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Sample records for national voucher programme

  1. A Taxonomy and Results from a Comprehensive Review of 28 Maternal Health Voucher Programmes

    PubMed Central

    Conlon, Claudia M.; Higgs, Elizabeth S.; Townsend, John W.; Nahed, Matta G.; Cavanaugh, Karen; Grainger, Corinne G.; Okal, Jerry; Gorter, Anna C.

    2013-01-01

    -based distribution of vouchers; and tracking individual claims for performance purposes. Maternal voucher programmes differed on whether contracted providers were given training on clinical or administrative issues; whether some form of service verification was undertaken at facility or community-level; and the relative size of programme management costs in the overall programme budget. Evidence suggests voucher programmes can serve populations with national-level impact. Reaching scale depends on whether the voucher programme can: (i) keep management costs low, (ii) induce a large demand-side response among the bottom two quintiles, and (iii) achieve a quality of care that translates a greater number of facility-based deliveries into a reduction in maternal morbidity and mortality.

  2. A taxonomy and results from a comprehensive review of 28 maternal health voucher programmes.

    PubMed

    Bellows, Ben W; Conlon, Claudia M; Higgs, Elizabeth S; Townsend, John W; Nahed, Matta G; Cavanaugh, Karen; Grainger, Corinne G; Okal, Jerry; Gorter, Anna C

    2013-12-01

    -based distribution of vouchers; and tracking individual claims for performance purposes. Maternal voucher programmes differed on whether contracted providers were given training on clinical or administrative issues; whether some form of service verification was undertaken at facility or community-level; and the relative size of programme management costs in the overall programme budget. Evidence suggests voucher programmes can serve populations with national-level impact. Reaching scale depends on whether the voucher programme can: (i) keep management costs low, (ii) induce a large demand-side response among the bottom two quintiles, and (iii) achieve a quality of care that translates a greater number of facility-based deliveries into a reduction in maternal morbidity and mortality. PMID:24992806

  3. Safe motherhood voucher programme coverage of health facility deliveries among poor women in South-western Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kanya, Lucy; Obare, Francis; Warren, Charlotte; Abuya, Timothy; Askew, Ian; Bellows, Ben

    2014-07-01

    There has been increased interest in and experimentation with demand-side mechanisms such as the use of vouchers that place purchasing power in the hands of targeted consumers to improve the uptake of healthcare services in low-income settings. A key measure of the success of such interventions is the extent to which the programmes have succeeded in reaching the target populations. This article estimates the coverage of facility deliveries by a maternal health voucher programme in South-western Uganda and examines whether such coverage is correlated with district-level characteristics such as poverty density and the number of contracted facilities. Analysis entails estimating the voucher coverage of health facility deliveries among the general population and poor population (PP) using programme data for 2010, which was the most complete calendar year of implementation of the Uganda safe motherhood (SM) voucher programme. The results show that: (1) the programme paid for 38% of estimated deliveries among the PP in the targeted districts, (2) there was a significant negative correlation between the poverty density in a district and proportions of births to poor women that were covered by the programme and (3) improving coverage of health facility deliveries for poor women is dependent upon increasing the sales and redemption rates. The findings suggest that to the extent that the programme stimulated demand for SM services by new users, it has the potential of increasing facility-based births among poor women in the region. In addition, the significant negative correlation between the poverty density and the proportions of facility-based births to poor women that are covered by the voucher programme suggests that there is need to increase both voucher sales and the rate of redemption to improve coverage in districts with high levels of poverty. PMID:24173430

  4. Educational Vouchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickard, Brent W.; Richards, Donald M.

    1976-01-01

    Summarizes the rationale for educational voucher systems, outlines model voucher systems, discusses implications of voucher systems, and suggests a generalized plan for applying voucher systems in continuing education. (Available from the Department of Educational Administration, The University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, T6G 2G5;…

  5. Education Vouchers: The Experience at Alum Rock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    In 1970, the Office of Economic Opportunity tried to establish several voucher test sites to evaluate the voucher concept. Alum Rock Union School District, San Jose, California, was the only district in the country to agree to be a test site. In July 1973, responsibility for the Education Voucher Program was transferred to the National Institute…

  6. Capacity Issue Looms for Vouchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2011-01-01

    State-level momentum in support of vouchers and tax credits that help students go to private schools highlights what has been a largely theoretical issue: private school capacity to support voucher-financed enrollment. Academics say the national supply of seats in secular and religious private schools is sufficient to meet short-term demand from…

  7. Launch vouchers for space science research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macauley, Molly K.

    1989-01-01

    Recent national space policy proposes the use of space transportation vouchers to increase opportunities for space-based science research and to support the U.S. space transportation industry. Vouchers issued and financially backed by the government would be given to researchers for redemption on any mode of space transportation. This paper examines the economic costs and benefits of vouchers; incentive-based strategies for effective program design; and areas where the voucher scheme is weak. It is concluded that, under plausible assumptions, vouchers may well be a cost-effective way to achieve near-term space transportation for space research payloads.

  8. National and regional asthma programmes in Europe.

    PubMed

    Selroos, Olof; Kupczyk, Maciej; Kuna, Piotr; Łacwik, Piotr; Bousquet, Jean; Brennan, David; Palkonen, Susanna; Contreras, Javier; FitzGerald, Mark; Hedlin, Gunilla; Johnston, Sebastian L; Louis, Renaud; Metcalf, Leanne; Walker, Samantha; Moreno-Galdó, Antonio; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Rosado-Pinto, José; Powell, Pippa; Haahtela, Tari

    2015-09-01

    This review presents seven national asthma programmes to support the European Asthma Research and Innovation Partnership in developing strategies to reduce asthma mortality and morbidity across Europe. From published data it appears that in order to influence asthma care, national/regional asthma programmes are more effective than conventional treatment guidelines. An asthma programme should start with the universal commitments of stakeholders at all levels and the programme has to be endorsed by political and governmental bodies. When the national problems have been identified, the goals of the programme have to be clearly defined with measures to evaluate progress. An action plan has to be developed, including defined re-allocation of patients and existing resources, if necessary, between primary care and specialised healthcare units or hospital centres. Patients should be involved in guided self-management education and structured follow-up in relation to disease severity. The three evaluated programmes show that, thanks to rigorous efforts, it is possible to improve patients' quality of life and reduce hospitalisation, asthma mortality, sick leave and disability pensions. The direct and indirect costs, both for the individual patient and for society, can be significantly reduced. The results can form the basis for development of further programme activities in Europe. PMID:26324809

  9. National programme for prevention of burn injuries

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, J. L.; Makhija, L. K.; Bajaj, S. P.

    2010-01-01

    The estimated annual burn incidence in India is approximately 6-7 million per year. The high incidence is attributed to illiteracy, poverty and low level safety consciousness in the population. The situation becomes further grim due to the absence of organized burn care at primary and secondary health care level. But the silver lining is that 90% of burn injuries are preventable. An initiative at national level is need of the hour to reduce incidence so as to galvanize the available resources for more effective and standardized treatment delivery. The National Programme for Prevention of Burn Injuries is the endeavor in this line. The goal of National programme for prevention of burn injuries (NPPBI) would be to ensure prevention and capacity building of infrastructure and manpower at all levels of health care delivery system in order to reduce incidence, provide timely and adequate treatment to burn patients to reduce mortality, complications and provide effective rehabilitation to the survivors. Another objective of the programme will be to establish a central burn registry. The programme will be launched in the current Five Year Plan in Medical colleges and their adjoining district hospitals in few states. Subsequently, in the next five year plan it will be rolled out in all the medical colleges and districts hospitals of the country so that burn care is provided as close to the site of accident as possible and patients need not to travel to big cities for burn care. The programme would essentially have three components i.e. Preventive programme, Burn injury management programme and Burn injury rehabilitation programme. PMID:21321659

  10. National programme for prevention of burn injuries.

    PubMed

    Gupta, J L; Makhija, L K; Bajaj, S P

    2010-09-01

    The estimated annual burn incidence in India is approximately 6-7 million per year. The high incidence is attributed to illiteracy, poverty and low level safety consciousness in the population. The situation becomes further grim due to the absence of organized burn care at primary and secondary health care level. But the silver lining is that 90% of burn injuries are preventable. An initiative at national level is need of the hour to reduce incidence so as to galvanize the available resources for more effective and standardized treatment delivery. The National Programme for Prevention of Burn Injuries is the endeavor in this line. The goal of National programme for prevention of burn injuries (NPPBI) would be to ensure prevention and capacity building of infrastructure and manpower at all levels of health care delivery system in order to reduce incidence, provide timely and adequate treatment to burn patients to reduce mortality, complications and provide effective rehabilitation to the survivors. Another objective of the programme will be to establish a central burn registry. The programme will be launched in the current Five Year Plan in Medical colleges and their adjoining district hospitals in few states. Subsequently, in the next five year plan it will be rolled out in all the medical colleges and districts hospitals of the country so that burn care is provided as close to the site of accident as possible and patients need not to travel to big cities for burn care. The programme would essentially have three components i.e. Preventive programme, Burn injury management programme and Burn injury rehabilitation programme. PMID:21321659

  11. The WHO national diabetes programme initiative.

    PubMed

    Gruber, W; King, H

    1996-10-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that diabetes is a highly prevalent disease, with developing countries and minority populations now facing the highest risk. This places a strain on the health authorities, and consequently, has attracted increasing attention from the World Health Organization (WHO). The social and economic burden of diabetes is high, due to the seriousness of the complication of the disease. Many of these complications may be delayed or prevented, offering considerable opportunities for both reduction in costs to the authorities and improvements in quality of life for those affected. Following a resolution on the prevention and control of diabetes, adopted by the Forty-second World Health Assembly in 1989, the WHO diabetes programme prepared guidelines for the development of national diabetes programmes. Goals, targets and supporting materials have also been developed at the regional level by the WHO Regional Offices for Europe and for the Eastern Mediterranean. In 1994, WHO organized a meeting on the implementation of national diabetes programmes at its headquarters in Geneva. There were 70 participants and 32 counties were represented. The purposes of the meeting were to exchange information, motivate, consider evaluation, stimulate new programmes, define educational needs and prepare a written report. WHO plays a major role in the development of national diabetes programmes. In co-operation, WHO Headquarters and Regional Offices can act as clearing houses/information centres for data collection, programme monitoring and evaluation and the exchange of experience and technical information. The national diabetes programme initiative should result in improvements in diabetes control and care worldwide. PMID:9015663

  12. Can food vouchers improve nutrition and reduce health inequalities in low-income mothers and young children: a multi-method evaluation of the experiences of beneficiaries and practitioners of the Healthy Start programme in England

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Good nutrition is important during pregnancy, breastfeeding and early life to optimise the health of women and children. It is difficult for low-income families to prioritise spending on healthy food. Healthy Start is a targeted United Kingdom (UK) food subsidy programme that gives vouchers for fruit, vegetables, milk, and vitamins to low-income families. This paper reports an evaluation of Healthy Start from the perspectives of women and health practitioners. Methods The multi-method study conducted in England in 2011/2012 included focus group discussions with 49 health practitioners, an online consultation with 620 health and social care practitioners, service managers, commissioners, and user and advocacy groups, and qualitative participatory workshops with 85 low-income women. Additional focus group discussions and telephone interviews included the views of 25 women who did not speak English and three women from Traveller communities. Results Women reported that Healthy Start vouchers increased the quantity and range of fruit and vegetables they used and improved the quality of family diets, and established good habits for the future. Barriers to registration included complex eligibility criteria, inappropriate targeting of information about the programme by health practitioners and a general low level of awareness among families. Access to the programme was particularly challenging for women who did not speak English, had low literacy levels, were in low paid work or had fluctuating incomes. The potential impact was undermined by the rising price of food relative to voucher value. Access to registered retailers was problematic in rural areas, and there was low registration among smaller shops and market stalls, especially those serving culturally diverse communities. Conclusions Our evaluation of the Healthy Start programme in England suggests that a food subsidy programme can provide an important nutritional safety net and potentially improve

  13. Can vouchers make a difference to the use of private primary care services by older people? Experience from the healthcare reform programme in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background As part of its ongoing healthcare reform, the Hong Kong Government introduced a voucher scheme, intended for encouraging older patients to use primary healthcare services in the private sector, thereby, reducing burden on the overwhelmed public sector. The voucher program is also considered one of the strategies to further develop the public private partnership in healthcare, a policy direction of high political priority as indicated in the Chief Executive Policy Address in 2008-09. This study assessed whether the voucher scheme, as implemented so far, has reached its intended goals, and how it might be further improved in the context of public-private partnership. Methods This was a cross-sectional study using structured questionnaires by face-to-face interviews with older people aged 70 or above in Hong Kong, the target group of the demand-side voucher program. Results 71.2% of 1,026 older people were aware of the new voucher scheme but only 35.0% had ever used it. The majority of the older people used the vouchers for acute curative services in the private sector (82.4%) and spent less on preventive services. Despite the provision of vouchers valued US$30 per year as an incentive to encourage the use of private primary care services, after 12-months of implementation, 66.2% of all respondents agreed with the statement that "the voucher scheme does not change their health seeking behaviours on seeing public or private healthcare professionals". The most common reasons for no change in their behaviours included "I am used to seeing doctors in the public system" and "The amount of the subsidy is too low". Those who usually used a mix of public and private doctors and those with better self-reported health condition compared to last year were more likely to perceive a change in their own health seeking behaviours. Conclusions Our study showed that despite a reasonably high awareness of the voucher scheme, its usage was low. The voucher alone was not

  14. United Nations Environment Programme. Annual Review 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi (Kenya).

    This edition of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) annual report is structured in three parts. Part 1 focuses on three contemporary problems (ground water, toxic chemicals and human food chains and environmental economics) and attempts to solve them. Also included is a modified extract of "The Annual State of the Environment Report"…

  15. Voting down Vouchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolick, Clint

    2008-01-01

    In 1999 the Ohio Supreme Court found the Cleveland school voucher program to be constitutional, thereby allowing the three-year-old initiative to continue. However, the school voucher program was ended when Judge Solomon Oliver enjoined the program after the anti-voucher coalition filed suit asking for a preliminary injunction. The judge's…

  16. Education and Selective Vouchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piolatto, Amedeo

    2010-01-01

    A widely accepted result in the literature is that the majority of voters are against the introduction of universal vouchers. Chen and West (2000) predict that voters' attitudes towards selective vouchers (SV) may be different. They claim that voters are indifferent between the no-voucher and SV regimes, unless competition leads to a reduction in…

  17. Education Vouchers. A Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Philip C.; Hollender, Mary Jo

    This document is intended to serve both as a primer and as an annotated bibliography about educational vouchers. As a primer, it introduces the reader to the concept of vouchers and to the variety of issues--including political, economic, legal, and educational issues--associated with vouchers. As an annotated bibliography, it provides a summary…

  18. National Radiobiology Archives distributed access programmer's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Prather, J. C.; Smith, S. K.; Watson, C. R.

    1991-12-01

    The National Radiobiology Archives is a comprehensive effort to gather, organize, and catalog original data, representative specimens, and supporting materials related to significant radiobiology studies. This provides researchers with information for analyses which compare or combine results of these and other studies and with materials for analysis by advanced molecular biology techniques. This Programmer's Guide document describes the database access software, NRADEMO, and the subset loading script NRADEMO/MAINT/MAINTAIN, which comprise the National Laboratory Archives Distributed Access Package. The guide is intended for use by an experienced database management specialist. It contains information about the physical and logical organization of the software and data files. It also contains printouts of all the scripts and associated batch processing files. It is part of a suite of documents published by the National Radiobiology Archives.

  19. Vouchers for health: A demand side output-based aid approach to reproductive health services in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Janisch, C P; Albrecht, M; Wolfschuetz, A; Kundu, F; Klein, S

    2010-01-01

    Reaching the United Nation's Millennium Development Goals has been a focus for many countries and development partners. In Kenya, as in many other countries with low levels of development, access to and equity of basic quality health services is limited, especially for the very poor. Among poor populations, maternal mortality is high as access to medical care and financial means are lacking. In 2005, the Governments of Kenya and Germany in cooperation with KfW Banking Group made funds available for the Reproductive Health OBA Voucher Programme offering vouchers for Safe Motherhood, Family Planning and Gender Violence Recovery Services. This programme, herein referred to as Vouchers for Health, was launched in June of 2006 in five Kenyan districts with the aim of providing health services for safe deliveries, long-term family planning methods and victims of gender violence. The way that the programme is being implemented in Kenya demonstrates that the voucher-based approach comprises a variety of key structural elements of a national health insurance scheme: accreditation; quality assurance; reimbursement system; claims processing; integrating the private sector; client choice; provider competition; and access to and equity of services provided. PMID:20099183

  20. Evaluation of national malaria control programmes in Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Bryce, J.; Roungou, J. B.; Nguyen-Dinh, P.; Naimoli, J. F.; Breman, J. G.

    1994-01-01

    Evaluation is an essential management tool for the improvement of public health programmes or projects. As malaria morbidity and mortality continue to increase in most countries in Africa, international agencies and malaria control programme managers have identified the strengthening of programme evaluation as an important strategy for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of malaria control programmes. Managers can develop an evaluation strategy only after they have defined programme objectives and planned specific programme activities. Indicators should be directly related to programme objectives and should be selected on the basis of the following criteria: their validity; reliability; ability to detect change within a reasonable time period and as a result of successful programme implementation; ability to be interpreted; and usefulness in guiding programme change. Only those indicators that can be measured with available programme resources should be selected. Managers will also need to identify the sources of indicator data and to determine how often each indicator will be measured. Programme managers should develop criteria or indicators for the following: programme policies and plans; the process of programme implementation; the outcomes of malaria control interventions in disease management and prevention; and programme impact in terms of reductions in malaria-related mortality and morbidity. Key issues related to the management of evaluation activities within a national programme include the need to begin with available resources and build incrementally; to explore options for administering evaluation activities; to select, train and supervise staff who carry out evaluation activities; to develop quality control strategies; and to ensure that data are managed and communicated in ways that support effective programme decision-making. For evaluation to lead to improvements in malaria control programmes it must be clearly defined as a part of the

  1. Education Vouchers. Fastback 210.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catterall, James S.

    The education voucher idea is reviewed and comparisons are made among three existing plans. The basic idea is that the government issues a voucher of monetary value directly to families to pay for education. Existing proposals include the California Coons/Sugarman plan from the 1970's, the Friedman plan, and the Jencks proposal. These plans vary…

  2. Vouchers Impact Teachers, Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Robert R.; Carey, Helen

    1979-01-01

    Interviews with participants in the Alum Rock Voucher Project revealed that the effects of a voucher system on teachers were varied and profound: greater teacher autonomy but increased responsibilities; more within-program cohesion but increased competition between programs; and greater parent involvement, requiring teachers to improve…

  3. Education Vouchers: Boon or Bane?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, David G.

    The idea of educational vouchers goes back to Adam Smith in 1778, according to this examination of past and present discussions about vouchers. The author begins by defining educational vouchers and summarizing the idea's history, especially since its revival in 1955 by economist Milton Friedman. Seven models of voucher systems are briefly…

  4. School Vouchers: Examining the Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnoy, Martin

    This study reviews recent empirical research on the effect of school vouchers on student achievement (particularly for low-income minorities attending private schools) and the effect of the threat of vouchers on low-performing public schools. The study examines the Milwaukee voucher experiment, the Cleveland voucher program, and new voucher…

  5. Proving the Viability of a School Choice Voucher. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haller, Scott

    2015-01-01

    A recent Pioneer Institute report written by Ken Ardon and Cara Stilling Candal, "Modeling Urban Scholarship Vouchers in Massachusetts," explores the viability of a school choice voucher program in the Commonwealth. Nationally, school choice has been shown to improve parent satisfaction and student achievement, reduce racial segregation,…

  6. Special Education Vouchers: Four State Approaches. inForum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Eve; Ahearn, Eileen

    2007-01-01

    The National Association of State Directors of Special Education has published documents on home schooling and various aspects of the charter school movement, but not on other types of school choice such as vouchers. This Project Forum document focuses on voucher programs that are specifically designed to provide public funds for parental…

  7. Lessons from sexual and reproductive health voucher program design and function: a comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Developing countries face challenges in financing healthcare; often the poor do not receive the most basic services. The past decade has seen a sharp increase in the number of voucher programs, which target output-based subsidies for specific services to poor and underserved groups. The dearth of literature that examines lessons learned risks the wheel being endlessly reinvented. This paper examines commonalities and differences in voucher design and implementation, highlighting lessons learned for the design of new voucher programmes. Methodology The methodology comprised: discussion among key experts to develop inclusion/exclusion criteria; up-dating the literature database used by the DFID systematic review of voucher programs; and networking with key contacts to identify new programs and obtain additional program documents. We identified 40 programs for review and extracted a dataset of more than 120 program characteristics for detailed analysis. Results All programs aimed to increase utilisation of healthcare, particularly maternal health services, overwhelmingly among low-income populations. The majority contract(ed) private providers, or public and private providers, and all facilitate(d) access to services that are well defined, time-limited and reflect the country’s stated health priorities. All voucher programs incorporate a governing body, management agency, contracted providers and target population, and all share the same incentive structure: the transfer of subsidies from consumers to service providers, resulting in a strong effect on both consumer and provider behaviour. Vouchers deliver subsidies to individuals, who in the absence of the subsidy would likely not have sought care, and in all programs a positive behavioural response is observed, with providers investing voucher revenue to attract more clients. A large majority of programs studied used targeting mechanisms. Conclusions While many programs remain too small to address

  8. Interested in developing a national programme to reduce dietary salt?

    PubMed

    Campbell, N R C; Neal, B C; MacGregor, G A

    2011-12-01

    High dietary salt is a major contributor to increased blood pressure, the leading risk for death worldwide. In several countries, national programmes to reduce dietary salt have been implemented with leadership and involvement of hypertension experts. Other hypertension experts may be interested in assisting or leading a national programme to reduce dietary salt, however, may not have the experience or training to do so. The article is based on the experiences of three hypertension experts who have led the development of national dietary salt reduction programmes in the United Kingdom, Australia and Canada. The article advises developing leadership and a coalition, conducting a nation-specific environmental scan of facilitators and barriers, estimating the national health and financial costs of high dietary salt and the benefits of reducing salt intake, obtaining core documents to provide the scientific rational for the programme, developing a policy statement to outline the required actions to be undertaken, engaging government and industry, using media to gain public support, overcoming industry supported opposition and sustaining the effort long term. Resources and potential sources for international collaboration are provided as well as caveats for developing the programme within the specific nations' context and overall effort to improve health. Developing and leading a national salt reduction programme is a major commitment, however, reducing dietary salt is estimated to be one of the most effective strategies to improve a nation's health. PMID:21451570

  9. Review of national tuberculosis programmes: the experience in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Kumaresan, J A; de Colombani, P; Smith, I

    1999-12-01

    Tuberculosis control efforts should be evaluated periodically to assess progress made by national programmes and to plan for the future. Simple and reliable tools are required for such assessments. This paper summarises the methodology and results of the review of the national tuberculosis programme in Bangladesh conducted in 1997. The authors conclude that similar reviews would not only help to verify the reports from the routine recording system, but would also assist policy development and future planning. PMID:10599021

  10. National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Programme in India.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, B K; Kundu, A K; Bansal, R D

    1995-01-01

    Iodine Deficiency Disorders are one of the biggest worldwide public health problem of today. Their effect is hidden and profound affecting the quality of human life. An attempt has been made to describe the various aspects of the National Iodine Deficiency Disorders control Programme (NIDDCP) being implemented in the country. The paper also focuses about the problems associated in implementing this national programme. PMID:8690502

  11. Educational Vouchers: Rhetoric and Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puckett, John L.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the history of the educational voucher concept and describes three voucher models: the Jencks "regulated compensatory" model, the Friedman "unregulated market" model, and the Coons "Family Power Equalizing" model (more recently called the "Quality Choice" model). (JOW)

  12. The Potential Impact of Vouchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwan, Patrick J.

    2004-01-01

    This article provides an updated review of recent empirical research on the potential impact of private school vouchers. It addresses 3 questions: (a) do students that use vouchers to attend a private school obtain better outcomes than would be obtained in a public school? (b) Do vouchers encourage student sorting and how does sorting affect…

  13. Is Colorado's Voucher System Worth Vouching for?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prescott, Brian T.

    2010-01-01

    In 2004 Colorado passed legislation enacting the nation's first voucher-based approach to financing higher education, known as the College Opportunity Fund (COF). The work of an unusual coalition that included higher education leaders, generally conservative policymakers, and others, COF completely replaced the traditional approach of subsidizing…

  14. Introducing vouchers for malaria prevention in Ghana and Tanzania: context and adoption of innovation in health systems.

    PubMed

    de Savigny, Don; Webster, Jayne; Agyepong, Irene Akua; Mwita, Alex; Bart-Plange, Constance; Baffoe-Wilmot, Aba; Koenker, Hannah; Kramer, Karen; Brown, Nick; Lengeler, Christian

    2012-10-01

    There are striking similarities in health system and other contexts between Tanzania and Ghana that are relevant to the scaling up of continuous delivery of insecticide treated nets (ITNs) for malaria prevention. However, specific contextual factors of relevance to ITN delivery have led implementation down very different pathways in the two countries. Both countries have made major efforts and investments to address this intervention through integrating consumer discount vouchers into the health system. Discount vouchers require arrangements among the public, private and non-governmental sectors and constitute a complex intervention in both health systems and business systems. In Tanzania, vouchers have moved beyond the planning agenda, had policies and programmes formulated, been sustained in implementation at national scale for many years and have become as of 2012 the main and only publicly supported continuous delivery system for ITNs. In Ghana national-scale implementation of vouchers never progressed beyond consideration on the agenda and piloting towards formulation of policy; and the approach was replaced by mass distribution campaigns with less dependency on or integration with the health system. By 2011, Ghana entered a phase with no publicly supported continuous delivery system for ITNs. To understand the different outcomes, we compared the voucher programme timelines, phases, processes and contexts in both countries in reference to the main health system building blocks (governance, human resources, financing, informatics, technologies and service delivery). Contextual factors which provided an enabling environment for the voucher scheme in Tanzania did not do so in Ghana. The voucher scheme was never seen as an appropriate national strategy, other delivery systems were not complementary and the private sector was under-developed. The extensive time devoted to engagement and consensus building among all stakeholders in Tanzania was an important and

  15. Another Try for Vouchers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubow, Arthur

    1978-01-01

    Two law professors at the University of California, Berkeley, John E. Coons and Stephen D. Sugarman, argue that a child's education should be selected by his parents. With that premise, they urge a return to the educational voucher system of school financing. (Author/RK)

  16. The United Nations programme on space applications: priority thematic areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haubold, H.

    The Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNISPACE III) was held in 1999 with efforts to identify world wide benefits of developing space science and technology, particularly in the developing nations. One of the main vehicles to implement recommendations of UNISPACE III is the United Nations Programme on Space Applications of the Office for Outer Space Affairs at UN Headquarters in Vienna. Following a process of prioritization by Member States, the Programme focus its activities on (i) knowledge-based themes as space law and basic space science, (ii) application-based themes as disaster management, natural resources management, environmental monitoring, tele-health, and (iii) enabling technologies such as remote sensing satellites, communications satellites, global navigation satellite systems, and small satellites. Current activities of the Programme will be reviewed. Further information available at http://www.oosa.unvienna.org/sapidx.html

  17. United Nations Environment Programme, Annual Review, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarsfield, Mairuth, Ed.; Emes, John, Ed.

    The 1978 Annual State of the Environment Report of the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) focused on four selected environmental problems of international significance: (1) chemicals and the environment; (2) malaria; (3) the use of agricultural and agro-industrial residues to increase the base for food production; and (4) the conservation…

  18. Vaccines in the national immunization programme.

    PubMed

    Bass, A G

    1993-06-01

    Papua New Guinea has been providing expanded immunization services for more than 14 years. While immunization coverage has risen dramatically, recent surveys have raised serious questions regarding vaccine potency at the service delivery level. Operational practices in vaccine distribution and in the delivery system have been identified in this paper. The international and national standards for vaccine management are described along with the main requirements for maintaining vaccine potency. Quality assurance measures, the responsible personnel and the appropriate intervention points are detailed, along with easily applied guidelines for implementation. An approach to assessing the effectiveness of the quality assurance measures is proposed. PMID:8154196

  19. Great Expectations: Teacher Learning in a National Professional Development Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armour, Kathleen M.; Makopoulou, Kyriaki

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports findings from an evaluation of a national continuing professional development (CPD) programme for teachers in England. Data showed that the localised implementation, opportunities for interactive learning, and "collective participation" were positive factors. Research participants reported difficulties, however, in "cascading"…

  20. India: new trends in the national programme.

    PubMed

    Katti, A P

    1979-01-01

    India's joint conference of the Central Councils of Health and Family Welfare, meeting during April 1979, scaled down the national family planning target for 1979-80 due to the poor performance by some states during 1978-79. The target is now 9.65 million rather than 10.7 million people. The conference also recommended a country wide campaign to explain the concept of the small family and its benefits and a system of incentives and appropriate community awards. Focusing on specific issues, the conference called for initiating a gigantic effort to reduce infant and child mortality by at least 50%. At this time the infant mortality rate is 122/1000. The conference called for family welfare to be integrated with the national adult education program, approved the goal of primary health care for all by the year 2000, and recommended that a higher percentage of the plan budget be allocated to the minimum needs program in the health sector. Another topic considered was the National Development Council (NDC) decision to transfer most of the centrally sponsored health schemes to the state sector. One of the most closely monitored programs in the country, the Family Welfare Program, is being evaluated periodically by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare to assess how far the objectives and operational goals have been realized. Some interesting facts emerged from the most recent studies conducted by the Population Research Center on the impact of the Family Welfare Program on marriage age, sterilization, IUD, fertility, abortion and the role of trade unions, Panchayats, and voluntary organizations. There has been a rise in the age of marriage for both male and females in urban and rural areas, but it is small and slow. A vast majority of acceptors were within the reproductive age group, but a substantial percentage of acceptors belong to the low fertility age group with a large number of living children. A majority of acceptors of sterilization or other permanent methods

  1. The impact of vouchers on the use and quality of health care in developing countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Brody, Carinne Meyer; Bellows, Nicole; Campbell, Martha; Potts, Malcom

    2013-01-01

    One approach to delivering healthcare in developing countries is through voucher programmes, where vouchers are distributed to a targeted population for free or subsidised health care. Using inclusion/exclusion criteria, a search of databases, key journals and websites review was conducted in October 2010. A narrative synthesis approach was taken to summarise and analyse five outcome categories: targeting, utilisation, cost efficiency, quality and health outcomes. Sub-group and sensitivity analyses were also performed. A total of 24 studies evaluating 16 health voucher programmes were identified. The findings from 64 outcome variables indicates: modest evidence that vouchers effectively target specific populations; insufficient evidence to determine whether vouchers deliver healthcare efficiently; robust evidence that vouchers increase utilisation; modest evidence that vouchers improve quality; no evidence that vouchers have an impact on health outcomes; however, this last conclusion was found to be unstable in a sensitivity analysis. The results in the areas of targeting, utilisation and quality indicate that vouchers have a positive effect on health service delivery. The subsequent link that they improve health was found to be unstable from the data analysed; another finding of a positive effect would result in robust evidence. Vouchers are still new and the number of published studies is limiting. PMID:23336251

  2. Prepare Vouchers & Pay Vouchers. Student's Manual and Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamer, Jean

    Supporting performance objectives 49 and 50 of the V-TECS (Vocational-Technical Education Consortium of States) Secretarial Catalog, both a set of student materials and an instructor's manual on preparing vouchers and pay vouchers are included in this packet, which is one of a series. The student materials include five business transactions…

  3. Vouchers Revisited: The Prospects for Education Vouchers in the Eighties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ralph, John H.

    Political and social changes that have increased the public's interest in educational vouchers are summarized in three categories. The first category, new support for the arguments made by voucher advocates, includes Milton Friedman's suggestion of a free and competitive market for education, and John E. Coons and Stephen D. Sugarman's…

  4. Kidney paired donation: a plea for a Swiss National Programme.

    PubMed

    Hadaya, Karine; Fehr, Thomas; Rüsi, Barbara; Ferrari-Lacraz, Sylvie; Jean, Villard; Ferrari, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Growing incidence of end-stage renal disease, shortage of kidneys from deceased donors and a better outcome for recipients of kidneys from living donor have led many centres worldwide to favour living donor kidney transplantation programmes. Although criteria for living donation have greatly evolved in recent years with acceptance of related and unrelated donors, an immunological incompatibility, either due to ABO incompatibility and/or to positive cross-match, between a living donor and the intended recipient, could impede up to 40% of such procedures. To avoid refusal of willing and healthy living donors, a number of strategies have emerged to overcome immunological incompatibilities. Kidney paired donation is the safest way for such patients to undergo kidney transplantation. Implemented with success in many countries either as national or multiple regional independent programmes, it could include simple exchanges between any number of incompatible pairs, incorporate compatible pairs and non-directed donors (NDDs) to start a chain of compatible transplantations, lead to acceptance of ABO-incompatible matching, and integrate desensitising protocols. Incorporating all variations of kidney paired donation, the Australian programme has been able to facilitate kidney transplantation in 49% of registered incompatible pairs. This review is a plea for implementing a national kidney paired donation programme in Switzerland. PMID:25742633

  5. Education Answers That Vouchers Question.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sroufe, Gerald E.

    This speech explains education voucher programs and responds to criticisms of such programs. The education voucher system is described as one that questions traditional structures and methods while it equalizes opportunities to purchase education, fosters federally funded and controlled alternative school settings and programs, and gives parents…

  6. The Supreme Court and Vouchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Charles J.; Mawdsley, Ralph D.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the facts and state and federal constitutional law related to "Zelman v. Simons-Harris," a Cleveland school-voucher case before the United States Supreme Court. Argues that the Court will likely uphold the constitutionality of the Cleveland voucher program, finding that it does not advance religion in violation of the First Amendment.…

  7. Public Voucher Plans. Trends and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadderman, Margaret

    This document provides an overview of public-school voucher plans. Educational vouchers originated in the 1960s when Milton Friedman argued that vouchers would improve educational efficiency. Parents would receive the equivalent of per-pupil expenditures in the form of vouchers that could then be used at any school, either public and private. But…

  8. Status of national diabetes programmes in the Americas.

    PubMed Central

    White, F.; Nanan, D.

    1999-01-01

    Reported are the responses in the latter half of 1997 of all ministries of health in the Region of the Americas to the Declaration of the Americas on Diabetes, which was adopted by the Directing Council of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) in 1996 as a basis for national programme development in diabetes. The short-term targets were the designation of national focal points, the preparation of national estimates of the disease burden, and the development and implementation of national strategies and plans to deal with diabetes. The survey found that most countries recognized diabetes as a significant public health problem. In terms of global relevance, a number of lessons have been learned from this exercise: the role of broadly based participation in gaining recognition at the national health policy level; the wide acceptance of an integrated programme model; the relevance of process-related targets to achieve short-term success; and the critical role of having a designated focal point within the managerial approach. PMID:10680245

  9. Small Satellites and the Nigerian National Space Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borroffice, Robert; Chizea, Francis; Sun, Wei; Sweeting, Martin, , Sir

    2002-01-01

    Space technology and access to space have been elusive to most developing countries over the last half of the 21st century, which is attributed to very low par capital income and the lack of awareness of policy/decision makers about the role of space technology in national development. Space technology was seen as very expensive and prestigious, meant only for the major industrialized countries, while the developing countries should focus on building their national economy and providing food, shelter and other social amenities for their ever-growing populations. In the last decade, the trend has changed with many developing countries embracing spaced technology as one of the major ways of achieving sustainable development. The present trend towards the use of small satellites in meeting national needs has aided this transition because, apart from the small size, they are cheaper to build and to launch, with shorter development time, lower complexity, improved effectiveness and reduced operating costs. This in turn has made them more affordable and has opened up new avenues for the acquisition of satellite technology. The collaborative work between National Space Research and Development Agency of Nigeria (NASRDA) and Surrey Satellite and Technology Limited (SSTL) is a programme aimed at building two small satellites as a way of kick- starting the national space programme. The first project, NigeriaSAT-1, is an enhanced microsatellite carrying Earth observation payloads able to provide 32 metre GSD 3 band multispectral images with a 600km swath width. NigeriaSAT-1 is one of six microsatellites forming the Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC) alongside microsatellites contributed by Algeria, China, Turkey, Thailand and UK. Through participation in this international constellation, Nigeria will be able to receive images with a daily revisit worldwide. The EO images generated by NigeriaSAT-1 and the partner microsatellites will be used for providing rapid coverage

  10. A national teleradiology programme in Mali: implementation and results.

    PubMed

    Sangaré, Mohamed; Tanner, Lydia; Voss, Sarah; Laureys, Francois; Hollow, David; Touré, Mahamadou

    2015-04-01

    We reviewed the national teleradiology programme in Mali to establish whether it improved diagnosis for patients and improved the referring doctor's ability to give an accurate diagnosis. The teleradiology programme connected the University Hospital in Bamako to all seven regional hospitals in Mali and one private health clinic. The pilot phase began in 2005 in three hospitals. Initially the implementation involved connections via broadband, but subsequently satellite antennae were provided at three remote hospitals in the north. Between 2005 and 2013, X-ray and mammogram images from 5628 patients were read by teleradiology. Radiologists provided the sole diagnosis for 29% of cases (i.e. the referrer did not make a diagnosis) and altered the regional doctor's diagnosis in 12% of cases. The proportion of cases for which the regional doctor gave no diagnosis decreased from 93% to 24% over the same period, indicating an increase in the doctors' confidence and incentive to test their own diagnosis. The percentage of cases for which regional doctors made an inaccurate diagnosis decreased to 3% in 2013. Use of the teleradiology service varied widely between hospitals. Successful implementation depended on local ownership of a network, which was developed in close collaboration with hospital leadership, national radiologists and other healthcare personnel. PMID:25680387

  11. Operational programs for national radioactive waste and spent fuel management programme in Slovenia

    SciTech Connect

    Zeleznik, Nadja; Kralj, Metka; Mele, Irena

    2007-07-01

    The first separate National Radioactive Waste and Spent Fuel Management Programme (National Programme) was prepared in Slovenia in 2005 as a supplementary part of the National Environmental Action Programme and was adopted in February 2006 by the Slovenian Parliament. The new National Programme includes all topics being relevant for the management of the radioactive waste and spent fuel which are produced in Slovenia, from the legislation and identification of different waste streams, to the management of radioactive waste and spent fuel, the decommissioning of nuclear facilities and management of (TE)NORM in the near future from 2006 up to the 2015. The National Programme identified the existing and possible future problems and proposed the technical solutions and action plans for two distinctive periods: 2006-2009 and 2010- 2015. According to the requirement of Act on Protection against Ionising Radiation and Nuclear Safety the national Agency for Radwaste Management (ARAO) prepared the operational programmes for the four year period with technical details on implementation of the National programme. ARAO gained the detailed plans of different involved holders and proposed 9 operational programmes with aims, measures, individual organizations in charge, expenses and resources for each of the programmes. The Operational programmes were already reviewed by the Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning and are under acceptance. The orientation of the radioactive waste management according to the National Programme and operational activities within additional limitations based on the strategical decisions of Slovenian Government is presented in the paper. (authors)

  12. Piloting a national laboratory electronic programme status reporting system.

    PubMed

    Cassim, Naseem; Coetzee, Lindi; Motlonye, Bahule; Mpele, Nobantu; Glencross, Deborah K

    2013-01-01

    The NHLS performs close to 4 million CD4 tests per annum for the public sector in South Africa through a network of 60 CD4 testing laboratories. CD4 laboratory data provides an assessment of the number of patients on ART and HIV-positive patients in the pre-ART wellness programs. This study aims to develop a laboratory based Comprehensive Care, Management and Treatment of HIV and AIDS (CCMT) programme status reporting system for CD4 testing at three health facilities in the Ekurhuleni health district using a newly developed CCMT request form, the Laboratory Information System (LIMS) and Corporate Data Warehouse (CDW). The study will generate monitoring and evaluation data to assist in the management of health facilities through a national electronic corporate data warehouse. PMID:23920920

  13. Developing Multi-Agency Teams: Implications of a National Programme Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simkins, Tim; Garrick, Ros

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the factors which influence the effectiveness of formal development programmes targeted at multi-agency teams in children's services. It draws on two studies of the National College for School Leadership's Multi-Agency Teams Development programme, reporting key characteristics of the programme, short-term outcomes in terms of…

  14. 78 FR 36520 - Rural Development Voucher Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... Rural Housing Service Rural Development Voucher Program AGENCY: Rural Housing Service, USDA. ACTION... demonstration Rural Development Voucher Program, as authorized under Section 542 of the Housing Act of 1949 as... the Rural Development Voucher Program and also sets forth the general policies and procedures for...

