverticulitis is suspected in case of lower left quadrant abdominal pain and tenderness associated with fever and raised WBC and/or CRP; but the clinical diagnosis is not sufficiently precise. Abdominal CT confirms the diagnosis and enables the classification of the disease according to Hinchey. The distinction between Hinchey 3 and 4 is done by laparoscopy or, when not possible, by laparotomy. Uncomplicated diverticulitis is treated by conservative means. There is no evidence of any beneficial effect of antibiotics in uncomplicated diverticulitis, but antibiotics may be used in selected cases depending on the overall condition of the patients and the severity of the infection. Abscess formation is best treated by US- or CT-guided drainage in combination with antibiotics. When the abscess is < 3 cm in diameter, drainage may be unnecessary, and only antibiotics should be instituted. The surgical treatment of acute perforated diverticulitis has interchanged between resection and non-resection strategies: The three-stage procedure dominating in the beginning of the 20th century was later replaced by the Hartmann procedure or, alternatively, resection of the sigmoid with primary anastomosis. Lately a non-resection strategy consisting of laparoscopy with peritoneal lavage and drainage has been introduced in the treatment of Hinchey stage 3 disease. Evidence so far for the lavage regime is promising, comparing favourably with resection strategies, but lacking in solid proof by randomized, controlled investigations. In recent years, morbidity has declined in complicated diverticulitis due to improved diagnostics and new treatment modalities. Recurrent diverticulitis is relatively rare and furthermore often uncomplicated than previously assumed. Elective surgery in diverticular disease should probably be limited to symptomatic cases not amenable to conservative measures, since prophylactic resection of the sigmoid, evaluated from present evidence, confers unnecessary risks in terms of morbidity and mortality to the individual as well as unnecessary costs to society. Any recommendation for routine resection following multiple cases of diverticulitis should await results of randomized studies. Laparoscopic resection is preferred in case of need for elective surgery. When malignancy is ruled out preoperatively, a sigmoid resection with preservation of the inferior mesenteric artery, oral division of colon in soft compliant tissue and anastomosis to upper rectum is recommended. Fistulae to bladder or vagina, or stenosis of the colon may be dealt with according to symptoms and comorbidity. Resection of the diseased segment of colon is preferred when possible and safe; alternatively, a diverting stoma can be the best solution. PMID:22549495
Andersen, Jens Christian; Bundgaard, Lars; Elbrønd, Henrik; Laurberg, Søren; Walker, Line Rosell; Støvring, Jens
In 2008, the Netherlands Association of Gastroenterologists and Hepatologists (Nederlands Vereniging van Maag-Darm-Leverartsen) published the Dutch national guidelines for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus infection. New insights into the treatment of chronic hepatitis B with relevance for clinical practice have been adopted in these concise, revised guidelines. The most important changes include the choice of initial antiviral therapy, licensing of tenofovir for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B and the management of antiviral resistance. PMID:23065990
Buster, E H C J; Baak, B C; Bakker, C M; Beuers, U H W; Brouwer, J T; Drenth, J P H; van Erpecum, K J; van Hoek, B; Honkoop, P; Kerbert-Dreteler, M J; Koek, G H; van Nieuwkerk, K M J; van Soest, H; van der Spek, B W; Tan, A C I T L; Vrolijk, J M; Janssen, H L A
The Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) of the National Cholesterol Education Program issued an evidence-based set of guidelines on cholesterol management in 2001. Since the publication of ATP III, 5 major clinical trials of statin therapy with clinical end points have been published. These trials addressed issues that were not examined in previous clinical trials of cholesterol-lowering therapy. The
Scott M. Grundy; James I. Cleeman; C. Noel Bairey Merz; H. Bryan Brewer Jr; Luther T. Clark; Donald B. Hunninghake; Richard C. Pasternak; Sidney C. Smith Jr; Neil J. Stone
Using recently updated guidelines to evaluate and manage lipid disorders is discussed. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a costly chronic condition associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Epidemiologic data further indicate that dyslipidemia and associated conditions, which may lead to CHD, are grossly undertreated. In 2001, the third National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III) released updated guidelines for the evaluation and treatment of lipid disorders. Significant changes to the updated guidelines include designation of a CHD risk equivalent category identifying patients who require aggressive management, recommendation of Framingham-based CHD risk assessment in patients with multiple risk factors, revised target levels for several of the lipids and lipoproteins, and criteria for the identification of patients with the metabolic syndrome. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) continues to be the primary target of therapy. In addition, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is now defined as a secondary treatment target in patients with hypertriglyceridemia. Increased emphasis is placed on the metabolic syndrome, low HDL-C levels, and the presence of multiple and emerging risk factors in guiding the intensity of therapy. The NCEP ATP III guidelines acknowledge challenges in implementing and maintaining patient adherence to both lifestyle changes and pharmacotherapy regimens and provide strategies for increasing treatment success. Implementation of these new guidelines will likely enhance identification, management, and treatment success rates among patients at risk for CHD in the United States. PMID:12901024
Talbert, Robert L
This publication is based on the work of The State Library of Ohio, the National Bookmobile Guidelines Committee, and staff of local Ohio bookmobile programs. Draft guidelines were approved by the 7th National Bookmobile Conference (May 31-June 2, 1992). The Guidelines provide brief statements of standards followed by specifics which indicate…
Ohio State Library, Columbus.
The treatment strategy for oral squamous cell carcinoma in Denmark has traditionally varied between the different head and neck oncology centres. A study group within the Danish Society for Head and Neck Oncology (DSHHO) was formed with the aim of optimising and standardising the treatment strategy. The approach was to use single modality treatment for stage I, stage II and some stage III and combined modality treatment for stage III and IV. Surgery was the preferred treatment when it was considered possible to perform a radical excision of the tumour and possible lymph node metastases with acceptable aesthetic and functional outcome. The implementation of a recognised national guideline facilitates prospective studies on a large well-characterised cohort. This increases the possibility of obtaining valid data on parameters such as morbidity, loco-regional control and survival. In addition the establishment of a reference program facilitates national monitoring of the treatment using defined indicators and standards. PMID:16644572
Bilde, Anders; von Buchwald, Christian; Johansen, Jørgen; Bastholt, Lars; Sørensen, Jens A H M; Marker, Peter; Krogdahl, Annelise; Hansen, Hanne Sand; Specht, Lena; Kirkegaard, Jørgen; Andersen, Elo; Bentzen, Jens; Hjort-Sørensen, Christian; Andersen, Lisbeth Juhler; Nielsen, Bengt Agathon; Bundgaard, Troels; Overgaard, Marie; Grau, Cai
Considerable data on the pathophysiology, epidemiology, and treatment of dyslipidemia-induced coronary heart disease (CHD) have accumulated in recent years. These data have been assessed and incorporated into the guidelines of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on the Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel [ATP] III). A major focus of the new guidelines is the assessment of the near-term (i.e., 10-yr) risk of experiencing a CHD event and matching the intensity of treatment to this risk. Patients with diabetes and those with a greater than 20% 10-year risk of experiencing a CHD event have been elevated to the risk level of CHD equivalent. The ATP III guidelines also modify several lipid and lipoprotein classifications. A low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) level below 100 mg/dl is now considered optimum for all individuals. In addition, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and triglyceride cutoff points have been modified to reflect more accurately the risk associated with abnormalities in these lipoproteins. As with the previous guidelines, the primary target of therapy remains LDL. Therapeutic lifestyle changes consisting of diet, weight reduction, and increased physical activity should be included in all treatment regimens. Based on their potent LDL-lowering properties and their proven ability to decrease mortality in a variety of patient populations, statins are generally the first choice for pharmacologic therapy. A secondary target of therapy includes non-HDL goals for patients with high triglyceride levels and the metabolic syndrome, which is characterized by abdominal obesity, elevated triglyceride levels, low HDL levels, and insulin resistance. Management of these secondary targets includes weight reduction and increased physical activity, and treatment of the lipid and nonlipid risk factors. Overall, ATP III represents an aggressive approach to treating dyslipidemia, greatly extending the number of individuals who qualify for treatment. PMID:14524636
McKenney, James M
The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) guidelines for lipid-lowering therapy to reduce coronary heart disease (CHD) risk contain a number of features that distinguish them from the previous ATP guidelines. These new features include modifications in lipid/lipoprotein levels considered optimal, abnormal, or reflective of risk; increased focus on primary prevention through use of Framingham risk scoring to define risk in persons with multiple lipid/nonlipid risk factors; and increased focus on the association of the metabolic syndrome with CHD risk. The introduction of the category of CHD risk equivalents-including persons with atherosclerotic disease, diabetes, or 10-year CHD risk > 20% based on Framingham scoring-results in an increase over previous guidelines in the proportion of patients categorized as being at high risk and therefore eligible for more intensive low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)-lowering therapy. Use of the new secondary therapeutic target of non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol should improve management of lipid risk factors in patients who have elevated triglyceride levels after LDL-C goals have been met. These new features of the NCEP ATP III guidelines should improve identification and treatment of patients with dyslipidemias associated with CHD risk. PMID:12708635
Brewer, H Bryan
This report is designed to provide practical assistance to government officials and librarians responsible for the planning, creation, and development of national library services. Based on a number of authoritative studies and a broad consensus among experts, including directors of national libraries, these guidelines give special attention to…
The third in seven sets of guidelines based on the consensus of experts in the treatment of psychiatric and behavioral problems in mental retardation (MR) focuses on psychosocial treatment. Guidelines cover general principles, choosing among psychosocial treatments, severity of MR and psychiatric/behavior symptoms, diagnosable disorders, target…
American Journal on Mental Retardation, 2000
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore the implementation of the current national guidelines for the treatment of acute pancreatitis. By taking pooled data from all available individual and regional audits, the study aimed to identify areas of consistent variance from the 'best practice' stipulated in the guidelines. METHODS: All published audits of the management of acute pancreatitis where treatment was compared to the current British Society of Gastroenterology guidelines for the treatment of acute pancreatitis were identified from a search of MEDLINE and the published abstracts of relevant specialty meetings. RESULTS: Five audits providing pooled data on 545 patients were identified. Overall mortality from severe disease was 8% (range, 4-17%). Definitive treatment of gallstone disease within 4 weeks of index attack was performed in 49% (range, 16-65%). High dependency or intensive care facilities for severe disease were available in 52% (range, 20-100%). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the presence of striking variations in the implementation of the current national guidelines for the treatment of acute pancreatitis.
Barnard, J.; Siriwardena, A. K.
South West Thames Regional Health Authority established and commissioned a regional guidelines unit to coordinate the introduction of a set of treatment guidelines on the management of common medical emergencies into all the acute intaking National Health Service (NHS) hospitals throughout the region. All hospitals were offered a set of template guidelines to be used at their discretion for producing their own customised equivalent. They were also offered full typing and production facilities, together with printing costs if publication was achieved by a target deadline (1 August 1993). In 11 of the 14 NHS hospitals guidelines were available to hospital staff by the target deadline, and one set was produced for a non-NHS hospital. In two hospitals the target date was not met, and one other declined to take part. As part of the project the unit assessed the extent to which the published guidelines were adapted to meet the requirements of each individual hospital. The template offered guidelines on 34 topic titles. No hospital used all core titles of the original template; titles were omitted or replaced in some, and added in others. Where the original guideline titles were used, there was almost always some customisation--changes in sentence structure, names or contact numbers, alterations in drugs and doses or the addition or omission of entire sections. By using an established resource, sets of customised, locally determined treatment guidelines were introduced with relative ease into most of the acute hospitals in a UK health region. PMID:7884707
Collier, J; Picton, C; Littlejohns, P
In this new Dutch guideline for hepatitis C virus infection we provide recommendations for the management of hepatitis C infection. Until 2012 the standard for treatment consisted of pegylated interferon alpha (peg-IFNa) and ribavirin. The advent of first-generation direct antiviral agents such as boceprevir and telaprevir has changed the concept of treatment of adult chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 infected patients. There are three benefits of boceprevir and telaprevir. They increase the likelihood of cure in 1) naive genotype 1 patients and 2) in patients who did not respond to earlier treatment with peg-IFNa and ribavirin, while 3) allowing shortening of treatment duration from 48 weeks to 24 or 28 weeks, which is possible in 40-60% of non-cirrhotic naive (boceprevir and telaprevir) and relapsing patients (telaprevir). The use of boceprevir and telaprevir is associated with multiple side effects and awareness of these side effects is needed to guide the patient through the treatment process. This guideline, formulated on behalf of The Netherlands Association of Hepato-gastroenterologists, The Netherlands Association of Internal Medicine, and The Dutch Association for the Study of Liver Disease, serves as a manual for physicians for the management and treatment of acute and chronic hepatitis C virus monoinfection in adults. PMID:24038567
Lamers, M H; Broekman, M M T J; Boucher, C A; Brouwer, J T; Burger, D M; van Hoek, B; Hoepelman, A I M; de Knegt, R J; Reesink, H W; Drenth, J P H
Diagnosis and treatment of hepatitis B and D virus infections mean that the patient is able to maintain working capacity, increase quality of life, prevent cancer, and prolong life expectancy, while the society benefits from eliminating the chances of further transmission of the viruses, and decreasing the overall costs of serious complications. The guideline delineates the treatment algorithms for 2014, which is agreed on a consensus meeting of specialists involved in the treatment of the above diseases. The prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection in the Hungarian general population is 0.5-0.7%. The indications of treatment is based upon viral examinations (including viral nucleic acid determination), determinations of disease activity and stage (including biochemical, pathologic, and/or non-invasive methods), and excluding contraindications. To avoid unnecessary side effects and for cost-effective approach the guideline emphasizes the importance of quick and detailed virologic evaluations, the applicability of transient elastography as an acceptable alternative of liver biopsy in this regard, as well as the relevance of appropriate consistent follow up schedule for viral response during therapy. The first choice of therapy in chronic hepatitis B infection can be pegylated interferon for 48 weeks or continuous entecavir or tenofovir therapy. The latter two must be continued for at least 12 months after hepatitis B surface antigen seroconversion. Adefovir dipivoxil is recommended mainly in combination therapy. Lamivudine is no longer a first choice; patients currently taking lamivudine must switch if response is inadequate. Appropriate treatment of patients taking immunosuppressive medications is highly recommended. Pegylated interferon based therapy is recommended for the treatment of concomitant hepatitis D infection. PMID:24631887
Horváth, Gábor; Hunyady, Béla; Gervain, Judit; Lengyel, Gabriella; Makara, Mihály; Pár, Alajos; Szalay, Ferenc; Telegdy, László; Tornai, István
The Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) of the National Cholesterol Education Program issued an evidence-based set of guidelines on cholesterol management in 2001. Since the publication of ATP III, 5 major clinical trials of statin therapy with clinical end points have been published. These trials addressed issues that were not examined in previous clinical trials of cholesterol-lowering therapy. The present document reviews the results of these recent trials and assesses their implications for cholesterol management. Therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLC) remain an essential modality in clinical management. The trials confirm the benefit of cholesterol-lowering therapy in high-risk patients and support the ATP III treatment goal of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) <100 mg/dL. They support the inclusion of patients with diabetes in the high-risk category and confirm the benefits of LDL-lowering therapy in these patients. They further confirm that older persons benefit from therapeutic lowering of LDL-C. The major recommendations for modifications to footnote the ATP III treatment algorithm are the following. In high-risk persons, the recommended LDL-C goal is <100 mg/dL, but when risk is very high, an LDL-C goal of <70 mg/dL is a therapeutic option, ie, a reasonable clinical strategy, on the basis of available clinical trial evidence. This therapeutic option extends also to patients at very high risk who have a baseline LDL-C <100 mg/dL. Moreover, when a high-risk patient has high triglycerides or low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), consideration can be given to combining a fibrate or nicotinic acid with an LDL-lowering drug. For moderately high-risk persons (2+ risk factors and 10-year risk 10% to 20%), the recommended LDL-C goal is <130 mg/dL, but an LDL-C goal <100 mg/dL is a therapeutic option on the basis of recent trial evidence. The latter option extends also to moderately high-risk persons with a baseline LDL-C of 100 to 129 mg/dL. When LDL-lowering drug therapy is employed in high-risk or moderately high-risk persons, it is advised that intensity of therapy be sufficient to achieve at least a 30% to 40% reduction in LDL-C levels. Moreover, any person at high risk or moderately high risk who has lifestyle-related risk factors (eg, obesity, physical inactivity, elevated triglycerides, low HDL-C, or metabolic syndrome) is a candidate for TLC to modify these risk factors regardless of LDL-C level. Finally, for people in lower-risk categories, recent clinical trials do not modify the goals and cutpoints of therapy. PMID:15297292
Grundy, Scott M; Cleeman, James I; Merz, C Noel Bairey; Brewer, H Bryan; Clark, Luther T; Hunninghake, Donald B; Pasternak, Richard C; Smith, Sidney C; Stone, Neil J
The Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) of the National Cholesterol Education Program issued an evidence-based set of guidelines on cholesterol management in 2001. Since the publication of ATP III, 5 major clinical trials of statin therapy with clinical end points have been published. These trials addressed issues that were not examined in previous clinical trials of cholesterol-lowering therapy. The present document reviews the results of these recent trials and assesses their implications for cholesterol management. Therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLC) remain an essential modality in clinical management. The trials confirm the benefit of cholesterol-lowering therapy in high-risk patients and support the ATP III treatment goal of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) <100 mg/dL. They support the inclusion of patients with diabetes in the high-risk category and confirm the benefits of LDL-lowering therapy in these patients. They further confirm that older persons benefit from therapeutic lowering of LDL-C. The major recommendations for modifications to footnote the ATP III treatment algorithm are the following. In high-risk persons, the recommended LDL-C goal is <100 mg/dL, but when risk is very high, an LDL-C goal of <70 mg/dL is a therapeutic option, ie, a reasonable clinical strategy, on the basis of available clinical trial evidence. This therapeutic option extends also to patients at very high risk who have a baseline LDL-C < 100 mg/dL. Moreover, when a high-risk patient has high triglycerides or low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), consideration can be given to combining a fibrate or nicotinic acid with an LDL-lowering drug. For moderately high-risk persons (2+ risk factors and 10-year risk 10% to 20%), the recommended LDL-C goal is <130 mg/dL, but an LDL-C goal <100 mg/dL is a therapeutic option on the basis of recent trial evidence. The latter option extends also to moderately high-risk persons with a baseline LDL-C of 100 to 129 mg/dL. When LDL-lowering drug therapy is employed in high-risk or moderately high-risk persons, it is advised that intensity of therapy be sufficient to achieve at least a 30% to 40% reduction in LDL-C levels. Moreover, any person at high risk or moderately high risk who has lifestyle-related risk factors (eg, obesity, physical inactivity, elevated triglycerides, low HDL-C, or metabolic syndrome) is a candidate for TLC to modify these risk factors regardless of LDL-C level. Finally, for people in lower-risk categories, recent clinical trials do not modify the goals and cutpoints of therapy. PMID:15358046
Grundy, Scott M; Cleeman, James I; Merz, C Noel Bairey; Brewer, H Bryan; Clark, Luther T; Hunninghake, Donald B; Pasternak, Richard C; Smith, Sidney C; Stone, Neil J
The Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) of the National Cholesterol Education Program issued an evidence-based set of guidelines on cholesterol management in 2001. Since the publication of ATP III, 5 major clinical trials of statin therapy with clinical end points have been published. These trials addressed issues that were not examined in previous clinical trials of cholesterol-lowering therapy. The present document reviews the results of these recent trials and assesses their implications for cholesterol management. Therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLC) remain an essential modality in clinical management. The trials confirm the benefit of cholesterol-lowering therapy in high-risk patients and support the ATP III treatment goal of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) <100 mg/dL. They support the inclusion of patients with diabetes in the high-risk category and confirm the benefits of LDL-lowering therapy in these patients. They further confirm that older persons benefit from therapeutic lowering of LDL-C. The major recommendations for modifications to footnote the ATP III treatment algorithm are the following. In high-risk persons, the recommended LDL-C goal is <100 mg/dL, but when risk is very high, an LDL-C goal of <70 mg/dL is a therapeutic option, ie, a reasonable clinical strategy, on the basis of available clinical trial evidence. This therapeutic option extends also to patients at very high risk who have a baseline LDL-C <100 mg/dL. Moreover, when a high-risk patient has high triglycerides or low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), consideration can be given to combining a fibrate or nicotinic acid with an LDL-lowering drug. For moderately high-risk persons (2+ risk factors and 10-year risk 10% to 20%), the recommended LDL-C goal is <130 mg/dL, but an LDL-C goal <100 mg/dL is a therapeutic option on the basis of recent trial evidence. The latter option extends also to moderately high-risk persons with a baseline LDL-C of 100 to 129 mg/dL. When LDL-lowering drug therapy is employed in high-risk or moderately high-risk persons, it is advised that intensity of therapy be sufficient to achieve at least a 30% to 40% reduction in LDL-C levels. Moreover, any person at high risk or moderately high risk who has lifestyle-related risk factors (eg, obesity, physical inactivity, elevated triglycerides, low HDL-C, or metabolic syndrome) is a candidate for TLC to modify these risk factors regardless of LDL-C level. Finally, for people in lower-risk categories, recent clinical trials do not modify the goals and cutpoints of therapy. PMID:15249516
Grundy, Scott M; Cleeman, James I; Merz, C Noel Bairey; Brewer, H Bryan; Clark, Luther T; Hunninghake, Donald B; Pasternak, Richard C; Smith, Sidney C; Stone, Neil J
Well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of the stomach and pancreas represent 2 major subtypes of gastrointestinal NETs. Historically, there has been little consensus on the classification and management of patients with these tumor subtypes. We provide an overview of well-differentiated NETs of the stomach and pancreas and describe consensus guidelines for the treatment of patients with these malignancies.
Kulke, Matthew H.; Anthony, Lowell B.; Bushnell, David L.; de Herder, Wouter W.; Goldsmith, Stanley J.; Klimstra, David S.; Marx, Stephen J.; Pasieka, Janice L.; Pommier, Rodney F.; Yao, James C.; Jensen, Robert T.
All protocols sponsored by the Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis (DCTD), National Cancer Institute (NCI), are reviewed for safety and scientific integrity. Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program (CTEP) staff have developed standardized guidelines to express chemotherapy regimens in a uniform, clear and consistent manner. The intention of the guidelines is to minimize undue risks to patients on DCTD sponsored investigational clinical trials. DCTD-sponsored protocols will not be approved unless they comply with the Guidelines for Treatment Regimen Expression and Nomenclature.
(1) After negotiations with the Finnish Ministry of Social Affairs and Health, a national programme to promote prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of sleep apnoea for the years 2002-2012 has been prepared by the Finnish Lung Health Association on the basis of extensive collaboration. The programme needs to be revised as necessary, because of the rapid development in medical knowledge, and in appliance therapy in particular. (2) Sleep apnoea deteriorates slowly. Its typical features are snoring, interruptions of breathing during sleep and daytime tiredness. Sleep apnoea affects roughly 3% of middle-aged men and 2% of women. In Finland, there are approx. 150,000 sleep apnea patients, of which 15,000 patients have a severe disease, 50,000 patients are moderate and 85,000 have a mild form of the disease. Children are also affected by sleep apnea. A typical sleep apnea patient is a middle-aged man or a postmenopausal woman. (3) The obstruction of upper airways is essential in the occurrence of sleep apnoea. The obstruction can be caused by structural and/or functional factors. As for structural factors, there are various methods of intervention, such as to secure children's nasal respiration, to remove redundant soft tissue, as well as to correct malocclusions. It is possible to have an effect on the functional factors by treating well diseases predisposing to sleep apnoea, by reducing smoking, the consumption of alcohol and the use of medicines impairing the central nervous system. The most important single risk factor for sleep apnoea is obesity. (4) Untreated sleep apnoea leads to an increase morbidity and mortality through heart circulatory diseases and through accidents by tiredness. Untreated or undertreated sleep apnoea deteriorates a person's quality of life and working capacity. (5) The goals of the Programme for the prevention and treatment of sleep apnoea are as follows: (1) to decrease the incidence of sleep apnoea, (2) to ensure that as many patients as possible with sleep apnoea recover, (3) to maintain capacity for work and functional capacity of patients with sleep apnoea, (4) to reduce the percentage of patients with severe sleep apnoea, (5) to decrease the number of sleep apnoea patients requiring hospitalisation and (6) to improve cost effectiveness of prevention and treatment of sleep apnoea. (6) The following means are suggested for achieving the goals: (1) to promote prevention of obesity, weight loss and weight control; (2) to promote securing of nasal respiration in child patients and removal of obstructing redundant soft tissues; (3) to promote the correction of children's malocclusions, (4) to enhance knowledge about risk factors and treatment of sleep apnoea in key groups, (5) to promote early diagnosis and active treatment, (6) to commence rehabilitation early and individually as a part of treatment and (7) to encourage scientific research. (7) On the national level, the occurrence of sleep apnoea can be prevented, for example, by encouraging weight control. The programme gives examples of such measures and appeals to various authorities and voluntary organisations to reinforce their collaboration. Preventive measures should be individualised, and based on due consideration. (8) The efficacy of diagnosing sleep apnoea should be increased. Attention should be paid to the symptoms of risk group patients at different units of the primary and occupational health care. Even mild forms of the disease should be treated appropriately. Diagnosis and treatment of the disease involve cooperation between the primary and specialised health-care sectors. Methods of treatment are (1) treatment of obesity, (2) positional therapy, (3) reduction of the use of medicines impairing the central nervous system, (4) reduction of smoking and the consumption of alcohol, (5) devices affecting the position of the tongue and lower jaw, (6) treatment with Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP-treatment), (7) surgical methods of treatment and (8) rehabilitation. (9) The hierarchy of referrals in the prevention and treat
Laitinen, L A; Anttalainen, U; Pietinalho, A; Hämäläinen, P; Koskela, K
This booklet contains (1) the first issuance of the National Guidelines for Health Planning as they were published on March 28, 1978; (2) a reprinting from the Federal Register which consists of the Preambles to the final rule and to two notices of propos...
D. I. Zwick R. Hutchings L. C. Shannon
There is no worldwide consensus, as to how healthcare should be funded, in a modern society. Limited resources in the UK, have led to restrictions on cosmetic surgery in the NHS. Guidelines governing access to cosmetic surgery have been formulated. A retrospective audit has been undertaken, to assess adherence to local and national guidelines, in an NHS trust. Ninety-nine casenotes were reviewed over 1 year. Data on complications were collected. Compliance to local guidelines was 44% and to national guidelines was 22%. Complication rate was 23% in guideline compliant patients and 55% in non-compliant patients (P<0.005). Guidelines are difficult to follow in practice. Total adherence to guidelines would reduce waiting lists and complications, but some needy patients could be denied treatment. In practice, rigid adherence to guidelines is not possible. PMID:19775949
Breuning, Eleonore E; Oikonomou, Dimitris; Singh, Pritam; Rai, Jagdeep K; Mendonca, Derick Amith
Aim of Study: The aim of this study is to evaluate antihypertensive drug prescription patterns, rationality and adherence to Joint National Committee (JNC-7) hypertension (HT) treatment recommendations among Indian postmenopausal women (PMW). Materials and Methods: An observational and cross-sectional prospective prescription audit study was carried over a period of 1 year. A total of 500 prescriptions prescribed to PMW for diagnosed HT, were identified for one point analysis. Drug prescription patterns/trends, and their adherence to JNC-7 report as well as rationality using WHO guide to good prescribing was assessed. Results: In the monotherapy, category angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) accounted (24.8%), calcium channel blockers (CCBs) (19.4%), angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) (11%), beta blockers (BBs) (2.8%), and diuretics (2%) of the total prescription. Individually, amlodipine was maximally prescribed in 16.4%. 31.6% had double combination, whereas 2.2% and 1% had triple and four drug combinations, respectively. About 3.6% of the prescription contained antihypertensive combination along with other class of drug. ARBs + diuretic were observed in 11%, CCBs + BB 10% and ACEI + diuretic in 2.6% of the total prescriptions. Among the combination therapy amlodipine + atenolol (8.4%), telmisartan + hydrochlorothiazide (6%) and losartan + hydrochlorothiazide (4.4%) were maximally prescribed. 84.21% (P < 0.001) of the prescription showed nonadherence as per recommendations for pre-HT. 100% and 43.25% adherence rates were noticed for Stage 1 HT (P < 0.001) and Stage 2 HT (P > 0.05) patients. Conclusion: Antihypertensive prescription trends largely adhere to existing guidelines and are rational except polypharmacy, generic and fixed dose combinations prescribing, were some of the common pharmacologically considered irrationality noticed.
Tandon, Vishal R.; Sharma, Sudhaa; Mahajan, Shagun; Mahajan, Annil; Khajuria, Vijay; Mahajan, Vivek; Prakash, Chander
Background Chloroquine resistance (CR) decreased after the removal of chloroquine from national treatment guidelines in Malawi, Kenia and Tanzania. In this investigation the prevalence of the chloroquine resistance (CQR) conferring mutant pfcrt allele and its associated chromosomal haplotype were determined before and after the change in Gabonese national treatment guidelines from chloroquine (CQ) to artesunate plus amodiaquine (AQ) in 2003. Methods The prevalence of the wild type pfcrt allele was assessed in 144 isolates from the years 2005 - 07 by PCR fragment restriction digest and direct sequencing. For haplotype analysis of the chromosomal regions flanking the pfcrt locus, microsatellite analysis was done on a total of 145 isolates obtained in 1995/96 (43 isolates), 2002 (47 isolates) and 2005 - 07 (55 isolates). Results The prevalence of the mutant pfcrt allele decreased from 100% in the years 1995/96 and 2002 to 97% in 2005 - 07. Haplotype analysis showed that in 1995/96 79% of the isolates carried the same microsatellite alleles in a chromosomal fragment spanning 39 kb surrounding the pfcrt locus. In 2002 and 2005 - 07 the prevalence of this haplotype was 62% and 58%, respectively. Pfcrt haplotype analysis showed that all wild type alleles were CVMNK. Conclusion Four years after the withdrawal of CQ from national treatment guidelines the prevalence of the mutant pfcrt allele remains at 97%. The data suggest that the combination of artesunate plus AQ may result in continued selection for the mutant pfcrt haplotype even after discontinuance of CQ usage.
The EPRI Fossil Plant Cycle Chemistry Program, RP 2712, was developed in recognition of the importance of controlling cycle water and steam purity in attainment of maximized unit availability, reliability and efficiency. This guideline characterizes the state-of-the-art technology for production of cycle makeup water. It is intended to complement other RP 2712 projects in the areas of cycle chemistry guidelines, instrumentation and control, guideline demonstration and verification, and related subject areas. This guideline reviews available technology for and preferred approaches to production of fossil plant cycle makeup from various raw water supplies. Subject areas covered include makeup water source and source characteristics, unit processes comprising makeup treatment systems, guidelines for process selection, resin and membrane selection guidelines, techniques for monitoring performance and cost effectiveness, and waste disposal considerations. The report also identifies additional research activity needed to advance the state-of-the-art for makeup water treatment, results of a utility industry survey and other related topics. 72 refs., 60 figs., 74 tabs.
Cline, D.A. Jr.; Shields, K.J. (Powell (Sheppard T.) Associates, Baltimore, MD (USA))
1.1. A national recommendation for the promotion of prevention, treatment and rehabilitation in relation to chronic bronchitis and COPD from 1998 to 2007 has been prepared on the basis of extensive collaboration by order of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health. The Programme needs to be revised as necessary, because of rapid developments in medical knowledge, and in drug
Lauri A. Laitinen; Kaj Koskela
Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a report from the International Workshop on Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia updating the National Cancer Institute-Working Group 1996 guidelines
Standardized criteria for diagnosis and response assessment are needed to interpret and compare clinical trials and for approval of new therapeutic agents by regulatory agencies. Therefore, a National Cancer Institute–sponsored Working Group (NCI-WG) on chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) published guidelines for the design and conduct of clinical trials for patients with CLL in 1988, which were updated in 1996. During the past decade, considerable progress has been achieved in defining new prognostic markers, diagnostic parameters, and treatment options. This prompted the International Workshop on Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (IWCLL) to provide updated recommendations for the management of CLL in clinical trials and general practice.
Hallek, Michael; Cheson, Bruce D.; Catovsky, Daniel; Caligaris-Cappio, Federico; Dighiero, Guillaume; Dohner, Hartmut; Hillmen, Peter; Keating, Michael J.; Montserrat, Emili; Rai, Kanti R.; Kipps, Thomas J.
Health care providers who evaluate persons who have or are at risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) should be aware\\u000a of current national guidelines for STD treatment and should provide assessment and treatment according to these recommendations.\\u000a The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention STD Treatment Guidelines were developed by using an evidence-based approach\\u000a incorporating available scientific evidence, specialist knowledge,
Kimberly A. Workowski
Aims To report progress among Parties to the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in developing national tobacco treatment guidelines in accordance with FCTC Article 14 guideline recommendations. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Electronic survey from December 2011 to August 2012; participants were asked to complete either an online or attached Microsoft Word questionnaire. Participants One hundred and sixty-three of the 173 Parties to the FCTC at the time of our survey. Measurements The 51-item questionnaire contained 30 items specifically on guidelines. Questions covered the areas of guidelines writing process, content, key recommendations and other characteristics. Findings One hundred and twenty-one countries (73%) responded. Fifty-three countries (44%) had guidelines, ranging from 75% among high-income countries to 11% among low-income countries. Nearly all guidelines recommended brief advice (93%), intensive specialist support (93%) and medications (96%), while 66% recommended quitlines. Fifty-seven percent had a dissemination strategy, 76% stated funding source and 68% had professional endorsement. Conclusion Fewer than half of the Parties to the WHO FCTC have developed national tobacco treatment guidelines, but, where guidelines exist, they broadly follow FCTC Article 14 guideline recommendations.
Pine-Abata, Hembadoon; McNeill, Ann; Raw, Martin; Bitton, Asaf; Rigotti, Nancy; Murray, Rachael
Guidelines can be developed on a national or multinational level. There are discussions concerning the relevance of different guidelines at different regional levels. Guidelines' evaluation can be approached by looking at the items "awareness", "agreement", "adoption" and "adherence". To assess the awareness of national and European (EDF/EADV) guidelines as a means of guidelines' evaluation. Online survey in five selected European countries (Germany [D], Spain [E], France [F], Italy [I], and the United Kingdom [UK]) among 257 dermatologists assessing awareness of different guidelines (European [EDF/EADV], German, Spanish, French, British). Participants were volunteers registered with a field market research company database. Mean awareness of EDF/EADV guidelines in all countries was 54 %, with lower results in the UK (33 %) and Germany (37 %) and higher awareness in Spain (63 %) and Italy (79 %). Awareness of the national guidelines was very high within the respective countries (mean 92 %). The European guidelines where always the best known guidelines after the respective national guidelines. The most important tools for dissemination of all guidelines were the original publication (63 %) and scientific presentations (46 %).This study identified widespread interest in guidelines as assessed by the grade of awareness. Awareness of European guidelines was higher in countries with late development of national guidelines (i.e. Spain and Italy) compared to countries with early development of own national guidelines such as Germany and the UK. National guidelines can reach almost complete awareness within their respective countries. The original publication is still the most important dissemination tool for guidelines. PMID:23589094
Nast, Alexander; Mrowietz, Ulrich; Kragballe, Knud; Puig, Luis; Reich, Kristian; Warren, Richard B; Schmitt, Jochen
: The ACC/AHA 2013 cholesterol treatment guidelines focus on lowering the risk of heart disease and stroke and not on targeted treatment goals in adult patients. This article offers a synopsis of the new guidelines and how to apply them in clinical practice. PMID:24878833
Scordo, Kristine Anne
This article presents current research information on the treatment of panic disorder. Specific guidelines are presented to guide the mental health counselor in the delivery of effective psychopharmacological and cognitive-behavioral treatment. (Contains 81 references.) (Author)
Beamish, Patricia M.; Granello, Darcy Haag; Belcastro, Amy L.
The Italian's experience of the guidelines development group is discussed through the evaluation of its ten years of activity. Focus is placed on the Italian guidelines working group organization and on the kind of documents developed. The horizontal architecture of the system and the several partnerships settled over time allowed the definition of a small coordinating group connected with a multitude of territorial stakeholders, such as scientific societies and local health units pertaining to the Italian National Health System. Different kinds of documents were produced, as adaptations of already existing guidelines elaborated by international institutions, short reviews addressing specific clinical issues and consensus conferences aimed at providing clinical governance on issues which lack on evidence. The steps needed to produce a high quality guideline are presented, considering and comparing all the different international experiences, to define and discuss a common and well-structured methodology, and to face the ethical and epistemological implications of each method. The multidisciplinary of the working groups, the importance of the active surveillance on conflicts of interests, the definition of a minimum set of rules to be followed during the whole activity and the transparency of all the steps are the milestones of the Italian experience. The lack of a continuous and stable source of funding and the subsequent instability of the central structure are endangering all the knowledge and the experience gained during these years of activity. It is therefore crucial to guarantee and safeguard the role of a national, independent and public institution in the supervision of the guidelines development process and the provision of clinical governance. PMID:24736962
Mele, Alfonso; D'Angelo, Franca; Della Seta, Maurella; Lacorte, Eleonora; Laricchiuta, Paola; Morciano, Cristina; De Masi, Salvatore
Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents: Updated Guidelines From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institutes of Health, and HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.
In May 2013, a revised and updated version of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Institutes of Health/HIV Medicine Association Guidelines for Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents was released online. These guidelines, since their inception in 1989, have been widely accessed in the United States and abroad. These guidelines have focused on the management of HIV/AIDS-related opportunistic infections that occur in the United States. In other parts of the world, the spectrum of complications may be different and the resources available for diagnosis and management may not be identical to those in the United States. The sections that have been most extensively updated are those on immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, tuberculosis, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, human papillomavirus, and immunizations. The guidelines will not be published in hard copy form. This document will be revised as needed throughout each year as new data become available. PMID:24585567
Masur, Henry; Brooks, John T; Benson, Constance A; Holmes, King K; Pau, Alice K; Kaplan, Jonathan E
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), resulting from severe insulin deficiency, accounts for most hospitalization and is the most common cause of death, mostly due to cerebral edema, in pediatric diabetes. This article provides guidelines on management to restore perfusion, stop ongoing ketogenesis, correct electrolyte losses, and avoid hypokalemia and hypoglycemia and the circumstances that may contribute, in some instances, to cerebral edema
Arlan L. Rosenbloom; Ragnar Hanas
The ATP III report represents an important advance from previous ATP reports dating back to the late 1980s. The guidelines are more tightly evidence-based than previous reports, partly because of evolution of the guideline process, requiring clearly delineated links between evidence and recommendations and also because of the robust evidence base published over the last decade. An important change in ATP III is the expansion of the high-risk category to include patients without evident vascular disease, but with a level of risk equivalent to those patients with established CHD. This group termed "coronary heart disease equivalents" now includes patients with diabetes, and those with a 10-year absolute risk of over 20 percent for CHD events. With the ATP III report, the Framingham risk score is formally introduced into the guideline process. The scoring system allows for easy calculation of the absolute risk for an individual of having a "hard" CHD event (myocardial infarction, or CHD death). The report also discusses in detail concepts of lifetime or long-term risk. ATP III has broadened recommendations for lifestyle change termed "therapeutic lifestyle change (TLC)," and eliminated the step 1 and step 2 diet approach. Finally, the report details established approaches to improve adherence and provides patients and clinicians with a set of implementation tools to enhance use of the guidelines and compliance with the guidelines' recommendations. It is hoped that by improved understanding, recognition of a firm evidence base, and education through multiple channels, that adherence with the new ATP III guidelines will improve the care of our population by more effectively targeting lipid factors that lead to the development and progression of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. PMID:14621453
Pasternak, Richard C
Documenting patterns and outcomes of venous thromboembolism (VTE) management and degree of adherence by clinicians to treatment guidelines could help identify remediable gaps in patient care. Prospective, clinical practice-based data from Canadian outpatient settings on management of VTE, degree of adherence with treatment guidelines and frequency of recurrent VTE and bleeding during follow-up was obtained in a multicentre, prospective observational study. From 12 Canadian centres, we assessed 868 outpatients with acute symptomatic VTE who received the low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) enoxaparin alone or with vitamin K antagonists (VKA), at baseline and at six months (or at the end of treatment, whichever came first). Index VTE was limb deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in 583 (67.2%) patients, pulmonary embolism (PE) with or without DVT in 262 (30.2%) patients, and unusual site DVT in 23 (2.6%) patients. VTE was unprovoked in 399 (46.0%) patients, associated with cancer in 74 (8.5%) patients, transient risk factors in 327 (37.7%) patients and hormonal factors in 68 (7.8%) patients.With regard to guideline adherence, 58 (7.3%) patients received <5 days LMWH and 114 (14.5%) had overlap <1 day. Among patients with cancer-related VTE, 59.5% were prescribed LMWH monotherapy and 43.2% received such treatment for >3 months. Only 38.1% of patients with transient VTE risk factors had received thromboprophylaxis. Our study provides useful information on clinical presentation, management and related outcomes in Canadian outpatients with VTE. Our results suggest there may be important gaps in use of thromboprophylaxis to prevent VTE and use of LMWH monotherapy to treat cancer-related VTE. PMID:22782073
Kahn, Susan R; Springmann, Vicky; Schulman, Sam; Martineau, Josée; Stewart, John A; Komari, Nelly; McLeod, Anne; Strulovitch, Carla; Blostein, Mark; Faucher, Jacques-Philippe; Gamble, Greg; Gordon, Wendy; Kagoma, Peter K; Miron, Marie-José; Laverdière, David; Game, Melaku; Mills, Allan
Background: Clinical trials demonstrate significant ben- efit from cholesterol management for patients with car- diovascular disease (CVD). National guidelines recom- mending goals for screening and treatment were published in 1993 and widely disseminated. This study examines cholesterol screening and management by primary care physicians after the guidelines were released. Methods: Medical records and patient surveys pro- vided data for 603
Patrick McBride; Helmut G. Schrott; Mary Beth Plane; Gail Underbakke; Roger L. Brown
Abstract Objective To appraise the process of development and clinical content of national human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) clinical practice guidelines of countries in the eastern Mediterranean and to formulate recommendations for future guideline development and adaptation. Methods Twenty-three countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) Eastern Mediterranean and United Nations Children’s Fund Middle East and North Africa regions were invited to submit national HIV clinical practice guidelines for review. The guideline development methodology was assessed using an adaptation of the Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation (AGREE) instrument and guideline content, using a checklist to evaluate concordance with WHO 2006 generic guidelines. Findings Twelve countries submitted 20 guidelines developed between 2004 and 2009. Median scores were poor (i.e. 0.6) for the methodological quality domains of rigour of development, stakeholder involvement and applicability and flexibility. Scores were better for the domains of scope and purpose (median: 0.82, interquartile range, IQR: 0.58–0.89) and clarity and presentation (median: 0.67, IQR: 0.50–0.78). Concerning guideline content, recommended first-line treatment and eligibility criteria for antiretroviral therapy (ART) in adults were in line with WHO recommendations in most guidelines. However, recommendations on antiretroviral prophylaxis for the prevention of vertical HIV transmission, diagnosis and treatment of HIV infection in infants, monitoring patients on ART, treatment failure and co-morbidities were often lacking. Conclusion The large majority of national HIV clinical practice guidelines had methodological weaknesses and content inaccuracies. Countries require assistance with the adaptation process to ensure that guidelines are valid and up to date and accurately reflect WHO global clinical care recommendations for patients with HIV.
De Weggheleire, Anja; Bortolotti, Veronique; Zolfo, Maria; Crowley, Siobhan; Colebunders, Robert; Riedner, Gabriele
Invisalign is an increasingly popular technique for aligning teeth and correcting malocclusions orthodontically. This article analyzes the current professional literature published on Invisalign and the benefits and risks of using the technique for both patients and doctors. The steady increase in the number of cases treated with Invisalign and where the technique is going in the future is investigated. Ten guidelines for Invisalign treatment and patient selection are given, along with case examples. PMID:24851387
Kuncio, Daniel A
Background\\/Aim: Evidence-based guidelines for substance abuse treatment are available in many European countries. In Belgium, no such guidelines have been developed yet at a national level although their need has repeatedly been emphasized. This study aims to assess Belgian practitioners’ attitudes concerning evidence-based guidelines for substance abuse treatment. Methods: A survey was conducted with clinical coordinators in a representative sample
Mieke Autrique; Wouter Vanderplasschen; Eric Broekaert; Bernard Sabbe
...not have the force and effect of law), based on the national standards...Sustainable Fisheries Act, signed into law in 1996, added National Standard...Marine Information and Safety and Law Enforcement database system, and National...