  15. Education Vouchers in Spain: The Valencian Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granell, Rafael

    2002-01-01

    Description and economic evaluation of the first Spanish education-voucher program: The nursery voucher system in Valencia. Evaluation focuses on equality of opportunity and parental choice. Finds that vouchers allow a number of poor children to be schooled as well as allowing a number of parents to choose the school they prefer. Discusses…

  16. Embedding operational research into national disease control programme: lessons from 10 years of experience in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Mahendradhata, Yodi; Probandari, Ari; Widjanarko, Bagoes; Riono, Pandu; Mustikawati, Dyah; Tiemersma, Edine W.; Alisjahbana, Bachti

    2014-01-01

    There is growing recognition that operational research (OR) should be embedded into national disease control programmes. However, much of the current OR capacity building schemes are still predominantly driven by international agencies with limited integration into national disease control programmes. We demonstrated that it is possible to achieve a more sustainable capacity building effort across the country by establishing an OR group within the national tuberculosis (TB) control programme in Indonesia. Key challenges identified include long-term financial support, limited number of scientific publications, and difficulties in documenting impact on programmatic performance. External evaluation has expressed concerns in regard to utilisation of OR in policy making. Efforts to address this concern have been introduced recently and led to indications of increased utilisation of research evidence in policy making by the national TB control programme. Embedding OR in national disease control programmes is key in establishing an evidence-based disease control programme. PMID:25361728

  17. Embedding operational research into national disease control programme: lessons from 10 years of experience in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Mahendradhata, Yodi; Probandari, Ari; Widjanarko, Bagoes; Riono, Pandu; Mustikawati, Dyah; Tiemersma, Edine W; Alisjahbana, Bachti

    2014-01-01

    There is growing recognition that operational research (OR) should be embedded into national disease control programmes. However, much of the current OR capacity building schemes are still predominantly driven by international agencies with limited integration into national disease control programmes. We demonstrated that it is possible to achieve a more sustainable capacity building effort across the country by establishing an OR group within the national tuberculosis (TB) control programme in Indonesia. Key challenges identified include long-term financial support, limited number of scientific publications, and difficulties in documenting impact on programmatic performance. External evaluation has expressed concerns in regard to utilisation of OR in policy making. Efforts to address this concern have been introduced recently and led to indications of increased utilisation of research evidence in policy making by the national TB control programme. Embedding OR in national disease control programmes is key in establishing an evidence-based disease control programme. PMID:25361728

  18. Front-Line Advocacy: Fighting Off a Voucher Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimesey, Robert P., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    In September 2010, the U.S. Senate's Armed Services Committee approved an amendment to the proposed National Defense Authorization Act. The amendment, known as Section 583, authorized a Defense Department pilot voucher program to mitigate the cost of private school tuition for special-needs children of military parents. Sen. Jim Webb, a member of…

  19. Book Vouchers: An Exploratory Analysis of Their Use and Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Book vouchers serve as one component of need-based financial aid packages at the College of Southern Nevada (CSN), one of the nation's largest community colleges. This study compared the academic performance of Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) applicants in attendance at CSN during the 2008-09 and 2009-10 academic years. A basic…

  20. Evaluation of the national roll-out of parenting programmes across England: the parenting early intervention programme (PEIP)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence based parenting programmes can improve parenting skills and the behaviour of children exhibiting, or at risk of developing, antisocial behaviour. In order to develop a public policy for delivering these programmes it is necessary not only to demonstrate their efficacy through rigorous trials but also to determine that they can be rolled out on a large scale. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the UK government funded national implementation of its Parenting Early Intervention Programme, a national roll-out of parenting programmes for parents of children 8–13 years in all 152 local authorities (LAs) across England. Building upon our study of the Pathfinder (2006–08) implemented in 18 LAs. To the best of our knowledge this is the first comparative study of a national roll-out of parenting programmes and the first study of parents of children 8–13 years. Methods The UK government funded English LAs to implement one or more of five evidence based programmes (later increased to eight): Triple P, Incredible Years, Strengthening Families Strengthening Communities, Families and Schools Together (FAST), and the Strengthening Families Programme (10–14). Parents completed measures of parenting style (laxness and over-reactivity), and mental well-being, and also child behaviour at three time points: pre- and post-course and again one year later. Results 6143 parents from 43 LAs were included in the study of whom 3325 provided post-test data and 1035 parents provided data at one-year follow up. There were significant improvements for each programme, with effect sizes (Cohen’s d) for the combined sample of 0.72 parenting laxness, 0.85 parenting over-reactivity, 0.79 parent mental well-being, and 0.45 for child conduct problems. These improvements were largely maintained one year later. All four programmes for which we had sufficient data for comparison were effective. There were generally larger effects on both parent and child measures

  1. Expanding Global Language Education in Public Primary Schools: The National English Programme in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The paper examines the recent national programme of English language instruction in the Mexican public primary schools, called the "Programa Nacional de Inglés en Educación Básica" (PNIEB). The programme, initiated in 2009 by the Ministry of Education as part of the national curriculum, represents the largest expansion of English…

  2. Cultural Voucher Program; Program Abstract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Museums Collaborative, Inc., New York, NY.

    A description of the Museums Collaborative Voucher Program, a system through which cultural institutions conduct programs with large, heterogeneous, adult populations in New York City is provided in this paper. The program began with two goals: to broaden the audience served by New York City's cultural institutions and to provide the institutions…

  3. The Alum Rock Voucher Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwest Network, Hayward, CA.

    During the 1972-73 school year, the Alum Rock Voucher Program, an experimental program, was begun in 6 neighborhood schools in East San Jose, California. The program was designed to allow greater parent participation and choice in their children's education. This illustrated, bilingual pamphlet, written as a story told by 2 caricatures, discusses…

  4. Programmable Beam Spatial Shaping System for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Heebner, J; Borden, M; Miller, P; Hunter, S; Christensen, K; Scanlan, M; Haynam, C; Wegner, P; Hermann, M; Brunton, G; Tse, E; Awwal, A; Wong, N; Seppala, L; Franks, M; Marley, E; Wong, N; Seppala, L; Franks, M; Marley, E; Williams, K; Budge, T; Henesian, M; Stolz, C; Suratwala, T; Monticelli, M; Walmer, D; Dixit, S; Widmayer, C; Wolfe, J; Bude, J; McCarty, K; DiNicola, J M

    2011-01-21

    A system of customized spatial light modulators has been installed onto the front end of the laser system at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The devices are capable of shaping the beam profile at a low-fluence relay plane upstream of the amplifier chain. Their primary function is to introduce 'blocker' obscurations at programmed locations within the beam profile. These obscurations are positioned to shadow small, isolated flaws on downstream optical components that might otherwise limit the system operating energy. The modulators were designed to enable a drop-in retrofit of each of the 48 existing Pre Amplifier Modules (PAMs) without compromising their original performance specifications. This was accomplished by use of transmissive Optically Addressable Light Valves (OALV) based on a Bismuth Silicon Oxide photoconductive layer in series with a twisted nematic liquid crystal (LC) layer. These Programmable Spatial Shaper packages in combination with a flaw inspection system and optic registration strategy have provided a robust approach for extending the operational lifetime of high fluence laser optics on NIF.

  5. On Thin Ice: How Advocates and Opponents Could Misread the Public's Views on Vouchers and Charter Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farkas, Steve; Johnson, Jean; Foleno, Anthony

    This study explored public opinion with regard to educational vouchers and charter schools. It summarizes findings from an in-depth national survey conducted in 1999 of 1,200 members of the public, including 394 parents of school-age children. The study also examined parents' attitudes in several areas where vouchers and charter schools are now…

  6. Educational Vouchers. School Management Digest Series 1, No. 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindelow, John

    This review of research and other literature on educational vouchers provides an overview and history of the voucher concept and voucher programs. The author first looks at several existing versions of the voucher idea, such as the G.I. Bill and Denmark's free schools. California's Alum Rock voucher experiment is evaluated, with suggestions about…

  7. Peaceful Uses for Tuition Vouchers: Looking Back and Looking Forward.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lines, Patricia M.

    This paper reviews the theoretical basis for educational voucher proposals, the various types of vouchers proposed, and the experience that has been had with voucher systems so far. The paper looks first at the claims made by voucher supporters that vouchers will redistribute political and economic power and simplify the administration of…

  8. The Commercial Market For Priority Review Vouchers.

    PubMed

    Ridley, David B; Régnier, Stephane A

    2016-05-01

    In 2007 the US Congress created the priority review voucher program to encourage the development of drugs for neglected diseases. Under the program, the developer of a drug that treats a neglected disease receives both a faster review of the drug by the Food and Drug Administration and a voucher for a faster review of a different drug. The developer can sell the voucher. We estimated the commercial value of the voucher using US sales of new treatments approved in the period 2007-09. A third of the commercial value of a voucher comes from capturing market share from competitors, nearly half from the value of earlier sales because of the expedited review, and less than a quarter from lengthening the time between approval and the launch of a generic competitor. We estimate that if only one priority review voucher is available in a year, it will be worth more than $200 million, but if four vouchers are available, the value could fall below $100 million. Congress should be cautious about expanding the voucher program, because increasing the number of vouchers sharply decreases the expected price. Lower voucher prices could undermine the incentive to develop new medicines for neglected diseases. PMID:27140982

  9. Using a voucher system to extend health services to migrant farmworkers.

    PubMed

    Slesinger, D P; Ofstead, C

    1996-01-01

    FAMILY HEALTH/LA CLINICA de los Campesinos, Inc., is a federally funded migrant health clinic in the heart of Wisconsin's farmland that has offered outpatient health care since 1973 and an accompanying "voucher" program since 1988. The charges for outpatient care are based on the ability to pay. The clinic issues vouchers not only to migrant workers living and working in remote parts of the State but also to patients needing services the clinic does not offer. Between 1 April 1992 and 30 March 1993, 677 participants submitted 1,794 vouchers that provided for $83,833 in partial health care payments. La Clinica paid a median amount of $22 for each voucher, its reimbursement value ranging from $1 to $979. Hospitals received the highest median payment and pharmacies the lowest. Voucher payments generally covered 60% of the bill, but dentists commanded a higher percentage(70%) and clinics and medical groups a lower one (42%). Most vouchers paid for procedures and services La Clinica could not provide. This program shows how a health care provider in one location, with a patient population scattered throughout a sizeable geographic area, can coordinate services not offered at its facility. With the national spotlight on health care reform, the concept of vouchers for people in outlying or underserved regions deserves further investigation. PMID:8610192

  10. The rise and fall of a National Safety Promotion Programme:the case of Sweden.

    PubMed

    Skjonberg, Guldbrand; Svanstrom, Leif; Schelp, Lothar

    2011-06-01

    In 1982, when Sweden got a new Health Service Act, the health sector was given a new role - to collect, analyse and actively disseminate the knowledge it gained. A National Safety Promotion Programme was build up by the National Board for Health and Welfare, and a National Inter-sector Cooperation Group and medical advisory board were established. In 1992, the programme was transferred to the National Institute of Public Health. Later the Institute was given a new role and therefore the programme was relocated to the Swedish Rescue Service Agency. In some aspects we can see a parallel with the paradigm that was behind the Civil Protection Act 2003 and the Health Service Act 1982. It was a logic consequence to move the national programme to the rescue service sector. Within the National Rescue Service Agency the programme ended up in the line organisation, which lacked a cross-sector work orientation. The programme was closed down. In the article the reason for the decisions is described and also the background and the possibilities for the programme to act in different national boards as well as the preconditions for an inter-sector group. PMID:21442504

  11. Privatization And Vouchers In Colombia And Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenas, Alberto

    2004-07-01

    The voucher model of financing schooling is becoming increasingly common throughout Latin America, with at least 12 countries using vouchers or voucher-like schemes. The present study focuses on the voucher models of Colombia and Chile, which have the most extensive programs of this type and those of the longest standing in the region. Using empirical evidence, the author compares the two models along four evaluative dimensions: educational quality, segregation, choice and socialization. After weighing the successes and weaknesses of each system, he concludes that, among other characteristics, the most effective and equitable voucher model features: (a) a flexible interpretation of educational quality; (b) financial grants which target solely the poor; (c) vouchers which cover the entire cost of tuition; (d) open enrolment at participating schools; (e) the participation of both secular and religious private schools; (f) accessible and meaningful information to parents; and (g) strong systems of accountability.

  12. Implementing the "Voucher" Demonstration in Alum Rock, or "Taking the 'OUCH' Out of Vouchers."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Stephen S.

    Educational voucher plans envision the creation of diverse educational options among which informed parents may make a choice for the schooling of their children. One specific voucher plan--the "regulated, compensatory voucher" plan advocated by the Center for the Study of Public Policy (the CSPP model)--has given rise to a federal effort to…

  13. Why Indiana Voucher Parents Choose Private Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, Indiana enacted the broadest school voucher program in the country. In the program's first year, almost 4,000 families used vouchers to attend participating private schools, with the number of students applying for vouchers more than doubling in each of the following two years, to 9,324 students in 2012-13, and 19,809 in 2013-14. The…

  14. Why vouchers matter in botanical research1

    PubMed Central

    Culley, Theresa M.

    2013-01-01

    What is a voucher and why is it important in research? As a preserved specimen of an identified taxon deposited in a permanent and accessible storage facility, the voucher serves as the supporting material for published studies of the taxon and ensures that the science is repeatable. Vouchers are crucial in authenticating the taxonomy of an organism, as a tool for identifying localities of the taxon, and for additional taxonomic, genetic, ecological, and/or environmental research. PMID:25202501

  15. Accreditation of Library and Information Science Programmes in the Gulf Cooperation Council Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehman, Sajjad ur

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the accreditation possibilities and prospects for the library and information science education programmes located in the six member nations of the Gulf Cooperation Council. This paper has been based on the findings of a study focused on the evaluation practices of these programmes and the perceptions of the leading…

  16. Evaluation of the Undergraduate Physics Programme at Indira Gandhi National Open University: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, Arundhati; Vijayshri; Garg, Suresh

    2009-01-01

    The undergraduate science programme was launched at the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) in 1991-92 with an enrolment of 1,210 students. The programme was well received, and enrolments increased over the years. However, the success rates have not kept pace with enrolment. In this paper, the authors report the results of an evaluation…

  17. Sure Start Local Programmes: Implications of Case Study Data from the National Evaluation of Sure Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunstill, Jane; Allnock, Debbie; Akhurst, Sofie; Garbers, Claudia

    2005-01-01

    This paper is based on case study data on Sure Start Local Programmes collected within the Implementation Module of the Department for Education and Skills commissioned National Evaluation of Sure Start, between 2002 and 2004. Part one describes and discusses some key challenges for programme stakeholders which are associated with the optimum…

  18. Individual-level outcomes from a national clinical leadership development programme.

    PubMed

    Patton, Declan; Fealy, Gerard; McNamara, Martin; Casey, Mary; Connor, Tom O; Doyle, Louise; Quinlan, Christina

    2013-08-01

    A national clinical leadership development programme was instituted for Irish nurses and midwives in 2010. Incorporating a development framework and leadership pathway and a range of bespoke interventions for leadership development, including workshops, action-learning sets, mentoring and coaching, the programme was introduced at seven pilot sites in the second half of 2011. The programme pilot was evaluated with reference to structure, process and outcomes elements, including individual-level programme outcomes. Evaluation data were generated through focus groups and group interviews, individual interviews and written submissions. The data provided evidence of nurses' and midwives' clinical leadership development through self and observer-reported behaviours and dispositions including accounts of how the programme participants developed and displayed particular clinical leadership competencies. A key strength of the new programme was that it involved interventions that focussed on specific leadership competencies to be developed within the practice context. PMID:24099226

  19. Alum Rock Voucher Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Jim

    1976-01-01

    Notes that thus far surveys show that the children like the project, the parents like it and the teachers love it. Even the National Institute of Education likes it. Yet it is the only one of its kind in the country and seems likely to remain so for the foreseeable future. (Author/AM)

  20. The Fall and Rise of Education Vouchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salganik, Laura Hersh

    1981-01-01

    Looks at lessons learned from the Alum Rock voucher experiment and at the current politics of educational vouchers. Condensed from a report of the same name, published by the Center for Social Organization of Schools, The Johns Hopkins University (Report No. 307, March 1981). (Editor/SJL)

  1. Voucher Payments and the Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Colleen

    This report presents the case for competition in education, tenders the voucher plan as a means of fostering competition and providing choice in education, and discusses some problems associated with education voucher proposals. Two primary problems -- segregation and church-state conflict -- are given particular attention. The author also…

  2. What Is the Verdict on School Vouchers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Martha M.

    2000-01-01

    The central federal question surrounding vouchers is whether participation of sectarian schools violates the First Amendment's Establishment clause. The U.S. Supreme Court, through its interpretation of the federal Constitution, may have the final word in determining voucher proposals' future. Litigation in Cleveland, Milwaukee, Vermont, and Maine…

  3. Vouchers--An Illusion of Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Janet M.

    2002-01-01

    Vouchers have been touted as a means to give parents more choice in their child's education, with the rationale that this choice will improve their child's chances of succeeding in school. Studies have produced mixed and inconclusive results. Critics argue that only the more motivated and higher income families will use the vouchers, thus…

  4. Educational "Choice" (Vouchers) and Social Mobility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manski, Charles F.

    1992-01-01

    Uses a model of student and school behavior to simulate effects of differing voucher amounts on students in different income categories, drawing on two major assumptions concerning service delivery and competition. Poor youngsters would not be better off under voucher system. Even under highly favorable conditions, a systemic choice system would…

  5. 78 FR 49374 - Rural Development Voucher Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Housing Service 7 CFR Part 3560 RIN 0575-AC96 Rural Development Voucher... agency within the Rural Development mission area, is adding new regulations to implement its Rural Development Voucher Program (RDVP). Section 542 of the Housing Act of 1949, as amended, authorizes RDVP....

  6. The Legality of School Vouchers: Round Two

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Martha

    2006-01-01

    In 2002 the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that state-supported vouchers, which parents can redeem in private schools, do not offend the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment. Thus, the legality of government vouchers to fund education will be determined primarily on the basis of state law. Specifically, programs are being challenged under state…

  7. Nutrition advocacy and national development: the PROFILES programme and its application.

    PubMed Central

    Burkhalter, B. R.; Abel, E.; Aguayo, V.; Diene, S. M.; Parlato, M. B.; Ross, J. S.

    1999-01-01

    Investment in nutritional programmes can contribute to economic growth and is cost-effective in improving child survival and development. In order to communicate this to decision-makers, the PROFILES nutrition advocacy and policy development programme was applied in certain developing countries. Effective advocacy is necessary to generate financial and political support for scaling up from small pilot projects and maintaining successful national programmes. The programme uses scientific knowledge to estimate development indicators such as mortality, morbidity, fertility, school performance and labour productivity from the size and nutritional condition of populations. Changes in nutritional condition are estimated from the costs, coverage and effectiveness of proposed programmes. In Bangladesh this approach helped to gain approval and funding for a major nutrition programme. PROFILES helped to promote the nutrition component of an early childhood development programme in the Philippines, and to make nutrition a top priority in Ghana's new national child survival strategy. The application of PROFILES in these and other countries has been supported by the United States Agency for International Development, the United Nations Children's Fund, the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank, the Micronutrient Initiative and other bodies. PMID:10361758

  8. The Voucher Movement as a Freedom of Choice Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picus, Larry

    After describing the history of the educational voucher movement, this paper briefly discusses the various voucher models that have been proposed and considers some of the issues for and against the establishment of voucher systems. Tracing the voucher concept back to Adam Smith, Thomas Paine, and John Stuart Mill, the author notes that after the…

  9. Some Thoughts on the Evaluation of the Chilean Voucher System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapelli, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    Many papers describe the Chilean voucher system as the "textbook" voucher case. But this is mistaken and has prevented research to undertake the key question of how the particular design of the Chilean voucher system determines the results obtained in Chile. This also prevents discussion of how a voucher system with a different design could lead…

  10. Power to the Parents? The Story of Education Vouchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, David K.; Farrar, Eleanor

    1977-01-01

    Educational vouchers opened the door for power shifts. That they did not affect the ways in which work, authority, and child rearing are apportioned in society is one conclusion of this discussion of vouchers. The Alum Rock school district voucher plan is analyzed as an example of an implemented voucher plan. (Author/JP)

  11. Private Voucher and Scholarship Plans. Trends and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadderman, Margaret

    This article examines an increasingly popular alternative to government-funded voucher plans: private voucher and scholarship plans. Through the 1998-99 school year, spending on privately funded voucher programs totalled $61 million. Private vouchers began with the Golden Rule Program in Indianapolis in 1991 and was inspired by insurance CEO J.…

  12. Issues in Business Education Programme: Challenges to National Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajisafe, Olatunbosun Emmanuel; Bolarinwa, Kayode Omotayo; Tuke, Edeh

    2015-01-01

    Transformation engenders change, and change denotes a departure from the old order to a new one. National transformation therefore implies fundamental change in the building block of a nation; change in the social, economic, infrastructural and political landscape of a nation. For transformation to be achieved, it must encompass all levels of…

  13. National tuberculosis programme review: experience over the period 1990-95.

    PubMed Central

    Pio, A.; Luelmo, F.; Kumaresan, J.; Spinaci, S.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1990 the WHO Global Tuberculosis Programme (GTB) has promoted the revision of national tuberculosis programmes to strengthen the focus on directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS) and close monitoring of treatment outcomes. GTB has encouraged in-depth evaluation of activities through a comprehensive programme review. Over the period 1990-95, WHO supported 12 such programme reviews. The criteria for selection were as follows: large population (Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, Mexico, and Thailand); good prospects of developing a model programme for a region (Nepal, Zimbabwe); or at advanced stage of implementation of a model programme for a region (Guinea, Peru). The estimated combined incidence of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis was 82 per 100,000 population, about 43% of the global incidence. The prevalence of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was variable, being very high in Ethiopia and Zimbabwe, but negligible in Bangladesh, China, Nepal and Peru. The programme reviews were conducted by teams of 15-35 experts representing a wide range of national and external institutions. After a 2-3-month preparatory period, the conduct of the review usually lasted 2-3 weeks, including a first phase of meetings with authorities and review of documents, a second phase for field visits, and a third phase of discussion of findings and recommendations. The main lessons learned from the programme reviews were as follows: programme review is a useful tool to secure government commitment, reorient the tuberculosis control policies and replan the activities on solid grounds; the involvement of public health and academic institutions, cooperating agencies, and nongovernmental organizations secured a broad support to the new policies; programme success is linked to a centralized direction which supports a decentralized implementation through the primary health care services; monitoring and evaluation of case management functions

  14. The Impact of the National Newborn Hearing Screening Programme on Educational Services in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCracken, Wendy; Young, Alys; Tattersall, Helen; Uus, Kai; Bamford, John

    2005-01-01

    This article presents results related to the impact on educational support services of the introduction of the first phase of the national Newborn Hearing Screening Programme (NHSP) in England. This study was funded by the Department of Health and undertaken as one element of a national evaluation of NHSP across a range of domains. It presents…

  15. The Voucher Debate after "Zelman v. Simmons-Harris": The Need to Focus on Core Education Issues. Policy Briefs: Education Reform. Volume 2, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiske, Edward B.; Ladd, Helen F.

    2002-01-01

    The decision of the U.S. Supreme Court in "Zelman v. Simmons-Harris" will significantly alter debate over national education policy in the U.S., mainly because vouchers have suddenly become a more realistic political option. Until June 27, 2002, the day the high court issued its ruling, it was possible in to dismiss voucher proposals out of hand.…

  16. [The interactions between the national, regional and intra-regional levels in public health programmes].

    PubMed

    Jabot, F; Demeulemeester, R

    2005-12-01

    Defined and recognised as a relevant level for steering health policy, the regional level is also a strategically important level for integrating national orientations and local projects. Management models are identified based on an analysis of national plans and about twenty regional programmes. If normative reference irrevocably shapes the representation of programme implementation, then the experience of regional health programmes based on the establishment of partnerships and skills sharing has played an important training role function and has influenced the methods used at the national level. There is a need to find a balance between the drafting of plans and the awareness of local characteristics, and to build new relationships between these levels and clarify their roles. PMID:16485440

  17. The Environment Programme for the Whole of the United Nations 1990-95: 13 Broad Programmes, Emphasizing Research, Assessment, Technical Assistance and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNEP News, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Lists titles of 31 environmental programs over 13 broad categories including terrestrial ecosystems, oceans, health and welfare, and energy, industry and transportation. Describes the general objectives, implementing agencies, and the role of UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme). (YP)

  18. Interval cancers in a national colorectal cancer screening programme

    PubMed Central

    Stanners, Greig; Lang, Jaroslaw; Brewster, David H; Carey, Francis A; Fraser, Callum G

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about interval cancers (ICs) in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Objective The purpose of this study was to identify IC characteristics and compare these with screen-detected cancers (SCs) and cancers in non-participants (NPCs) over the same time period. Design This was an observational study done in the first round of the Scottish Bowel Screening Programme. All individuals (772,790), aged 50–74 years, invited to participate between 1 January 2007 and 31 May 2009 were studied by linking their screening records with confirmed CRC records in the Scottish Cancer Registry (SCR). Characteristics of SC, IC and NPC were determined. Results There were 555 SCs, 502 ICs and 922 NPCs. SCs were at an earlier stage than ICs and NPCs (33.9% Dukes’ A as against 18.7% in IC and 11.3% in NPC), screening preferentially detected cancers in males (64.7% as against 52.8% in IC and 59.7% in NPC): this was independent of a different cancer site distribution in males and females. SC in the colon were less advanced than IC, but not in the rectum. Conclusion ICs account for 47.5% of the CRCs in the screened population, indicating approximately 50% screening test sensitivity: guaiac faecal occult blood testing (gFOBT) sensitivity is less for women than for men and gFOBT screening may not be effective for rectal cancer.

  19. The Politics and Administration of the Voucher Demonstration in Alum Rock: The First Year, 1972-1973. Analysis of the Education Voucher Demonstration. A Working Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Stephen S.; Kellen, Konrad

    The Educational Voucher Demonstration began in the Alum Rock Union Elementary School District, San Jose, California, in September 1972. Initially sponsored by the Office of Economic Opportunity, it is now under the aegis of the National Institute of Education. This publication describes the socioeconomic and cultural setting of the school…

  20. Reaching targets in the national cervical screening programme: are current practices unethical?

    PubMed Central

    Foster, P; Anderson, C M

    1998-01-01

    The principle of informed consent is now well established within the National Health Service (NHS) in relation to any type of medical treatment. However, this ethical principle appears to be far less well established in relation to medical screening programmes such as Britain's national cervical screening programme. This article will critically examine the case for health care providers vigorously pursuing women to accept an invitation to be screened. It will discuss the type of information which women would need in order to make an informed decision about whether or not to be screened. The lack of such information in current patient leaflets on the "smear test" will then be documented. Finally, the article will explore possible ways of maximising women's autonomy in relation to the cervical screening programme without sacrificing any of its main benefits. PMID:9650108

  1. Do Vouchers Lead to Sorting under Random Private School Selection? Evidence from the Milwaukee Voucher Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakrabarti, Rajashri

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of voucher design on student sorting in the application and enrollment phases of parental choice. Much of the existing literature investigates the question of sorting where private schools can screen students. However, the publicly funded U.S. voucher programs require private schools to accept all students unless…

  2. Educational Vouchers in New Rochelle. Phase I: General Design of Voucher Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Marwick, Mitchell and Co., New York, NY.

    Part 1 of this report outlines the concept of vouchers and the nature and objectives of the New Rochelle study. The more pertinent work tasks undertaken to accomplish the objectives are contained in the appendix. The authors describe their position regarding the voucher plan, highlight its major elements, and outline the steps the district should…

  3. Teacher Performance and Student Learning: Linking Evidence from Two National Assessment Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taut, Sandy; Valencia, Edgar; Palacios, Diego; Santelices, Maria V.; Jiménez, Daniela; Manzi, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the validity of a national, standards-based teacher evaluation programme by examining the relationship between teachers' evaluation results and their students' learning progress. We used census achievement data that assessed the same cohort of students at the end of 8th and 10th grade. We applied multilevel modelling and…

  4. United Nations Environment Programme. Annual Report of the Executive Director, 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi (Kenya).

    This report provides a comprehensive overview of the major activities, programs, events, and developments within the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in 1983. Its purpose is to provide a broad understanding of what UNEP is, how it functions, and what it does with the money it has at its disposal. Chapter I summarizes 1983 in terms of…

  5. Generation: Portrait of the United Nations Development Programme, 1950-1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Development Programme, New York, NY. Div. of Information.

    In one generation, development progress has transformed the prospects for humankind, and international cooperation has been a catalyst. Technical assistance for developing countries through two predecessor organizations of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) had small beginnings in 1950, and grew to become a multimillion dollar…

  6. The State of the World Environment, 1987. United Nations Environment Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi (Kenya).

    One of the main activities assigned to the Governing Council of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is to review the world environmental situation to insure that emerging environmental problems of wide international significance receive appropriate and adequate consideration by governments. Accordingly, UNEP has assessed the state of…

  7. Perceived Effects of the Malaysian National Tobacco Control Programme on Adolescent Smoking Cessation: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Hizlinda, Tohid; Noriah, Mohd Ishak; Noor Azimah, Muhammad; Farah Naaz, Momtaz Ahmad; Anis Ezdiana, Abdul Aziz; Khairani, Omar

    2012-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of teenage smoking has decreased over the past decade following the implementation of the national tobacco control programme. However, the effect of the programme on smoking cessation in teenagers has not been determined. Methods: Twenty-eight participants (12 teenagers, 8 teachers, and 8 doctors) were interviewed using 5 in-depth interviews and 3 group discussions. Social cognitive theory (SCT) was applied as the theoretical framework. Semi-structured interview protocols were used, and thematic analysis and analytic generalisation utilising SCT were performed. Results: The current national tobacco control programme was found to be ineffective in promoting smoking cessation among teenagers. The participants attributed the ineffective campaign to the followings: inadequacy of message content, lack of exposure to the programme, and poor presentation and execution. In addition, the participants perceived the developed tobacco control policies to be a failure based on poor law enforcement, failure of retailers to comply with the law, social availability of cigarettes to teenagers, and easy availability of cheap, smuggled cigarettes. This study highlighted that the programme-related problems (environmental factors) were not the only factors contributing to its perceived ineffectiveness. The cunning behaviour of the teenagers (personal factor) and poor self-efficacy to overcome nicotine addiction (behavioural factor) were also found to hinder cessation. Conclusion: Tobacco control programmes should include strategies beyond educating teenagers about smoking and restricting their access to cigarettes. Strategies to manage the cunning behaviour of teenagers and strategies to improve their self-efficacy should also be implemented. These comprehensive programmes should have a foundation in SCT, as this theory demonstrates the complex interactions among the environmental, personal, and behavioural factors that influence teenage smoking. PMID

  8. The United Nations development programme initiative for sustainable energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hurry, S.

    1997-12-01

    Energy is central to current concerns about sustainable human development, affecting economic and social development; economic growth, the local, national, regional, and global environment; the global climate; a host of social concerns, including poverty, population, and health, the balance of payments, and the prospects for peace. Energy is not an end in itself, but rather the means to achieve the goals of sustainable human development. The energy systems of most developing countries are in serious crisis involving insufficient levels of energy services, environmental degradation, inequity, poor technical and financial performance, and capital scarcity. Approximately 2.5 billion people in the developing countries have little access to commercial energy supplies. Yet the global demand for energy continues to grow: total primary energy is projected to grow from 378 exajoules (EJ) per year in 1990 to 571 EJ in 2020, and 832 EJ in 2050. If this increase occurs using conventional approaches and energy sources, already serious local (e.g., indoor and urban air pollution), regional (eg., acidification and land degradation), and global (e.g., climate change) environmental problems will be critically aggravated. There is likely to be inadequate capital available for the needed investments in conventional energy sources. Current approaches to energy are thus not sustainable and will, in fact, make energy a barrier to socio-economic development. What is needed now is a new approach in which energy becomes an instrument for sustainable development. The two major components of a sustainable energy strategy are (1) more efficient energy use, especially at the point of end-use, and (2) increased use of renewable sources of energy. The UNDP Initiative for Sustainable Energy (UNISE) is designed to harness opportunities in these areas to build upon UNDP`s existing energy activities to help move the world toward a more sustainable energy strategy by helping program countries.

  9. Assessing the Higher National Diploma Chemical Engineering programme in Ghana: students' perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boateng, Cyril D.; Cudjoe Bensah, Edem; Ahiekpor, Julius C.

    2012-05-01

    Chemical engineers have played key roles in the growth of the chemical and allied industries in Ghana but indigenous industries that have traditionally been the domain of the informal sector need to be migrated to the formal sector through the entrepreneurship and innovation of chemical engineers. The Higher National Diploma Chemical Engineering programme is being migrated from a subject-based to a competency-based curriculum. This paper evaluates the programme from the point of view of students. Data were drawn from a survey conducted in the department and were analysed using SPSS. The survey involved administering questionnaires to students at all levels in the department. Analysis of the responses indicated that the majority of the students had decided to pursue chemical engineering due to the career opportunities available. Their knowledge of the programme learning outcomes was, however, poor. The study revealed that none of the students was interested in developing indigenous industries.

  10. Voucher/Choice Battle Heats Up. Pro: Families Should Have Choice; Con: Public School Vouchers Jeopardize Equal Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathan, Joe; Finch, Lew

    1985-01-01

    Joe Nathan, author of "Free to Teach: Achieving Equity and Excellence in Schools," argues in favor of educational vouchers; Lew Finch, superintendent of the Anoka-Hennepin Independent School District, Minnesota, argues against vouchers. (MLF)

  11. Generating Quitline calls during Australia's National Tobacco Campaign: effects of television advertisement execution and programme placement

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, T; Rock, B

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The study sought to measure the relative efficiency of different television advertisements and types of television programmes in which advertisements were placed, in generating calls to Australia's national Quitline. Design: The study entailed an analysis of the number of calls generated to the Quitline relative to the weight of advertising exposure (in target audience rating points (TARPs) for particular television advertisements and for placement of these advertisements in particular types of television programmes. A total of 238 television advertisement placements and 1769 calls to the Quitline were analysed in Sydney and Melbourne. Results: The more graphic "eye" advertisement conveying new information about the association between smoking and macular degeneration leading to blindness was more efficient in generating quitline calls than the "tar" advertisement, which reinforced the message of tar in a smoker's lungs. Combining the health effects advertisements with a quitline modelling advertisement tended to increase the efficiency of generating Quitline calls. Placing advertisements in lower involvement programmes appears to provide greater efficiency in generating Quitline calls than in higher involvement programmes. Conclusions: Tobacco control campaign planners can increase the number of calls to telephone quitlines by assessing the efficiency of particular advertisements to generate such calls. Pairing of health effect and quitline modelling advertisements can increase efficiency in generating calls. Placement of advertisements in lower involvement programme types may increase efficiency in generating Quitline calls. PMID:12878772

  12. School Vouchers and Student Outcomes: Experimental Evidence from Washington, DC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Patrick J.; Kisida, Brian; Gutmann, Babette; Puma, Michael; Eissa, Nada; Rizzo, Lou

    2013-01-01

    School vouchers are the most contentious form of parental school choice. Vouchers provide government funds that parents can use to send their children to private schools of their choice. Here we examine the empirical question of whether or not a school voucher program in Washington, DC, affected achievement or the rate of high school graduation…

  13. 23 CFR 1200.23 - Vouchers and project agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Implementation and Management of the Highway Safety Program § 1200.23 Vouchers and project agreements. Each State... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vouchers and project agreements. 1200.23 Section 1200.23... project agreement(s) and supporting documentation for the vouchers, and any amendments thereto, shall...

  14. Colorado's Voucher Legislation and the Consequences for Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbour, Clifford P.; Davies, Timothy Gray; Lewis, Chance W.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors examine the new voucher program used to subsidize undergraduate education at Colorado community colleges and four-year institutions. The authors explain the voucher program and discuss the fiscal and policy conditions that led to its adoption. This baseline account of the voucher program and the underlying conditions…

  15. 7 CFR 97.7 - Deposit of Voucher Specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION The Application § 97.7 Deposit of Voucher Specimen. (a) Voucher specimen types. As regards the deposit of voucher specimen material for purposes of plant variety protection... self-replication either directly or indirectly. Representative examples include seeds, plant...