Clinicians who treat children and adolescents with bipolar disorder desperately need current treatment guidelines. These guidelines were developed by expert consensus and a review of the extant literature about the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric bipolar disorders. The four sections of these guidelines include diagnosis, comorbidity, acute…
Kowatch, Robert A.; Fristad, Mary; Birmaher, Boris; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Findling, Robert L.; Hellander, Martha
Several theories behind implementing clinical guidelines have been described within the literature. At first sight, these may seem different. However, there are similarities and eventually they are rather complementary than mutually exclusive. This article integrates several theoretical views on implementation of pharmacotherapeutic treatment guidelines and subsequently addresses some empirical considerations. Furthermore, specific limitations and potential harms of implementating guidelines are
R. Fijn; J. R. B. J. Brouwers; J. W. Timmer; L. T. W. de jong-van den berg
While constipation is a common symptom in Korea, there are no existing treatment guidelines. Although constipation may occur as a result of organic cause, there is no obstructive mucosal or structural cause in the vast majority of patients with constipation. The present paper deals with only the management of functional constipation: lifestyle changes; bulking agents and stool softeners; osmotic agents; stimulant laxatives; prokinetics; biofeedback and surgical treatments. Exercise and dietary fiber are helpful in some patients with constipation. Laxatives including bulking agents, stool softeners, osmotic agents, and stimulant laxatives have been found to be more effective than placebo at relieving symptoms of constipation. New enterokinetic agents that affect peristalsis through selective interaction with 5-hydroxytryptamine-4 receptors can be effective in patients with constipation who cannot get adequate relief from current laxatives. Biofeedback can relieve symptoms in selected patients with pelvic floor dyssynergia. Surgical treatments can be helpful in some patients with refractory constipation. PMID:21350321
Park, Moo In; Shin, Jeong Eun; Myung, Seung Jae; Huh, Kyu Chan; Choi, Chang Hwan; Jung, Sung Ae; Choi, Suck Chei; Sohn, Chong Il; Choi, Myung Gyu
This guideline provides evidence-based guidance on the content of safer sex advice and the provision of brief behaviour change interventions deliverable in genitourinary (GU) medicine clinics. Much of the advice is applicable to other healthcare settings including general practice and clinics providing HIV care. Advice on condom use and effectiveness, oral sex and other sexual practices, testing for sexually transmitted infections (STI) and partner reduction is provided. Advice specific to the transmission of HIV infection including seroadaptive behaviours and negotiated safety is also included. An accompanying review of the evidence supporting the guideline with a complete reference list is available online. A patient information leaflet based on the advice statements developed is also available through the BASHH website. PMID:22807529
Clutterbuck, D J; Flowers, P; Barber, T; Wilson, H; Nelson, M; Hedge, B; Kapp, S; Fakoya, A; Sullivan, A K
Background—There is currently a political enthusiasm for the development and use of clinical guidelines despite, paradoxically, there being relatively few healthcare issues that have a sound research evidence base. As decisions have to be made even where there is an undetermined evidence base and that limiting recommendations to where evidence exists may reduce the scope of guidelines, thus limiting their value to practitioners, guideline developers have to rely on various different sources of evidence and adapt their methods accordingly. This paper outlines a method for guideline development which incorporates a consensus process devised to tackle the challenges of a variable research evidence base for the development of a national clinical guideline on risk assessment and prevention of pressure ulcers. Method—To inform the recommendations of the guideline a formal consensus process based on a nominal group technique was used to incorporate three strands of evidence: research, clinical expertise, and patient experience. Results—The recommendations for this guideline were derived directly from the statements agreed in the formal consensus process and from key evidence-based findings from the systematic reviews. The existing format of the statements that participants had rated allowed a straightforward revision to "active" recommendations, thus reducing further risk of subjectivity entering into the process. Conclusions—The method outlined proved to be a practical and systematic way of integrating a number of different evidence sources. The resultant guideline is a mixture of research based and consensus based recommendations. Given the lack of available guidance on how to mix research with expert opinion and patient experiences, the method used for the development of this guideline has been outlined so that other guideline developers may use, adapt, and test it further. Key Words: guidelines; guideline development; formal consensus process; nominal group technique; pressure ulcers
Despite the many similarities between nicotine dependence and other drug dependences, national guidelines for their treatment differ in several respects. The recent national guideline for the treatment of nicotine dependence has (i) less emphasis on detailed assessment; (ii) less emphasis on treatment of psychiatric comorbidity; (iii) less acceptance of reduction of use as an initial treatment goal; (iv) greater emphasis on pharmacological interventions; and (v) less emphasis on psychosocial treatment than national guidelines for non-nicotine dependences. These treatment differences may occur because (i) nicotine does not cause behavioral intoxication; (ii) psychiatric comorbidity is less problematic with nicotine dependence; (iii) psychosocial problems are less severe with nicotine dependence; and (iv) available pharmacotherapies for nicotine dependence are safer, more numerous and more easily available. However, it is unclear whether these treatment differences are, in fact, justifiable because of the scarcity of empirical tests. We suggest several possible empirical tests. PMID:19426290
Hughes, John R; Weiss, Roger D
Past activities at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) resulted in soil and groundwater contamination. As a result, BNL was designated a Superfund site under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). BNL`s Office of Environmental Restoration (OER) is overseeing environmental restoration activities at the Laboratory. With the exception of radium, there are no regulations or guidelines to establish cleanup guidelines for radionuclides in soils at BNL. BNL must derive radionuclide soil cleanup guidelines for a number of Operable Units (OUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs). These guidelines are required by DOE under a proposed regulation for radiation protection of public health and the environment as well as to satisfy the requirements of CERCLA. The objective of this report is to propose a standard approach to deriving risk-based cleanup guidelines for radionuclides in soil at BNL. Implementation of the approach is briefly discussed.
Meinhold, A.F.; Morris, S.C.; Dionne, B.; Moskowitz, P.D.
Most orthopaedic procedures involve high-speed tools, which can cause thermal necrosis of bone. Blunt instruments are likely to generate more heat, thereby increasing the chances of thermal necrosis. This could greatly compromise the outcome of even the best prosthesis in good surgical hands. In today's age a lot of emphasis is laid on high performance and longevity of the implant. Therefore, it is worthwhile that we consider the relevance and importance of instrument sharpening. We carried out a survey across hospitals in UK to find out whether they follow any guidelines or protocol with regards to instrument sharpening. Upto 75% of hospitals did not follow any guideline or policy, while 20% of hospitals carried out some sort of quality checks on instruments. This implies that there could be a significant risk of suboptimal outcome due to unnecessary osteonecrosis that can affect most operative orthopaedic interventions, particularly joint arthroplasties. Blunt instruments are too common in orthopaedic theatres and this problem needs to be addressed. Our study brings to light the fact that there seems to be no consensus on this issue and there is theoretically a significant risk of suboptimal outcome because of unnecessary osteonecrosis. This potentially may affect the long and short-term results even in good hands and with excellent prosthesis (cemented or uncemented). PMID:20400022
Singh, J; Davenport, J H; Pegg, D J
Background Conflict of interest (COI) is an important potential source of bias in the development of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) and high rates of COI among guideline authors have been reported in the past. Our objective was to report current rates of disclosure and specific author COI across a broad range of CPGs and to examine whether CPG characteristics were associated with the presence of disclosures and of conflicts. Methods and Findings We selected a random sample of 250 CPGs listed in the National Guideline Clearinghouse on November 22, 2010, representing approximately a 10% sample of guidelines listed in the NGC on that date. We abstracted information on author COI from each CPG and examined predictors of the disclosures and COI using a logistic generalized estimating equation regression model. 87% of organizations developing guidelines had a CPG-specific policy, however, 40% of CPGs did not indicate that they had collected disclosures from guideline authors. In addition, 42% of organizations that did collect author disclosures did not have those disclosures available in the public domain. Of CPGs where we had disclosures for all authors, 60% had one or more authors with a conflict. On average, 28% of the authors of CPGs with available disclosures had a COI. Guidelines that were published in journals with an impact factor greater than 5.0 were more likely to have one or more authors with a COI than guidelines not published in journals. Conclusions Rates of disclosure of author COI and the public availability of that information are unacceptably low, however rates of COI among guideline authors may have decreased in recent years. Continued efforts are needed to establish and enforce optimal COI policies in clinical practice guideline development in order to minimize the risk of bias associated with those conflicts.
Norris, Susan L.; Holmer, Haley K.; Ogden, Lauren A.; Selph, Shelley S.; Fu, Rongwei
Diabetes severity may influence breast cancer treatment choices. We examined whether receipt of guideline-concordant breast cancer treatment varied with diabetes severity. Cancer registry data from seven states regarding 6,912 stage I-III breast cancers were supplemented by medical record abstraction and physician verification. We used logistic regression models to examine associations of diabetes severity with guideline-concordant locoregional treatment, adjuvant chemotherapy, and hormonal therapy adjusted for sociodemographics, comorbidity, and tumor characteristics. We defined guideline concordance using National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines, and diabetes and comorbidities using the Adult Comorbidity Evaluation-27 index. After adjustment, there was significant interaction of diabetes severity with age for locoregional treatment (p = 0.001), with many diabetic women under age 70 less frequently receiving guideline-concordant treatment than non-diabetic women. Among similarly aged women, guideline concordance was lower for women with mild diabetes in their late fifties through mid-sixties, and with moderate/severe diabetes in their late forties to early sixties. Among women in their mid-seventies to early eighties, moderate/severe diabetes was associated with increased guideline concordance. For adjuvant chemotherapy, moderate/severe diabetes was less frequently associated with guideline concordance than no diabetes [OR 0.58 (95 % CI 0.36-0.94)]. Diabetes was not associated with guideline-concordant hormonal treatment (p = 0.929). Some diabetic women were less likely to receive guideline-concordant treatment for stage I-III breast cancer than non-diabetic women. Diabetes severity was associated with lower guideline concordance for locoregional treatment among middle-aged women, and lower guideline concordance for adjuvant chemotherapy. Differences were not explained by comorbidity and may contribute to potentially worse breast cancer outcomes. PMID:24899083
Sabatino, Susan A; Thompson, Trevor D; Wu, Xiao-Cheng; Fleming, Steven T; Kimmick, Gretchen G; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Cress, Rosemary; Anderson, Roger T
Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a report from the International Workshop on Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia updating the National Cancer Institute-Working Group 1996 guidelines
Standardized criteria for diagnosis and response assessment are needed to inter- pret and compare clinical trials and for approval of new therapeutic agents by regulatory agencies. Therefore, a Na- tional Cancer Institute-sponsored Work- ing Group (NCI-WG) on chronic lympho- cytic leukemia (CLL) published guidelines for the design and conduct of clinical trials for patients with CLL in 1988, which were
Michael Hallek; Bruce D. Cheson; Daniel Catovsky; Federico Caligaris-Cappio; Guillaume Dighiero; Hartmut Dohner; Peter Hillmen; Michael J. Keating; Emili Montserrat; Kanti R. Rai; Thomas J. Kipps
A literature search on the pharmacological treatment of acute bipolar mixed episodes in current guidelines shows that only seven of them address the acute management of mixed episodes as a separate condition, whereas the vast majority of these guidelines include the treatment of mixed episodes in the chapter of mania. As a general rule, most guidelines advise to stop antidepressant treatment and mention the superiority of valproate over lithium. Specific recommendations for the treatment of "mixed states" can be found in two guidelines, while specific recommendations for that of "mixed mania" are present in five of them. Recommendations for the treatment of "mixed depression" exist in only three guidelines. If some consensus may be found for the treatment of "mixed states" as a whole, recommendations for the treatment of "mixed mania" appear to be variable, whereas those for the treatment of "mixed depression" seem to be limited. PMID:24359859
Azorin, J-M; Belzeaux, R; Cermolacce, M; Kaladjian, A; Corréard, N; Dassa, D; Dubois, M; Maurel, M; Micoulaud Franchi, J A; Pringuey, D; Fakra, E
The treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) has been established as valid for patients at high risk for developing active tuberculosis. Treatment of LTBI is also considered an important strategy for eliminating tuberculosis (TB) in Japan. In recent years, interferon-gamma release assays have come into widespread use; isoniazid (INH) preventive therapy for HIV patients has come to be recommended worldwide; and there have been increases in both types of biologics used in the treatment of immune diseases as well as the diseases susceptible to treatment. In light of the above facts, the Prevention Committee and the Treatment Committee of the Japanese Society for Tuberculosis have jointly drafted these guidelines. In determining subjects for LTBI treatment, the following must be considered: 1) risk of TB infection/ development; 2) infection diagnosis; 3) chest image diagnosis; 4) the impact of TB development; 5) the possible manifestation of side effects; and 6) the prospects of treatment completion. LTBI treatment is actively considered when relative risk is deemed 4 or higher, including risk factors such as the following: HIV/AIDS, organ transplants (immunosuppressant use), silicosis, dialysis due to chronic renal failure, recent TB infection (within 2 years), fibronodular shadows in chest radiographs (untreated old TB), the use of biologics, and large doses of corticosteroids. Although the risk is lower, the following risk factors require consideration of LTBI treatment when 2 or more of them are present: use of oral or inhaled corticosteroids, use of other immunosuppressants, diabetes, being underweight, smoking, gastrectomy, and so on. In principle, INH is administered for a period of 6 or 9 months. When INH cannot be used, rifampicin is administered for a period of 4 or 6 months. It is believed that there are no reasons to support long-term LTBI treatment for immunosuppressed patients in Japan, where the risk of infection is not considered markedly high. For pregnant women, HIV-positive individuals, heavy drinkers, and individuals with a history of liver injury, regular liver function tests are necessary when treatment is initiated and when symptoms are present. There have been reports of TB developing during LTBI treatment; therefore, attention should be paid to TB development symptoms. When administering LTBI treatment, patients must be educated about side effects, the risk of developing TB onset, and the risks associated with discontinuing medication. Treatment outcomes and support for continuation of treatment are evaluated in cooperation with health centers. As stipulated by the Infectious Diseases Control Law, doctors are required to notify a health center when an individual develops TB. Based on this notification, the health center registers the patient, sends a public health nurse to visit the patient and give instructions, and provides medication adherence support. The patient applies at a health center for public expenses for medical care at a designated TB care facility. Pending approval in a review by an infectious disease examination council, the patient's copayment is reduced. PMID:24654427
Guidelines for the preferred choice of initial combination antiretroviral therapy in those living with HIV are provided by several national and international committees. Following the recent presentation of the 2013 French guidelines on antiretroviral therapy, there has been a debate regarding whether and/or how economics should influence guideline decisions and to what extent this should counterbalance valid scientific evidence. We discuss here the reasons for the unique nature of some of the proposals made by the French guidelines panel. Indeed, some recommendations are debatable. In the new French guidelines, economic considerations significantly influence and, in some instances, take precedence over the scientific evidence, leading to guidelines that are significantly different from those of other national and international committees. PMID:24443513
Raffi, F; Reynes, J
The guidelines for body contouring reconstructive surgery present an evidence-based guide for management of redundant tissue after massive weight loss. A standardised referral pathway to ensure safe and equitable patient care on the National Health Service (NHS) throughout England is recommended. A database of all patients for research purposes is suggested. PMID:24909630
Soldin, M; Mughal, M; Al-Hadithy, N
In the past 30-year period of investigations, the crucial role of Helicobacter pylori in chronic gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcer development, and subsequently in gastric cancer and MALT lymphoma pathogenesis, has been recognized. During the first meeting of European Helicobacter Study Group in 1996 in Maastricht, the first recommendations for diagnostics and treatments of Helicobacter pylori infection were published, later reviewed in 2000, 2007 and 2010. The first meeting of Croatian doctors focusing on the same topics, but suitable to specific national circumstances, was held as early as 1998. The need for updating the old guidelines has emerged during the last years. The working expert group of gastroenterologists was formed and gathered on Consesus Conference in December 2012 in Zagreb, to arrive to current guidelines for the clinical management of Helicobacter pylori infection in Croatia. The following topics relating to Helicobacter pylori infection were examined: 1. indications and contraindications for diagnostics and treatments; 2. diagnostic methods and 3. treatments applicable in our country. PMID:24720149
Katici?, Miroslava; Duvnjak, Marko; Kanizaj, Tajana Filipec; Krznari?, Zeljko; Marusi?, Marinko; Mihaljevi?, Silvijo; Plecko, Vanda; Pulani?, Roland; Simuni?, Miroslav; Tonki?, Ante
WHO 2005 data points to sepsis in form of pneumonia, diarrhea, and neonatal sepsis as major killers of children in the resource limited countries of Asia and Africa, However, currently there are no specific published guidelines for treatment of severe sepsis in resource limited circumstances. An expert panel drawn from all over India, met to discuss and draw guidelines for
Sunit Singhia; Niranjan Kissoonl
Background. The aim of the current study was to investigate physicians' perceptions and adherence to the European guidelines for the management of hypertension. Methods. This is a national, multicentre, prospective, observational study, conducted between November 2007 and June 2008, in Cyprus. Consecutive hypertensive patients have been recruited by a random sample of physicians. The physicians' recommendations for every single patient have been recorded and compared with the 2007 ESH/ESC guidelines. Results. Of the total of 654 patients, 477 (72.9%) were correctly advised by their physician to receive antihypertensive treatment to control their blood pressure, while 396 (60.5%) correctly got advices to adopt only lifestyle changes. The overall adherence of physicians to the European guidelines (overall agreement rate) was 70.4% (k = 0.258, P < 0.001). Of the total of 68 physicians, 65 (95.6%) reported that they were aware of some guidelines. There was no statistically significant effect of specific physicians' characteristics on the overall adherence to guidelines, but there was in the percentage of patients achieving medication guidelines. Conclusions. The study demonstrated that although Cypriot physicians declared that they were aware of the clinical guidelines for the management of hypertension, more than one-fourth of high risk hypertensive patients remained untreated and 40% of low risk patients received inappropriate medication.
Theodorou, Mamas; Stafylas, Panagiotis; Kourlaba, Georgia; Kaitelidou, Daphne; Maniadakis, Nikos; Papademetriou, Vasilios
Systematic research and practice guidelines addressing preschool psychopharmacological treatment in very young children are limited, despite evidence of increasing clinical use of medications in this population. The Preschool Psychopharmacology Working Group (PPWG) was developed to review existing literature relevant to preschool psychopharmacology treatment and to develop treatment recommendations to guide clinicians considering psychopharmacological treatment in very young children. This article
MARY MARGARET GLEASON; HELEN LINK EGGER; GRAHAM J. EMSLIE; LAURENCE L. GREENHILL; ROBERT A. KOWATCH; ALICIA F. LIEBERMAN; JOAN L. LUBY; JUDITH OWENS; LAWRENCE D. SCAHILL; MICHAEL S. SCHEERINGA; BRIAN STAFFORD; BRIAN WISE; CHARLES H. ZEANAH
Objective: To describe the content of guidelines on the use of anticoagulant treatment in patients with atrial fibrillation and the impact of variations in guidelines on treatment. Design: Postal survey of guidelines, semistructured interview with lead developers of guidelines, and application of guidelines to patient sample. Subjects: 15 lead developers of the 20 guidelines identified in the postal survey were
Richard Thomson; Helen McElroy; Mark Sudlow
ObjectiveTo provide practical guidelines for the assessment and treatment of children with selective mutism, in light of the recent hypothesis that selective mutism might be best conceptualized as a childhood anxiety disorder.
SARA P. DOW; BARBARA C. SONIES; DONNA SCHEIB; SHARON E. MOSS; HENRIETTA L. LEONARD
Comprehensive care of chronic venous insufficiency and associated ulcers requires a multipronged and interprofessional approach to care. A comprehensive treatment approach includes exercise, nutritional assessment, compression therapy, vascular reconstruction, and advanced treatment modalities. National guidelines, meta-analyses, and original research studies provide evidence for the inclusion of these approaches in the patient plan of care. The purpose of this paper is to review present guidelines for prevention and treatment of venous leg ulcers as followed in the US. The paper further explores evidence-based yet pragmatic tools for the interprofessional team to use in the management of this complex disorder.
White-Chu, E Foy; Conner-Kerr, Teresa A
Background: In October 2012, the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) published recommendations for chronic gout treatment goals and pharmacotherapy. Objectives: Identify potential gaps between real-world chronic gout treatment, ACR guideline recommendations, and physicians' perceived guideline adherence by evaluating records of patients classified as having "higher" and "lower" guideline adherence as defined by the investigators. Methods: A comprehensive quantitative survey was administered between February 11 and February 22, 2013, to physicians treating patients with gout; the survey included a patient record chart review informed by prior qualitative interviews. Eight criteria from the ACR gout management guidelines were used to compose the survey. To assess ACR guideline adherence, information from records of patients with chronic gout treated by primary care physicians (PCPs) and rheumatologists was scored from 0 (no adherence) to 8 (total adherence), in accordance with ACR guideline recommendations. Physicians also indicated how closely they believed patient treatment followed current guidelines on a 10-point scale. Results: Of the 350 records of patients with chronic gout, all but 3 PCP patients were adherent on ? 1 guideline recommendation, but nearly all patients could be considered nonadherent, considering all potential recommendations. Patients with chronic gout treated by rheumatologists tended to be managed more closely to ACR guidelines than patients treated by PCPs (mean scores: rheumatologists 5.8/8 ± 1.7 vs 4.3/8 ± 1.7 for PCPs). Among patients classified as having "higher adherence" based on adherence scores, there was low adherence on first-line urate lowering therapy dose, acute prophylaxis dosing, and length of prophylaxis treatment. Among PCPs and rheumatologists, there was a disparity between how closely physicians believed patient treatment followed guidelines and actual adherence with ACR guidelines based on adherence scores. For 16.4% of patients treated by PCPs and 18.4% of patients seen by rheumatologists, physicians believed they closely followed ACR guidelines (score of 8-10/10) for each patient; but in actuality, adherence was lower. Conclusion: Although adherence with ACR guidelines is higher among rheumatologists than PCPs in treating patients with gout, overall adherence could be improved by both specialties. PMID:24918810
Oderda, Gary M; Shiozawa, Aki; Walsh, Michael; Hess, Kyle; Brixner, Diana I; Feehan, Michael; Akhras, Kasem
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of the treatment guidelines on the management of paracetamol self poisoning in accident and emergency (A&E) departments. METHODS: 24 A&E departments in Wales and England provided details of their management of paracetamol poisoning before and after the distribution of national treatment guidelines to all A&E departments in the United Kingdom. RESULTS: Significant increases were seen
M C Bialas; R J Evans; A D Hutchings; G Alldridge; P A Routledge
The National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative Clinical Practice Guidelines for Nutrition in Chronic Renal Failure was recently published in the American Journal of Kidney Diseases. This publication provides 27 clinical practice guidelines for adults and 10 clinical practice guidelines for children. The adult guidelines focus primarily on patients undergoing maintenance dialysis therapy, although there are several clinical
Joel D. Kopple
BACKGROUND: The national resuscitation guidelines were published in Finland in 2002 and are based on international guidelines published in 2000. The main goal of the national guidelines, available on the Internet free of charge, is early defi brillation by nurses in an institutional setting. The aim of the current study was to evaluate changes in resuscitation practices after publication of
Jouni Nurmi; Marja Mäkinen; Per Rosenberg; Maaret Castrén; Markus B. Skifvars
Guidelines for gastroenterological endoscopy in patients undergoing antithrombotic treatment have been produced by the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society in collaboration with the Japan Circulation Society, the Japanese Society of Neurology, the Japan Stroke Society, the Japanese Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis and the Japan Diabetes Society. Previous guidelines from the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society have focused primarily on prevention of hemorrhage after gastroenterological endoscopy as a result of continuation ofantithrombotic therapy, without considering the associated risk of thrombosis. The new edition of the guidelines includes discussions of gastroenterological hemorrhage associated with continuation of antithrombotic therapy, as well as thromboembolism associated with withdrawal of antithrombotic therapy. PMID:24215155
Fujimoto, Kazuma; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Kato, Mototsugu; Higuchi, Kazuhide; Iwakiri, Ryuichi; Sakamoto, Choitsu; Uchiyama, Shinichiro; Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Ogawa, Hisao; Murakami, Kazunari; Mine, Tetsuya; Yoshino, Junji; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu; Ichinose, Masao; Matsui, Toshiyuki
Developing pressure ulcers is a painful and distressing event for patients, and one that can be prevented. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence pressure ulcer guideline has recently been updated to cover the prevention and management of this condition. This article focuses on the recommendations that are relevant to nurses, covering areas such as risk assessment, skin assessment, repositioning, pressure-redistributing devices, dressings, patient and carer information, and training and education. It also identifies what senior nurses and nurse managers must do to ensure their staff can prevent and manage pressure ulcers effectively. PMID:24779761
Neilson, Julie; Avital, Liz; Willock, Jane; Broad, Nigel
This document provides the guidelines for software development of modules to be included in Shot Data Analysis (SDA) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). An Analysis Module is a software entity that groups a set of (typically cohesive) functions, procedures and data structures for performing an analysis task relevant to NIF shot operations. Each module must have its own unique identification (module name), clear interface specifications (data inputs and outputs), and internal documentation. It is vitally important to the NIF Program that all shot-related data be processed and analyzed in a consistent way that is reviewed by scientific and engineering experts. SDA is part of a NIF Integrated Product Team (IPT) whose goal is to provide timely and accurate reporting of shot results to NIF campaign experimentalists. Other elements of the IPT include the Campaign Management Tool (CMT) for configuring experiments, a data archive and provisioning system called CMS, a calibration and configuration database (CDMS), and a shot data visualization tool (SDV). We restrict our scope at this time to guidelines for modules written in Interactive Data Language, or IDL1. This document has sections describing example IDL modules and where to find them, how to set up a development environment, IDL programming guidelines, shared IDL procedures for general use, and revision control.
Azevedo, S; Glenn, S; Lopez, A; Warrick, A; Beeler, R
Scientific evidence based on controlled clinical research confirm substantial benefits resulting from the eradication of H. pylori infection in such pathologies of the alimentary tract as: gastric peptic and duodenal ulcer (active or confirmed in the future and ulcer disease complications), MALT (Mucosa Associated Limphoid Tissue) lymphoma, atrophic gastritis, past stomach resection, gastric cancer in the family. The above group of indications is strongly recommended for eradicative treatment. During the last several years there have been many guidelines made by international and national specialist groups. "Test and treat" strategy of undiagnosed dyspepsia treatment is based on possibility to carry out non-invasive tests confirming H. pylori infection. First symptoms of dyspepsia in people over 45 years of age constitute recommendation for endoscopy, as well as symptoms assumed to be "alarming" (loss of weight, anaemia, bloody vomiting, tarry stool, dysphagia) regardless of patient age. An individual approach to eradication is proposed in gastroesophageal reflux disease, and use of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs. Antibacterial activity towards H. pylori is shown by many antibiotics (amoxicillin, macrolides, tetracyclines) and some other chemotherapeutic agents (nitroimidazoles) and bismuth. PPIs are recommended, because through increase of pH in stomach they create conditions to act for antibiotics. During the stage of first line triple therapy, it is advised to apply PPI and two antibacterial medicines at the same time (PPI + amoxicillin+metronidazole or clarithromycin). Such therapeutic action ensures achievement of eradication of H. pylori infection in 80-90% of cases. In case of lack of treatment efficiency in the first-line therapy, 7-14 day treatment may be repeated using triple therapies (PPI + 2 antibiotics) substituting the antibiotic with the metronidazole or tetracycline, or quadruple therapies (PPI + bismuth citrate + 2 antibiotics). Side effects during eradicative treatments occur quite rarely (from 15 to 30%). PMID:17033112
Dzieniszewski, J; Jarosz, M
Survival of esophageal cancer is improving but remains poor. Esophageal cancer stage is based on depth of tumor invasion, involvement of regional lymph nodes, and the presence or absence of metastatic disease. Appropriate work-up is critical to identify accurate pre-treatment staging so that both under-treatment and unnecessary treatment is avoided. Treatment strategy should follow guideline recommendations, and generally should be developed after multidisciplinary evaluation.
Conflicting study results with regards to racial/ethnic disparities in chemotherapy use among breast cancer patients may be due to the different sample populations, treatment data sources, and treatment eligibility definitions used. This study examined chemotherapy disparity in the context of changing treatment guidelines and explored factors that may help explain treatment differences observed. The data come from a population-based study that included interview and medical record data (including state cancer registry) from non-Hispanic (nH) White, nH Black, and Hispanic breast cancer patients diagnosed in 2005-2008. Logistic regression using model-based standardization was used to estimate age-adjusted risk differences and multivariate analysis was conducted to identify explanatory factors of the differences. Per the 2005/2006 National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines, minority patients appeared more likely than nH White patients to receive a chemotherapy recommendation (0.87 vs 0.75, p = 0.003). When eligibility was determined per the 2007 guidelines, there was no disparity because under these guidelines, nH White patients were more likely than minority patients to have tumors that no longer required chemotherapy. There was evidence that chemotherapy advances for breast cancer patients are implemented in the clinical setting well ahead of NCCN guidelines. Finally, among eligible patients, chemotherapy recommendation was very high and virtually always accepted and received, with no disparities found at these points of clinical care. The findings suggest that an evaluation of guideline-adherent chemotherapy treatment patterns must carefully consider the definition of treatment eligibility, given ongoing changes in treatment guidelines and early uptake of new diagnostic tools and treatments. PMID:24265033
Silva, Abigail; Rauscher, Garth H; Hoskins, Kent; Rao, Ruta; Ferrans, Carol Estwing
To improve the quality and uniformity of operations at the Department of Energy`s facilities, the DOE issued Order 5480.19 ``Conduct of Operations Requirements at DOE facilities.`` This order recognizes that the success of a facilities mission critically depends upon a high level of performance by its personnel and equipment. This performance can be severely impaired if the facility`s Conduct of Operations pays inadequate attention to issues of organization, safety, health, and the environment. These guidelines are Brookhaven National Laboratory`s and the National Synchrotron Light Source`s acknowledgement of the principles of Conduct of Operations and the response to DOE Order 5480.19. These guidelines cover the following areas: (1) operations organization and administration; (2) shift routines and operating practices; (3) control area activities; (4) communications; (5) control of on-shift training; (6) investigation of abnormal events; (7) notifications; (8) control of equipment and system studies; (9) lockouts and tagouts; (10) independent verification; (11) log-keeping; (12) operations turnover; (13) operations aspects of facility process control (14) required reading; (15) timely orders to operators; (16) operations procedures; (17) operator aid posting; and (18) equipment sizing and labeling.
Buckley, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). National Synchrotron Light Source
Systematic research and practice guidelines addressing preschool psychopharmacological treatment in very young children are limited, despite evidence of increasing clinical use of medications in this population. The Preschool Psychopharmacology Working Group (PPWG) was developed to review existing literature relevant to preschool psychopharmacology treatment and to develop treatment recommendations to guide clinicians considering psychopharmacological treatment in very young children. This article reviews the developmental considerations related to preschool psychopharmacological treatment, presents current evidence bases for specific disorders in early childhood, and describes the recommended algorithms for medication use. The purpose of this effort is to promote responsible treatment of young children, recognizing that this will sometimes involve the use of medications. PMID:18030077
Gleason, Mary Margaret; Egger, Helen Link; Emslie, Graham J; Greenhill, Laurence L; Kowatch, Robert A; Lieberman, Alicia F; Luby, Joan L; Owens, Judith; Scahill, Lawrence D; Scheeringa, Michael S; Stafford, Brian; Wise, Brian; Zeanah, Charles H
This manuscript contains the conclusion of the consensus meeting of the Brazilian Sleep Association with Brazilian sleep specialists on the treatment of narcolepsy based on the review of medical literature from 1980 to 2010. The manuscript objectives were to reinforce the use of agents evaluated in randomized placebo-controlled trials and to issue consensus opinions on the use of other available medications as well as to inform about safety and adverse effects of these medications. Management of narcolepsy relies on several classes of drugs, namely, stimulants for excessive sleepiness, antidepressants for cataplexy and hypnotics for disturbed nocturnal sleep. Behavioral measures are likewise valuable and universally recommended. All therapeutic trials were analyzed according to their class of evidence. Recommendations concerning the treatment of each single symptom of narcolepsy as well as general recommendations were made. Modafinil is the first-line pharmacological treatment of excessive sleepiness. Second-line choices for the treatment of excessive sleepiness are slow-release metylphenidate followed by mazindol. The first-line treatments of cataplexy are the antidepressants, reboxetine, clomipramine, venlafaxine, desvenlafaxine or high doses of selective serotonin reuptake inibitors antidepressants. As for disturbed nocturnal sleep the best option is still hypnotics. Antidepressants and hypnotics are used to treat hypnagogic hallucinations and sleep paralysis. PMID:20945021
Alóe, Flávio; Alves, Rosana Cardoso; Araújo, John F; Azevedo, Alexandre; Bacelar, Andrea; Bezerra, Márcio; Bittencourt, Lia Rita Azeredo; Bustamante, Guilherme; Cardoso, Tania Aparecida Marchiori de Oliveira; Eckeli, Alan L; Fernandes, Regina Maria França; Goulart, Leonardo; Pradella-Hallinan, Márcia; Hasan, Rosa; Sander, Heidi Haueisen; Pinto Jr, Luciano Ribeiro; Cecília Lopes, Maria; Minhoto, Gisele Richter; Moraes, Walter; Moreira, Gustavo Antônio; Pachito, Daniela; Pedrazolli, Mário; Poyares, Dalva; Prado, Lucila; Rizzo, Geraldo; Nonato Rodrigues, R; Roitman, Israel; Ademir Baptista, Silva; Tavares, Stella Márcia Azevedo
It is important to treat patients with Cushing's disease as rapidly as possible to limit its long-term mortality and morbidity. Selective transphenoidal pituitary adenomectomy remains the treatment of choice but, unfortunately, the rate of cure at long-term follow-up is suboptimal and recurrences are high, even in the hands of expert neurosurgeons. Treatment options for persistent or relapsed disease include repeat trasphenoidal pituitary surgery, radiotherapy or bilateral adrenalectomy. Medical treatment, a second-line treatment option, may have either a primary or adjunctive role if the patient cannot safely undergo surgery, if surgery fails, or if the tumor recurs. Cabergoline and pasireotide (SOM230), two pituitary tumor-directed drugs, are the most exciting news in the human pharmacological approach. However, the use of these drugs in clinical practice and their real impact in the management of patients is yet to be determined. The treatment of patients with Cushing's disease is complex and requires a multidisciplinary and individualized approach to patient management using cost-benefit analyses.
Background Paediatric tuberculosis (TB) represents a major public health concern worldwide. About 1 million children aged less than 15 years develop TB each year, contributing to 3-25% of the total TB caseload. The aim of this review is to evaluate national and international guidelines concerning tuberculosis in childhood and compare them in terms of diagnosis and treatment strategies. Methods A literature search of the Pubmed database was performed from January 2000 to August 2013, using the terms “tuberculosis” and “children”. The search was limited to guidelines and consensus conferences, human species and full text availability, with no language restrictions. Results Twenty-seven national and international guidelines are identified. Several discrepancies on the diagnosis workup of TB are underlined. The main points of disagreement are represented by the interpretation of tuberculin skin test (TST) result and the recommendations on the use of TST and/or interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) for the diagnosis of TB infection. Otherwise, all guidelines are in agreement that a microbiological confirmation should always be sought. Similarly, susceptibility drug testing and genotyping should be performed whenever it is possible on the basis of resources availability. On the contrary, the use of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for the M. tuberculosis detection is still controversial. A general consensus exists, otherwise, on TB treatment and only minor discrepancies are evidenced, such as the recommendations on daily or intermittent treatment regimens. Conclusions Despite advances in TB diagnostic tools have been reached during the last decade, a lack of uniformity in their availability, indication and interpretation has relevant consequences for clinical practice. Further studies need to be performed to clarify this issue and identify a reliable and reproducible diagnostic workup. Moreover, future studies should analyze the drug metabolism and the efficacy of intermittent dosing regimes in childhood, as well as new treatment regimens in order to improve the therapy compliance.
The guidelines were written to promote job growth and improvement in the personnel who manage, operate, and maintain wastewater treatment plants. Trained operators and technicians are the key components in any water pollution control facility. The approach is to move from employment to training through specific modules for 21 standard job…
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Education and Manpower Planning.
In the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma, the range of indications for percutaneous ablation techniques is becoming wider than surgery and intra-arterial therapies. Indeed, whereas for some years only patients with up to three small lesions were treated, with the introduction of the single-session technique under general anesthesia, even patients with more advanced disease are now being treated. Although it is understood that partial resection assures the highest local control, the survival rates after surgery are roughly comparable with percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI). The explanation is due to a balance among advantages and disadvantages of the two therapies. PEI survival curves are better than curves of resected patients who present adverse prognostic factors, and this means that surgery needs a better selection of the patients. Indications for both therapies are reported. Single-session radiofrequency (RF) ablation seems to offer better results in terms of local control and safety than transarterial chemoembolisation (TACE) in multifocal tumours. An open question remains the choice between PEI and other new ablation procedures. In our department, we use RF, PEI and segmental TACE, according to the features of the disease. In the treatment of colorectal liver metastases, the initial survival curves of thermal ablation techniques are promising. However, they are size and site dependent, so partial resection remains the gold standard. An interesting indication seems to be the treatment of breast liver metastases in selected patients. PMID:11369528
The United Kingdom’s CD4 surveillance scheme monitors CD4 cell counts among HIV patients and is a national resource for HIV surveillance. It has driven public health policy and allowed auditing of national HIV testing, treatment and care guidelines. We demonstrate its utility through four example outputs: median CD4 count at HIV diagnosis; late HIV diagnosis and short-term mortality; the timing of first CD4 count to indicate entry into HIV care; and the proportion of patients with CD4 counts <350 cells/mm3 receiving anti-retroviral therapy (ARV). In 2009, 95% (61,502/64,420) of adults living with diagnosed HIV infection had CD4 counts available. The median CD4 count at diagnosis increased from 276 to 335 cells/mm3 between 2000 and 2009, indicating modest improvements in HIV testing. In 2009, 52% of patients were diagnosed at a late stage of HIV infection (CD4 <350 cells/mm3); these individuals had a ten-fold risk of dying within a year of their diagnosis compared to those diagnosed promptly. In 2008, the national target of performing a CD4 count within 14 days of diagnosis was met for 61% of patients. National treatment guidelines have largely been met with 83% patients with CD4 <350 cells/mm3 receiving ARV. The monitoring of CD4 counts is critical to HIV surveillance in the United Kingdom enabling the close monitoring of efforts to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with late diagnosis and underpins the auditing of policies and guidelines. These routine surveillance outputs can be generated at national and local levels to drive and monitor public health policy and prevention efforts.
Brown, Alison E; Kall, Meaghan M; Smith, Ruth D; Yin, Zheng; Hunter, Alan; Hunter, Alan; Delpech, Valerie C
Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections Among HIV-Exposed and HIV-Infected Children: Recommendations from CDC, the National Institutes of Health, the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, and the American Academy of Pediatrics
Summary This report updates and combines into one document earlier versions of guidelines for preventing and treating opportunistic infections (OIs) among HIV-exposed and HIV-infected children, last published in 2002 and 2004, respectively. These guidelines are intended for use by clinicians and other health-care workers providing medical care for HIV-exposed and HIV-infected children in the United States. The guidelines discuss opportunistic pathogens that occur in the United States and one that might be acquired during international travel (i.e., malaria). Topic areas covered for each OI include a brief description of the epidemiology, clinical presentation, and diagnosis of the OI in children; prevention of exposure; prevention of disease by chemoprophylaxis and/or vaccination; discontinuation of primary prophylaxis after immune reconstitution; treatment of disease; monitoring for adverse effects during treatment; management of treatment failure; prevention of disease recurrence; and discontinuation of secondary prophylaxis after immune reconstitution. A separate document about preventing and treating of OIs among HIV-infected adults and postpubertal adolescents (Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents) was prepared by a working group of adult HIV and infectious disease specialists. The guidelines were developed by a panel of specialists in pediatric HIV infection and infectious diseases (the Pediatric Opportunistic Infections Working Group) from the U.S. government and academic institutions. For each OI, a pediatric specialist with content-matter expertise reviewed the literature for new information since the last guidelines were published; they then proposed revised recommendations at a meeting at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in June 2007. After these presentations and discussions, the guidelines underwent further revision, with review and approval by the Working Group, and final endorsement by NIH, CDC, the HIV Medicine Association (HIVMA) of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), the Pediatric Infectious Disease Society (PIDS), and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). The recommendations are rated by a letter that indicates the strength of the recommendation and a Roman numeral that indicates the quality of the evidence supporting the recommendation so readers can ascertain how best to apply the recommendations in their practice environments. An important mode of acquisition of OIs, as well as HIV infection among children, is from their infected mother; HIV-infected women coinfected with opportunistic pathogens might be more likely than women without HIV infection to transmit these infections to their infants. In addition, HIV-infected women or HIV-infected family members coinfected with certain opportunistic pathogens might be more likely to transmit these infections horizontally to their children, resulting in increased likelihood of primary acquisition of such infections in the young child. Therefore, infections with opportunistic pathogens might affect not just HIV-infected infants but also HIV-exposed but uninfected infants who become infected by the pathogen because of transmission from HIV-infected mothers or family members with coinfections. These guidelines for treating OIs in children therefore consider treatment of infections among all children, both HIV-infected and uninfected, born to HIV-infected women. Additionally, HIV infection is increasingly seen among adolescents with perinatal infection now surviving into their teens and among youth with behaviorally acquired HIV infection. Although guidelines for postpubertal adolescents can be found in the adult OI guidelines, drug pharmacokinetics and response to treatment may differ for younger prepubertal or pubertal adolescents. Therefore, these guidelines also apply to treatment of HIV-infected youth who have not yet completed pubertal development. Major changes in the guidelines include 1) greater emphasis on the importance of antiretroviral therapy for p
Mofenson, Lynne M.; Brady, Michael T.; Danner, Susie P.; Dominguez, Kenneth L.; Hazra, Rohan; Handelsman, Edward; Havens, Peter; Nesheim, Steve; Read, Jennifer S.; Serchuck, Leslie; Van Dyke, Russell
Various accounting practices are used for the treatment of medical malpractice claims, related malpractice insurance, and trust funds. To decrease the diversity of accounting practices in these areas and provide more specific guidance to healthcare providers, the AICPA has issued several proposed guidelines concerning accounting treatment of asserted and unasserted medical malpractice claims, providers' claims-made insurance policies, retrospectively rated insurance premiums, captive insurance companies, and trust funds. PMID:10272684
Holley, C L
Designed to provide a systematic means of analyzing the whole process of planning, implementation, and evaluation, these guidelines (1) suggest how national policies on user training may be related to national information policies in general, (2) suggest ...
T. D. Wilson
...the National Preparedness for Response Exercise Program (PREP) Guidelines AGENCY...The National Preparedness for Response Exercise Program (PREP) is designed to facilitate...among other things, that periodic exercises take place to test oil spill...
Five years after convening the expert panel, the 2013 ACC/AHA Guideline on the Treatment of Blood Cholesterol to Reduce Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Risk in Adults was released. The American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association issued the guideline on the basis of a systematic review of cholesterol treatment trials performed by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. This report critically appraises the guideline and provides our view of what was done well and what could be done better. In particular, we propose that the guideline succeeds in prioritizing statin therapy, expanding the focus to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (including stroke), and emphasizing absolute cardiovascular risk to determine eligibility for statin therapy. We contend that the guideline could be enhanced by refining the use of lipid goals rather than removing them, enhancing guidance on evaluation of cholesterol, and broadening the concept of age underpinning risk-based decision making to include vascular and physiological age. We further suggest that the next guideline panel could comprehensively review current best evidence, build on existing guidelines, and cultivate broader national and international consensus. Overall, we aim to continue discussions about the important contributions and shortfalls of the guideline and create momentum for effective implementation and timely updates. PMID:24681146
Martin, Seth S; Abd, Thura T; Jones, Steven R; Michos, Erin D; Blumenthal, Roger S; Blaha, Michael J
Neuroendocrine tumors are a heterogeneous group of tumors originating in various anatomic locations. The management of this disease poses a significant challenge because of the heterogeneous clinical presentations and varying degrees of aggressiveness. The recent completion of several phase 3 trials, including those evaluating octreotide, sunitinib, and everolimus, demonstrate that rigorous evaluation of novel agents in this disease is possible and can lead to practice-changing outcomes. Nevertheless, there are many aspects to the treatment of neuroendocrine tumors that remain unclear and controversial. The North American Neuroendocrine Tumor Society published a set of consensus guidelines in 2010, which provided an overview for the treatment of patients with these malignancies. Here, we present a set of consensus tables intended to complement these guidelines and serve as a quick, accessible reference for the practicing physician. PMID:23591432
Kunz, Pamela L; Reidy-Lagunes, Diane; Anthony, Lowell B; Bertino, Erin M; Brendtro, Kari; Chan, Jennifer A; Chen, Herbert; Jensen, Robert T; Kim, Michelle Kang; Klimstra, David S; Kulke, Matthew H; Liu, Eric H; Metz, David C; Phan, Alexandria T; Sippel, Rebecca S; Strosberg, Jonathan R; Yao, James C
Hyperglycemia significantly contributes to micro- and macrovascular complications in patients with diabetes mellitus. While lifestyle interventions remain cornerstones of disease prevention and treatment, most patients with type 2 diabetes will eventually require pharmacotherapy for glycemic control. The definition of individual targets in regard of optimal therapeutic efficacy and high therapeutic safety is of great importance. In this guideline we present the best and most current evidence-based clinical practice data for healthcare professionals. PMID:23262748
Clodi, Martin; Abrahamian, H Eidemarie; Drexel, Heinz; Fasching, Peter; Hoppichler, Friedrich; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Lechleitner, Monika; Ludvik, Bernhard; Prager, Rudolf; Roden, Michael; Saely, Christoph; Schernthaner, Guntram; Schober, Edith; Toplak, Hermann; Wascher, Thomas; Weitgasser, Raimund
The 2003 Schizophrenia Patient Outcomes Research Team (PORT) treatment recommendations and the Mount Sinai Conference Safety Monitoring recommendations generated guidelines for pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia and monitoring of antipsychotic side effects. This study examined rate of recommendation adherence and impact of adherence on outcomes of outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder in community mental health centers. Clinical practice was assessed as conformant, nonconformant, or not applicable. Treatment practices were conformant for antipsychotic dose (83%); use of antiparkinsonian (97%), antidepressant (100%), and antianxiety agents (90%) but not clozapine for residual positive symptoms (31%); and monitoring weight gain (48%), glucose dysregulation (53%), hyperlipidemia (34%), or extrapyramidal symptoms (11%). Community mental health center treatment practices were largely conformant with the 2003 Schizophrenia PORT treatment recommendations. There is less evidence that patients who receive treatment in the community are adequately monitored for antipsychotic side effects per the Mount Sinai recommendations. PMID:24375205
Keller, William R; Fischer, Bernard A; McMahon, Robert; Meyer, Walter; Blake, Melissa; Buchanan, Robert W
The process used by the Society of Teachers of Family Medicine to develop core curriculum guidelines for third-year family medicine clerkships is described, the guidelines are presented, and dissemination, implementation, and further development activities are outlined. The work was supported by a Department of Health and Human Services grant.…
Academic Medicine, 1991
The prevention and treatment of pressure sores is regulated by a variety of evidence-based standards and guidelines, however there appears to be a lag between the theoretical knowledge and the actual practice. During our retrospective follow-up study "Connection between cause and appearance of pressure sore", including 127 deceased patients with pressure sore (degree 2 or higher), we evaluated the pressure sore treatment on the basis of nursing documentation and patient records. Although only cases of high-grade pressure sore were taken into account, 7% of the cases had no records of therapeutic measures at all. In 9% of the cases there was evidence of obsolete methods of wound treatment. Modern bandage material was used in partial combination with granulation-inhibiting substances or dry pads, so that in 46% of the cases there was no granulation-supporting treatment of the wound. In 38% of the cases treatment was oriented to the phase of wound healing and met the requirements of the guidelines. In parallel to these analyses, nursing personnel (n = 256) and physicians (n = 245) were interviewed on the issue of pressure sore. Improvement measures were seen in further education (physicians 24.2%, nurses 36.3%), improving instrumental aids like mattresses or cushions (physicians 28.8%, nurses 28.9%), improving nursing care quality (physicians 33.3%, nurses 27.4%), and more staff (physicians 34.2%, nurses 6.7%). Vocational training for physicians and nurses, and also a better interdisciplinary cooperation, are necessary for a better implementation of pressure sore guidelines. PMID:15646563
Krause, Tom; Anders, Jennifer; von Renteln-Kruse, Wolfgang
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection causes a tremendous clinical burden across the world with more than half a million people dying annually from HBV related disease. Significant advances have been made in HBV treatment in the past decade and several guidelines have been published by professional societies and expert panels. Although these recommendations have been valuable to help optimize HBV treatment, there is discordance in treatment criteria and many patients infected with HBV may fall outside of these recommendations. This paper systematically reviews the natural history of the disease and compares and contrasts the recommendations for initiation of treatment from the various societies. There is also discussion of special groups that require particular consideration and some of the open research questions and future research directions within the field. PMID:24871443
Skupsky, Jonathan; Hu, Ke-Qin
For some time, industry has been deluged with articles and news items about new technologies for hazardous waste treatment. The sheer number of such innovations makes for an overwhelming selection process. By contrast, a few years ago, only two options existed - bury or burn. This article outlines a generalized method to evaluate and choose technical approaches to treatment and waste reduction. Use of a checklist is helpful when a cold, unbiased approach is desired. It also helps weed out unsuitable approaches. Hazardous waste minimization, or waste reduction, as it is coming to be called, involves process changes to reduce the amounts of hazardous materials generated. Technology selection guidelines for waste reduction are similar to those for treatment. The main difference between the two is that waste reduction programs generally are performed on clean in-house process equipment, while treatment programs tend to be conducted outdoors, and involve soils and other dirty components.
These educational guidelines and procedures were developed after extensive review of current education programs for the Sac and Fox Nations of Oklahoma. The guidelines, prepared by a committee of local educators appointed by a tribal business committee, examined the anticipated needs for future generations of the Sac and Fox people. The document…
Sac and Fox Nation, OK. Education Committee.
On behalf of the lymphoma and multiple myeloma working parties of the Dutch/Belgian Haemato-Oncology Foundation for Adults in The Netherlands (HOVON), we present a guideline for diagnosis and management of Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM). Considering the indolent behaviour and heterogeneous clinical presentation of WM, it is crucial to determine the right indications for treatment, as well as to individualise therapeutic options. There are significant differences from the approach to multiple myeloma or the treatment of other indolent non-Hodkgin lymphomas, and these results cannot always be extrapolated. There is a lack of large clinical trials due to the low incidence of WM. Based on the available data, we provide a practical diagnostic classification, as well as recommendations for first-line therapy and options for treating relapsed disease. Some typical clinical features of WM, such as autoimmune phenomena and 'IgM flare' after rituximab treatment, are highlighted. A more elaborate version of this guideline was published in the 'Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Hematologie' (Dutch Journal for Hematology) September 2012. PMID:23462052
Vos, J M I; Minnema, M C; Wijermans, P W; Croockewit, S; Chamuleau, M E D; Pals, S T; Klein, S K; Delforge, M; van Imhoff, G W; Kersten, M J
Helping child abuse victims receive the mental health treatment they need is an important component of victim advocacy with children, and benefits both the children and the criminal justice system. As part of this work, the National Crime Victims Research and Treatment Center at the Medical University of South Carolina and the Center for Sexual…
Saunders, B. E.; Berliner, L.; Hanson, R. F.
Objective: To develop a scientifically sound and clinically relevant evidence-based guideline for the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN). Methods: We performed a systematic review of the literature from 1960 to August 2008 and classified the studies according to the American Academy of Neurology classification of evidence scheme for a therapeutic article, and recommendations were linked to the strength of the evidence. The basic question asked was: “What is the efficacy of a given treatment (pharmacologic: anticonvulsants, antidepressants, opioids, others; and nonpharmacologic: electrical stimulation, magnetic field treatment, low-intensity laser treatment, Reiki massage, others) to reduce pain and improve physical function and quality of life (QOL) in patients with PDN?” Results and Recommendations: Pregabalin is established as effective and should be offered for relief of PDN (Level A). Venlafaxine, duloxetine, amitriptyline, gabapentin, valproate, opioids (morphine sulfate, tramadol, and oxycodone controlled-release), and capsaicin are probably effective and should be considered for treatment of PDN (Level B). Other treatments have less robust evidence or the evidence is negative. Effective treatments for PDN are available, but many have side effects that limit their usefulness, and few studies have sufficient information on treatment effects on function and QOL.
Bril, V.; England, J.; Franklin, G.M.; Backonja, M.; Cohen, J.; Del Toro, D.; Feldman, E.; Iverson, D.J.; Perkins, B.; Russell, J.W.; Zochodne, D.
The architectural Character Guidelines project for Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks will serve as a source book for designers, and it will guide the architectural future of those park areas. The document provides a capsule history of building desig...
L. S. Harrison
Abstract Introduction and objective: As evidence grows about the management of hyponatremia, a number of different international and national recommendations/guidelines from professional organizations have recently been published that offer guidance on decision-making. However, they include several important differences that could confuse practising physicians. This article summarizes the key differences in guideline recommendations by various independent groups, taking the marketing authorizations granted by different regulatory agencies into account. It proposes a synthesis of implications for practising physicians as a practical method for resolving these differences as they relate to everyday clinical practice. Methods: The authors reviewed all recent guidelines and consensus documents worldwide to assess differences and similarities. They also reviewed licensed indications for therapeutic agents in hyponatremia. Results: The actual indications for the only pharmacological therapy approved across three continents for the treatment of hyponatremia-the vaptans-differ substantially around the world. The numerous treatment guidelines published to date also fail to achieve agreement on hyponatremia management. The possible reasons for these differences are explored in this paper. The authors emphasize the crucial role that clinical judgment must continue to play in decision-making about the management of hyponatremia in individual patients. Such judgments should take into account appropriate appraisals of evidence by authoritative experts in the field, as well as the decisions of regulatory agencies that have based their approvals on a critical review of the efficacy and safety data for approved treatments for hyponatremia. Conclusion: It is clinical judgment rather than guidelines that should dictate the ultimate choices physicians make for their patients, not only in hyponatremia, but in all aspects of medicine. PMID:24809970
Verbalis, Joseph G; Grossman, Ashley; Höybye, Charlotte; Runkle, Isabelle
Over the past 2 ? 3 years, clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and acute stress disorder (ASD) have been developed in the USA and UK. There remained a need, however, for the development of Australian CPGs for the treatment of ASD and PTSD tailored to the national health-care context. Therefore, the Australian Centre for Posttraumatic Mental
David Forbes; Mark Creamer; Andrea Phelps; Richard Bryant; Alexander McFarlane; Grant J. Devilly; Lynda Matthews; Beverley Raphael; Chris Doran; Tracy Merlin; Skye Newton
Eleven years has passed since the guideline of the Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research group for H. pylori infection was produced in 1998. During this period the research for H. pylori has much progressed that H. pylori is now regarded as the major cause of gastric cancer. The seroprevalence of H. pylori in Korea was found to be decreased especially below the age of 40s and in the area of Seoul-Gyeonggi province, and annual reinfection rate of H. pylori has decreased up to 2.94%. In the aspect of diagnostic tests of H. pylori the biopsy is recommended in the body instead of antrum in the subjects with atrophic gastritis and/or intestinal metaplasia for the modified Giemsa staining or Warthin Starry silver staining. The urea breath test is the test of choice to confirm eradication when follow-up endoscopy is not necessary. Definite indication for H. pylori eradication is early gastric cancer in addition to the previous indications of peptic ulcer including scar and Marginal zone B cell lymphoma (MALT type). Treatment is also recommended for the relatives of gastric cancer patient, unexplained iron deficiency anemia, and chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. One or two week treatment of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) based triple therapy consisting of one PPI and two antibiotics, clarithromycin and amoxicillin, is recommended as the first line treatment regimen. In the case of treatment failure, one or two weeks of quadruple therapy (PPI+metronidazole+tetracycline+bismuth) is recommended. Herein, Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research proposes a diagnostic and treatment guideline based on currently available evidence. PMID:19934608
Kim, Nayoung; Kim, Jae J; Choe, Yon Ho; Kim, Hyun Soo; Kim, Jin Il; Chung, In-Sik
TMJ fractures must be focused not only as a cause of direct damage to osseous structures, but also of future disturbances of dentofacial development. Treatment is aimed at restoring normal joint function, occlusion and symmetry. Any disturbance of condylar cartilage will result in alteration of mandibular development. The subsequent deformity of jaw and face will depend not only on the type, intensity extent and chronology of the noxious agent, but also on the particular time of occurrence and growth activity. Thus the effect will be more decided if the disturbance occurs early in life, during childhood, when growth activity is greater and mandibular shape and size have not been assumed yet. This report will include basic information on both prevention and first aid in these types of injuries. The correct application of these precautions immediately following the trauma should improve the short and long-term outcome. Information on diagnosis and treatment of lesions of the bone and soft tissues, which may coexist with dental trauma, a critical first step in the overall management of traumatized patients, will be given. Follow-up procedures of these patients will be illustrated. The guidelines described in this paper for the treatment of traumatic TMJ fractures in children and youths are based on our clinical experience. They are intended as an aid to practioners in the management and treatment of these traumas, by professional must always use professional judgement. There are no guarantees of any positive results associated with the use of these guidelines, although it is felt that time and proper treatment will maximize the chances of success. PMID:12739677
There are many various diseases in the bone and joint infections, and we tried to make antimicrobial treatment guidelines for common infectious diseases based on available data for microbiology and clinical trials. This guidelines focused on the treatment of osteomyelitis and septic arthritis, which can be experienced by physicians at diverse clinical settings. This guidelines is not applicable to diabetic foot infections, postoperative infections or post-traumatic infections which need special considerations. The guidelines for those conditions will be separately developed later. Surgical treatment of bone and joint infections, pediatric bone and joint infection, tuberculous bone and joint infection, and prophylactic antibiotic use were not included in this guideline.
Symposium participants met to develop guidelines for developing curriculum for the area of business and office education, K through adult. The session reports are presented in outline form according to topic definition, problem areas, and recommendations. Topics discussed include: organizational patterns in the business and office education…
Kingston, Carmela C.; Thomas, Ellis R.
Until recently, procedures used to derive water quality criteria for aquatic life were not well defined and few principles were identified. On November 28, 1980, the United States Environmental Protection Agency published 'Guidelines for Deriving Water Quality Criteria for the Pr...
The Hydrologic Frequency Analysis Work Group (HFAWG) has synthesized recent research and completed its own studies to support proposed revisions to the current the US national flood frequency guidelines (Bulletin 17B). Bulletin 17 was originally issued in 1976; Bulletin 17B, the last revision, was published in 1982, over 30 years ago. To reflect advances that have occurred since 1982, the HFAWG has proposed revisions in four main areas: (1) use of historical information; (2) the motivation for low outlier identification and their statistical definition and treatment; (3) procedures for estimating generalized/regional skew; and (4) procedures for estimating confidence intervals for estimated quantiles. We present overviews of the HFAWG process and technical studies that led us to these revisions. The focus is on the use of the Expected Moments Algorithm (EMA) with the log-Pearson Type III distribution. A new Multiple Grubbs-Beck low outlier test and improved EMA confidence intervals are important parts of the revision.
England, J. F.; Cohn, T. A.; Faber, B. A.; Stedinger, J. R.; Thomas, W. O.; Mason, R. R.
Emerging antibiotic resistance may be slowed through effective implementation of treatment guidelines. Our case-control study showed that providers who treated gonorrhea differently from guidelines in Massachusetts accounted for approximately 4% of cases and were associated with private practice/health maintenance organization settings and lower-incidence locations. Patient ?-lactam allergy was also significantly associated with guideline nonadherence. PMID:24413495
Swails, Jennifer; Smock, Laura; Hsu, Katherine
This guideline has been prepared by the authors for and on behalf of the Medical and Scientific Advisory Council (MASAC) of the South African Haemophilia Foundation to facilitate the appropriate management of individuals with haemophilia in South Africa. Individuals with haemophilia and their physicians should be advised by a Comprehensive Haemophilia Treatment Centre. Strategies that help to prevent bleeds include regular exercise to strengthen muscles, protect joints and improve fitness; maintaining a healthy body weight to avoid extra stress on joints; and avoiding contact sports. Acute bleeds should be treated early, ideally within 2 hours of onset. Patients with mild or moderate haemophilia A may be treated with desmopressin. Bleeding in patients with severe haemophilia A without inhibitors should be treated with factor VIII concentrate. Bleeding in patients with haemophilia B without inhibitors should be treated with factor IX replacement. Tranexamic acid can be used for mucous membrane bleeding in surgical or dental procedures. Bleeds in patients with inhibitors must be managed in consultation with a haemophilia treatment centre. Major bleeding episodes are large muscle or joint bleeds, bleeds resulting from severe injury, or bleeds that affect the central nervous system; gastrointestinal system; neck or throat; hip or iliopsoas; or the forearm compartment. These bleeds may cause death or musculoskeletal deformities, and advice on their treatment should be sought from a haemophilia treatment centre physician. Appropriate factor replacement therapy must be started urgently for major bleeds, and hospitalisation is usually required to maintain adequate factor levels. PMID:18453313
Mahlangu, Johnny N; Gilham, Anne
Antiemetic guidelines from a variety of professional organizations have been available for several years. It is unclear just how often these guidelines have been used, however; data indicate that some practitioners still do not treat their patients according to the recommendations. Some of those involved in the creation of the original guidelines convened to try to create a simpler, more
Jim M. Koeller; Matti S. Aapro; Richard J. Gralla; Steven M. Grunberg; Paul J. Hesketh; Mark G. Kris; Rebecca A. Clark-Snow
The new German S3 guideline regarding stomach cancer includes a variety of innovations with respect to the diagnosis and treatment of adenocarcinoma of the stomach and the esophagogastric junction. The guideline has been strongly supported by the "oncology" guidelines program consisting of the "Deutsche Krebshilfe" and the German Cancer Society and the AWMF (Dr. M. Follmann). This guideline contains evidence-based treatment recommendations and quality indicators for guideline implementation and evaluation in order to improve broad medical care and to facilitate development and subsequent adjustment. The purpose of this article is to introduce the innovations with regard to radiological diagnosis and to discuss the latest literature on the subject. PMID:22434371
Grenacher, L; Schwarz, M; Lordick, F; Krause, B; Roecken, C; Moenig, S; Ebert, M; Jenssen, C; Kauczor, H-U; Moehler, M
Breastfeeding is widely acknowledged to be the best and most complete form of nutrition for healthy infants born at term and is associated with numerous benefits in terms of infants? health, growth, immunity and development. However, breastfeeding problems often result in early weaning. Standardized treatment recommendations for breastfeeding-related diseases are necessary to optimize the care offered to breastfeeding women. Evidence and consensus based guidelines for the treatment of puerperal mastitis, sore nipples, engorgement and blocked ducts were developed on the initiative of the National Breastfeeding Committee. These guidelines were developed in accordance with the criteria set up by the Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Wissenschaftlichen Medizinischen Fachgesellschaften (AWMF), the Association of Scientific Medical Societies in Germany. The recommendations were drawn up by an interdisciplinary group of experts and were based on a systematic search and evaluation of the literature but also took clinical experience into account. Additionally good clinical practice (GCP) in terms of expert opinion was formulated in cases where scientific investigations could not be performed or were not aimed for. This article presents a summary of the recommendations of the S3-guidelines.
Jacobs, A.; Abou-Dakn, M.; Becker, K.; Both, D.; Gatermann, S.; Gresens, R.; Gross, M.; Jochum, F.; Kuhnert, M.; Rouw, E.; Scheele, M.; Strauss, A.; Strempel, A.-K.; Vetter, K.; Wockel, A.
Hyponatraemia, defined as a serum sodium concentration <135 mmol/L, is the most common disorder of body fluid and electrolyte balance encountered in clinical practice. Hyponatraemia is present in 15-20% of emergency admissions to hospital and occurs in up to 20% of critically ill patients. Symptomatology may vary from subtle to severe or even life threatening. Despite this, the management of patients remains problematic. Against this background, the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine, the European Society of Endocrinology and the European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association, represented by European Renal Best Practice have developed a Clinical Practice Guideline on the diagnostic approach and treatment of hyponatraemia as a joint venture of three societies representing specialists with a natural interest in hyponatraemia. PMID:24562549
Spasovski, Goce; Vanholder, Raymond; Allolio, Bruno; Annane, Djillali; Ball, Steve; Bichet, Daniel; Decaux, Guy; Fenske, Wiebke; Hoorn, Ewout J; Hoorn, Ewout; Ichai, Carole; Joannidis, Michael; Soupart, Alain; Zietse, Robert; Haller, Maria; van der Veer, Sabine; Van Biesen, Wim; Nagler, Evi
Objective: The aim was to develop clinical practice guidelines on hypertriglyceridemia. Participants: The Task Force included a chair selected by The Endocrine Society Clinical Guidelines Subcommittee (CGS), five additional experts in the field, and a methodologist. The authors received no corporate funding or remuneration. Consensus Process: Consensus was guided by systematic reviews of evidence, e-mail discussion, conference calls, and one in-person meeting. The guidelines were reviewed and approved sequentially by The Endocrine Society's CGS and Clinical Affairs Core Committee, members responding to a web posting, and The Endocrine Society Council. At each stage, the Task Force incorporated changes in response to written comments. Conclusions: The Task Force recommends that the diagnosis of hypertriglyceridemia be based on fasting levels, that mild and moderate hypertriglyceridemia (triglycerides of 150–999 mg/dl) be diagnosed to aid in the evaluation of cardiovascular risk, and that severe and very severe hypertriglyceridemia (triglycerides of > 1000 mg/dl) be considered a risk for pancreatitis. The Task Force also recommends that patients with hypertriglyceridemia be evaluated for secondary causes of hyperlipidemia and that subjects with primary hypertriglyceridemia be evaluated for family history of dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease. The Task Force recommends that the treatment goal in patients with moderate hypertriglyceridemia be a non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level in agreement with National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel guidelines. The initial treatment should be lifestyle therapy; a combination of diet modification and drug therapy may also be considered. In patients with severe or very severe hypertriglyceridemia, a fibrate should be used as a first-line agent.
Berglund, Lars; Brunzell, John D.; Goldberg, Anne C.; Goldberg, Ira J.; Sacks, Frank; Murad, Mohammad Hassan; Stalenhoef, Anton F. H.
Objective. Written asthma management plans (WAMPs) for patients constitute a key component of current national asthma guidelines, but it is not known whether these plans meet the readability stan- dards (of fifth-grade level or lower) recommended by health education experts. The objective of this study was to assess whether WAMPs presented in national guide- lines are written at or below
Shalini G. Forbis; C. Andrew Aligne
This monograph brings together staff papers relating to the national guidelines for health planning called for by Section 1501 of the National Health Planning and Resources Development Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-641). The papers consider relationships between local plans and programs and ten health policies designated for priority consideration:…
Health Resources Administration (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD.
Treatment of “subacromial impingement syndrome” of the shoulder has changed drastically in the past decade. The anatomical explanation as “impingement” of the rotator cuff is not sufficient to cover the pathology. “Subacromial pain syndrome”, SAPS, describes the condition better. A working group formed from a number of Dutch specialist societies, joined by the Dutch Orthopedic Association, has produced a guideline based on the available scientific evidence. This resulted in a new outlook for the treatment of subacromial pain syndrome. The important conclusions and advice from this work are as follows: (1) The diagnosis SAPS can only be made using a combination of clinical tests. (2) SAPS should preferably be treated non-operatively. (3) Acute pain should be treated with analgetics if necessary. (4) Subacromial injection with corticosteroids is indicated for persistent or recurrent symptoms. (5) Diagnostic imaging is useful after 6 weeks of symptoms. Ultrasound examination is the recommended imaging, to exclude a rotator cuff rupture. (6) Occupational interventions are useful when complaints persist for longer than 6 weeks. (7) Exercise therapy should be specific and should be of low intensity and high frequency, combining eccentric training, attention to relaxation and posture, and treatment of myofascial trigger points (including stretching of the muscles) may be considered. (8) Strict immobilization and mobilization techniques are not recommended. (9) Tendinosis calcarea can be treated by shockwave (ESWT) or needling under ultrasound guidance (barbotage). (10) Rehabilitation in a specialized unit can be considered in chronic, treatment resistant SAPS, with pain perpetuating behavior. (11) There is no convincing evidence that surgical treatment for SAPS is more effective than conservature management. (12) There is no indication for the surgical treatment of asymptomatic rotator cuff tears.
Diercks, Ron; Bron, Carel; Dorrestijn, Oscar; Meskers, Carel; Naber, Rene; de Ruiter, Tjerk; Willems, Jaap; Winters, Jan; van der Woude, Henk Jan
The use of liver elastography has substantially developed in the past few years; the introduction of novel elastographic methods (Transient Elastography, point Shear Wave Elastography, Real Time Shear Wave Elastography, Strain Elastography) has changed the perspective in the evaluation of liver disease. The ongoing research in this area is mainly focused on diffuse liver diseases and for predicting liver cirrhosis complication. This guideline created under the auspice of Romanian Society of Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology is intended to accustomize the clinician with the current practical use of liver elastography and has been issued to help in maximizing the clinical benefit for the patients with chronic liver diseases. PMID:24791844
Sporea, Ioan; Bota, Simona; S?ftoiu, Adrian; ?irli, Roxana; Gradin?ru-Ta?c?u, Oana; Popescu, Alina; Lup?or Platon, Monica; Fierbinteanu-Braticevici, Carmen; Gheonea, Dan Ionu?; S?ndulescu, Larisa; Badea, Radu
Evidence-based guidelines regarding vaginal birth after cesarean from 3 countries (United States, Canada, and United Kingdom) were reviewed. The similarities in the 3 national guidelines (trial of labor after 1 previous cesarean, informed consent, delivery facility and available resources, epidural analgesia, continuous fetal monitoring, and induction and augmentation of labor) are understandable. Differences in recommendations (uterine rupture risk, success rate, intrauterine pressure catheter, and mechanical cervical ripening) are not explained. The likelihood of recommendations being categorized as level A differed: United States, 27% (3/11); Canada, 32% (6/19); and United Kingdom, 0% (0/17). Only 6 publications were cited by all 3 guidelines. PMID:23090466
Hill, James B; Ammons, Alex; Chauhan, Suneet P
Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a rare cutaneous sarcoma that frequently recurs locally, but rarely metastasizes. The purpose of this work is to present a clinical series of DFSP patients and national Danish incidence data in the period 2000-2012. Furthermore, the aim is to present guidelines on the management based on a review of the literature. Medical records of 26 consecutively treated patients at the Department of Plastic Surgery in Health Care Region Zealand were reviewed and histological specimens were reassessed. To investigate national Danish incidence in the period 2000-2012, data were extracted from the national pathology registry. Finally, a literature search was performed in Pubmed and Cochrane, and 23 major publications were reviewed. Studies on Mohs Micrographic surgery were excluded. All patients were treated with wide local excision (WLE) with a median margin of 2.8 cem and a median follow-up time of 36 months. We found a local recurrence rate of 4%. Our national incidence data were based on 374 patients. The overall incidence was 0.53 per 100,000 persons. The prevalence of DFSP in the age group 20-50 years was significantly higher than the group below 20 years (p < 0.0001). Surgery is the treatment of choice for primary DFSP, local recurrences, and metastases. If clear margins cannot be obtained by WLE or surgery is not an option because of unacceptable functional or cosmetic outcome, adjuvant radiotherapy or imatinib can be considered. Chemotherapy can be a final option if other treatments fail. PMID:23837507
Akram, Javed; Wooler, Gitte; Lock-Andersen, Jørgen
Hyponatraemia, defined as a serum sodium concentration <135 mmol/l, is the most common disorder of body fluid and electrolyte balance encountered in clinical practice. It can lead to a wide spectrum of clinical symptoms, from subtle to severe or even life threatening, and is associated with increased mortality, morbidity and length of hospital stay in patients presenting with a range of conditions. Despite this, the management of patients remains problematic. The prevalence of hyponatraemia in widely different conditions and the fact that hyponatraemia is managed by clinicians with a broad variety of backgrounds have fostered diverse institution- and speciality-based approaches to diagnosis and treatment. To obtain a common and holistic view, the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM), the European Society of Endocrinology (ESE) and the European Renal Association - European Dialysis and Transplant Association (ERA-EDTA), represented by European Renal Best Practice (ERBP), have developed the Clinical Practice Guideline on the diagnostic approach and treatment of hyponatraemia as a joint venture of three societies representing specialists with a natural interest in hyponatraemia. In addition to a rigorous approach to methodology and evaluation, we were keen to ensure that the document focused on patient-important outcomes and included utility for clinicians involved in everyday practice. PMID:24569496
Spasovski, Goce; Vanholder, Raymond; Allolio, Bruno; Annane, Djillali; Ball, Steve; Bichet, Daniel; Decaux, Guy; Fenske, Wiebke; Hoorn, Ewout J; Ichai, Carole; Joannidis, Michael; Soupart, Alain; Zietse, Robert; Haller, Maria; van der Veer, Sabine; Van Biesen, Wim; Nagler, Evi
The number of inflammatory bowel disease patients has been increasing in Japan and the demand for clinical practical guidelines emerged. A set of clinical practice guidelines for ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease were thus published in 2006 and 2011, respectively. Their English versions were then published in 2000 and 2012, respectively. These guidelines aim to provide appropriate clinical indicators to Japanese practitioners to improve the outcomes of inflammatory bowel disease patients. The guidelines are based on global literature-based evidence as well as evidence from Japan. The Japanese guidelines were developed based on the existing evidence with integration of the experts' consensus. The criteria for recommendation grade were also determined by the level of evidence as well as by the experts' consensus. It is a distinct feature of the Japanese guidelines to disclose this process explicitly. This recommendation rating is thus useful to fill the gap between evidence and daily clinical practice. Since the Japanese guidelines are primarily based on global literature-based evidence, most of the clinical indicators in them are consistent with those in other guidelines from the Western world. Meanwhile, there are some distinctly different statements in the Japanese guidelines reflecting Japanese standard clinical practice, evidence, and the opinions of Japanese experts. PMID:24246989
Matsuoka, Katsuyoshi; Hibi, Toshifumi
Guidelines for management of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) have been generated by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Myelodysplastic Syndromes Panel. Because MDS is a heterogeneous spectrum of disorders, these patients have been categorized into prognostic subgroups, predominantly using the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS). Several drugs have been used to treat these patients, and their selection and sequential recommended use by the panel depend on disease characteristics and responses to treatment. Recombinant erythropoietin alfa and darbepoetin alfa have been the mainstay of therapy for treating anemia associated with MDS. The FDA has recently approved several other drugs for treating MDS, including azacytidine and decitabine for all stages of disease, lenalidomide for low-risk anemic patients with del(5q) chromosomal abnormality, and deferasirox for treating iron overload. For iron chelation, deferoxamine is also used occasionally. Treatment with immunosuppressive therapy (antithymocyte globulin and cyclosporin) has been therapeutically beneficial for a subset of younger patients with MDS. Because the financial cost of these therapies are substantial and have received only limited attention, this article evaluates the costs of specific drugs and their sequential use in the lower-risk IPSS (low and intermediate-1) subgroups based on the NCCN guidelines. Results estimate an average annual cost for potentially anemia-altering drugs of $63,577 per patient, ranging from $26,000 to $95,000, depending on the specific therapies. In patients for whom the therapies fail, annual costs for iron chelation plus red blood cell transfusions are estimated to average $41,412. The economic impact of drug therapy should be weighed against the patient's potential for improvement in clinical outcomes, quality of life, and transfusion requirements. PMID:18926103
Greenberg, Peter L; Cosler, Leon E; Ferro, Salvatore A; Lyman, Gary H
The Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research first developed guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of Helicobacter pylori (H.?pylori) infection in 1998, and revised guidelines were proposed in 2009 by the same group. Although the revised guidelines were based on a comprehensive review of published articles and the consensus of expert opinions, the revised guidelines were not developed using an evidence-based process. The new guidelines presented in this study include specific changes regarding indication and treatment of H.?pylori infection in Korea, and were developed through the adaptation process using an evidence-based approach. After systematic review of the literature, six guidelines were selected using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) II process. A total of 21 statements were proposed with the grading system and revised using the modified Delphi method. After the guideline revisions, 11 statements about indication of test and treatment, four statements about diagnosis, and four statements about treatment of H.?pylori infection were developed. The revised guidelines were reviewed by external experts before receiving official endorsement from the Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research, and disseminated to physicians and other medical professionals for use in clinical practice in Korea. The guidelines will continue to be updated and revised periodically. PMID:24758240
Kim, Sang Gyun; Jung, Hye-Kyung; Lee, Hang Lak; Jang, Jae Young; Lee, Hyuk; Kim, Chan Gyoo; Shin, Woon Geon; Shin, Ein Soon; Lee, Yong Chan
This paper starts out by describing the research and drafting processes of the "National Medium- and Long-Term Educational Reform and Development Guideline" (2010-20) (hereafter abbreviated as the "Guideline") and analyzes a series of core concepts that ran through the entire process of researching and drafting the "Guideline". It expounds on the…
BACKGROUND: Guidelines on smoking cessation (SC) emphasize healthcare cooperation and community pharmacists' involvement. This study explored the familiarity and implementation of the National SC Guideline in Finnish community pharmacies, factors relating to Guideline familiarity, implementation and provision of SC services. METHODS: A nationwide mail survey was sent to a systematic, sample of community pharmacy owners and staff pharmacists (total n
Terhi Kurko; Kari Linden; Kirsi Pietilä; Patrick Sandström; Marja Airaksinen
Setting A tertiary health care facility (Government General and Chest hospital) in Hyderabad, India. Objectives To assess a) the extent of compliance of specialists to standardized national (RNTCP) tuberculosis management guidelines and b) if patients on discharge from hospital were being appropriately linked up with peripheral health facilities for continuation of anti-Tuberculosis (TB) treatment. Methods A descriptive study using routine programme data and involving all TB patients admitted to inpatient care from 1st January to 30th June, 2010. Results and Conclusions There were a total of 3120 patients admitted of whom, 1218 (39%) required anti-TB treatment. Of these 1104 (98%) were treated with one of the RNTCP recommended regimens, while 28 (2%) were treated with non-RNTCP regimens. The latter included individually tailored MDR-TB treatment regimens for 19 patients and adhoc regimens for nine patients. A total of 957 (86%) patients were eventually discharged from the hospital of whom 921 (96%) had a referral form filled for continuing treatment at a peripheral health facility. Formal feedback from peripheral health facilities on continuation of TB treatment was received for 682 (74%) patients. In a tertiary health facility with specialists the great majority of TB patients are managed in line with national guidelines. However a number of short-comings were revealed and measures to rectify these are discussed.
Kondapaka, Kiran Kumar; Prasad, Surapaneni Venkateswara; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Kandi, Subhakar; Zachariah, Rony; Harries, Anthony David; Nagaraja, Sharath Burugina; Tetali, Shailaja; Anchala, Raghupathy; Kannuri, Nanda Kishore; Murthy, Krishna; Koppu, Dhanamurthy; Vangari, Latha; Rao, Sreenivas
This document contains the federal guidelines for meeting the specific requirements of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972. These guidelines are also intended to assist in meeting the regulations for grant assisted facility construction and to provide information on the key elements to be included in the operation plans for…
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.
Glycogen storage disease type II is a rare multi-systemic disorder characterised by an intracellular accumulation of glycogen due a mutation in the acid alpha glucosidase (GAA) gene. The level of residual enzyme activity, the genotype and other yet unknown factors account for the broad variation of the clinical phenotype. The classical infantile form is characterised by severe muscle hypotonia and cardiomyopathy leading to early death. The late-onset form presents as a limb girdle myopathy with or without pulmonary dysfunction. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with recombinant human GAA (rhGAA) in infants is life saving. In contrast, therapeutic efficacy of rhGAA in the late-onset form is modest. High expenses of rhGAA, on-going infusions and poor pharmacokinetic efficacy raised a discussion of the cost effectiveness of ERT in late-onset Pompe disease in Switzerland. This discussion was triggered by a Swiss federal court ruling which confirmed the reluctance of a health care insurer not to reimburse treatment costs in a 67-year-old female suffering from Pompe disease. As a consequence of this judgement ERT was stopped by all insurance companies in late-onset Pompe patients in Switzerland regardless of their clinical condition. Subsequent negotiations lead to the release of a national guideline of the management of late-onset Pompe disease. Initiation and limitation of ERT is outlined in a national Pompe registry. Reimbursement criteria are defined and individual efficacy of ERT with rhGAA is continuously monitored. PMID:23749294
Hundsberger, Thomas; Rohrbach, Marianne; Kern, Lukas; Rösler, Kai M
Objectives To determine the effectiveness of the heart failure screening form in teaching heart failure treatment guidelines and prompting students to evaluate patients' medications to initiate patient education and provider intervention. Design Between 2002 and 2009, 123 students used the heart failure screeing form during an elective cardiology advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE). A subset of 41 students were also assessed for change in heart failure knowledge and confidence pre- and post-APPE. Assessment A total of 1,114 heart failure patients were screened and assessed using the tool with a mean age of 71.9 ± 12.9 years. Of those, 535 (48%) patients met screening criteria and participated in heart failure education. From 2008 through 2009, there were 45 heart failure interventions with a 60% provider acceptance rate. Significant improvements were made in heart failure knowledge and in all areas of confidence at the end of the APPE for the 41 students assessed. Discussion The heart failure screening form is an effective tool to teach evidence-based medicine and to prompt students to initiate provider intervention and patient education. Its use is associated with significant increases in knowledge and confidence in heart failure medication therapy management in fourth-year pharmacy students.
Lenz, Thomas L.; Destache, Christopher J.
World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) Guidelines for Biological Treatment of Schizophrenia, part 1: update 2012 on the acute treatment of schizophrenia and the management of treatment resistance.
These updated guidelines are based on a first edition of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry Guidelines for Biological Treatment of Schizophrenia published in 2005. For this 2012 revision, all available publications pertaining to the biological treatment of schizophrenia were reviewed systematically to allow for an evidence-based update. These guidelines provide evidence-based practice recommendations that are clinically and scientifically meaningful and these guidelines are intended to be used by all physicians diagnosing and treating people suffering from schizophrenia. Based on the first version of these guidelines, a systematic review of the MEDLINE/PUBMED database and the Cochrane Library, in addition to data extraction from national treatment guidelines, has been performed for this update. The identified literature was evaluated with respect to the strength of evidence for its efficacy and then categorised into six levels of evidence (A-F; Bandelow et al. 2008b, World J Biol Psychiatry 9:242). This first part of the updated guidelines covers the general descriptions of antipsychotics and their side effects, the biological treatment of acute schizophrenia and the management of treatment-resistant schizophrenia. PMID:22834451
Hasan, Alkomiet; Falkai, Peter; Wobrock, Thomas; Lieberman, Jeffrey; Glenthoj, Birte; Gattaz, Wagner F; Thibaut, Florence; Möller, Hans-Jürgen
This document provides a summary of the Dutch S3-guidelines on the treatment of psoriasis. These guidelines were finalized in December 2011 and contain unique chapters on the treatment of psoriasis of the face and flexures, childhood psoriasis as well as the patient's perspective on treatment. They also cover the topical treatment of psoriasis, photo(chemo)therapy, conventional systemic therapy and biological therapy. PMID:24656281
Zweegers, J; de Jong, E M G J; Nijsten, T E C; de Bes, J; te Booij, M; Bogonjen, R J; van Cranenburgh, O D; van Deutekom, H; van Everdingen, J J E; de Groot, M; Van Hees, C L M; Hulshuizen, H; Koek, M B G; de Korte, W J A; de Korte, J; Lecluse, L L A; Pasch, M C; Poblete-Gutiérrez, P A; Prens, E P; Seyger, M M B; Thio, H B; Torcque, L A; de Vries, A C Q; van de Kerkhof, P C M; Spuls, Ph I
Patients affected by pneumonia can be admitted in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) independently by the setting where the infection has been acquired (community, hospital, long-term care facilities); even more frequently pneumonia can develop in patients already hospitalized in ICU especially in those requiring mechanical ventilation for different reasons. Within the severe community acquired pneumonia requiring admission in ICU, the most frequently responsible micro-organisms are mainly represented by Streptococcus pneumoniae, but also by Legionella and Haemophilus. Pseudomonas aeruginona, anyway, cannot be excluded. The most recent Canadian and American guidelines for treatment of the above mentioned infections suggest the use of a combination therapy with beta-lactams (ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ampicillin/sulbactam, piperacillin/tazobactam) and a new generation macrolide or respiratory fluoroquinolone. In case of allergy to beta-lactams, the association fluoroquinolone-clindamycin should be preferred. Whenever a Pseudomonas etiology is suspected because of the presence of risk factors such as COPD, cystic fibrosis, bronchiectasis, previous and/or frequent therapies with antibiotics and/or steroids, the same guidelines suggest the use of an anti-pseudomonas beta-lactam (such as piperacillin/tazobactam, carbapenems, cefepime) associated with an anti-pseudomonas fluoroquinolone (high doses ciprofloxacin). An anti-pseudomonas beta-lactam plus an aminoglycoside or aminoglicosyde plus fluoroquinolone can be an alternative. Early onset Hospital Acquired Pneumonia (HAP) and early onset Ventilator Associated Pneumonia (VAP) in patients without risk factors for multi-resistant etiological agents are generally sustained by S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, methicillin-susceptible Staphylocccus aureus e Gram negative enteric rods. These infections can be treated with one of the following antibiotics: ceftriaxone or fluoroquinolones (moxifloxacin or ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin) or ampicillin/sulbactam or ertapenem. Late onset VAP and HAP in patients with risk factors for multi-resistant, by contrast, should be treated with a combination therapy: in case of defined or suspected P. aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESbL+), Acinetobacter sp etiology, it is required the use of an anti-pseudomonas cephalosporin or an anti-pseudomonas carbapenem or b-lactam + beta-lactamase inhibitor associated with an anti-pseudomonas fluoroquinolone or an aminoglicoside. The possible presence of MRSA or Legionella pneumophila suggests the use of anti-Gram positive antibiotics such as glycopeptides or linezolid. These quidelines confirm the role of ciprofloxacin combined with beta-lactams whenever P. aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESbL+), Acinetobacter sp. etiology is suspected. PMID:16801748
Since the Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research has first developed the guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection in 1998, the revised guideline was proposed in 2009 by the same group. Although the revised guideline was made by comprehensive review of previous articles and consensus of authoritative expert opinions, the evidence-based developmental process was not applied in the revision of the guideline. This new guideline has been revised especially in terms of changes in the indication and treatment of H. pylori infection in Korea, and developed by the adaptation process as evidence-based method; 6 guidelines were retrieved by systematic review and the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) II process, 21 statements were made with grading system and revised by modified Delphi method. After revision, 11 statements for the indication of test and treatment, 4 statements for the diagnosis and 4 statements for the treatment have been developed, respectively. The revised guideline has been reviewed by external experts before the official endorsement, and will be disseminated for usual clinical practice in Korea. Also, the scheduled update and revision of the guideline will be made periodically. PMID:23954956
Kim, Sang Gyun; Jung, Hye Kyung; Lee, Hang Lak; Jang, Jae Young; Lee, Hyuk; Kim, Chan Gyoo; Shin, Woon Geon; Shin, Ein Soon; Lee, Yong Chan
Background Diagnostic imaging plays an integral role in diagnosing and managing many pediatric disorders, but there is growing concern\\u000a in both the medical community and the general public about the long-term health effects of ionizing radiation in children,\\u000a as well as utilization of imaging evaluation. These concerns, coupled with increasing pressure to reduce national health care\\u000a spending, underscore the need for
Cameron H. Williams; Donald P. Frush
The new German S3 guideline "Colorectal Carcinoma" was created as part of the German Guideline Program in Oncology of the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany, the German Cancer Society and the German Cancer Aid under the auspices of the German Society for Digestive and Metabolic Diseases and replaces the guideline from 2008. With its evidence-based treatment recommendations, the guideline contains numerous updates and detailed definitions regarding the diagnosis and treatment of colon and rectal cancer. In particular, consensus-based recommendations regarding early detection, preoperative diagnostic method selection, and the use of interventional radiological treatment methods are detailed. The guideline also includes quality indicators so that standardized quality assurance methods can be used to optimize patient-related processes.The present article discusses the significance of the current recommendations for radiological diagnosis and treatment and is intended to enhance the quality of patient information and care by increasing distribution. PMID:23804154
Vogl, T J; Schmiegel, W; Pox, C; Pereira, P L; Brambs, H J; Lux, P; Fischer, S
The implementation of policy interventions at the school level is often considered an organizational change process. The main goal of the present study was to examine the degree of implementation of Norwegian national guidelines for healthy school meals and how organizational capacity at the school level contributed to the degree of…
Holthe, Asle; Larsen, Torill; Samdal, Oddrun
The National Reporting System (NRS) established reporting requirements for the adult education program required by Title II of the Workforce Investment Act. The NRS defines the measures local programs must collect, the methodologies for collecting them, and state reporting requirements. This document presents the guidelines for conducting the NRS…
American Institutes for Research in the Behavioral Sciences, Washington, DC.
The National Cholesterol Education Program has developed a set of guidelines for optimal levels of serum lipids that are recommended to reduce the risk of coronary artery disease. This article compares those values to lipid levels found in insurance applicants. PMID:15303591
Lowden, J Alexander
Migraine headaches are among the most common headache disorders seen in various practices. The prevalence of migraine headaches is 18% in women and 6% in men. While millions of Americans suffer from migraine headaches, roughly 3%–13% of identified migraine patients are on preventive therapy, while an estimated 38% actually need a preventive agent. The challenge among physicians is not only when to start a daily preventive agent but which preventive agent to choose. Circumstances warranting prevention have been described in the past, and in 2012, a new set of guidelines with an evidence review on preventive medications was published. A second set of guidelines provided evidence on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, herbs, minerals, and vitamins for prevention of episodic migraine. This article describes the updated US guidelines for the prevention of migraines and also outlines the major studies from which these guidelines were derived.
Estemalik, E; Tepper, S
ObjectivesThe treatment guidelines for isolated superior mesenteric artery dissection (SMAD) are not well established. The purpose of this study was to report a single-centre series of SMAD and propose treatment guidelines.