  16. Educational Vouchers. The Best of ERIC, Number 41.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, Eugene, OR.

    This annotated bibliography highlights eleven publications on educational vouchers. Issues discussed include several voucher systems, the value of increased parental decision-making, and nonvoucher systems of educational options. The authors included in the bibliography also discuss how vouchers may promote freedom of choice but reduce equality of…

  17. Vouchers, Class Size Reduction, and Student Achievement: Considering the Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Alex

    Proponents of private school vouchers argue that vouchers empower poor families and raise the academic achievement of poor children. They also argue that vouchers may improve achievement by forcing the public schools to compete in an education marketplace in which poor parents hold the power of the purse. Juxtaposed against this issue of vouchers…

  18. Irreconcilable Differences? Education Vouchers and the Suburban Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    d'Entremont, Chad; Huerta, Luis A.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the limited use of education vouchers in an era of unprecedented growth in school choice. It is divided into two parts: first, a description of the policy, political, and legal barriers that may limit the expansion of large-scale voucher programs is presented. Discussion then shifts to the efforts of voucher advocates to…

  19. Private School Vouchers: What Are the Real Choices?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kober, Nancy

    The term "vouchers" encompasses various proposals with the common goal of providing public funding to parents to use toward the costs of educating their children in a private school. This booklet presents an overview of educational vouchers and explains why they are an ineffective and inequitable strategy to improve education. Vouchers ignore the…

  20. A Public School Voucher Demonstration: The First Year at Alum Rock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiler, Daniel; And Others

    The Education Voucher Demonstration is a large-scale educational and social intervention that began in the Alum Rock Union Elementary School District, San Jose, California, in September 1972. First funded by the Office of Economic Opportunity, it is now sponsored by the National Institute of Education. This report describes the development of…

  1. A Public School Voucher Demonstration: The First Year at Alum Rock. Technical Appendix.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiler, Daniel; And Others

    The Education Voucher Demonstration is a large-scale educational and social intervention that began in the Alum Rock Union Elementary School District, San Jose, California, in September 1972. First funded by the Office of Economic Opportunity, it is now sponsored by the National Institute of Education. This technical appendix is the third of four…

  2. Levels of cardiovascular disease risk factors in Singapore following a national intervention programme.

    PubMed Central

    Cutter, J.; Tan, B. Y.; Chew, S. K.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of the National Healthy Lifestyle Programme, a noncommunicable disease intervention programme for major cardiovascular disease risk factors in Singapore, implemented in 1992. METHODS: The evaluation was carried out in 1998 by the Singapore National Health Survey (NHS). The reference population was 2.2 million multiracial Singapore residents, 18-69 years of age. A population-based survey sample (n = 4723) was selected by disproportionate stratified and systematic sampling. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were carried out on all subjects and blood samples were taken for biochemical analysis. FINDINGS: The 1998 results suggest that the National Healthy Lifestyle Programme significantly decreased regular smoking and increased regular exercise over 1992 levels and stabilized the prevalence of obesity and diabetes mellitus. However, the prevalence of high total blood cholesterol and hypertension increased. Ethnic differences in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and smoking; and in lipid profile and exercise levels were also observed. CONCLUSION: The intervention had mixed results after six years. Successful strategies have been continued and strengthened. PMID:11693972

  3. Challenges to implementing the national programme for information technology (NPfIT): a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Hendy, Jane; Reeves, Barnaby C; Fulop, Naomi; Hutchings, Andrew; Masseria, Cristina

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To describe the context for implementing the national programme for information technology (NPfIT) in England, actual and perceived barriers, and opportunities to facilitate implementation. Design Case studies and in depth interviews, with themes identified using a framework developed from grounded theory. Setting Four acute NHS trusts in England. Participants Senior trust managers and clinicians, including chief executives, directors of information technology, medical directors, and directors of nursing. Results The trusts varied in their circumstances, which may affect their ability to implement the NPfIT. The process of implementation has been suboptimal, leading to reports of low morale by the NHS staff responsible for implementation. The overall timetable is unrealistic, and trusts are uncertain about their implementation schedules. Short term benefits alone are unlikely to persuade NHS staff to adopt the national programme enthusiastically, and some may experience a loss of electronic functionality in the short term. Conclusions: The sociocultural challenges to implementing the NPfIT are as daunting as the technical and logistical ones. Senior NHS staff feel these have been neglected. We recommend that national programme managers prioritise strategies to improve communication with, and to gain the cooperation of, front line staff. PMID:16081447

  4. Evaluation of the national control of diarrhoeal disease programme in the Philippines, 1980-93.

    PubMed Central

    Baltazar, Jane C.; Nadera, Dinah P.; Victora, Cesar G.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of the National Control of Diarrhoeal Disease Programme (NCDDP) in the Philippines over the period 1980-93, describing levels and trends in programme activities, and relating them to severe diarrhoea morbidity and mortality among under-5-year-olds. METHODS: Routinely collected data on morbidity and mortality trends were obtained from health statistics reports of the Health Intelligence Service and the NCDDP. Socioeconomic indicators, including annual average family income and expenditures, gross national product, and unemployment rates, were derived from the Philippine population census data collected by the National Statistics Office. FINDINGS: In relation to baseline levels, diarrhoea mortality among infants and young children fell by about 5% annually over the 18-year period under review. The decline was faster than those related to acute respiratory infections (ARIs) among children of similar age and to perinatal causes. Diarrhoea hospital admission rates registered an annual decline of 2.4% relative to the baseline level. CONCLUSION:These findings suggest that the programme had a substantial impact; the period under review also witnessed some degree of improvement in other factors with positive influences on health, such as exclusive breastfeeding, nutrition and environmental sanitation. The quality, particularly completeness and reliability, of the existing data did not allow further analysis, thus, making it difficult to conclude beyond doubt that the observed trends indicate that they were solely due to NCDDP. PMID:12219155

  5. National programmes for validating physician competence and fitness for practice: a scoping review

    PubMed Central

    Horsley, Tanya; Lockyer, Jocelyn; Cogo, Elise; Zeiter, Jeanie; Bursey, Ford; Campbell, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore and categorise the state of existing literature for national programmes designed to affirm or establish the continuing competence of physicians. Design Scoping review. Data sources MEDLINE, ERIC, Sociological Abstracts, web/grey literature (2000–2014). Selection Included when a record described a (1) national-level physician validation system, (2) recognised as a system for affirming competence and (3) reported relevant data. Data extraction Using bibliographic software, title and abstracts were reviewed using an assessment matrix to ensure duplicate, paired screening. Dyads included both a methodologist and content expert on each assessment, reflective of evidence-informed best practices to decrease errors. Results 45 reports were included. Publication dates ranged from 2002 to 2014 with the majority of publications occurring in the previous six years (n=35). Country of origin—defined as that of the primary author—included the USA (N=32), the UK (N=8), Canada (N=3), Kuwait (N=1) and Australia (N=1). Three broad themes emerged from this heterogeneous data set: contemporary national programmes, contextual factors and terminological consistency. Four national physician validation systems emerged from the data: the American Board of Medical Specialties Maintenance of Certification Program, the Federation of State Medical Boards Maintenance of Licensure Program, the Canadian Revalidation Program and the UK Revalidation Program. Three contextual factors emerged as stimuli for the implementation of national validation systems: medical regulation, quality of care and professional competence. Finally, great variation among the definitions of key terms was identified. Conclusions There is an emerging literature focusing on national physician validation systems. Four major systems have been implemented in recent years and it is anticipated that more will follow. Much of this work is descriptive, and gaps exist for the extent to which systems build

  6. Delivering a national programme of anticipatory care in primary care: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, Catherine A; Mackenzie, Mhairi; Reid, Maggie; Turner, Fiona; Clark, Julia; Wang, Yinging; Sridharan, Sanjeev; Platt, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Background Primary prevention often occurs against a background of inequalities in health and health care. Addressing this requires practitioners and systems to acknowledge the contribution of health-related and social determinants and to deal with the lack of interconnectedness between health and social service providers. Recognising this, the Scottish Government has implemented a national programme of anticipatory care targeting individuals aged 45–64 years living in areas of socioeconomic deprivation and at high risk of cardiovascular disease. This programme is called Keep Well. Aim To explore the issues and tensions underpinning the implementation of a national programme of anticipatory care. Design and setting A qualitative study in five Wave 1 Keep Well pilot sites, located in urban areas of Scotland, and involving 79 general practices. Method Annual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 74 key stakeholders operating at national government level, local pilot level and within general practices, resulting in 118 interviews. Interview transcripts were analysed using the framework approach. Results Four underlying tensions were identified. First, those between a patient-focused general-practice approach versus a population-level health-improvement approach, linking disparate health and social services; secondly, medical approaches versus wider social approaches; thirdly, a population-wide approach versus individual targeting; and finally, reactive versus anticipatory care. Conclusion Implementing an anticipatory care programme to address inequalities in cardiovascular disease identified several tensions, which need to be understood and resolved in order to inform the development of such approaches in general practice and to develop systems that reduce the degree of fragmentation across health and social services. PMID:22520917

  7. Collaborative Framework for Designing a Sustainability Science Programme: Lessons Learned at the National Autonomous University of Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charli-Joseph, Lakshmi; Escalante, Ana E.; Eakin, Hallie; Solares, Ma. José; Mazari-Hiriart, Marisa; Nation, Marcia; Gómez-Priego, Paola; Pérez-Tejada, César A. Domínguez; Bojórquez-Tapia, Luis A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The authors describe the challenges and opportunities associated with developing an interdisciplinary sustainability programme in an emerging economy and illustrate how these are addressed through the approach taken for the development of the first postgraduate programme (MSc and PhD) in sustainability science at the National Autonomous…

  8. The Australian National University Music Education Programme: Developing a New Approach to Ongoing Engagement in Music Making for All Ages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The Music Education Programme at the Australian National University has developed a new, system-wide model in music education, focusing on peer and inter-generational social engagement through music making during and beyond the school years. One aim of the programme is to find alternative ways of fostering lifelong engagement in music making. A…

  9. Economic Modeling and Analysis of Educational Vouchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epple, Dennis; Romano, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of educational vouchers has evolved from market-based analogies to models that incorporate distinctive features of the educational environment. These distinctive features include peer effects, scope for private school pricing and admissions based on student characteristics, the linkage of household residential and school choices in…

  10. The Case for Special Education Vouchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Stuart; Greene, Jay P.

    2010-01-01

    The big battles over school vouchers in American education have focused on programs serving low-income children who live in urban areas. Milwaukee's program, begun in 1990, is the biggest and oldest in the country, and the District of Columbia effort, funded by the federal government, has been the most carefully studied. Both have been focal…

  11. Milwaukee Voucher Schools 2003-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Policy Forum, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This brochure provides charted reference information for Milwaukee Voucher Schools for the 2003-2004 school year. Schools are grouped by grade level; the following is included: Name, Address, Telephone, Religion/Denomination; Capacity; Total Enrollment' Milwaukee Parent Choice School Program (MPCP) percent: Number of Teachers; Years in MPCP;…

  12. Indiana Grapples with Impact of Voucher Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zubrzycki, Jaclyn

    2012-01-01

    As the 3,919 students who participated in the first year of Indiana's new, wide-reaching school voucher program near the end of the first semester in their new schools, the program faces its next challenge: A state court hearing opened on Dec. 19 on a lawsuit arguing the program violates Indiana's constitution. The Choice Scholarship program, one…

  13. [Alum Rock Voucher Project. Information Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alum Rock Union Elementary School District, San Jose, CA.

    This packet contains (1) informational booklets for parents in the Alum Rock Union Elementary School District, (2) a booklet on the pros and cons of a voucher system, (3) promotional material, (4) a progress report on the project, (5) the project proposal to OEO, and (6) a sample school and program preferences form. The program, according to the…

  14. Educational Vouchers for Universal Pre-Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Henry M.; Schwartz, Heather L.

    2007-01-01

    This article considers two issues regarding preschool education. First, it provides a brief set of arguments for government funding of universal, pre-school education. Second, it explores the applicability of a voucher plan using a regulated market approach for the funding of universal, pre-school education. Four criteria are used to assess the…

  15. Milwaukee Voucher Schools: 2009-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Policy Forum, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This brochure provides charted reference information for Milwaukee Voucher Schools for the 2009-2010 school year. Schools are grouped by grade level. The following is included: Name, Address, Telephone, Grades; Religion/Denomination; Enrollment; Choice Student Enrollment; Number of Teachers; School Hours; Before/After School Programs;…

  16. Sounding Rockets within Swedish National Balloon and Rocket Programme- Providing Access to Space from Esrange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjolander, K.; Karlsson, T.; Lockowandt, C.

    2015-09-01

    Initiated in 2012 by the Swedish National Space Board (SNSB), a new programme dedicated for Swedish scientists to gain access to space using balloons and sounding rockets was started. This programme promotes the possibility to ensure continuity in both the science and the technology used. The sounding rocket part of this national programme started with three possible missions. SPIDER (Small Payloads for Investigation of Disturbances in Electrojet by Rockets) from the Space and Plasma physics department of KTH, 0-STATES (Oxygen Species and Thermospheric Airglow in The Earth's Sky) from the Department of Meteorology Stockholm University (MISU) and LEEWAVES (Local Excitation and Effects of Waves on Atmospheric VErtical Structure) that is collaboration between KTH and MISU. These three missions were planned for launches in 2015 and 2016. SSc has been contracted on a launch ticket basis to provide the launch and service to the scientific instrumentation. This paper presents the SPIDER, 0-STATES and LEEWAVES missions focussing on a mission related technical solutions perspective.

  17. The Educational Voucher Intrigue: An Analysis of Its Impact on the Alum Rock Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Felix; Chacon, Gloria

    The 2 essays on educational vouchers given in this publication are: (1) "The Economics of Educational Vouchers: Schools and Parents", and (2) "The Alum Rock Voucher Program". "The Economics of Educational Vouchers: Schools and Parents" traces the roots of the voucher concept from Adam Smith to the conservative economist, Milton Friedman, to its…

  18. Progress towards malaria control targets in relation to national malaria programme funding

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Malaria control has been dramatically scaled up the past decade, mainly thanks to increasing international donor financing since 2003. This study assessed progress up to 2010 towards global malaria impact targets, in relation to Global Fund, other donor and domestic malaria programme financing over 2003 to 2009. Methods Assessments used domestic malaria financing reported by national programmes, and Global Fund/OECD data on donor financing for 90 endemic low- and middle-income countries, WHO estimates of households owning one or more insecticide-treated mosquito net (ITN) for countries in sub-Saharan Africa, and WHO-estimated malaria case incidence and deaths in countries outside sub-Saharan Africa. Results Global Fund and other donor funding is concentrated in a subset of the highest endemic African countries. Outside Africa, donor funding is concentrated in those countries with highest malaria mortality and case incidence rates over the years 2000 to 2003. ITN coverage in 2010 in Africa, and declines in case and death rates per person at risk over 2004 to 2010 outside Africa, were greatest in countries with highest donor funding per person at risk, and smallest in countries with lowest donor malaria funding per person at risk. Outside Africa, all-source malaria programme funding over 2003 to 2009 per case averted ($56-5,749) or per death averted ($58,000-3,900,000) over 2004 to 2010 tended to be lower (more favourable) in countries with higher donor malaria funding per person at risk. Conclusions Increases in malaria programme funding are associated with accelerated progress towards malaria control targets. Associations between programme funding per person at risk and ITN coverage increases and declines in case and death rates suggest opportunities to maximize the impact of donor funding, by strategic re-allocation to countries with highest continued need. PMID:23317000

  19. Establishing the European Research Area in Ageing: a network of national research programmes.

    PubMed

    Geyer, Gerda

    2005-10-01

    The following paper gives a summary of the European Commission's research policy with regard to the ERA-NET scheme and especially with regard to the ERA-AGE project that was launched in March 2004. All the partner institutions in the ERA-AGE project are main national funding agencies, research councils or ministries. Some selected examples of programme funding by the partner institutions may demonstrate their different ways of funding research and show the great variety of programmes. The long-term objective of the ERA-AGE project is to create a sustainable basis for the planning, implementation and exploitation of transnational research. In future, the European Research Area in Ageing could gain an added value from research investments by integrating existing funding mechanisms and research infrastructures, by commonly deciding on research priorities for funding activities in order to reduce fragmentation and duplication, and by the recruitment of young researchers. PMID:16154308

  20. Sudan: national health programme and primary health care 1977/78-1983/84

    PubMed Central

    Idriss, A. A.; Lolik, P.; Khan, R. A.; Benyoussef, A.

    1976-01-01

    As a follow-up to the national health programming process developed in 1975 in Sudan, a primary health care programme for the whole country was formulated with assistance from WHO. In this article the methods used in the programming and formulation are described and discussed. These methods ensured an intersectoral approach on which technical, cultural, socioeconomic, financial, and political considerations were based. Areas in the field of health and rural development requiring government and community action during the period 1977/78-1983/84 are identified. Details on the strategies for population coverage of rural and nomadic communities with primary health care are given. Fundamental to these strategies is community participation in the development of primary health care within community development as a whole. The guiding principles of these strategies are their technical, political, social and financial feasibility. The social relevance of the primary health care programme for the community and the developmental sectors is emphasized. PMID:1086739

  1. Improving Child Oral Health: Cost Analysis of a National Nursery Toothbrushing Programme

    PubMed Central

    Anopa, Yulia; McMahon, Alex D.; Conway, David I.; Ball, Graham E.; McIntosh, Emma; Macpherson, Lorna M. D.

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most common diseases of childhood. The aim of this study was to compare the cost of providing the Scotland-wide nursery toothbrushing programme with associated National Health Service (NHS) cost savings from improvements in the dental health of five-year-old children: through avoided dental extractions, fillings and potential treatments for decay. Methods Estimated costs of the nursery toothbrushing programme in 2011/12 were requested from all Scottish Health Boards. Unit costs of a filled, extracted and decayed primary tooth were calculated using verifiable sources of information. Total costs associated with dental treatments were estimated for the period from 1999/00 to 2009/10. These costs were based on the unit costs above and using the data of the National Dental Inspection Programme and then extrapolated to the population level. Expected cost savings were calculated for each of the subsequent years in comparison with the 2001/02 dental treatment costs. Population standardised analysis of hypothetical cohorts of 1000 children per deprivation category was performed. Results The estimated cost of the nursery toothbrushing programme in Scotland was £1,762,621 per year. The estimated cost of dental treatments in the baseline year 2001/02 was £8,766,297, while in 2009/10 it was £4,035,200. In 2002/03 the costs of dental treatments increased by £213,380 (2.4%). In the following years the costs decreased dramatically with the estimated annual savings ranging from £1,217,255 in 2003/04 (13.9% of costs in 2001/02) to £4,731,097 in 2009/10 (54.0%). Population standardised analysis by deprivation groups showed that the largest decrease in modelled costs was for the most deprived cohort of children. Conclusions The NHS costs associated with the dental treatments for five-year-old children decreased over time. In the eighth year of the toothbrushing programme the expected savings were more than two and a half times the costs of the

  2. The use of quantitative methods in planning national cancer control programmes*

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    There is a strong need to allocate in a rational and cost-effective way the available resources for cancer control in countries. Continuation of current priorities in resource allocation can only lead to unnecessarily high incidence, morbidity and mortality from cancer. Two cancer control models for cost-effectiveness, which were developed by WHO to help Member States set priorities in national cancer control programmes, have been tested and found useful. This article discusses cost-effectiveness analysis and describes the two models and their application in countries. PMID:3100079

  3. A cost-outcome approach to pre and post-implementation of national sports injury prevention programmes.

    PubMed

    Gianotti, Simon; Hume, Patria A

    2007-12-01

    In New Zealand (NZ), the Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC) has developed a pre and post-implementation cost-outcome formulae for sport injury prevention to provide information regarding the success of a prevention programme. The ACC provides for the cost of all personal injuries in NZ and invests in prevention programmes to offset 1.6 million annual claims that cost $NZD 1.9 billion. The ACC invests in nine national community sport injury prevention programmes that represent 40% of sport claims and costs. Pre-implementation is used to determine the decision whether to invest in implementation and to determine the level of such investment for the injury prevention programme. Post-implementation is calculated two ways: unadjusted, assuming ceteris paribus; and adjusted assuming no prevention programme was in place. Post-implementation formulae provide a return on investment (ROI) for each dollar invested in the programme and cost-savings. The cost-outcome formulae approach allows ACC to manage expectations of the prevention programme as well as when it will provide a ROI, allowing it to take a long-term view for investment in sport injury prevention. Originally developed for its sport injury prevention programmes, the cost-outcome formulae have now been applied to the other prevention programmes ACC invests in such as home, road and workplace injury prevention. PMID:17353149

  4. Establishment and Development of a National Newborn Screening Programme for Congenital Hypothyroidism in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Dilli, Dilek; Özbaş, Sema; Acıcan, Deniz; Yamak, Nergiz; Ertek, Mustafa; Dilmen, Uğur

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the Turkish National Newborn Screening Programme (NNSP) for congenital hypothyroidism (CH). Retrospective study based on the data from NNSP. Methods: Since December 2006, a nationwide screening programme for CH has been conducted in Turkey by the Turkish Directorate of Public Health (TDPH) in cooperation with several institutions. We evaluated the database between January 2008 and July 2010 of this programme. According to the methodology of the NNSP, between three and five days of age (or at discharge from the hospital, if this occurs earlier) blood specimens were routinely collected from neonates on filter paper, by puncturing the heel. The accepted thyroid-stimulating hormone cut-off level for recall was 20 mU/L initially and 15 mU/L subsequently. The incidence of possible CH by years was reported. Results: During the evaluation period, 3223765 newborns were tested. The mean annual incidence of possible CH showed a gradual increase over the years (1:888 in 2008, 1:592 in 2009, and 1:469 in 2010). Regional differences were noted. Although the mean age of blood sampling did not change by years, the mean age at notification for suspected CH decreased from 19.2 to 15.7 days from 2008 to 2010. Conclusions: We reported the first assessment of NNSP in Turkey. An improvement in performance measures for the CH screening programme has been noted. Knowledge on incidence of confirmed CH is not yet available in the database. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:23748057

  5. Monitoring HIV Prevention Programme Outcomes among Key Populations in Kenya: Findings from a National Survey.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Parinita; McClarty, Leigh M; Musyoki, Helgar; Anthony, John; Kioko, Japheth; Kaosa, Shem; Ogwang, Bernard E; Githuka, George; Sirengo, Martin; Birir, Sarah; Blanchard, James F; Muraguri, Nicholas; Isac, Shajy; Moses, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    In preparation for the implementation of the Kenya AIDS Strategic Framework 2014/15-2018/19, the Kenya National AIDS and STI Control Programme facilitated a national polling booth survey as part of a baseline assessment of HIV-related risk behaviours among FSWs, MSM, and PWID, and their utilization of existing preventive interventions, as well as structural factors that may influence KPs' vulnerability to HIV. The survey was conducted among "key populations" (female sex workers, men who have sex with men, and people who inject drugs) to understand current HIV risk and prevention behaviours, utilization of existing programmes and services, and experiences of violence. In total, 3,448 female sex workers, 1,308 men who have sex with men, and 690 people who inject drugs were randomly selected to participate in polling booth survey sessions from seven priority sites. Survey responses were aggregated and descriptive statistics derived. In general, reported condom use among all key populations was quite high with paying clients, and lower with regular, non-paying partners. Many participants reported unavailability of condoms or clean injecting equipment within the past month. Exposure to, and utilization of, existing HIV prevention services varied significantly among the groups, and was reported least commonly by female sex workers. Encouragingly, approximately three-quarters of all key population members reported receiving an HIV test in the past three months. All key population groups reported experiencing high levels of physical and sexual violence from partners/clients, and/or arrest and violence by law enforcement officials. Although some of the findings are encouraging, there is room for improvement in HIV prevention programmes and services for key populations across Kenya. PMID:26313642

  6. Monitoring HIV Prevention Programme Outcomes among Key Populations in Kenya: Findings from a National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Musyoki, Helgar; Anthony, John; Kioko, Japheth; Kaosa, Shem; Ogwang, Bernard E.; Githuka, George; Sirengo, Martin; Birir, Sarah; Blanchard, James F.; Muraguri, Nicholas; Isac, Shajy; Moses, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    In preparation for the implementation of the Kenya AIDS Strategic Framework 2014/15-2018/19, the Kenya National AIDS and STI Control Programme facilitated a national polling booth survey as part of a baseline assessment of HIV-related risk behaviours among FSWs, MSM, and PWID, and their utilization of existing preventive interventions, as well as structural factors that may influence KPs’ vulnerability to HIV. The survey was conducted among “key populations” (female sex workers, men who have sex with men, and people who inject drugs) to understand current HIV risk and prevention behaviours, utilization of existing programmes and services, and experiences of violence. In total, 3,448 female sex workers, 1,308 men who have sex with men, and 690 people who inject drugs were randomly selected to participate in polling booth survey sessions from seven priority sites. Survey responses were aggregated and descriptive statistics derived. In general, reported condom use among all key populations was quite high with paying clients, and lower with regular, non-paying partners. Many participants reported unavailability of condoms or clean injecting equipment within the past month. Exposure to, and utilization of, existing HIV prevention services varied significantly among the groups, and was reported least commonly by female sex workers. Encouragingly, approximately three-quarters of all key population members reported receiving an HIV test in the past three months. All key population groups reported experiencing high levels of physical and sexual violence from partners/clients, and/or arrest and violence by law enforcement officials. Although some of the findings are encouraging, there is room for improvement in HIV prevention programmes and services for key populations across Kenya. PMID:26313642

  7. The Gambian National Impregnated Bednet Programme: evaluation of the 1994 cost recovery trial.

    PubMed

    Müller, O; Cham, K; Jaffar, S; Greenwood, B

    1997-06-01

    Following the success of a controlled trial of insecticide-impregnated bednets in reducing mortality in children. The Gambia started a National Impregnated Bednet Programme (NIBP) in 1992. The objectives of this programme were to introduce impregnated bednets into all primary health care (PHC) villages and to establish a system of cost recovery over a three-year period. During the initial phase of the programme, when insecticide was given out free, a high uptake was achieved. However, after small user charges were introduced in 1993, coverage dropped to a low level. In 1994, different systems of insecticide distribution and permethrin formulations were tried in an attempt to improve coverage. A nationwide cross-sectional survey carried out during the 1994 rainy season measured coverage by distribution channel, as well as the knowledge, attitudes and practices of health workers and villagers during the intervention. Overall, only 16% of bednets were impregnated in 1994, compared to 80% when the insecticide was offered free of charge in previous years. Lack of money was the major reason given by villagers for not impregnating their bednets in 1994. Use of impregnated bednets was higher in areas where the sale of permethrin emulsion by village health workers was supplemented by the sale of insecticide in individual packages through shops. In villages where insecticide was distributed free to women with small children through governmental mother and child health (MCH) services, higher levels of coverage were achieved among women and young children than in villages where other distribution systems were used. We conclude that the sale of insecticide through the private sector may increase bednet impregnation rates in African communities, and that the free distribution of insecticide through MCH services may be an effective way of targeting young children, the group most at risk of malaria. PMID:9194251

  8. Introducing auto-disable syringes to the national immunization programme in Madagascar.

    PubMed Central

    Drain, Paul K.; Ralaivao, Josoa S.; Rakotonandrasana, Alexander; Carnell, Mary A.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and coverage benefits of auto-disable (AD) syringes, weighed against the financial and logis- tical costs, and to create appropriate health policies in Madagascar. METHODS: Fifteen clinics in Madagascar, trained to use AD syringes, were randomized to implement an AD syringe only, mixed (AD syringes used only on non-routine immunization days), or sterilizable syringe only (control) programme. During a five-week period, data on administered vaccinations were collected, interviews were conducted, and observations were recorded. FINDINGS: The use of AD syringes improved coverage rates by significantly increasing the percentage of vaccines administered on non-routine immunization days (AD-only 4.3%, mixed 5.7%, control 1.1% (P<0.05)). AD-only clinics eliminated sterilization sessions for vaccinations, whereas mixed clinics reduced the number of sterilization sessions by 64%. AD syringes were five times more expensive than sterilizable syringes, which increased AD-only and mixed clinics' projected annual injection costs by 365% and 22%, respectively. However, introducing AD syringes for all vaccinations would only increase the national immunization budget by 2%. CONCLUSION: The use of AD syringes improved vaccination coverage rates by providing ready-to-use sterile syringes on non-routine immunization days and decreasing the number of sterilization sessions, thereby improving injection safety. The mixed programme was the most beneficial approach to phasing in AD syringes and diminishing logistical complications, and it had minimal costs. AD syringes, although more expensive, can feasibly be introduced into a developing country's immunization programme to improve vaccination safety and coverage. PMID:14576886

  9. [Childhood vaccinations anno 2004. I. Effectiveness and acceptance of the Dutch National Vaccination Programme].

    PubMed

    Rümke, H C; Visser, H K

    2004-02-21

    Vaccinations are the most effective measures in public health. In the Netherlands after the second world war the morbidity and mortality of infectious diseases were a great problem. Nowadays these diseases are gone or reduced at a minimal level and for the greater part under control. The Dutch National Vaccination Programme aims at 10 infectious diseases. In the Netherlands there has always been a relatively small group of religious people who live together and reject vaccinations. Since the start of the vaccination programme in this group several small epidemics of poliomyelitis and measles have been observed. The other dispersed living non-vaccinated people are protected by herd-immunity, as long as the vaccination coverage is above 90%. During recent years an increasing number of people have doubts over the use and safety of vaccinations. There is a worldwide anti-vaccination movement, in the Netherlands represented by the 'Nederlandse Vereniging Kritisch Prikken'. The finding that there is now a greater spread of areas with a low or insufficient vaccination coverage, is cause for concern because experiences in several countries have shown that infectious diseases with all complications will recur when the vaccination percentage decreases. There is no scientific support for the hypothesis that vaccinations overwhelm or weaken the immune system of infants and there is no objection to start with vaccination at the age of two months. Anthroposofic and homeopathic arguments are neither scientifically, nor practically supported. Good promotion and education about the vaccination programme is of great importance and can be improved. Parents should make decisions based on good, objective information. Possible risks and side effects of vaccination should not be concealed. PMID:15032088

  10. An assessment of opportunities and challenges for public sector involvement in the maternal health voucher program in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Continued inequities in coverage, low quality of care, and high out-of-pocket expenses for health services threaten attainment of Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 in many sub-Saharan African countries. Existing health systems largely rely on input-based supply mechanisms that have a poor track record meeting the reproductive health needs of low-income and underserved segments of national populations. As a result, there is increased interest in and experimentation with results-based mechanisms like supply-side performance incentives to providers and demand-side vouchers that place purchasing power in the hands of low-income consumers to improve uptake of facility services and reduce the burden of out-of-pocket expenditures. This paper describes a reproductive health voucher program that contracts private facilities in Uganda and explores the policy and implementation issues associated with expansion of the program to include public sector facilities. Methods Data presented here describes the results of interviews of six district health officers and four health facility managers purposefully selected from seven districts with the voucher program in southwestern Uganda. Interviews were transcribed and organized thematically, barriers to seeking RH care were identified, and how to address the barriers in a context where voucher coverage is incomplete as well as opportunities and challenges for expanding the program by involving public sector facilities were investigated. Results The findings show that access to sexual and reproductive health services in southwestern Uganda is constrained by both facility and individual level factors which can be addressed by inclusion of the public facilities in the program. This will widen the geographical reach of facilities for potential clients, effectively addressing distance related barriers to access of health care services. Further, intensifying ongoing health education, continuous monitoring and evaluation, and

  11. Buruli Ulcer in Cameroon: The Development and Impact of the National Control Programme

    PubMed Central

    Tabah, Earnest Njih; Nsagha, Dickson Shey; Bissek, Anne-Cécile Zoung-Kanyi; Njamnshi, Alfred Kongnyu; Bratschi, Martin W.; Pluschke, Gerd; Um Boock, Alphonse

    2016-01-01

    Background Cameroon is endemic for Buruli ulcer (BU) and organised institutional BU control began in 2002. The objective was to describe the evolution, achievements and challenges of the national BU control programme (NBUCP) and to make suggestions for scaling up the programme. Methods We analysed collated data on BU from 2001 to 2014 and reviewed activity reports NBUCP in Cameroon. Case-detection rates and key BU control indicators were calculated and plotted on a time scale to determine trends in performance. A linear regression analysis of BU detection rate from 2005–2014 was done. The regression coefficient was tested statistically for the significance in variation of BU detection rate. Principal findings In 14 years of BU control, 3700 cases were notified. The BU detection rate dropped significantly from 3.89 to 1.45 per 100 000 inhabitants. The number of BU endemic health districts rose from two to 64. Five BU diagnostic and treatment centres are functional and two more are planned for 2015. The health system has been strengthened and BU research and education has gained more interest in Cameroon. Conclusion/Significance Although institutional BU control Cameroon only began 30 years after the first cases were reported in 1969, a number of milestones have been attained. These would serve as stepping stones for charting the way forward and improving upon control activities in the country if the major challenge of resource allocation is dealt with. PMID:26760499

  12. Medication education in nursing programmes in Finland--findings from a national survey.

    PubMed

    Sulosaari, Virpi; Huupponen, Risto; Torniainen, Kirsti; Hupli, Maija; Puukka, Pauli; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2014-01-01

    Medication management is one of the fundamental roles of nurses. Deficiencies in registered nurses' medication competence have been highlighted in previous research. It is important to ensure adequate medication competence to ensure safe practice upon graduation to nursing profession. Yet, little is known of the current medication education in undergraduate nursing programmes. This study aims to describe the current medication education in Finland. More precisely, we explored the curriculum content, teaching and evaluation methods. A national survey in which data was collected with two questionnaires was conducted: one targeted programme managers responsible for curriculum (n = 22) and the other one teachers (n = 136) involved with medication education. The data was analyzed statistically. The amount of medication education varied between the polytechnic schools involved. It appears that the content of teaching is quite comprehensive. However, we found under-emphasis on theoretical basis of medication care. This result is worrying since the understanding of the principles is essential for safe delivery of medication care. Also more emphasis on the use of self-treatment medications and therefore on patient education is warranted. The most often used teaching methods were lectures and skill laboratories. In all of the polytechnic schools, nurse students' medication competence was regularly evaluated. Based on previous research, there is scope for educational initiatives to improve nurse students' medication competence. Therefore, it is important to develop medication education to ensure that medication education with relevant content and with contemporary and evidence-based methods is provided during nurses' basic education. PMID:25632730

  13. Telemedicine for retinal care in developing nations: the ORBIS Cyber-Sight programme, 2003-2011.

    PubMed

    Amin, Sarina; Patel, Rikin; Beilan, Jonathan; Helveston, Eugene M; Shaikh, Saad

    2014-05-29

    ORBIS International has provided a web-based ophthalmic disease consultation service, Cyber-Sight, for developing nations since 2003. The system connects partner physicians with mentor physicians. We have reviewed consultations concerning retinal cases submitted from June 2003 to December 2011. Of 943 retinal consultations reviewed, 117 were excluded, mainly for reasons of technical limitations at the partner sites. Of the 826 included cases, 504 patients were male and 322 were female. The average age of the patients was 43 years (range 2 months to 86 years). Cases were submitted from partner physicians in 30 countries, with five countries accounting for 82% of the cases (India, Vietnam, Indonesia, China, Jordan). There was a rise in the case submission rate to a peak of 251 cases in 2010. The mean consultant response time was 5 days (SD 9). The mean time to case closure was 19 days (SD 92). The most common diagnoses were diabetic retinopathy (n = 101), retinal vascular occlusion (n = 75) and retinal detachment (n = 61). The working diagnosis submitted by the partner did not match the mentor's diagnosis in 153 cases (19%). The number of incorrect initial partner diagnoses demonstrates that the teleretinal programme serves a useful diagnostic role for partner physicians. The Cyber-Sight programme is a viable method of delivering advanced retinal expertise to partner institutions and increasing capacity for partner doctors in the developing world. PMID:24875929

  14. Indian National GNSS Programme: Crustal deformation measurements in the Indian Sub-continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Mithila; Bansal, Brijesh K.

    2012-05-01

    The Indian National GNSS Programme was launched about one and half decades ago with a view to provide a boost to crustal deformation measurements for constraining the movement of Indian plate, identifying the regions of strain accumulation, and to estimate the convergence rates across some identified faults/boundaries. Under this programme, a network of 50 permanent GPS receivers has been established, which is fully functional for the last about 8 yrs. The network has generated very important data sets, which in turn have helped in the estimation of Indian plate motion, regions and rate of strain accumulation, rate of convergence across some identified faults, etc. The measurements have also been utilized in monitoring co-seismic and postseismic deformation related to recent earthquakes that occurred in India and adjoining regions, such as the 2001 Bhuj, 2004 Sumatra-Andaman and 2005 Kashmir earthquake. This article presents some salient results obtained for specific corridors in the Himalaya, Indo-Burmese arc region, Andaman-Nicobar Island region and Indian plate interior region.

  15. Human papillomavirus infection in Bhutan at the moment of implementation of a national HPV vaccination programme

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is the most common female cancer in Bhutan, the first low/middle-income country to implement a national human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme. Methods To provide a robust baseline for future evaluations of vaccine effectiveness, cervical cell specimens were obtained from 2,505 women aged 18–69 years from the general population, and biopsies from 211 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) and 112 invasive cervical cancer (ICC) cases. Samples were tested for HPV using GP5+/6+ PCR. Results Among the general population, HPV prevalence was 26%, being highest (33%) in women ≤24 years, but remaining above 15% in all age-groups. Determinants of HPV included age, marital status, and number of sexual partners. Among the eight percent with cytological abnormalities, 24 CIN3 and 4 ICC were histologically confirmed. Even after additional testing with a sensitive E7 PCR, no infections with vaccine-targeted HPV types were detected in the few vaccinated women (n = 34) compared to 6% prevalence in unvaccinated women of similar age (p = 0 · 215). Conclusion Based upon type-specific prevalence among biopsies, at least 70% of ICC in Bhutan are theoretically preventable by HPV16/18 vaccination, but screening programmes should be expanded among older women, who have an important underlying burden of CIN3 and ICC. PMID:25047665

  16. Colorado's Voucher Law: Examining the Claim of Fiscal Neutrality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welner, Kevin G.

    2004-01-01

    Colorado's voucher law was declared unconstitutional by the Colorado Supreme Court on June 28, 2004. Voucher supporters have begun drafting revised legislation designed to address the legal problem. This article calls into question the key financial claim of revenue neutrality--a claim that was central to the promotion and passage of the departing…

  17. 7 CFR 97.7 - Deposit of Voucher Specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... types. As regards the deposit of voucher specimen material for purposes of plant variety protection applications under 7 U.S.C. 2321 et seq., the term voucher specimen shall include material that is capable of... cells, cell lines, and plots of vegetative material of self-incompatible parental lines of hybrids....

  18. Competitive Effects of Means-Tested School Vouchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figlio, David N.; Hart, Cassandra M. D.

    2010-01-01

    School choice options--including both voucher and neo-voucher options like tuition tax credit funded scholarship programs--have become increasingly prevalent in recent years (Howell, Peterson, Wolf and Campbell, 2006). One popular argument for school choice policies, drawing from economic theory, is that public schools will improve the education…

  19. Evaluating Voucher Programs: The Milwaukee Parental Choice Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, John F.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is the first summary of two studies and 10 years of evaluating the Milwaukee Parental Choice (voucher) Program (MPCP). This paper discusses school voucher evaluations in general terms and how these studies are carried out. The paper outlines the types of studies completed in "Study I" and "Study II" and the results…

  20. Educational Voucher Demonstration Archive: Project-Level Documentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leinwand (C.M.) Associates, Inc., Newton, MA.

    This report describes the Educational Voucher Demonstration, serves as a guide for its documentation, and offers an extensive bibliography. Part 1 gives background information and summarizes the implementation of the Alum Rock Demonstration based on a transitional voucher model and involving six public schools, each offering at least two distinct…

  1. Parental Decision Making in an Education Voucher System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridge, R. Gary

    Parental decisionmaking is the keystone of any voucher model. This paper examines the parental decisionmaking process as it has unfolded in the educational voucher experiment in the Alum Rock school system near San Jose, California. The author assumed at the outset that parents cannot make intelligent choices between schooling alternatives if they…

  2. Education Vouchers. Working Paper in Education Finance No. 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, C. Kent

    In this background paper, the author provides a brief history of the educational voucher and outlines various suggested voucher plans. Included is a discussion of the plan that was tried at Alum Rock, California, and the plans that were voted on in statewide referendums in Michigan and California. The author provides a list of the pros and cons of…

  3. Vouchers and Educational Freedom: A Debate. Policy Analysis No. 269.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bast, Joseph L.; And Others

    Advocates of educational freedom disagree about whether school vouchers would liberate schools and families and lead to greater freedom of choice or trap private schools in a web of subsidy and regulation that would destroy their independence and quality. In this exchange of opinions, Joseph L. Bast and David Harmer argue that voucher plans would…

  4. School Vouchers in a Climate of Political Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Lenford C.; King, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    Legal scrutiny of school voucher policies initially focused on the establishment clause concerning with allocating public dollars to schools sponsored by religious organizations. In recent years, advocates asserted that the exclusion of faith-based organizations from voucher plans that permit expenditures in secular private organizations violates…

  5. Under the Law: Vouchers Multiply Even without Public Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Public funding of private K-12 schooling through vouchers continues to be a contentious issue across the U.S., even though a solid majority of Americans continues to oppose them. The voucher plans run the risk of legal challenge for how they handle the rights of students with disabilities and whether they violate state constitutional provisions…

  6. A Nineteenth-Century French Proposal to Use School Vouchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Vliet, W.; Smyth, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    In light of the current American interest in school vouchers as proposed by economist Milton Friedman, recapitulates the origins, content, and fate of an 1872 law drafted by a French parliamentary commission to establish a countrywide voucher scheme for primary schools. (NEC)

  7. The Voucher Decision: Charting the New Landscape of School Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Mark; Gehring, John; Gewertz, Catherine; Zehr, Mary Ann; Robelen, Eric W.

    2002-01-01

    These articles highlight reactions to the U.S. Supreme Court's landmark ruling upholding the Cleveland voucher program. "Justices Settle Case, Nettle Policy Debate" (Mark Walsh) discusses how the ruling has rejuvenated the school choice movement and reinvigorated debates over how best to improve education for all students. "Voucher Battles Head to…

  8. What We Know about Vouchers: The Facts behind the Rhetoric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelsheimer, Erica

    This report examines research on education vouchers. It discusses how most studies have focused on the systems in place in Milwaukee, Cleveland, and New York City. Although researchers have accused each other of specious findings, some generally consistent results have arisen: families that are served by vouchers are generally low income, parents…

  9. Integration of hepatitis B vaccination into national immunisation programmes. Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board.

    PubMed Central

    Van Damme, P.; Kane, M.; Meheus, A.

    1997-01-01

    Hepatitis B is a major public health problem even though safe and effective vaccines have been available for over 10 years. Because hepatitis B infection is largely asymptomatic with long term complications occurring after many years it has not received the attention it deserves. Strategies to immunise those at high risk have failed to control the disease. Delegates to the World Health Assembly of the World Health Organisation recommended in May 1992 that all countries should integrate hepatitis B vaccination into their national immunisation programmes by 1997. Some western European countries remain unconvinced that the burden of disease warrants the expense of universal vaccination. However, epidemiological data and economic evaluation show that universal hepatitis B vaccination is cost effective in countries with low endemicity and that it will control hepatitis B, reinforcing the necessity for action. PMID:9112852

  10. Depleted Uranium—Experience of the United Nations Environmental Programme Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Åkerblom, Gustav

    2008-08-01

    Depleted Uranium (DU) is used in ammunition designed for armour-piercing. DU was used in the Gulf war 1991, wars in Bosnia 1994-1995, Kosovo 1999 and Iraq 2003. The United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) Post-Conflict Branch investigated sites where DU was used and evaluated health and environmental risks during missions to Kosovo, Serbia and Bosnia. During a mission to Lebanon in 2006, UNEP also sampled areas where DU was supposed to have been used but did not find any DU. Due to the grave risks to the lives of UN personnel, no UNEP mission was carried out in Iraq. UNEP has provided training for personnel engaged in decontamination of DU in Bosnia and Iraq.