B. S. Cho; M. S. Lee; M. K. Lee; Y. J. Choi; C. N. Kim; Y. J. Kang; J. S. Park; H. Y. Ahn
Background Research ethics guidelines are essential for conducting medical research. Recently, numerous attempts have been made to establish national clinical research documents in the countries of the Middle East. This article analyzes these documents. Methods Thirteen Arab countries in the Middle East were explored for available national codes, regulations, and guidelines concerning research ethics, and 10 documents from eight countries were found. We studied these documents, considering the ethical principles stated in the Declaration of Helsinki, the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) guidelines, and the International Conference of Harmonization - Guidelines for Good Clinical Practice (ICH-GCP). Our paper comprises a complete list of protections, such as confidentiality, informed consent, ethics committees, and others. Results This study found different levels and kinds of research ethics regulations and guidelines in the countries examined. Two groups can be distinguished: the countries in the first group have one or more research ethics regulations or guidelines, while the countries in the second group have not yet established any. Most of the documents showed various degrees of deficiencies in regard to ethical protection. The majority of the documents that were examined refer to one or more international documents on biomedical research ethics. Conclusions Recently, a lot of efforts have been made in many countries in the Middle East. However, compared with international documents, most of the research ethics documents in use in this region demonstrate numerous deficiencies. As it relates to these documents, extensive differences could be observed in regard to development, structure, content, and reference to international guidelines.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe: (a) the prevalence and content of policies on euthanasia or assisted suicide (EAS) in three different types of nursing homes; (b) specific content items of written guidelines for EAS; and (c) the prevalence of guidelines on withholding or withdrawing treatment from severely demented patients and patients in a persistent vegetative state
I Haverkate; G van der Wal
This review summarises updated clinical guidelines produced by the Clinical Standards Committee of the Faculty of Dental Surgery, Royal College of Surgeons of England (FDSRCS). This guideline on the management of the palatally ectopic maxillary canine illustrates the information contained in the recently updated online version. The timely recognition of ectopic canines is important for the overall management of the dentition. This review illustrates five management strategies for ectopic permanent canines: interceptive treatment by extraction of the deciduous canine, surgical exposure and orthodontic alignment, surgical removal of the palatally ectopic permanent canine, auto-transplantation and no active treatment/leave and observe. The current available evidence for each of these management options has been evaluated and awarded a grade used by the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. PMID:22918345
Husain, J; Burden, D; McSherry, P; Morris, D; Allen, M
Background At least 39 sub-Saharan African countries have policies on preventing malaria in pregnancy (MIP), including use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) and case management. However, coverage of LLINs and IPTp-SP remains below international targets in most countries. One factor contributing to low coverage may be that MIP policies typically are developed by national malaria control programmes (NMCPs), but are implemented through national reproductive health (RH) programmes. Methods National-level MIP policies, guidelines, and training documents from NMCPs and RH programmes in Kenya, Mali, Mozambique, mainland Tanzania and Uganda were reviewed to assess whether they reflected WHO guidelines for prevention and treatment of MIP, and how consistent MIP content was across documents from the same country. Documents were compared for adherence to WHO guidance concerning IPTp-SP timing and dose, directly observed therapy, promotion and distribution of LLINs, linkages to HIV programmes and MIP case management. Results The five countries reviewed had national documents promoting IPTp-SP, LLINs and MIP case management. WHO guidance from 2004 frequently was not reflected: four countries recommended the first dose of IPTp-SP at 20 weeks or later (instead of 16 weeks), and three countries restricted the first and second IPTp-SP doses to specific gestational weeks. Documents from four countries provided conflicting guidance on MIP prevention for HIV-positive women, and none provided complete guidance on management of uncomplicated and severe malaria during pregnancy. In all countries, inconsistencies between NMCPs and RH programmes on the timing or dose of IPTp-SP were documented, as was the mechanism for providing LLINs. Inconsistencies also were found in training documents from NMCPs and RH programmes in a given country. Outdated, inconsistent guidelines have the potential to cause confusion and lead to incorrect practices among health workers who implement MIP programmes, contributing to low coverage of IPTp-SP and LLINs. Conclusions MIP policies, guidelines and training materials are outdated and/or inconsistent in the countries assessed. Updating and ensuring consistency among national MIP documents is needed, along with re-orientation and supervision of health workers to accelerate implementation of the 2012 WHO Global Malaria Programme policy recommendations for IPTp-SP.
Women constitute two-thirds of patients suffering from common depressive disorders, making the treatment of depression in women a substantial public health concern. However, high-quality, empirical data on depressive disorders specific to women are limited, and there are no comprehensive evidence-based practice guidelines on the best treatments for these illnesses. To bridge the gap between research evidence and key clinical decisions, the authors developed a survey of expert opinion concerning treatment of four depressive conditions specific to women: premenstrual dysphoric disorder, depression in pregnancy, postpartum depression in a mother choosing to breast-feed, and depression related to perimenopause/menopause. The survey asked about 858 treatment options in 117 clinical situations and included a broad range of pharmacological, psychosocial, and alternative medicine approaches. The survey was sent to 40 national experts on women's mental health issues, 36 (90%) of whom completed it. The options, scored using a modified version of the RAND Corporation's 9-point scale for rating appropriateness of medical decisions, were assigned one of three categorical rankings-first line/preferred choice, second line/alternate choice, third line/usually inappropriate-based on the 95% confidence interval of each item's mean rating. The expert panel reached consensus (defined as a non-random distribution of scores by chi-square "goodness-of-fit" test) on 76% of the options, with greater consensus in situations involving severe symptoms. Guideline tables indicating preferred treatment strategies were then developed for key clinical situations. The authors summarize the expert consensus methodology they used and then, for each of the four key areas, review the treatment literature and summarize the experts' recommendations and how they relate to the research findings. For women with severe symptoms in each area we asked about, the first-line recommendation was antidepressant medication combined with other modalities (generally psychotherapy). These recommendations parallel existing guidelines for severe depression in general populations. For initial treatment of milder symptoms in each situation, the panel was less uniform in recommending antidepressants, and either gave equal endorsement to other treatment modalities (e.g., nutritional or psychobehavioral approaches in PMDD; hormone replacement in perimenopause) or preferred psychotherapy over medication (during conception, pregnancy, or lactation). In all milder cases, however, antidepressants were recommended as at least second-line options. Among antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) were recommended as first-line treatment in all situations. The specific SSRIs that were preferred depended on the particular clinical situation. Tricyclic antidepressants were highly rated alternatives to SSRIs in pregnancy and lactation. In evaluating many of the treatment options, the experts had to extrapolate beyond controlled data in comparing treatment options with each other or in combination. Within the limits of expert opinion and with the expectation that future research data will take precedence, these guidelines provide some direction for addressing common clinical dilemmas in women, and can be used to inform clinicians and educate patients regarding the relative merits of a variety of interventions. PMID:15990522
Altshuler, L L; Cohen, L S; Moline, M L; Kahn, D A; Carpenter, D; Docherty, J P; Ross, R W
The Division of STD Prevention of the US Centers for Disease Control has recently released this update (MMWR 1998;47(No. RR-1)) to the 1993 set of guidelines with the same title. The guidelines were developed by CDC staff after consultation with a "group of invited experts" in early 1997. Included are sections on various sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV, Genital Ulcers, Epididymitis, Human Papillomavirus Infection, and vaccine preventable STDs, among others. Guideline evidence is briefly discussed in each section of the report, and the CDC is committed to providing "more comprehensive, annotated discussions of such evidence...in background papers that will be published in 1998." Note that in the HTML version of the report, some of the interior links within chapters are inaccurate. In those cases, it is prudent to click on the section headings to find the relevant information.
Since the launch in 2008 by the National Osteoporosis Guideline Group (NOGG), of guidance for the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and older men in the UK there have been significant advances in risk assessment and treatment. These have been incorporated into an updated version of the guideline, with an additional focus on the management of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, the role of calcium and vitamin D therapy and the benefits and risks of long-term bisphosphonate therapy. The updated guideline is summarised below. The recommendations in the guideline are intended to aid management decisions but do not replace the need for clinical judgement in the care of individuals in clinical practice. PMID:23810490
Compston, J; Bowring, C; Cooper, A; Cooper, C; Davies, C; Francis, R; Kanis, J A; Marsh, D; McCloskey, E V; Reid, D M; Selby, P
BACKGROUND: The Canadian Association for the Study of the Liver, and The Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Canada, jointly developed the Canadian Chronic Hepatitis B (HBV) Consensus Guidelines to assist practitioners involved in the management of this complex disease. These guidelines were published in The Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology in June 2007 and distributed to all Canadian gastroenterologists and hepatologists. OBJECTIVE: To assess the degree to which Canadian specialist physicians were able to incorporate the recommendations from the Canadian HBV Consensus Guidelines into their daily practice. METHODS: A 30 min telephone survey probing the management strategies of 80 key HBV specialists was completed on three occasions, eight months apart, to longitudinally assess the impact of the Canadian HBV Consensus Guidelines on the management of HBV. The questionnaire detailed HBV practice patterns, the impact of the Canadian HBV Consensus Guidelines on clinical practice and HBV management. RESULTS: The majority of specialists incorporated many of the published recommendations outlined in the Canadian HBV Consensus Guidelines into their daily practice for patients with HBV. However, because public drug coverage is a major hurdle in the management of HBV, patients are provided markedly different HBV treatments depending on whether they have public or private drug insurance coverage. CONCLUSIONS: The management of HBV is growing in complexity and continues to evolve rapidly. The Canadian HBV Consensus Guidelines have served as a valuable tool for many physicians in the management of HBV. However, effective treatment algorithms continue to be rendered irrelevant by restrictive drug coverage issues. Coverage for effective therapies and, therefore, management of HBV, differs widely across Canada depending on therapy reimbursement criteria rather than patient characteristics.
Marotta, Paul; Lucas, Kurt
The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) in the United Kingdom developed guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention, and management of delirium in July 2010 that included 10 recommendations for delirium prevention. The Hospital Elder Life Program (HELP) is a targeted multicomponent strategy that has proven effective and cost-effective at preventing functional and cognitive decline in hospitalized older persons. HELP provided much of the basis for seven of the NICE recommendations. Given interest by new HELP sites to meet NICE guidelines, three new protocols addressing hypoxia, infection, and pain that were not previously included in the HELP program were developed. In addition, the NICE dehydration guideline included constipation, which was not specifically addressed in the HELP protocols. This project describes the systematic development of three new protocols (hypoxia, infection, pain) and the expansion of an existing HELP protocol (constipation and dehydration) to achieve alignment between the HELP protocols and NICE guidelines. Following the Institute of Medicine recommendations for developing trustworthy guidelines, an interdisciplinary group of experts conducted a systematic review of current literature, rated the quality of the evidence, developed intervention protocols based on the highest-quality evidence, and submitted the protocols first to internal review and then to external review by an interdisciplinary panel of experts. The protocols were revised based on the review process and incorporated into the HELP materials. Inclusion of these protocols enhances the scope of the HELP program and allows fulfillment of NICE guideline recommendations for delirium prevention. The rigorous process applied may provide a useful example for updating existing guidelines or protocols that may be applicable to a broad range of clinical applications. PMID:24697606
Yue, Jirong; Tabloski, Patricia; Dowal, Sarah L; Puelle, Margaret R; Nandan, Rakesh; Inouye, Sharon K
This Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) addresses the clinical use of buprenorphine in the treatment of opioid addiction. TIPs are best-practice guidelines for the treatment of substance use disorders that make the latest research in substance abuse treatment available to counselors and educators. The content was generated by a panel of experts…
Boone, Margaret; Brown, Nancy J.; Moon, Mary A.; Schuman, Deborah J.; Thomas, Josephine; Wright, Denise L.
Although pharmacological treatment constitutes the main therapeutic approach for depression, non-pharmacological treatments (self-care or psychotherapeutic approach) are usually regarded as more essential therapeutic approaches in clinical practice. However, there have been few clinical practice guidelines concerning self-care or psychotherapy in the management of depression. This study introduces the 'Evidence-Based, Non-Pharmacological Treatment Guideline for Depression in Korea.' For the first time, a guideline was developed for non-pharmacological treatments for Korean adults with mild-to-moderate depression. The guideline development process consisted of establishing several key questions related to non-pharmacologic treatments of depression, searching the literature for studies which answer these questions, assessing the evidence level of each selected study, drawing up draft recommendation, and peer review. The Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network grading system was used to evaluate the quality of evidence. As a result of this process, the guideline recommends exercise therapy, bibliotherapy, cognitive behavior therapy, short-term psychodynamic supportive psychotherapy, and interpersonal psychotherapy as the non-pharmacological treatments for adult patients with mild-to-moderate depression in Korea. Hence, it is necessary to develop specific methodologies for several non-pharmacological treatment for Korean adults with depression.
Park, Seon-Cheol; Oh, Hong Seok; Oh, Dong-Hoon; Jung, Seung Ah; Na, Kyoung-Sae; Lee, Hwa-Young; Kang, Ree-Hun; Choi, Yun-Kyeung; Lee, Min-Soo
The aim of this project was to develop evidence-based guidelines regarding psychosocial aspects of diabetes mellitus in an effort to help the clinician bridge the gap between research and practice. Recommendations address the following topics: patient education, behavioural medicine, and psychiatric disorders of particular relevance to diabetes: depression, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, and dependence on alcohol and nicotine. The present
Frank Petrak; Stephan Herpertz; Christian Albus; Axel Hirsch; Bernhard Kulzer; Johannes Kruse
The guideline programme developed by the National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (NCCMH) for the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) is probably the most comprehensive and methodologically advanced mental health guideline programme in the world, covering most adults and children with mental health problems and addressing a broad range of pharmacological and psychological/psychosocial interventions. As the success of the NICE programme gains momentum, its influence in the National Health Service (NHS) grows. If guidelines contain systematic bias the effects will be widespread. Over the last 10 years the NCCMH has recognized imperfections and patterns of bias in the way that evidence is generated and included in guidelines, including psychological/psychosocial interventions and drug treatments. The pharmaceutical industry remains a major source of bias through selective reporting and publishing, and represents a threat to ensuring the evidence underpinning guidelines and clinical decision-making is as complete and reliable as possible. The inclusion of service users into guideline development at the NCCMH has developed in parallel to the identification and understanding of evidential bias, and is now becoming an important focus for high-quality guidelines which are becoming increasingly person-centred. For mental health this is as radical as the integration of psychological/psychosocial treatments into what has, for many years, been a largely medical domain. The future role of service users in monitoring their own experience of care and ensuring that trusts are accountable to them is now a real possibility and is likely to have an impact upon the traditional power relations in mental health and the stigma usually associated with psychiatric problems. PMID:22026490
Kendall, Tim; Glover, Naomi; Taylor, Clare; Pilling, Stephen
To provide guidance to clinicians about best practices, the Wilderness Medical Society convened an expert panel to develop evidence-based guidelines for the treatment and prevention of lightning injuries. These guidelines include a review of the epidemiology of lightning strikes and recommendations for the prevention of lightning strikes, along with treatment recommendations organized by organ system. Recommendations are graded based on the quality of supporting evidence according to criteria put forth by the American College of Chest Physicians. PMID:22854068
Davis, Chris; Engeln, Anna; Johnson, Eric; McIntosh, Scott E; Zafren, Ken; Islas, Arthur A; McStay, Christopher; Smith, William 'Will' R; Cushing, Tracy
The aim of this study was to evaluate adherence to recommended serum uric acid levels in the rheumatology outpatients department of a university teaching hospital. We performed a retrospective study of all patients with a definitive diagnosis of gout attending our subspecialty gout clinic between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2010. We evaluated adherence with two recently suggested uric acid thresholds, <300 ?mol/L (<5 mg/dL) and <360 ?mol/L (<6 mg/dL). Patient management was judged to adhere to the guidelines if either (1) the latest serum uric acid level was less than the specified guideline targets or (2) uric acid-lowering therapy was titrated upwards or the agent changed if the serum uric acid was above the guideline targets. One hundred two patients with a definitive diagnosis of gout attended the outpatients department between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2010 and were included in the study. Median serum uric acid level was 331 ?mol/L (IQR 276-456 ?mol/L). Eighty-six patients (84 %) were treated with allopurinol, six patients (6 %) were treated with febuxostat (one of whom also received probenecid), and one with rasburicase. In 80 patients (78 %), the management adhered to a target guideline of <360 ?mol/L (<6 mg/dL). In 66 patients (65 %), the management adhered to a target guideline of <300 ?mol/L (<5 mg/dL). A treat-to-target approach has the potential to improve patient outcomes in the management of gouty arthritis. Our study shows encouraging results with the majority of patients on appropriate therapy and reaching recommended targets. PMID:22948225
Conway, Richard; Coughlan, Robert J; Carey, John J
The fundamental goals of treatment in bipolar disorder are full remission of acute mood episodes and prevention of future\\u000a episodes. Contemporary treatment guidelines recommend a number of intermediate goals to facilitate remission and maintenance\\u000a of bipolar disorder. These goals vary somewhat between guidelines, and the rationale behind them and strategies for achieving\\u000a them often receive little discussion. We therefore reviewed
Roy H. Perlis; Michael Ostacher; Heather M. Schloss
The Appalachian States Low-Level Radioactive Waste Commission requested the US Department of Energy`s National Low-Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP) to assist the biomedical community in becoming more knowledgeable about its mixed waste streams, to help minimize the mixed waste stream generated by the biomedical community, and to identify applicable treatment technologies for these mixed waste streams. As the first step in the waste minimization process, liquid low-level radioactive mixed waste (LLMW) streams generated at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) were characterized and combined into similar process categories. This report identifies possible waste minimization and treatment approaches for the LLMW generated by the biomedical community identified in DOE/LLW-208. In development of the report, on site meetings were conducted with NIH personnel responsible for generating each category of waste identified as lacking disposal options. Based on the meetings and general waste minimization guidelines, potential waste minimization options were identified.
Venous thromboembolism is a major cause of morbidity and mortality affecting over 2 million people in the United States each\\u000a year. The American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) published their first consensus statement on antithrombotic therapy\\u000a in 1986, and the most recent guidelines from the ACCP on this topic were released in 2008. We aim to summarize the most recent
M. Houman Fekrazad; Renato D. Lopes; Gregg J. Stashenko; John H. Alexander; David Garcia
World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for biological treatment of schizophrenia, part 2: update 2012 on the long-term treatment of schizophrenia and management of antipsychotic-induced side effects.
Abstract These updated guidelines are based on a first edition of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for biological treatment of schizophrenia published in 2006. For this 2012 revision, all available publications pertaining to the biological treatment of schizophrenia were reviewed systematically to allow for an evidence-based update. These guidelines provide evidence-based practice recommendations that are clinically and scientifically meaningful. They are intended to be used by all physicians diagnosing and treating people suffering from schizophrenia. Based on the first version of these guidelines, a systematic review of the MEDLINE/PUBMED database and the Cochrane Library, in addition to data extraction from national treatment guidelines, has been performed for this update. The identified literature was evaluated with respect to the strength of evidence for its efficacy and then categorised into six levels of evidence (A-F) and five levels of recommendation (1-5) ( Bandelow et al. 2008a ,b, World J Biol Psychiatry 9:242, see Table 1 ). This second part of the updated guidelines covers long-term treatment as well as the management of relevant side effects. These guidelines are primarily concerned with the biological treatment (including antipsychotic medication and other pharmacological treatment options) of adults suffering from schizophrenia. PMID:23216388
Hasan, Alkomiet; Falkai, Peter; Wobrock, Thomas; Lieberman, Jeffrey; Glenthoj, Birte; Gattaz, Wagner F; Thibaut, Florence; Möller, Hans-Jürgen
Explored the relationship between the 1998 National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) weight guidelines and concurrent medical costs among 177,971 employees, retirees, and adult dependents from a nationwide manufacturing corporation. Results indicated that the six weight groups defined by the NHLBI guidelines were consistent with concurrent…
Wang, Feifei; Schultz, Alyssa B.; Musich, Shirley; McDonald, Tim; Hirschland, David; Edington, Dee W.
Background Clinical practice guidelines have been slowly and inconsistently applied in clinical practice, and certain evidence-based, guideline-driven therapies for heart failure (HF) have been significantly underused. The purpose of this study was to survey guideline compliance and its effect on clinical outcomes in the treatment of systolic HF in Korea. Method and Results The SUrvey of Guideline Adherence for Treatment of Systolic Heart Failure in Real World (SUGAR) trial was a multi-center, retrospective, observational study on subjects with systolic HF (ejection fraction <45%) admitted to 23 university hospitals. The guideline adherence indicator (GAI) was defined as a performance measure on the basis of 3 pharmacological classes: angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor II blocker (ARB), beta-blocker (BB), and aldosterone antagonist (AA). Based on the overall adherence percentage, subjects were divided into 2 groups: those with good guideline adherence (GAI ?50%) and poor guideline adherence (GAI <50%). We included 1319 regional participants as representatives of the standard population from the Korean national census in 2008. Adherence to drugs at discharge was as follows: ACEI or ARB, 89.7%; BB, 69.2%; and AA, 65.9%. Overall, 82.7% of the patients had good guideline adherence. Overall mortality and re-hospitalization rates at 1 year were 6.2% and 37.4%, respectively. Survival analysis by log-rank test showed a significant difference in event-free survival rate of mortality (94.7% vs. 89.8%, p?=?0.003) and re-hospitalization (62.3% vs. 56.4%, p?=?0.041) between the good and poor guideline-adherence groups. Conclusions Among patients with systolic HF in Korea, adherence to pharmacologic treatment guidelines as determined by performance measures, including prescription of ACEI/ARB and BB at discharge, was associated with improved clinical outcomes.
Hong, Bum-Kee; Shin, Dae-Hee; Bae, Jang-Ho; Yang, Dong Heon; Shim, Wan-Joo; Kim, Hyung-seop; Kim, Su-Hong; Choi, Jin-Oh; Chun, Woo-Jung; Go, Choong-Won; Kang, Hyun-Jae; Baek, Sang Hong; Cho, Jang-hyun; Hong, Suk-Keun; Shin, Joon-Han; Oh, Seok-Kyu; Pyun, Wook-Bum; Kwan, Jun; Hong, Young-Joon; Jeong, Jin-Ok; Kang, Seok-Min; Choi, Dong-Ju
Background Risk-stratified treatment recommendations facilitate treatment decision-making that balances patient-specific risks and preferences. It is unclear if and how such recommendations are developed in clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Our aim was to assess if and how CPGs develop risk-stratified treatment recommendations for the prevention or treatment of common chronic diseases. Methods We searched the United States National Guideline Clearinghouse for US, Canadian and National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (United Kingdom) CPGs for heart disease, stroke, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and diabetes that make risk-stratified treatment recommendations. We included only those CPGs that made risk-stratified treatment recommendations based on risk assessment tools. Two reviewers independently identified CPGs and extracted information on recommended risk assessment tools; type of evidence about treatment benefits and harms; methods for linking risk estimates to treatment evidence and for developing treatment thresholds; and consideration of patient preferences. Results We identified 20 CPGs that made risk-stratified treatment recommendations out of 133 CPGs that made any type of treatment recommendations for the chronic diseases considered in this study. Of the included 20 CPGs, 16 (80%) used evidence about treatment benefits from randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses or other guidelines, and the source of evidence was unclear in the remaining four (20%) CPGs. Nine CPGs (45%) used evidence on harms from randomized controlled trials or observational studies, while 11 CPGs (55%) did not clearly refer to harms. Nine CPGs (45%) explained how risk prediction and evidence about treatments effects were linked (for example, applying estimates of relative risk reductions to absolute risks), but only one CPG (5%) assessed benefit and harm quantitatively and three CPGs (15%) explicitly reported consideration of patient preferences. Conclusions Only a small proportion of CPGs for chronic diseases make risk-stratified treatment recommendations with a focus on heart disease and stroke prevention, diabetes and breast cancer. For most CPGs it is unclear how risk-stratified treatment recommendations were developed. As a consequence, it is uncertain if CPGs support patients and physicians in finding an acceptable benefit- harm balance that reflects both profile-specific outcome risks and preferences.
Glucocorticoids (GCs) were widely used for the treatment of various disorders. Since GC-induced bone loss is most rapid during the initial 3 - 6 months and primary prevention of bone loss is especially important, guidelines for management of GC-induced osteoporosis have been published overseas and in Japan. In response to changes in the circumstances surrounding GIO regarding fracture assessment tool and drug therapy, ACR revised recommendations incorporated FRAX®, the WHO fracture risk assessment tool and the Japanese Society of Bone and Mineral Research have finished revision work of the guidelines and the updated guideline will be published soon. PMID:24576939
Bipolar depression and its clinical presentation is a frequent but complex psychiatric disease. Despite the high prevalence and the clinical and economic relevance of bipolar depression, few treatments are proven to be highly and consistently effective. In practice, the treatment of bipolar depression typically includes complex treatment decision-making. The best evidence for a pharmacological treatment exists for quetiapine. Alternatives with limitations are lamotrigine (also in the combination with lithium), carbamazepine and olanzapine. The effectiveness and recommendation of antidepressants in the treatment of bipolar depression remains controversial. Initially, depressive episodes should been treated with one of the named substances with antidepressant properties. In non-responders, a combination of lithium and lamotrigine, or antidepressants in combination with either lithium, an antiepileptic drug or atypical antipsychotics, may be necessary. If a depressive episode occurs under ongoing mood-stabilizing treatment, combination treatments of different substances, even with antidepressants, can be necessary. In the case of treatment-resistant depressive episodes, complex treatment strategies (combination therapies, MAO inhibitors) should be considered. This review describes the treatment recommendations of different guidelines for bipolar depression and emphasizes their differences. Furthermore, alternative pharmacological treatment strategies and complex treatment situations are discussed. PMID:24549861
Köhler, S; Gaus, S; Bschor, T
The adoption of treatment guidelines for complex psychiatric illness is increasing. Treatment decisions in psychiatry depend on a number of variables, including severity of symptoms, past treatment history, patient preferences, medication tolerability, and clinical response. While patient outcomes may be improved by the use of treatment guidelines, there is no agreed upon standard by which to assess the degree to
Ellen B Dennehy; Trisha Suppes; A John Rush; M Lynn Crismon; B Witte; J Webster
Objective This paper aims to present an overview of screening and safety considerations for the treatment of clinical depressive disorders and make recommendations for safety monitoring. Method Data were sourced by a literature search using MEDLINE and a manual search of scientific journals to identify relevant articles. Draft guidelines were prepared and serially revised in an iterative manner until all co-authors gave final approval of content. Results Screening and monitoring can detect medical causes of depression. Specific adverse effects associated with antidepressant treatments may be reduced or identified earlier by baseline screening and agent-specific monitoring after commencing treatment. Conclusion The adoption of safety monitoring guidelines when treating clinical depression is likely to improve overall physical health status and treatment outcome. It is important to implement these guidelines in the routine management of clinical depression.
Dodd, Seetal; Malhi, Gin S; Tiller, John; Schweitzer, Isaac; Hickie, Ian; Khoo, Jon Paul; Bassett, Darryl L; Lyndon, Bill; Mitchell, Philip B; Parker, Gordon; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Udina, Marc; Singh, Ajeet; Moylan, Steven; Giorlando, Francesco; Doughty, Carolyn; Davey, Christopher G; Theodoras, Michael; Berk, Michael
OBJECTIVE: The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) guidelines for preschoolers recommend 120 minutes of physical activity daily. Two issues, however, create a situation whereby substantial variation in estimated prevalence rates of (in)active preschoolers are reported. First, NASPE guidelines have been interpreted in multiple ways. Second, objective monitoring via accelerometry is the most widely accepted measure of preschoolers' physical activity, yet multiple cut points provide vastly different estimates of physical activity. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of preschoolers meeting NASPE guidelines and illustrate the differences among rates, given guideline interpretations, and cut points. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Three- to 5-year-old children (n = 397) wore ActiGraph accelerometers for an average of 5.9 days. NASPE guidelines were expressed in 3 ways: 120 minutes daily of light-to-vigorous physical activity; 120 minutes daily of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity; and 60 minutes daily of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Estimates of 120 minutes daily of light-to-vigorous physical activity, 120 minutes daily of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and 60 minutes daily of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were calculated on the basis of 4 common accelerometer cut points for preschoolers: Pate, Reilly and Puyau, Sirard, and Freedson. RESULTS: Prevalence rates varied considerably, with estimates ranging from 13.5% to 99.5%, 0.0% to 95.7%, and 0.5% to 99.5% for 120 minutes daily of light-to-vigorous physical activity, 120 minutes daily of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and 60 minutes daily of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The variation in NASPE guidelines, coupled with different accelerometer cut points, results in disparate estimates of (in)active preschoolers. This limits the ability to estimate population prevalence levels of physical activity that can be used to guide public health policy. Development of new guidelines should focus on an explicit delineation of physical activity and attempt to standardize the measurement of preschoolers' physical activity.
Bornstein, Daniel; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.
The diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) is dependent on the presence of clinical and paraclinical evidence demonstrating dissemination of central nervous system lesions in both space and time, as well as the exclusion of other disorders. Diagnostic criteria were originally promulgated in 1965 by the Schumacher committee and modified subsequently by the Poser committee to include paraclinical evidence. The most recent criteria are the 2010 modifications of the 2001 McDonald criteria, which are focused on making an earlier diagnosis of MS. This article provides guidelines, derived from clinical experience as well as evidence-based medicine, for the diagnosis and management of MS with special emphasis on practices in the Middle East. PMID:23514115
Yamout, B; Alroughani, R; Al-Jumah, M; Khoury, S; Abouzeid, N; Dahdaleh, M; Alsharoqi, I; Inshasi, J; Hashem, S; Zakaria, M; ElKallab, K; Alsaadi, T; Tawfeek, T; Bohlega, S
Resource Purpose: This resource served as the main information source for national characteristics of landfills for the landfills effluent guidelines. The database was developed based on responses to the "1994 Waste Treatment Industry Questionnaire: Phase II Landfills" and...
Physician attitudes toward and lack of familiarity with guidelines have been identified as potential barriers to adherence in general, but little is known about their attitudes toward and use of cancer management guidelines specifically. This study surveyed 1500 surgeons and medical oncologists drawn from the AMA Masterfile in 2012. This report describes and compares the attitudes of medical oncologists and surgeons who treat patients with breast cancer regarding guidelines in general and the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) in particular, and their familiarity, use, and compliance with these guidelines. Of 896 respondents, responses were analyzed from the 766 who had seen at least one new patient with breast cancer in the past year. Mean participant age was 52 years; 25% worked in a teaching setting. Attitudes toward guidelines were generally favorable. Medical oncologists were more likely than surgeons to be aware that NCCN issues guidelines for cancer management (100% vs 74%; P<.001) and more likely to state that these guidelines generally influence their decisions (96% vs 70%; P<.001). Among those aware of NCCN Guidelines, 96% reported that they often agreed with NCCN recommendations, and 75% reported that almost all of their breast cancer treatment recommendations were consistent with these guidelines. Still, most providers (77%) also reported that they refer one-fourth or fewer of their patients with breast cancer to the NCCN Guidelines for Patients. Attitudes toward physician-directed cancer management guidelines are generally positive, and they are frequently used. However, existing guidelines seem to have greater visibility to the medical oncology audience than to surgeons, and patient versions are infrequently recommended. PMID:24586082
Jagsi, Reshma; Huang, Grace; Griffith, Kent; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J; Janz, Nancy K; Griggs, Jennifer J; Katz, Steven J; Hawley, Sarah T
The British Association for Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) UK gonorrhoea guideline has been updated in 2011. It offers advice on diagnosis, treatment and health promotion for anogenital and pharyngeal gonorrhoea. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are now being used more for diagnosis and are increasing detection rates in the pharynx and rectum. First line treatment using ceftriaxone with azithromycin is now advised, along with routine test of cure (TOC). The aim is to slow the spread of resistant gonorrhoea now that fewer antibiotics remain effective. A patient information leaflet has been developed. PMID:21998172
Bignell, C; Fitzgerald, M
The goal of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) treatment is to improve survival by preventing disease progression to decompensated cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma which is the cause of over 1 million deaths annually. The risk of disease progression is reduced when a sustained reduction of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA to undetectable levels and suppression of HBV replication are obtained which can result in regression of liver fibrosis and may even reverse cirrhosis. However, even if HBsAg loss occurs, HBV is not completely eradicated by treatment, and long-term therapy is required in patients who are HBeAg– and HBeAg+ who do not maintain off-treatment virological suppression and in those with advanced liver disease. The recently updated European Association of the Study of the Liver (EASL) clinical practical guidelines for HBV have clarified, first, how to treat HBV (interferon or the most potent oral drugs with optimal resistance profiles, i.e. entecavir and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, should be used as first-line monotherapies); second, who should be treated (CHB in patients with significant liver disease but also patients who are HBsAg+ and are receiving immunosuppressive treatment, patients coinfected with HBV and human immunodeficiency virus, mothers who are HBsAg+ with high viral load in late pregnancy associated with sero vaccination to reduce the risk of vertical transmission of HBV; and third, when to stop antiviral therapies. The aim of this review was to clarify how to treat HBV and who should be treated, as well as when to stop treatment. Although the answer to these questions is clear for pegylated interferon, it is more debatable for nucleos(t)ide analogues (anti-HBe seroconversion, HBsAg loss or anti-HBs seroconversion with undetectable HBV DNA are clear indications to discontinue treatment but sustained undetectable HBV DNA in patients who are anti-HBe+ without significant fibrosis might be another indication).
Healthcare costs for low back pain (LBP) are increasing rapidly. Hence, it is important to provide treatments that are effective and cost-effective. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the cost-effectiveness of guideline-endorsed treatments for LBP. We searched nine clinical and economic electronic databases and the reference list of relevant systematic reviews and included studies for eligible studies. Economic evaluations conducted alongside randomised controlled trials investigating treatments for LBP endorsed by the guideline of the American College of Physicians and the American Pain Society were included. Two independent reviewers screened search results and extracted data. Data extracted included the type and perspective of the economic evaluation, the treatment comparators, and the relative cost-effectiveness of the treatment comparators. Twenty-six studies were included. Most studies found that interdisciplinary rehabilitation, exercise, acupuncture, spinal manipulation or cognitive-behavioural therapy were cost-effective in people with sub-acute or chronic LBP. Massage alone was unlikely to be cost-effective. There were inconsistent results on the cost-effectiveness of advice, insufficient evidence on spinal manipulation for people with acute LBP, and no evidence on the cost-effectiveness of medications, yoga or relaxation. This review found evidence supporting the cost-effectiveness of the guideline-endorsed treatments of interdisciplinary rehabilitation, exercise, acupuncture, spinal manipulation and cognitive-behavioural therapy for sub-acute or chronic LBP. There is little or inconsistent evidence for other treatments endorsed in the guideline. PMID:21229367
Lin, Chung-Wei Christine; Haas, Marion; Maher, Chris G; Machado, Luciana A C; van Tulder, Maurits W
The National Board of Health and Welfare is together with the National Board of Environment responsible for health protection in Sweden on a national level and issues, recommendations or guidelines for environmental factors. The Board of Health and Welfare is responsible for the indoor environment and the Board of Environment is responsible for the outdoor environment. Board guidelines for noise cover indoor noise from different activities in society, except transportation noise. The guidelines for indoor levels are 35-45 dB expressed asLAFmaxfor intermittent noise and 30 dBA expressed asLAqfro continuous noise. Low frequency noise is assessed in one third octave bands with specific dB equivalent pressure levels for each band. The guidelines are intended to be used in situations where the noises come from neighbours, elevators, restaurants and other buildings.
Several guidelines for urticaria and angioedema have been published in Europe and United States since 1997. General principles for diagnosis and treatments of them are similar. However, each guideline has its own characteristics and shows differences in areas such as the coverage of urticaria subtypes, nomenclatures, and hierarchy of the medications. In Japan, the Japanese Dermatological Association (JDA) published its first guideline for urticaria and angioedema in 2005. It established a new classification of urticaria and angioedema together with the definition of each subtype. It emphasized the importance of discriminating idiopathic urticaria, consisting of acute urticaria and chronic urticaria from inducible urticaria, such as allergic urticaria, physical urticaria and cholinergic urticaria. It contains several unique algorithms for diagnosis and treatment of urticaria from a view point of clinical practices, and was further enforced by a style of EBM in 2011. Nevertheless, these guidelines have not been recognized outside of Japan, because of a language barrier. In this article, the outline of the newest guidelines by JDA are introduced and compared with the guidelines in other countries published in English. PMID:23093797
Hide, Michihiro; Hiragun, Takaaki
Past activities at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) resulted in soil and groundwater contamination. As a result, BNL was designated a Superfund site under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). BNL`s Office of Environmental Restoration (OER) is overseeing environmental restoration activities at the Laboratory, carried out under an Interagency Agreement (IAG) with the United States Department of Energy (DOE), the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC). The objective of this paper is to propose a standard approach to deriving risk-based cleanup guidelines for radionuclides in soil at BNL.
Meinhold, A.F.; Morris, S.C.; Dionne, B.; Moskowitz, P.D.
Neuropathic pain treatment remains unsatisfactory despite a substantial increase in the number of trials. This EFNS Task Force aimed at evaluating the existing evidence about the pharmacological treatment of neuropathic pain. Studies were identified using first the Cochrane Database then Medline. Trials were classified according to the aetiological condition. All class I and II controlled trials (according to EFNS classi-
N. Attal; G. Cruccu; M. Haanpää; P. Hansson; T. S. Jensen; T. Nurmikko; C. Sampaio; S. Sindrup; P. Wiffen
Androgenetic alopecia is the most common hair loss disorder, affecting both men and women. Initial signs of androgenetic alopecia usually develop during teenage years leading to progressive hair loss with a pattern distribution. Moreover, its frequency increases with age and affects up to 80 % Caucasian men and 42 % of women. Patients diagnosed with androgenetic alopecia may undergo significant impairment of quality of life. Despite the high prevalence and the variety of therapeutic options available, there have been no national or international evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia in men and women so far. Therefore, the European Dermatology Forum (EDF) initiated a project to develop an evidence-based S3 guideline for the treatment of andro-genetic alopecia. Based on a systematic literature research the efficacy of the currently available therapeutic options was assessed and therapeutic recommendations were passed in a consensus conference. The purpose of the guideline is to provide dermatologists as well as general practitioners with an evidence-based tool for choosing an efficacious and safe therapy for patients with androgenetic alopecia. PMID:21980982
Blumeyer, Anja; Tosti, Antonella; Messenger, Andrew; Reygagne, Pascal; Del Marmol, Veronique; Spuls, Phyllis I; Trakatelli, Myrto; Finner, Andreas; Kiesewetter, Franklin; Trüeb, Ralph; Rzany, Berthold; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike
Once considered rare in children, pediatric bipolar disorder is now widely diagnosed in the United States. The illness has become a cultural phenomenon, adorning the cover of Time magazine and headlining national news broadcasts. Kowatch and colleagues, in compiling consensus recommendations for bipolar disorder in children and adolescents, have…
The positive effect of greater adherence to evidence-based guidelines on possibilities of optimizing diagnosis and therapy has been shown various times. Electronic systems for interactive support and systematization of physicians' decision-making represent a relatively new method for implementing guidelines. Introducing the "schizophrenia module", newly developed decision support software is presented combining electronic data processing-based, quality-oriented documentation and interactive decision support in the outpatient treatment for schizophrenic disorders. Structure, functionality, and options of use are presented. Besides classic measures of quality management (benchmarking), electronic decision support systems can contribute to improve process quality and outcome in the treatment of mental diseases. PMID:15765230
Janssen, B; Menke, R; Pourhassan, F; Gessner-Ozokyay, D; Peters, R; Gaebel, W
Aggressive periodontitis is characterized by non-contributory medical history, rapid attachment loss and bone destruction and familial aggregation of cases. Aggressive periodontitis (both localized and generalized) is usually diagnosed in a young population. This is frequently the age that an orthodontic care is provided to this population. The aim of the present paper is to draw guidelines for periodontal evaluation and monitoring prior to and during active orthodontic treatment. Strict adherence to these guidelines as a routine protocol for periodontal examination prior, during and following orthodontic treatment may dramatically decrease the severity and improve the prognosis of patients with aggressive periodontitis in orthodontic clinics.
LEVIN, Liran; EINY, Shmuel; ZIGDON, Hadar; AIZENBUD, Dror; MACHTEI, Eli E.
Background The National Kidney Foundation (NKF) Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI) developed guidelines to care for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). While these are disseminated through the NKF’s website and publications, the guidelines’ usage remains suboptimal. The KDOQI Educational Committee was formed to identify barriers to guideline implementation, determine provider and patient educational needs and develop tools to improve care of patients with CKD. Methods An online survey was conducted from May to September 2010 to evaluate renal providers’ familiarity, current use of and attitudes toward the guidelines and tools to implement the guidelines. Results Most responders reported using the guidelines often and felt that they could be easily implemented into clinical practice; however, approximately one-half identified at least one barrier. Physicians and physician extenders most commonly cited the lack of evidence supporting KDOQI guidelines while allied health professionals most commonly listed patient non-adherence, unrealistic guideline goals and provider time-constraints. Providers thought that the guidelines included too much detail and identified the lack of a quick resource as a barrier to clinical implementation. Most were unaware of the Clinical Action Plans. Conclusions Perceived barriers differed between renal clinicians and allied health professionals; educational and implementation tools tailored for different providers are needed.
This study aimed at investigating the characteristics of invasive breast cancer among molecular subtypes. Patients with invasive breast cancer, with complete information on the expressions of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2), were recruited. ? tests and an unconditional logistic regression model were used for statistical analysis. The percentages of luminal A, luminal B, HER2/neu, and triple-negative subtypes were 54.2% (1639/3021), 14.0% (422/3021), 8.9% (269/3021), and 22.9% (691/3021), respectively. Differences among molecular subtypes (P<0.05) in tumor size, stage, pathologic type, and lymph node status were observed. The HER2/neu, luminal B, and triple-negative subtypes were more aggressive compared with the luminal A subtype in tumor stage, lymph node status, or pathologic type (P<0.05), when the findings were adjusted for age. Molecular subtypes were distributed differently between both age groups and regional groups on the basis of the socioeconomic status (P<0.05). In conclusion, luminal A and triple-negative subtypes were the 2 main subtypes of invasive breast cancer in China. The variations of molecular subtypes in pathology, age, and regional distribution may give some suggestions for updating treatment guidelines and individualized treatment strategies in China. PMID:24162264
Zheng, Shan; Song, Qing-Kun; Ren, Yu; Feng, Wei-Liang; Kong, Ya-Nan; Huang, Rong; Xu, Feng; Li, Jing; Zhang, Bao-Ning; Fan, Jin-Hu; He, Jian-Jun; Qiao, You-Lin
Over the past 15 years, antiretroviral treatment guidelines for HIV infection have evolved significantly, reflecting the major advances in this therapeutic area. Evidenced-based recommendations have largely replaced expert opinion, while diagnostic monitoring and therapeutic interventions have become more sophisticated and effective. Just 10 years ago, there was a marked difference in access to antiretroviral therapy for patients in wealthy and impoverished countries. The increasing availability of therapy across the globe, however, has made it possible for international guidelines to resemble more closely those in high-income countries. This article compares the evolution of antiretroviral therapy treatment guidelines from the United States Department of Health and Human Services and the World Health Organization, focusing on when to initiate ART in asymptomatic patients and in those with an opportunistic infection; initial regimens in the general population and in special populations; when to change and what to change; and laboratory monitoring. PMID:24374148
Richardson, Eugene T; Grant, Philip M; Zolopa, Andrew R
The Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy has passed new legislation that requires the wastewater from single houses and dwellings in rural areas to be treated adequately before discharge into the aquatic environment. Therefore official guidelines for a number of onsite treatment solutions have been produced. These include guidelines for soakaways, biological sand filters, technical systems as well as different types of constructed wetland systems. This paper summarises briefly the guidelines for horizontal flow constructed wetlands, vertical flow constructed wetlands, and willow systems with no outflow and with soil infiltration. There is still a lack of a compact onsite solution that will fulfil the treatment classes demanding 90% removal of phosphorus. Therefore work is presently being carried out to identify simpler and robust P-removal solutions. PMID:16042237
Brix, H; Arias, C A
Treatment of hormone-resistant prostate cancer can be a challenging situation. The first important step in treating this condition is to assess if one has achieved the castrate level or not. If the castrate levels are not achieved, attempt should be made to achieve so. If the castrate level is achieved, then androgen withdrawals may be of help. Supportive care, care of the clinical problems forms an integral part of the treatment. Cancer-specific chemotherapy is certainly an option in progressive disease.
Khochikar, Makarand V.
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common disorder that can have a considerable impact on a patient's functioning and quality of life. The pharmacologic armamentarium for RLS contains dopamine agonists, a-2d ligands, and opioids, among other agents. Each of these types of drugs has strengths and limitations, and treatment selection should be based on the frequency of RLS symptoms and any accompanying pain. Dopaminergic augmentation, which exacerbates RLS symptoms, is the most common and challenging side effect of long-term RLS treatment with dopamine agonists and requires special clinical consideration. Iron status is also important to the effective management of RLS. PMID:24813409
Earley, Christopher J
Introduction: Medical associations and licensing bodies face pressure to implement quality assurance programs, but evidence-based models are lacking. To improve the quality of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT), the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario, Canada, conducts an innovative quality assurance program on the basis of peer…
Strike, Carol; Wenghofer, Elizabeth; Gnam, William; Hillier, Wade; Veldhuizen, Scott; Millson, Margaret
Purpose Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is an increasingly frequent complication of cancer and its treatments, and is associated with worsened mortality and morbidity in patients with cancer. Design The Italian Association of Medical Oncology, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, the American Society of Clinical Oncology, the French National Federation of the League of Centers Against Cancer, and the European Society of Medical Oncology have recently published guidelines regarding VTE in patients with cancer. This review, authored by a working group of members from these panels, focuses on the methodology and areas of consensus and disagreement in the various clinical guidelines as well as directions for future research. Results There is broad consensus regarding the importance of thromboprophylaxis in hospitalized patients with cancer, including prolonged prophylaxis in high-risk surgical patients. Prophylaxis is not currently recommended for ambulatory patients with cancer (with exceptions) or for central venous catheters. All of the panels agree that low molecular weight heparins are preferred for the long-term treatment of VTE in cancer. Areas that warrant further research include the benefit of prophylaxis in the ambulatory setting, the risk/benefit ratio of prophylaxis for hospitalized patients with cancer, an understanding of incidental VTE, and the impact of anticoagulation on survival. Conclusion We call for a sustained research effort to investigate the clinical issues identified here to reduce the burden of VTE and its consequences in patients with cancer.
Khorana, Alok A.; Streiff, Michael B.; Farge, Dominique; Mandala, Mario; Debourdeau, Philippe; Cajfinger, Francis; Marty, Michel; Falanga, Anna; Lyman, Gary H.