  11. Educational Vouchers and Social Cohesion: A Statistical Analysis of Student Civic Attitudes in Sweden, 1999-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb; Myers, John P.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the Swedish national educational voucher scheme and changes in social cohesion. We conduct a statistical analysis using data from the 1999 and 2009 rounds of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement's civic education study of 14-year-old students and their attitudes toward the rights of…

  12. Market-Based Higher Education: Does Colorado's Voucher Model Improve Higher Education Access and Efficiency?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillman, Nicholas W.; Tandberg, David A.; Gross, Jacob P. K.

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, Colorado introduced the nation's first voucher model for financing public higher education. With state appropriations now allocated to students, rather than institutions, state officials expect this model to create cost efficiencies while also expanding college access. Using difference-in-difference regression analysis, we find…

  13. Voucher-based incentives. A substance abuse treatment innovation.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Stephen T; Alessi, Sheila M; Dantona, Robert L

    2002-01-01

    In this report we provide an overview of research on the voucher-based incentives approach to substance abuse treatment. This approach was originally developed as a novel method for improving retention and increasing cocaine abstinence among cocaine-dependent outpatients. The efficacy of vouchers for those purposes is now well established, and plans are underway to move the intervention into effectiveness testing in community clinics. The use of vouchers also has been extended to the treatment of alcohol, marijuana, nicotine, and opioid dependence. Particularly noteworthy is that vouchers hold promise as an efficacious intervention with special populations of substance abusers, including pregnant and recently postpartum women, adolescents, and those with serious mental illness. Overall, voucher-based incentives hold promise as an innovative treatment intervention that has efficacy across a wide range of substance abuse problems and populations. PMID:12369474

  14. The Future Of Vouchers: Lessons from the Adoption, Design, and Court Challenges of Florida's Three Voucher Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Douglas N.; Herrington, Carolyn D.; Albee, Amy

    2007-01-01

    This study considers why Florida has been the most aggressive state in adopting school vouchers. Vouchers are consistent with Florida's tradition of aggressive educational accountability policies, arising from the state's moderate social conservatism, openness to privatization, and state demographic characteristics. Even with this fertile…

  15. The Early Experience in Vouchering On-The-Job Training: A Report on Progress in the Portland Voucher Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Ann; Sharp, Laure M.

    The report describes the first few months of operation of an experimental Work Incentive Program (WIN) in Portland, Oregon to test the feasibility of the use of vouchers for on-the-job training (OJT). Voucher holders were required to decide on a training occupation, and then locate and negotiate for an employer to provide the training. WIN staff…

  16. Looking Inside the Black Box: What School Factors Explain Voucher Gains in Washington, DC?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Patrick J.; Hoople, Daniel S.

    2006-01-01

    Several evaluations of private school voucher programs in the United States have reported achievement gains for voucher users, particularly African Americans. These studies tend to be structured as Randomized Field Trials (RFTs) in which participants are assigned to treatment (offered a voucher) and control (not offered a voucher) groups by…

  17. Looking inside the Black Box: What School Factors Explain Voucher Gains in Washington, D.C.?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Patrick J.

    Recently, a number of evaluations of private school voucher programs in the United States have reported achievement gains for voucher users, especially African Americans. These studies tend to be structured as Randomized Field Trials (RFTs), where participants are assigned to treatment (offered a voucher) and control (not offered a voucher) groups…

  18. From Theory to Practice: Considerations for Implementing a Statewide Voucher System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Denis P.

    This monograph analyzes trends in American educational philosophy and history in its proposal to implement an all-public statewide school voucher system. Following an introduction, section 1, "Alternative Voucher Systems," discusses three concepts: universal unregulated vouchers, favored by Milton Friedman; regulated compensatory vouchers,…

  19. Diffusion of an e-learning programme among Danish General Practitioners: A nation-wide prospective survey

    PubMed Central

    Waldorff, Frans Boch; Steenstrup, Annette Plesner; Nielsen, Bente; Rubak, Jens; Bro, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    Background We were unable to identify studies that have considered the diffusion of an e-learning programme among a large population of general practitioners. The aim of this study was to investigate the uptake of an e-learning programme introduced to General Practitioners as part of a nation-wide disseminated dementia guideline. Methods A prospective study among all 3632 Danish GPs. The GPs were followed from the launching of the e-learning programme in November 2006 and 6 months forward. Main outcome measures: Use of the e-learning programme. A logistic regression model (GEE) was used to identify predictors for use of the e-learning programme. Results In the study period, a total of 192 different GPs (5.3%) were identified as users, and 17% (32) had at least one re-logon. Among responders at first login most have learnt about the e-learning programme from written material (41%) or from the internet (44%). A total of 94% of the users described their ability of conducting a diagnostic evaluation as good or excellent. Most of the respondents used the e-learning programme due to general interest (90%). Predictors for using the e-learning programme were Males (OR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.1; 2.0) and members of Danish College of General Practice (OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.5; 3.1), whereas age, experience and working place did not seem to be influential. Conclusion Only few Danish GPs used the e-learning programme in the first 6 months after the launching. Those using it were more often males and members of Danish College of General Practice. Based on this study we conclude, that an active implementation is needed, also when considering electronic formats of CME like e-learning. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00392483. PMID:18439279

  20. Community experiences and perceptions of reproductive health vouchers in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Research on demand-side health care financing approaches such as output-based aid (OBA) programs have focused on evaluating the role of the programs improving such outcomes as utilization of services and quality of services with limited focus on the experiences and perceptions of the target communities. This paper examines community members’ views of the output-based aid voucher program in Kenya. Methods A household survey was conducted in 2010 among 1,336 women aged 15-49 years living in the catchment areas of contracted health facilities in three districts participating in the voucher program (Kisumu, Kiambu and Kitui). Twenty seven focus group discussions were conducted with voucher users, non-users, opinion leaders and voucher distributors in the three districts as well as in Nairobi. Analysis of the quantitative data involved frequency distributions and cross-tabulations. Qualitative data were transcribed and analyzed by adopting framework analysis and further triangulation of themes across respondents. Results Majority (84%) of survey respondents had heard about the safe motherhood voucher compared to 24% and 1% that had heard about the family planning and gender-based violence recovery services (GBVRS) vouchers respectively. Similarly, 20% of the respondents had used the safe motherhood voucher compared to 2% for family planning and none for the GBVRS vouchers. From the community members’ perspectives, the voucher program is associated with improvements in access to health services for poor women, improved quality of care, and empowerment of women to make health care decisions. However, community members cited difficulties in accessing some accredited health facilities, limitations with the system of selling vouchers, lack of male involvement in women’s reproductive health issues, and poor understanding of the benefits associated with purchasing the voucher. Conclusion The findings of this paper showed that the voucher program in Kenya is

  1. Cultural Differences in Learning and Implications for Distance Delivery of Educational Programmes to Developing Nations: A Case Study in Fiji

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Morris W.

    2008-01-01

    Shanahan (2006) found that to be effective the delivery of distance learning programmes to developing nations had to overcome certain constraints, such as cultural constrictions (i.e., issues of language), tradition-based limitations (i.e., paternalistic and hierarchical structures), an inherited past (colonialism), and poor infrastructure…

  2. International Education in a National Context: Introducing the International Baccalaureate Middle Years Programme in Dutch Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visser, Alderik

    2010-01-01

    Some bilingual secondary schools in the Netherlands have introduced or are introducing the International Baccalaureate (IB) Middle Years Programme (MYP).The implementation of this international scheme at (semi-) public national Dutch schools proves anything but unproblematic. Based on a series of questionnaires filled out by school managers and…

  3. ASE and the New National Curriculum Programme of...Study for Primary Science--Your Views "Were" Heard!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naylor, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    The new National Curriculum Programme of Study for primary science in England includes most of the topics with which primary teachers are familiar. However, when looking at the science enquiry section, the changes are much more far-reaching. Science enquiry has been renamed as "working scientifically" and is integrated with developing…

  4. Policies Regulating the Assignments of the Bachelor of Education Programme of Indira Gandhi National Open University: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bose, Sutapa

    2016-01-01

    This case study examines the policies formulated by the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU), an open and distance learning university of India for regulating the practices related to the assignments of its Bachelor of Education programme. Following the examination it argues that some policies are formulated in the context of the…

  5. Knowledge and Practice of Sun Protection in Schools in South Africa Where No National Sun Protection Programme Exists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Caradee Y.; Reeder, Anthony I.; Albers, Patricia N.

    2016-01-01

    Interventions in primary schools that increase sun-protective behaviours and decrease ultraviolet radiation exposure, sunburn incidence and skin cancer risk can be effective. SunSmart School Accreditation Programmes (SSAP) are recommended. Prior to SSAP implementation in South Africa, we explored the feasibility of obtaining national baseline…

  6. Contingency management voucher redemption as an indicator of delayed gratification.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jesse B; Dierst-Davies, Rhodri; Reback, Cathy J

    2014-07-01

    This prospective analysis tested whether frequency of voucher redemptions during a contingency management (CM) substance use intervention was significantly associated with participants' ongoing substance use. Homeless, substance-dependent men who have sex with men (N=131) were randomized into either a "full" or "lite" voucher-based CM intervention. All participants earned vouchers for attendance and participation; participants in the CM-full condition also received vouchers for substance abstinence and enactment of prosocial and/or health-promoting behaviors. Multivariate longitudinal negative binomial regression analyses (n=118) assessed the association between substance use during the intervention and frequency of voucher redemptions. Participants who used methamphetamine (IRR=0.66; 95% CI=0.44-0.99) and/or opiates (IRR=0.60; 95% CI=0.40-0.99) during the intervention exhibited less time between voucher redemptions than individuals who achieved abstinence from these substances. Voucher redemption logs can be cost-effective and unobtrusive tools for measuring study participants' tendency to delay gratification. PMID:24674235

  7. Preparing the Dutch delta for future droughts: model based support in the national Delta Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ter Maat, Judith; Haasnoot, Marjolijn; van der Vat, Marnix; Hunink, Joachim; Prinsen, Geert; Visser, Martijn

    2014-05-01

    Keywords: uncertainty, policymaking, adaptive policies, fresh water management, droughts, Netherlands, Dutch Deltaprogramme, physically-based complex model, theory-motivated meta-model To prepare the Dutch Delta for future droughts and water scarcity, a nation-wide 4-year project, called Delta Programme, is established to assess impacts of climate scenarios and socio-economic developments and to explore policy options. The results should contribute to a national adaptive plan that is able to adapt to future uncertain conditions, if necessary. For this purpose, we followed a model-based step-wise approach, wherein both physically-based complex models and theory-motivated meta-models were used. First step (2010-2011) was to make a quantitative problem description. This involved a sensitivity analysis of the water system for drought situations under current and future conditions. The comprehensive Dutch national hydrological instrument was used for this purpose and further developed. Secondly (2011-2012) our main focus was on making an inventory of potential actions together with stakeholders. We assessed efficacy, sell-by date of actions, and reassessed vulnerabilities and opportunities for the future water supply system if actions were (not) taken. A rapid assessment meta-model was made based on the complex model. The effects of all potential measures were included in the tool. Thirdly (2012-2013), with support of the rapid assessment model, we assessed the efficacy of policy actions over time for an ensemble of possible futures including sea level rise and climate and land use change. Last step (2013-2014) involves the selection of preferred actions from a set of promising actions that meet the defined objectives. These actions are all modeled and evaluated using the complex model. The outcome of the process will be an adaptive management plan. The adaptive plan describes a set of preferred policy pathways - sequences of policy actions - to achieve targets under

  8. Understanding Heterogeneity in the Impact of National Neglected Tropical Disease Control Programmes: Evidence from School-Based Deworming in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Nikolay, Birgit; Mwandawiro, Charles S.; Kihara, Jimmy H.; Okoyo, Collins; Cano, Jorge; Mwanje, Mariam T.; Sultani, Hadley; Alusala, Dorcas; Turner, Hugo C.; Teti, Caroline; Garn, Josh; Freeman, Matthew C.; Allen, Elizabeth; Anderson, Roy M.; Pullan, Rachel L.; Njenga, Sammy M.; Brooker, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The implementation of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) treatment programmes occurs in varied environmental, social and economic contexts. Programme impact will be influenced by factors that affect the reduction in the prevalence and intensity of infections following treatment, as well as the subsequent rate of reinfection. To better understand the heterogeneity of programme impact and its underlying reasons, we investigated the influence of contextual factors on reduction in STH infection as part of the national school based deworming (SBD) programme in Kenya. Materials and Methods Data on the prevalence and intensity of infection were collected within the monitoring and evaluation component of the SBD programme at baseline and after delivery of two annual treatment rounds in 153 schools in western Kenya. Using a framework that considers STH epidemiology and transmission dynamics, capacity to deliver treatment, operational feasibility and financial capacity, data were assembled at both school and district (county) levels. Geographic heterogeneity of programme impact was assessed by descriptive and spatial analyses. Factors associated with absolute reductions of Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm infection prevalence and intensity were identified using mixed effects linear regression modelling adjusting for baseline infection levels. Principal Findings The reduction in prevalence and intensity of A. lumbricoides and hookworms varied significantly by county and within counties by school. Multivariable analysis of factors associated with programme impact showed that absolute A. lumbricoides reductions varied by environmental conditions and access to improved sanitation at schools or within the community. Larger reduction in prevalence and intensity of hookworms were found in schools located within areas with higher community level access to improved sanitation and within counties with higher economic and health service delivery indicator scores. Conclusions

  9. CSTAR support for the commercial Launch Voucher Demonstration Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Carter H.

    1993-01-01

    Congress mandated a Launch Voucher Demonstration Program (LVDP) in the NASA FY 1993 Authorization Bill. This program was to have been put into place by October 1, 1993 and would end on September 30, 1995, with a report to Congress on January 31, 1996. CSTAR was asked to provide a participatory relationship to NASA concerning the Launch Voucher Demonstration Program, specifically due to CSTAR's COMET experience and knowledge of the CCDS payload and transportation planning, budgeting, and contract management process. This paper describes CSTAR's involvement in the development of the Launch Voucher Demonstration Program.

  10. Protocol for developing the evidence base for a national salt reduction programme for India

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Claire; Mohan, Sailesh; Praveen, Deversetty; Woodward, Mark; Maulik, Pallab K; Shivashankar, Roopa; Amarchand, Ritvik; Webster, Jacqui; Dunford, Elizabeth; Thout, Sudhir Raj; MacGregor, Graham; He, Feng; Reddy, K Srinath; Krishnan, Anand; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Neal, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The scientific evidence base in support of salt reduction is strong but the data required to translate these insights into reduced population salt intake are mostly absent. The aim of this research project is to develop the evidence base required to formulate and implement a national salt reduction programme for India. Methods and analysis The research will comprise three components: a stakeholder analysis involving government, industry, consumers and civil society organisations; a population survey using an age-stratified and sex-stratified random samples drawn from urban (slum and non-slum) and rural areas of North and South India; and a systematic quantitative evaluation of the nutritional components of processed and restaurant foods. The stakeholder interviews will be analysed using qualitative methods to summarise the main themes and define the broad range of factors influencing the food environment in India. The population survey will estimate the mean daily salt consumption through the collection of 24 h urine samples with concurrent dietary surveys identifying the main sources of dietary sodium/salt. The survey of foods will record the nutritional composition of the chief elements of food supply. The findings from this research will be synthesised and proposals for a national salt reduction strategy for India will be developed in collaboration with key stakeholders. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the Human Research Ethics Committees of the University of Sydney and the Centre for Chronic Disease Control in New Delhi, and also by the Indian Health Ministry's Screening Committee. The project began fieldwork in February 2014 and will report the main results in 2016. The findings will be targeted primarily at public health policymakers and advocates, but will be disseminated widely through other mechanisms including conference presentations and peer-reviewed publications, as well as to the participating communities. PMID

  11. Do Vouchers Lead to Sorting under Random Private School Selection? Evidence from the Milwaukee Voucher Program. Working Paper #09-02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakrabarti, Rajashri

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of voucher design on student sorting, and more specifically investigates whether there are feasible ways of designing vouchers that can reduce or eliminate student sorting. It studies these questions in the context of the first five years of the Milwaukee voucher program. Much of the existing literature investigates…

  12. Preventing and Confronting School Bullying: A Comparative Study of Two National Programmes in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Efforts to prevent and curb school bullying have resulted in a proliferation of anti-school-bullying programmes, many based on intuitive appeal rather than systematic evidence. This article presents a comparative analysis of two Norwegian programmes whose developers have demonstrated the effectiveness of their interventions: the Olweus Programme…

  13. Born to Fail? Some Lessons from a National Programme to Improve Education in Poor Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrantes, Pedro; Roldao, Cristina; Amaral, Patricia; Mauritti, Rosario

    2013-01-01

    The article analyses the main benefits of a Portuguese programme, launched in 1996, which was designed to support schools in segregated districts (TEIPs). The first part of the article presents a theoretical framework, before moving on to the main features of the TEIP programme in contemporary Portuguese society and education. An explanation of…

  14. 48 CFR 49.302 - Discontinuance of vouchers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... proposal for fee to the TCO within 1 year from the effective date of termination, unless the period is extended by the TCO. When the use of vouchers is discontinued, the contractor shall submit all...

  15. 48 CFR 49.302 - Discontinuance of vouchers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... proposal for fee to the TCO within 1 year from the effective date of termination, unless the period is extended by the TCO. When the use of vouchers is discontinued, the contractor shall submit all...

  16. Preschoolers' Diets Improved After Federal Food Voucher Changes

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Preschoolers' Diets Improved After Federal Food Voucher Changes: Study More fruits, veggies, whole grains and low- ... 2016 THURSDAY, April 7, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A change to a U.S. government nutrition program improved the ...

  17. The experiences of districts in implementing a national incentive programme to promote safe delivery in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Powell-Jackson, Timothy; Morrison, Joanna; Tiwari, Suresh; Neupane, Basu Dev; Costello, Anthony M

    2009-01-01

    Background Nepal's Safe Delivery Incentive Programme (SDIP) was introduced nationwide in 2005 with the intention of increasing utilisation of professional care at childbirth. It provided cash to women giving birth in a health facility and an incentive to the health provider for each delivery attended, either at home or in the facility. We explored early implementation of the programme at the district-level to understand the factors that have contributed to its low uptake. Methods We conducted in ten study districts a series of key informant interviews and focus group discussions with staff from health facilities and the district health office and other stakeholders involved in implementation. Manual content analysis was used to categorise data under emerging themes. Results Problems at the central level imposed severe constraints on the ability of district-level actors to implement the programme. These included bureaucratic delays in the disbursement of funds, difficulties in communicating the policy, both to implementers and the wider public and the complexity of the programme's design. However, some district implementers were able to cope with these problems, providing reasons for why uptake of the programme varied considerably between districts. Actions appeared to be influenced by the pressure to meet local needs, as well individual perceptions and acceptance of the programme. The experience also sheds light on some of the adverse effects of the programme on the wider health system. Conclusion The success of conditional cash transfer programmes in Latin America has led to a wave of enthusiasm for their adoption in other parts of the world. However, context matters and proponents of similar programmes in south Asia should give due attention to the challenges to implementation when capacity is weak and health services inadequate. PMID:19508710

  18. Anthrax control and research, with special reference to national programme development in Africa: memorandum from a WHO meeting.

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The prevalence of anthrax in both animal and human populations has been increasing in Africa. It was therefore appropriate for this WHO meeting to be convened in an endemic area of the Western Province of Zambia in 1992. The participants reviewed anthrax epidemiology and control in some African countries, elaborated national anthrax control and research programmes in Africa, discussed international cooperation and work plans, and elaborated recommendations for anthrax control in Africa. The discussions centred on anthrax surveillance and reporting systems, diagnosis, vaccine production and immunization, disinfection and decontamination, carcass disposal, treatment of human cases, health systems, as well as intersectorial cooperation between public health services, veterinary services and other services such as wildlife conservation, so that national control programmes could take full account of the conditions prevailing in epidemic situations in Africa. The recommendations are applicable in other regions where anthrax poses similar problems in public, animal and environmental health. PMID:8131249

  19. Mobile phones to support adherence to antiretroviral therapy: what would it cost the Indian National AIDS Control Programme?

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Rashmi; Bogg, Lennart; Shet, Anita; Kumar, Dodderi Sunil; De Costa, Ayesha

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART) is critical to maintaining health and good clinical outcomes in people living with HIV/AIDS. To address poor treatment adherence, low-cost interventions using mobile communication technology are being studied. While there are some studies that show an effect of mobile phone reminders on adherence to ART, none has reported on the costs of such reminders for national AIDS programmes. This paper aims to study the costs of mobile phone reminder strategies (mHealth interventions) to support adherence in the context of India's National AIDS Control Program (NACP). Methods The study was undertaken at two tertiary level teaching hospitals that implement the NACP in Karnataka state, South India. Costs for a mobile phone reminder application to support adherence, implemented at these sites (i.e. weekly calls, messages or both) were studied. Costs were collected based on the concept of avoidable costs specific to the application. The costs that were assessed were one-time costs and recurrent costs that included fixed and variable costs. A sequential procedure for costing was used. Costs were calculated at national-programme level, individual ART-centre level and individual patient level from the NACP's perspective. The assessed costs were pooled to obtain an annual cost per patient. The type of application, number of ART centres and number of patients on ART were varied in a sensitivity analysis of costs. Results The Indian NACP would incur a cost of between 79 and 110 INR (USD 1.27–1.77) per patient per year, based on the type of reminder, the number of patients on ART and the number of functioning ART centres. The total programme costs for a scale-up of the mHealth intervention to reach the one million patients expected to be on treatment by 2017 is estimated to be 0.36% of the total five-year national-programme budget. Conclusions The cost of the mHealth intervention for ART-adherence support in the context of the

  20. Going beyond the vertical: leveraging a national HIV quality improvement programme to address other health priorities in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Jean Paul; Jerome, Gregory; Lambert, Wesler; Almazor, Patrick; Cupidon, Colette Eugene; Hirschhorn, Lisa R

    2015-07-01

    Although the central role of quality to achieve targeted population health goals is widely recognized, how to spread the capacity to measure and improve quality across programmes has not been widely studied. We describe the successful leveraging of expertise and framework of a national HIV quality improvement programme to spread capacity and improve quality across a network of clinics in HIV and other targeted areas of healthcare delivery in rural Haiti.The work was led by Zamni LaSante, a Haitian nongovernment organization and its sister organization, Partners In Health working in partnership with the Haitian Ministry of Health in the Plateau Central and Lower Artibonite regions in 12 public sector facilities.Data included routinely collected organizational assessments of facility quality improvement capacity, national HIV performance measures and Zamni LaSante programme records.We found that facility quality improvement capacity increased with spread from HIV to other areas of inpatient and outpatient care, including tuberculosis (TB), maternal health and inpatient services in all 12 supported healthcare facilities. A significant increase in the quality of HIV care was also seen in most areas, including CD4 monitoring, TB screening, HIV treatment (all P < 0.01) and nutritional assessment and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (both P < .05), with an increase in average facility performance from 39 to 72% (P < .01).In conclusion, using a diagonal approach to leverage a national vertical programme for wider benefit resulted in accelerated change in professional culture and increased capacity to spread quality improvement activities across facilities and areas of healthcare delivery. This led to improvement within and beyond HIV care and contributed to the goal of quality of care for all. PMID:26102627

  1. Healthy universities--time for action: a qualitative research study exploring the potential for a national programme.

    PubMed

    Dooris, Mark; Doherty, Sharon

    2010-03-01

    Despite the absence of national or international steers, there is within England growing interest in the Healthy University approach. This article introduces Healthy Universities; reports on a qualitative study exploring the potential for a national programme contributing to health, well-being and sustainable development; and concludes with reflections and recommendations. The study used questionnaires and interviews with key informants from English higher education institutions and national stakeholder organizations. The findings confirmed that higher education offers significant potential to impact positively on the health and well-being of students, staff and wider communities through education, research, knowledge exchange and institutional practice. There was strong support for extending the healthy settings approach beyond schools and further education, through a National Healthy Higher Education Programme that provides a whole system Healthy University Framework. Informants argued that although there are important public health drivers, it will also be necessary to show how a Healthy Universities can help achieve core business objectives and contribute to related agendas such as sustainability. Two models were discussed: an accreditation scheme with externally assessed standardized achievement criteria; and a flexible and light-touch framework focusing on change-related processes and utilizing self-assessment. While highlighting the appeal of league tables, many informants feared that a top-down approach could backfire, generating resistance and resulting in minimal compliance. In contrast, the majority felt that a process-focused aspirational model would be more likely to win hearts and minds and facilitate system-level change. Key recommendations relate to national programme development, research and evaluation and international collaboration and networking. PMID:20167825

  2. Expanding safer sex options: introducing the female condom into national programmes.

    PubMed

    Warren, Mitchell; Philpott, Anne

    2003-05-01

    Although the female condom has been introduced into over 90 countries since 1997, it has only been accepted in sexual and reproductive health programmes as a mainstream method in a few. This paper describes introductory strategies developed by Ministries of Health and non-governmental organisations in Brazil, Ghana, Zimbabwe and South Africa, supported by UNAIDS, and the manufacturers of the female condom, which have significantly expanded the number of female condoms being used. These projects have several key similarities: a focus on training for providers and peer educators, face-to-face communication with potential users to equip them with information and skills, an identified target audience, a consistent supply, a long assessment period to gauge actual use beyond the initial novelty phase, and a mix of public and private sector distribution. Female condom programmes require the sanction, leadership and funding of governments and donors. However, the non-governmental and private sectors have also played a major role in programme implementation. To ensure successful introduction of the female condom, it is crucial to involve a range of decision-makers, programme managers, service providers, community leaders and women's and youth groups. The rising cost of inaction and unprotected sex in the spread of HIV and AIDS force us to recognise the high cost of not providing female condoms alongside male condoms in family planning and AIDS prevention programmes. PMID:12800710

  3. Preparation and Use of Voucher Specimens for Documenting Research in Weed Science

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historically voucher specimens and herbarium collections have provided the basis for research in plant science. Available for study and verification by contemporary and future workers, voucher specimens are permanent records documenting identification, distribution, and interspecific and intraspeci...

  4. Health Education as an Important Component in the National Schistosomiasis Control Programme in The People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Zhong, B; Xu, J; Li, R-Z; Cao, C-L

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis control programme in The People's Republic of China had promoted the mass mobilization of health education in various forms, such as films, drama, traditional opera, poems, slogans, posters, exhibits. This paper is trying to review the impacts of those forms on different endemic settings and targeted populations. In the future, health education and health promotion will still be the effective strategy and one of the interventions in the national control programme for schistosomiasis and other infectious diseases, even in the pre- or posttransmission stages. With the social and economic development and improvement of people's living standard, it is necessary to establish a sustainable mechanism, in combination of health education with health guarantee of improving the quality of life, improving the production and living conditions, changing the unhealthy production methods and lifestyle of the residents in the endemic areas, in order to reach the goal of schistosomiasis elimination in The People's Republic of China. PMID:27137451

  5. Traditional healers and the potential for collaboration with the national tuberculosis programme in Vanuatu: results from a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was conducted in the Pacific island nation of Vanuatu. Our objective was to assess knowledge, attitudes and practice of traditional healers who treat lung diseases and tuberculosis (TB), including their willingness to collaborate with the national TB programme. Methods This was a descriptive study using both qualitative and quantitative methods. Quantitative analysis was based on the responses provided to closed-ended questions, and we used descriptive analysis (frequencies) to describe the knowledge, attitudes and practice of the traditional healers towards TB. Qualitative analysis was based on open-ended questions permitting fuller explanations. We used thematic analysis and developed a posteriori inductive categories to draw original and unbiased conclusions. Results Nineteen traditional healers were interviewed; 18 were male. Fifteen of the healers reported treating short wind (a local term to describe lung, chest or breathing illnesses) which they attributed to food, alcohol, smoking or pollution from contact with menstrual blood, and a range of other physical and spiritual causes. Ten said that they would treat TB with leaf medicine. Four traditional healers said that they would not treat TB. Twelve of the healers had referred someone to a hospital for a strong wet-cough and just over half of the healers (9) reported a previous collaboration with the Government health care system. Eighteen of the traditional healers would be willing to collaborate with the national TB programme, with or without compensation. Conclusions Traditional healers in Vanuatu treat lung diseases including TB. Many have previously collaborated with the Government funded health care system, and almost all of them indicated a willingness to collaborate with the national TB programme. The engagement of traditional healers in TB management should be considered, using an evidence based and culturally sensitive approach. PMID:24758174

  6. New Wine in Old Bottles? A Critique of Sweden's New National Training Programme for Head Teachers: Does It Strengthen or Undermine School Equality and Students' Educational Rights and Guarantees?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    This research seeks to look at the effect of the new Swedish training programme for head teachers by comparing it with the previous national training programme and does so primarily through an analysis of documents and texts that served to underpin the two different programmes. To put the Swedish teacher-training programme in an international…

  7. Dynamic Selection Effects in Means-Tested, Urban School Voucher Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, William G.

    2004-01-01

    Much of the controversy surrounding school vouchers, and privatization schemes generally, stems from concerns about social stratification. This paper identifies the form and magnitude of selection effects in a means-tested New York City voucher program. It compares students who applied for vouchers, with the eligible population of public-school…

  8. School Vouchers in Washington, DC: Achievement Impacts and Their Implications for Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Patrick J.

    2010-01-01

    The District of Columbia Opportunity Scholarship Program (OSP) is a school voucher initiative targeted to disadvantaged students in the US Capital. Vouchers worth up to $7,500 annually are awarded by lottery to students with family incomes near or below the federal poverty line. Students can then use their voucher at any of 60 participating…

  9. 77 FR 3435 - Notice of Funding Availability: Rural Development Voucher Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-24

    ... Rural Housing Service Notice of Funding Availability: Rural Development Voucher Program AGENCY: Rural... 542(b)). This Notice informs the public that funding ] is available for the Rural Development Voucher... of 150 days from original issuance, the Rural Development Voucher will become void, any funding...

  10. 76 FR 38352 - Notice of Funding Availability: Rural Development Voucher Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... Rural Housing Service Notice of Funding Availability: Rural Development Voucher Program AGENCY: Rural... funding is available for the Rural Development Voucher Program. The notice also sets forth the general... requirements of the voucher program but changed the funding level to $14,000,000, with a .2 percent...

  11. 75 FR 19353 - Notice of Funding Availability: Rural Development Voucher Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... Rural Housing Service Notice of Funding Availability: Rural Development Voucher Program AGENCY: Rural... funding is now available for the Rural Development Voucher Program. The notice also sets forth the general..., the Rural Development Voucher will become void, any funding will be cancelled, and the tenant will...

  12. Vouchers--A Legal Draw. A Response to Benjamin Dowling-Sendor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Julie

    1999-01-01

    A court-approved Milwaukee voucher program permits up to 15% of the city's public schoolchildren to attend private/religious schools at state expense. This represents no victory for vouchers. Although the Wisconsin Supreme Court found vouchers constitutional, it may not believe they are valid under the federal constitution. (MLH)

  13. The First Year of the Education Voucher Demonstration: A Secondary Analysis of Student Achievement Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wortman, Paul M.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The Education Voucher Demonstration began in the Alum Rock Union Elementary School District during the 1972-73 school year. Under the voucher concept, parents freely select a school for their child and receive a credit or voucher equal to the cost of the child's education that is paid directly to the school upon enrollment. It was presumed that…

  14. Re: Voucher System as an Alternative Educational Program. Occasional Paper #4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Irving

    Voucher plans vary mainly in the value assigned each voucher, whether schools are permitted to charge extra tuition, provisions for the educationally disadvantaged, and the degree to which participating schools are regulated. A crucial factor in any voucher plan is the freedom of choice parents have in selecting their children's educational…

  15. On the Political Economy of Educational Vouchers. NBER Working Paper No. 17986

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epple, Dennis N.; Romano, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Two significant challenges hamper analyses of collective choice of educational vouchers. One is the multi-dimensional choice set arising from the interdependence of the voucher, public education spending, and taxation. The other is that household preferences between public and private schooling vary with the policy chosen. Even absent a voucher,…

  16. An Analysis of the Ideas Behind, and the Evidence on, Education Vouchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hind, Ian

    An evaluation of the merits of education vouchers as a means of implementing educational reform is explored in this publication. The paper is divided into five sections. First, the historical and philosophical origins of the concept of vouchers are examined. The second section focuses on education vouchers in the context of recent developments in…

  17. Determining the Legality of School Vouchers: Are State Courts the New Venue?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Martha

    2007-01-01

    Allowing public funds to be used for tuition and other expenses in private schools through a voucher system has been the source of debate in legislative and educational forums for almost half a century, but only recently have school vouchers become a serious school reform strategy. This article provides a brief overview of the voucher plans…

  18. A Win-Win Solution: The Empirical Evidence on School Vouchers. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Greg

    2011-01-01

    This report collects the results of all available empirical studies using the best available scientific methods to measure how school vouchers affect academic outcomes for participants, and all available studies on how vouchers affect outcomes in public schools. Contrary to the widespread claim that vouchers do not benefit participants and hurt…

  19. Jeopardizing a Legacy: A Closer Look at IDEA and Florida's Disability Voucher Program. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    People for the American Way, Washington, DC.

    This report examines the outcomes of the John M. McKay Scholarships Program, a statewide voucher program for students with disabilities in Florida that provides students with taxpayer-funded vouchers to be used at private schools or at other public schools. It argues that the McKay voucher program, which started in 1999, is rife with…

  20. A Critical Evaluation of Training within the South African National Public Works Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mccord, Anna

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the ability of the training and work experience offered under public works programmes to promote employment in South Africa. Public works are a key component of South African labour market policy and are ascribed considerable potential in terms of addressing the core challenge of unemployment. However, despite this policy…

  1. Parents Supporting Parents: An Evaluative Report on the National Parent Support Programme Mid-West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Pat

    Dramatic increases in single parenthood and the number of employed mothers have led to the articulation of policies and programs designed to strengthen the family in Ireland. This report examines the experience of Community Mothers' Programme in Limerick City. Based on the assumption that the understanding, advice, and support of an experienced…

  2. Impact of a National Programme of Professional Development in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kudenko, Irina; Ratcliffe, Mary; Redmore, Alison; Aldridge, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of large-scale professional development programmes in a cost-effective but detailed manner presents challenges. Much of the research evidence on the effectiveness of professional development in science education has been the result of small-scale studies that use clustered or stratified sampling methods. Using the evidence collected…

  3. Media in Distance Learning: The Nigerian National Teachers Institute Distance Education Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yusuf, Mudasiru Olalere; Falade, Ayotunde Atanda

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the use of media by distance learners enrolled in the NTI distance education programme. Two hundred and fifty five distance learners drawn from Oyo State, Nigeria, completed a questionnaire to determine the use of media, and factors militating against their effective use by distance learners. Research data were analyzed…

  4. The experience of Chinese physicians in the national health diplomacy programme deployed to Sudan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Gimbel, Sarah; Malik, Elfatih; Hassen, Sara; Hagopian, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Chinese Medical Teams have been working in developing countries since 1963 as a health diplomacy strategy. In 2010, 1252 Chinese medical personnel were assigned to 48 countries. We conducted a review of Chinese literature and governmental websites to describe the history and current distribution of Chinese Medical Teams around the world. In addition, we interviewed members of a 36-member Chinese Medical Team deployed to Sudan (primarily about their motivations to join the programme and the challenges and benefits they face), along with their Sudanese hosts. The most significant challenge health workers described was homesickness. Most members said they were able to maintain motivation through their curiosity and the doctor-friendly environment. All but two rated their own working performance as 'good' or 'very good', while their Sudanese colleagues consistently rated them even higher. Participants reported conflicting beliefs regarding the perceived responsibilities of the team and challenges around communication. Three pillars support the Chinese Medical Team programme in Sudan: bilateral government commitment, the professionalism of the Medical Teams, and the welcoming medical environment. Future success of this or similar Chinese programmes depend on the willingness of both governments to participate, the ongoing commitment of younger Chinese doctors, and the hospitality of physicians in the host country. There are also some threats to the programme, including a potentially diminishing need for Chinese doctors to support increasingly well-trained host country physicians. PMID:21728741

  5. Peer mentors, mobile phone and pills: collective monitoring and adherence in Kenyatta National Hospital's HIV treatment programme

    PubMed Central

    Moyer, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    In 2006, the Kenyan state joined the international commitment to make antiretroviral treatment free in public health institutions to people infected with HIV. Less than a decade later, treatment has reached over 60% of those who need it in Kenya. This paper, which is based on an in-depth ethnographic case study of the HIV treatment programme at Kenyatta National Hospital, conducted intermittently between 2008 and 2014, examines how HIV-positive peer mentors encourage and track adherence to treatment regimens within and beyond the clinic walls using mobile phones and computer technology. This research into the everyday practices of patient monitoring demonstrates that both surveillance and adherence are collective activities. Peer mentors provide counselling services, follow up people who stray from treatment regimens, and perform a range of other tasks related to patient management and treatment adherence. Despite peer mentors’ involvement in many tasks key to encouraging optimal adherence, their role is rarely acknowledged by co-workers, hospital administrators, or public health officials. Following a biomedical paradigm, adherence at Kenyatta and in Kenya is framed by programme administrators as something individual clients must do and for which they must be held accountable. This framing simultaneously conceals the sociality of adherence and undervalues the work of peer mentors in treatment programmes. PMID:25175291

  6. The UK's Surplus Source Disposal Programme: successful management of a national radioactive legacy.

    PubMed

    Williams, Clive; Burns, Philip; Wakerley, Malcolm; Watson, Isabelle; Cook, Marianne; Moloney, Barry

    2010-06-01

    Between 2004 and 2009, the Surplus Source Disposal Programme (SSDP) arranged and subsidised the safe disposal or recycling of more than 11,000 unwanted radioactive items containing in total more than 8.5 x 10(14) Bq of activity, from some 500 sites throughout the United Kingdom. Sources were removed principally from universities, schools and colleges, museums, and hospitals. SSDP was funded by the UK Government and managed by the Environment Agency. The programme was delivered at a total cost of pound sterling 7.14 million, nearly pound sterling 2 million less than its initial budget. This was a big success for health and safety, the environment, business and the public purse. Current legislative requirements under the High Activity Sealed Sources Directive, which came into effect during 2005, will prevent a build-up of high activity surplus sources in future. Continuing vigilance may be needed to avoid a build-up of lower activity disused sources. PMID:20530861

  7. [Analysis of fourteen French national programmes on physical activity and sports as determinants of health from 2001 to 2006].

    PubMed

    Bréchat, Pierre-Henri; Vogel, Thomas; Berthel, Marc; Kaltenbach, Georges; Le Divenah, Aude; Segouin, Christophe; Rymer, Roland; Lonsdorfer, Jean

    2009-01-01

    Physical activity and sports are considered as one of the determinants of health. The aim of this study is to review the rationale for the formulation of this public health issue and its integration in national action plans. The study shows that fourteen national programmes were drafted and implemented between 2001 and 2006 by seven institutions. The research methodology was based on crossing data obtained from semi-directed interviews and documents regarding the design, implementation and follow-up of these programmes. For the conditions of the success, the fourteen actions scored an average of 175.0 +/- 66.9 out of 300%. Public health actors and professionals must be given more opportunities to involve themselves and engage in developing stronger relationships and linkages, in particular with the institutional and community settings. In general, the most invested parts of a programme are the structural and operational aspects of activities. Six significant points surfaced from the study: consideration of drug use as an addictive behaviour; recognition of the psychological stress of professional athletes; acknowledgment of youth as being at high risk for doping behaviour; integration of the concept that physical activity and sports must take the benefit/risk perspective into account; and the necessity to promote health. Through the exchange of numerous local and regional experiences, an optimisation of their synergistic connections was made possible on a continuum extending from "health promotion through physical activity and sports" to "prevention of drug-use and doping behaviours". Professionals have been able to develop actions in the above-mentioned domains across this continuum that have, to date, remained isolated. Proposals are made to strengthen these dynamics. Other health determinants and public health priorities could be investigated with the same methodology. PMID:19425524

  8. The Private Cost of National Certificate in Education (NCE) through National Teachers Institute Distance Learning Programme in Ekiti State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borode, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    The study set out to examine the private cost of a National Certificate in Education, through the distance learning mode as organized by the National Teachers Institute (NTI) Ekiti State branch in Nigeria. This was to open the eyes of the prospective students to know what on the average he has to spend, and also to provide data for the state…

  9. Racial Desegregation: Magnet Schools, Vouchers, Privatization, and Home Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeks, Loretta F.; Meeks, Wendell A.; Warren, Claudia A.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses whether the alternatives to traditional education that were promoted in the past decade have lived up to their promise of creating a school environment that is conducive to learning for all students, focusing on magnet schools, educational vouchers, privatization and charter schools, and home schooling. (SM)

  10. A Proposal for State, Income-Targeted, Preschool Vouchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, John F.

    2007-01-01

    This article proposes that states create low-income targeted voucher programs for 3- and/or 4-year-olds. The basis for this proposal is considerable research demonstrating long-term effects for a number of random assignment and quasi-experimental preschool programs. Benefit-costs rates of return for these programs are between $2 and $16 for every…

  11. Voucher Subsidized Child Care: The Hudson County Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catterall, Barbara; Williams, Carol

    From October 1982 through September 1984, the New Jersey Department of Human Services, Division of Youth and Family Services (DYFS) piloted a research and demonstration project to test the outcome of using vouchers to finance the public provision of child care. Because of historical funding patterns which tied day care subsidies to particular…

  12. School Vouchers and Privatization: A Reference Handbook. Contemporary Education Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, Danny

    This book looks at the privatization of education as an ideological construct. In exploring and assessing the concept of privatized education, it focuses on the debate over private choice and school vouchers. It also looks at the development of private curriculums and educational materials created by corporations, various scholarship-funding…

  13. Parental Voucher Enrollment Decisions: Choice within Choice in New Orleans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beabout, Brian R.; Cambre, Belinda M.