Urinary tract disease is a common reason for use (and likely misuse, improper use, and overuse) of antimicrobials in dogs and cats. There is a lack of comprehensive treatment guidelines such as those that are available for human medicine. Accordingly, guidelines for diagnosis and management of urinary tract infections were created by a Working Group of the International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases. While objective data are currently limited, these guidelines provide information to assist in the diagnosis and management of upper and lower urinary tract infections in dogs and cats. PMID:21776346
Weese, J Scott; Blondeau, Joseph M; Boothe, Dawn; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Guardabassi, Luca; Hillier, Andrew; Lloyd, David H; Papich, Mark G; Rankin, Shelley C; Turnidge, John D; Sykes, Jane E
Background Children with neuromuscular disorders with a progressive muscle weakness such as Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and Spinal Muscular Atrophy frequently develop a progressive scoliosis. A severe scoliosis compromises respiratory function and makes sitting more difficult. Spinal surgery is considered the primary treatment option for correcting severe scoliosis in neuromuscular disorders. Surgery in this population requires a multidisciplinary approach, careful planning, dedicated surgical procedures, and specialized after care. Methods The guideline is based on scientific evidence and expert opinions. A multidisciplinary working group representing experts from all relevant specialties performed the research. A literature search was conducted to collect scientific evidence in answer to specific questions posed by the working group. Literature was classified according to the level of evidence. Results For most aspects of the treatment scientific evidence is scarce and only low level cohort studies were found. Nevertheless, a high degree of consensus was reached about the management of patients with scoliosis in neuromuscular disorders. This was translated into a set of recommendations, which are now officially accepted as a general guideline in the Netherlands. Conclusion In order to optimize the treatment for scoliosis in neuromuscular disorders a Dutch guideline has been composed. This evidence-based, multidisciplinary guideline addresses conservative treatment, the preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative care of scoliosis in neuromuscular disorders.
Mullender, MG; Blom, NA; De Kleuver, M; Fock, JM; Hitters, WMGC; Horemans, AMC; Kalkman, CJ; Pruijs, JEH; Timmer, RR; Titarsolej, PJ; Van Haasteren, NC; Jager, MJ Van Tol-de; Van Vught, AJ; Van Royen, BJ
Objective: A panel was convened by the Health and Science Policy Committee of the American College of Chest Physicians to develop a clinical practice guideline on the medical and surgical treatment of parapneumonic effusions (PPE) using evidence-based methods. Options and outcomes considered: Based on consensus of clinical opinion, the expert panel developed an annotated table for evaluating the risk for
Gene L. Colice; Anne Curtis; Jean Deslauriers; John Heffner; Richard Light; Benjamin Littenberg; Steven Sahn; Robert A. Weinstein; Roger D. Yusen
Pressure ulcers are prevalent and associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality in older patients. Four primary forces--pressure, shearing, friction, and moisture--contribute to their formation. A number of factors place patients at risk, including immobility, age-related skin changes, malnutrition, and cognitive impairment. Turning schedules, special bed surfaces, and other preventive measures have been shown to significantly reduce the effects of these factors. When an ulcer does form, treatment is based on the degree of tissue damage and includes pressure-reducing devices, systemic measures, and local care with debridement, occlusive dressings, and sometimes surgery. PMID:8419268
Perez, E D
Background With the recent attention to evidence-based medicine in psychiatry, a number of treatment guidelines for bipolar disorders have been published. This survey investigated prescribing patterns and predictors for guideline disconcordance in the acute treatment of a manic and mixed episode across mainland China. Methods The pharmacological treatments of 2828 patients with a recent hypomanic/manic episode or mixed state were examined. Guidelines disconcordance was determined by comparing the medication(s) patients were prescribed with the recommendation(s) in the guidelines of the Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments. Results The most common pattern of pharmacological treatments for an acute manic or mixed episode was a mood stabilizer plus an atypical antipsychotic (n?=?1345, 47.6%), and the rate of guideline-disconcordant treatments was 11.1%. The patients who were treated in general hospitals were more likely to receive guideline-disconcordant treatments than those who were treated in psychiatric hospitals, with an OR of 1.84 (95% CI 1.44-2.36). Similarly, the patients with a mixed episode at study entry were more likely to receive guideline-disconcordant treatments than those with a manic episode, with an OR of 1.69 (95% CI 1.22-2.35). In contrast, the patients with a longer duration of disease (>5 years) were less likely to receive guideline-disconcordant treatments than those with a short duration, with an OR of 0.47 (95% CI 0.36-0.60). Conclusions In mainland China, the disconcordance with treatment guidelines for a most recent acute manic or mixed episode was modest under naturalistic conditions. The higher risk for disconcordance in general hospitals than in psychiatric hospitals suggests that special education based on treatment guidelines to practitioners in general hospitals is necessary in order to reduce the risk for disconcordant treatments.
The Wilderness Medical Society (WMS) convened an expert panel to develop a set of evidence-based guidelines for the recognition, prevention, and treatment of heat-related illness. We present a review of the classifications, pathophysiology, and evidence-based guidelines for planning and preventive measures as well as best-practice recommendations for both field- and hospital-based therapeutic management of heat-related illness. These recommendations are graded based on the quality of supporting evidence and the balance between the benefits and risks or burdens for each modality. PMID:24140191
Lipman, Grant S; Eifling, Kurt P; Ellis, Mark A; Gaudio, Flavio G; Otten, Edward M; Grissom, Colin K
Hyperbilirubinaemia is one of the most frequent problems in otherwise healthy newborn infants. Early discharge of the healthy newborn infants, particularly those in whom breastfeeding is not fully established, may be associated with delayed diagnosis of significant hyperbilirubinaemia that has the potential for causing severe neurological impairments. We present the shared Italian guidelines for management and treatment of jaundice established by the Task Force on hyperbilirubinaemia of the Italian Society of Neonatology. The overall aim of the present guidelines is to provide an useful tool for neonatologists and family paediatricians for managing hyperbilirubinaemia.
Hyperbilirubinaemia is one of the most frequent problems in otherwise healthy newborn infants. Early discharge of the healthy newborn infants, particularly those in whom breastfeeding is not fully established, may be associated with delayed diagnosis of significant hyperbilirubinaemia that has the potential for causing severe neurological impairments. We present the shared Italian guidelines for management and treatment of jaundice established by the Task Force on Hyperbilirubinaemia of the Italian Society of Neonatology.The overall aim of the present guidelines is to provide an useful tool for neonatologists and family paediatricians for managing hyperbilirubinaemia. PMID:24485088
Romagnoli, Costantino; Barone, Giovanni; Pratesi, Simone; Raimondi, Francesco; Capasso, Letizia; Zecca, Enrico; Dani, Carlo
BACKGROUND: Both patient and staff safety are of major importance during the procedure of fibreoptic bronchoscopy. Patient safety depends partly on adequate disinfection of instruments and accessories used as well as careful monitoring during the procedure. Adequate facilities, manpower and training are also essential. Staff safety depends partly on adequate procedures to minimise any risks of sensitisation to agents such as glutaraldehyde. An audit was carried out of bronchoscopy procedures in hospitals in the UK and the findings were compared with published guidelines on good practice and clinical consensus. METHODS: A postal questionnaire was sent to 218 bronchoscopy units in the UK. Findings were then compared with published evidence of good practice in the areas of disinfection, including the use of glutaraldehyde, patient monitoring, manpower, facilities, and training. RESULTS: A 73% response rate was obtained. Recommended minimum disinfection times before and after routine bronchoscopies were not achieved by 35% of units. No disinfection was carried out in 34% of units before emergency bronchoscopies and in 19% of units after suspected cases of tuberculosis. Adequate rinsing of the bronchoscope with sterile or filtered water was not carried out by 43% of units. Contrary to recommendations, 31% of departments were still using glutaraldehyde in the patient examination room and inadequate room ventilation was common. Protective clothing was often not worn by staff during bronchoscopy. Inadequate intravenous access and use of supplementary oxygen were found in many units. Practice standards were higher in departments where dedicated bronchoscopy/endoscopy units of the hospital were used, and also where staff had been on external training courses. CONCLUSIONS: This audit has shown that many units do not adhere to guidelines on disinfection procedures and patient monitoring. Unnecessary potential risks due to staff exposure to glutaraldehyde were apparent. National guidelines on good practice are not being followed in areas which may potentially affect patient and staff safety. ???
Honeybourne, D.; Neumann, C. S.
Over the past years, considerable progress has been made in understanding the pathogenesis of the fibromyatgia syndrome and the evidence based approach to the diagnosis and management has been significantty extended. The purpose of the current project is to develop practicat and evidence based guidetine recommendations for the Israeli health care system. A panet of physicians with clinical and research experience in the fibromyalgia field was convened under the auspices of the Israeli Rheumatology Association. A systematic review was performed on the current literature regarding the diagnosis and treatment of fibromyalgia. Using an interactive discussion procedure, recommendations were reached and expert opinion was introduced where evidence was considered incomplete. The panel recommendations underline the importance of concomitant and integrated medical therapy, such as serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) anti-depressants or gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) related anti-epileptics, with regular aerobic physical exercise. PMID:24483001
Ablin, Jacob N; Amital, Howard; Ehrenfeld, Michael; Aloush, Valerie; Elkayam, Ori; Langevitz, Pnina; Mevorach, Dror; Mader, Reuven; Sachar, Tali; Amital, Daniela; Buskila, Dan
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a complex vaginal infection most commonly associated with women of child-bearing age. Risk factors for BV are numerous. There are currently multiple clinical and laboratory tests for diagnosis of BV, including the most commonly used diagnostic methods: Amsel's criteria or Nugent's Gram stain scale. The mainstay of BV therapy is metronidazole, but tinidazole as well as a few other agents have also been used successfully. Tinidazole is the second nitroimidazole antiprotozoal agent and a structural derivative of metronidazole. With a favorable pharmacokinetic profile and reduced side effects, tinidazole is an alternative agent for BV treatment. There are minimal head-to-head comparative data to establish tinidazole's superiority to metronidazole or other therapeutic agents. Available data suggest tinidazole has a role in special populations particularly for refractory or relapsing BV. PMID:19707258
Dickey, Laura J; Nailor, Michael D; Sobel, Jack D
Background Guidelines for post resection surveillance of colorectal cancer recommend a collection of the patient's history and physical examination, testing for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and colonoscopy. No consistent guidelines exist for the use of abdominal computed tomography (CT) and position emission tomography (PET)/PET-CT. The goal of our study was to describe current trends, the impact of oncologic follow-up on guideline adherence, and the patterns of use of nonrecommended tests. Methods We used Texas Cancer Registry—Medicare-linked data (2000-2009) to identify physician visits, CEA testing, colonoscopy, abdominal CT, and PET/PET-CT scans in patients ?66 years old with stage I-III colorectal cancer who underwent curative resection. Compliance with guidelines was assessed with a composite measure of physician visits, CEA tests, and colonoscopy use from start of surveillance. Results In patients who survived 3 years, the overall compliance with guidelines was 25.1%. In patients seen regularly by a medical oncologist, compliance with guidelines increased to 61.5% compared with 8.8% for those not seen by a medical oncologist regularly (P < .0001). The use of abdominal CTand PET/PET-CT increased from 57.5% and 9.5%, respectively, in 2001 to 65.8% and 24.6% (P <.0001) in 2006. Patients who saw a medical oncologist were more likely to get cross-sectionalimagingthan those whodid not (P <.0001). Conclusion Compliance with current minimum guidelines for post treatment surveillance of colorectal cancer is low and the use of nonrecommended testing has increased over time. Both compliance and use of nonrecommended tests are markedly increased in patients seen by a medical oncologist. The comparative effectiveness of CT and PET/PET-CT in the surveillance of colorectal cancer patients needs further examination.
Vargas, Gabriela M.; Sheffield, Kristin M.; Parmar, Abhishek D.; Han, Yimei; Brown, Kimberly M.; Riall, Taylor S.
To provide guidance to clinicians about best practices, the Wilderness Medical Society (WMS) convened an expert panel to develop evidence-based guidelines for the prevention and treatment of acute mountain sickness (AMS), high altitude cerebral edema (HACE), and high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). These guidelines present the main prophylactic and therapeutic modalities for each disorder and provide recommendations for their roles in disease management. Recommendations are graded based on the quality of supporting evidence and balance between the benefits and risks/burdens according to criteria put forth by the American College of Chest Physicians. The guidelines also provide suggested approaches to the prevention and management of each disorder that incorporate these recommendations. PMID:20591379
Luks, Andrew M; McIntosh, Scott E; Grissom, Colin K; Auerbach, Paul S; Rodway, George W; Schoene, Robert B; Zafren, Ken; Hackett, Peter H
Clinicians often decide either to withhold or to withdraw lifesaving treatment in elderly patients. Considerable disagreement exists about the circumstances in which such actions can be defended. Debates about the scarcity of resources in the NHS add urgency to the need to resolve this disagreement. Competent elderly patients have a legal and moral right to decide whether to receive life sustaining treatment. Such treatment should not be withheld or withdrawn on the basis of a patient's age alone. Principles for making decisions about life sustaining treatment in incompetent elderly patients can be defended and should exist as written guidelines. PMID:8025466
Doyal, L; Wilsher, D
The treatment of patients with malignant gliomas is palliative and encompasses surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Outcome measures have demonstrated improvement in both survival and neurologic performance in patients undergoing complete or near-complete tumor resection. After surgery, involved-field radiotherapy (radiotherapy administered to the tumor and to the tissue in a 3-cm radius surrounding the tumor) has been shown to further improve survival rates when given in a total dose of 6000-6500 cGy. Survival is further improved by the coadministration of the chemoradiopotentiator hydroxycarbamide (hydroxyurea). The role of adjuvant or boost stereotactic radiotherapy is unclear, despite its frequent use. In addition, adjuvant chemotherapy has been shown to improve survival rates in approximately one-quarter of patients with glioblastoma multiforme and in the majority of patients with anaplastic astrocytoma. No a priori method exists, however, to predict which patient will benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. As a consequence, all physiological young patients with good performance status or limited neurologic disability are treated with chemotherapy. The best results of adjuvant chemotherapy are achieved with a nitrosourea chemotherapy, either carmustine (BCNU) or a combination of procarbazine and lomustine (CCNU) and vincristine, known as PCV-3 therapy. Salvage chemotherapy is reserved for patients with tumor progression, some of whom benefit from a re-operation. Occasional patients with recurrent gliomas may be palliated by stereotactic radiotherapy.
Chamberlain, M C; Kormanik, P A
The Saudi Association for Pulmonary Hypertension (previously called Saudi Advisory Group for Pulmonary Hypertension) has published the first Saudi Guidelines on Diagnosis and Treatment of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension back in 2008. That guideline was very detailed and extensive and reviewed most aspects of pulmonary hypertension (PH). One of the disadvantages of such detailed guidelines is the difficulty that some of the readers who just want to get a quick guidance or looking for a specific piece of information might face. All efforts were made to develop this guideline in an easy-to-read form, making it very handy and helpful to clinicians dealing with PH patients to select the best management strategies for the typical patient suffering from a specific condition. This Guideline was designed to provide recommendations for problems frequently encountered by practicing clinicians involved in management of PH. This publication targets mainly adult and pediatric PH-treating physicians, but can also be used by other physicians interested in PH.
Idrees, Majdy M.; Saleemi, Sarfraz; Azem, M Ali; Aldammas, Saleh; Alhazmi, Manal; Khan, Javid; Gari, Abdulgafour; Aldabbagh, Maha; Sakkijha, Husam; Aldalaan, Abdulla; Alnajashi, Khalid; Alhabeeb, Waleed; Nizami, Imran; Kouatli, Amjad; Chehab, May; Tamimi, Omar; Banjar, Hanaa; Kashour, Tarek; Lopes, Antonio; Minai, Omar; Hassoun, Paul; Pasha, Qadar; Mayer, Eckhard; Butrous, Ghazwan; Bhagavathula, Sastry; Ghio, Stefano; Swiston, John; Boueiz, Adel; Tonelli, Adriano; Levy, Robert D.
• Guidelines reflecting contemporary clinical practice in the management of Buruli ulcer (Mycobacterium ulcerans infection) in Australia were published in 2007. • Management has continued to evolve, as new evidence has become available from randomised trials, case series and increasing clinical experience with oral antibiotic therapy. • Therefore, guidelines on the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of Buruli ulcer in Australia have been updated. They include guidance on the new role of antibiotics as first-line therapy; the shortened duration of antibiotic treatment and the use of all-oral antibiotic regimens; the continued importance, timing and role of surgery; the recognition and management of paradoxical reactions during antibiotic treatment; and updates on the prevention of disease. PMID:24641151
O'Brien, Daniel P; Jenkin, Grant; Buntine, John; Steffen, Christina M; McDonald, Anthony; Horne, Simon; Friedman, N Deborah; Athan, Eugene; Hughes, Andrew; Callan, Peter P; Johnson, Paul D R
In 2006, under the auspices of The Spanish Research Group for Ovarian Cancer (Spanish initials GEICO), the first "Treatment Guidelines in Ovarian Cancer" were developed and then published in Clinical and Translational Oncology by Poveda Velasco et al. (Clin Transl Oncol 9(5):308-316, 2007). Almost 6 years have elapsed and over this time, we have seen some important developments in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Significant changes were also introduced after the GCIG-sponsored 4th Consensus Conference on Ovarian Cancer by Stuart et al. (Int J Gynecol Cancer 21:750-755, 2011). So we decided to update the treatment guidelines in ovarian cancer and, with this objective, a group of investigators of the GEICO group met in February 2012. This study summarizes the presentations, discussions and evidence that were reviewed during the meeting and during further discussions of the manuscript. PMID:23468275
González Martín, A; Redondo, A; Jurado, M; De Juan, A; Romero, I; Bover, I; Del Campo, J M; Cervantes, A; García, Y; López-Guerrero, J A; Mendiola, C; Palacios, J; Rubio, M J; Poveda Velasco, A
With the recent attention to the importance of evidence-based medicine in psychiatry, a number of treatment guidelines have been published. This survey investigated prescribing pattern and predictors for guideline disconcordance in the acute treatment of bipolar depression across mainland China. Pharmacological treatments of 1078 patients with bipolar depression were examined. Guidelines disconcordance was determined by comparing the medication(s) patients were prescribed with the recommendation(s) in the guidelines of the Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments. Predictors for guidelines discordance were analyzed with logistic regression. Of the 1078 patients, 50.2% patients were treated against treatment guidelines recommendations. The patients who were treated in general hospitals (OR?=?1.53, 95% CI 1.18–1.97), with a depressive episode (OR?=?1.67, 95% CI 1.27–2.19) and an older age at first onset (OR?=?1.62, 95% CI 1.15–2.28) were more likely to receive guideline-disconcordant treatment than their counterparts. In contrast, the patients with current mental comorbidity, an older age at study entry, a longer duration of disease, and more frequent episodes in past year were less likely to receive guideline-disconcordant treatments than their counterparts with an OR of 0.43 (95% CI 0.24–0.77), 0.52 (95CI% 0.36–0.75), 0.48 (95% CI 0.36–0.65), and 0.50 (95% CI 0.38–0.64), respectively. Our finding suggested the disconcordance with treatment guidelines in patients with an acute bipolar depression is common under naturalistic conditions in mainland China, and the predicting factors correlated with guidelines disconcordance include both psychiatrist-specific (clinicians from general hospitals) and patient-specific features (a depressive episode at first onset, no current co-morbidity with mental disorders, a younger age at study entry, an older age at first onset, shorter duration of disease, and non-frequent episodes in past year).
Wang, Zuowei; Gao, Keming; Hong, Wu; Xing, Mengjuan; Wu, Zhiguo; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Chen; Yuan, Chengmei; Huang, Jia; Peng, Daihui; Wang, Yong; Lu, Weihong; Yi, Zhenghui; Yu, Xin; Zhao, Jingping; Fang, Yiru
Purpose: We examined the rates and determinants of appropriate and inappropriate use of postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT), as defined by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) practice guidelines, among women with Stage I-II breast cancer (American Joint Committee on Cancer, 5th edition). Methods and Materials: Using clinical characteristics, 1,620 consecutive patients at eight NCCN institutions who had undergone mastectomy between July 1997 and June 2002 were classified into three cohorts according to whether the guidelines (1) recommended PMRT, (2) recommended against PMRT, or (3) made no definitive PMRT recommendation. We defined the absence of PMRT in the first cohort as underuse and receipt of PMRT in the second cohort as overuse. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied to investigate the association of clinical and sociodemographic factors with PMRT. Results: Overall, 23.8% of patients received PMRT. This included 199 (83.6%) of 238 in the 'recommend PMRT' cohort, 58 (5.6%) of 1,029 in the 'recommend against PMRT' cohort, and 127 (38.6%) of 329 in the 'consider PMRT' cohort. The only factor associated with underuse in the 'recommend PMRT' cohort was nonreceipt of chemotherapy (odds ratio [OR], 0.08; p <0.0001). In addition to tumor characteristics, the factors associated with overuse in the 'recommend against PMRT' cohort included age <50 years (OR, 2.28; p = 0.048), NCCN institution (OR, 1.04-8.29; p = 0.026), higher education (OR, 3.49; p = 0.001), and no reconstructive surgery (OR, 2.44; p = 0.019). The factors associated with PMRT in the 'consider PMRT' cohort included NCCN institution (OR, 1.1-9.01; p <0.0001), age <50 years (OR, 2.26; p = 0.041), and tumor characteristics. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that concordance with definitive treatment guidelines was high. However, when current evidence does not support a definitive recommendation for PMRT, treatment decisions appear to be influenced, not only by patient age and clinical characteristics, but also by institution-specific patterns of care.
Punglia, Rinaa S. [Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Hughes, Melissa E. [Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Edge, Stephen B. [Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States); Theriault, Richard L. [M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Bookman, Michael A. [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Wilson, John L. [Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard Solove Research Institute, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Ottesen, Rebecca A.; Niland, Joyce C. [City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA (United States); Weeks, Jane C. [Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States)
Clinical practice guidelines for gynecologic cancers have been published by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network and\\u000a the National Cancer Institute. Whereas these guidelines form the basis for the standard of care for gynecologic malignancies\\u000a in the United States, it has proven difficult to institute them in Japan due to differences in patient characteristics, health-care\\u000a delivery systems, and insurance programs. Therefore,
Satoru Nagase; Yoshiki Inoue; Naohiko Umesaki; Daisuke Aoki; Masatsugu Ueda; Hideki Sakamoto; Shigemitsu Kobayashi; Ryo Kitagawa; Takafumi Toita; Shoji Nagao; Kiyoshi Hasegawa; Ichio Fukasawa; Keiichi Fujiwara; Yoh Watanabe; Kiyoshi Ito; Hitoshi Niikura; Tsuyoshi Iwasaka; Kazunori Ochiai; Hidetaka Katabuchi; Toshiharu Kamura; Ikuo Konishi; Noriaki Sakuragi; Tadao Tanaka; Yasuo Hirai; Yuji Hiramatsu; Makio Mukai; Hiroyuki Yoshikawa; Tadao Takano; Kosuke Yoshinaga; Takeo Otsuki; Michiko Sakuma; Noriyuki Inaba; Yasuhiro Udagawa; Nobuo Yaegashi
Guidelines for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus from the UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence and the joint American Diabetes Association\\/European Association for the Study of Diabetes identify a role for glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) agonists as second- or third-line treatments. In the LEAD-2 trial the GLP-1 agonist liraglutide was similar to glimepiride for glycaemic control
Background This study compared reported staffing levels for stroke care within UK in-patient stroke units to stroke strategy staffing guidelines published by the UK Department of Health and the Royal College of Physicians. The purpose was to explore the extent to which stroke teams are meeting recommended staffing levels. Method The data analyzed in this report consisted of the detailed therapist staffing levels reported in the demographic section of our national survey to determine upper limb treatment in stroke units (the ATRAS survey). A contact list of stroke practitioners was therefore compiled primarily in collaboration with the 28 National Stroke Improvement Networks. Geographic representation of the network areas was obtained by applying the straight-forward systematic sampling method and the Nth name selection technique to each Network list. In total 192 surveys were emailed to stroke care providers around England. This included multiple contacts within stroke teams (e.g. a stroke consultant and a stroke co-coordinator) to increase awareness of the survey. Results A total of 53 surveys were returned from stroke teams and represented 20 of the 28 network areas providing 71% national coverage. To compare reported staffing levels to suggested DoH guidelines, analysis was conducted on 19 of the 37 inpatient hospital care units that had no missing data for staff numbers, unit bed numbers, number of stroke patients treated per annum, average unit length-of-stay, and average unit occupancy rates. Only 42% of units analyzed reached the DoH guideline for physiotherapy and fewer than 16% of the units reached the guideline for speech & language therapy. By contrast, 84% of units surveyed reached the staffing guideline for occupational therapy. However, a post-hoc analysis highlights this as an irregularity in the DoH guidelines, revealing that all therapies are challenged to provide the recommended therapy time. Conclusions Most in-patient stroke units are operating below the DoH guidelines and are therefore challenged in providing the recommended amount of therapy and patient time to facilitate optimal functional recovery for stroke patients.
Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) virus infection is a global public health problem, affecting more than 400 million people worldwide. The clinical spectrum is wide, ranging from a subclinical inactive carrier state, to progressive chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, decompensation, and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, complications of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related chronic liver disease may be reduced by viral suppression. Current international guidelines recommend first-line treatment of CHB infection with pegylated interferon, entecavir, or tenofovir, but the optimal treatment for an individual patient is controversial. The indications for treatment are contentious, and increasing evidence suggests that HBV genotyping, as well as serial on-treatment measurements of hepatitis B surface antigen and HBV DNA kinetics should be used to predict antiviral treatment response. The likelihood of achieving a sustained virological response is also increased by extending treatment duration, and using combination therapy. Hence the paradigm for treatment of CHB is constantly evolving. This article summarizes the different indications for treatment, and systematically reviews the evidence for the efficacy of various antiviral agents. It further discusses the shortcomings of current guidelines, use of rescue therapy in drug-resistant strains of HBV, and highlights the promising clinical trials for emerging therapies in the pipeline. This concise overview presents an updated practical approach to guide the clinical management of CHB.
Tang, Ceen-Ming; Yau, Tung On; Yu, Jun
Published guidelines for the treatment of gout aim to improve the evidenced-based management of this disorder. Unfortunately, several studies suggest that these guidelines are not routinely followed in clinical practice. Limited data exist comparing different groups of primary care providers regarding compliance with published gout guidelines. We conducted a retrospective study comparing two different general internal medicine (IM) practices and evaluated compliance with these guidelines. All patients with a billing code for gout seen in two large IM clinics (Clinic A, an inner-city urban clinic, and Clinic B, a suburban clinic) between January 2004 and December 2007 were selected for chart review. Patients referred to a rheumatologist for management of gout were excluded. The care received by these patients for gout was compared to recommendations from published guidelines, with the primary outcome assessing the percentage of patients who received at least yearly monitoring of serum uric acid (SUA) levels. In both clinics, yearly monitoring of SUA levels occurred in approximately one quarter of the patients with gout (Clinic A 27.5% vs. Clinic B 28.9%, P = 0.87). Compared to SUA, renal function was monitored more frequently in each of the groups. Listed indications for antihyperuricemic therapy were similar between groups, although gouty flares were reported more frequently in clinic B (P = 0.005). In this retrospective review of gout management in two IM clinics, general care for patients with this condition did not differ significantly. However, overall compliance with recommendations from published guidelines was low. PMID:19590874
Wall, Geoffrey C; Koenigsfeld, Carrie F; Hegge, Karly A; Bottenberg, Michelle M
Purpose: To determine (1) Canadian oncologists’ attitudes toward practice guidelines, (2) oncologists’ self-reported use of practice guidelines and, (3) physicians’ characteristics and attitudes associated with self-reported use of practice guidelines. Participants and Methods: A cross-sectional, self-administered postal survey was administered to Canadian oncologists. Main outcome measures were level of agreement with 8 descriptive statements about guidelines, score on the attitudinal
I. D. Graham; W. K. Evans; D. Logan; A. O’Connor; V. Palda; L. McAuley; M. Brouwers; M. B. Harrison
Goals for the management of osteoarthritis (OA) emphasize pain relief, reduction of inflammation, and improvement in functioning. Among pharmacological pain management interventions, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are frequently recommended as the most effective treatment option for OA. However, the use of traditional oral NSAIDs is associated with risk of serious adverse events involving the gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and renal systems. Topical NSAIDs are an alternative with well-established tolerability and efficacy in the treatment of OA of the knee or hand. While the management of OA pain is evolving toward the more widespread use of topical NSAIDs, some OA management guidelines have yet to incorporate these agents in their recommendations. This review examines the efficacy and tolerability of topical NSAIDs, their current placement in OA management guidelines, and their potential role in enabling pain specialists to provide individualized care for their patients with OA. PMID:24748817
Balmaceda, Casilda M
Goals for the management of osteoarthritis (OA) emphasize pain relief, reduction of inflammation, and improvement in functioning. Among pharmacological pain management interventions, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are frequently recommended as the most effective treatment option for OA. However, the use of traditional oral NSAIDs is associated with risk of serious adverse events involving the gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and renal systems. Topical NSAIDs are an alternative with well-established tolerability and efficacy in the treatment of OA of the knee or hand. While the management of OA pain is evolving toward the more widespread use of topical NSAIDs, some OA management guidelines have yet to incorporate these agents in their recommendations. This review examines the efficacy and tolerability of topical NSAIDs, their current placement in OA management guidelines, and their potential role in enabling pain specialists to provide individualized care for their patients with OA.
Balmaceda, Casilda M
The current move toward decentralized curriculum work throughout the western world marks a reversal of a historical trend: the gradual shifting from local to national control. In Norway, this trend is manifested by the emergence of changing conceptions of curriculum work, curriculum administration, and the nature of curriculum guidelines as…
Gundem, Bjorg B.
Background: The impact of compliance to clinical practice guidelines (CPG) on outcomes and\\/or costs of care has not been completely clarified.Objective: To estimate relationships between medical expenditures and compliance to CPG for initial sarcoma treatment.Research design: Selected cohorts of patients diagnosed with sarcoma in 2005 and 2006, and treated at the University hospital and\\/or the cancer centre of the Rhône-Alpes
Lionel Perrier; Nicola Cautela; Magali Morelle; Nathalie Havet; Françoise Ducimetière; Antoine Lurkin; Jean-Yves Blay; Pierre Biron; Dominique Ranchère-Vince; Anne-Valérie Decouvelaere; Philippe Thiesse; Christophe Bergeron; François Gilly; Guy De Laroche; Dominic Cellier; Mathieu Laramas; Thierry Philip; Isabelle Ray-Coquard
Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (GEP NETs) represent a heterogenous family of tumours with growing incidence\\u000a and challenging clinical management. Unlike other solid tumours, they have the ability to secrete different peptides and neuramines\\u000a that cause distinct clinical syndromes. However, many are clinically silent until advanced disease. This guideline aims to\\u000a provide practical recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of GEP NETs.
Rocío García-Carbonero; Ramón Salazar; Isabel Sevilla; Dolores Isla
In 2011, the World Health Organization's (WHO) mental health Gap Action Programme (mhGAP) released evidence-based epilepsy-care guidelines for use in low and middle income countries (LAMICs). From a geographical, sociocultural, and political perspective, LAMICs represent a heterogenous group with significant differences in the epidemiology, etiology, and perceptions of epilepsy. Successful implementation of the guidelines requires local adaptation for use within individual countries. For effective implementation and sustainability, the sense of ownership and empowerment must be transferred from the global health authorities to the local people. Sociocultural and financial barriers that impede the implementation of the guidelines should be identified and ameliorated. Impact assessment and program revisions should be planned and a budget allocated to them. If effectively implemented, as intended, at the primary-care level, the mhGAP guidelines have the potential to facilitate a substantial reduction in the epilepsy treatment gap and improve the quality of epilepsy care in resource-limited settings.
This paper aims to review the guidelines on the importance given to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) as a risk factor or as threshold and target level in the treatment of dyslipidemia. We developed a strategy with cholesterol-related key words to search for guidelines in the major databases. The Appraisal of Guidelines Research Evaluation (AGREE) instrument was used for the evaluation and inclusion of the guidelines. In total nine guidelines were selected. Almost all selected guidelines consider low HDL-C as a marker of an increased risk for coronary heart disease. However, only few guidelines use the level of HDL-C as a threshold or target level for the treatment of dyslipidemia. The guidelines provide only little information on the management of patients with treatment-induced low HDL-C. Instead of using total cholesterol (TC) or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) we consider the use of the ratios of TC to HDL-C or LDL-C to HDL-C as a threshold as well as a target for treatment. PMID:15103174
Devroey, Dirk; Vantomme, Karolien; Betz, Willem; Vandevoorde, Jan; Kartounian, Jan
OBJECTIVE To provide an evidence-based clinical practice guideline for the chiropractic cervical treatment of adults with acute or chronic neck pain not due to whiplash. This is a considerable health concern considered to be a priority by stakeholders, and about which the scientific information was poorly organized. OPTIONS Cervical treatments: manipulation, mobilization, ischemic pressure, clinic- and home-based exercise, traction, education, low-power laser, massage, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, pillows, pulsed electromagnetic therapy, and ultrasound. OUTCOMES The primary outcomes considered were improved (reduced and less intrusive) pain and improved (increased and easier) ranges of motion (ROM) of the adult cervical spine. EVIDENCE An “extraction” team recorded evidence from articles found by literature search teams using 4 separate literature searches, and rated it using a Table adapted from the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine. The searches were 1) Treatment; August, 2003, using MEDLINE, CINAHL, AMED, MANTIS, ICL, The Cochrane Library (includes CENTRAL), and EBSCO, identified 182 articles. 2) Risk management (adverse events); October, 2004, identified 230 articles and 2 texts. 3) Risk management (dissection); September, 2003, identified 79 articles. 4) Treatment update; a repeat of the treatment search for articles published between September, 2003 and November, 2004 inclusive identified 121 articles. VALUES To enable the search of the literature, the authors (Guidelines Development Committee [GDC]) regarded chiropractic treatment as including elements of “conservative” care in the search strategies, but not in the consideration of the range of chiropractic practice. Also, knowledge based only on clinical experience was considered less valid and reliable than good-caliber evidence, but where the caliber of the relevant evidence was low or it was non-existent, unpublished clinical experience was considered to be equivalent to, or better than the published evidence. REPORTED BENEFITS, HARMS AND COSTS The expected benefits from the recommendations include more rapid recovery from pain, impairment and disability (improved pain and ROM). The GDC identified evidence-based pain benefits from 10 unimodal treatments and more than 7 multimodal treatments. There were no pain benefits from magnets in necklaces, education or relaxation alone, occipital release alone, or head retraction-extension exercise combinations alone. The specificity of the studied treatments meant few studies could be generalized to more than a minority of patients. Adverse events were not addressed in most studies, but where they were, there were none or they were minor. The theoretic harm of vertebral artery dissection (VAD) was not reported, but an analysis suggested that 1 VAD may occur subsequent to 1 million cervical manipulations. Costs were not analyzed in this guideline, but it is the understanding of the GDC that recommendations limiting ineffective care and promoting a more rapid return of patients to full functional capacity will reduce patient costs, as well as increase patient safety and satisfaction. For simplicity, this version of the guideline includes primarily data synthesized across studies (evidence syntheses), whereas the technical and the interactive versions of this guideline (http://ccachiro.org/cpg) also include relevant data from individual studies (evidence extractions). RECOMMENDATIONS The GDC developed treatment, risk-management and research recommendations using the available evidence. Treatment recommendations addressing 13 treatment modalities revolved around a decision algorithm comprising diagnosis (or assessment leading to diagnosis), treatment and reassessment. Several specific variations of modalities of treatment were not recommended. For adverse events not associated with a treatment modality, but that occur in the clinical setting, there was evidence to recommend reconsideration of treatment options or referral to the appropriate health services. For adverse eve
Anderson-Peacock, Elizabeth; Blouin, Jean-Sebastien; Bryans, Roland; Danis, Normand; Furlan, Andrea; Marcoux, Henri; Potter, Brock; Ruegg, Rick; Gross Stein, Janice; White, Eleanor
Infection with Helicobacter pylori remains a major healthcare burden, with persistently high prevalence rates, especially in less-developed countries. H. pylori infection is causally related to non-malignant and malignant gastroduodenal diseases, such as peptic ulcer diseases, gastric cancer and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Current international guidelines recommend a standard triple therapy as first-line therapy, including a proton pump inhibitor and a combination of amoxicillin and clarithromycin. Standard triple therapy has shown a decreasing efficacy over the years. The main reason is the increasing antibiotic resistance, particular to clarithromycin of H. pylori strains. Several new treatment options or modifications of already established regimens have been introduced to overcome treatment failure. In this article, we intend to report the reasons for treatment failure, and furthermore we give an overview of new treatment options as alternatives to the current treatment regimens. Finally, the strategy for the future is considered. PMID:21819326
Selgrad, Michael; Bornschein, Jan; Malfertheiner, Peter
Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections among HIV-Exposed and HIV-Infected Children. Recommendations from CDC, the National Institutes of Health, the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Disease Society of America, the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, and the American Academy of Pediatrics. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Recommendations and Reports, Volume 58, RR-11.
This report updates and combines into one document earlier versions of guidelines for preventing and treating opportunistic infections (OIs) among HIV-exposed and HIV-infected children, last published in 2002 and 2004, respectively. These guidelines are i...
The 1980 National Drug and Alcoholism Treatment Utilization Survey (NDATUS) was the second annual survey conducted by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) and the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), and included all known al...
The National Committee on Radiation Protection is a private, self-perpetuating body of radiation experts founded in 1928 which, except during World War II, has established the basic guidelines for radiation safety in the United States. This dissertation examines three themes in its history from 1928 to 1960. On an intellectual level, how do scientists make judgments when called upon to perform a legal function, instead of conduct research. On an institutional level, how does a scientific committee develop when it serves a medical, industrial, and legal constituency larger than the research community of the scientist themselves. On a political level, how has the development of atomic energy influenced both the intellectual content of the radiation safety standards and the institutional form of the NCRP. Institutional and political concerns were found to play a significant role in the NCRP's intellectual work from 1928 to 1960. The time span can be divided into three periods, revealing a growing politicization of radiation safety: professional self-regulation (1928-1941), government advisory committee (1946-1954), and public controversy and increasing legislation (1954-1960). In 1959, political controversy led to the establishment of the Federal Radiation Council, a government agency which was to replace the NCRP.
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is the most common chronic lymphoproliferative disorder in Spain. The clinical management of this entity varies widely. Currently, in Spain, there are no national consensus guidelines, such as those published in other countries, to guide the diagnosis and treatment of this malignancy and the use of prognostic scores. This article reviews the current scientific literature and addresses issues on the diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, the spread of the disease, the presence of comorbidities, the classification of prognostic scores, the common treatment regimens stratified by risk factors, and the management of complications associated with both the disease and its treatment, as well as the various controversies related to this entity. This document was drafted with the collaboration of national experts and aims to establish practical guidelines with their corresponding levels of evidence and grades of recommendation to guide the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. PMID:23830547
García Marco, José A; Giraldo Castellano, Pilar; López Jiménez, Javier; Ríos Herranz, Eduardo; Sastre Moral, José Luis; Terol Casterá, M José; Bosch Albareda, Francesc
Sarcoidosis is the most common diffuse parenchymal lung disease and occurs worldwide. Although it affects all ethnic groups, prevalence and severity varies between different races. This has complicated the interpretation of existing clinical studies and extrapolation of their findings to different populations. Sarcoidosis can affect any organ, but the lungs are involved in >90% of patients, and respiratory specialists are therefore frequently responsible for their care. Oral corticosteroids have been used to treat sarcoidosis since the 1950s, with evidence of short- to medium-term improvement in symptoms, respiratory function and radiology. More recently, there have been studies examining the role of inhaled corticosteroids. The long-term benefits of corticosteroid treatment are nevertheless uncertain. Current international guidelines (published in 1999) on sarcoidosis, including recommendations on treatment, represent a consensus statement endorsed by North American and European respiratory societies. British guidelines on diffuse parenchymal lung disease, including sarcoidosis, were published in the same year. There are clearly areas where there is agreement and others where uncertainty persists. This article outlines current guidance with particular reference to which patients should be treated, when treatment should be commenced, the possible role of inhaled corticosteroids, how long treatment should be continued, and what monitoring should be performed for adverse events. PMID:17521216
Coker, Robina K
This study surveyed dietary intake and adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines in Korean adolescents. To elucidate basic data for use in nutrition education, which aims to improve adolescent compliance with the national dietary guidelines and to increase the intake of dietary fiber, we evaluated the sources of fiber in adolescent diets. This study included 182 male and 212 female students from 2 middle schools in the Jeonju province. From November 15~20, 2011, we surveyed the students for general characteristics, adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines, and dietary intake. Dietary fiber intake was 16.57 ± 6.95 g/day for male students and 16.14 ± 7.11 g/day for female students. The food groups that contributed most to dietary fiber intake were (in descending order) cereals, vegetables, seasoning, and fruits. The fiber-containing food items consumed most were cabbage- kimchi, cooked rice, instant noodles, and cabbage. Based on adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines, the vegetable-based intake of dietary fiber in groups 1 (score 15~45), 2 (score 46~52), and 3 (score 53~75) were 4.41 ± 2.595 g/day, 4.12 ± 2.692 g/day, and 5.49 ± 3.157 g/day, respectively (p<0.001). In addition, the total intake of dietary fiber varied significantly among the three groups (p<0.001) as follows: Group 1, 14.99 ± 6.374 g/day; Group 2, 15.32 ± 6.772 g/day; and Group 3, 18.79 ± 7.361 g/day. In this study, we discovered that adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines correlates with improved intake of dietary fiber. Therefore, marketing and educational development is needed to promote adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines. In addition, nutritional education is needed to improve dietary fiber consumption through the intake of vegetables and fruits other than kimchi.
Park, Sunmi; Na, Woori; Kim, Misung; Kim, Eunsoo; Sohn, Cheongmin
This study surveyed dietary intake and adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines in Korean adolescents. To elucidate basic data for use in nutrition education, which aims to improve adolescent compliance with the national dietary guidelines and to increase the intake of dietary fiber, we evaluated the sources of fiber in adolescent diets. This study included 182 male and 212 female students from 2 middle schools in the Jeonju province. From November 15~20, 2011, we surveyed the students for general characteristics, adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines, and dietary intake. Dietary fiber intake was 16.57 ± 6.95 g/day for male students and 16.14 ± 7.11 g/day for female students. The food groups that contributed most to dietary fiber intake were (in descending order) cereals, vegetables, seasoning, and fruits. The fiber-containing food items consumed most were cabbage- kimchi, cooked rice, instant noodles, and cabbage. Based on adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines, the vegetable-based intake of dietary fiber in groups 1 (score 15~45), 2 (score 46~52), and 3 (score 53~75) were 4.41 ± 2.595 g/day, 4.12 ± 2.692 g/day, and 5.49 ± 3.157 g/day, respectively (p<0.001). In addition, the total intake of dietary fiber varied significantly among the three groups (p<0.001) as follows: Group 1, 14.99 ± 6.374 g/day; Group 2, 15.32 ± 6.772 g/day; and Group 3, 18.79 ± 7.361 g/day. In this study, we discovered that adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines correlates with improved intake of dietary fiber. Therefore, marketing and educational development is needed to promote adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines. In addition, nutritional education is needed to improve dietary fiber consumption through the intake of vegetables and fruits other than kimchi. PMID:24471093
Park, Sunmi; Na, Woori; Kim, Misung; Kim, Eunsoo; Sohn, Cheongmin
Although composition specialists embrace a variety of theoretical frameworks and research methodologies, they share a commitment to protecting the rights, privacy, dignity, and well-being of the students who are involved in their studies. These guidelines from the Conference on College Composition and Communication are intended to assist…
National Council of Teachers of English, Urbana, IL.
While a variety of clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of HIV/AIDS are used extensively around the world, the implementation of such guidelines is not assured in Korea due to constraints with respect to the diagnostic tests and antiretroviral drugs currently available in the country. Consequently, the Committee for Clinical Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Treatment of HIV/AIDS of the Korean Society for AIDS was founded in 2010, and the first edition of the Korean guidelines was published a year later. However, due to the rapid discovery of new data in the field of HIV and the evolution of the clinical environment in Korea in the last few years, it has become necessary to revise the first set of guidelines. This guideline aims to provide comprehensive information regarding the diagnosis and management of HIV/AIDS in Korea. The recommendations contain important information for physicians working with HIV/AIDS in the clinical field. A brief summary of the revised guidelines and key changes to the original version of the guidelines are summarized below.
Objectives. These guidelines are based on a fi rst edition that was published in 2002, and have been edited and updated with the available scientifi c evidence until September 2009. Their purpose is to supply a systematic overview of all scientifi c evidence pertaining to the treatment of acute bipolar depression in adults. Methods. The data used for these guidelines
Heinz Grunze; Eduard Vieta; Guy M. Goodwin; Charles Bowden; Rasmus W. Licht; Hans-Jürgen Möller; Siegfried Kasper
Recently, the American Academy of Neurology published an evidence-based guideline for the pharmacological treatment of chorea in Huntington’s disease. Although the progress in medical care because of the implementation of criteria of evidence-based medicine is undisputed, the guideline classifies the level of evidence for drugs to reduce chorea based on anchors in the Unified Huntington’s Disease Rating Scale-Total Motor Score chorea sum score, which were chosen arbitrarily and do not reflect validated or generally accepted levels of clinical relevance. Thus, the guideline faces several serious limitations and delivers clinical recommendations that do not represent current clinical practice; these are reviewed in detail, and arguments are presented why these recommendations should not be followed. To remedy the lack of evidence-based recommendations and provide guidance to a pragmatic symptomatic therapy of chorea in HD, a flow-chart pathway that follows currently established clinical standards based on expert opinion is presented. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society
Aims The success in achieving treatment goals for cardiovascular risk factors in primary care is largely unknown. Therefore, the goals of this study were (i) to assess whether routinely collected practice data can be used to evaluate treatment in primary care, (ii) to compare current treatment with goals of published guidelines, and (iii) to calculate future risk for cardiovascular events
Johann Christoph Geller; Sven Cassens; Mathias Brosz; Ulrich Keil; Johannes Bernarding; Siegfried Kropf; Ralph A. Bierwirth; Bernhard Lippmann-Grob; Heinz-Peter Schultheiss; Klaus Schluter; Klaus Pels
Background No local studies evaluating the knowledge of cardiologists on the management of atrial fibrillation (AF) and their adherence to these guidelines are available. Objective To evaluate the knowledge of cardiologists on the guidelines and clinical practices for the treatment of AF, correlating it to the time since medical graduation. Methods Cross-sectional study randomly including cardiologists affiliated to the Society of Cardiology of the State of Rio Grande do Sul (Sociedade de Cardiologia do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul - SOCERGS). The physicians were divided into two groups, according to time since graduation: those graduated for more (G1) or less (G2) than 25 years. Results Of the 859 SOCERGS members, 150 were interviewed, and six refused to participate in the study. G1 comprised 71 physicians, and G2, 73. Differences were observed in regard to the following variables: use of betablockers as the first-choice drug for the control of AF response in 59.2% (G1) vs 91.8% (G2) (p<0.0001); use of digoxin as the preferred drug for the control of AF response in 19.7% (G1) vs 0% (G2) (p< 0.0001); warfarin as the preferred anticoagulant in 71.8% (G1) vs 93.2% (G2) (p=0.009); application of a risk score for anticoagulation in 73.2% (G1) vs 87.7% (G2) (p=0.02). In questions regarding the knowledge about the Brazilian Society of Cardiology's guideline for AF, the overall percentage of right answers was 82.3%. Conclusion Most of the clinical measures regarding the management of AF comply with the guidelines, and the clinical practice differs according with the time since graduation.
van der Sand, Cezar R.; Leiria, Tiago Luiz Luz; Kalil, Renato Abdala Karam
Functional magnetic resonance imaging is the most widely used imaging technique to study treatment-induced recovery in post-stroke aphasia. The longitudinal design of such studies adds to the challenges researchers face when studying patient populations with brain damage in cross-sectional settings. The present review focuses on issues specifically relevant to neuroimaging data analysis in aphasia treatment research identified in discussions among international researchers at the Neuroimaging in Aphasia Treatment Research Workshop held at Northwestern University (Evanston, Illinois, USA). In particular, we aim to provide the reader with a critical review of unique problems related to the pre-processing, statistical modeling and interpretation of such data sets. Despite the fact that data analysis procedures critically depend on specific design features of a given study, we aim to discuss and communicate a basic set of practical guidelines that should be applicable to a wide range of studies and useful as a reference for researchers pursuing this line of research.
Meinzer, Marcus; Beeson, Pelagie M.; Cappa, Stefano; Crinion, Jenny; Kiran, Swathi; Saur, Dorothee; Parrish, Todd; Crosson, Bruce; Thompson, Cynthia K.
In recent years there have been great developments in the diagnosis and comprehensive treatment of colorectal cancer liver metastases (CRLM). Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Comprehensive Treatment of Colorectal Cancer Liver Metastases were compiled to standardize and improve the diagnosis and treatment outcomes in China. This paper summarizes the updated content in the Guideline (V.2013). We should conduct gene testing related to CRLM to guide individual treatment, emphasize the role of the multidisciplinary team, and select molecular targeted drugs reasonably. In addition, we discuss the operative timing of CRLM, minimally invasive operation and regional therapy of liver metastases. PMID:24953354
Zhu, Dexiang; Ren, Li; Xu, Jianmin
Amphotericin B, fluconazole, and flucytosine (5FC) were tested in a multilaboratory study to establish quality control (QC) guidelines for yeast antifungal susceptibility testing. Ten candidate QC strains were testedinaccordancewithNationalCommitteeforClinicalLaboratoryStandardsM27-Pguidelinesagainstthe three antifungal agents in each of six laboratories. Each laboratory was assigned a unique lot of RPMI 1640 broth medium as well as a lot of RPMI 1640 common to all
M. A. PFALLER; M. BALE; B. BUSCHELMAN; M. LANCASTER; A. ESPINEL-INGROFF; J. H. REX; M. G. RINALDI; C. R. COOPER; R. MCGINNIS
This revised Clinical Guideline in Paediatric Dentistry replaces the previously published sixth guideline (Fayle SA. Int J Paediatr Dent 1999; 9: 311-314). The process of guideline production began in 1994, resulting in first publication in 1997. Each guideline has been circulated widely for consultation to all UK consultants in paediatric dentistry, council members of the British Society of Paediatric Dentistry (BSPD), and to people of related specialities recognized to have expertise in the subject. The final version of this guideline is produced from a combination of this input and thorough review of the published literature. The intention is to encourage improvement in clinical practice and to stimulate research and clinical audit in areas where scientific evidence is inadequate. Evidence underlying recommendations is scored according to the SIGN classification and guidelines should be read in this context. Further details regarding the process of paediatric dentistry guideline production in the UK is described in the Int J Paediatr Dent 1997; 7: 267-268. PMID:18808544
Kindelan, S A; Day, P; Nichol, R; Willmott, N; Fayle, S A
Total incapacity to work (TIW) is a legal concept that allows magistrates to assess the severity of violence against persons. The TIW is the duration of the victims' inability to fulfil their usual activities and is determined by physicians. Professional guidelines from the French National Authority for Health indicate that TIW applies both to physical and psychological problems. The law of 9 July 2010 makes explicit reference to TIW in cases of psychological violence and intimate partner harassment. Prosecutors base criminal penalties on the duration of TIW in cases of assault and battery. Whatever the physician, they should describe the mental state of the victim and identify the signs that may indicate the mental impact of reported assaults. Identifying combinations of symptoms can be useful in deciding whether the duration of TIW should be increased because of the psychic state. In case of stalking, assessment of TIW can allow prosecutors to link the reported facts to a criminal offence. In complex situations, the physician may be unable to assess a duration of TIW and can suggest expert assessment. In all cases, the duration of TIW needs to be based on functional criteria. The extent of harm to the life of relationships results from suffered violence, from the victim's reaction, and from the perception of their family and friends. In this area, we suggest to limit the first assessment of TIW to a few days and to reassess it later, according to real information reported by the victims, to careful observation of their behaviour, and to results of a questioning that should be as little suggestive as possible. At either end of the age scale and in case of preexisting functional impairment, assessment of TIW should take into account the actual and global capacity of the person before the assault. PMID:23659917
Chariot, Patrick; Bécache, Nathalie; François-Purssell, Irène; Dantchev, Nicolas; Delpla, Pierre-André; Fournier, Lionel; Proust, Bernard
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of a preprinted form in ensuring an improved and sustained quality of documentation of clinical data in compliance with the national guidelines for sedation by non-anaesthetists. DESIGN: The process of retrospective case note audit was used to identify areas of poor performance, reiterate national guidelines, introduce a post-sedation advice sheet, and demonstrate improvement. SETTING: Emergency Department, Musgrove Park Hospital, Taunton. SUBJECTS: Forty seven patients requiring sedation for relocation of a dislocated shoulder or manipulation of a Colles' fracture between July and October 1996 and July and October 1997. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Evidence that the following items had been documented: consent for procedure, risk assessment, monitored observations, prophylactic use of supplementary oxygen, and discharging patients with printed advice. Case note review was performed before (n = 23) and after (n = 24) the introduction of a sedation audit form. Notes were analysed for the above outcome measures. The monitored observations analysed included: pulse oximetry, respiratory rate, pulse rate, blood pressure, electrocardiography, and conscious level. RESULTS: Use of the form significantly improved documentation of most parameters measured. CONCLUSIONS: Introduction of the form, together with staff education, resulted in enhanced documentation of data and improved conformity with national guidelines. A risk management approach to preempting critical incidents following sedation, can be adopted in this area of emergency medicine.
Nicol, M F
Background Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a standard treatment for osteoarthritis (OA), but the use of oral NSAIDs has been linked to an elevated risk for cardiovascular and gastrointestinal adverse events and renal toxicity. Topical NSAIDs are thought to afford efficacy that is comparable to oral formulations while reducing widespread systemic drug exposure, which may provide a benefit in terms of safety and tolerability. As a result, European treatment guidelines have, for many years, recommended the use of topical NSAIDs as a safe and effective treatment option for OA. Following the recent approval of several topical NSAID formulations by the US Food and Drug Administration, US treatment guidelines are increasingly recommending the use of topical NSAIDs as an alternative therapy and, in some cases, as a first-line option for OA. This commentary summarizes OA treatment guidelines that are currently available and discusses their potential evolution with regard to the increased inclusion of topical NSAIDs.
These clinical guidelines outline the criteria and recommendations for diagnostic and genetic work-up of families suspected of von Hippel-Lindau disease (vHL), as well as recommendations for prophylactic surveillance for vHL patients. The guideline has been composed by the Danish Coordination Group for vHL which is comprised of Danish doctors and specialists interested in vHL. The recommendations are based on longstanding clinical experience, Danish original research, and extensive review of the international literature. vHL is a hereditary multi-tumour disease caused by germline mutations in the VHL gene. vHL is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. Predisposed individuals are advised to undergo prophylactic examinations, as they are at lifelong risk of developing multiple cysts and tumours, especially in the cerebellum, the spinal cord, the retina (hemangioblastomas), the kidneys (renal cell carcinoma), the adrenal glands (pheochromocytoma), the pancreas, as well as in other organs. As many different organs can be affected, several medical specialities often take part in both diagnosis and treatment of manifestations. vHL should be suspected in individuals with a family history of the disease, and/or in individuals with a vHL-associated manifestation; i.e. a hemangioblastoma in the retina or the central nervous system, familial or bilateral pheochromocytomas, familial, multiple, or early onset renal cell carcinomas, and in individuals with an endolymphatic sac tumour in the inner ear. Individuals suspected of vHL should be referred to a department of clinical genetics for genetic work-up and counselling as well as have a clinical work-up to identify any undiagnosed vHL-associated manifestations. This guideline describes the elements of the clinical diagnostic work-up, as well as the genetic work-up, counselling, and mutation screening. Individuals who are affected with vHL, individuals at risk of vHL, and VHL-mutation carriers are advised to follow the surveillance program which consists of regular prophylactic examinations relevant to different age groups. The examinations are recommended to start in infancy with annual paediatric examinations and ophthalmoscopy until the age of five years. From five to 14 years, annual plasma-metanephrine and plasma-normetanephrine tests, as well as annual hearing examinations are added. Also, an MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) examination of the CNS and abdomen should be done between the ages of eight and 14 years. After the age of 15 years, individuals should be referred to: a) annual ophthalmoscopy in dilation, b) annual neurological examination, c) every two years: MRIs of the CNS, including the inner ear, d) annual ultrasound/MRI of the abdomen, e) annual plasma-metanephrine, plasma-normetanephrine, and plasma-chromogranin A tests, and f) annual hearing examination at a department of audiology. It is advised that one doctor takes on the responsibility of coordination of and referral to the many examinations, and the communication with the patient. To facilitate the coordination, and especially for the patients' own use, a mobile chart can be used. In 2012, the Danish vHL Coordination Group established a national vHL database comprising individuals with vHL and their relatives, as well as individuals examined for vHL. The database is designated to be a treatment and diagnostic instrument, as well as a tool in future vHL research in Denmark. PMID:24355456
Binderup, Marie Louise Mølgaard; Bisgaard, Marie Luise; Harbud, Vibeke; Møller, Hans Ulrik; Gimsing, Steen; Friis-Hansen, Lennart; Hansen, Thomas van Overeem; Bagi, Per; Knigge, Ulrich; Kosteljanetz, Michael; Bøgeskov, Lars; Thomsen, Carsten; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Ousager, Lillian Bomme; Sunde, Lone
Postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) is prescribed in order to reduce the local recurrence of breast cancer and improve overall survival. A guideline supports the trade-off between benefits and adverse effects of PMRT. However, this guideline is not always followed in practice. This study tries to find a method for revealing patterns of non-compliance between the actual treatment and the PMRT guideline. Data from breast cancer patients admitted to Linköping University Hospital between 1990 and 2000 were analyzed in this study. Cases that were not treated in accordance with the guideline were selected and analyzed by decision tree induction (DTI). Thereafter, four resulting rules, as representations for groups of patients, were compared to the guideline. Finding patterns of non-compliance with guidelines by means of rules can be an appropriate alternative to manual methods, i.e. a case-by-case comparison when studying very large datasets. The resulting rules can be used in a knowledge base of a guideline-based decision support system to alert when inconsistencies with the guidelines may appear. PMID:17911785
Razavi, Amir R; Gill, Hans; Ahlfeldt, Hans; Shahsavar, Nosrat
Objectives We set out to determine the optimal treatment options—surgery, radiation therapy (rt), systemic therapy, or any combinations thereof—for patients with desmoid tumours once the decision to undergo active treatment has been made (that is, monitoring and observation have been determined to be inadequate).provide clinical-expert consensus opinions on follow-up strategies in patients with desmoid tumours after primary interventional management. Methods This guideline was developed by Cancer Care Ontario’s Program in Evidence-Based Care and the Sarcoma Disease Site Group. The medline, embase, and Cochrane Library databases, main guideline Web sites, and abstracts of relevant annual meetings (1990 to September 2012) were searched. Internal and external reviews were conducted, with final approval by the Program in Evidence-Based Care and the Sarcoma Disease Site Group. Recommendations Treatments Surgery with or without rt can be a reasonable treatment option for patients with desmoid tumours whose surgical morbidity is deemed to be low. The decision about whether rt should be offered in conjunction with surgery should be made by clinicians and patients after weighing the potential benefit of improved local control against the potential harms and toxicity associated with rt. Depending on individual patient preferences, systemic therapy alone or rt alone might also be reasonable treatment options, regardless of whether the desmoid umours are deemed to be resectable. Follow-Up Strategies Undergo evaluation for rehabilitation (occupational therapy or physical therapy, or both). Continue with rehabilitation until maximal function is achieved. Undergo history and physical examinations with appropriate imaging every 3–6 months for 2–3 years, and then annually.
Ghert, M.; Yao, X.; Corbett, T.; Gupta, A.A.; Kandel, R.A.; Verma, S.; Werier, J.
...and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) DNA Samples: Guidelines for Proposals To Use Samples...of describing the health of the population, DNA specimens were collected during three NHANES surveys. DNA is available in the form of crude lysates...
The cause of continuing education has gained significant strides in China after the advent of Reform and Opening Up, but it is still the weakest link in the current system of education. The "National Medium- and Long-Term Educational Reform and Development Guideline (2010-20)" (hereafter abbreviated as the "Guideline") has established the special…
To avoid, or at least to reduce complications in patients who require head and neck radiotherapy, adequate oral cavity treatment is necessary before the therapy. Recent management guidelines speak of possibilities of preventing osteoradionecrosis with hyperbaric oxygen, using long-wave ultrasound in stimulating osteoblasts growth, and surgical transfer of submandibular salivary glands to submental area with 99% effectiveness in preventing xerostomia, besides traditional therapy. Preventive measures are naturally the best choice, since late complications treatment is not needed as often, and should draw special attention of physicians and patients. Since wide a spectrum of preventive and curative measures is required, the need exists for standard teams to look after the patients during and after radiotherapy, and which should include, besides radiotherapist, oral or maxillofacial surgeon in cooperation with oral medicine specialist. PMID:20143603
Badzek, Sasa; Tomas, Ilijan; Krajina, Ivan; Pu?o, Katarina; Kelovi?, Vesna Lesko; Krajina, Zdenko; Plestina, Stjepko
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the most common malignant tumor in Western countries. Despite efforts made to implement screening programmes for early detection and treatment, still half of the patients present or will eventually develop distant metastasis. Management of advanced CRC should be discussed within an experienced multidisciplinary team, to adequately select the most appropriate systemic therapeutic option, as well as the optimal way to integrate it with surgical procedures when indicated. Disease localization and extent, resectability of primary and metastatic disease, tumor biology and dynamics, clinical symptoms, personal preferences and patient's ability to tolerate intensive chemotherapy or extensive surgical procedures are the key factors to properly design a customized treatment plan. The aim of the current manuscript is to provide synthetic practical guidelines regarding therapeutic options for advanced CRC. PMID:23896865
Casado-Saenz, E; Feliu, J; Gomez-España, M A; Sanchez-Gastaldo, A; Garcia-Carbonero, R
A guideline on pelvic girdle pain (PGP) was developed by “Working Group 4” within the framework of the COST ACTION B13 “Low back pain: guidelines for its management”, issued by the European Commission, Research Directorate-General, Department of Policy, Coordination and Strategy. To ensure an evidence-based approach, three subgroups were formed to explore: (a) basic information, (b) diagnostics and epidemiology, and (c) therapeutical interventions. The progress of the subgroups was discussed at each meeting and the final report is based on group consensus. A grading system was used to denote the strength of the evidence, based on the AHCPR Guidelines (1994) and levels of evidence recommended in the method guidelines of the Cochrane Back Review group. It is concluded that PGP is a specific form of low back pain (LBP) that can occur separately or in conjunction with LBP. PGP generally arises in relation to pregnancy, trauma, arthritis and/or osteoarthritis. Uniform definitions are proposed for PGP as well as for joint stability. The point prevalence of pregnant women suffering from PGP is about 20%. Risk factors for developing PGP during pregnancy are most probably a history of previous LBP, and previous trauma to the pelvis. There is agreement that non risk factors are: contraceptive pills, time interval since last pregnancy, height, weight, smoking, and most probably age. PGP can be diagnosed by pain provocation tests (P4/thigh thrust, Patrick’s Faber, Gaenslen’s test, and modified Trendelenburg’s test) and pain palpation tests (long dorsal ligament test and palpation of the symphysis). As a functional test, the active straight leg raise (ASLR) test is recommended. Mobility (palpation) tests, X-rays, CT, scintigraphy, diagnostic injections and diagnostic external pelvic fixation are not recommended. MRI may be used to exclude ankylosing spondylitis and in the case of positive red flags. The recommended treatment includes adequate information and reassurance of the patient, individualized exercises for pregnant women and an individualized multifactorial treatment program for other patients. We recommend medication (excluding pregnant women), if necessary, for pain relief. Recommendations are made for future research on PGP.
Albert, Hanne B.; Ostgaard, Hans Christian; Sturesson, Bengt; Stuge, Britt
The highest risk of a recurrent event in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) occurs in the first month, with the rates of reported events ranging from 10% to 25%. Statins are the cornerstone of lipid-lowering therapy for the long-term care of patients with stable atherosclerotic disease. More recent accumulated data from several trials now show that statin therapy can also help reduce cardiovascular risk in unstable disease. These studies evaluated the effects of statin therapy begun before discharge, with the Myocardial Ischemia with Aggressive Cholesterol Lowering (MIRACL) trial showing that therapy could be started as early as 24 hours after onset with measurable clinical benefit. Registry data also suggest that long-term compliance may be improved in patients with a predischarge statin prescription compared with a postdischarge statin prescription. This is because many patients discharged without a statin prescription are either lost to further medical follow-up or do not receive a statin prescription from their primary care provider. The Third Report of the Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (ATP III), which constitutes the updated clinical guidelines of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP), recommends that lipid-lowering drug therapy be initiated at hospital discharge. ATP III also provides important information on the goals of lipid-lowering therapy in patients after ACS. The challenge for the specialist is to establish a predischarge plan that includes maximal dosing to achieve aggressive target goals and to work with the patient's primary care provider to maintain these goals long-term. PMID:11694218
Hunninghake, D B
Background The International Scientific Society on Scoliosis Orthopaedic and Rehabilitation Treatment (SOSORT), that produced its first Guidelines in 2005, felt the need to revise them and increase their scientific quality. The aim is to offer to all professionals and their patients an evidence-based updated review of the actual evidence on conservative treatment of idiopathic scoliosis (CTIS). Methods All types of professionals (specialty physicians, and allied health professionals) engaged in CTIS have been involved together with a methodologist and a patient representative. A review of all the relevant literature and of the existing Guidelines have been performed. Documents, recommendations, and practical approach flow charts have been developed according to a Delphi procedure. A methodological and practical review has been made, and a final Consensus Session was held during the 2011 Barcelona SOSORT Meeting. Results The contents of the document are: methodology; generalities on idiopathic scoliosis; approach to CTIS in different patients, with practical flow-charts; literature review and recommendations on assessment, bracing, physiotherapy, Physiotherapeutic Specific Exercises (PSE) and other CTIS. Sixty-five recommendations have been given, divided in the following topics: Bracing (20 recommendations), PSE to prevent scoliosis progression during growth (8), PSE during brace treatment and surgical therapy (5), Other conservative treatments (3), Respiratory function and exercises (3), Sports activities (6), Assessment (20). No recommendations reached a Strength of Evidence level I; 2 were level II; 7 level III; and 20 level IV; through the Consensus procedure 26 reached level V and 10 level VI. The Strength of Recommendations was Grade A for 13, B for 49 and C for 3; none had grade D. Conclusion These Guidelines have been a big effort of SOSORT to paint the actual situation of CTIS, starting from the evidence, and filling all the gray areas using a scientific method. According to results, it is possible to understand the lack of research in general on CTIS. SOSORT invites researchers to join, and clinicians to develop good research strategies to allow in the future to support or refute these recommendations according to new and stronger evidence.
The Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD) is a comprehensive aggregated collection of hydrologic unit data consistent with the national criteria for delineation and resolution. This document establishes interagency guidelines for creating the WBD as seamless a...
Objective To examine antibiotic prescribing in nursing homes and determine to what degree the prescribing was in accordance with the national guidelines for antibiotic prescribing. Design Retrospective examination of patients’ records who were prescribed antibiotics in the period 1 March 2007 to 28 February 2008. Setting and patients Patients residing in the nursing homes of Arendal, Norway. Main outcome measures Choice of antibiotic in respect of the recommendations in the national guidelines for antibiotic prescribing. Results A total of 714 antibiotic courses were prescribed to 327 patients yielding a prevalence of 6.6%. Compliant prescribing was 77% for urinary tract infections (UTI), 79% for respiratory tract infections (RTI), and 76% for skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI). Ciprofloxacin was responsible for 63% of non-compliant prescribing. On the respite wards there was a higher rate of total prescribing, non-compliant prescribing, and prescribing by physicians employed at the local hospital. Conclusion Guidelines for antibiotic use must be implemented actively and efforts to improve antibiotic prescribing in nursing homes must be aimed at both nursing home and hospital physicians.
Fagan, Mark; Maehlen, Marthe; Lindbaek, Morten; Berild, Dag
In the 1980s the outcome of patients with herpes simplex encephalitis was shown to be dramatically improved with aciclovir treatment. Delays in starting treatment, particularly beyond 48 h after hospital admission, are associated with a worse prognosis. Several comprehensive reviews of the investigation and management of encephalitis have been published. However, their impact on day-to day clinical practice appears to be limited. The emergency management of meningitis in children and adults was revolutionised by the introduction of a simple algorithm as part of management guidelines. In February 2008 a group of clinicians met in Liverpool to begin the development process for clinical care guidelines based around a similar simple algorithm, supported by an evidence base, whose implementation is hoped would improve the management of patients with suspected encephalitis. PMID:22120595
Solomon, T; Michael, B D; Smith, P E; Sanderson, F; Davies, N W S; Hart, I J; Holland, M; Easton, A; Buckley, C; Kneen, R; Beeching, N J
Aim The goal of antiepileptic treatment is to achieve seizure freedom or seizure control. The aim of this paper is to review the evidence for the use of lacosamide for adjunctive treatment of refractory focal seizures with or without secondary generalization, within the scope of the 2012 update of the Clinical Guideline published by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). Methods Clinical evidence for the use of lacosamide and other antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) was systematically reviewed, evaluated, and presented to the Guideline Development Group. Only randomized clinical trials were included. Outcomes of clinical efficacy (seizure freedom, 50% reduction in seizure frequency, time to first seizure, time to 12-month remission, treatment withdrawal, and time to treatment withdrawal), experience of adverse events, and cognitive and quality of life outcomes were reviewed. A decision model was built to weigh the clinical benefits of each adjunctive AED, measured by seizure control and seizure reduction, compared with the harm from adverse events, as measured by withdrawals from treatment due to adverse events. Results Lacosamide was included as part of the recommended AEDS to be used in tertiary epilepsy centers. The evidence review showed that more participants who received lacosamide as an adjunctive treatment had at least a 50% reduction in seizure frequency compared with those taking placebo. However, more participants on lacosamide were found to experience adverse events and withdrawal from treatment compared with those on placebo. The cost-effectiveness analysis showed that compared with placebo, the benefits gained from adjunctive lacosamide were modest and uncertain, whereas the costs were significantly high. Compared with other AEDs licensed for adjunctive therapy in focal seizures, lacosamide was associated with fewer quality-adjusted life years and higher costs. Therefore, the Guideline Development Group noted that the balance of benefit and harm needs to be carefully monitored in all patients.
Nunes, Vanessa Delgado; Sawyer, Laura; Neilson, Julie; Sarri, Grammati; Cross, J Helen
Exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) typically occurs during or up to 24 hours after prolonged physical activity, and is defined by a serum or plasma sodium concentration below the normal reference range of 135 mEq/L. It is also reported to occur in individual physical activities or during organized endurance events conducted in austere environments in which medical care is limited or often not available, and patient evacuation to definitive care is often greatly delayed. Rapid recognition and appropriate treatment are essential in the severe form to ensure a positive outcome. Failure in this regard is a recognized cause of event-related fatality. In an effort to produce best practice guidelines for EAH in the austere environment, the Wilderness Medical Society convened an expert panel. The panel was charged with the development of evidence-based guidelines for management of EAH. Recommendations are made regarding the situations when sodium concentration can be assessed in the field and when these values are not known. These recommendations are graded based on the quality of supporting evidence and balance between the benefits and risks/burdens for each parameter according to the methodology stipulated by the American College of Chest Physicians. PMID:23590928
Bennett, Brad L; Hew-Butler, Tamara; Hoffman, Martin D; Rogers, Ian R; Rosner, Mitchell H
Background Major international differences in heart failure treatment have been repeatedly described, but the reasons for these differences remain unclear. National guideline recommendations might be a relevant factor. This study, therefore, explored variation of heart failure guideline recommendations in Europe. Methods Treatment recommendations of 14 national guidelines published after 1994 were analyzed in relation to the heart failure treatment guideline of the European Society of Cardiology. To test potential relations between recommendations and prescribing, national prescribing patterns as obtained by a European study in primary care (IMPROVEMENT-HF) were related to selected recommendations in those countries. Results Besides the 14 national guidelines used by primary care physicians in the countries contacted, the European guideline was used in four countries, and separate guidelines for specialists and primary care were available in another four countries. Two countries indicated that no guideline was used up to 2000. Comprehensiveness of the guidelines varied with respect to length, literature included and evidence ratings. Relevant differences in treatment recommendations were seen only in drug classes where evidence had changed recently (?-blockers and spironolactone). The relation between recommendation and prescribing for selected recommendations was inconsistent among countries. Conclusion Differences in guideline recommendations are not sufficient to explain variation of prescribing among countries, thus other factors must be considered.
Sturm, Heidrun B; van Gilst, Wiek H; Swedberg, Karl; Hobbs, FD Richard; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M
Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (GEP NETs) represent a heterogenous family of tumours with growing incidence and challenging clinical management. Unlike other solid tumours, they have the ability to secrete different peptides and neuramines that cause distinct clinical syndromes. However, many are clinically silent until advanced disease. This guideline aims to provide practical recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of GEP NETs. Most recent histological and staging classifications, as well as available therapeutic approaches, such as surgery, locoregional therapy, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) and hormonal or systemic therapy, are discussed in this manuscript, including some recent relevant achievements with novel targeted agents. Clinical presentation (with or without hormonal syndrome), histological tumour features (including proliferation index (Ki-67) and the presence or not of somatostatin receptors), tumour stage, and location of primary tumour and distant metastasis are all key issues that shall be taken into consideration to properly design and integrate the most adequate therapeutic strategy. PMID:21821488
García-Carbonero, Rocío; Salazar, Ramón; Sevilla, Isabel; Isla, Dolores
Background The aims of this study were to evaluate the awareness of and attitudes towards the 2005 European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines for Heart Failure (HF) of the cardiologists in Pakistan and assess barriers to adherence to guidelines. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in person from March to July 2009 to all cardiologists practicing in 4 major cities in Pakistan (Karachi, Lahore, Quetta and Peshawar). A validated, semi-structured questionnaire assessing ESC 2005 Guidelines for HF was used to obtain information from cardiologists. It included questions about awareness and relevance of HF guidelines (See Additional File 1). Respondents' management choices were compared with those of an expert panel based on the guidelines for three fictitious patient cases. Cardiologists were also asked about major barriers to adherence to guidelines. Results A total of 372 cardiologists were approached; 305 consented to participate (overall response rate, 82.0%). The survey showed a very high awareness of CHF guidelines; 97.4% aware of any guideline. About 13.8% considered ESC guidelines as relevant or very relevant for guiding treatment decisions while 92.8% chose AHA guidelines in relevance. 87.2% of respondents perceived that they adhered to the HF guidelines. For the patient cases, the proportions of respondents who made recommendations that completely matched those of the guidelines were 7% (Scenario 1), 0% (Scenario 2) and 20% (Scenario 3). Respondents considered patient compliance (59%) and cost/health economics (50%) as major barriers to guideline implementation. Conclusion We found important self reported departures from recommended HF management guidelines among cardiologists of Pakistan.
Objectives To assess whether public health nurses adhered to Dutch guidelines for tuberculosis contact investigations and to explore which factors influenced the process of identifying contacts, prioritizing contacts for testing and scaling up a contact investigation. Methods A multiple-case study (2010–2012) compared the contact investigation guidelines as recommended with their use in practice. We interviewed twice 14 public health nurses of seven Public Health Services while they conducted a contact investigation. Results We found more individuals to be identified as contacts than recommended, owing to a desire to gain insight into the infectiousness of the index case and prevent anxiety among potential contacts. Because some public health nurses did not believe the recommendations for prioritizing contacts fully encompassed daily practice, they preferred their own regular routine. In scaling up a contact investigation, they hardly applied the stone-in-the-pond principle. They neither regularly compared the infection prevalence in the contact investigation with the background prevalence in the community, especially not in immigrant populations. Nonadherence was related to ambiguity of the recommendations and a tendency to act from an individual health-care position rather than a population health perspective. Conclusions The adherence to the contact investigation guidelines was limited, restraining the effectiveness, efficiency and uniformity of tuberculosis control. Adherence could be optimized by specifying guideline recommendations, actively involving the TB workforce, and training public health nurses.
Mulder, Christiaan; Harting, Janneke; Jansen, Niesje; Borgdorff, Martien W.; van Leth, Frank
The national health goals and policies called for by Section 1501 of the National Health Planning and Resources Development Act of 1974 (P.L. 93-641) are discussed from national, State, and local points of view. The report includes four presentations, a r...
D. I. Zwick S. C. Johnson J. T. Suter A. T. Mott
Background. Despite evidence regarding the effectiveness of post-surgical treatments for early-stage breast cancer, older women are less likely to receive appropriate therapy. We evaluated the impact of surgeon-specific “performance reports” on adherence to treatment guidelines among older women with breast cancer. Methods. We obtained diagnostic and treatment data from hospital tumor registries supplemented with self-reported adjuvant therapy information on 1099
Vincent Mor; Linda L. Laliberte; Ann C. Petrisek; Orna Intrator; Tom Wachtel; Phillip G. Maddock; Kirby I. Bland
Functional magnetic resonance imaging is the most widely used imaging technique to study treatment-induced recovery in post-stroke aphasia. The longitudinal design of such studies adds to the challenges researchers face when studying patient populations with brain damage in cross-sectional settings. The present review focuses on issues specifically relevant to neuroimaging data analysis in aphasia treatment research identified in discussions among international researchers at the Neuroimaging in Aphasia Treatment Research Workshop held at Northwestern University (Evanston, Illinois, USA). In particular, we aim to provide the reader with a critical review of unique problems related to the pre-processing, statistical modeling and interpretation of such data sets. Despite the fact that data analysis procedures critically depend on specific design features of a given study, we aim to discuss and communicate a basic set of practical guidelines that should be applicable to a wide range of studies and useful as a reference for researchers pursuing this line of research. PMID:22387474
Meinzer, Marcus; Beeson, Pélagie M; Cappa, Stefano; Crinion, Jenny; Kiran, Swathi; Saur, Dorothee; Parrish, Todd; Crosson, Bruce; Thompson, Cynthia K
Treatment decisions made in clinical practice, based on current guidelines, often conflict with decisions by third-party payors that restrict the ability of patients with primary immunodeficiency disease (PI) to adhere to appropriate treatment. This is seen by many physicians as potentially placing the health of patients at risk. Key treatment decisions challenged by third-party payors and discussed here include dosing, product safety, and routes of administration. Data on safety issues emphasize that IgG products are not generic drugs and each of the products currently licensed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) must be regarded as an individual therapy, given the products' different manufacturing processes and stabilizing ingredients. The issue of switching patients to a different product needs careful consideration as evidence shows that infusion-related adverse events in many patients are frequently related to this activity. Decisions regarding the route of therapy should also be individualized to the patient, weighing such factors as side effects, adherence with therapy, and lifestyle. PMID:22730010
Summary Background Health workers' malaria case-management practices often differ from national guidelines. We assessed whether text-message reminders sent to health workers' mobile phones could improve and maintain their adherence to treatment guidelines for outpatient paediatric malaria in Kenya. Methods From March 6, 2009, to May 31, 2010, we did a cluster-randomised controlled trial at 107 rural health facilities in 11 districts in coastal and western Kenya. With a computer-generated sequence, health facilities were randomly allocated to either the intervention group, in which all health workers received text messages on their personal mobile phones on malaria case-management for 6 months, or the control group, in which health workers did not receive any text messages. Health workers were not masked to the intervention, although patients were unaware of whether they were in an intervention or control facility. The primary outcome was correct management with artemether-lumefantrine, defined as a dichotomous composite indicator of treatment, dispensing, and counselling tasks concordant with Kenyan national guidelines. The primary analysis was by intention to treat. The trial is registered with Current Controlled Trials, ISRCTN72328636. Findings 119 health workers received the intervention. Case-management practices were assessed for 2269 children who needed treatment (1157 in the intervention group and 1112 in the control group). Intention-to-treat analysis showed that correct artemether-lumefantrine management improved by 23·7 percentage-points (95% CI 7·6–40·0; p=0·004) immediately after intervention and by 24·5 percentage-points (8·1–41·0; p=0·003) 6 months later. Interpretation In resource-limited settings, malaria control programmes should consider use of text messaging to improve health workers' case-management practices. Funding The Wellcome Trust.
Zurovac, Dejan; Sudoi, Raymond K; Akhwale, Willis S; Ndiritu, Moses; Hamer, Davidson H; Rowe, Alexander K; Snow, Robert W
Identifying factors which influence guideline-informed clinical decisions by therapists will help tailor implementation strategies to improve guideline use. The aims of this study were to investigate; the extent to which current physiotherapy practice in New Zealand adheres to low back pain (LBP) guidelines and the factors which influence the use of guidelines to inform clinical decisions for patients with non-specific low back pain (NSLBP). A cross-sectional on-line survey of NZ physiotherapists (n = 1039) was conducted which included the guideline adherence measures, therapists' treatment orientation about NSLBP and a question on the perceived helpfulness of guidelines in decisions for patients with NSLBP. Data from 170 physiotherapists were analysed descriptively and univariate and multivariate associations were conducted for therapist factors (predictor variables) which predicted guidelines being helpful in decisions for management of patients with NSLBP (Y|N). The majority of respondents provided advice which was broadly inline with guideline recommendations [work (60%), activity (87.6%), and bed rest (63%)]. A lower biomedical belief orientation for LBP, higher reported LBP caseload and postgraduate qualifications demonstrated significant univariate associations (P ? 0.20) for guidelines being helpful to inform decisions for a patient with NSLBP. The only significant (P = 0.043) predictor variable in the multivariate model was the therapists' biomedical treatment orientation (Exp (B): odd ratio: 1.56). Differences between behaviours and beliefs in guideline use were found. A lower focus on a biomedical model for LBP influenced usage of LBP guidelines to inform clinical decisions for patients with LBP. Implications for improving guideline usage are discussed. PMID:23047043
Hendrick, Paul; Mani, Ramakrishnan; Bishop, Annette; Milosavljevic, Stephan; Schneiders, Anthony G
Hypertension guidelines provide up-to-date information and recommendations for hypertension management to healthcare providers, and they facilitate translation of new knowledge into clinical practice. Guidelines represent consensus statements by expert panels, and the process of guideline development has inherent vulnerabilities. Between 1977 and 2003, under the direction of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Joint National Committee on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC) issued 7 reports. The evolution of the JNC recommendations reflects the acquisition of observational and clinical trial data and the availability of newer antihypertensive drugs. Despite 5 years in preparation, NIH did not release a JNC 8 report and recently made the decision to withdraw from issuing guidelines. The responsibility for issuing hypertension-related guidelines was transferred to the American Heart Association (AHA) and the American College of Cardiology. Without the endorsement of the NIH or the AHA, JNC 8 committee members recently published their guideline report. Notably, there have been discrepancies of JNC recommendations over time as well as discrepancies with recommendations of other professional organizations. The Institute of Medicine recently recommended criteria for "trustworthy" guidelines. Criticisms of the guideline process, and of the guidelines themselves, should not obscure their likely contribution to improved hypertension control and to decreases of mortality rates of stroke and cardiovascular disease over the past several decades. Nevertheless, translation of guidelines into clinical practice remains a challenge. PMID:24572703
Kotchen, Theodore A
Clinical practice guidelines are indispensable for such a variable disease as malignant solid tumors, with the complex possibilities of drug treatment. The current guidelines may be criticized on several points, however. First, there is a lack of information on the outcome of treatment, such as the expected success and failure rates. Treating not only drug responders but also nonresponders, that is, patients with drug resistance, must result in failures. There is no mention of the possibility of excluding the drug nonresponders, identifiable by special laboratory tests and no consideration is given to the different side effects of the recommended drug regimens. Nor are there any instructions concerning tumor cases for which anticancer drug treatment is futile. In such cases, early palliative care may lead to significant improvements in both life quality and life expectancy. Not least, there is no transparency concerning the preparation of the guidelines: persons cannot be identified who could give a statement of conflicts of interest, and responsibility is assumed only by anonymous medical associations. A revision of the current guidelines could considerably improve cancer treatment.
Lippert, Theodor H; Ruoff, Hans-Jorg; Volm, Manfred
Clinical practice guidelines are indispensable for such a variable disease as malignant solid tumors, with the complex possibilities of drug treatment. The current guidelines may be criticized on several points, however. First, there is a lack of information on the outcome of treatment, such as the expected success and failure rates. Treating not only drug responders but also nonresponders, that is, patients with drug resistance, must result in failures. There is no mention of the possibility of excluding the drug nonresponders, identifiable by special laboratory tests and no consideration is given to the different side effects of the recommended drug regimens. Nor are there any instructions concerning tumor cases for which anticancer drug treatment is futile. In such cases, early palliative care may lead to significant improvements in both life quality and life expectancy. Not least, there is no transparency concerning the preparation of the guidelines: persons cannot be identified who could give a statement of conflicts of interest, and responsibility is assumed only by anonymous medical associations. A revision of the current guidelines could considerably improve cancer treatment. PMID:24511236
Lippert, Theodor H; Ruoff, Hans-Jörg; Volm, Manfred
Objective: To develop an evidence-based guideline assessing pharmacologic options for treating Huntington disease (HD) chorea. Methods: We evaluated available evidence from a structured literature review performed through February 2011. Results and recommendations: If HD chorea requires treatment, clinicians should prescribe tetrabenazine (up to 100 mg/day), amantadine (300–400 mg/day), or riluzole (200 mg/day) (Level B) for varying degrees of expected benefit. Occurrence of adverse events should be discussed and monitored, particularly depression/suicidality and parkinsonism with tetrabenazine and elevated liver enzymes with riluzole. Clinicians may also prescribe nabilone for modest decreases (1- to <2-point changes on the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale [UHDRS] chorea score) in HD chorea (Level C), but information is insufficient to recommend long-term use, particularly given abuse potential concerns (Level U). Clinicians should not prescribe riluzole 100 mg/day for moderate (2- to < 3-point UHDRS chorea change) short-term benefits (Level B) or for any long-term (3-year) HD antichoreic goals (Level B). Clinicians may choose not to prescribe ethyl-EPA (Level B), minocycline (Level B), or creatine (Level C) for very important improvements (>3-point UHDRS chorea change) in HD chorea. Clinicians may choose not to prescribe coenzyme Q10 (Level B) for moderate improvements in HD chorea. Data are insufficient to make recommendations regarding the use of neuroleptics or donepezil for HD chorea treatment (Level U).
Armstrong, Melissa J.; Miyasaki, Janis M.
This study investigates the associations of recent criminal justice involvement with perceived need for alcohol treatment and alcohol treatment utilization, adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics. We examined a national sample of adults with alcohol use disorders (AUD, N=4,390) from the 2006 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Almost 15% reported criminal justice involvement in the past year. Generalized logit models regressed perceived need for alcohol or drug treatment and past year treatment utilization (versus neither) on past year legal involvement, demographic, and clinical information. In general, results found stronger associations between frequency of criminal justice involvement for treatment utilization compared to perceived need for treatment alone. Treatment utilization was also associated with being on probation, arrests for drug possession/sale and DUI but perceived need was not. Study results suggest opportunities for interventions to increase treatment rates or treatment need, a major correlate of treatment utilization.
Booth, Brenda M.; Curran, Geoffrey M.; Han, Xiaotong; Edlund, Mark J.
Guideline for Implementation of ANSI (American National Standards Institute) Codes for the Representation of Names of Countries, Dependencies, and Areas of Special Sovereignty. Category: Data Standards and Guidelines. Subcategory: Representations and Codes.
This Guideline implements ANSI Z39.27, Structure for the Representation of Names of Countries of the World for Information Interchange, of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). ANSI Z39.27 adopts, with qualifications, the entities, names, and ...
R. G. Saltman
Current (1993) national standards and guidelines pertaining to pesticide contaminants in water, bed sediment, and fish and shellfish tissues are summarized to provide a condensed reference source for definitions and current values applicable to pesticides in aquatic environmental media. This report facilitates comparison of measured concen- trations of pesticides in environmental samples with applicable standards and guidelines. For each standard or guideline, the following is provided: (1) Definition, including the underlying assumptions and mathematical derivation; (2) originating agency; (3) statutory authority; (4) regulatory status and, for standards, the agency responsible for enforcing the standard; (5) applicable sampling medium; (6) beneficial use and resource protected, and (7) full citations of published documentation. The report emphasizes the appropriate application on national standards and guidelines to water-quality data on pesticides to aid in assessing potential adverse effects on human health, aquatic organisms, and wildlife. (USGS)
Nowell, Lisa H.; Resek, Elizabeth A.
This guideline provides an approach to the prevention and treatment of anticipatory chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in children. It was developed by an international, inter-professional panel using AGREE II methods and is based on systematic literature reviews. Evidence-based recommendations for pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions to prevent and treat anticipatory CINV in children receiving antineoplastic agents are provided. Gaps in the evidence used to support the recommendations are identified. The contribution of this guideline to anticipatory CINV control in children requires prospective evaluation. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2014; 61:1506-1512. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24753095
Dupuis, L Lee; Robinson, Paula D; Boodhan, Sabrina; Holdsworth, Mark; Portwine, Carol; Gibson, Paul; Phillips, Robert; Maan, Cathy; Stefin, Nancy; Sung, Lillian
The aim of osteoporosis treatment is to reduce fracture risk. Many kinds of anti-osteoporosis drugs are available in these days, and most of them increase bone mineral density and reduce the risk of fractures. Japanese 2011 guidelines for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis documents the recommendation level of each osteoporosis drugs. It is important to select drugs appropriate for each osteoporosis patient considering the mechanisms of drug action and their clinical efficiency. PMID:24576937
Ono, Kumiko; Ohashi, Satoru; Tanaka, Sakae
The American College of Rheumatology, the Spondyloarthritis Research and Treatment Network, and the Spondylitis Association of America have begun collaborating on a project to develop treatment guidelines for axial spondyloarthritis. The project will use the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) method, which is based on systematic literature reviews and quantitative evidence summaries, to develop treatment recommendations for the use of pharmacological interventions, rehabilitation, surgery, preventive care, and disease monitoring in patients with ankylosing spondylitis and axial spondyloarthritis. PMID:24810702
Ward, Michael M
Background: This national study focused on posttreat- ment outcomes of community treatments of cocaine de- pendence. Relapse to weekly (or more frequent) co- caine use in the first year after discharge from 3 major treatment modalities was examined in relation to pa- tient problem severity at admission to the treatment pro- gram and length of stay. Methods: We studied 1605
D. Dwayne Simpson; George W. Joe; Bennett W. Fletcher; Robert L. Hubbard; M. Douglas Anglin
This study focuses on programmatic factors that predict retention for individuals in drug and alcohol treatment programs through secondary analysis of data from the National Treatment Improvement Evaluation Study (NTIES). It addresses the relationships between completion rates, lengths of stay, and treatment modality. It examines the effect of…
Orwin, Rob; Williams, Valerie
Low back pain (LBP) is a very common condition with high costs of patient care. Medical doctors of various specialties from Croatia have brought an up-to-date review and guidelines for diagnosis and conservative treatment of low back pain, which should result in the application of evidence-based care and eventually better outcomes. As LBP is a multifactorial disease, it is often not possible to identify which factors may be responsible for the onset of LBP and to what extent they aggravate the patient's symptoms. In the diagnostic algorithm, patient's history and clinical examination have the key role. Furthermore, most important is to classify patients into those with nonspecific back pain, LBP associated with radiculopathy (radicular syndrome) and LBP potentially associated with suspected or confirmed severe pathology. Not solely a physical problem, LBP should be considered through psychosocial factors too. In that case, early identification of patients who will develop chronic back pain will be helpful because it determines the choice of treatment. In order to make proper assessment of a patient with LBP (i.e. pain, function), we should use validated questionnaires. Useful approach to a patient with LBP is to apply the principles of content management. Generally, acute and chronic LBP cases are treated differently. Besides providing education, in patients with acute back pain, advice seems to be crucial (especially to remain active), along with the use of drugs (primarily in terms of pain control), while in some patients spinal manipulation (performed by educated professional) or/and short-term use of lumbosacral orthotic devices can also be considered. The main goal of treating patients with chronic LBP is renewal of function, even in case of persistent pain. For chronic LBP, along with education and medical treatment, therapeutic exercise, physical therapy and massage are recommended, while in patients with a high level of disability intensive multidisciplinary biopsychosocial approach has proved to be effective. PMID:23814971
Grazio, Simeon; Curkovi?, Bozidar; Vlak, Tonko; Kes, Vanja Basi?; Jeli?, Miroslav; Buljan, Danijel; Gnjidi?, Zoja; Nemci?, Tomislav; Grubisi?, Frane; Bori?, Igor; Kauzlari?, Neven; Mustapi?, Matej; Demarin, Vida
Health policies included in section 1502 of the National Health Planning and Resources Development Act (P.L. 93-641) are discussed. The 10 health policies are viewed as priority areas for consideration by the National Council on Health Planning and Develo...