    2013-01-01

    Set in the context of a choice-saturated public school system, this study examines the school choice process of low-income parents who participated in Louisiana's 2008 voucher program. Based on semistructured interviews with 16 parents at 1 Catholic school, we report that spirituality, small class and school size, character/values,…

  14. Voucher Funding of Training: A Study of the GI Bill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, David; Ross, Sue Geotz

    The study assessed the use of vouchers for funding manpower training, using the GI bill as a test case. Focus was on vocational training, although on-the-job training (OJT), correspondence, and college training were also examined. The value of training was estimated by the extent to which it leads to increased earnings. Longitudinal earnings…

  15. California's Voucher Plan: A Private School Principal's Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szanto, Hubert S.

    1980-01-01

    Examines the impact the Coons and Sugarman voucher plan would have on both private and public schools. Expresses fear that religious schools would have to abandon their affiliations and that public schools would become dumping grounds for disorderly and low achieving students. (IRT)

  16. Cleveland School Vouchers: Where the Students Come from.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiller, Zach

    This report presents data on the Ohio Department of Education's Cleveland Scholarship and Tutoring program, examining where students who receive school vouchers attended school before entering the program. Overall, 33 percent of these students previously attended private schools, and 21 percent previously attended Cleveland public schools. The…

  17. The Fiscal Impact of the D.C. Voucher Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aud, Susan L.; Michos, Leon

    2006-01-01

    In August 2004 the first ever federally funded school voucher program began in Washington, D.C. Eligible students could attend a private school of their choice in the District of Columbia. Each participant received up to $7,500 for school tuition, fees, and transportation. In addition, the D.C. Public School System (DCPS) and D.C. charter school…

  18. False Choices: Why School Vouchers Threaten Our Children's Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Robert, Ed.; Miner, Barbara, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    A voucher system of schooling would destroy the few democratic gains made in public education in recent years, worsen inequalities that already permeate education, and block opportunities for meaningful reform. Articles included in this special issue are: (1) an introduction, "Why We Are Publishing False Choices" ("Rethinking Schools" Editorial…

  19. Women, Education and the Law: Vouchers, Tax Credits, & Legal Confusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    First, Patricia F.

    2003-01-01

    In early 2003, two distinguished researchers in school law analyzed aspects of the law vis-a-vis vouchers and tax credits and the public schools (McCarthy, 2003; Welner, 2003). The issues were confusing, and the author wondered how educators and the public responded. How can policy makers make reasonable decisions about public education without a…

  20. 24 CFR 401.556 - Leasing units to voucher holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leasing units to voucher holders. 401.556 Section 401.556 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... PROGRAM (MARK-TO-MARKET) Implementation of the Restructuring Plan After Closing § 401.556 Leasing units...

  1. Contexts Matter: Selection in Means-Tested School Voucher Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Cassandra M. D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines public school characteristics, and public and private school market characteristics, associated with participation among elementary-aged students in a means-tested school voucher program in Florida. Participants are more likely than eligible nonparticipants to come from disadvantaged public schools on multiple dimensions. On…

  2. Measuring Competitive Effects from School Voucher Programs: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egalite, Anna J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of the competition effects from voucher or tuition tax credit scholarship programs on public school student academic outcomes have taken place in seven locations throughout the United States, with the majority of studies taking place in Florida, followed by Wisconsin. This article reviews 21 total studies of the impacts on student academic…

  3. Responses of Private and Public Schools to Voucher Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filer, Randall K.; Munich, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The post-communist Czech Republic provides a laboratory in which to investigate possible responses to the adoption of universal education vouchers. Private schools appear to have arisen in response to distinct market incentives. They are more common in fields where public school inertia has resulted in an under-supply of available slots. They are…

  4. Justices Query Lawyers in Florida Court Showdown over Voucher Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Florida's Opportunity Scholarships faced their most crucial test in June 2005, as the state supreme court heard arguments in a case about the constitutionality of the voucher program. In more than an hour of oral arguments in "Bush v. Holmes," held June 7, in Tallahassee and shown live on the Internet, lawyers sparred over the implications for…

  5. The Milwaukee School Voucher Initiative: Impact on Black Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Walter C., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    The Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP) is the result of a unique alliance formed between middle-class, Caucasian conservatives and liberal, inner-city minorities, who advocated for the creation of publicly funded private school vouchers. A review of the circumstances surrounding the initiation of the MPCP in 1990 as well as an assessment of…

  6. Considering nontraditional alternatives: charters, private contracts, and vouchers.

    PubMed

    Koppich, J E

    1997-01-01

    Charter schools, vouchers, and contracts with private agencies providing educational services all reflect the belief that a substantial part of educational budgeting, decision making, and accountability should be based at the level of individual schools, rather than at the school district level. Though states are moving quickly to set up charter schools, and some states and districts are debating the merits of vouchers or experimenting with private contracts, in fact there is little information about the educational effectiveness of these innovations. Charter schools face substantial challenges in financing and business operations; many state charter school laws provide no start-up or capital funds and only limited operational funds. In addition, many charter school laws are vague on key questions of authority and school-district relations. Contracting with private agencies presents a wide range of options, many of which have been tried in only a few locations. The most publicized contracts with private agencies to run multiple schools have included some highly visible disappointments and no clear successes as yet, though experience is too limited to draw conclusions about contracting in general. Vouchers that may be used at private schools are extremely controversial for several reasons. Because private schools can decide which students they will accept, opponents are concerned that extensive use of vouchers may dramatically change the composition of the public school student body. It is also unclear whether vouchers to religious schools (which comprise 82% of all private schools in the United States) violate the constitutional requirement for separation of church and state. PMID:10892468

  7. The National Programme for IT: will it be good for children?

    PubMed

    Low, David C

    2009-01-01

    NHS Connecting for Health set up a Child Health Programme in 2007 to map out and make the case for a common core content for electronic child health records. Because of the relatively low level of integration of existing systems, sharing is technically difficult, and a consistent community-based detailed care record does not yet exist. However, Government policy and good clinical care, emphasised by Lord Laming in 2003 and again this year, stress the importance of information sharing and a common record. A record with a common core content, readily available for every child and parent or carer and for each professional delivering their health care, would be an advantage. The basis of one already exists as the Personal Child Health Record. Systems are developing and are in operation in different parts of the country which are beginning to share information between different health organisations as well as integrating different systems. PMID:20120879

  8. A 3-year community-based periodontal disease prevention programme for adults in a developing nation.

    PubMed

    Cutress, T W; Powell, R N; Kilisimasi, S; Tomiki, S; Holborow, D

    1991-12-01

    A field trail of a community programme for improving periodontal health of adults was carried out in a geographically remote, unsophisticated rural population in the South Pacific islands of Tonga. The 3-year project (1986-89) involved three village communities, each with a population of approximately 1200. Village N received supplies of toothbrushes and toothpaste without charge, health education (videos, talks, posters) and periodic dental scaling (ultrasonic). Village K received the same as N except that dental scaling was not provided. Village E received none of the services provided to the villages N and K. Baseline and final examinations of 20-44-year olds showed that unsupervised self-care promoted at the community level, when supplemented with periodic removal of subgingival calculus, significantly improved periodontal health. Improvement was age dependent. PMID:1800382

  9. Community-based health insurance programmes and the national health insurance scheme of Nigeria: challenges to uptake and integration

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nigeria has included a regulated community-based health insurance (CBHI) model within its National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS). Uptake to date has been disappointing, however. The aim of this study is to review the present status of CBHI in SSA in general to highlight the issues that affect its successful integration within the NHIS of Nigeria and more widely in developing countries. Methods A literature survey using PubMed and EconLit was carried out to identify and review studies that report factors affecting implementation of CBHI in SSA with a focus on Nigeria. Results CBHI schemes with a variety of designs have been introduced across SSA but with generally disappointing results so far. Two exceptions are Ghana and Rwanda, both of which have introduced schemes with effective government control and support coupled with intensive implementation programmes. Poor support for CBHI is repeatedly linked elsewhere with failure to engage and account for the ‘real world’ needs of beneficiaries, lack of clear legislative and regulatory frameworks, inadequate financial support, and unrealistic enrolment requirements. Nigeria’s CBHI-type schemes for the informal sectors of its NHIS have been set up under an appropriate legislative framework, but work is needed to eliminate regressive financing, to involve scheme members in the setting up and management of programmes, to inform and educate more effectively, to eliminate lack of confidence in the schemes, and to address inequity in provision. Targeted subsidies should also be considered. Conclusions Disappointing uptake of CBHI-type NHIS elements in Nigeria can be addressed through closer integration of informal and formal programmes under the NHIS umbrella, with increasing involvement of beneficiaries in scheme design and management, improved communication and education, and targeted financial assistance. PMID:24559409

  10. Teenagers and young adults with cancer in Europe: from national programmes to a European integrated coordinated project.

    PubMed

    Stark, D; Bielack, S; Brugieres, L; Dirksen, U; Duarte, X; Dunn, S; Erdelyi, D J; Grew, T; Hjorth, L; Jazbec, J; Kabickova, E; Konsoulova, A; Kowalczyk, J R; Lassaletta, A; Laurence, V; Lewis, I; Monrabal, A; Morgan, S; Mountzios, G; Olsen, P R; Renard, M; Saeter, G; van der Graaf, W T; Ferrari, A

    2016-05-01

    Over 14 000 patients aged 15-24 are estimated to be diagnosed with cancer in the European Union (EU) each year. Teenagers and young adults (TYA) often fall down gaps between children's and adults cancer services. The specific challenges of providing optimal care to them are described, but we present a summary of recent progress. Progress to overcome these challenges is happening at different rates across Europe. We summarise the European national projects in this field but more recently we have seen the beginnings of European coordination. Within the EU 7th Funding Programme (FP7) European Network for Cancer Research in Children and Adolescents programme (ENCCA), a specific European Network for Teenagers and Young Adults with Cancer has held a series of scientific meetings, including professionals, patients and caregivers. This group has proposed unanswered research questions and agreed key features of a high-quality service that can improve outcomes for TYA with cancer, including the primacy of collaboration between adult and paediatric services to eliminate the gap in the management of TYA with cancer. PMID:26239724

  11. Overview of diagnosis, management and outcome of congenital hypothyroidism: A call for a national screening programme in Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Jurayyan, Nasir A. Al; Mohamed, Sarar H.; Abdullah, Mohamed A.

    2012-01-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is the commonest preventable cause of mental retardation in children worldwide. It continued to be a major health problem amongst Sudanese children. The lack of a screening programme in Sudan may be the major factor of missing the diagnosis in newborns with such a condition that can present very subtle clinically, yet with poor neurodevelopmental consequences. The outcome is very good when the condition is noticed early (in the first 2 - 3 weeks of life). However, the prognosis is guarded when the diagnosis is delayed, with a squeal of different degrees of developmental delay depending on the severity of the condition. In this overview, we tried to highlight the important issues of screening, diagnosis and outcome with and without early management, worldwide. We thereby send a call out for all paediatricians and endocrine clinicians who work locally or outside Sudan to collaborate with the Sudanese Society of Paediatrician as well as other stakeholders in Sudan to help establishing a national screening programme for all common and preventable causes of childhood illnesses which has devastating consequences such as CH.

  12. Do Vouchers Lead to Sorting under Random Private-School Selection? Evidence from the Milwaukee Voucher Program. Staff Report No. 379

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakrabarti, Rajashri

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of voucher design on student sorting in the application and enrollment phases of parental choice. More specifically, it investigates whether there are feasible ways of designing vouchers that can reduce or eliminate student sorting in these phases. Much of the existing literature investigates the question of…

  13. The Problem of Taking Private School Voucher Programs to Scale: The Next Issue in the Voucher Wars. The Century Foundation Issue Brief Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahlenberg, Richard D.

    This paper suggests that public school choice programs, which affect a much larger number of U.S. students than do educational vouchers, offer the chance to promote achievement on a grand scale. It begins by examining previous research that found that only urban African American students in voucher programs showed significant academic improvement.…

  14. The International Polar Year in Portugal: A New National Polar Programme and a Major Education and Outreach project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes-Victor, L.; Vieira, G.; Xavier, J.; Canario, A.

    2008-12-01

    Before the International Polar Year, in Portugal polar research was conducted by a very small group of scientists integrated in foreign projects or research institutions. Portugal was not member of the Scientific Committee for Antarctic Research (SCAR), the European Polar Board (EPB), neither a subscriber of the Antarctic Treaty. In 2004 Portuguese Polar researchers considered the IPY as an opportunity to change this situation and organized the national Committee for the IPY. The objectives were ambitious: to answer the aforementioned issues in defining and proposing a National Polar Programme. In late 2008, close to the end of the IPY, the objectives were attained, except the Antarctic Treaty signature that is, however, in an advanced stage, having been approved by consensus at the National Parliament in early 2007. Portugal joined SCAR in July 2006, the EPB in 2007 and a set of 5 Antarctic research projects forming the roots of the National Polar Programme (ProPolar) have been approved by the Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT-MCTES). Scientifically, the IPY can already be considered a major success in Portugal with an improvement in polar scientific research, in the number of scientists performing field work in the Antarctic, organizing polar science meetings and producing an expected increase in the number of polar science peer- reviewed papers. The Portuguese IPY scientific activities were accompanied by a major education and outreach project funded by the Agencia Ciência Viva (MCTES): LATITUDE60! Education for the Planet in the IPY. This project lead by the universities of Algarve, Lisbon and by the Portuguese Association of Geography Teachers is heavily interdisciplinary, programmed for all ages, from kindergarten to adults, and hoped to bring together scientists and society. LATITUDE60! was a major success and focussed on showing the importance of the polar regions for Earth's environment, emphasising on the implications of polar change for

  15. Evaluation of the population dose to the UK population from the National Health Service Breast Screening Programme.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, K; Wallis, M G; Neilson, F; Whitaker, C J

    2008-01-01

    In the United Kingdom National Health Service Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP), women aged between 50 and 70 y are invited for mammography every 3 y. Screening histories for each woman, over four screening rounds, were analysed. Data from five screening programmes were used to select 57,425 women into the study. Cases were selected on the basis of being between the ages of 50 and 53 at the start of the NHSBSP (i.e. between 1989 and 1992). Assessment of the outcome for each screening round for each woman involved assigning a simple outcome code. Each of the possible pathways through the four screening rounds was analysed. This comprises of 500 possible pathways. This data enabled the following information to be determined: (i) The number of times a woman attended the screening programme. (ii) The number of women referred for assessment at each screening round. This information may be used to deduce the population dose to this group of women averaged over four screening rounds. Patient doses have been monitored since the programme's inception and are typically 4.5 mGy for two-view screening. It is possible to determine the mean glandular dose received by this cohort of women over four screening rounds by multiplying the number of examinations by the mean glandular dose for a typical woman. Allowance has to be made for the number of projections taken at each screening round. Once a woman has been screened, she may be invited back for further assessment if an abnormality is found on her mammogram. A stereotactic attachment is used to determine where to place the biopsy device. Although the dose received during a normal screening mammogram is well known, the dose for a stereotactic procedure and other assessment procedures is less well known, partly because only a small part of the breast is directly irradiated during stereotaxis. However, the woman may have multiple exposures during this stage. A prospective survey of doses was completed to deduce the mean glandular

  16. National biosecurity approaches, plans and programmes in response to diseases in farmed aquatic animals: evolution, effectiveness and the way forward.

    PubMed

    Håstein, T; Binde, M; Hine, M; Johnsen, S; Lillehaug, A; Olesen, N J; Purvis, N; Scarfe, A D; Wright, B

    2008-04-01

    The rapid increase in aquaculture production and trade, and increased attention to the negative effects of disease, are becoming stimuli for developing national biosecurity strategies for farmed fisheries, for which the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Aquatic Animal Health Code and Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals serve as an excellent framework. Using examples from a few countries and selected diseases, this paper provides a general overview of the development of approaches to implementing biosecurity strategies, including those emerging in the national legislation and regulations of some countries, and those being initiated by industries themselves. The determination of disease status in different epidemiological units (from a farm to a nation), appropriate approaches for preventing the introduction of disease and developing contingencies for disease control and eradication are also discussed. Important to the effectiveness of such strategies are provision of financial, personnel and other resources to implement them, including incentives such as indemnification or compensation in eradication programmes, and practical linkage to regulatory or government policy initiatives. PMID:18666484

  17. Evaluation of Distance Education Programmes: The Case of the National University of Lesotho.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braimoh, Dele; Adeola, O. A.; Lephoto, H. M.

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of part-time distance education for adult learners in Africa focuses on an evaluation of an adult education degree program at the National University of Lesotho (South Africa). Topics include program management; characteristics of adult learners; program delivery; performance assessment; gender differences; and socio-metric variables.…

  18. Assessing the Higher National Diploma Chemical Engineering Programme in Ghana: Students' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boateng, Cyril D.; Bensah, Edem Cudjoe; Ahiekpor, Julius C.

    2012-01-01

    Chemical engineers have played key roles in the growth of the chemical and allied industries in Ghana but indigenous industries that have traditionally been the domain of the informal sector need to be migrated to the formal sector through the entrepreneurship and innovation of chemical engineers. The Higher National Diploma Chemical Engineering…

  19. Building Knowledge, Building Community: Reflecting on the Value of a National Research Programme in Adult Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St Clair, Ralf

    2005-01-01

    In 2003 the National Literacy Secretariat (NLS) of Canada, at that time a branch of the Department of Human Resources and Development Canada, decided to review its research function. This article discusses some of the questions the review raised for the field. Many of these issues are to do with the management of knowledge--what research gets…

  20. English-Medium Programmes at Austrian Business Faculties: A Status Quo Survey on National Trends and a Case Study on Programme Design and Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unterberger, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Internationalisation processes have accelerated the implementation of English-medium programmes (EMPs) across European higher education institutions. The field of business and management studies has been particularly affected by this trend (Wachter & Maiworm 2008: 46) with numerous new EMPs introduced each year. This paper presents key findings of…

  1. Using vouchers to increase access to maternal healthcare in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rob, Ubaidur; Rahman, Moshiur; Bellows, Benjamin

    The maternal mortality ratio (322) is comparatively high in Bangladesh. The utilization of maternity care provided by trained professionals during and after delivery is alarmingly low, primarily due to lack of knowledge and money. The overall objective of this operations research project was to test the feasibility and effectiveness of introducing financial support (voucher scheme) for poor rural women to improve utilization of antenatal care (ANC), delivery and postnatal check-up (PNC) from trained service providers. A pretest-posttest design was utilized. A total of 436 women were interviewed before and 414 after the intervention to evaluate the impact of interventions. In-depth interviews were conducted with users and non-users of vouchers. Findings show that institutional deliveries have increased from 2% to 18%. Utilization of ANC from trained providers has increased from 42% to 89%. Similarly, utilization of PNC from trained providers has increased from 10% to 60%. PMID:21273164

  2. Voucher-based contingent reinforcement of marijuana abstinence among individuals with serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Sigmon, Stacey C; Higgins, Stephen T

    2006-06-01

    Previous studies by our group have used money given contingent on abstinence to reduce drug use by individuals with schizophrenia. In this study, we examined the sensitivity of marijuana use by individuals with serious mental illness to voucher-based contingent reinforcement, which represents the first study to date investigating the efficacy of voucher incentives with this population. This within-subject reversal design consisted of three conditions: 4-week baseline, 12-week voucher intervention, and 4-week baseline. During baseline periods, subjects received 10 US dollars vouchers per urine specimen, independent of urinalysis results. During voucher intervention, only specimens testing negative for marijuana earned vouchers, with total possible earnings of 930 US dollars. Seven adults with schizophrenia or other serious mental illnesses participated in the study. The percentage of marijuana-negative specimens was significantly greater during voucher intervention than during baseline periods. These results provide evidence that marijuana use among individuals with serious mental illness is sensitive to voucher-based incentives and further support the potential feasibility of using voucher-based contingency management to reduce substance abuse in this challenging population. PMID:16716843

  3. Channel Islands National Park vascular plant voucher collections: NPSpecies database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chess, Katherine; McEachern, Kathryn

    2001-01-01

    Collections information for 3898 vascular plant specimens from searches at Santa Barbara Botanic Garden, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden, San Diego Natural History Museum, Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History.

  4. Thirty years of vaccination in Vietnam: Impact and cost-effectiveness of the national Expanded Programme on Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Jit, Mark; Huyen, Dang Thi Thanh; Friberg, Ingrid; Van Minh, Hoang; Kiet, Pham Huy Tuan; Walker, Neff; Van Cuong, Nguyen; Duong, Tran Nhu; Toda, Kohei; Hutubessy, Raymond; Fox, Kimberley; Hien, Nguyen Tran

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Countries like Vietnam transitioning to middle-income status increasingly bear the cost of both existing and new vaccines. However, the impact and cost-effectiveness of the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) as a whole has never been assessed on a country level. Methods Data on vaccine-preventable disease incidence and mortality from Vietnam's national surveillance was analysed to estimate the likely impact that vaccination in 1980–2010 may have had. Adjustment for under-reporting was made by examining trends in reported mumps incidence and in case-fatality risks for each disease. The same data were separately analysed using the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) to give an alternative estimate of impact. The financial cost of EPI in 1996–2010 was also estimated from the perspective of service provider. Results National surveillance data suggests that up to 5.7 million diseases cases and 26,000 deaths may have been prevented by EPI. Analysis using LiST suggests that even more deaths (370,000) may have been prevented by measles and pertussis vaccination alone. The cost-effectiveness of EPI is estimated to be around $1000–$27,000 per death prevented. Conclusion Two separate approaches to assessing EPI impact in Vietnam give different quantitative results but a common conclusion: that EPI has made a substantial impact on mortality and represents good value for money. PMID:25919167

  5. From marginal to marginalised: The inclusion of men who have sex with men in global and national AIDS programmes and policy.

    PubMed

    McKay, Tara

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, gay men and other men who have sex with men (msm) have come to the fore of global policy debates about AIDS prevention. In stark contrast to programmes and policy during the first two decades of the epidemic, which largely excluded msm outside of the Western countries, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS now identifies gay men and other msm as 'marginalized but not marginal' to the global response. Drawing on archival data and five waves of United Nations Country Progress Reports on HIV/AIDS (2001-2012), this paper examines the productive power of international organisations in the development and diffusion of the msm category, and considers how international organisations have shaped the interpretation of msm in national policies and programmes. These data show that the increasing separation of sexual identity and sexual behaviour at the global level helped to construct notions of risk and disease that were sufficiently broad to accommodate the diverse interests of global policy-makers, activists, and governments. However, as various international and national actors have attempted to develop prevention programmes for msm, the failure of the msm category to map onto lived experience is increasingly apparent. PMID:26878655

  6. The Initial Training of Teachers to Teach Children with Special Educational Needs: A National Survey of English Post Graduate Certificate of Education Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Tricia; Norwich, Brahm

    2010-01-01

    With moves towards inclusive education, there are demands for developments in initial teacher education as regards special needs and inclusive education. This paper outlines initial training in England within an international context. It then reports findings of a recent national survey of Programme directors and subject tutors of Post Graduate…

  7. Learning Our Way into Communication: The Making of the Communication and Information Strategy "with" the National Agricultural Advisory Services Programme in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Ricardo

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on the making of the Communication and Information Strategy with the National Agricultural Advisory Services Programme (NAADS) in Uganda. The NAADS is a new organization in government responsible for the implementation of a demand-driven agricultural extension approach. The new extension approach calls for fundamental changes in…

  8. National space programmes and application of the remote sensing data in Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badarch, Mendbayariin

    1992-11-01

    An overview of the remote sensing satellite data application in Mongolia is presented. The application area is as follows: (1) the operation of meteorological satellite data acquisition station in receiving data from the U.S. and former USSR satellites; (2) establishment and operation of the meteorological rocket exploration station; and (3) establishment of the National Remote Sensing Center. An overview of the activities of the Center in the following areas is presented: (1) development of domestic capability to examine, classify, and monitor the natural resources; (2) monitoring of natural disasters such as cyclones, drought, forest fires, hurricanes, and air pollution; and (3) examples of remote sensing data application to natural disaster monitoring, geology, hydrology, and environment control.

  9. 20 CFR 645.221 - For what activities and services must local boards use contracts or vouchers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... vouchers? (a) Local boards and PIC's must provide the following activities and services through vouchers or... is not a local board or a PIC, it may provide such services directly. (b) Local boards and...

  10. Court Showdown over Florida Vouchers Nears

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Alan

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on a nationally-watched case by educators and families which is scheduled to be heard by the Florida Supreme Court. The court is to decide whether Opportunity Scholarships, available to students enrolled in Florida's persistently lowest-rated public schools, run afoul of a prohibition on using public money in religious…

  11. International Experience with Demand-Led Financing: Education Vouchers in the USA, Great Britain and Chile. Occasional Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belfield, Clive R.

    This paper reviews the research evidence on vouchers and considers the factors that make education vouchers a "live issue" in U.S. education policy. These factors can be articulated in terms of Levin's notions of freedom of choice, productive efficiency, equity, and social cohesion. It is possible to construct a reasonable case for voucher reform…

  12. The Future of Vouchers as Educational Reform, Political Strategy, Economic Solution, and Public Policy in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan Brown, Kathleen

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the burden of vouchers to be all things to all constituencies. Proponents and opponents envision vouchers as accomplishing many objectives. To some, vouchers represent an educational reform that brings change to public schools and saves children from monopolistic bureaucrats. To others, they signify a threat to the very…

  13. A Win-Win Solution: The Empirical Evidence on How Vouchers Affect Public Schools. School Choice Issues in Depth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Greg

    2009-01-01

    This report collects the results of all available empirical studies on how vouchers affect academic achievement in public schools. Contrary to the widespread claim that vouchers hurt public schools, it finds that the empirical evidence consistently supports the conclusion that vouchers improve public schools. No empirical study has ever found that…

  14. The U.S. Supreme Court's Decision in the Cleveland Voucher Case: Where to from Here? Occasional Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemerer, Frank R.

    This paper discusses the legal implications of "Zelman v. Simmons-Harris," the Supreme Court ruling on education vouchers. The ruling opens the way for vouchers, as concerns the federal judiciary, but the decision did not abrogate many states' restrictive provisions regarding publicly funded voucher and tax-benefit programs. Nor did the decision…

  15. Housing Voucher Receipt and the Quality of Schools Available to Recipient Children. Discussion Paper No. 1418-14

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Deven; Haveman, Robert; Kaplan, Thomas; Wolfe, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Using data on housing voucher recipients with school-aged children residing across the state of Wisconsin, we perform a three-stage analysis of the relationship between voucher receipt and the educational opportunities of children in recipient households. First, we examine the extent to which voucher receipt results in households relocating to a…

  16. Awareness and knowledge of National School Health Policy and School Health Programme among public secondary school teachers in Ibadan metropolis

    PubMed Central

    Obembe, Taiwo A.; Osungbade, Kayode O.; Ademokun, Oluwakemi M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The awareness, knowledge, and involvement of teachers in the implementation of School Health Programme (SHP) in secondary schools are essential in ensuring the effectiveness and overall success of the School Health Policy. This study assessed the awareness and knowledge of teachers on SHP in Ibadan metropolis. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out using a two-stage sampling technique to select 426 secondary school teachers across all the five Urban Local Government Areas (LGAs) in Ibadan metropolis by balloting. Pretested semi-structured questionnaires were used to collect data from 426 teachers. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square, and logistics regression tests at 5% level of significance. Results: About one-third of the respondents had heard of National School Health Policy (NSHP); however, few had seen the document. About half of the respondents were aware of the SHP in their schools. Many of the respondents had a good knowledge of SHP. Age and level of education of participants significantly influenced the knowledge of SHP. Above 50 years of age and postgraduate qualification were the significant predictors for the good knowledge of SHP. Conclusions: Awareness of the NSHP was low despite the good knowledge of SHP. This could be due to the tertiary education that most of the respondents had. Concerted efforts of stakeholders are required to intensify the health education awareness campaign to improve teachers’ knowledge based on NSHP.

  17. Knowledge and practice of sun protection in schools in South Africa where no national sun protection programme exists.

    PubMed

    Wright, Caradee Y; Reeder, Anthony I; Albers, Patricia N

    2016-04-01

    Interventions in primary schools that increase sun-protective behaviours and decrease ultraviolet radiation exposure, sunburn incidence and skin cancer risk can be effective. SunSmart School Accreditation Programmes (SSAP) are recommended. Prior to SSAP implementation in South Africa, we explored the feasibility of obtaining national baseline information and investigated possible associations between strategies regarding sun protection in schools and students' responses to a questionnaire. Principals from randomly selected urban government schools in all nine South African provinces completed a questionnaire and 679 students were surveyed. The mean sun-related knowledge and behaviour scores of students were 4 (range: 1-7) and 3 (range-0-8) out of 9, respectively. The mean school sun protection effort score was 4 out of 14. There were no statistically significant correlations between students' knowledge or behaviour scores and their school score. The World Health Organization recommends an SSAP to address policy, practice and curriculum changes to support sun protection of students. This cross-sectional study demonstrates the feasibility of, and need for, a larger baseline study with longitudinal, multi-variable follow-up which includes other influential factors, such as parent support. Such research could quantify the impact of the SSAP and identify which key factors influence the sun-related knowledge and behaviours of students. PMID:26936482

  18. 19 CFR 24.34 - Vouchers; vendors' bills of sale; invoices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vouchers; vendors' bills of sale; invoices. 24.34... sale; invoices. (a) Vouchers or invoices for transportation and related services which are intended for...' bills of sale, or invoices for purchases or services other than personal do not require the...

  19. 48 CFR 213.306 - SF 44, Purchase Order-Invoice-Voucher.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false SF 44, Purchase Order-Invoice-Voucher. 213.306 Section 213.306 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... PROCEDURES Simplified Acquisition Methods 213.306 SF 44, Purchase Order-Invoice-Voucher. (a)(1) The...

  20. 48 CFR 413.306 - SF 44, Purchase Order-Invoice-Voucher.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false SF 44, Purchase Order-Invoice-Voucher. 413.306 Section 413.306 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE....306 SF 44, Purchase Order-Invoice-Voucher. The Standard Form 44 (and the previously prescribed...

  1. Designing Targeted Educational Voucher Schemes for the Poor in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2010-01-01

    A targeted educational voucher scheme (TEVS) is often proposed for the poor in developing countries. Essentially, TEVS involves issuing vouchers to poor households, thus enabling them to pay tuition and fees for their children's schooling at participating non-public schools. However, little is known about TEVS' design in developing countries. This…

  2. 76 FR 52675 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Housing Choice Voucher Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ...The proposed information collection requirement described below has been submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act. The Department is soliciting public comments on the subject proposal. The Housing Choice Voucher Program Administrative Fee Study is designed to evaluate the amount of funding needed to administer the voucher......

  3. 75 FR 19417 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment for Housing Choice Voucher (HCV...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... Voucher (HCV) Family Self-Sufficiency (FSS) Program AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Public... independence and self- sufficiency. Housing agencies consult with local officials to develop an Action Plan... also lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) Family...

  4. 75 FR 39035 - Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) Family Self-Sufficiency (FSS) Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) Family Self-Sufficiency (FSS) Program AGENCY: Office of... Voucher Program) with public and private resources to enable eligible families to achieve economic...; enter into a Contract of Participation with each eligible family that opts to participate in the...

  5. Free Marketeers, Policy Wonks, and Yankee Democracy: School Vouchers in New Hampshire, 1973-1976

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carl, Jim

    2008-01-01

    In this article, Jim Carl uses archival sources and interviews to chronicle the effort to bring school vouchers to New Hampshire. In 1973, the New Hampshire Department of Education initiated a plan, funded by the U.S. Office of Economic Opportunity, to institute vouchers in a handful of school districts. Though the initiative had the support of…

  6. Randomized Trial of Contingent Prizes versus Vouchers in Cocaine-Using Methadone Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Alessi, Sheila M.; Hanson, Tressa; Sierra, Sean

    2007-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) interventions frequently utilize vouchers as reinforcers, but a prize-based system is also efficacious. This study compared these approaches. Seventy-four cocaine-dependent methadone outpatients were randomly assigned to standard treatment (ST), ST plus a maximum of $585 in contingent vouchers, or ST plus an expected…

  7. 48 CFR 1413.306 - Standard Form 44, Purchase order-invoice-voucher.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Acquisition Methods 1413.306 Standard Form 44, Purchase order-invoice-voucher. HCAs are responsible for... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard Form 44, Purchase order-invoice-voucher. 1413.306 Section 1413.306 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT...

  8. 48 CFR 13.306 - SF 44, Purchase Order-Invoice-Voucher.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Methods 13.306 SF 44, Purchase Order—Invoice—Voucher. The SF 44, Purchase Order—Invoice—Voucher, is a multipurpose pocket-size purchase order form designed primarily for on-the-spot, over-the-counter purchases of... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false SF 44, Purchase...

  9. 48 CFR 1413.306 - Standard Form 44, Purchase order-invoice-voucher.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Acquisition Methods 1413.306 Standard Form 44, Purchase order-invoice-voucher. HCAs are responsible for... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard Form 44, Purchase order-invoice-voucher. 1413.306 Section 1413.306 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT...

  10. 48 CFR 13.306 - SF 44, Purchase Order-Invoice-Voucher.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Methods 13.306 SF 44, Purchase Order—Invoice—Voucher. The SF 44, Purchase Order—Invoice—Voucher, is a multipurpose pocket-size purchase order form designed primarily for on-the-spot, over-the-counter purchases of... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false SF 44, Purchase...

  11. 48 CFR 1413.306 - Standard Form 44, Purchase order-invoice-voucher.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Acquisition Methods 1413.306 Standard Form 44, Purchase order-invoice-voucher. HCAs are responsible for... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard Form 44, Purchase order-invoice-voucher. 1413.306 Section 1413.306 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT...

  12. 48 CFR 13.306 - SF 44, Purchase Order-Invoice-Voucher.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Methods 13.306 SF 44, Purchase Order—Invoice—Voucher. The SF 44, Purchase Order—Invoice—Voucher, is a multipurpose pocket-size purchase order form designed primarily for on-the-spot, over-the-counter purchases of... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false SF 44, Purchase...

  13. 48 CFR 13.306 - SF 44, Purchase Order-Invoice-Voucher.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Methods 13.306 SF 44, Purchase Order—Invoice—Voucher. The SF 44, Purchase Order—Invoice—Voucher, is a multipurpose pocket-size purchase order form designed primarily for on-the-spot, over-the-counter purchases of... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false SF 44, Purchase...

  14. Two Roads to Reform: Comparing the Research on Vouchers and Class-Size Reduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neas, Ralph G.

    Both educational vouchers and class size reduction are high-profile proposals for improving education. While the body of research on vouchers is small and unconvincing, the research on smaller classes is abundant and compelling. Researchers have been able to compare the impact of both of these policy alternatives on student performance. Their…

  15. Toward Market Education: Are Vouchers or Tax Credits the Better Path? Policy Analysis No. 392.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulson, Andrew J.

    This paper compares voucher and tax credit programs on how well they manifest the necessary conditions for market education and allow all families to participate in that market. Voucher programs include targeted and universal programs. The tax credit proposal is a nonrefundable, education credit composed of: a parental choice credit for taxpayers…

  16. Clinical Trial of Abstinence-Based Vouchers and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Cannabis Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budney, Alan J.; Moore, Brent A.; Rocha, Heath L.; Higgins, Stephen T.

    2006-01-01

    Ninety cannabis-dependent adults seeking treatment were randomly assigned to receive cognitive-behavioral therapy, abstinence-based voucher incentives, or their combination. Treatment duration was 14 weeks, and outcomes were assessed for 12 months post treatment. Findings suggest that (a) abstinence-based vouchers were effective for engendering…

  17. Voucher Schools: Who Participates? ERIC-CUE Urban Disadvantaged Series, Number 46, August 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackman, Julie

    A brief review of a school system in Alum Rock, California that uses the voucher, this paper focuses on an educational strategy intended to maximize the school's responsiveness to the expressed needs of the parents. The ideas and values underlying the development of the voucher school, the problems of operationalization, as these are said to…

  18. A Model of Cultural Leadership. The Achievements of Privately Funded Vouchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyerson, Adam

    1999-01-01

    Describes the privately-funded voucher movement implemented by J. Patrick Rooney, James R. Leininger, Michael S. Joyce, John T. Walton, and Theodore J. Forstmann. An important feature of most of the programs is that parents have to pay partial tuition. Vouchers resources are focused on poor children in inner cities. (MMU)

  19. Flame On: The Fight Over Vouchers will be a War within the States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darden, Edwin C.

    This short paper is part of a collection of 54 papers from the 48th annual conference of the Education Law Association held in November 2002. It discusses educational voucher programs. It states that proponents of voucher programs, having scored a major victory in the U.S. Supreme Court with "Zelman v. Simmons-Harris" (2002), will continue to…

  20. Robin Hood Goes to School: The Case for a Federal Voucher Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uzzell, Lawrence A.

    An education voucher system would be more egalitarian than the existing tax code and would force the educational establishment to pursue needed reforms. The current property tax deduction system favors the rich, but the voucher system would offer the same relief to every taxpayer regardless of income and even would provide assistance to poor,…

  1. Private School Enrollment in an Italian Region after Implementing a Change in the Voucher Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agasisti, Tommaso; Barbieri, Gianna; Murtinu, Samuele

    2015-01-01

    This article estimates the effect of an administrative change in a voucher policy implemented by an Italian Regional government. The voucher was initiated in 2000, and is intended to help families that want to enroll their children in private schools. In 2008, the policy was changed, making the administrative procedure required for obtaining the…

  2. A Public School Voucher Demonstration: The First Year at Alum Rock. Summary and Conclusions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiler, Daniel; And Others

    Because it included only public schools and guaranteed both school survival and staff employment rights, the first year of the Alum Rock demonstration (1972-73), as sponsored by the Office of Economic Opportunity, was not a test of vouchers as defined in theory. The demonstration was known, therefore, as a "transition" voucher model, which would…

  3. Freedom from Racial Barriers: The Empirical Evidence on Vouchers and Segregation. School Choice Issues in Depth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Greg

    2006-01-01

    This report collects the results of all available studies using valid empirical methods to compare segregation in public and private schools, both in general and in the context of school voucher programs. Examining the widespread claims that private schools have high segregation levels and vouchers will lead to greater segregation, this report…

  4. School Voucher Program and Its Enlightenments to the Education Reform in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Youlu

    2005-01-01

    This article roughly retrospects the idea of school voucher program proposed by Milton Friedman, lately developed by Peacock, Wiseman and Jencks. The reasons like privatization in education, deterioration of public schooling and school choice promote this program. Then taking a simple look at the ramification of voucher program and its value…

  5. Can Markets Make Citizens? School Vouchers, Political Tolerance, and Civic Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, David J.; Mitchell, William; McNally, Michael

    2014-01-01

    School voucher programs challenge the traditional role of the public school as the builder of citizens, raising the question of whether private schools can provide a civic education of equal quality. In this study, we use survey data from the Milwaukee voucher program to investigate the relative benefits in civic outcomes of attending a voucher…

  6. Vouchers, Tests, Loans, Privatization: Will They Help Tackle Corruption in Russian Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2009-01-01

    Higher education in Russia is currently being reformed. A standardized computer-graded test and educational vouchers were introduced to make higher education more accessible, fund it more effectively, and reduce corruption in admissions to public colleges. The voucher project failed and the test faces furious opposition. This paper considers…

  7. Pluck & Tenacity: How Five Private Schools in Ohio Have Adapted to Vouchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belcher, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    State-funded voucher programs have stoked political controversy, culture clashes, and pitched court battles. Sometimes referred to as "scholarships," these vouchers enable students of limited means (or without access to a good public school) to attend a private school. Roughly 30,000 children in Ohio take advantage of a publicly funded…

  8. 77 FR 2682 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; DoD Voucher Processing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ... Regulation Supplement; DoD Voucher Processing AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: DoD is proposing to amend the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to update DoD's voucher processing procedures and better accommodate the use...