Temporal constraints play a fundamental role in clinical guidelines. For example, temporal indeterminacy, constraints about duration, delays between actions and periodic repeti- tions of actions are essential in order to cope with clinical therapies. This paper proposes a computer-based approach in order to deal with temporal constraints in clinical guidelines. Specifically, it provides the possibility to represent such con- straints
Luca Anselma; Paolo Terenziani; Stefania Montani; Alessio Bottrighi
Does the use of a programmed lipid management reminder system in clinics with an electronic medical record and provider profiling increase compliance with the National Cholesterol Education Program's Third Report of the Adult Treatment Panel Guidelines (A...
J. R. Steinbaur G. Kuo M. Crouch R. Volk
Objective In clinical practice guidelines, the quality of the available evidence is graded according to its reliability and quality. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of the available research evidence, using the levels of evidence, in the evidence summaries of 64 Finnish national evidence?based Current Care guidelines. Design Descriptive assessment. Setting Electronic web?based guidelines in Finland. Main outcome measures The proportions of evidence summaries with different levels of evidence (A–D). Results The 64 guidelines had a total of 2419 evidence summaries. Of these, 532 (22.0%) were evidence level A, 891 (36.8%) were evidence level B, 808 (33.4%) were evidence level C, and 188 (7.8%) were evidence level D. Most—that is, 81% of the level C and D evidence summaries dealt with diagnosis and treatment. Most of the evidence summaries pertained to treatment (58.2%) and diagnosis (22.4%). The sections on diagnosis and treatment represented 80% of all the level A and level B evidence, and 81% of all the level C and level D evidence. Conclusions There is adequate high?quality evidence (level A) to support only a fifth of the main statements of the 64 guidelines. This is most likely an optimistic estimate, since level D evidence often does not have an evidence summary. The guideline development groups find it easier to agree on recommendations based on level A and level B evidence.
Ketola, Eeva; Kaila, Minna; Honkanen, Mari
The guideline has been prepared by the Japanese Dermatological Association to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment of scabies, as oral therapy became available on August 2006 under health insurance and its clinical use was expected to increase. For making a proper diagnosis, the following three points should be taken into consideration: (i) clinical symptoms; (ii) detection of the mite (Sarcoptes scabiei); and (iii) epidemiological symptoms. The diagnosis is confirmed if the mites or eggs are identified by microscopy or dermoscopy and so forth. Topical sulfur preparations, with only limited usefulness, are the only available topical drugs approved by health insurance coverage for treating scabies. Currently, crotamiton, benzyl benzoate and gamma-benzene hexachloride are also used clinically. It is important to apply these to the whole-body, including hands, fingers and genitals. The dose for ivermectin is a single administration p.o. of approximately 200 microg/kg bodyweight with water before a meal. Administration of a second dose is considered, if new specific lesions develop or the mites are detected. For treating crusted scabies, concomitant administration of oral ivermectin and the topical preparation is necessary. Some safe and useful topical drug preparations are needed to be approved by health insurance. PMID:18578720
Although much progress has been made in the development of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs), there are few strategies for\\u000a dissemination and implementation of these guidelines. This study examines the attitudes of neurologists to CPGs and barriers\\u000a to CPG implementation, with a particular focus on the Parkinson’s disease CPG (PD-CPG). A cross-sectional survey was performed\\u000a in 2007 with a representative sample
Astrid Larisch; Wolfgang H. Oertel; Karla Eggert
BACKGROUND: The Special Interest Group of the Canadian Pain Society has produced consensus-based guidelines for the pharmacological management of neuropathic pain. The society aimed to generate an additional guideline for other forms of neuropathic pain treatments. OBJECTIVE: To develop evidence-based recommendations for neuropathic pain interventional treatments. METHODS: A task force was created and engaged the Institute of Health Economics in Edmonton, Alberta, to survey the literature pertaining to multiple treatments. Sufficient literature existed on four interventions only: spinal cord stimulation; epidural injections; intravenous infusions; and nerve blocks. A comprehensive search was conducted for systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials and evidence-based clinical practice guidelines; a critical review was generated on each topic. A modified United States Preventive Services Task Force tool was used for quality rating and grading of recommendations. RESULTS: Investigators reviewed four studies of spinal cord stimulation, 19 studies of intravenous infusions, 14 studies of epidural injections and 16 studies of nerve blocks that met the inclusion criteria. The task force chairs rated the quality of evidence and graded the recommendations. Feedback was solicited from the members of the task force. CONCLUSION: There is sufficient evidence to support recommendations for some of these interventions for selected neuropathic pain conditions. This evidence is, at best, moderate and is often limited or conflicting. Pain practitioners are encouraged to explore evidence-based treatment options before considering unproven treatments. Full disclosure of risks and benefits of the available options is necessary for shared decision making and informed consent.
Mailis, Angela; Taenzer, Paul
The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) environmental review process is mandatory for federal agencies. Understanding and complying with NEPA is extremely important to successfully planning and implementing programs at the Hanford Site. This report i...
S. E. King
Background Many new approaches have been adopted for the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD) in the past few years, which strived to produce more positive outcomes. To enhance the quality of care, several guideline recommendations have been developed. For study purposes, we monitored the prescription of psychotropic drugs administered to bipolar patients who had been referred to tertiary care services, and assessed the degree to which treatment met specific guidelines. Methods Between December 2006 and February 2009, we assessed 113 individuals suffering from BD who had been referred to the Royal Ottawa Mental Health Centre (ROMHC) Mood Disorders Program by physicians within the community, mostly general practitioners. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR was used to assess diagnosis. The prescribed treatment was compared with specific Canadian guidelines (CANMAT, 2009). Univariate analyses and logistic regression were used to assess the contribution of demographic and clinical factors for concordance of treatment with guidelines. Results Thirty-two subjects had BD type I (BD-I), and 81 subjects had BD type II (BD-II). All subjects with BD-I, and 90% of the BD-II group were given at least one psychotropic treatment. Lithium was more often prescribed for subjects with BD-I (62%) than those with BD-II (19%). Antidepressants were the most frequently prescribed class of psychotropics. Sixty-eight percent of subjects received treatment concordant with guidelines by medication and dose. The presence of a current hypomanic episode was independently associated with poorer concordance to guidelines. In more than half the cases, the inappropriate use of antidepressants was at the origin of the non concordance of treatment with respect to guidelines. Absence of psychotropic treatment in bipolar II patients and inadequate dosage of mood stabilizers were the two other main causes of non concordance with guidelines. Conclusions The factors related to treatment not concordant with guidelines should be further explored to determine appropriate strategies in implementing the use of guidelines in clinical practice.
Purpose: Pegfilgrastim reduces the risk of febrile neutropenia (FN) and is indicated as primary prophylaxis when the risk of FN approaches 20% in each chemotherapy cycle. There have been few reports evaluating the appropriate use of pegfilgrastim in comparison with published guidelines. We sought to determine possible over-prescribing as a way to maintain quality and reduce cost. Methods: A retrospective medical record review was performed to determine whether pegfilgrastim was used appropriately in the primary prophylaxis of FN in chemotherapy regimens with less than 20% risk of FN. Patients were identified by means of administrative records, and data were collected from the electronic medical record at an academic cancer center outpatient clinic serving approximately 13,000 patients per year. Results: Two hundred ninety-two patients were identified, of whom 124 were initially evaluated and 88 were included. Thirty-three patients (37%) had no risk factors, and 20 (22%) had one risk factor that would justify pegfilgrastim use with low- or intermediate-risk regimens. The most common cancer diagnosis of patients with zero or one risk factor was lymphoma, and the most common regimens with overuse of pegfilgrastim were doxorubicin-bleomycin-vinblastine-dacarbazine (ABVD) and ritux-imab-cyclophosphamide-doxorubicin-vincristine-prednisone (R-CHOP). One hundred eighty-four pegfilgrastim doses (46%) were classified as avoidable. The cost to the health system for unnecessary drug use was $712,264 in 1 year. Conclusion: At one institution, approximately one half of all primary prophylaxis pegfilgrastim was not indicated per published guidelines. This represents an excellent opportunity to change prescribing practices to reduce costs without harming patients.
Waters, Geralyn E.; Corrigan, Patricia; Gatesman, Mandy; Smith, Thomas J.
Carcinoma of unknown primary origin (CUP) accounts for 3–5% of cancer cases and is the fourth most common cause of cancer death in the UK. CUP management is challenging, partly owing to the heterogeneity of the condition and its presentation, but also owing to the lack of dedicated clinical services for these patients. The recent National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines on metastatic malignancy of unknown primary origin were developed to improve the co-ordination of diagnostic and clinical services at hospitals treating cancer patients in England and Wales, in particular by the setting up of CUP teams to manage these patients. Radiologists have a vital role in the diagnosis of these patients and should work closely with the CUP team to streamline the diagnostic pathway. This article summarises areas of the NICE guidelines relevant to radiology and discusses the radiological management of patients with CUP, including initial investigation, the importance of biopsy, the management of specific presentations, special investigations and organisational issues.
Taylor, M B; Bromham, N R; Arnold, S E
Recently, a Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) survey of melanoma patterns of care by the Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale showed remarkable deviations from best practice patterns throughout the country. The study, which analyzed the SEER records of 35,126 stage I to III cutaneous malignant melanoma patients treated from 2004 to 2006, showed that adherence to National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) therapeutic resection margins occurred in less than 36% of patients. Similarly, considerable variation in the quality of melanoma care in the United States when assessed using 26 quality indicators drawn by a panel of melanoma experts was independently reported. These observations underscore the significant lack of adherence to published best practice patterns reflected by the NCCN guidelines. The untoward effects of these variations in practice pattern can have an inordinate impact on the survival of melanoma patients in whom long term outcomes are affected by the adequacy of surgical management. Thin malignant melanoma is curable; however, thick or node positive melanoma is often incurable. This outcome is determined not only by the stage at presentation but by the use of best practice patterns as reflected in current NCCN cutaneous melanoma practice guidelines.
This article presents the current handling of disease related to moldy buildings in Finland as an example of an integrated health strategy. It describes the role of the Finnish Health Protection Act for indoor environments and how cases of indoor air problems are dealt with by local, regional, and national authorities.
Husman, T M
The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) describe a continuum of cancer care in the United States, from initial diagnosis through treatment and referral to hospice beyond treatment. However, in many other countries, there are no regional or national clinical practice guidelines. In 2008, the NCCN-MENA (Middle East and North Africa) project was launched to adapt the NCCN Guidelines to this part of the world. During their joint presentation at the NCCN 19th Annual Conference, Dr. Ali Bazarbachi and Dr. Andrew D. Zelenetz explored the modification process of NCCN Guidelines for MENA and shared examples of how it improved the care of patients with adult T-cell leukemia or lymphoma and younger patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma-regardless of where they live. PMID:24853230
Bazarbachi, Ali; Zelenetz, Andrew D
This directory is a result of a 1976 study to identify rape prevention and treatment programs and resources in the United States and Canada. Seven hundred listings are included in this updated version. They include rape crisis centers, community mental health centers, medical facilities, government and police agencies, and individuals. The…
National Inst. of Mental Health (DHHS), Rockville, MD. National Center for the Control and Prevention of Rape.
Objective To investigate whether general practitioners (GPs) follow treatment recommendations from clinical practice guidelines in their decisions on the management of heart failure patients, and assess whether doctors’ characteristics are related to their decisions. Design Cross-sectional vignette study. Setting Continuing Medical Education meeting. Participants 451 Dutch GPs. Main outcome measures Answers to four multiple-choice treatment decisions in clinical vignettes of a patient with heart failure and a reduced ejection fraction. With univariable and multivariable regression analyses, respondent characteristics were related to optimal treatment decisions. Results Of the 451 GPs, none took four optimal decisions: 7% considered stopping statin treatment, 36% initiated ?-blocker treatment at a low-dose and 4% doubled the ?-blocker in the up-titration phase. Finally, for our vignette patient now also suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 45% of the GPs continued ?-blocker therapy even when they considered prescribing a long-acting ?2-agonist. While the relation between respondent characteristics and each decision was very different, none was independently associated with all four decisions. Giving priority to evidence-based medicine was independently related to stopping statin treatment and doubling the ?-blocker in the up-titration phase. Conclusions GPs seem not to follow treatment recommendations from clinical practice guidelines in their decisions on the management of heart failure patients. The recommendations from guidelines may appear counterintuitive when statin treatment needs to be stopped when a patient feels comfortable, or when a ?-blocker should be up-titrated in patients who experience more symptoms. Giving priority to evidence-based medicine is possibly positively related to difficult treatment decisions.
Swennen, Maartje H J; Rutten, Frans H; Kalkman, Cor J; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Sachs, Alfred P E; van der Heijden, Geert J M G
The buildup of scale and corrosion is the most costly maintenance problem in cooling tower operation. Jet Propulsion Laboratory successfully developed a non-chemical system that not only curbed scale and corrosion, but also offered advantages in water conservation, cost savings and the elimination of toxic chemical discharge. In the system, ozone is produced by an on-site generator and introduced to the cooling tower water. Organic impurities are oxidized, and the dissolved ozone removes bacteria and scale. National Water Management, a NASA licensee, has installed its ozone advantage systems at some 200 cooling towers. Customers have saved money and eliminated chemical storage and discharge.
Documentary, retrospective, quali-quantitative research, which aimed to examine the approaches of scientific productions through summaries of the 12 and 13 national seminar on guidelines for the education in nursing, which raised the medium-level technical professional education in nursing. Specific objectives: quantify and discuss the scientific production of events regarding the geographical distribution of authors, objectives and methodology of the studies. As a criterion for inclusion the abstracts should contain at least one of the following descriptors in the title and/or objectives: education in nursing, technical education in nursing, vocational education. Reviewed 637 abstracts, 23 met the inclusion criteria. The production was concentrated in the Southeast region in Brazil and the objectives featured mainly teaching practices of the nurses. There was little expressiveness of vocational at the event, signaling the need for more studies, considering the relevance of the technical level professionals for the Nursing profession and the health system. PMID:24676081
Vieira, Silvana Lima; da Silva, Gilberto Tadeu Reis; Fernandes, Josicelia Dumêt; e Silva, Ana Cláudia de Azevêdo Bião; Santana, Monique Santos; Santos, Thadeu Borges Souza
National guidelines are released regularly, and professionals are expected to adopt and implement them. However, studies dealing with mental health-care professionals' views about guidelines are sparse. The aim of the present study was to highlight mental health-care staff's views on the Swedish national guidelines for 'psychosocial interventions for schizophrenia or schizophrenia-type symptoms' and their implementation. The study took place in the southeast parts of Sweden, and data were collected through five group interviews consisting of 16 professionals working either in the county council or in the municipalities. The transcribed text was analysed by content analysis, revealing two categories. The first category 'a challenge to the practice of care as known' reflected that the release of guidelines could be perceived as a challenge to prevailing care and culture. The second category 'anticipating change to come from above' mirrored views on how staff expected the implementation process to flow from top to bottom. To facilitate working in accordance with guidelines, we suggest that future guidelines should be accompanied by an implementation plan, where the educational needs of frontline staff are taken into account. There is also a need for policy makers and managers to assume responsibility in supporting the implementation of evidence-based practice. PMID:24779989
Sandström, Boel; Willman, Ania; Svensson, Bengt; Borglin, Gunilla
... the 3 December 2013 issue of Annals of Internal Medicine (volume 159, pages 770-779). The authors are ... guidelines. The ACP is a professional organization for internal medicine doctors, who are specialists in adult care. What ...
OBJECTIVE To determine the impact of geographic location on advanced-stage ovarian cancer care adherence to National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines in relation to race and socioeconomic status (SES). METHODS Patients diagnosed with Stage IIIC/IV epithelial ovarian cancer (1/1/96-12/31/06) were identified from the California Cancer Registry. Generalized additive models were created to assess the effect of spatial distributions of geographic location, proximity to a high-volume hospital (?20 cases/year), distance travelled to receive care, race, and SES on adherence to NCCN guidelines, with simultaneous smoothing of geographic location and adjustment for confounding variables. Disparities in geographic predictors of treatment adherence were analyzed with the ?2 test for equality of proportions. RESULTS Of the 11,770 patients identified, 45.4% were treated according to NCCN guidelines. Black race (OR=1.49, 95%CI=1.21-1.83), low-SES (OR=1.46, 95%CI=1.24-1.72), and geographic location ?80km/50mi from a high-volume hospital (OR=1.88, 95%CI=1.61-2.19) were independently associated with an increased risk of non-adherent care, while high-volume hospital treatment (OR=0.59, 95%CI=0.53-0.66) and travel distance to receive care ?32km/20mi (OR=0.80, 95%CI=0.69-0.92) were independently protective. SES was inversely associated with location ?80km/50mi from a high-volume hospital, ranging from 6.3% (high-SES) to 33.0% (low-SES) (p<0.0001). White patients were significantly more likely to travel ?32km/20mi to receive care (21.8%) compared to Blacks (14.4%), Hispanics (15.9%), and Asian/Pacific Islanders (15.5%) (p<0.0001). CONCLUSION Geographic proximity to a high-volume hospital and travel distance to receive treatment are independently associated with NCCN guideline adherent care for advanced-stage ovarian cancer. Geographic barriers to standard ovarian cancer treatment disproportionately affect racial minorities and women of low-SES.
Bristow, Robert E.; Chang, Jenny; Ziogas, Argyrios; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Vieira, Veronica M.
Despite consensus about the value of substance abuse treatment for delinquent youth, information about its prevalence and availability is inadequate and inconsistent. This article presents findings about treatment and other correctional service provision from a national survey of directors of 141 juvenile institutional and community corrections (CC) facilities. Educational\\/General Educational Development programming and drug and alcohol education were the most
Douglas W. Young; Richard Dembo; Craig E. Henderson
"Research and Educational Leadership" is the first book to directly address the implications of the National Research Council's (NRC's) "Scientific Research in Education" (2002) in the fields of educational leadership and school administration. This text points out the strengths and weaknesses of the NRC's recommendations and specifically…
English, Fenwick W., Ed.; Furman, Gail C., Ed.
Background: It is widely accepted that the passive dissemination of national clinical guidance has little or no impact on practice.Objective: To assess the impact in England of an Effective Health Care bulletin on childhood surgery for glue ear issued in 1992 and to understand the reasons for any change (or lack of change) in practice that ensued.Method: Time series analysis
N Black; A Hutchings
In 2000, representatives of the transplant community convened for a meeting on living donation in an effort to provide recommendations to promote the welfare of living donors. One key recommendation included in the consensus statement was that all transplant centers which have performed living donor surgeries have an Independent Living Donor Advocate (ILDA) “whose only focus is on the best interest of the donor.” The aims of this study were to begin to understand the sociodemographic characteristics, selection and training, and clinical practices of ILDAs. All U.S. transplant centers performing living donor surgeries were contacted to identify the ILDA at their center. One hundred and twenty ILDAs (60%) completed an anonymous survey. Results indicated considerable variability with regard to the sociodemographic characteristics of ILDAs, how the ILDA was selected and trained, and the ILDAs’ clinical practices, particularly ethical challenges encountered by ILDAs. The variability observed may result in differential selection of donors and could have a potential negative impact the lives of both donors and transplant candidates. The variability in the background, training, and practice of ILDAs suggests the need for strategies, such as practice guidelines, to standardize the interaction between ILDAs and living donors.
Steel, Jennifer; Dunlavy, Andrea; Friday, Maranda; Kingsley, Kendal; Brower, Deborah; Unruh, Mark; Tan, Henkie; Shapiro, Ron; Peltz, Mel; Hardoby, Melissa; McCloskey, Christina; Sturdevant, Mark; Humar, Abhi
Atopic dermatitis is a common and chronic, pruritic inflammatory skin condition that can affect all age groups. This evidence-based guideline addresses important clinical questions that arise in its management. In this second of 4 sections, treatment of atopic dermatitis with nonpharmacologic interventions and pharmacologic topical therapies are reviewed. Where possible, suggestions on dosing and monitoring are given based on available evidence. PMID:24813302
Eichenfield, Lawrence F; Tom, Wynnis L; Berger, Timothy G; Krol, Alfons; Paller, Amy S; Schwarzenberger, Kathryn; Bergman, James N; Chamlin, Sarah L; Cohen, David E; Cooper, Kevin D; Cordoro, Kelly M; Davis, Dawn M; Feldman, Steven R; Hanifin, Jon M; Margolis, David J; Silverman, Robert A; Simpson, Eric L; Williams, Hywel C; Elmets, Craig A; Block, Julie; Harrod, Christopher G; Begolka, Wendy Smith; Sidbury, Robert
Background National guidelines on MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) screening policy in England have changed on a number of occasions, but there is limited data on its influence at a local level. The aim of this study was to determine if changes in National policy influenced preoperative screening of cataract patients for MRSA. Methods A structured telephone survey was conducted on all 133 ophthalmology units in England in 2004 and again in 2007 for the initial responders, after a change in national policy. Results A total of 74 units (56%) responded in 2004 and 71 units (96% of initial respondents) in 2007. In 2004, 57% of units screened for MRSA. They screened groups at high risk of carriage, including patients with previous MRSA (93%) and patients from Nursing homes (21%). Swab sites included the nose (100%), eyes (31%) and perineum (62%). In 2007, there was no significant change in the number of units that screened for MRSA (57% vs 66%; p?=?0.118; McNemar test). However, more units screened for MRSA in patients from nursing/residential homes (21% vs 51%; p?=?0.004, McNemar test), and in patients who had recent admission to hospital (12% vs 36%; p?=?0.003). In the second survey, 3 units (6%) now screened patients who were close relatives of MRSA carriers. Conclusion This survey has highlighted inconsistences in MRSA screening practice of day-case cataract surgery patients across England after 2 major national policy changes. A change in DoH policy only led to more units screening patients for MRSA from high risk groups.
The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) sets forth national policy for the protection of the environment. The NEPA process is intended to help officials of the federal government make decisions that are based on an understanding of environmental consequences, and take actions that protect, restore, and enhance the environment. The California Environmental Quality Act of 1970 (CEQA) is similar to NEPA. The California legislature established CEQA to inform both state and local governmental decision-makers and the public about potential significant environmental effects of proposed activities, to identify ways to avoid or reduce environmental impacts, and to disclose to the public the reasons why a project is approved if significant environmental effects are involved. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), complies with the provisions of both NEPA and CEQA. This document defines the responsibilities and authorities for NEPA/CEQA compliance at LBL.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the Air Force Research Laboratory are sponsoring a National General Aviation Design Competition for students at U.S. aeronautical and engineering universities for the 1999-2000 academic year. The competition challenges individuals and teams of undergraduates and/ or graduate students, working with faculty advisors, to address design challenges for general aviation aircraft. Now in its sixth year, the competition seeks to increase the involvement of the academic community in the revitalization of the U.S. general aviation industry while providing real-world design and development experiences for students. It allows university students to participate in a major national effort to rebuild the U.S. general aviation sector while raising student awareness of the value of general aviation for business and personal use , and its economic relevance. Faculty and student participants have indicated that the open-ended design challenges offered by the competition have provided the basis for quality educational experiences.
Psoriasis is a common, chronic, inflammatory, multi-system disease with predominantly skin and joint manifestations affecting approximately 2% of the Population. In this third of 6 sections of the guidelines of care for psoriasis, we discuss the use of topical medications for the treatment of psoriasis. The majority of patients with psoriasis have limited disease (<5% body surface area involvement) and can be treated with topical agents, which generally provide a high efficacy-to-safety ratio. Topical agents may also be used adjunctively for patients with more extensive psoriasis undergoing therapy with either ultraviolet light, systemic or biologic medications. However, the use of topical agents as monotherapy in the setting of extensive disease or in the setting of limited, but recalcitrant, disease is not routinely recommended. Treatment should be tailored to meet individual patients' needs. We will discuss the efficacy and safety of as well as offer recommendations for the use of topical corticosteroids, vitamin D analogues, tazarotene, tacrolimus, pimecrolimus, emollients, salicylic acid, anthralin, coal tar, as well as combination therapy.
Menter, A.; Korman, N.J.; Elmets, C.A.; Feldman, S.R.; Gelfand, J.M.; Gordon, K.B.; Gottlieb, A.; Koo, J.Y.M.; Lebwohl, M.; Lim, H.W.; Van Voorhees, A.S.; Beutner, K.R.; Bhushan, R. [University of Texas South West Medical Center Dallas, Dallas, TX (United States)
Severe dental fear/phobia (DF) is a problem for both dental care providers and for patients who often suffer from impaired oral health and from social and emotional distress.The aim of this paper was to present the Swedish model for DF treatment within the National Health Insurance System, and to describe the dental phobia treatment and its outcome at The Dental Fear Research and Treatment Clinic (DFRTC) in Gothenburg. A literature review was made of relevant policy documents on dental phobia treatment from the National Health Insurance System and for Västra Götaland region on published outcome studies from DFRTC. The treatment manual of DFRTC was also used. In Sweden, adult patients with severe DF are able to undergo behavioral treatment within the National Health Insurance System if the patient and caregivers fulfil defined criteria that must be approved for each individual case. At DFRTC dental phobia behavioral treatment is given by psychologists and dentists in an integrated model. The goal is to refer patients for general dental care outside the DFRTC after completing treatment. The DF treatment at DFRTC has shown positive effects on dental fear, attendance and acceptance of dental treatment for 80% of patients. Follow-up after 2 and 10 years confirmed these results and showed improved oral health. In addition, positive psychosomatic and psychosocial side-effects were reported, and benefits also for society were evident in terms of reduced sick-leave. In conlusion, in Sweden a model has been developed within the National Health Insurance System helping individuals with DF. Behavioral treatment conducted at DFRTC has proven successful in helping patients cope with dental care, leading to regular attendance and better oral health. PMID:22876394
Hägglin, Catharina; Boman, Ulla Wide
OBJECTIVE: To compare the profiles of those patients selected by general practitioners for measurement of serum cholesterol with the recommended profiles for opportunistic cholesterol testing described in the national practice guidelines published by the Dutch College of General Practitioners. DESIGN: Retrospective audit of general practitioners' records. MATERIALS: Practice records of 3577 adult patients systematically sampled from 20 general practices. MAIN
T van der Weijden; A Dansen; B J Schouten; J A Knottnerus; R P Grol
This case study examined: (1) what market research is required for planning for the implementation of "Information Power: Building Partnerships for Learning," the 1998 national guidelines for effective school library media programs; (2) what issues need to be addressed and what target audiences are required to effect change, as well as how these…
Haycock, Ken; Cavill, Pat
Aims To assess the impact of the new UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines on the incidence of implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) indications for the primary prevention of sudden cardiac death following myocardial infarction (MI). Methods and results We performed a retrospective single centre study in a District General Hospital. The transthoracic echocardiogram reports of all
P. A. Scott; S. Gorman; N. P. Andrews; P. R. Roberts; P. R. Kalra
A new and interdisciplinary S2k AWMF guideline for the treatment of obstructive sialadenitis has been published. There have been several technical achievements, for instance in the field of ultrasonography, via sialendoscopy, or by MR-sialography, that have increased the possibilities for diagnosis and treatment of patients with obstructive sialadenitis. In the past, the treatment of choice in case of unsuccessful medical treatment was a complete extirpation of the affected salivary gland. Nowadays, using a variety of modern treatment options (like sialendoscopy, or extracorporeal shock-waves lithotripsy sometimes combined with salivary duct incision), it is possible in most patients, especially in cases of sialolithiasis, to preserve the affected gland. A functional recovery after gland-sparing surgery is described but more data is needed to finally evaluate the long-time results. The new guideline describes all relevant steps to diagnose an obstructive sialadenitis and values all diagnostic tools critically. Finally, all recommendable therapy options are described and valued, too. PMID:23929209
Al-Nawas, B; Beutner, D; Geisthoff, U; Naujoks, C; Reich, R; Schröder, U; Sproll, C; Teymoortash, A; Ußmüller, J; Vogl, T; Wittekindt, C; Zenk, J; Guntinas-Lichius, O
Objective To provide detailed methodological guidelines for using the Drug Abuse Treatment Cost Analysis Program (DATCAP) and Addiction Severity Index (ASI) in a benefit-cost analysis of addiction treatment. Data Sources/Study Setting A representative benefit-cost analysis of three outpatient programs was conducted to demonstrate the feasibility and value of the methodological guidelines. Study Design Procedures are outlined for using resource use and cost data collected with the DATCAP. Techniques are described for converting outcome measures from the ASI to economic (dollar) benefits of treatment. Finally, principles are advanced for conducting a benefit-cost analysis and a sensitivity analysis of the estimates. Data Collection/Extraction Methods The DATCAP was administered at three outpatient drug-free programs in Philadelphia, PA, for 2 consecutive fiscal years (1996 and 1997). The ASI was administered to a sample of 178 treatment clients at treatment entry and at 7-months postadmission. Principal Findings The DATCAP and ASI appear to have significant potential for contributing to an economic evaluation of addiction treatment. The benefit-cost analysis and subsequent sensitivity analysis all showed that total economic benefit was greater than total economic cost at the three outpatient programs, but this representative application is meant to stimulate future economic research rather than justifying treatment per se. Conclusions This study used previously validated, research-proven instruments and methods to perform a practical benefit-cost analysis of real-world treatment programs. The study demonstrates one way to combine economic and clinical data and offers a methodological foundation for future economic evaluations of addiction treatment.
French, Michael T; Salome, Helena J; Sindelar, Jody L; McLellan, A Thomas
The effect of the use of guidelines on the care of patients with breast, colon, and non-small-cell lung cancers is reported. Audits of patient records revealed an increase over time in the percentage of recommended cancer care procedures that were complied with. (Author/MLW)
Slenker, Suzanne E.; And Others
The increased risk of atherothrombotic events present in all patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is amplified with concomitant diabetes. Moreover, diabetes is associated with increased PAD severity. This Review summarizes atherothrombosis and PAD in patients with diabetes, and American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association guidelines for management of patients with PAD. Patients with PAD and diabetes require
Emile R Mohler
This booklet offers a model policy statement that schools shall provide equal educational opportunities to all students regardless of sex. It includes stipulations and guidelines to achieve equal access in all areas of education. The following areas are considered: (1) Course offerings: every course shall be open to all students and schools should…
Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.
Of the 131 studies on monotherapy or combination therapy assessed, 56 studies on the different forms of phototherapy fulfilled the criteria for inclusion in the guidelines. Approximately three-quarters of all patients treated with phototherapy attained at least a PASI 75 response after 4 to 6 weeks, and clearance was frequently achieved (levels of evidence 2 and 3). Phototherapy represents a
D. Pathirana; A. D. Ormerod; P. Saiag; C. Smith; P. I. Spuls; A. Nast; J. Barker; J. D. Bos; G. R. Burmester; S. Chimenti; L. Dubertret; B. Eberlein; R. Erdmann; J. Ferguson; G. Girolomoni; P. Gisondi; A. Giunta; C. Griffiths; H. Honigsmann; M. Hussain; R. Jobling; S. L. Karvonen; L. Kemeny; I. Kopp; C. Leonardi; M. Maccarone; A. Menter; U. Mrowietz; L. Naldi; T. Nijsten; J. P. Ortonne; H. D. Orzechowski; T. Rantanen; K. Reich; N. Reytan; H. Richards; H. B. Thio; B. Rzany
Background: The first Italian national guidelines were developed by the Italian Association of Urologists and published in 2007. Since then, a number of new drugs or classes of drugs have emerged for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) related to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), new data have emerged on medical therapy (monotherapies and combination therapies), new surgical techniques have come into practice, and our understanding of disease pathogenesis has increased. Consequently, a new update of the guidelines has become necessary. Methods: A structured literature review was conducted to identify relevant papers published between 1 August 2006 and 12 December 2010. Publications before or after this timeframe were considered only if they were recognised as important milestones in the field or if the literature search did not identify publications within this timeframe. The quality of evidence and strength of recommendations were determined according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation framework. Main findings: Decisions on therapeutic intervention should be based on the impact of symptoms on quality of life (QoL) rather than the severity of symptoms (International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) score). A threshold for intervention was therefore based on the IPSS Q8, with intervention recommended for patients with a score of at least 4. Several differences in clinical recommendations have emerged. For example, combination therapy with a 5?-reductase inhibitor plus ? blocker is now the recommended option for the treatment of patients at risk of BPH progression. Other differences include the warning of potential worsening of cognitive disturbances with use of anticholinergics in older patients, the distinction between Serenoa repens preparations (according to the method of extraction), and the clearly defined threshold of prostate size for performing open surgery (>80 g). While the recommendations included in these guidelines are evidence based, clinical decisions should also be informed by patients’ clinical and physical circumstances, as well as patients’ preferences and actions. Conclusions: These guidelines are intended to assist physicians and patients in the decision-making process regarding the management of LUTS/BPH, and support the process of continuous improvement of the quality of care and services to patients.
Casarico, Antonio; Fandella, Andrea; Galetti, Caterina; Hurle, Rodolfo; Mazzini, Elisa; Niro, Ciro; Perachino, Massimo; Sanseverino, Roberto; Pappagallo, Giovanni Luigi
According to the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS), idiopathic scoliosis (IS) is a curvature of more than 10° Cobb angle, affecting 2-3% of pediatric population. Idiopathic scoliosis accounts for 80% of all scoliosis cases. Non-operative principles in the therapy of idiopathic scoliosis, including Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) criteria and guidelines proposed by the experts of the Society on Scoliosis Orthopedic and Rehabilitation Treatment (SOSORTS) were presented. The possibility to carry out quality of life assessments in a conservative procedure was also demonstrated. Based on the natural history of idiopathic scoliosis, SRS criteria, SOSORT 2008 experts' opinion and the knowledge of the possibilities of psychological assessment of conservative IS treatment, rules were proposed regarding nonsurgical IS therapy procedures, with special consideration being paid to the proper treatment start time (age, Risser test, biological maturity, Cobb angle), possibility of curvature progression, the importance of physiotherapy and psychological assessment. The knowledge of SRS criteria and SOSORT guidelines regarding the conservative treatment of IS are essential for proper treatment (the right time to start treatment), and supports establishment of interdisciplinary treatment teams, consisting of a physician, a physiotherapist, an orthopedic technician and a psychologist. PMID:25066033
Korbel, Krzysztof; Kozinoga, Mateusz; Stoli?ski, ?ukasz; Kotwicki, Tomasz
The mission of the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) is to disseminate space science data for further analysis beyond that provided by the principal investigators (PIs) or team leaders (TLs) and their coworkers. Consequently, the NSSDC is responsible for the acquisition, organization, storage, retrieval, announcement, and distribution of scientific data obtained mainly from satellites and spacecraft. Any scientist may acquired data from the NSSDC and use them in further studies, either alone or in conjunction with data from ground-based or spacecraft experiments. With the responsibility for archiving data is the concomitant responsibility for distributing the documentation necessary to make those data usable. Since the group most knowledgeable about a particular experiment and its data is the PI or TL and his coworkers, and since the NSSDC cannot possibly supply the qualified personnel needed to write this documentation comprehensively, it is the responsibility of the PI or TL to provide the essential documentation. The NSSDC will support this effort by defining what is needed, by reviewing what is provided, and by reproducing and distributing the resulting documentation with the data. For a high-use data set, the NSSDC may publish the documentation as a Data Users Note; for a low-use data set, the NSSDC may distribute a Xerox, microfilm, or microfiche copy of the documentation.
The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) environmental review process is mandatory for federal agencies. Understanding and complying with NEPA is extremely important to successfully planning and implementing programs at the Hanford Site. This report is intended to help planners and decision makers understand NEPA by describing the NEPA process as it is outlined in NEPA, in regulations, and in guidance information. The requirements and guidance documents that set forth the NEPA process are discussed. Some of the major NEPA concepts and issues are also addressed. This report is intended to be used as a general road map through the maze of NEPA requirements and guidance to ensure that Hanford Site activities are conducted in compliance with NEPA. Enhanced knowledge of the NEPA process is expected to increase the ability of the Hanford Site to work with regulators, interested parties and the public to ensure that the potential environmental impacts of DOE activities are fully considered at the Hanford Site. In addition, an enhanced understanding of NEPA will help project and program managers to integrate NEPA compliance requirements with program planning. 43 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.
Tracking of coronary artery calcium (CAC) has been suggested for monitoring the effects of lipid control, but it is not known whether lipid control decreases progression of CAC. Seven hundred sixty-one subjects (mean age 64.5 +/- 7.3 years; 91% men; 69% positive for CAC) in an ongoing cohort study underwent baseline and follow-up (after 7.0 +/- 0.5 years) computed tomography for CAC. Subjects were stratified into low-risk (<2 risk factors), intermediate-risk (> or =2 risk factors but <20% risk of coronary heart disease over 10 years), or high-risk (> or =2 risk factors and >20% risk of coronary heart disease in 10 years or diabetes) groups. Lipid control was defined according to criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program. Two-way analysis of covariance was used to examine the relation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and risk group to change in CAC volume score. Control of levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglycerides was also examined in relation to progression of CAC. After adjustment for other risk factors and baseline CAC volume, CAC progression was similar between those with adequate and those with inadequate control of LDL cholesterol (p = 0.68) and across categories of optimal, intermediate, and higher risk LDL cholesterol (p = 0.40). However, higher levels of HDL cholesterol (> or =1.5 mmol/L [60 mg/dl]) were associated with less progression of CAC volume (151 vs 203 mm(3) in those with HDL cholesterol <1.0 mmol/L [40 mg/dl], p = 0.03). There was no relation between triglycerides and CAC progression (p = 0.54). Our findings do not support the use of CAC assessment for monitoring the control of LDL cholesterol, but greater progression of CAC may occur in those in whom HDL cholesterol is not controlled. PMID:15325924
Wong, Nathan D; Kawakubo, Miwa; LaBree, Laurie; Azen, Stanley P; Xiang, Min; Detrano, Robert
Objective Nosocomial or more exactly, hospital-acquired (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) are frequent conditions when treating intensive care unit (ICU) patients that are only exceeded by central line-associated bloodstream infections. In Germany, approximately 18,900 patients per year suffer from a VAP and another 4,200 from HAP. We therefore reviewed the current guidelines about HAP and VAP, from different sources, regarding the strategies to address individual patient risks and medication strategies for initial intravenous antibiotic treatment (IIAT). Material and methods We conducted an analysis of the recent guidelines for the treatment of HAP. The current guidelines of the American Thoracic Society, the treatment recommendations of the Paul-Ehrlich-Gesellschaft (PEG), the guidelines from the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, the VAP guideline of the Canadian Critical Care trials group, as well as the new German S3-guideline for HAP were examined. Results All guidelines are based on grading systems that assess the evidence underlying the recommendations. However, each guideline uses different grading systems. One common aspect of these guidelines is the risk assessment of the patients for decision making regarding IIAT. Most guidelines have different recommendations depending on the risk of the presence of multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria. In guidelines using risk assessment, for low-risk patients (early onset, no MDR risk) aminopenicillins with beta-lactamase inhibitors (BLI), second or third generation cephalosporins, quinolones, or ertapenem are recommended. For patients with higher risk, imipenem, meropenem, fourth generation cephalosporins, ceftazidime or piperacillin/tazobactam are recommended. The PEG recommendations include a combination therapy in cases of very high risk (late onset, MDR risk, ICU, and organ failure) of either piperacillin/tazobactam, dori-, imi- or meropenem or cefepime or ceftazidime with ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, fosfomycin or an aminoglycoside. For the treatment of HAP caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), either linezolid or vancomycin is recommended. With regard to the ZEPHyR-trial, linezolid has shown higher cure rates but, no difference in overall survival. Economic analyses show the relevance of guideline-adherent IIAT (GA-IIAT). Besides significantly better clinical outcomes, patients with GA-IIAT cause significantly lower costs (€28,033 versus (vs) €36,139) (P=0.006) and have a shorter length of stay in hospital (23.9 vs 28.3 days) (P=0.022). Conclusion We conclude that most current treatment guidelines take into account the individual patient risk and that the correct choice of IIAT affects clinical as well as economical outcomes.
Wilke, Michael; Grube, Rolf
Background While we have international guidelines and various national guidelines for asthma diagnosis and management, asthma remains poorly controlled in many children and adults. In this paper we review the limitations of current asthma guidelines and describe important issues and remaining questions regarding asthma guidelines for use, particularly in primary care. Discussion Clinical practice guidelines based on evidence from randomized controlled trials are considered the most rigorous and accurate. Current evidence-based guidelines are written predominantly from the perspective of the patient with a clear-cut asthma diagnosis, however, and tend not to consider the heterogeneity of asthma or to accommodate individual patient variations in response to treatment or their needs, differences in practice settings, or local differences in availability and cost of therapies. The results of randomized controlled trials, which are designed to establish efficacy of treatment under ideal conditions, may not apply to 'real-world' clinical practice, where patients are unselected, monitoring is less frequent, and effectiveness – the benefit of treatment in routine clinical practice – is the most relevant outcome. Moreover, most guidelines see asthma in isolation rather than considering other factors that may impact on asthma and response to asthma therapy, particularly age, allergic rhinitis, cigarette smoking, adherence, and genetic factors. When these links are recognized, guidelines rarely provide practical recommendations for treatment in these scenarios. Finally, there is some evidence that general practitioners are not convinced of the applicability of asthma guidelines to their practice settings, especially when those writing the guidelines principally work in specialist practice. Conclusion Developing country-specific guidelines or, ideally, local guidelines could provide more practical solutions for asthma care and could account for regional factors that influence patient choice and adherence to therapy. Pragmatic clinical trials and well-designed observational trials are needed in addition to randomized controlled trials to assess real-world effectiveness of therapies, and such evidence needs also to be considered by guideline writers. Finally, practical tools to facilitate the diagnosis and assessment of asthma and factors responsible for poor control, such as associated allergic rhinitis, limited adherence, and smoking behavior, are needed to supplement treatment information provided in clinical practice guidelines for asthma.
According to the latest British Gambling Prevalence Survey, there are approximately 300,000 adult problem gamblers in Great Britain. In January 2007, the "British Medical Association" published a report recommending that those experiencing gambling problems should receive treatment via the National Health Service (NHS). This study examines the…
Rigbye, Jane; Griffiths, Mark D.
In the United States, 38.5 million people are foreign-born, one in three arriving since 2000. Health issues include high rates of hepatitis B, humanimmunodeficiency virus infection, parasitic infections, and M. tuberculosis. We sought to determine rates of provider adherence to accepted national guidelines for immigrant and refugee health screening and vaccines done at the primary care clinics at Boston Medical Center. Randomized, retrospective chart review of foreign born patients in the primary care clinics. We found low screening and immunization rates that do not conform to CDC/ACIP guidelines. Only 43 % of immigrant patients had tuberculosis screening, 36 % were screened for HIV and hepatitis B, and 33 % received tetanus vaccinations. Organizational changes incorporating multi-disciplinary approaches such as creative use of nursing staff, protocols, standing orders, EMR reminders, and web based educational tools can contribute to better outcomes by identifying patients and improving utilization of guidelines. PMID:23512323
Waldorf, Barbara; Gill, Christopher; Crosby, Sondra S
Excessive use of cytotoxic drugs owing to a dramatic increase in malignancy incidence leads to the production of high amounts of cytotoxic wastes. In Iran, management of hazardous wastes has been neglected in recent decades. The aim of this study was to determine the amount of intravenous cytotoxic drug wastes, their collection and disposal status in chemotherapy wards, and to compare the current status with standard guidelines in Shiraz, Iran. This cross-sectional study was performed using data collected during 2 consecutive months, from 22 June to 22 August 2011, in all 13 chemotherapy wards in Shiraz. The amount of prescribed drugs, drugs waste, collection and disposal status of cytotoxic drugs were recorded. We then compared the current status of waste collection and disposal in our samples with our national guideline. The prescription of cytotoxic drugs and the amount of total drugs waste reached approximately 6 and 0.2 kilograms respectively. Total vials volume was calculated to be approximately 1000 l in order to estimate the volume of containers required for the encapsulation method. The results demonstrated that the current status of cytotoxic waste collection and disposal is inappropriate, and none of the facilities under study followed our guidelines perfectly. The adherence to all recommendations and guidelines was poorer in private wards than in government-run ones. The management of cytotoxic wastes is inappropriate and our existing national guidelines are lacking. Suggestions for the best management of cytotoxic waste are revising the existing guidelines, allocating a sufficient budget, training healthcare workers, providing multiple administration options of cytotoxic drugs and accomplishing a surveillance system. PMID:23444148
Askarian, Mehrdad; Momeni, Mohsen; Danaei, Mina
Background In Belgium, the construction of a national electronic point-of-care information service, EBMPracticeNet, was initiated in 2011 to optimize quality of care by promoting evidence-based decision-making. The collaboration of the government, health care providers, evidence-based medicine (EBM) partners, and vendors of electronic health records (EHR) is unique to this project. All Belgian health care professionals get free access to an up-to-date database of validated Belgian and nearly 1000 international guidelines, incorporated in a portal that also provides EBM information from other sources than guidelines, including computerized clinical decision support that is integrated in the EHRs. Objective The objective of this paper was to describe the development strategy, the overall content, and the management of EBMPracticeNet which may be of relevance to other health organizations creating national or regional electronic point-of-care information services. Methods Several candidate providers of comprehensive guideline solutions were evaluated and one database was selected. Translation of the guidelines to Dutch and French was done with translation software, post-editing by translators and medical proofreading. A strategy is determined to adapt the guideline content to the Belgian context. Acceptance of the computerized clinical decision support tool has been tested and a randomized controlled trial is planned to evaluate the effect on process and patient outcomes. Results Currently, EBMPracticeNet is in "work in progress" state. Reference is made to the results of a pilot study and to further planned research including a randomized controlled trial. Conclusions The collaboration of government, health care providers, EBM partners, and vendors of EHRs is unique. The potential value of the project is great. The link between all the EHRs from different vendors and a national database held on a single platform that is controlled by all EBM organizations in Belgium are the strengths of EBMPracticeNet.