  9. Vouchers Versus Prizes: Contingency Management Treatment of Substance Abusers in Community Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Alessi, Sheila M.; Marx, Jacqueline; Austin, Mark; Tardif, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) interventions usually use vouchers as reinforcers, but a new technique awards chances of winning prizes. This study compares these approaches. In community treatment centers, 142 cocaine- or heroin-dependent outpatients were randomly assigned to standard treatment (ST), ST with vouchers, or ST with prizes for 12 weeks.…

  10. First population-level effectiveness evaluation of a national programme to prevent HIV transmission from mother to child, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Goga, Ameena E; Dinh, Thu-Ha; Jackson, Debra J; Lombard, Carl; Delaney, Kevin P; Puren, Adrian; Sherman, Gayle; Woldesenbet, Selamawit; Ramokolo, Vundli; Crowley, Siobhan; Doherty, Tanya; Chopra, Mickey; Shaffer, Nathan; Pillay, Yogan

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a paucity of data on the national population-level effectiveness of preventing mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programmes in high-HIV-prevalence, resource-limited settings. We assessed national PMTCT impact in South Africa (SA), 2010. Methods A facility-based survey was conducted using a stratified multistage, cluster sampling design. A nationally representative sample of 10 178 infants aged 4–8 weeks was recruited from 565 clinics. Data collection included caregiver interviews, record reviews and infant dried blood spots to identify HIV-exposed infants (HEI) and HIV-infected infants. During analysis, self-reported antiretroviral (ARV) use was categorised: 1a: triple ARV treatment; 1b: azidothymidine >10 weeks; 2a: azidothymidine ≤10 weeks; 2b: incomplete ARV prophylaxis; 3a: no antenatal ARV and 3b: missing ARV information. Findings were adjusted for non-response, survey design and weighted for live-birth distributions. Results Nationally, 32% of live infants were HEI; early mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) was 3.5% (95% CI 2.9% to 4.1%). In total 29.4% HEI were born to mothers on triple ARV treatment (category 1a) 55.6% on prophylaxis (1b, 2a, 2b), 9.5% received no antenatal ARV (3a) and 5.5% had missing ARV information (3b). Controlling for other factors groups, 1b and 2a had similar MTCT to 1a (Ref; adjusted OR (AOR) for 1b, 0.98, 0.52 to 1.83; and 2a, 1.31, 0.69 to 2.48). MTCT was higher in group 2b (AOR 3.68, 1.69 to 7.97). Within group 3a, early MTCT was highest among breastfeeding mothers 11.50% (4.67% to 18.33%) for exclusive breast feeding, 11.90% (7.45% to 16.35%) for mixed breast feeding, and 3.45% (0.53% to 6.35%) for no breast feeding). Antiretroviral therapy or >10 weeks prophylaxis negated this difference (MTCT 3.94%, 1.98% to 5.90%; 2.07%, 0.55% to 3.60% and 2.11%, 1.28% to 2.95%, respectively). Conclusions SA, a high-HIV-prevalence middle income country achieved <5% MTCT by 4–8 weeks post partum. The

  11. Can programme theory be used as a 'translational tool’ to optimise health service delivery in a national early years’ initiative in Scotland: a case study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Theory-based evaluation (TBE) approaches are heralded as supporting formative evaluation by facilitating increased use of evaluative findings to guide programme improvement. It is essential that learning from programme implementation is better used to improve delivery and to inform other initiatives, if interventions are to be as effective as they have the potential to be. Nonetheless, few studies describe formative feedback methods, or report direct instrumental use of findings resulting from TBE. This paper uses the case of Scotland’s, National Health Service, early years’, oral health improvement initiative (Childsmile) to describe the use of TBE as a framework for providing feedback on delivery to programme staff and to assess its impact on programmatic action. Methods In-depth, semi-structured interviews and focus groups with key stakeholders explored perceived deviations between the Childsmile programme 'as delivered’ and its Programme Theory (PT). The data was thematically analysed using constant comparative methods. Findings were shared with key programme stakeholders and discussions around likely impact and necessary actions were facilitated by the authors. Documentary review and ongoing observations of programme meetings were undertaken to assess the extent to which learning was acted upon. Results On the whole, the activities documented in Childsmile’s PT were implemented as intended. This paper purposefully focuses on those activities where variation in delivery was evident. Differences resulted from the stage of roll-out reached and the flexibility given to individual NHS boards to tailor local implementation. Some adaptations were thought to have diverged from the central features of Childsmile’s PT, to the extent that there was a risk to achieving outcomes. The methods employed prompted national service improvement action, and proposals for local action by individual NHS boards to address this. Conclusions The TBE approach

  12. Pretoria to Khartoum--How We Taught an Internet-Supported Masters' Programme across National, Religious, Cultural and Linguistic Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronje, Johannes C.

    2006-01-01

    This article tells the story of the design, development and presentation of eighteen months of coursework for a Master's degree programme in Computer-Integrated education at the Sudan University of Science and Technology in Khartoum from 2002 to 2004. The focus is on what was learnt in adapting a programme presented at the University of Pretoria…

  13. Impact and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the National School-Based Sexuality Education Programme in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivela, Jari; Haldre, Kai; Part, Kai; Ketting, Evert; Baltussen, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Policy-makers making decisions on the implementation of school-based sexuality education (SE) programmes face two important questions: (1) what are the costs of implementing and scaling up SE programmes, and (2) what are the impacts? This paper responds to these questions by retrospectively assessing costs, impact and cost-effectiveness of the…

  14. Novel application of a discrete choice experiment to identify preferences for a national healthcare-associated infection surveillance programme: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gang; Cheng, Allen C; Richards, Michael; Graves, Nicholas; Ratcliffe, Julie; Hall, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify key stakeholder preferences and priorities when considering a national healthcare-associated infection (HAI) surveillance programme through the use of a discrete choice experiment (DCE). Setting Australia does not have a national HAI surveillance programme. An online web-based DCE was developed and made available to participants in Australia. Participants A sample of 184 purposively selected healthcare workers based on their senior leadership role in infection prevention in Australia. Primary and secondary outcomes A DCE requiring respondents to select 1 HAI surveillance programme over another based on 5 different characteristics (or attributes) in repeated hypothetical scenarios. Data were analysed using a mixed logit model to evaluate preferences and identify the relative importance of each attribute. Results A total of 122 participants completed the survey (response rate 66%) over a 5-week period. Excluding 22 who mismatched a duplicate choice scenario, analysis was conducted on 100 responses. The key findings included: 72% of stakeholders exhibited a preference for a surveillance programme with continuous mandatory core components (mean coefficient 0.640 (p<0.01)), 65% for a standard surveillance protocol where patient-level data are collected on infected and non-infected patients (mean coefficient 0.641 (p<0.01)), and 92% for hospital-level data that are publicly reported on a website and not associated with financial penalties (mean coefficient 1.663 (p<0.01)). Conclusions The use of the DCE has provided a unique insight to key stakeholder priorities when considering a national HAI surveillance programme. The application of a DCE offers a meaningful method to explore and quantify preferences in this setting. PMID:27147392

  15. Indicators to monitor progress of National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Programme (NIDDCP) and some observations on iodised salt in west Bengal.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S

    1995-01-01

    Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) are widely prevalent in our country and their consequences for human development are well known. The scope of National Goitre Control Programme (NGCP) launched in 1962 was expanded and the programme was renamed as National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Programme (NIDDCP) to connote wider implications of iodine deficiency in population. It is necessary to monitor the progress of NIDDCP using quantifiable indicators to ensure achievement of programme objectives. Prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders, status of iodised salt and level of knowledge. Attitude & practice (KAP) of community regarding IDD and iodised salt are a few such indicators. Children in the age group of 8-10 years are considered most appropriate target group to monitor IDD prevalence. The quality of iodised salt assessed at various levels in West Bengal (using field testing kit) indicated 'satisfactory' iodine content (i.e. > or = 15 ppm) at wholesalers (84.3 per cent), retailers (74.3 per cent) and consumers (71.2 per cent) level. It is suggested that the quality of iodised salt should be periodically assessed and intensive educational campaigns on IDD be launched to create increased demand for consumption of iodised salt in the community. PMID:8690501

  16. Beyond "Cain v. Horne": Comment on Tim Keller's "The National Implications of 'Cain v. Horne'"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Corinne

    2010-01-01

    This commentary is in response to Tim Keller's article "The National Implications of 'Cain v. Horne.'" In his analysis, Keller asserts that the Arizona Supreme Court wrongfully struck down a voucher program for students with special needs by characterizing the voucher as aid to schools rather than aid to students. In this response to Keller, I…

  17. National STDs control programme.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, N C

    1989-04-01

    In 1947 the Bhore Committee recommended that sexually transmitted diseases should be dealt with by special organizations within the provinces, but the institutions were not adequate, and there was no coordinated plan. Before the 1st 5-year plan, there were 50 state-administered sexually transmitted disease clinics in India. During the 1st 5-year plan, facilities were upgraded, the central government took over certain aspects of the program, and the World Health Organization Venereal Disease team submitted a report on control of venereal diseases in India. By the end of the 5th 5-year plan, the government had set up another 187 clinics. Until the 6th 5-year plan, the central government supplied material, equipment, and drugs to the clinics, but the operating costs were borne by the states. During the 6th 5-year plan, the central government took over all aspects of the program. It is estimated that 20 million Indians suffer from venereal disease. With World Health Organization assistance, group educational activities in sexually transmitted diseases are being organized in different parts of the country, so that all personnel will be better equipped to treat patients. Group educational activities for treatment of yaws are also being organized for paramedical personnel who will have to deal with yaws in tribal areas. The UN Childrens Fund is also providing funds for communication and social mobilization against venereal diseases. PMID:12282050

  18. Contribution of medical colleges to tuberculosis control in India under the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP): Lessons learnt & challenges ahead

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Surendra K.; Mohan, Alladi; Chauhan, L.S.; Narain, J.P.; Kumar, P.; Behera, D.; Sachdeva, K.S.; Kumar, Ashok

    2013-01-01

    Medical college faculty, who are academicians are seldom directly involved in the implementation of national public health programmes. More than a decade ago for the first time in the global history of tuberculosis (TB) control, medical colleges of India were involved in the Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP) of Government of India (GOI). This report documents the unique and extraordinary course of events that led to the involvement of medical colleges in the RNTCP of GOI. It also reports the contributions made by the medical colleges to TB control in India. For more than a decade, medical colleges have been providing diagnostic services (Designated Microscopy Centres), treatment [Directly Observed Treatment (DOT) Centres] referral for treatment, recording and reporting data, carrying out advocacy for RNTCP and conducting operational research relevant to RNTCP. Medical colleges are contributing to diagnosis and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-TB co-infection and development of laboratory infrastructure for early diagnosis of multidrug-resistant and/or extensively drug-resistant TB (M/XDR-TB) and DOTS-Plus sites for treatment of MDR-TB cases. Overall, at a national level, medical colleges have contributed to 25 per cent of TB suspects referred for diagnosis; 23 per cent of ‘new smear-positives’ diagnosed; 7 per cent of DOT provision within medical college; and 86 per cent treatment success rate among new smear-positive patients. As the Programme widens its scope, future challenges include sustenance of this contribution and facilitating universal access to quality TB care; greater involvement in operational research relevant to the Programme needs; and better co-ordination mechanisms between district, state, zonal and national level to encourage their involvement. PMID:23563371

  19. Contribution of medical colleges to tuberculosis control in India under the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP): lessons learnt & challenges ahead.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Surendra K; Mohan, Alladi; Chauhan, L S; Narain, J P; Kumar, P; Behera, D; Sachdeva, K S; Kumar, Ashok; Agarwal, Priyanka; Awadh, N T; Bansal, Avi; Baruah, S; Baruwa, Pranab; Balasangameshwara, V H; Balasubramanian, Rani; Bhardwaj, A K; Bhargav, Salil; Chadha, Sarabjit; Chaddha, V K; Chhatwal, Manpreet; Da Costa, A L; Dash, D P; Dep, Jaydip; Dhingra, Saroj; Dhooria Harmeet, S; Frieden, T R; Garg, Anil; Granich, Reuben; Gulati, Vinay; Gupta, Deepak; Gupta, Dheeraj; Gupta, K B; Gupta, K N; Jaikishan; Janmeja, A K; Jawahar, M S; Jethani, S L; Jindal, S K; John, K R; Kalra, O P; Kalra, V P; Kannan, A T; Kayshap, S; Keshav Chander, G; Khushwa, S S; Kushwaha, R S; Kumar, Vinod; Laskar, B; Leela Itty Amma, K R; Leuva, A T; Maitra Malay, K; Mesquita, A M; Mathew, Thomas; Mundade, Yamuna; Munje, Radha; Nagpal, Somil; Nagaraja, C; Nair, Sanjeev; Narayanan, O R; Paramasivan, C N; Parmar, Malik; Prasad, Rajendra; Phukan, A C; Prasanna, Raj; Purty, Anil; Ramachandran, Ranjani; Ramachandran, Rajeswari; Ravindran, C; Reddy Raveendra, H R; Sahu, S; Santosha; Sarin, Rohit; Sarkar, Soumya; Sarma, K C; Saxena, P; Sehgal, Shruti; Sharath, N; Sharma, Geetanjali; Sharma, Nandini; Shridhar, P K; Shukla, R S; Singh, Om; Singh, N Tombi; Singh, Varinder; Singla, Rupak; Sinha, Neena; Sinha, Pranay; Sinha, Sanjay; Solanki, Rajesh; Sreenivas, A; Srinath, S; Subhakar, Kandi; Suri, J C; Talukdar, Palash; Tonsing, Jamie; Tripathy, S P; Vaidyanathan, Preetish; Vashist, R P; Venu, K

    2013-02-01

    Medical college faculty, who are academicians are seldom directly involved in the implementation of national public health programmes. More than a decade ago for the first time in the global history of tuberculosis (TB) control, medical colleges of India were involved in the Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP) of Government of India (GOI). This report documents the unique and extraordinary course of events that led to the involvement of medical colleges in the RNTCP of GOI. It also reports the contributions made by the medical colleges to TB control in India. For more than a decade, medical colleges have been providing diagnostic services (Designated Microscopy Centres), treatment [Directly Observed Treatment (DOT) Centres] referral for treatment, recording and reporting data, carrying out advocacy for RNTCP and conducting operational research relevant to RNTCP. Medical colleges are contributing to diagnosis and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-TB co-infection and development of laboratory infrastructure for early diagnosis of multidrug-resistant and/or extensively drug-resistant TB (M/XDR-TB) and DOTS-Plus sites for treatment of MDR-TB cases. Overall, at a national level, medical colleges have contributed to 25 per cent of TB suspects referred for diagnosis; 23 per cent of 'new smear-positives' diagnosed; 7 per cent of DOT provision within medical college; and 86 per cent treatment success rate among new smear-positive patients. As the Programme widens its scope, future challenges include sustenance of this contribution and facilitating universal access to quality TB care; greater involvement in operational research relevant to the Programme needs; and better co-ordination mechanisms between district, state, zonal and national level to encourage their involvement. PMID:23563371

  20. Contingency management for cocaine treatment: cash vs. vouchers.

    PubMed

    Festinger, David S; Dugosh, Karen L; Kirby, Kimberly C; Seymour, Brittany L

    2014-08-01

    The efficacy of contingency management (CM) for treating drug abuse is well supported. The most widely used form of CM is voucher-based reinforcement therapy (VBRT), where clients receive an escalating schedule of vouchers that can be redeemed for goods and services for meeting treatment goals. Though generally rejected due to concerns about potential harms to drug using participants, research suggests that cash may be a more effective reinforcer. This three-group randomized trial compared the efficacy of cash-based reinforcement therapy (CBRT) to VBRT and a non-CM condition on cocaine abstinence and treatment attendance; and examined whether CBRT resulted in greater levels of harm than VBRT. Findings indicated that the CBRT was as effective as VBRT when compared to the non-CM condition and that it did not increase rates of drug use, cravings, or high-risk behaviors. Future research should examine potential cost savings associated with a cash-based CM approach as this could have important implications for the wider adoption of the CM model. PMID:24746956

  1. Can Reproductive Health Voucher Programs Improve Quality of Postnatal Care? A Quasi-Experimental Evaluation of Kenya’s Safe Motherhood Voucher Scheme

    PubMed Central

    Watt, Claire; Abuya, Timothy; Warren, Charlotte E.; Obare, Francis; Kanya, Lucy; Bellows, Ben

    2015-01-01

    This study tests the group-level causal relationship between the expansion of Kenya’s Safe Motherhood voucher program and changes in quality of postnatal care (PNC) provided at voucher-contracted facilities. We compare facilities accredited since program inception in 2006 (phase I) and facilities accredited since 2010-2011 (phase II) relative to comparable non-voucher facilities. PNC quality is assessed using observed clinical content processes, as well as client-reported outcome measures. Two-tailed unpaired t-tests are used to identify differences in mean process quality scores and client-reported outcome measures, comparing changes between intervention and comparison groups at the 2010 and 2012 data collection periods. Difference-in-differences analysis is used to estimate the reproductive health (RH) voucher program’s causal effect on quality of care by exploiting group-level differences between voucher-accredited and non-accredited facilities in 2010 and 2012. Participation in the voucher scheme since 2006 significantly improves overall quality of postnatal care by 39% (p=0.02), where quality is defined as the observable processes or components of service provision that occur during a PNC consultation. Program participation since phase I is estimated to improve the quality of observed maternal postnatal care by 86% (p=0.02), with the largest quality improvements in counseling on family planning methods (IRR 5.0; p=0.01) and return to fertility (IRR 2.6; p=0.01). Despite improvements in maternal aspects of PNC, we find a high proportion of mothers who seek PNC are not being checked by any provider after delivery. Additional strategies will be necessary to standardize provision of packaged postnatal interventions to both mother and newborn. This study addresses an important gap in the existing RH literature by using a strong evaluation design to assess RH voucher program effectiveness on quality improvement. PMID:25835713

  2. Promoting high quality care for all at the end of life: review of NHS National End of Life Care Programme 2004–2007 and implications for primary care

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Anita

    2009-01-01

    Background Research shows most people want to die at home yet most in fact die in hospital. The underlying reason for this mismatch is that health and social care services struggle to respond satisfactorily to people's varying end of life care needs. The creation of the National End of Life Care Programme in 20041 and the launch of the End of Life Care Strategy in 20082 were designed to improve this situation. Setting The National End of Life Care Programme was set up to offer patients nearing the end of their life high quality care and choices about where to die. Particular objectives were reducing the number of unnecessary emergency admissions and improving the skills of the workforce. Question How effective has the National End of Life Care Programme been in its first three years? And given that an increasing proportion of end of life care services will take place in the community, what are the implications for primary care staff? Methods The authors discuss an in-depth evaluation of the National End of Life Care Programme by Nottingham University.3 They also describe two Department of Health reports indicating how primary care services can improve the quality of end of life care services.4,5 Results The Nottingham University evaluation shows that the National End of Life Care Programme is having an impact. SHAs with high uptake of end of life care tools tend to have higher rates of home deaths. In addition staff who use the tools are more confident in broaching sensitive issues around dying. Meanwhile the DH reports provide a template for coordination of services and training of staff in the community. Conclusion There are examples around the country of excellent end of life care. But it is essential that the best is spread to the rest. That success depends on better organisation and collaboration, effective use of resources and good communication between commissioners and providers. Above all, care has to be focused on the individuals and their carers. PMID

  3. Outcome of a grocery voucher incentive scheme for low-income tuberculosis patients on directly observed therapy in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Angeline Poh-Gek; Lim, Leo Kang-Yang; Ng, Huiyi; Chee, Cynthia Bin-Eng; Wang, Yee Tang

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The ‘DOT & Shop’ scheme is sponsored by SATA CommHealth, a local non-governmental organisation. It was launched in July 2009, in collaboration with Singapore’s Tuberculosis Control Unit (TBCU). Under this scheme, grocery vouchers are disbursed to low-income patients with tuberculosis (TB) at each clinic visit if they have been adherent to directly observed therapy (DOT). This study aimed to determine the effect of this incentive scheme on treatment completion rates and to report the characteristics of patients who were non-adherent to the scheme. METHODS This descriptive study used data from the TBCU medical social worker database and the National TB Registry. RESULTS From July 2009 to December 2012, a total of 883 TB patients were enrolled in the scheme. The overall treatment completion rates of the patients before (July 2006–June 2009) and after (July 2009–December 2012) the implementation of the scheme improved from 85.3% to 87.2% (p = 0.02). Patients under this scheme had a higher treatment completion rate (90.0%) than those not under this scheme (86.4%) (p < 0.01). It was found that the non-adherent patients were more likely to be of Malay ethnicity, younger and unemployed. CONCLUSION We demonstrate the salutary effect of a non-governmental organisation-funded grocery voucher incentive scheme for low-income TB patients on DOT in Singapore. PMID:25788246

  4. 75 FR 55596 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Housing Choice Voucher Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-13

    ... PHAs voluntarily divest their voucher programs to a receiving PHA. PHAs may also project-base a portion... assistance payments, and budget and payment documentation. In some cases PHAs voluntarily divest...

  5. The Professional Development Requirements of Workplace English Language and Literacy Programme Practitioners. An Adult Literacy National Project Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berghella, Tina; Molenaar, John; Wyse, Linda

    2006-01-01

    This report examines the extent and nature of professional development required to meet the current and future needs of Workplace English Language and Literacy Programme practitioners. While the working environment for such practitioners is becoming more complex, with greater demands on them to have industry knowledge and project management…

  6. First-Year Students' Perceptions of Extended National Diploma Programmes: The Case of a Comprehensive South African University (2012)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mavunga, George; Cachalia, Fahmida

    2014-01-01

    This study compared how the cohort of extended diploma students enrolled at a comprehensive South African university in 2012 perceived the programmes for which they were enrolled at the beginning of their first year and towards the end of the year. Data were gathered using questionnaires and semi-structured interviews involving students enrolled…

  7. Parents' Views of the National Autistic Society's EarlyBird Plus Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutress, Anna L.; Muncer, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Parent training interventions are recommended for parents soon after their child's autism spectrum condition diagnosis with the aim of improving parents' psychological well-being and coping, as well as the child's behaviour. This report explores parents' views of the EarlyBird Plus Programme through data collected routinely in…

  8. Effects of school reformon education and labor market performance: Evidence from Chile's universal voucher system.

    PubMed

    Bravo, David; Mukhopadhyay, Sankar; Todd, Petra E

    2010-07-01

    This paper studies the effects of school reform in Chile, which adopted a nationwide school voucher program along with school decentralization reforms in 1981. Since then, Chile has had a relatively unregulated, competitive market in primary and secondary education. It therefore provides a unique setting in which to study how these reforms affected school attainment and labor market outcomes. This paper develops and estimates a dynamic model of school attendance and work decisions using panel data from the 2002 and 2004 waves of the Encuesta de Protección Social survey. Some individuals in the sample completed their schooling before the voucher reforms were introduced, while others had the option of using the vouchers over part or all of their schooling careers. The impacts of the voucher reform are identified from differences in the schooling and work choices made and earnings returns received by similar aged individuals who were differentially exposed to the voucher system. Simulations based on the estimated model show that the voucher reform significantly increased the demand for private subsidized schools and decreased the demand for both public and nonsubsidized private schools. It increased high school (grades 9-12) graduation rates by 3.6 percentage points and the percentage completing at least two years of college by 2.6 percentage points. Individuals from poor and non-poor backgrounds on average experienced similar schooling attainment gains. The reform also increased lifetime utility and modestly reduced earnings inequality. PMID:22059095

  9. Effects of Internet-Based Voucher Reinforcement and a Transdermal Nicotine Patch on Cigarette Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, Irene M; Dallery, Jesse

    2007-01-01

    Nicotine replacement products are commonly used to promote smoking cessation, but alternative and complementary methods may increase cessation rates. The current experiment compared the short-term effects of a transdermal nicotine patch to voucher-based reinforcement of smoking abstinence on cigarette smoking. Fourteen heavy smokers (7 men and 7 women) completed the four 5-day phases of the study: baseline, patch treatment, voucher treatment, and return to baseline. The order of the two treatment phases was counterbalanced across participants. In the patch treatment condition, participants wore a 14-mg transdermal nicotine patch every day. In the voucher treatment condition, participants received vouchers contingent on abstinence from smoking, defined as producing carbon monoxide (CO) readings of ≤4 parts per million. Participants e-mailed two video clips per day showing them breathing into a CO monitor and the resulting CO reading to clinic staff. In the voucher treatment, 24% of samples were negative, and 5% of samples were negative in the patch treatment. Results suggest that contingent vouchers were more effective than transdermal nicotine patches in promoting abstinence. PMID:17471790

  10. Funding Antibiotic Innovation With Vouchers: Recommendations On How To Strengthen A Flawed Incentive Policy.

    PubMed

    Outterson, Kevin; McDonnell, Anthony

    2016-05-01

    A serious need to spur antibiotic innovation has arisen because of the lack of antibiotics to combat certain conditions and the overuse of other antibiotics leading to greater antibiotic resistance. In response to this need, proposals have been made to Congress to fund antibiotic research through a voucher program for new antibiotics, which would delay generic entry for any drug, even potential blockbuster lifesaving generics. We find this proposal to be inefficient, in part because of the mismatch between the private value of the voucher and the public value of the antibiotic innovation. However, vouchers have the political advantage in the United States of being able to raise sufficient amounts of money without annual appropriations from Congress. We propose that if antibiotic vouchers are to be considered, the design should include dollar and time caps to limit their volatility, sufficient advance notice to protect generic manufacturers, and market-based linkages between the value of the voucher and the value of the antibiotic innovation. We also explore a second option: The federal government could auction vouchers to the highest bidders and use the money to create an antibiotics innovation fund. PMID:27140983

  11. The experiences of mentors on a career development and mentoring programme for female mental health nurses in the UK National Health Service.

    PubMed

    Woolnough, Helen M; Davidson, Marilyn J; Fielden, Sandra L

    2006-08-01

    This paper presents the experiences of executive and non-executive UK National Health Service (NHS) Trust directors and senior managers as mentors in a career development and mentoring programme for a cohort of 27 female mental health nurses from six NHS mental health trusts. Baseline interview data was collated from 27 mentors prior to the programme. Twenty-four mentors participated in semi-structured telephone interviews investigating their experiences of being a mentor at the end of the programme. The interview transcripts were analysed using thematic content analysis. Experience as a mentor impacted on mentors in a variety of ways and the common themes which emerged from the data included: increased understanding of the mentoring role, increased awareness of career barriers for female mental health nurses, improved ground-level insight in relation to nursing staff and the patients they care for, improved professional reputation, increased networks, new insights into organizational issues, personal enjoyment and fulfilment and desire to implement organizational change. All mentors interviewed stated that they would consider becoming a mentor again. The mentoring relationship was an invaluable learning experience for mentors and results from this study suggested that trained mentors have an important role to play as change agents in the NHS. PMID:16848959

  12. National Report Germany: Sounding Rocket and Balloon Research Activities Supported by the German Space Programme in 2013-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhl, R.; Gritzner, C.; Friedrichs, D.

    2015-09-01

    Mainly sounding rockets but also stratospheric balloons have played a crucial role in implementing the German Space Programme since many years. Research activities were conducted in the fields of Microgravity Research, Space Science, Earth Observation, Space Technology Development, and Education. Currently, the mesosphere and ionosphere of the Earth and the photosphere and chromosphere of the Sun are in the focus of German research activities in the field of Space Science. Microgravity related topics are studied in the disciplines of Life and Physical Sciences during ballistic TEXUS and MAPHEUS rocket flights. A lot of student activities are currently supported by the agencies SNSB and DLR under the auspices of the Swedish-German programme REXUS/BEXUS.

  13. Non-repeatable science: assessing the frequency of voucher specimen deposition reveals that most arthropod research cannot be verified

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Scientific findings need to be verifiable and grounded in repeatability. With specimen-level research this is in part achieved with the deposition of voucher specimens. These are labeled, curated, data-based specimens that have been deposited in a collection or museum, available for verification of the work and to ensure researchers are calling the same taxa by the same names. Voucher specimens themselves are the subject of research, from the discovery of new species by taxonomists to ecologists documenting historical records of invasive species. Our objective was to quantify the frequency of voucher specimen deposition in biodiversity and community ecology research through a survey of the peer-reviewed literature about arthropods, from 1989 until 2014. Overall rates of voucher deposition were alarmingly low, at under 25%. This rate increased significantly over time, with 35% of papers reporting on vouchers in 2014. Relative to the global mean, entomological research had a significantly higher rate of voucher deposition (46%), whereas researchers studying crustaceans deposited vouchers less than 6% of the time, significantly less than the mean. Researchers working in museums had a significantly higher frequency of voucher deposition. Our results suggest a significant culture shift about the process of vouchering specimens is required. There must be more education and mentoring about voucher specimens within laboratories and across different fields of study. Principal investigators and granting agencies need a proactive approach to ensuring specimen-level data are properly, long-term curated. Editorial boards and journals can also adopt policies to ensure papers are published only if explicit statements about the deposition of voucher specimens is provided. Although the gap is significant, achieving a higher rate of voucher specimen deposition is a worthy goal to ensure all research efforts are preserved for future generations. PMID:26339546

  14. Vouchers in Fragile States: Reducing Barriers to Long-Acting Reversible Contraception in Yemen and Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Boddam-Whetham, Luke; Gul, Xaher; Al-Kobati, Eman; Gorter, Anna C

    2016-08-11

    In conflict-affected states, vouchers have reduced barriers to reproductive health services and have enabled health programs to use targeted subsidies to increase uptake of specific health services. Vouchers can also be used to channel funds to public- and private-service providers and improve service quality. The Yamaan Foundation for Health and Social Development in Yemen and the Marie Stopes Society (MSS) in Pakistan-both working with Options Consultancy Services-have developed voucher programs that subsidize voluntary access to long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) and permanent methods (PMs) of family planning in their respective fragile countries. The programs focus on LARCs and PMs because these methods are particularly difficult for poor women to access due to their cost and to provider biases against offering them. Using estimates of expected voluntary uptake of LARCs and PMs for 2014 based on contraceptive prevalence rates, and comparing these with uptake of LARCs and PMs through the voucher programs, we show the substantial increase in service utilization that vouchers can enable by contributing to an expanded method choice. In the governorate of Lahj, Yemen, vouchers for family planning led to an estimated 38% increase in 2014 over the expected use of LARCs and PMs (720 vs. 521 expected). We applied the same approach in 13 districts of Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), and Sindh provinces in Pakistan. Our calculations suggest that vouchers enabled 10 times more women than expected to choose LARCs and PMs in 2014 in those areas of Pakistan (73,639 vs. 6,455 expected). Voucher programs can promote and maintain access to family planning services where existing health systems are hampered. Vouchers are a flexible financing approach that enable expansion of contraceptive choice and the inclusion of the private sector in service delivery to the poor. They can keep financial resources flowing where the public sector is prevented from offering services

  15. Vouchers in Fragile States: Reducing Barriers to Long-Acting Reversible Contraception in Yemen and Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Boddam-Whetham, Luke; Gul, Xaher; Al-Kobati, Eman; Gorter, Anna C

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In conflict-affected states, vouchers have reduced barriers to reproductive health services and have enabled health programs to use targeted subsidies to increase uptake of specific health services. Vouchers can also be used to channel funds to public- and private-service providers and improve service quality. The Yamaan Foundation for Health and Social Development in Yemen and the Marie Stopes Society (MSS) in Pakistan—both working with Options Consultancy Services—have developed voucher programs that subsidize voluntary access to long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) and permanent methods (PMs) of family planning in their respective fragile countries. The programs focus on LARCs and PMs because these methods are particularly difficult for poor women to access due to their cost and to provider biases against offering them. Using estimates of expected voluntary uptake of LARCs and PMs for 2014 based on contraceptive prevalence rates, and comparing these with uptake of LARCs and PMs through the voucher programs, we show the substantial increase in service utilization that vouchers can enable by contributing to an expanded method choice. In the governorate of Lahj, Yemen, vouchers for family planning led to an estimated 38% increase in 2014 over the expected use of LARCs and PMs (720 vs. 521 expected). We applied the same approach in 13 districts of Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), and Sindh provinces in Pakistan. Our calculations suggest that vouchers enabled 10 times more women than expected to choose LARCs and PMs in 2014 in those areas of Pakistan (73,639 vs. 6,455 expected). Voucher programs can promote and maintain access to family planning services where existing health systems are hampered. Vouchers are a flexible financing approach that enable expansion of contraceptive choice and the inclusion of the private sector in service delivery to the poor. They can keep financial resources flowing where the public sector is prevented from

  16. Space research programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnusson, Per; Englund, Jan; Norberg, Olle

    2001-08-01

    A major highlight of the Swedish national programme was the launch of the Odin Orbital Observatory in February 2001. The atmospheric profiles measured by Odin will be calibrated with rocket and balloon validation flights during the second half of 2001. A continuation of the satellite programme after Odin depends on the outcome of an ongoing assessment and an additional budget. The future ESA microgravity programme will be of high importance for European and Swedish science and applications using weightless conditions, and for the utilisation of the International Space Station (ISS). It should also make sure that the European independent capability for launching efficient sounding rockets is preserved and developed.

  17. Descriptions of the 1972-73 Mini-School Programs in the Alum Rock Voucher Demonstration. Analysis of the Education Voucher Demonstration. A Working Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, M. L.; Wuchitech, J. M.

    The Education Voucher Demonstration, begun in Alum Rock in 1972, is a large-scale social intervention with a wide range of social, political, economic, and educational objectives. This document is one of three such papers describing the educational aspects of the demonstration program which involved six public schools, 22 "mini-school" programs,…

  18. Evaluation of a national programme to reduce inappropriate use of antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections: effects on consumer awareness, beliefs, attitudes and behaviour in Australia.

    PubMed

    Wutzke, Sonia E; Artist, Margaret A; Kehoe, Linda A; Fletcher, Miriam; Mackson, Judith M; Weekes, Lynn M

    2007-03-01

    The over-use of antibiotics, in particular, inappropriate use to treat upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), is a global public health concern. In an attempt to reduce inappropriate use of antibiotics for URTIs, and, in particular, to modify patient misconceptions about the effectiveness of antibiotics for URTIs, Australia's National Prescribing Service Ltd (NPS) has undertaken a comprehensive, multistrategic programme for health professionals and the community. Targeted strategies for the community, via the NPS common colds community campaign, commenced in 2000 and have been repeated annually during the winter months. Community strategies were closely integrated, using the same tagline, key messages and visual images, and were delivered in numerous settings including general practice, community pharmacy, child-care centres and community groups. Strategies included written information via newsletters and brochures, mass media activity using billboards, television, radio and magazines and small grants to promote local community education. The evaluation used multiple methods and data sources to measure process, impact and outcomes. Consistent with intervention messages, the integrated nationwide prescriber and consumer programme is associated with modest but consistent positive changes in consumer awareness, beliefs, attitudes and behaviour to the appropriate use of antibiotics for URTIs. These positive changes among the community are corroborated by a national decline in total antibiotic prescriptions dispensed in the community (from 23.08 million prescriptions in 1998-99 to 21.44 million in 2001-02) and, specifically, by a decline among the nine antibiotics commonly used for URTI such that by 2003 nationally 216,000 fewer prescriptions for URTI are written each year by general practitioners. PMID:17046966

  19. Flaws and Failings: A Preliminary Look at the Problems Already Encountered in the Implementation of the District of Columbia's New Federally Mandated School Voucher Program. Special Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    People For the American Way, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This special report discusses the new federally mandated school voucher program in the District of Columbia, which is the first federally-funded voucher program in the country. The voucher program is being run by the U.S. Department of Education ("DOE") in cooperation with the Mayor of the District of Columbia, and administered by a private…

  20. Promising Start: An Empirical Analysis of How EdChoice Vouchers Affect Ohio Public Schools. School Choice Issues in the State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Greg

    2008-01-01

    This is the first empirical study to examine the effects of Ohio's EdChoice voucher program. Using publicly available data, it measures the program's effect on academic outcomes in public schools where students are eligible for vouchers. The EdChoice program offers vouchers to students who are assigned to chronically underperforming public…

  1. 24 CFR 983.2 - When the tenant-based voucher rule (24 CFR part 982) applies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (24 CFR part 982) applies. 983.2 Section 983.2 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO... tenant-based voucher rule (24 CFR part 982) applies. (a) 24 CFR Part 982. Part 982 is the basic.... For use and applicability of voucher program definitions at § 982.4, see § 983.3. (b) Types of 24...

  2. 24 CFR 983.2 - When the tenant-based voucher rule (24 CFR part 982) applies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (24 CFR part 982) applies. 983.2 Section 983.2 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO... tenant-based voucher rule (24 CFR part 982) applies. (a) 24 CFR Part 982. Part 982 is the basic.... For use and applicability of voucher program definitions at § 982.4, see § 983.3. (b) Types of 24...

  3. Rhetoric Versus Reality: What We Know and What We Need To Know about Vouchers and Charter Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Brian P.; Timpane, P. Michael; Ross, Karen E.; Brewer, Dominic J.

    Two proposals for education reform are school vouchers and charter schools, both of which have raised controversy with regard to their effectiveness and efficiency. At the present time, there is insufficient evidence to provide a crisp, clear bottom-line judgment of the wisdom of voucher and charter programs. This book identifies and articulates…

  4. Review of "Promising Start: An Empirical Analysis of How EdChoice Vouchers Affect Ohio Public Schools"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubienski, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    A Friedman Foundation report attempts to find empirical support for the contention that competition from private schools, through voucher programs, improves the effectiveness of public schools. In the first year of Ohio's new EdChoice voucher program, the report claims to have found substantial academic gains at public schools exposed to the…

  5. The Participant Effects of Private School Vouchers across the Globe: A Meta-Analytic and Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakeel, M. Danish; Anderson, Kaitlin P.; Wolf, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this meta-analysis is to rigorously assess the participant effects of private school vouchers, or in other words, to estimate the average academic impacts that the offer (or use) of a voucher has on a student. This review adds to the literature by being the first to systematically review all Randomized Control Trials (RCTs) in an…

  6. SEM vouchers and genomic data from an individual specimen: maximizing the utility of delicate and rare specimens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Specimen vouchering is a critical aspect of systematics, especially in genetic studies where the identity of a DNA sample needs to be assured. It can be difficult to obtain a high quality voucher after DNA extraction when dealing with tiny and delicate invertebrates that often do not survive the ext...

  7. Segregation Levels in Cleveland Public Schools and the Cleveland Voucher Program. School Choice Issues in the State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Greg

    2006-01-01

    Examining the widespread claims that private schools have high segregation levels and vouchers will lead to greater segregation, this study finds that both assertions are empirically unsupportable. Private schools participating in Cleveland's voucher program are much less segregated than Cleveland's public schools. This means that students using…

  8. 77 FR 9617 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; DoD Voucher Processing (DFARS Case 2011-D054)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... WorkFlow to process vouchers. DATES: Comments on the proposed rule published January 19, 2012, at 77 FR... clarifying the proposed rule published on January 19, 2012 (77 FR 2682), which proposes to revise... Regulation Supplement; DoD Voucher Processing (DFARS Case 2011-D054) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition...

  9. 77 FR 52258 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; DoD Voucher Processing (DFARS Case 2011-D054)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... a proposed rule in the Federal Register at 77 FR 2682 on January 19, 2012. The comment period closed... the Wide Area WorkFlow (WAWF) used to process vouchers. DATES: August 29, 2012. FOR FURTHER... rule merely updates DoD's voucher processing procedures and better accommodates the Wide Area...