Pregnancy in pulmonary hypertension (PH) is known to be associated with high morbidity and mortality. The physiological changes occur during normal pregnancy, such as increase blood volume and cardiac output (CO) may be detrimental in PH patients. Several practice guidelines advise against pregnancy and even recommend termination of pregnancy. Occasionally PH may be diagnosed for the first time during pregnancy, as stress of pregnancy can unmask previously undiagnosed PH in an asymptomatic individual. This narrative review provides a detailed discussion about the physiologic parameters associated in pregnancy and their negative effect on the right ventricle. It also gives practical evidence-based recommendations about different management issues in PH pregnant patients.
Khan, Javed; Idrees, Majdy M.
Residual radioactive material guidelines for 13 radionuclides (americium-241; cobalt-60; cesium-137; europium-152, -154, and -155; plutonium-238, -239, and -240; strontium-90; and uranium-234, -235, and -238) were derived for Operable Unit (OU) IV at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This site has been identified for remedial action under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments
E. Faillace; M. Nimmagadda; C. Yu
Obesity is a chronic endocrine-metabolic disease with a multifactorial etiology and a polygenetic basis, whose complex patophysiologic mechanism causes numerous complications. Fat tissue is a gland which "communicates" intensively with the whole organism. It secretes adipokines which have an endocrine, paracrine and autocrine function. In obesity, adipokine synthesis, secretion into the blood and effect on the target tissues and organs is impaired, leading to development of complications in all organic systems. Pandemic levels of obesity and overweight are such that both in developed and developing countries only a small part of the population has normal body weight. In Croatia every fifth adult is obese, and overall 2/3 of men and little more than 1/2 of women have body weight greater than normal. Mortality rises with BMI >25 kg/m2 and in obese persons it is 1.5-2 times greater, while in persons with morbid obesity (BMI >40 kg/m2) the life expectancy is 5-15 years shorter. Treatment of obesity is a long-term endeavor and requires the participation of physicians of various specialties. The Croatian Obesity Society held the 3d Croatian Congress on Obesity with international participation in Opatija from 4-6 April. The main topics of discussion were obesity epidemiology and diagnostics, patophysiologic mechanisms, complications, mortality and disease treatment. The National Programe for Countering the Obesity Epidemic was presented. At the end of the Congress the 3d National Consensus on Diagnostics and Treatment of Obesity was adopted. It incorporated some changes compared to the previous 2006 Consensus. The new obesity treatment guidelines take individual needs and capabilities more into account, with the aim of increasing the success of the treatment. PMID:19146182
Jelci?, Jozo; Bareti?, Maja; Korsi?, Mirko
The ACC/AHA 2013 guideline on the treatment of blood cholesterol to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk in adults: the good the bad and the uncertain: a comparison with ESC/EAS guidelines for the management of dyslipidaemias 2011.
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is the most important public health problem of our time in both Europe and the rest of the world, accounting for the greatest expenditure in most healthcare budgets. Achieving consistency of clinical care, incorporating new evidence and their synthesis into practical recommendations for clinicians is the task of various guideline committees throughout the world. Any change in a set of guidelines therefore can have far reaching consequences, particularly if they appear to be at variance with the existing guidelines. The present article discusses the recent American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines 2013 on the control of blood cholesterol to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk in adults. When compared with the ESC/EAS guidelines on lipid modification in 2011, the ACC/AHA guidelines of 2013 differ markedly. Specifically, (i) the scope is limited to randomized trials only, which excludes a significant body of data and promotes essentially a statin centric approach only; (ii) the abolition of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) targets in favour of specific statin regimens that produce a 30-50% reduction in LDL-C we believe will confuse many physicians and miss the opportunity for medication adherence and patient engagement in self-management; (iii) the absence of target LDL-C levels in very high-risk patients with high absolute risk or residual risk factors will discourage clinicians to consider the addition of lipid modification treatments and individualize patient care; (iv) a reduction in the threshold for treatment in primary prevention will result in a greater number of patients being prescribed statin therapy, which is potentially good in young patients with high life time risk, but will result in a very large number of older patients offered therapy; and (v) the mixed pool risk calculator used to asses CVD risk in the guidelines for primary prevention has not been fully evaluated. This article discusses the potential implications of adopting the ACC/AHA guidelines on patient care in Europe and beyond and concludes with the opinion that the ESC/EAS guidelines from 2011 seem to be the most wide ranging, pragmatic and appropriate choice for European countries. PMID:24639424
Ray, Kausik K; Kastelein, John J P; Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Nicholls, Stephen J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Ballantyne, Christie M; Catapano, Alberico L; Reiner, Željko; Lüscher, Thomas F
Strategic Planning for Deepening the All-Around Structural Reform of Education: Issues of Structural Reform in the "National Medium- and Long-Term Educational Reform and Development Guideline (2010-20)"
The "National Medium- and Long-Term Educational Reform and Development Guideline (2010-20)" (hereafter abbreviated as the "Guideline") posits that the development of education must be driven by reform and innovation. It devotes six chapters to mapping out the targets, tasks, and major policy measures for reforming the educational system. Focusing…
Songhua, Tan; Wang, Catherine Yan
Guidelines for the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) in peripheral health facilities have been developed by WHO and UNICEF to improve the recognition and treatment of common causes of childhood death. To evaluate the impact of the guidelines on treatment costs, we compared the cost of drugs actually prescribed to a sample of 747 sick children aged 2-59 months in rural health facilities in western Kenya with the cost of drugs had the children been managed using the IMCI guidelines. The average cost of drugs actually prescribed per child was US$ 0.44 (1996 US$). Antibiotics were the most costly component, with phenoxymethylpenicillin syrup accounting for 59% of the cost of all the drugs prescribed. Of the 295 prescriptions for phenoxymethylpenicillin syrup, 223 (76%) were for treatment of colds or cough. The cost of drugs that would have been prescribed had the same children been managed with the IMCI guidelines ranged from US$ 0.16 per patient (based on a formulary of larger-dose tablets and a home remedy for cough) to US$ 0.39 per patient (based on a formulary of syrups or paediatric-dose tablets and a commercial cough preparation). Treatment of coughs and colds with antibiotics is not recommended in the Kenyan or in the IMCI guidelines. Compliance with existing treatment guidelines for the management of acute respiratory infections would have halved the cost of the drugs prescribed. The estimated cost of the drugs needed to treat children using the IMCI guidelines was less than the cost of the drugs actually prescribed, but varied considerably depending on the dosage forms and whether a commercial cough preparation was used.
Boulanger, L. L.; Lee, L. A.; Odhacha, A.
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a phenotype characterized by functional and structural changes in the pulmonary vasculature, leading to increased vascular resistance. The World Health Organization has classified PH into five different types: arterial, venous, hypoxic, thromboembolic or miscellaneous; details are available in the main guidelines. Group I of this classification, designated as pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), will remain the main focus here. The pathophysiology involves signaling, endothelial dysfunction, activation of fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells, interaction between cells within the vascular wall, and the circulating cells; as a consequence plexiform lesions are formed, which is common to both idiopathic and heritable PAH but are also seen in other forms of PAH. As the pathology of PAH in the lung is well known, this article focuses on the genetic aspects associated with the disease and is a gist of several available articles in literature.
Cancer continues to be one of the heaviest burdens of disease in Canada, and assessing potential inequities in access to cancer care may serve as a barometer of the health of Canadian health systems. This study tackled three limitations of the current literature by clearly differentiating between inequality and inequity, by assessing inequity in receipt of care and wait times for care, and by taking advantage of inequity indices to enhance comparability of inequities between studies and populations. We measured income-, age-, sex- and distance-related inequities among colorectal cancer (CRC) patients in Nova Scotia by accounting for clinical guidelines and patient need. Results reveal statistically significant inequity in access to chemotherapy and radiotherapy for CRC by age, sex and distance, but not income. This study demonstrates the importance of carefully examining inequity in access to cancer care and highlights one method to report and compare inequities with conceptual clarity. PMID:23968617
Maddison, André R; Asada, Yukiko; Urquhart, Robin; Johnston, Grace; Burge, Frederick; Porter, Geoff
Residual radioactive material guidelines for 13 radionuclides (americium-241; cobalt-60; cesium-137; europium-152, -154, and -155; plutonium-238, -239, and -240; strontium-90; and uranium-234, -235, and -238) were derived for Operable Unit (OU) IV at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This site has been identified for remedial action under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. Single-nuclide guidelines were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of OU IV should not exceed a dose constraint of 30 mrem/yr following remedial action for the current use and plausible future use scenarios or a dose limit of 100 mrem/yr for plausible but less likely future use scenarios. The US Department of Energy (DOE) residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, was used in this evaluation; RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for determining residual radioactive material guidelines. Four potential scenarios were considered; each assumed that, for a period of 1,000 years following remedial action, the site would be used without radiological restrictions. The four scenarios varied with regard to the type of site use, time spent at the site, and sources of food consumed.
Faillace, E.; Nimmagadda, M.; Yu, C.
Dermatologists’ Adherence to the Guideline of the Dutch Society of Dermatology and Venereology with Respect to the Treatment with Methotrexate for Severe Chronic Plaque Psoriasis: Results from a Dutch Survey
Background: In 2003, the Dutch guideline ‘Photo(chemo) therapy and systemic therapy for severe chronic plaque psoriasis’ was established. Objectives: To document how closely this guideline is followed in clinical practice with respect to the methotrexate (MTX) treatment and to formulate recommendations to adjust the guideline. Methods: A survey was conducted among Dutch dermatologists and residents in dermatology. The questionnaire assessed
M. A. M. Berends; E. M. G. J. de Jong; M. J. P. Gerritsen
Endovascular therapy is the treatment of choice for type A and the preferred treatment for type B lesions. In selective patients,\\u000a this type of treatment can be applied in type C and even type D lesions. Ipsilateral femoral, contralateral femoral, and brachial\\u000a approach and both the intraluminal and subintimal space can be used for successful recanalization. The application of stents
Dimitrios Tsetis; Raman Uberoi
Background: We investigated trends in antidepressant use, as well as broader changes in depression treatment, following the availability of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Method: Using data from the National Disease and Therapeutic Index, a nationally representative survey of U.S. office-based physicians conducted by IMS HEALTH, we analyzed trends in antidepressant prescribing patterns from 1987 through the third quarter of 2001. Annual sample sizes of physician visits by patients reported to have depression ranged from 3901 visits in 1987 to 6639 in 1998. Outcomes examined included the frequency of depression visits, the likelihood of antidepressant therapy, and the use of specific medications. Results: The estimated national number of physician visits by patients with depression increased from 14.4 million visits in 1987 to 24.5 million in 2001 (annualized). The rate of antidepressant medication treatment in these patients also increased from 70% in 1987 to 89% in 2001. In 1987, tricyclic antidepressants were prescribed to 47% of patients with depression. The most common individual antidepressants were amitriptyline (14%), trazodone (12%), doxepin (8%), and desipramine (6%). In 1989, a year after its introduction, fluoxetine was prescribed to 21% of patients with depression. The introduction of other SSRIs led aggregate SSRI use to grow to 38% in 1992, 60% in 1996, and 69% in 2000. In 2001, sertraline (18%), paroxetine (16%), fluoxetine (14%), citalopram (13%), and bupropion (9%) were the leading antidepressants, while tricyclics were used in only 2% of patients. The use of benzodiazepines in depression declined from 21% of patients in 1987 to 8% in 2001. Conclusion: The increasing therapeutic dominance of SSRIs may have contributed to other changes in depression treatment, including declining benzodiazepine use, increased aggregate antidepressant treatment rates, and increased reporting of depression.
Stafford, Randall S.; MacDonald, Ellen A.; Finkelstein, Stan N.
This clinical guideline provides recommendations for nonpharmacological treatments for tic disorders. We conducted a systematic literature search for clinical trials on the treatment of tics. One evidence-based review (including 30 studies) and 3 studies on behavioural interventions, 3 studies on deep brain stimulation (DBS), and 3 studies on transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) met our inclusion criteria. Based on this evidence, we have made strong recommendations for the use of habit reversal therapy and exposure and response prevention, preferably embedded within a supportive, psychoeducational program, and with the option to combine either of these approaches with pharmacotherapy. Although evidence exists for the efficacy of DBS, the quality of this evidence is poor and the risks and burdens of the procedure are finely balanced with the perceived benefits. Our recommendation is that this intervention continues to be considered an experimental treatment for severe, medically refractory tics that have imposed severe limitations on quality of life. We recommend that the procedure should only be performed within the context of research studies and by physicians expert in DBS programming and in the management of tics. There is no evidence to support the use of TMS in the treatment of tics. However, the procedure is associated with a low rate of known complications and could continue to be evaluated within research protocols. The recommendations we provide are based on current knowledge, and further studies may result in their revision in future. PMID:22398000
Steeves, Thomas; McKinlay, B Duncan; Gorman, Daniel; Billinghurst, Lori; Day, Lundy; Carroll, Alan; Dion, Yves; Doja, Asif; Luscombe, Sandra; Sandor, Paul; Pringsheim, Tamara
Developing clinical practice guidelines: reviewing, reporting, and publishing guidelines; updating guidelines; and the emerging issues of enhancing guideline implementability and accounting for comorbid conditions in guideline development.
Clinical practice guidelines are one of the foundations of efforts to improve health care. In 1999, we authored a paper about methods to develop guidelines. Since it was published, the methods of guideline development have progressed both in terms of methods and necessary procedures and the context for guideline development has changed with the emergence of guideline clearing houses and large scale guideline production organisations (such as the UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence). It therefore seems timely to, in a series of three articles, update and extend our earlier paper. In this third paper we discuss the issues of: reviewing, reporting, and publishing guidelines; updating guidelines; and the two emerging issues of enhancing guideline implementability and how guideline developers should approach dealing with the issue of patients who will be the subject of guidelines having co-morbid conditions. PMID:22762242
Shekelle, Paul; Woolf, Steven; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Schünemann, Holger J; Eccles, Martin P
Tobacco use, particularly cigarette smoking, is now a global pandemic. The expected morbidity and mortality from smoking-attributable diseases will continue to rise for the next 30 years. In order to reduce this negative impact on worldwide health, effective therapy to aid smoking cessation must be provided to current smokers. Treatment for tobacco dependence involves the combination of behavioural therapies and pharmacological treatment. The most common pharmacological treatments include nicotine replacement therapy and non-nicotine medications, including antidepressants. The antidepressant with the greatest weight of evidence for efficacy in the treatment of tobacco dependence is bupropion. Sustained-release bupropion is approved for the treatment of tobacco dependence in over 50 countries worldwide. The efficacy of bupropion for the treatment of tobacco dependence is attributed to the blockage of dopamine reuptake in the mesolimbic dopaminergic system. This area of the brain is believed to mediate reward for nicotine use and for other drugs of dependence. Randomised, controlled clinical trials have shown that bupropion approximately doubles abstinence rates compared with placebo. In addition, long-term treatment with bupropion may reduce or delay smoking relapse. Bupropion also appears to be effective in the treatment of smokers who have recently relapsed and smokers with other comorbid psychiatric conditions. Bupropion has a good adverse events profile, but the risk exists for serious adverse effects such as seizures. Recent postmarketing surveillance reports have raised safety concerns about bupropion, although no causal relationship between bupropion and the reported serious adverse events or death has been established. PMID:12521356
Hays, J Taylor; Ebbert, Jon O
hroughout history, the diagnosis and treatment of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) has been a ''European cooperative effort''. Since the experiments of R. Koch, many scientists have identified the role of infectious agents, including bacteria, in these conditions and different alternative treatments required to combat them. In 1888, E. de Freudenreich isolated bacterial secretions and noted their inherent, antibacterial properties.
M. I. Restrepo; A. Anzueto
Antimicrobial resistance in bacterial respiratory tract pathogens is a rapidly evolving and increasingly disconcerting problem. Major factors that have contributed to resistance are inappropriate prescribing of antibiotics for viral infections and the use of antibiotics with poor activity. The treatment of respiratory tract infections is significantly affected by resistance in organisms such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. Resistance to beta-lactams, sulfonamides, and macrolides continues to rise. Evidence-based guidelines, founded on clinical and bacteriological outcomes, are imperative to treat patients effectively, to limit the spread of these pathogens, and to minimize further development of resistance. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters have recently been shown to correlate with clinical outcome, and offer a more rational approach to predicting antimicrobial efficacy and determining clinically relevant susceptibility breakpoints. PMID:11339025
Jacobs, M R; Weinberg, W
Prevalence of guideline-directed medical therapy among patients receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator implantation in the national cardiovascular data registry during the years 2006 to 2008.
Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) reduces morbidity and mortality among selected patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction and severe heart failure symptoms despite guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT). Contemporaneous guidelines provided clear recommendations regarding selection of patients for CRT, including that all patients should first receive GDMT with ? blockers and renin-angiotensin axis antagonists. Prevalence of GDMT among real-world patients receiving CRT defibrillators (CRT-D) has not been well studied. We identified 45,392 patients in the National Cardiovascular Data Registry Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Registry who underwent first CRT-D implantation for primary prevention of sudden death from January 2006 to June 2008. We calculated the proportion of patients with contemporaneous class I guideline indications for CRT-D, the proportion receiving GDMT for heart failure, and the proportion receiving GDMT who had class I guideline indications for CRT-D. Among patients without contraindications, 87% were prescribed ? blockers, 78% an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or an angiotensin II receptor inhibitor, and 70% both a ? blocker and an angiotensin-converting enzyme or angiotensin II receptor inhibitor at discharge. Finally, 50% of patients met class I guideline indications and were prescribed GDMT at discharge; 9% neither met class I indications nor were prescribed GDMT at discharge. The major limitation of this study is the lack of dosage information in the Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Registry and lack of prescribing information at times other than discharge. In conclusion, many patients receiving CRT-D are not receiving GDMT at discharge. Ensuring that all patients receiving CRT-D are also receiving GDMT appears to be a quality improvement target. PMID:24793671
Schneider, Preston M; Pellegrini, Cara N; Wang, Yongfei; Fein, Adam S; Reynolds, Matthew R; Curtis, Jeptha P; Masoudi, Frederick A; Varosy, Paul D
Background The new 2010 World Health Organization (WHO) HIV treatment guidelines recommend earlier antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation (CD4<350 cells/µl instead of CD4<200 cells/µl), multiple sequential ART regimens, and replacement of first-line stavudine with tenofovir. This paper considers what to do first in resource-limited settings where immediate implementation of all of the WHO recommendations is not feasible. Methods and Findings We use a mathematical model and local input data to project clinical and economic outcomes in a South African HIV-infected cohort (mean age?=?32.8 y, mean CD4?=?375/µl). For the reference strategy, we assume that all patients initiate stavudine-based ART with WHO stage III/IV disease and receive one line of ART (stavudine/WHO/one-line). We rank—in survival, cost-effectiveness, and equity terms—all 12 possible combinations of the following: (1) stavudine replacement with tenofovir, (2) ART initiation (by WHO stage, CD4<200 cells/µl, or CD4<350 cells/µl), and (3) one or two regimens, or lines, of available ART. Projected life expectancy for the reference strategy is 99.0 mo. Considering each of the guideline components separately, 5-y survival is maximized with ART initiation at CD4<350 cells/µl (stavudine/<350/µl/one-line, 87% survival) compared with stavudine/WHO/two-lines (66%) and tenofovir/WHO/one-line (66%). The greatest life expectancies are achieved via the following stepwise programmatic additions: stavudine/<350/µl/one-line (124.3 mo), stavudine/<350/µl/two-lines (177.6 mo), and tenofovir/<350/µl/two-lines (193.6 mo). Three program combinations are economically efficient: stavudine/<350/µl/one-line (cost-effectiveness ratio, US$610/years of life saved [YLS]), tenofovir/<350/µl/one-line (US$1,140/YLS), and tenofovir/<350/µl/two-lines (US$2,370/YLS). Conclusions In settings where immediate implementation of all of the new WHO treatment guidelines is not feasible, ART initiation at CD4<350 cells/µl provides the greatest short- and long-term survival advantage and is highly cost-effective. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Walensky, Rochelle P.; Wood, Robin; Ciaranello, Andrea L.; Paltiel, A. David; Lorenzana, Sarah B.; Anglaret, Xavier; Stoler, Adam W.; Freedberg, Kenneth A.
The Prevention Guidelines System gives public health practitioners quick access to the most current CDC recommendations and guidelines for the prevention, control, treatment and detection of infectious and chronic diseases, environmental hazards, natural or human-generated disast...
Treatment outcome research generally relies on main effects analysis of variance to determine whether treatments are differentially effective. Bryk and Raudenbush (1988) developed a decision strategy for disaggregating treatment groups under conditions of heterogeneity of variance. There is, however, reason to consider disaggregating main effects even when this assumption is not violated. The potential statistical significance of disaggregation can be shown to be a function of the reliability of the dependent measure. With this reliability, residual variance can be partitioned into a systematic (individual differences) component and a random error component. It is then possible to calculate an F test of the ratio of these variances. When this F is statistically significant and the proportion of within-cell systematic variance to total variance is large, disaggregation should be undertaken to search for important individual or treatment difference variables (i.e., interactions). PMID:1955609
Lyons, J S; Howard, K I
This study evaluated the nature of aesthetic treatments and elements, which have been used or may have application within the highway roadway. It also studied the literature concerning aesthetics and current practice within the Texas Department of Transpo...
J. R. Schutt K. L. Phillips H. C. Landphair
Current trends in our setting indicate that the prevalence of actinic keratosis and similar diseases will increase in coming years and impose a greater burden on health care resources. A long list of clinical features must be taken into account when approaching the treatment of actinic keratosis. Until recently, therapeutic approaches focused solely on ablative procedures and the treatment of individual lesions and did not take into account areas of field cancerization. Now that the therapeutic arsenal has grown, standardized criteria are needed to guide the optimal choice of treatment for each patient. The elaboration of evidence-based consensus recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of actinic keratosis generates knowledge that will help clinicians to deliver the highest level of care possible, standardizing decision-making processes and enhancing awareness among all the health professionals involved in the care pathway. PMID:24725552
Ferrándiz, C; Fonseca-Capdevila, E; García-Diez, A; Guillén-Barona, C; Belinchón-Romero, I; Redondo-Bellón, P; Moreno-Giménez, J C; Senán, R
Objectives: To develop clinical guidelines for the management of patients with prostate cancer.Methods: Guidelines were compiled by a working panel based on current literature following a literature review using MEDLINE. Already published structured analysis from national and international guidelines was used, and panel consensus was employed when literature evidence was absent or of poor quality.Results: The full text of the
G. Aus; C. C. Abbou; D. Pacik; H. van Poppel; J. M. Wolff; F. Zattoni
Purpose: To develop a clinical staging system for maxillary osteoradionecrosis (ORN) in irradiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. Methods and Materials: The data of maxillary ORN cases among 1,758 irradiated NPC patients were analyzed. A staging system based on the degrees of bone exposure (E), infection (I), and bleeding (B) was developed. Correlations between various clinical parameters and stages of maxillary ORN and relationships between treatment modalities and outcomes at each stage were evaluated. Cumulative success of treatment and risk factors that affect treatment outcomes were analyzed. Results: The incidence of maxillary ORN was 2.7% (48/1,758). TNM stage of NPC (p < 0.001), radiation dose (p = 0.029), and tooth extraction (p < 0.001) appeared to have significant influences on disease severity. Success rates between conservative therapy and surgical treatment were not significantly different for Stage I ORN but differed significantly for Stage II (p = 0.013) and Stage III (p = 0.008) lesions. Grade 3 infection and bleeding significantly jeopardized treatment success (p = 0.043 and 0.015, respectively). The risk ratios of treatment failure for Grade 3 infection and bleeding were 2.523 (p = 0.034) and 3.141 (p = 0.027), respectively. Conclusions: More serious maxillary ORN tended to occur in cases with more advanced NPC, higher radiation dose, and history of tooth extraction. Surgical treatment was usually required in Stage II and III ORN. The grades of infection and bleeding are important factors in guidance of treatment and prediction of outcomes.
Cheng, S.-J. [Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Department of Dentistry, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Sun-Yat-San Cancer Center, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lee, J.-J. [Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Department of Dentistry, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Dentistry, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Ting, L.-L. [Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tseng, I.-Y. [Department of Dentistry, Cathay General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, H.-H. [Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Department of Dentistry, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Dentistry, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, H.-M. [Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Department of Dentistry, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Dentistry, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Kuo, Y.-S. [Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Department of Dentistry, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Dentistry, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hahn, L.-J. [Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Department of Dentistry, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Dentistry, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Kok, S.-H. [Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Department of Dentistry, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China) and School of Dentistry, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: email@example.com
With regard to the best moment for carrying out or recommending dental bleaching to orthodontic patients, some explanations and orientations are given in order to answers the following questions: 1) Why orthodontic treatment completion is considered the best opportunity for carrying out the procedure? 2) Why dental bleaching should not be performed immediately before orthodontic treatment? 3) If that would be possible at any special case, what would that be? 4) Why dental bleaching should not be performed during orthodontic treatment? 5) If that would be possible at any special case, what would that be? This article highlights why it is essential to protect both the mucosa and the cervical region, regardless of the moment when dental bleaching is performed, whether associated with orthodontic treatment or not. The "how", "why" and "if" it is or not convenient to perform dental bleaching before orthodontic treatment are still a matter of clinical suggestion, as it is a procedure that is under analysis, empirical knowledge waiting for scientific proof or disproof! Although tooth enamel has adamantine fluid flowing within it, providing a specific metabolism that is peculiar to its own and which could scientifically explain and base the option of carrying out teeth whitening before and during orthodontic treatment, we must still be very careful. PMID:24352384
Consolaro, Alberto; Consolaro, Renata Bianco; Francischone, Leda
A process for benchmarking low-level mixed waste (LLMW) treatment technologies has been developed. When used in conjunction with the identification and preparation of surrogate waste mixtures, and with defined quality assurance and quality control procedures, the benchmarking process will effectively streamline the selection of treatment technologies being considered by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for LLMW cleanup and management. Following the quantitative template provided in the benchmarking process will greatly increase the technical information available for the decision-making process. The additional technical information will remove a large part of the uncertainty in the selection of treatment technologies. It is anticipated that the use of the benchmarking process will minimize technology development costs and overall treatment costs. In addition, the benchmarking process will enhance development of the most promising LLMW treatment processes and aid in transferring the technology to the private sector. To instill inherent quality, the benchmarking process is based on defined criteria and a structured evaluation format, which are independent of any specific conventional treatment or emerging process technology. Five categories of benchmarking criteria have been developed for the evaluation: operation/design; personnel health and safety; economics; product quality; and environmental quality. This benchmarking document gives specific guidance on what information should be included and how it should be presented. A standard format for reporting is included in Appendix A and B of this document. Special considerations for LLMW are presented and included in each of the benchmarking categories.
Hoffman, D.P.; Gibson, L.V. Jr.; Hermes, W.H. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bastian, R.E. [Focus Environmental, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Davis, W.T. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), an energy research and radioisotope production facility, operates two centralized liquid waste treatment systems, one for liquid low-level waste (LLLW) system and the other for process waste (PW). New regulatory and waste minimization requirements have led ORNL to consider zeolite ion exchangers for removing cesium and strontium from LLLW and PW streams for their economic advantages, selective molecular sieve properties, and ease of disposal. Natural and synthetic zeolites have been compared with inorganic and organic ion exchangers for these applications.
Robinson, S.M.; Kent, T.E.; Arnold, W.D.
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), an energy research and radioisotope production facility, operates two centralized liquid waste treatment systems, one for liquid low-level waste (LLLW) system and the other for process waste (PW). New regulatory and waste minimization requirements have led ORNL to consider zeolite ion exchangers for removing cesium and strontium from LLLW and PW streams for their economic advantages, selective molecular sieve properties, and ease of disposal. Natural and synthetic zeolites have been compared with inorganic and organic ion exchangers for these applications.
Robinson, S.M.; Kent, T.E.; Arnold, W.D.
The clinical practice guidelines for the prevention, diagnosis, evaluation and treatment of chronic kidney disease mineral and bone disorders (CKD-BMD) in adults, of the Latin American Society of Nephrology and Hypertension (SLANH) comprise a set of recommendations developed to support the doctor in the management of these abnormalities in adult patients with stages 3-5 kidney disease. This excludes changes associated with renal transplantation. The topics covered in the guidelines are divided into four chapters: 1) Evaluation of biochemical changes, 2) Evaluation of bone changes, 3) Evaluation of vascular calcifications, and 4) Treatment of CKD-MBD. The guidelines are based on the recommendations proposed and published by the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) for the prevention, diagnosis, evaluation and treatment of CKD-MBD (KDIGO Clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis, evaluation, prevention and treatment of Chronic Kidney Disease Mineral and Bone Disorder [CKD-MBD]), adapted to the conditions of patients, institutions and resources available in Latin America, with the support of KDIGO. In some cases, the guidelines correspond to management recommendations directly defined by the working group for their implementation in our region, based on the evidence available in the literature. Each chapter contains guidelines and their rationale, supported by numerous updated references. Unfortunately, there are few controlled studies with statistically sufficient weight in Latin America to support specific recommendations for the region, and as such, most of the references used correspond to studies carried out in other regions. This highlights the need to plan research studies designed to establish the current status of mineral and bone metabolism disorders in Latin America as well as defining the best treatment options for our population. PMID:23629678
Bellorin-Font, Ezequiel; Ambrosoni, Pablo; Carlini, Raúl G; Carvalho, Aluizio B; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; Cueto-Manzano, Alfonso; Jara, Aquiles; Jorgetti, Vanda; Negri, Armando L; Negri, Armando; Olaizola, Inés; Salusky, Isidro; Slatopolsky, Eduardo; Weisinger, José R
BACKGROUND: Surveys on prescription patterns for antipsychotics in the Scandinavian public health system are scarce despite the prevalent use of these drugs. The clinical differences between antipsychotic drugs are mainly in the areas of safety and tolerability, and international guidelines for the treatment of schizophrenia offer rational strategies to minimize the burden of side effects related to antipsychotic treatment. The
Rune A Kroken; Erik Johnsen; Torleif Ruud; Tore Wentzel-Larsen; Hugo A Jørgensen
Objective: The prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Latin America varies across different studies but an intermediate risk and increased frequency of the disease have been reported in recent years. The circumstances of Latin American countries are different from those of Europe and North America, both in terms of differential diagnoses and disease management. Methods: An online survey on MS was sent to 855 neurologists in nine Latin American countries. A panel of nine experts in MS analyzed the results. Results: Diagnostic and therapeutic recommendations were outlined with special emphasis on the specific needs and circumstances of Latin America. The experts proposed guidelines for MS diagnosis, treatment, and follow up, highlighting the importance of considering endemic infectious diseases in the differential diagnoses of MS, the identification of patients at high risk of developing MS in order to maximize therapeutic opportunities, early treatment initiation, and cost-effective control of treatment efficacy, as well as global assessment of disability. Conclusions: The experts recommended that healthcare systems allocate a longer consultation time for patients with MS, which must be conducted by neurologists trained in the management of the disease. All drugs currently approved must be available in all Latin American countries and must be covered by healthcare plans. The expert panel supported the creation of a permanent forum to discuss future clinical and therapeutic recommendations that may be useful in Latin American countries.
Macias-Islas, Miguel Angel; Gabbai, Alberto Alan; Correale, Jorge; Bolana, Carlos; Sotelo, Eduardo Duriez; Bonitto, Juan Garcia; Vergara-Edwards, Fernando; Vizcarra-Escobar, Darwin
The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) are evidence- and consensus-based clinical practice guidelines addressing malignancies that affect more than 97% of all patients with cancer in the United States. The NCCN Guidelines are used extensively in the United States and globally. Use of the guidelines outside the United States has driven the need to adapt the guidelines based on local, regional, or national resources. The NCCN Guidelines Panels created, vetted, and continually update the NCCN Guidelines based on published scientific data on cancer detection, diagnosis, and treatment efficacy. The guidelines are developed within the context of commonly available resources, methods of payment, societal and cultural expectations, and governmental regulations as they exist in the United States. Although many of the cancer management recommendations contained in the NCCN Guidelines apply broadly from a global perspective, not all do. Disparities in availability and access to health care exist among countries, within countries, and among different social groups in the same country, especially regarding resources for cancer prevention, early detection, and treatment. In addition, different drug approval and payment processes result in regional variation in availability of and access to cancer treatment, especially highly expensive agents and radiation therapy. Differences in cancer risk, predictive biomarker expression, and pharmacogenetics exist across ethnic and racial groups, and therefore across geographic locations. Cultural and societal expectations and requirements may also require modification of NCCN Guidelines for use outside the United States. This article describes the adaptation process, using the recent Latin American adaptation of the 2013 NCCN Guidelines for Colorectal Cancer as an example. PMID:24812133
Carlson, Robert W; Larsen, Jonathan K; McClure, Joan; Fitzgerald, C Lyn; Venook, Alan P; Benson, Al B; Anderson, Benjamin O
This study addressed whether psychopharmacologic and psychotherapeutic treatment of depressed HIV+ women met standards defined in the best practice literature, and tested hypothesized predictors of standard-concordant care. 1,352 HIV-positive women in the multi-center Women’s Interagency HIV Study were queried about depressive symptoms and mental health service utilization using standards published by the American Psychiatric Association and the Agency for Healthcare Quality and Research to define adequate depression treatment. We identified those who: 1) reported clinically significant depressive symptoms (CSDS) using Centers for Epidemiological Studies – Depression Scale (CES-D) scores of ? 16; or 2) had lifetime diagnoses of major depressive disorder (MDD) assessed by World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interviews plus concurrent elevated depressive symptoms in the past 12 months. Adequate treatment prevalence was 46.2% (n=84) for MDD and 37.9% (n=211) for CSDS. Multivariable logistic regression analysis found that adequate treatment was more likely among women who saw the same primary care provider consistently, who had poorer role functioning, who paid out-of-pocket for healthcare, and who were not African American or Hispanic/Latina. This suggests that adequate depression treatment may be increased by promoting healthcare provider continuity, outreaching individuals with lower levels of role impairment, and addressing the specific needs and concerns of African American and Hispanic/Latina women.
Cook, Judith A.; Burke-Miller, Jane K.; Grey, Dennis D.; Cocohoba, Jennifer; Liu, Chenlong; Schwartz, Rebecca; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Anastos, Kathryn; Steigman, Pamela J.; Cohen, Mardge H.
This study addressed whether psychopharmacologic and psychotherapeutic treatment of depressed HIV+ women met standards defined in the best practice literature, and tested hypothesized predictors of standard-concordant care. 1,352 HIV-positive women in the multi-center Women's Interagency HIV Study were queried about depressive symptoms and mental health service utilization using standards published by the American Psychiatric Association and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality to define adequate depression treatment. We identified those who: (1) reported clinically significant depressive symptoms (CSDS) using Centers for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale scores of ?16; or (2) had lifetime diagnoses of major depressive disorder (MDD) assessed by World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interviews plus concurrent elevated depressive symptoms in the past 12 months. Adequate treatment prevalence was 46.2 % (n = 84) for MDD and 37.9 % (n = 211) for CSDS. Multivariable logistic regression analysis found that adequate treatment was more likely among women who saw the same primary care provider consistently, who had poorer self-rated role functioning, who paid out-of-pocket for healthcare, and who were not African American or Hispanic/Latina. This suggests that adequate depression treatment may be increased by promoting healthcare provider continuity, outreaching individuals with lower levels of reported role impairment, and addressing the specific needs and concerns of African American and Hispanic/Latina women. PMID:24402689
Cook, Judith A; Burke-Miller, Jane K; Grey, Dennis D; Cocohoba, Jennifer; Liu, Chenlong; Schwartz, Rebecca M; Golub, Elizabeth T; Anastos, Kathryn; Steigman, Pamela J; Cohen, Mardge H
Arterial hypertension concerns 7-10% of pregnancies and leads to an increased risk of complications for both, the mother and the child. This rate will probably rise in the years to come due to the notable tendency among women to delay the decision to become pregnant - values of blood pressure and occurrence of arterial hypertension increase with age, as well as due to the growing problem of obesity resulting from inappropriate dietary habits and lack of regular everyday physical activity. Difficulties with management of that clinical condition are partly related with lack of unified and widely accepted guidelines. Different opinions in the subject of terminology and classification of pregnancy hypertension or indications for pharmacotherapy as well as choice of the optimal antihypertensive drug, emerge from objective causes such as combination of various pathogenetic factors typical for arterial hypertension itself and those connected with pregnancy elsewhere stressed priorities of therapy from the point of view of the health of the mother and of the fetus, as well as lack of randomized clinical trials due to obvious ethical purposes, but also from the fact that pregnancy hypertension is a focus of attention for different specialists - obstetricians, hypertensiologists and perinatologists. A good cooperation regarding experience and information among all of these specializations would be the most beneficial for pregnant women and their children. Lack of new modern antihypertensive agents, safe and effective in pregnancy while the older ones are being withdrawn from the market as their production is no longer cost-effective for pharmacological companies, has become an increasing problem in many countries, and Poland among them. The aim of the following publication was to present the statement on management of pregnancy hypertension from the current guidelines of the Polish Society of Arterial Hypertension 2011 to gynecologists and obstetricians, with a commentary According to the guidelines, methyldopa, labetalol (or metoprolol), long-acting nifedipine or verapamil should be used in the therapy of mild and moderate pregnancy hypertension, preferably in the given order In case of severe and life-threatening arterial hypertension, labetalol intravenously should be administered and if it is still not sufficient, eventually sodium nitroprusside or hydralazine could be ordered, bearing in mind their possible adverse effects. Unfortunately labetalol, nifedipine, hydralazine and sodium nitroprusside are no longer available in Poland, which significantly narrows the practical treatment possibilities in the pregnant population. Inhibitors of angiotensin converting enzyme and angiotensin II receptor blockers are contraindicated during pregnancy and breastfeeding, as well as aldosteron inhibitors, as suggest in the guidelines. In the paper the authors present the guidelines and also, based on the information available to date in medical journals, other hypertension pharmacotherapeutic options possible for consideration in pregnancy which could be helpful in management of severe arterial hypertension in pregnancy. PMID:23383565
Szczepaniak-Chiche?, Ludwina; Tykarski, Andrzej
This Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) is composed of 6 chapters and 10 appendices, including a complete list of references (Appendix A, Bibliography). Chapter 1, Introduction, describes the basic facts regarding opioid addiction, the traditional appro...
Background Observational epidemiological and biological data indicate clear synergies between Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and HIV, whereby HSV-2 enhances the potential for HIV acquisition or transmission. In 2001, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched a call for research into the possibilities of disrupting this cofactor effect through the use of antiherpetic therapy. A WHO Expert Meeting was convened in 2008 to review the research results. The results of the trials were mostly inconclusive or showed no impact. However, the WHO syndromic management treatment guidelines were modified to include acyclovir as first line therapy to treat genital ulcer disease on the basis of the high prevalence of HSV-2 in most settings, impact and cost-benefit of treatment on ulcer healing and quality of life among patients. Methods This paper examines the process through which the evidence related to HIV–HSV-2 interactions influenced policy at the international level and then the mechanism of international to national policy transfer, with Ghana as a case study. To better understand the context within which national policy change occurs, special attention was paid to the relationships between researchers and policy-makers as integral to the process of getting evidence into policy. Data from this study were then collected through interviews conducted with researchers, program managers and policy-makers working in sexual health/STI at the 2008 WHO Expert Meeting in Montreux, Switzerland, and in Accra, Ghana. Results The major findings of this study indicate that investigations into HSV-2 as a cofactor of HIV generated the political will necessary to reform HSV-2 treatment policy. Playing a pivotal role at both the international level and within the Ghanaian policy context were ‘policy networks’ formed either formally (WHO) or informally (Ghana) around an issue area. These networks of professionals serve as the primary conduit of information between researchers and policy-makers. Donor influence was cited as the single strongest impetus and impediment to policy change nationally. Conclusions Policy networks may serve as the primary driving force of change in both international context and in the case of Ghana. Communication among researchers and policy-makers is critical for uptake of evidence and opportunities may exist to formalize policy networks and engage donors in a productive and ethical way.
This document presents a set of standards to be used in planning and establishing a high quality child care program. The standards are based on the recommendations of technical panels that studied particular facets in child care and are intended to serve as goals for practice and guidelines for implementation. The nine chapters of the text address…
American Public Health Association, Washington, DC.
Endovascular therapy is the treatment of choice for type A and the preferred treatment for type B lesions. In selective patients, this type of treatment can be applied in type C and even type D lesions. Ipsilateral femoral, contralateral femoral, and brachial approach and both the intraluminal and subintimal space can be used for successful recanalization. The application of stents has improved the immediate hemodynamic and probably long-term clinical results of iliac percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. However, the superiority of primary or direct stenting over selective stenting has not been proven yet. The choice of stent type depends on lesion morphology and location but otherwise there is insufficient evidence to support the use of a particular stent design. There is insufficient evidence to justify routine use of covered stents. All patients should receive antiaggregant therapy following endovascular recanalization of iliac arteries. There is no consensus regarding prophylaxis with antibiotics in iliac recanalization procedures.
Tsetis, Dimitrios [University Hospital of Heraklion, Medical School of Crete, Department of Radiology (Greece)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Uberoi, Raman [John Radcliffe Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)
Idiopathic thromboembolism can occur in psychiatric patients who have been inactive during a period of inpatient hospital treatment. These patients are usually treated with antipsychotic medication which has also been reported to increase risk for thromboembolic disease. Here the authors describe a patient with neither prior history of thromboembolism nor any medical risk factors for thromboembolic disease, who was admitted with an acute relapse of psychotic illness. During the course of her intensive psychiatric treatment, she had chest pain and CT-pulmonary arteriogram revealed bilateral lower lobe pulmonary embolism. She was anticoagulated and made a full medical recovery. Treatment with high dosages of typical and atypical antipsychotic medication and a lack of mobility related to intensive nursing care and sedation were likely risk factors in her development of pulmonary emboli. PMID:22962386
McInerney, Shane J; McDonald, Colm
Background In developing countries, including Sri Lanka, a high proportion of acute poisoning and other medical emergencies are initially treated in rural peripheral hospitals. Patients are then usually transferred to referral hospitals for further treatment. Guidelines are often used to promote better patient care in these emergencies. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial (ISRCTN73983810) which aimed to assess the effect of a brief educational outreach (‘academic detailing’) intervention to promote the utilization of treatment guidelines for acute poisoning. Methods and Findings This cluster RCT was conducted in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka. All peripheral hospitals in the province were randomized to either intervention or control. All hospitals received a copy of the guidelines. The intervention hospitals received a brief out-reach academic detailing workshop which explained poisoning treatment guidelines and guideline promotional items designed to be used in daily care. Data were collected on all patients admitted due to poisoning for 12 months post-intervention in all study hospitals. Information collected included type of poison exposure, initial investigations, treatments and hospital outcome. Patients transferred from peripheral hospitals to referral hospitals had their clinical outcomes recorded. There were 23 intervention and 23 control hospitals. There were no significant differences in the patient characteristics, such as age, gender and the poisons ingested. The intervention hospitals showed a significant improvement in administration of activated charcoal [OR 2.95 (95% CI 1.28–6.80)]. There was no difference between hospitals in use of other decontamination methods. Conclusion This study shows that an educational intervention consisting of brief out-reach academic detailing was effective in changing treatment behavior in rural Sri Lankan hospitals. The intervention was only effective for treatments with direct clinician involvement, such as administering activated charcoal. It was not successful for treatments usually administered by non-professional staff such as forced emesis for poisoning. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN73983810 ISRCTN73983810
Senarathna, Lalith; Buckley, Nick A.; Dibley, Michael J.; Kelly, Patrick J.; Jayamanna, Shaluka F.; Gawarammana, Indika B.; Dawson, Andrew H.
Treatment of pulmonary hypertension (PH) patients is challenging and should only be initiated after a comprehensive diagnostic evaluation. Such treatment should ideally be done in specialized centers with full capability for hemodynamic measurements, having access to a broad range of PAH therapies, and adequate experience in the management of critically ill patients. The following discussion is intended to review the general measures and the non-specific (supportive) therapy used in managing PH patients, while the specific therapy will be discussed in a subsequent different article.
Idrees, Majdy M.; Swiston, John; Levy, Robert D.