  10. Florida Court: Vouchers Unconstitutional--Ruling Will End Opportunity Scholarships Program for Students in State's Lowest-Rated Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Florida's voucher program for students in the lowest-rated public schools is unconstitutional, the state supreme court ruled early January 2006 in a 5-2 decision that friends and foes of private school choice are scrutinizing for its potential impact on voucher debates nationwide. Chief Justice Barbara J. Pariente of the Florida Supreme Court…

  11. Developing Industry-Sponsored Entrepreneurship Education Programmes. The Experiences of the Coca-Cola National Enterprise Award.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Colette; Titterington, Albert; Wiseman, Kate

    1998-01-01

    A partnership among Dundalk Institute of Technology (Ireland), Coca Cola, and government encourages young entrepreneurs through formal education in business management, workshops, mentoring, and financial rewards provided by the corporation's National Enterprise Award. (SK)

  12. Coverage of the English national human papillomavirus (HPV) immunisation programme among 12 to 17 year-old females by area-level deprivation score, England, 2008 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Hughes, A; Mesher, D; White, J; Soldan, K

    2014-01-01

    The English national human papillomavirus (HPV) immunisation programme has offered vaccination to girls aged 12 years at the start of each school year since September 2008. A catch-up programme has offered vaccination to girls up to 18 years. Delivery is predominantly school-based, with some general practitioner (GP)-based immunisation. The relationship between HPV immunisation coverage and deprivation (index of multiple deprivation, IMD) was assessed by geographical area (N=151) for each school year offered the HPV vaccine between 2008 to 2011 using the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient, and compared to that for adequate cervical screening of women aged 25 to 49 years. Coverage at age 12 showed no significant association with IMD at the area-level (p=0.12). Within the catch-up years, there was some suggestion of higher deprivation being associated with lower coverage. This was not significant for girls offered immunisation under 16 years (in compulsory education) (p=0.09), but was more marked and statistically significant for older girls (p<0.0001). The proportion of women aged 25 to 49 years with an adequate cervical screen was negatively associated with deprivation (p<0.0001). School-based HPV immunisation delivery appears to be successfully reducing inequalities in cervical cancer control at area-level. However, the catch-up cohorts above the age of compulsory education may face increased inequality. Further investigation is needed into individual-level factors associated with coverage. PMID:24457007

  13. Quality control of food products purchased by the National School-Feeding Programme in Pernambuco, northeast Brazil, from 1985 to 1988.

    PubMed

    Guerra, N B; Pires, E M; Martins, G de C; Lima Filho, J B; Guerra, G N; Borges, L B; Tavares, M O; Cavalcante, M L; de Melo Filho, A B; de Oliveira, A R

    1992-12-01

    The effectiveness of the Quality Control System (QCS) implemented by the Fundação de Assistência ao Escolar (FAE) for quality control of food products from different types and origins purchased by the National School-Feeding Programme (NSFP) in Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil, was evaluated. Physicochemical, microbiological, microscopical and organopetical analyses were performed in 4,860 food samples and the main causes of alterations were detected. Perishability was the characteristic used for distribution of food items into 3 main groups: A, B, and C. In accordance with 972 Quality Certificates between 1985 and 1988, 31.89 of the samples were rejected. The main reasons for rejection were innacuracies of net weight and drained weight and high moisture contents. Group B presented the smallest number of altered samples (27%); for Groups A and C these values were 33% and 44%, respectively. Our data lead to the conclusion that the QCS implemented by FAE is of paramount importance for an adequate quality control of foods provided to beneficiaries and for a good cost effectiveness of the school-feeding programme. PMID:1342181

  14. Structural and qualitative evaluation of microscopy and directly observed treatment centers under revised national tuberculosis control programme in Nanded city of Maharashtra.

    PubMed

    Bhagat, Vijay Manohar; Gattani, Prakash Laxminarayan

    2011-01-01

    Structural and qualitative evaluation of Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) is important to determine actual status of the programme in the field settings and to uncover the concealed gaps. The present cross-sectional study assessed the infrastructural facilities and quality of services provided through microscopy and directly observed treatment (DOT) centers at Nanded city of Maharashtra. The investigator made on spot observation on the activities at microscopy and DOT centers and assessed the infrastructural facilities using an observational checklist. Expert microbiologist cross checked the microscopy report done by the laboratory technicians. It revealed that retrieval mechanism was not functioning in more than half of the DOT centers. Only 5 DOT providers were trained in RNTCP. Stock of sputum containers, methylene blue, and carbol fuchsin was found to be inadequate at some microscopy centers. Half of the laboratory technicians reported high false positive result in spite of being trained. Improvement of infrastructural and logistic support along with the refreshing training for the workers are needed for effective implementation of RNTCP. PMID:21727682

  15. Studying policy implementation using a macro, meso and micro frame analysis: the case of the Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research & Care (CLAHRC) programme nationally and in North West London

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The publication of Best research for best health in 2006 and the “ring-fencing” of health research funding in England marked the start of a period of change for health research governance and the structure of research funding in England. One response to bridging the ‘second translational gap’ between research knowledge and clinical practice was the establishment of nine Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRCs). The goal of this paper is to assess how national-level understanding of the aims and objectives of the CLAHRCs translated into local implementation and practice in North West London. Methods This study uses a variation of Goffman’s frame analysis to trace the development of the initial national CLAHRC policy to its implementation at three levels. Data collection and analysis were qualitative through interviews, document analysis and embedded research. Results Analysis at the macro (national policy), meso (national programme) and micro (North West London) levels shows a significant common understanding of the aims and objectives of the policy and programme. Local level implementation in North West London was also consistent with these. Conclusions The macro-meso-micro frame analysis is a useful way of studying the transition of a policy from high-level idea to programme in action. It could be used to identify differences at a local (micro) level in the implementation of multi-site programmes that would help understand differences in programme effectiveness. PMID:23067208

  16. Between Prevention and Therapy: Gio Batta Gori and the National Cancer Institute’s Diet, Nutrition and Cancer Programme, 1974–1978

    PubMed Central

    Cantor, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the origins of the Diet, Nutrition and Cancer Programme (DNCP) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and its fate under its first director, Gio Batta Gori. The DNCP is used to explore the emergence of federal support for research on diet, nutrition and cancer following the 1971 Cancer Act, the complex relations between cancer prevention and therapeutics in the NCI during the 1970s, the broader politics around diet, nutrition and cancer during that decade, and their relations to Senator George McGovern’s select committee on Nutrition and Human Needs. It also provides a window onto the debates and struggles over whether NCI research should be funded by contracts or grants, the nature of the patronage system within the federal cancer research agency, how a director, Gio Gori, lost patronage within that system and how a tightening of the budget for cancer research in the mid-to-late 1970s affected the DNCP. PMID:23112384

  17. National Opinion Poll: Education, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bositis, David A.

    In 2002, a national opinion poll of 2,463 U.S. adults examined such topics as politics, education, crime and criminal justice policy, globalization, international relations, and race relations. The education poll focused on such issues as school quality, school safety, school vouchers, school violence, and same-sex education. The survey sample…

  18. Role of National Immunization Technical Advisory Group on improvement of immunization programmes in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

    PubMed

    Zahraei, Seyed Mohsen; Marandi, Alireza; Sadrizadeh, Bijan; Gouya, Mehdi Mohammad; Rezaei, Parviz; Vazirian, Parviz; Yaghini, Fatheme

    2010-04-19

    The National Immunization Technical Advisory Group (NITAG) was established in Iran in 1982 and has made many important technical recommendations (e.g., regarding polio eradication, introduction of new vaccines, organizing special studies) that have contributed to a dramatic decline in vaccine preventable disease burden. The NITAG consists of experts from the Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOHME), vaccine manufacturers, and medical universities with national Expanded Program of Immunization (EPI) staff serving as the secretariat. It is not completely independent from MOHME or EPI. It meets on a quarterly basis, and publishes national guidelines and immunization schedules that are updated regularly. Although primarily an advisory body, representation from MOHME members, including the EPI manager, ensures almost universal implementation of NITAG recommendations. PMID:20412994

  19. Meningococcal disease epidemiology in Australia 10 years after implementation of a national conjugate meningococcal C immunization programme.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, G L; Wang, H; Lahra, M; Booy, R; McINTYRE, P B

    2016-08-01

    Australia implemented conjugate meningococcal C immunization in 2003 with a single scheduled dose at age 12 months and catch-up for individuals aged 2-19 years. Several countries have recently added one or more booster doses to their programmes to maintain disease control. Australian disease surveillance and vaccine coverage data were used to assess longer term vaccine coverage and impact on invasive serogroup C disease incidence and mortality, and review vaccine failures. Coverage was 93% in 1-year-olds and 70% for catch-up cohorts. In 10 years, after adjusting for changes in diagnostic practices, population invasive serogroup C incidence declined 96% (95% confidence interval 94-98) to 0·4 and 0·6 cases/million in vaccinated and unvaccinated cohorts, respectively. Only three serogroup C deaths occurred in 2010-2012 vs. 68 in 2000-2002. Four (<1/million doses) confirmed vaccine failures were identified in 10 years with no increasing trend. Despite published evidence of waning antibody over time, an ongoing single dose of meningococcal C conjugate vaccine in the second year of life following widespread catch-up has resulted in near elimination of serogroup C disease in all age groups without evidence of vaccine failures in the first decade since introduction. Concurrently, serogroup B incidence declined independently by 55%. PMID:27094814

  20. Tuberculosis situation among tribal population of Car Nicobar, India, 15 years after intensive tuberculosis control project and implementation of a national tuberculosis programme.

    PubMed Central

    Murhekar, M. V.; Kolappan, C.; Gopi, P. G.; Chakraborty, A. K.; Sehgal, S. C.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the tuberculosis (TB) situation in the tribal community of Car Nicobar island 15 years after the national TB programme was implemented in this area after an intensive phase of TB control in 1986. METHODS: The entire population of Car Nicobar was enumerated through a house-to-house survey. Children aged <14 years were tuberculin tested and read for reaction sizes. Individuals aged >15 years were asked about the presence of chest symptoms (cough, chest pain, and unexplained fever for two weeks or longer and haemoptysis), and sputum samples were collected from patients with chest symptoms. Sputum samples were examined for presence of acid-fast bacilli. FINDINGS: Among the 4,543 children enumerated, 4,351 (95.8%) were tuberculin tested and read. Of the 981 children without bacille Calmette-Guerin scars, 161 (16.4%) were infected with TB. A total of 77 cases who were smear-positive for TB were detected from among 10,570 people aged >15 years; the observed smear-positive case prevalence was 728.5 per 100,000. The standardized prevalence of TB infection, annual risk of TB infection, and prevalence of cases smear-positive for TB were 17.0%, 2.5%, and 735.3 per 100,000, respectively. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of TB infection and smear-positive cases of TB increased significantly between 1986 and 2002. Such escalation took place despite the implementation of the national TB programme on this island, which was preceded by a set of special anti-TB measures that resulted in sputum conversion in a substantially large proportion of the smear-positive cases prevalent in the community. The most likely reason for the increase seems to be the absence of a district TB programme with enough efficiency to sustain the gains made from the one-time initial phase of special anti-TB measures. High risk of transmission of TB infection currently observed on this island calls for a drastic and sustained improvement in TB control measures. PMID:15640919

  1. An Assessment of the Implementation of National Development Plans in Kenya: The Case of Education Sector Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gor, Seth Omondi; Osoro, Kennedy O.

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the success or failure of plan implementation in Kenya by investigating the extent to which planned estimates for educational projects were actually attained. Using six sets of five-year national development plans, we calculated an implementation ratio for each program showing actual expenditure as a ratio of planned…

  2. Employing the National Open University of Nigeria English Programme as a Tool for the Displacement of Gender Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omolara, Daniel Iyabode

    2013-01-01

    Gender inequality has been a constant refrain among those that desire social justice. To this end, a global conference on gender equality was organized by the United Nations in 1995 in Beijing, China. However, a recent study questioned the effectiveness of the conference to solve this problem as it found that women themselves are giving hegemonic…

  3. Effectiveness of Scotland's National Naloxone Programme for reducing opioid‐related deaths: a before (2006–10) versus after (2011–13) comparison

    PubMed Central

    McAuley, Andrew; Perry, Samantha; Hunter, Carole

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims To assess the effectiveness for Scotland's National Naloxone Programme (NNP) by comparison between 2006–10 (before) and 2011–13 (after NNP started in January 2011) and to assess cost‐effectiveness. Design This was a pre–post evaluation of a national policy. Cost‐effectiveness was assessed by prescription costs against life‐years gained per opioid‐related death (ORD) averted. Setting Scotland, in community settings and all prisons. Intervention Brief training and standardized naloxone supply became available to individuals at risk of opioid overdose. Measurements ORDs as identified by National Records of Scotland. Look‐back determined the proportion of ORDs who, in the 4 weeks before ORD, had been (i) released from prison (primary outcome) and (ii) released from prison or discharged from hospital (secondary). We report 95% confidence intervals for effectiveness in reducing the primary (and secondary) outcome in 2011–13 versus 2006–10. Prescription costs were assessed against 1 or 10 life‐years gained per averted ORD. Findings In 2006–10, 9.8% of ORDs (193 of 1970) were in people released from prison within 4 weeks of death, whereas only 6.3% of ORDs in 2011–13 followed prison release (76 of 1212, P < 0.001; this represented a difference of 3.5% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.6–5.4%)]. This reduction in the proportion of prison release ORDs translates into 42 fewer prison release ORDs (95% CI = 19–65) during 2011–13, when 12 000 naloxone kits were issued at current prescription cost of £225 000. Scotland's secondary outcome reduced from 19.0 to 14.9%, a difference of 4.1% (95% CI = 1.4–6.7%). Conclusions Scotland's National Naloxone Programme, which started in 2011, was associated with a 36% reduction in the proportion of opioid‐related deaths that occurred in the 4 weeks following release from prison. PMID:26642424

  4. Use of remote sensing and a geographical information system in a national helminth control programme in Chad.

    PubMed Central

    Brooker, Simon; Beasley, Michael; Ndinaromtan, Montanan; Madjiouroum, Ester Mobele; Baboguel, Marie; Djenguinabe, Elie; Hay, Simon I.; Bundy, Don A. P.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To design and implement a rapid and valid epidemiological assessment of helminths among schoolchildren in Chad using ecological zones defined by remote sensing satellite sensor data and to investigate the environmental limits of helminth distribution. METHODS: Remote sensing proxy environmental data were used to define seven ecological zones in Chad. These were combined with population data in a geographical information system (GIS) in order to define a sampling protocol. On this basis, 20 schools were surveyed. Multilevel analysis, by means of generalized estimating equations to account for clustering at the school level, was used to investigate the relationship between infection patterns and key environmental variables. FINDINGS: In a sample of 1023 schoolchildren, 22.5% were infected with Schistosoma haematobium and 32.7% with hookworm. None were infected with Ascaris lumbricoides or Trichuris trichiura. The prevalence of S. haematobium and hookworm showed marked geographical heterogeneity and the observed patterns showed a close association with the defined ecological zones and significant relationships with environmental variables. These results contribute towards defining the thermal limits of geohelminth species. Predictions of infection prevalence were made for each school surveyed with the aid of models previously developed for Cameroon. These models correctly predicted that A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura would not occur in Chad but the predictions for S. haematobium were less reliable at the school level. CONCLUSION: GIS and remote sensing can play an important part in the rapid planning of helminth control programmes where little information on disease burden is available. Remote sensing prediction models can indicate patterns of geohelminth infection but can only identify potential areas of high risk for S. haematobium. PMID:12471398

  5. NSF announces diversity programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruesi, Liz

    2016-04-01

    The US National Science Foundation (NSF) has initiated a new funding programme that will create schemes to increase diversity in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). The initiative – Inclusion across the Nation of Communities of Learners of Underrepresented Discoverers in Engineering and Science (INCLUDES) – aims to increase the participation of women, those with a low socioeconomic status, people with disabilities and those from minority racial backgrounds.

  6. The interface between the national tuberculosis control programme and district hospitals in Cameroon: missed opportunities for strengthening the local health system –a multiple case study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis remains a major public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. District hospitals (DHs) play a central role in district-based health systems, and their relation with vertical programmes is very important. Studies on the impact of vertical programmes on DHs are rare. This study aims to fill this gap. Its purpose is to analyse the interaction between the National Tuberculosis Control Programme (NTCP) and DHs in Cameroon, especially its effects on the human resources, routine health information system (HIS) and technical capacity at the hospital level. Methods We used a multiple case study methodology. From the Adamaoua Region, we selected two DHs, one public and one faith-based. We collected qualitative and quantitative data through document reviews, semi-structured interviews with district and regional staff, and observations in the two DHs. Results The NTCP trained and supervised staff, designed and provided tuberculosis data collection and reporting tools, and provided anti-tuberculosis drugs, reagents and microscopes to DHs. However, these interventions were limited to the hospital units designated as Tuberculosis Diagnostic and Treatment Centres and to staff dedicated to tuberculosis control activities. The NTCP installed a parallel HIS that bypassed the District Health Services. The DH that performs well in terms of general hospital care and that is well managed was successful in tuberculosis control. Based on the available resources, the two hospitals adapt the organisation of tuberculosis control to their settings. The management teams in charge of the District Health Services are not involved in tuberculosis control. In our study, we identified several opportunities to strengthen the local health system that have been missed by the NTCP and the health system managers. Conclusion Well-managed DHs perform better in terms of tuberculosis control than DHs that are not well managed. The analysis of the effects of the NTCP on the human

  7. The National Institute of Health Research (NIHR) Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC) for Leicestershire, Northamptonshire and Rutland (LNR): a programme protocol

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background In October 2008, the National Institute for Health Research launched nine new research projects to develop and investigate methods of translating research evidence into practice. Given the title Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC), all involve collaboration between one or more universities and the local health service, but they are adopting different approaches to achieve translation. Methods The translation and implementation programme of this CLAHRC has been built around a pragmatic framework for undertaking research to address live concerns in the delivery of care, in partnership with the managers, practitioners, and patients of the provider organisations of the CLAHRC. Focused on long-term conditions, the constituent research themes are prevention, early detection, self-management, rehabilitation, and implementation. Individual studies have various designs, and include both randomised trials of new ways to deliver care and qualitative studies of, for example, means of identifying barriers to research translation. A mix of methods will be used to evaluate the CLAHRC as a whole, including use of public health indicators, social research methods, and health economics. Discussion This paper describes one of the nine collaborations, that of Leicestershire, Northamptonshire, and Rutland. Drawing a distinction between translation as an organising principle for healthcare providers and implementation as a discrete activity, this collaboration is built on a substantial programme of applied research intended to create both research generation and research use capacity in provider organisations. The collaboration in Leicestershire, Northamptonshire, and Rutland has potential to provide evidence on how partnerships between practitioners, patients, and researchers can improve the transfer of evidence into practice. PMID:19906317

  8. 48 CFR 1232.7002 - Invoice and voucher review and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Budget (OMB) regulation at 5 CFR part 1315 as implemented by (FAR) 48 CFR Subpart 32.9, and the contract... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Invoice and voucher review... TRANSPORTATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Contract Payments 1232.7002 Invoice...

  9. Effects of an Internet-Based Voucher Reinforcement Program for Smoking Abstinence: A Feasibility Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallery, Jesse; Glenn, Irene M.

    2005-01-01

    The present study tested the feasibility of an Internet-based method to obtain objective evidence of smoking abstinence and to deliver vouchers for evidence of abstinence. Four heavy smokers participated in this 4-week study. Twice daily, participants made video recordings of themselves providing a breath carbon monoxide (CO) sample with a Web…

  10. 24 CFR 982.613 - Group home: Rent and voucher housing assistance payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Group home: Rent and voucher housing assistance payment. 982.613 Section 982.613 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN...

  11. 24 CFR 982.617 - Shared housing: Rent and voucher housing assistance payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Shared housing: Rent and voucher housing assistance payment. 982.617 Section 982.617 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN...

  12. Teachers' Reactions to the First Year of the Alum Rock Voucher Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanecko, James J.

    This paper analyzes responses to questionnaires distributed to all teachers in the Alum Rock School District in the fall of 1972 and the spring of 1973. Major focus of the analysis is on the two-part question, (1) How do the experiences of teachers in voucher schools differ from the experiences of teachers in other schools? and (2) How do these…

  13. Preserving and vouchering butterflies and moths for large-scale museum-based molecular research.

    PubMed

    Cho, Soowon; Epstein, Samantha W; Mitter, Kim; Hamilton, Chris A; Plotkin, David; Mitter, Charles; Kawahara, Akito Y

    2016-01-01

    Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) comprise significant portions of the world's natural history collections, but a standardized tissue preservation protocol for molecular research is largely lacking. Lepidoptera have traditionally been spread on mounting boards to display wing patterns and colors, which are often important for species identification. Many molecular phylogenetic studies have used legs from pinned specimens as the primary source for DNA in order to preserve a morphological voucher, but the amount of available tissue is often limited. Preserving an entire specimen in a cryogenic freezer is ideal for DNA preservation, but without an easily accessible voucher it can make specimen identification, verification, and morphological work difficult. Here we present a procedure that creates accessible and easily visualized "wing vouchers" of individual Lepidoptera specimens, and preserves the remainder of the insect in a cryogenic freezer for molecular research. Wings are preserved in protective holders so that both dorsal and ventral patterns and colors can be easily viewed without further damage. Our wing vouchering system has been implemented at the University of Maryland (AToL Lep Collection) and the University of Florida (Florida Museum of Natural History, McGuire Center of Lepidoptera and Biodiversity), which are among two of the largest Lepidoptera molecular collections in the world. PMID:27366654

  14. 24 CFR 982.608 - Congregate housing: Voucher housing assistance payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Congregate housing: Voucher housing assistance payment. 982.608 Section 982.608 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN...

  15. Education Tax Credits in a Post-"Zelman" Era: Legal, Political, and Policy Alternatives to Vouchers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huerta, Luis A.; d'Entremont, Chad

    2007-01-01

    This article examines an emerging preference for education tax credit programs in a post-"Zelman" era. First, the authors detail the origin of tax credits and the types of existing plans. Second, they review the assumptions underlying the supposed advantages that may favor tax credits as a feasible alternative to vouchers. Third, they analyze…

  16. Heading for a Fall: State Restrictions on Voucher Programs Rest on Shaky Foundation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    In June 2015, the Colorado Supreme Court struck down a successful voucher program in Douglas County, invoking a provision of the state constitution that harks back to an era of widespread prejudice against Catholics. But because of the court's reliance on this discriminatory provision, its decision could well be overturned by the U.S. Supreme…

  17. 48 CFR 53.301-44 - Standard Form 44, Purchase Order-Invoice-Voucher.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard Form 44, Purchase Order-Invoice-Voucher. 53.301-44 Section 53.301-44 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms 53.301-44 Standard Form 44, Purchase...

  18. 48 CFR 1413.306 - Standard Form 44, Purchase order-invoice-voucher.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard Form 44, Purchase order-invoice-voucher. 1413.306 Section 1413.306 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Simplified Acquisition Methods 1413.306 Standard Form...

  19. Tuition Tax Credits and Vouchers: Political Finance Alternatives Rather than Rational Alternatives to Education Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Robert G.

    This paper describes the use of tuition tax credits and vouchers as political alternatives of choice and competition in a progressive society. School and public administration theorists identify two distinct finance models: the rational and the political. The first part of this paper examines and describes these two models. The next part…

  20. Much Ado about Nothing: The Minimal Competitive Effects of the Cleveland Voucher Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Frederick M.; McGuinn, Patrick

    This paper examines how the introduction of the Cleveland, Ohio, voucher experiment in 1995 affected the administration and leadership of the city's public schools. The paper focuses on the nature of political and bureaucratic responses to competition and describes the short-term consequences of competition and how such consequences might…

  1. Innovation Vouchers and LEP Structural Funds Strategies. Innovation and Growth Factsheet Series. No. 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This factsheet, the first in a series on innovation and growth, provides an overview of the benefits of innovation vouchers, and gives some examples of how universities and Local Enterprise Partnerships (LEPs) are including them in their European Structural and Investment Funds (ESIF) strategies. [For the second factsheet in the series,…

  2. 78 FR 6334 - Housing Choice Voucher Program; Office of Public and Indian Housing Announcement of Funding...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Housing Choice Voucher Program; Office of Public and Indian Housing Announcement of... Housing, HUD. ACTION: Announcement of Fiscal Year 2012 Awards. SUMMARY: In accordance with Section...

  3. How to Calculate the Costs or Savings of Tax Credit Voucher Policies. NEPC Policy Memo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welner, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    In this NEPC Policy Memo, Professor Welner explains that the most honest and conscientious approach to reporting the fiscal impact of tax credit vouchers is to provide a range of outcomes and let the readers--not the legislative analysts themselves--speculate on which is most likely. If a bottom line is demanded, it should be couched in as many…

  4. I Would Walk 500 Miles (If It Paid): Vouchers and School Choice in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chumacero, Romulo A.; Gomez, Daniel; Paredes, Ricardo D.

    2011-01-01

    One of the pillars of the educational voucher system is that competition among schools to attract students would improve the quality of the education. Surveys to parents and previous work suggested that families rank the distance of the school from their home as the most important factor for choosing a school. They also suggest that parents…

  5. 48 CFR 53.301-44 - Standard Form 44, Purchase Order-Invoice-Voucher.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard Form 44, Purchase Order-Invoice-Voucher. 53.301-44 Section 53.301-44 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms 53.301-44 Standard Form...

  6. 48 CFR 53.301-44 - Standard Form 44, Purchase Order-Invoice-Voucher.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard Form 44, Purchase Order-Invoice-Voucher. 53.301-44 Section 53.301-44 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms 53.301-44 Standard Form...

  7. 48 CFR 53.301-44 - Standard Form 44, Purchase Order-Invoice-Voucher.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard Form 44, Purchase Order-Invoice-Voucher. 53.301-44 Section 53.301-44 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms 53.301-44 Standard Form...

  8. 48 CFR 53.301-44 - Standard Form 44, Purchase Order-Invoice-Voucher.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standard Form 44, Purchase Order-Invoice-Voucher. 53.301-44 Section 53.301-44 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms 53.301-44 Standard Form...

  9. Voucher-Based Reinforcement for Alcohol Abstinence Using the Ethyl-Glucuronide Alcohol Biomarker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonell, Michael G.; Howell, Donelle N,; McPherson, Sterling; Cameron, Jennifer M.; Srebnik, Debra; Roll, John M.; Ries, Richard K.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of a contingency management (CM) intervention for alcohol consumption in 10 alcohol-dependent participants. An ABCA design was used. Vouchers were provided contingent on results of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) urine tests (an alcohol biomarker with a 2-day detection period) and alcohol breath tests during the C phase.…

  10. What Does a Voucher Buy? A Closer Look at the Cost of Private Schools. Policy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salisbury, David F.

    By most measures, U.S. K-12 public schools continue on a path of mediocrity. To date, many states have implemented school choice programs, seeking to instill elements of competition and choice into their education systems. However, they all have limitations. An ideal school choice program would give every child a voucher or tax credit to be spent…

  11. Educational Vouchers and Their Implications for Equity. Program Report No. 80-B2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacheco, Arturo

    There has always been a tension in any form of democracy between the public good, majoritarian consensus, and the rights of minority groups and individuals. Some proponents of educational voucher plans suggest that putting more control in the hands of individuals through a laissez faire educational system will be in the public interest. John Coons…

  12. Designing Targeted Educational Voucher Schemes for the Poor in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2009-01-01

    Targeted educational voucher schemes [TEVS] are often proposed for poor children in developing countries. This article explores the design of an effective TEVS using three policy instruments: regulation, support services, and finance. The regulation design addresses the rules that must be adhered to by participating households, children, and…

  13. 24 CFR 8.28 - Housing certificate and housing voucher programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing certificate and housing voucher programs. 8.28 Section 8.28 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development NONDISCRIMINATION BASED ON HANDICAP IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS...

  14. Voucher Users and Revitalized Public-Housing Residents 6 Years after Displacement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Fred; Lewinson, Terri; Aszman, Jennifer; Wolk, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A total of 6 years after displacement by a Housing Opportunities for People Everywhere (HOPE VI) project, this research examines residents who returned to the redeveloped community and residents who decided to keep their vouchers and were living in private sector housing. Respondents were compared on the following variables: application…

  15. 24 CFR 982.608 - Congregate housing: Voucher housing assistance payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Congregate housing: Voucher housing assistance payment. 982.608 Section 982.608 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT...

  16. What Can We Really Expect from Large-Scale Voucher Programs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corwin, Ronald G.; Dianda, Marcella R.

    1993-01-01

    Using data from a survey of private schools in California, this article concludes that a proposed large-scale voucher program would not significantly affect public school enrollment. Limited transportation, academic qualifications, socioeconomic status, and English proficiency will affect private school access. Only 1-5% of California's public…

  17. When Private Schools Take Public Dollars: What's the Place of Accountability in School Voucher Programs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Chester E., Jr.; Hentges, Christina M.; Petrilli, Michael J.; Winkler, Amber M.

    2009-01-01

    Critics of school voucher programs argue that private schools that receive taxpayer dollars should be held accountable to the same standards as public schools. School choice supporters counter that private schools should be left alone to answer to the parents of their students. The authors advocate for a re-visit to the discussion of…

  18. Alum Rock Union Elementary School District Voucher Feasibility Study. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glovinsky, Sanford J.

    This report presents a chronology of events and activities which were part of the study aimed at determining the feasibility of the Alum Rock Union Elementary School District as a potential site for a voucher demonstration. In the summer of 1970, the Office of Economic Opportunity issued a general nationwide request for proposals from interested…

  19. Effects of Internet-Based Voucher Reinforcement and a Transdermal Nicotine Patch on Cigarette Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Irene M.; Dallery, Jesse

    2007-01-01

    Nicotine replacement products are commonly used to promote smoking cessation, but alternative and complementary methods may increase cessation rates. The current experiment compared the short-term effects of a transdermal nicotine patch to voucher-based reinforcement of smoking abstinence on cigarette smoking. Fourteen heavy smokers (7 men and 7…

  20. The Feasibility of Implementing a "Voucher Plan" in Seattle, Phase 2. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Univ., Seattle. Bureau of School Service and Research.

    In February 1971, the Seattle School District received funds to conduct a study of the feasibility of implementing the education voucher plan in Seattle. The study was divided into two preliminary phases. Phase 1 conducted over a 4-month period, consisted of an investigation of the areas of the city where the plan could best be tested, an analysis…

  1. 48 CFR 213.306 - SF 44, Purchase Order-Invoice-Voucher.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false SF 44, Purchase Order-Invoice-Voucher. 213.306 Section 213.306 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Simplified Acquisition Methods...

  2. Financial Crisis Not Wasted: Shift in State Power and Voucher Expansion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Lenford C.; King, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    School choice advocates have long opposed what they perceive as the hegemony the public sector has on the education enterprise primarily because it contravenes free-market principles. They fervently believe that competition will compel all schools to improve and become more efficient if they must adapt to remain open. Voucher opponents argue that…

  3. Spreading Freedom and Saving Money. The Fiscal Impact of the D.C. Voucher Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aud, Susan L.; Michos, Leon

    2006-01-01

    In August 2004 the first ever federally funded school voucher program began in Washington, D.C. Eligible students could attend a private school of their choice in the District of Columbia. Each participant received up to $7,500 for school tuition, fees, and transportation. In addition, the D.C. Public School System (DCPS) and D.C. charter school…

  4. 76 FR 60854 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Housing Choice Voucher Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) Program Administrative Fee study. The purpose of the study is to collect accurate information on the costs of administering the HCV program across a representative sample of high... formula for the HCV program. The study is proceeding in multiple phases. This request is for...

  5. After 60 Years, Do the Arguments for K-12 Vouchers Still Hold?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laitsch, Dan

    2016-01-01

    In 1955, Milton Friedman authored a foundational paper proposing a shift in funding and governance mechanisms for public K-12 schools, suggesting that parents be awarded tuition vouchers that they could use to pay for private sector education services for their children, rather than relying on government provided neighborhood schools. Friedman…

  6. Acting Neoliberal: Is Black Support for Vouchers a Rejection of Progressive Educational Values?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedroni, Thomas C.

    2007-01-01

    Is the popularity of market-based educational reform among urban residents of color the epitaph of a progressive educational vision, or does it bespeak a struggle to reincarnate that vision within a postwelfare state? This article examines ethnographic work with African American voucher families in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Discursive overlaps and…

  7. Accountability with Voucher Threats, Responses, and the Test-Taking Population: Regression Discontinuity Evidence from Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakrabarti, Rajashri

    2013-01-01

    Florida's 1999 A-plus program was a consequential accountability program that embedded vouchers in an accountability regime. Under Florida rules, scores of students in several special education (ESE) and limited English proficient (LEP) categories were not included in the computation of school grades. One might expect these rules to induce F…

  8. 24 CFR 290.39 - Nondiscrimination in admitting certificate and voucher holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... any tenant or purchaser is a certificate or voucher holder under 24 CFR part 982. (b) Inapplicability... defined in § 290.3. (2) This requirement shall continue in effect until the mortgage debt is satisfied. (d... requirement in paragraph (a) of this section. The covenant shall continue in effect until a date that is...

  9. Vouchers for Private Schooling in Colombia: Evidence from a Randomized Natural Experiment. NBER Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angrist, Joshua D.; Bettinger, Eric; Bloom, Erik; King, Elizabeth; Kremer, Michael

    This paper examines the impact of Colombia's Programa de Ampliacion de Cobertura de la Educacion Secundaria (PACES), which provided over 125,000 poor students with private secondary school vouchers, many of which were awarded by lottery. Researchers surveyed lottery winners and losers to compare educational and other outcomes. Results showed no…

  10. Child Health and Neighborhood Conditions: Results from a Randomized Housing Voucher Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortson, Jane G.; Sanbonmatsu, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the Moving to Opportunity randomized housing voucher experiment, we estimate the direct effects of housing and neighborhood quality on child health. We show that, five years after random assignment, housing mobility has little impact on overall health status, asthma, injuries, and body mass index. The few effects that we observe…

  11. Understanding How Universal Vouchers Have Impacted Urban School Districts' Enrollment in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portales, Jaime; Heilig, Julian Vasquez

    2014-01-01

    Findings from this study show that educational and mobility opportunities for families and students participating in the Chilean voucher system are not homogenously distributed. Some families and students use and benefit from the system, while others will remain marginalized. The quantitative results in this study demonstrate that students of…

  12. Market Movements and the Dispossessed: Race, Identity, and Subaltern Agency among Black Women Voucher Advocates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedroni, Thomas C.

    2005-01-01

    Critical educational researchers in the United States and elsewhere are missing something essential in their inattention to considerable support among Black urban women for market-based educational reforms, including vouchers. While the educational left has engaged in important empirical and theoretical work demonstrating the particularly negative…

  13. Bringing the Schools Back in: The Stratification of Educational Achievement in the Chilean Voucher System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizala, Alejandra; Torche, Florencia

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the socioeconomic stratification of achievement in the Chilean voucher system using a census of 4th and 8th graders, a multilevel methodology, and accounting for unobserved selectivity into school sector. Findings indicate that the association between the school's aggregate family socioeconomic status (SES) and test scores is…

  14. Effect of a Voucher Benefit on the Demand for Paid Personal Assistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meng, Hongdao; Friedman, Bruce; Dick, Andrew W.; Wamsley, Brenda R.; Eggert, Gerald M.; Mukamel, Dana

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: We estimated the effect of a voucher benefit on the demand for personal assistance by Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years or older who had functional disabilities. Design and Methods: We performed a secondary data analysis on 645 Medicare beneficiaries from the Medicare Primary and Consumer-Directed Care Demonstration (a randomized…

  15. Final Report on Third and Fourth Year Operations of the Alum Rock Voucher Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sequoia Inst., San Jose, CA.

    Covered in this report are the main events that occurred in the Alum Rock voucher project between July 1974 and January 1976. Measures considered to be functioning effectively at the beginning of this time span were the concepts of alternative education, open enrollment, programs that vary their capacity in response to parent demand within the…

  16. Socio-economic Segregation in the Argentine Education System: School Choice without Vouchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narodowski, Mariano

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the case of school choice in Argentina, in view of recent research on socioeconomic segregation in the educational system. Reveals that Argentina has neither demand subsidy programs or voucher systems. Argues that Argentina's strong regulations encourage parents with greater economic or political capacity to choose how their children are…

  17. The Establishment Clause, "Agostini v. Felton," and Vouchers in Religiously Affiliated Nonpublic Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Lawrence D.; Russo, Charles J.; Osborne, Allan G.

    1998-01-01

    Vouchers' constitutionality was given new life by "Agostini vs. Felton," in which the U.S. Supreme Court reversed an earlier decision banning onsite delivery of Title I services in sectarian schools. "Agostini" may signal a new era favoring increased aid to religiously affiliated schools, such as those participating in Cleveland's Hope Scholarship…

  18. Competitive Effects of Means-Tested School Vouchers. Working Paper 46

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figlio, David N.; Hart, Cassandra M. D.

    2010-01-01

    Voucher options like tuition tax credit-funded scholarship programs have become increasingly popular in recent years. One argument for such school choice policies is that public schools will improve the quality of education they offer when faced with competition for their students. This study examines the effects of private school competition on…

  19. The Voucher Veneer: The Deeper Agenda To Privatize Public Education. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Matt

    This paper asserts that government responsibilities in education and the strong connection of Americans with their public schools are being tested, as a network of Religious Right groups, free-market economists, ultraconservative columnists, and others use vouchers as a vehicle to achieve their ultimate goal of privatizing education. Their…

  20. 24 CFR 982.503 - Voucher tenancy: Payment standard amount and schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Voucher tenancy: Payment standard amount and schedule. 982.503 Section 982.503 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN...

  1. 78 FR 54656 - Fee for Using a Priority Review Voucher in Fiscal Year 2014

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ..., published in the Federal Register notice on August 2, 2013 (see 78 FR 46980 at 46982), setting PDUFA fees... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Fee for Using a Priority Review Voucher in Fiscal Year 2014... fiscal year (FY) 2014. The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act), as amended by the...

  2. La traduction territoriale du Programme national nutrition santé (PNNS) en Midi-Pyrénées, France

    PubMed Central

    Basson, Jean-Charles; Haschar-Noé, Nadine; Theis, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by the Hygienist Movement, which associates good health with regular, moderate exercise, the National Health and Nutrition Program identifies a lack of physical activity as a risk factor for many chronic diseases. As such, the Program encourages people to take care of their bodies by inciting a moral obligation to develop a physically active lifestyle and follow a healthy diet. With the overall goal of improving the health of the population by acting on nutrition, the Program focuses on primary prevention, screening and early treatment of conditions like heart disease, cancer, obesity, osteoporosis and diabetes. As an incentive program developed in keeping with the biopolitical views of the 1970s that saw education as an alternative means to hospitals for achieving good health, the Program is also a good public action tool for controlling costs. PMID:24289937

  3. Managing Conflicts of Interest in the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Clinical Guidelines Programme: Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Tanya; Alderson, Phil; Stokes, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Background There is international concern that conflicts of interest (COI) may bias clinical guideline development and render it untrustworthy. Guideline COI policies exist with the aim of reducing this bias but it is not known how such policies are interpreted and used by guideline producing organisations. This study sought to determine how conflicts of interest (COIs) are disclosed and managed by a national clinical guideline developer (NICE: the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence). Methods Qualitative study using semi-structured telephone interviews with 14 key informants: 8 senior staff of NICE’s guideline development centres and 6 chairs of guideline development groups (GDGs). We conducted a thematic analysis. Results Participants regard the NICE COI policy as comprehensive leading to transparent and independent guidance. The application of the NICE COI policy is, however, not straightforward and clarity could be improved. Disclosure of COI relies on self reporting and guideline developers have to take “on trust” the information they receive, certain types of COI (non-financial) are difficult to categorise and manage and disclosed COI can impact on the ability to recruit clinical experts to GDGs. Participants considered it both disruptive and stressful to exclude members from GDG meetings when required by the COI policy. Nonetheless the impact of this disruption can be minimised with good group chairing skills. Conclusions We consider that the successful implementation of a COI policy in clinical guideline development requires clear policies and procedures, appropriate training of GDG chairs and an evaluation of how the policy is used in practice. PMID:25811754

  4. Programmable Pulser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, Eric; Merolla, Anthony

    1988-01-01

    User controls number of clock pulses to prevent burnout. New digital programmable pulser circuit in three formats; freely running, counted, and single pulse. Operates at frequencies up to 5 MHz, with no special consideration given to layout of components or to terminations. Pulser based on sequential circuit with four states and binary counter with appropriate decoding logic. Number of programmable pulses increased beyond 127 by addition of another counter and decoding logic. For very large pulse counts and/or very high frequencies, use synchronous counters to avoid errors caused by propagation delays. Invaluable tool for initial verification or diagnosis of digital or digitally controlled circuity.

  5. Programmable Pacemaker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    St. Jude Medical's Cardiac Rhythm Management Division, formerly known as Pacesetter Systems, Inc., incorporated Apollo technology into the development of the programmable pacemaker system. This consists of the implantable pacemaker together with a physician's console containing the programmer and a data printer. Physician can communicate with patient's pacemaker by means of wireless telemetry signals transmitted through the communicating head held over the patient's chest. Where earlier pacemakers deliver a fixed type of stimulus once implanted, Programalith enables surgery free "fine tuning" of device to best suit the patient's changing needs.

  6. [Inequities in access to food stamps and meal vouchers in Brazil: an analysis of the Brazilian Household Budgets Survey, 2008-2009].

    PubMed

    Canella, Daniela Silva; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Bandoni, Daniel Henrique

    2016-03-01

    Food stamps and meal vouchers can determine workers' dietary choices. The study aimed to assess the coverage of these benefits in Brazil and their distribution according to the beneficiaries' socio-demographic and regional characteristics, using data from the Brazilian Household Budgets Survey, 2008-2009. Eligibility criteria were having an occupation and a private or government job, including domestic or temporary work in rural areas. Only 3.2% of eligible individuals reported receiving such benefits. Highest coverage rates were verified with the Southeast region, urban areas, male gender, employment in the private sector, and monthly earnings > five times the minimum wage. The mean monthly amount of such benefits was R$ 177.20 (US$ 100 at the 2009 exchange rate). After adjusting for other variables, the highest amounts were associated with male gender, higher salaries, the Northeast and Central regions, and employment in the public sector. This first analysis of the national coverage of food stamps and meal vouchers showed that a large share of Brazilian workers lack access or have unequal access to such benefits. PMID:27027454

  7. The national spherical torus experiment (NSTX) research programme and progress towards high beta, long pulse operating scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Synakowski, E. J.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Bigelow, T.; Bitter, M.; Blanchard, W.; Boedo, J.; Bourdelle, C.; Bush, C.; Darrow, D. S.; Efthimion, P. C.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Gates, D. A.; Gilmore, M.; Grisham, L. R.; Hosea, J. C.; Johnson, D. W.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S. M.; Kubota, S.; Kugel, H. W.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Lee, K.; Maingi, R.; Manickam, J.; Maqueda, R.; Mazzucato, E.; Medley, S. S.; Menard, J.; Mueller, D.; Nelson, B. A.; Neumeyer, C.; Ono, M.; Paoletti, F.; Park, H. K.; Paul, S. F.; Peng, Y.-K. M.; Phillips, C. K.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Raman, R.; Roquemore, A. L.; Rosenberg, A.; Ryan, P. M.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Skinner, C. H.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Stevenson, T.; Stutman, D.; Swain, D. W.; Taylor, G.; Von Halle, A.; Wilgen, J.; Williams, M.; Wilson, J. R.; Zweben, S. J.; Akers, R.; Barry, R. E.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Bialek, J. M.; Blagojevic, B.; Bonoli, P. T.; Budny, R.; Carter, M. D.; Chang, C. S.; Chrzanowski, J.; Davis, W.; Deng, B.; Doyle, E. J.; Dudek, L.; Egedal, J.; Ellis, R.; Ferron, J. R.; Finkenthal, M.; Foley, J.; Fredd, E.; Glasser, A.; Gibney, T.; Goldston, R. J.; Harvey, R.; Hatcher, R. E.; Hawryluk, R. J.; Heidbrink, W.; Hill, K. W.; Houlberg, W.; Jarboe, T. R.; Jardin, S. C.; Ji, H.; Kalish, M.; Lawrance, J.; Lao, L. L.; Lee, K. C.; Levinton, F. M.; Luhmann, N. C.; Majeski, R.; Marsala, R.; Mastravito, D.; Mau, T. K.; McCormack, B.; Menon, M. M.; Mitarai, O.; Nagata, M.; Nishino, N.; Okabayashi, M.; Oliaro, G.; Pacella, D.; Parsells, R.; Peebles, T.; Peneflor, B.; Piglowski, D.; Pinsker, R.; Porter, G. D.; Ram, A. K.; Redi, M.; Rensink, M.; Rewoldt, G.; Robinson, J.; Roney, P.; Schaffer, M.; Shaing, K.; Shiraiwa, S.; Sichta, P.; Stotler, D.; Stratton, B. C.; Takase, Y.; Tang, X.; Vero, R.; Wampler, W. R.; Wurden, G. A.; Xu, X. Q.; Yang, J. G.; Zeng, L.; Zhu, W.

    2003-12-01

    A major research goal of the national spherical torus experiment is establishing long-pulse, high beta, high confinement operation and its physics basis. This research has been enabled by facility capabilities developed during 2001 and 2002, including neutral beam (up to 7 MW) and high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating (up to 6 MW), toroidal fields up to 6 kG, plasma currents up to 1.5 MA, flexible shape control, and wall preparation techniques. These capabilities have enabled the generation of plasmas with \\beta _T \\equiv \\langle p \\rangle /(B_{T0}^{2}/2\\mu_{0}) of up to 35%. Normalized beta values often exceed the no-wall limit, and studies suggest that passive wall mode stabilization enables this for H mode plasmas with broad pressure profiles. The viability of long, high bootstrap current fraction operations has been established for ELMing H mode plasmas with toroidal beta values in excess of 15% and sustained for several current relaxation times. Improvements in wall conditioning and fuelling are likely contributing to a reduction in H mode power thresholds. Electron thermal conduction is the dominant thermal loss channel in auxiliary heated plasmas examined thus far. HHFW effectively heats electrons, and its acceleration of fast beam ions has been observed. Evidence for HHFW current drive is obtained by comparision of the loop voltage evolution in plasmas with matched density and temperature profiles but varying phases of launched HHFW waves. Studies of emissions from electron Bernstein waves indicate a density scale length dependence of their transmission across the upper hybrid resonance near the plasma edge that is consistent with theoretical predictions. A peak heat flux to the divertor targets of 10 MW m-2 has been measured in the H mode, with large asymmetries being observed in the power deposition between the inner and outer strike points. Non-inductive plasma startup studies have focused on coaxial helicity injection. With this technique

  8. Exploring the Potential of a School Impact on Pupil Weight Status: Exploratory Factor Analysis and Repeat Cross-Sectional Study of the National Child Measurement Programme

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Andrew James; Wyatt, Katrina M.; Williams, Craig A.; Logan, Stuart; Henley, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Schools are common sites for obesity prevention interventions. Although many theories suggest that the school context influences weight status, there has been little empirical research. The objective of this study was to explore whether features of the school context were consistently and meaningfully associated with pupil weight status (overweight or obese). Exploratory factor analysis of routinely collected data on 319 primary schools in Devon, England, was used to identify possible school-based contextual factors. Repeated cross-sectional multilevel analysis of five years (2006/07-2010/11) of data from the National Child Measurement Programme was then used to test for consistent and meaningful associations. Four school-based contextual factors were derived which ranked schools according to deprivation, location, resource and prioritisation of physical activity. None of which were meaningfully and consistently associated with pupil weight status, across the five years. The lack of consistent associations between the factors and pupil weight status suggests that the school context is not inherently obesogenic. In contrast, incorporating findings from education research indicates that schools may be equalising weight status, and obesity prevention research, policy and practice might need to address what is happening outside schools and particularly during the school holidays. PMID:26700027

  9. Epidemiology of tuberculosis and evaluation of treatment outcomes in the national tuberculosis control programme, River Nile state, Sudan, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Elmadhoun, W M; Noor, S K; Bushara, S O; Ahmed, E O; Mustafa, H; Sulaiman, A A; Almobarak, A O; Ahmed, M H

    2016-02-01

    Tuberculosis is a major health problem in Sudan, a country that carries 11-15% of the tuberculosis burden in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. This study aimed to describe the epidemiology of tuberculosis in River Nile State and to compare treatment outcomes with WHO recommended indicators. A descriptive study was conducted on data collected from records of 1221 patients registered at tuberculosis management units over the 3 years 2011-2013. The mean age of cases was 37.7 (SD 21.5) years and 65.9% were males; 76.3% were pulmonary tuberculosis and 36.9% were sputum smear-positive cases. Average values for all outcome indicators were suboptimal, notably rates of case notification (30.8 per 100 000), case detection (10.3%), treatment success (79.6%), treatment failure (3.0%), default (8.1%) and death (8.0%). Of the 264 patients tested for HIV, 3.8% were positive. Outcome indicators for the national tuberculosis control programme are lagging behind the required targets. PMID:27180737

  10. Gender and age are associated with healthy food purchases via grocery voucher redemption

    PubMed Central

    Hardin-Fanning, F; Gokun, Y

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Grocery vouchers that specifically target foods associated with reduced cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk result in increased consumption of those foods. In regions with disproportionately high CVD rates, there is little research concerning the impact of vouchers on purchases of risk-reducing foods when there are no restrictions placed on grocery voucher redemption. Since many food assistance programs place few restrictions on type of foods that can be purchased, identifying demographic factors associated with purchasing habits is a prerequisite to promoting healthy eating. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations of age, gender, education and income level with purchasing of healthful foods through the use of a grocery voucher in a rural food desert (poverty rate of ≥20% and ≥33% of residents living >16 km from a large grocery store) with high rates of chronic disease. Methods The effectiveness of an intervention that included a media campaign, a $5 grocery voucher, local heart healthy food branding and a grocery store event was tested. Brief nutritional articles were published in both local newspapers during four consecutive weeks. These articles explained the physiological actions of healthy foods and listed a health-promoting recipe. During the fourth week of the media campaign, a voucher for a $5 grocery gift card redeemable at one of either community grocery stores was also printed in both local newspapers. In each store, foods that are known to be associated with a reduced risk of CVD were marked with a blue logo. Participants (N=311) completed a questionnaire that assessed demographics and usual servings of fruits, vegetables and grains. Participants received a $5 grocery card and a list of labelled foods. Returned grocery receipts were stapled to the questionnaires to analyse the relationship between demographics and food choices. Results Participants who bought at least one labelled food item were older (M=48.5, SD=14

  11. 78 FR 61667 - Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation Single...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ...Section 8(c)(1) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 (USHA) requires the Secretary to publish FMRs periodically, but not less than annually, adjusted to be effective on October 1 of each year. This notice publishes the FMRs for the Housing Choice Voucher, the Moderate Rehabilitation, the project-based voucher, and any other programs requiring their use. Today's notice provides final FY......

  12. Questioning the Role of Internationalization in the Nationalization of Higher Education: The Impact of the EU TEMPUS Programme on Higher Education in Syria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayoubi, Rami M.; Massoud, Hiba K.

    2011-01-01

    Given the need for major reform of the higher education programmes in Syria, and answering the voices that question the role of European Union (EU) in assisting the development of the higher education sector, this study presents an analysis of the contribution of (TEMPUS) Programme in modernising higher education in Syria. The study compares the…

  13. Improving Standards of Literacy and Numeracy in the Early Years of Primary School: Preliminary Findings from the National Evaluation of the Early Intervention Programme in Scotland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Helen; Pirrie, Anne

    This paper reports the early stages of a 3-year evaluation of the Early Intervention Programme in Scotland. The Early Intervention Programme is a high-profile government initiative which receives major government funding (60 million pounds sterling over 5 years) and is designed to improve standards of literacy and numeracy in the first 2 years of…

  14. Effects of school reformon education and labor market performance: Evidence from Chile’s universal voucher system

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, David; Mukhopadhyay, Sankar; Todd, Petra E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of school reform in Chile, which adopted a nationwide school voucher program along with school decentralization reforms in 1981. Since then, Chile has had a relatively unregulated, competitive market in primary and secondary education. It therefore provides a unique setting in which to study how these reforms affected school attainment and labor market outcomes. This paper develops and estimates a dynamic model of school attendance and work decisions using panel data from the 2002 and 2004 waves of the Encuesta de Protección Social survey. Some individuals in the sample completed their schooling before the voucher reforms were introduced, while others had the option of using the vouchers over part or all of their schooling careers. The impacts of the voucher reform are identified from differences in the schooling and work choices made and earnings returns received by similar aged individuals who were differentially exposed to the voucher system. Simulations based on the estimated model show that the voucher reform significantly increased the demand for private subsidized schools and decreased the demand for both public and nonsubsidized private schools. It increased high school (grades 9–12) graduation rates by 3.6 percentage points and the percentage completing at least two years of college by 2.6 percentage points. Individuals from poor and non-poor backgrounds on average experienced similar schooling attainment gains. The reform also increased lifetime utility and modestly reduced earnings inequality. PMID:22059095

  15. The Continued Evaluation of Voucher Impact on the Achievement of Elementary Students in a Majority African American Public School District

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalf, Kim K.; Boone, William J.; Legan, Natalie A.; Paul, Kelli M.

    Vouchers for students in urban school districts may promote the increased participation of underrepresented groups in the fields of science and engineering in at least two ways: (a) by optimizing the achievement of students who use vouchers and (b) by expanding the scope of educational and curricular options available to students. Presently, nearly 5,000 children in Cleveland, Ohio, attend private schools with publicly funded vouchers. This study presents the results of evaluating the achievement of a cohort of these students from the fall of first grade to the spring of fourth grade. For public school students, first grade seems to be a time during which they catch up with peers who attend private schools with vouchers. The analysis of data using adjusted measures suggests no differences in achievement from first grade to fourth grade with respect to achievement in many content areas. The use of unadjusted measures suggests possible differences with respect to fourth grade reading (with voucher students performing at a statistically higher level than their peers). The present data set neither clearly supports nor refutes the use of vouchers.

  16. Programmable Oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quirk, Kevin J.; Patawaran, Ferze D.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Lee, Clement G.; Nguyen, Huy

    2011-01-01

    A programmable oscillator is a frequency synthesizer with an output phase that tracks an arbitrary function. An offset, phase-locked loop circuit is used in combination with an error control feedback loop to precisely control the output phase of the oscillator. To down-convert the received signal, several stages of mixing may be employed with the compensation for the time-base distortion of the carrier occurring at any one of those stages. In the Goldstone Solar System Radar (GSSR), the compensation occurs in the mixing from an intermediate frequency (IF), whose value is dependent on the station and band, to a common IF used in the final stage of down-conversion to baseband. The programmable oscillator (PO) is used in the final stage of down-conversion to generate the IF, along with a time-varying phase component that matches the time-base distortion of the carrier, thus removing it from the final down-converted signal.

  17. Use and misuse of a discount voucher scheme as a subsidy for insecticide-treated nets for malaria control in southern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Tami, Adriana; Mbati, Juliet; Nathan, Rose; Mponda, Haji; Lengeler, Christian; Schellenberg, Joanna R M Armstrong

    2006-01-01

    Since 1997, discount vouchers for insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) have been used in two rural districts of southern Tanzania as a way to target subsidies to children under 5 years and pregnant women. We assessed appropriate use and misuse of discount vouchers through a follow-up study of 104 randomly selected vouchers. We traced these vouchers from their original issue in mother-and-child health (MCH) clinics through to being redeemed at a sales agent. We found that all vouchers that reached the target population (100%, 56/56) were used to buy an ITN. Moreover, 94% of the ITNs bought with vouchers were used by those intended, women and children under 5 years. However, up to 48% (50/104) of the vouchers had been misused at the clinics that issued them. Nevertheless, large-scale misuse occurred only at three of 21 clinics. Although most women slept under a net while pregnant, the use of voucher-subsidized ITNs during pregnancy was low despite widespread knowledge of the scheme. Parents had apparently decided to buy the subsidized ITNs once the child was born and not during pregnancy. Importantly, in 20% of households the only existing net had been bought with a voucher. Our findings suggest that vouchers are properly used by the target population, and that to minimize voucher leakage, control measures are needed at MCH clinics and to a certain extent for commercial sales agents. Increased awareness among the whole community on the right to receive a discount voucher may also help to control misuse at health facilities. PMID:16301306

  18. A Tale of Two Cities: Financing Two Voucher Programs for Substance Abusers Through Community Donations

    PubMed Central

    Amass, Leslie; Kamien, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    Voucher-based reinforcement therapy (VBRT) is an effective drug abuse treatment, but the cost of VBRT rewards has limited its dissemination. Obtaining VBRT incentives through donations may be one way to overcome this barrier. Two direct mail campaigns solicited donations for use in VBRT for pregnant, postpartum, and parenting drug users in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and in Los Angeles, California. In Toronto, 19% of those contacted over 2 months donated $8,000 ($4,000/month) of goods and services. In Los Angeles, nearly 26% of those contacted over 34 months donated $161,000 ($4,472/month) of goods and services. Maintaining voucher programs by soliciting donations is feasible and sustainable. The methods in this article can serve as a guide for successful donation solicitation campaigns. Donations offer an alternative for obtaining VBRT rewards for substance abuse treatment and may increase its dissemination. PMID:15122959

  19. Vouchers versus Lotteries: What works best in promoting Chlamydia screening? A cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Niza, Claudia; Rudisill, Caroline; Dolan, Paul

    2014-01-01

    In this cluster randomised trial (N=1060), we tested the impact of financial incentives (£5 voucher vs. £200 lottery) framed as a gain or loss to promote Chlamydia screening in students aged 18–24 years, mimicking the standard outreach approach to student in halls of residence. Compared to the control group (1.5%), the lottery increased screening to 2.8% and the voucher increased screening to 22.8%. Incentives framed as gains were marginally more effective (10.5%) that loss-framed incentives (7.1%). This work fundamentally contributes to the literature by testing the predictive validity of Prospect Theory to change health behaviour in the field. PMID:25061507

  20. Vouchers versus Lotteries: What works best in promoting Chlamydia screening? A cluster randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Niza, Claudia; Rudisill, Caroline; Dolan, Paul

    2014-03-01

    In this cluster randomised trial (N=1060), we tested the impact of financial incentives (£5 voucher vs. £200 lottery) framed as a gain or loss to promote Chlamydia screening in students aged 18-24 years, mimicking the standard outreach approach to student in halls of residence. Compared to the control group (1.5%), the lottery increased screening to 2.8% and the voucher increased screening to 22.8%. Incentives framed as gains were marginally more effective (10.5%) that loss-framed incentives (7.1%). This work fundamentally contributes to the literature by testing the predictive validity of Prospect Theory to change health behaviour in the field. PMID:25061507

  1. 76 FR 52057 - Proposed Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ...Section 8(c)(1) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 (USHA) requires the Secretary to publish FMRs periodically, but not less than annually, adjusted to be effective on October 1 of each year. The primary uses of FMRs are to determine payment standards for the Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) program, to determine initial renewal rents for some expiring project-based Section 8 contracts, to......

  2. 75 FR 21022 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Housing Choice Voucher Family Self-Sufficiency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    ...In accordance with Section 102(a)(4)(C) of the Department of Housing and Urban Development Reform Act of 1989, this announcement notifies the public of funding decisions made by the Department for funding under Notice PIH 2009-40 (HA) for the Housing Choice Voucher Family Self-Sufficiency (HCV/FSS) Administrative Fee funding. This announcement contains the consolidated names and addresses of......

  3. Financing a Voucher Program for Cocaine Abusers through Community Donations in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Rodriguez; Olaya; Secades-Villa, Roberto; Higgins, Stephen T.; Fernandez-Hermida, Jose R.; Carballo, Jose L.

    2008-01-01

    This study analyzed the viability of financing a voucher program for cocaine addicts in Spain through public and private donations. Of the 136 companies contacted, 52 (38%) provided donations. The difference between the benefits (15,670[euros]/$20,371) and the costs (3,734[euros]/$4,854) was 11,936[euros]/$15,517. The type of reinforcer a company…

  4. Do Accountability and Voucher Threats Improve Low-Performing Schools? NBER Working Paper No. 11597

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figlio, David N.; Rouse, Cecilia

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we study the effects of the threat of school vouchers and school stigma in Florida on the performance of "low-performing" schools using student-level data from a subset of districts. Estimates of the change in school-level high-stakes test scores from the first year of the reform are consistent with the early results used by the…

  5. Comparing a paper based monitoring and evaluation system to a mHealth system to support the national community health worker programme, South Africa: an evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In an attempt to address a complex disease burden, including improving progress towards MDGs 4 and 5, South Africa recently introduced a re-engineered Primary Health Care (PHC) strategy, which has led to the development of a national community health worker (CHW) programme. The present study explored the development of a cell phone-based and paper-based monitoring and evaluation (M&E) system to support the work of the CHWs. Methods One sub-district in the North West province was identified for the evaluation. One outreach team comprising ten CHWs maintained both the paper forms and mHealth system to record household data on community-based services. A comparative analysis was done to calculate the correspondence between the paper and phone records. A focus group discussion was conducted with the CHWs. Clinical referrals, data accuracy and supervised visits were compared and analysed for the paper and phone systems. Results Compared to the mHealth system where data accuracy was assured, 40% of the CHWs showed a consistently high level (>90% correspondence) of data transfer accuracy on paper. Overall, there was an improvement over time, and by the fifth month, all CHWs achieved a correspondence of 90% or above between phone and paper data. The most common error that occurred was summing the total number of visits and/or activities across the five household activity indicators. Few supervised home visits were recorded in either system and there was no evidence of the team leader following up on the automatic notifications received on their cell phones. Conclusions The evaluation emphasizes the need for regular supervision for both systems and rigorous and ongoing assessments of data quality for the paper system. Formalization of a mHealth M&E system for PHC outreach teams delivering community based services could offer greater accuracy of M&E and enhance supervision systems for CHWs. PMID:25106499

  6. National Diet and Nutrition Survey: fat and fatty acid intake from the first year of the rolling programme and comparison with previous surveys.

    PubMed

    Pot, Gerda K; Prynne, Celia J; Roberts, Caireen; Olson, Ashley; Nicholson, Sonja K; Whitton, Clare; Teucher, Birgit; Bates, Beverley; Henderson, Helen; Pigott, Sarah; Swan, Gillian; Stephen, Alison M

    2012-02-01

    High saturated fat intake is an established risk factor for several chronic diseases. The objective of the present study is to report dietary intakes and main food sources of fat and fatty acids (FA) from the first year of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) rolling programme in the UK. Dietary data were collected using 4 d estimated food diaries (n 896) and compared with dietary reference values (DRV) and previous NDNS results. Total fat provided 34-36 % food energy (FE) across all age groups, which was similar to previous surveys for adults. Men (19-64 years) and older girls (11-18 years) had mean intakes just above the DRV, while all other groups had mean total fat intakes of < 35 % FE. SFA intakes were lower compared with previous surveys, ranging from 13 to 15 % FE, but still above the DRV. Mean MUFA intakes were 12·5 % FE for adults and children aged 4-18 years and all were below the DRV. Mean n-3 PUFA intake represented 0·7-1·1 % FE. Compared with previous survey data, the direction of change for n-3 PUFA was upwards for all age groups, although the differences in absolute terms were very small. Trans-FA intakes were lower than in previous NDNS and were less than 2 g/d for all age groups, representing 0·8 % FE and lower than the DRV in all age groups. In conclusion, dietary intake of fat and FA is moving towards recommended levels for the UK population. However, there remains room for considerable further improvement. PMID:21767448

  7. Whole grain intake and its association with intakes of other foods, nutrients and markers of health in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey rolling programme 2008-11.

    PubMed

    Mann, Kay D; Pearce, Mark S; McKevith, Brigid; Thielecke, Frank; Seal, Chris J

    2015-05-28

    Epidemiological evidence suggests an inverse association between whole grain consumption and the risk of non-communicable diseases, such as CVD, type 2 diabetes, obesity and some cancers. A recent analysis of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey rolling programme (NDNS-RP) has shown lower intake of whole grain in the UK. It is important to understand whether the health benefits associated with whole grain intake are present at low levels of consumption. The present study aimed to investigate the association of whole grain intake with intakes of other foods, nutrients and markers of health (anthropometric and blood measures) in the NDNS-RP 2008-11, a representative dietary survey of UK households. A 4-d diet diary was completed by 3073 individuals. Anthropometric measures, blood pressure levels, and blood and urine samples were collected after diary completion. Individual whole grain intake was calculated with consumers categorised into tertiles of intake. Higher intake of whole grain was associated with significantly decreased leucocyte counts. Significantly higher concentrations of C-reactive protein were seen in adults in the lowest tertile of whole grain intake. No associations with the remaining health markers were seen, after adjustments for sex and age. Over 70% of this population did not consume the minimum recommend intake associated with disease risk reduction, which may explain small variation across health markers. Nutrient intakes in consumers compared with non-consumers were closer to dietary reference values, such as higher intakes of fibre, Mg and Fe, and lower intakes of Na, suggesting that higher intake of whole grain is associated with improved diet quality. PMID:25893512

  8. National Diet and Nutrition Survey: UK food consumption and nutrient intakes from the first year of the rolling programme and comparisons with previous surveys

    PubMed Central

    Whitton, Clare; Nicholson, Sonja K; Roberts, Caireen; Prynne, Celia J; Pot, Gerda; Olson, Ashley; Fitt, Emily; Cole, Darren; Teucher, Birgit; Bates, Beverley; Henderson, Helen; Pigott, Sarah; Deverill, Claire; Swan, Gillian; Stephen, Alison M

    2011-01-01

    The National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) is a cross-sectional survey designed to gather data representative of the UK population on food consumption, nutrient intakes and nutritional status. The objectives of this paper were to identify and describe food consumption and nutrient intakes in the UK from the first year of the NDNS Rolling Programme (2008-09) and compare these with the 2000-01 NDNS of adults aged 19-64y and the 1997 NDNS of young people aged 4-18y. Differences in median daily food consumption and nutrient intakes between the surveys were compared by sex and age group (4-10y, 11-18y and 19-64y). There were no changes in energy, total fat or carbohydrate intakes between the surveys. Children 4-10y had significantly lower consumption of soft drinks (not low calorie), crisps and savoury snacks and chocolate confectionery in 2008-09 than in 1997 (all P< 0.0001). The percentage contribution of non-milk extrinsic sugars (NMES) to food energy was also significantly lower than in 1997 in children 4-10y (P< 0.0001), contributing 13.7-14.6% in 2008-09 compared with 16.8% in 1997. These changes were not as marked in older children and there were no changes in these foods and nutrients in adults. There was still a substantial proportion (46%) of girls 11-18y and women 19-64y (21%) with mean daily iron intakes below the Lower Reference Nutrient Intake (LRNI). Since previous surveys there have been some positive changes in intakes especially in younger children. However, further attention is required in other groups, in particular adolescent girls. PMID:21736781

  9. Preserving and vouchering butterflies and moths for large-scale museum-based molecular research

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Samantha W.; Mitter, Kim; Hamilton, Chris A.; Plotkin, David; Mitter, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) comprise significant portions of the world’s natural history collections, but a standardized tissue preservation protocol for molecular research is largely lacking. Lepidoptera have traditionally been spread on mounting boards to display wing patterns and colors, which are often important for species identification. Many molecular phylogenetic studies have used legs from pinned specimens as the primary source for DNA in order to preserve a morphological voucher, but the amount of available tissue is often limited. Preserving an entire specimen in a cryogenic freezer is ideal for DNA preservation, but without an easily accessible voucher it can make specimen identification, verification, and morphological work difficult. Here we present a procedure that creates accessible and easily visualized “wing vouchers” of individual Lepidoptera specimens, and preserves the remainder of the insect in a cryogenic freezer for molecular research. Wings are preserved in protective holders so that both dorsal and ventral patterns and colors can be easily viewed without further damage. Our wing vouchering system has been implemented at the University of Maryland (AToL Lep Collection) and the University of Florida (Florida Museum of Natural History, McGuire Center of Lepidoptera and Biodiversity), which are among two of the largest Lepidoptera molecular collections in the world. PMID:27366654

  10. Intolerance for withdrawal discomfort and motivation predict voucher-based smoking treatment outcomes for smokers with substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Rohsenow, Damaris J; Tidey, Jennifer W; Kahler, Christopher W; Martin, Rosemarie A; Colby, Suzanne M; Sirota, Alan D

    2015-04-01

    Identifying predictors of abstinence with voucher-based treatment is important for improving its efficacy. Smokers with substance use disorders have very low smoking cessation rates so identifying predictors of smoking treatment response is particularly important for these difficult-to-treat smokers. Intolerance for Smoking Abstinence Discomfort (IDQ-S), motivation to quit smoking, nicotine dependence severity (FTND), and cigarettes per day were examined as predictors of smoking abstinence during and after voucher-based smoking treatment with motivational counseling. We also investigated the relationship between IDQ-S and motivation to quit smoking. Smokers in residential substance treatment (n=184) were provided 14days of vouchers for complete smoking abstinence (CV) after a 5-day smoking reduction lead-in period or vouchers not contingent on abstinence. Carbon monoxide readings indicated about 25% of days abstinent during the 14days of vouchers for abstinence in the CV group; only 3-4% of all participants were abstinent at follow-ups. The IDQ-S Withdrawal Intolerance scale and FTND each significantly predicted fewer abstinent days during voucher treatment; FTND was nonsignificant when controlling for variance shared with withdrawal intolerance. The one significant predictor of 1-month abstinence was pretreatment motivation to quit smoking, becoming marginal (p<.06) when controlling for FTND. Lower withdrawal intolerance significantly predicted 3month abstinence when controlling for FTND. Higher withdrawal intolerance pretreatment correlated with less motivation to quit smoking. Implications for voucher-based treatment include the importance of focusing on reducing these expectancies of anticipated smoking withdrawal discomfort, increasing tolerance for abstinence discomfort, and increasing motivation. PMID:25531536

  11. Education on Risk Management with Gender Equity: Experiences in United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) courses using on-site education and synchronous technologies for distance education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepeda, J.; Marroquín, W.; Villar, Y.

    2009-04-01

    The experiences in two Risk Management courses organised by the Universidad Centroamericana "José Simeón Cañas" (UCA) and the "América Latina Genera" project of the BCPR-UNDP (Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery of the United Nations Development Programme) are presented focusing on the design of teaching material and the selection and use of information-communication technologies (ICT) during the learning process. The organisation of these courses has posed three main challenges: the integration of a gender-equity approach in a subject that has traditionally lacked of it, the preparation of specialised teaching material for an audience with varied backgrounds and experience, and a widespread distribution of students and lecturers in different countries and with significant differences in ICT resources. These courses have combined tutorials, video-conferences, forums, chats, a media centre with video and podcast, and other resources to allow a close follow-up of the students' progress and strengthen the learning process. A specialised database of information within the "América Latina Genera" project has also been used intensively. Even though the building of capacity has been important, the emphasis of the courses has been on the practical application of projects in the students' work environment and in other real situations. The first course took place between June and December 2008 and consisted of a combination of on-site and distance education. The 15 students that registered the course included officials of local and central government institutions, private consultants, university staff and members of non-governmental organisations. Lecturers from the United States Geological Survey and the International Centre for Geohazards broadcasted videoconferences from the United States and Norway, respectively. The second course started in November 2008 and is scheduled to finish in February 2009. This course has been fully developed using distance education

  12. Patient Retention, Clinical Outcomes and Attrition-Associated Factors of HIV-Infected Patients Enrolled in Zimbabwe's National Antiretroviral Therapy Programme, 2007–2010

    PubMed Central

    Mutasa-Apollo, Tsitsi; Shiraishi, Ray W.; Takarinda, Kudakwashe C.; Dzangare, Janet; Mugurungi, Owen; Murungu, Joseph; Abdul-Quader, Abu; Woodfill, Celia J. I.

    2014-01-01

    Background Since establishment of Zimbabwe's National Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Programme in 2004, ART provision has expanded from <5,000 to 369,431 adults by 2011. However, patient outcomes are unexplored. Objective To determine improvement in health status, retention and factors associated with attrition among HIV-infected patients on ART. Methods A retrospective review of abstracted patient records of adults ≥15 years who initiated ART from 2007 to 2009 was done. Frequencies and medians were calculated for rates of retention in care and changes in key health status outcomes at 6, 12, 24 and 36 months respectively. Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine factors associated with attrition. Results Of the 3,919 patients, 64% were female, 86% were either WHO clinical stage III or IV. Rates of patient retention at 6, 12, 24 and 36 months were 90.7%, 78.1%, 68.8% and 64.4%, respectively. After ART initiation, median weight gains at 6, 12, and 24 months were 3, 4.5, and 5.0 kgs whilst median CD4+ cell count gains at 6, 12 and 24 months were 122, 157 and 279 cells/µL respectively. Factors associated with an increased risk of attrition included male gender (AHR 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1–1.4), baseline WHO stage IV (AHR 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1–2.6), lower baseline body weight (AHR 2.0; 95% CI, 1.4–2. 8) and accessing care from higher level healthcare facilities (AHR 3.5; 95% 1.1–11.2). Conclusions Our findings with regard to retention as well as clinical and immunological improvements following uptake of ART, are similar to what has been found in other settings. Factors influencing attrition also mirror those found in other parts of sub-Saharan Africa. These findings suggest the need to strengthen earlier diagnosis and treatment to further improve treatment outcomes. Whilst decentralisation improves ART coverage it should be coupled with strategies aimed at improving patient retention. PMID:24489714

  13. Effects of Adult Education Vouchers on the Labor Market: Evidence from a Randomized Field Experiment. Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Papers Series. PEPG 11-01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwerdt, Guido; Messer, Dolores; Woessmann, Ludger; Wolter, Stefan C.

    2011-01-01

    Lifelong learning is often promoted in ageing societies, but little is known about its returns or governments' ability to advance it. This paper evaluates the effects of a large-scale randomized field experiment issuing vouchers for adult education in Switzerland. We find no significant average effects of voucher-induced adult education on…

  14. Experimentally Estimated Impacts of School Vouchers on College Enrollment and Degree Attainment. Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Papers Series. PEPG 15-01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chingos, Matthew M.; Peterson, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    We provide the first experimental estimates of the long-term impacts of a voucher to attend private school by linking data from a privately sponsored voucher initiative in New York City, which awarded the scholarships by lottery to low-income families, to administrative records on college enrollment and degree attainment. We find no significant…

  15. Surviving, and Maybe Thriving, on Vouchers: A Guide for Organizations Making the Transition to Individual Training Accounts under the Workforce Investment Act. Working Ventures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Sheila

    This booklet, which is intended for organizations making the transition to individual training accounts (ITAs) under the Workforce Investment Act (WIA), explains how educational and training institutions can make vouchers work for them. After a brief overview of the WIA's main provisions regarding ITAs and the future of voucher programs, the…

  16. Demand-Side Financing--A Focus on Vouchers in Post-Compulsory Education and Training: Discussion Paper and Case Studies. CEDEFOP Dossier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Anne; Sparkes, Jo; Balabanov, Todor

    The use of demand-side financing mechanisms and vouchers for postcompulsory secondary-level education was examined through case studies of funding practices in the following countries: Austria; France; the United Kingdom; the United States; and Wallonia (the French community of Belgium). Different models of voucher use were identified in the…

  17. A Ubiquitous NFC Solution for the Development of Tailored Marketing Strategies Based on Discount Vouchers and Loyalty Cards

    PubMed Central

    Borrego-Jaraba, Francisco; Garrido, Pilar Castro; García, Gonzalo Cerruela; Ruiz, Irene Luque; Gómez-Nieto, Miguel Ángel

    2013-01-01

    Because of the global economic turmoil, nowadays a lot of companies are adopting a “deal of the day” business model, some of them with great success. Generally, they try to attract and retain customers through discount coupons and gift cards, using, generally, traditional distribution media. This paper describes a framework, which integrates intelligent environments by using NFC, oriented to the full management of this kind of businesses. The system is responsible for diffusion, distribution, sourcing, validation, redemption and managing of vouchers, loyalty cards and all kind of mobile coupons using NFC, as well as QR codes. WingBonus can be fully adapted to the requirements of marketing campaigns, voucher providers, shop or retailer infrastructures and mobile devices and purchasing habits. Security of the voucher is granted by the system by synchronizing procedures using secure encriptation algorithms. The WingBonus website and mobile applications can be adapted to any requirement of the system actors. PMID:23673675

  18. The cost-effectiveness of a competitive voucher scheme to reduce sexually transmitted infections in high-risk groups in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Borghi, Josephine; Gorter, Anna; Sandiford, Peter; Segura, Zoyla

    2005-07-01

    Current evidence suggests that sexually transmitted infection (STI) interventions can be an effective means of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention in populations at an early stage of the epidemic. However, evidence as to their cost-effectiveness when targeted at high-risk groups is lacking. This paper assesses the cost-effectiveness of a competitive voucher scheme in Managua, Nicaragua aimed at high-risk groups, who could redeem the vouchers in exchange for free STI testing and treatment, health education and condoms, compared with the status quo (no scheme). A provider perspective was adopted, defined as: the voucher agency and health care providers from the public, NGO and private sectors. The cost of the voucher scheme was estimated for a 1-year period (1999) from project accounts using the ingredients approach. Outcomes were monitored as part of ongoing project evaluation. Costs and outcomes in the absence of the scheme were modelled using project baseline data and reports, and relevant literature. The annual cost of providing comprehensive STI services through vouchers was US$62 495, compared with an estimated US$17 112 for regular service provision in the absence of the scheme. 4815 vouchers were distributed by the voucher scheme, 1543 patients were tested for STIs and 528 STIs were effectively cured in this period. In the absence of the scheme, only an estimated 85 cases would have been cured from 1396 consultations. The average cost of the voucher scheme per patient treated was US$41 and US$118 per STI effectively cured, compared with US$12 per patient treated and US$200 per STI cured in its absence. The incremental cost of curing an STI through the voucher scheme, compared with the status quo, was US$103. A voucher scheme offers an effective and efficient means of targeting and effectively curing STIs in high-risk groups, as well as encouraging quality care practices. PMID:15965034

  19. Examining mediators of housing mobility on adolescent asthma: Results from a housing voucher experiment

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Nicole M.; Lincoln, Alisa K.; Nguyen, Quynh C.; Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores; Osypuk, Theresa L.

    2014-01-01

    Literature on neighborhood effects on health largely employs non-experimental study designs and does not typically test specific neighborhood mediators that influence health. We address these gaps using the Moving to Opportunity (MTO) housing voucher experiment. Research has documented both beneficial and adverse effects on health in MTO, but mediating mechanisms have not been tested explicitly. We tested mediation of MTO effects on youth asthma (n = 2829). MTO randomized families living in public housing to an experimental group receiving a voucher to subsidize rental housing, or a control group receiving no voucher, and measured outcomes 4–7 years following randomization. MTO had a harmful main effect vs. controls for self-reported asthma diagnosis (b = 0.24, p = 0.06), past-year asthma attack (b = 0.44, p = 0.02), and past-year wheezing (b = 0.17, p = 0.17). Using Inverse Odds Weighting mediation we tested mental health, smoking, and four housing dimensions as potential mediators of the MTO–asthma relationship. We found no significant mediation overall, but mediation may be gender-specific. Gender-stratified models displayed countervailing mediation effects among girls for asthma diagnosis by smoking (p = 0.05) and adult-reported housing quality (p = 0.06), which reduced total effects by 35% and 42% respectively. MTO treatment worsened boys’ mental health and mental health reduced treatment effects on asthma diagnosis by 27%. Future research should explore other potential mediators and gender-specific mediators of MTO effects on asthma. Improving measurement of housing conditions and other potential mediators may help elucidate the “black box” of neighborhood effects. PMID:24607675

  20. A Policy Analysis of the implementation of a Reproductive Health Vouchers Program in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Innovative financing strategies such as those that integrate supply and demand elements like the output-based approach (OBA) have been implemented to reduce financial barriers to maternal health services. The Kenyan government with support from the German Development Bank (KfW) implemented an OBA voucher program to subsidize priority reproductive health services. Little evidence exists on the experience of implementing such programs in different settings. We describe the implementation process of the Kenyan OBA program and draw implications for scale up. Methods Policy analysis using document review and qualitative data from 10 in-depth interviews with facility in-charges and 18 with service providers from the contracted facilities, local administration, health and field managers in Kitui, Kiambu and Kisumu districts as well as Korogocho and Viwandani slums in Nairobi. Results The OBA implementation process was designed in phases providing an opportunity for learning and adapting the lessons to local settings; the design consisted of five components: a defined benefit package, contracting and quality assurance; marketing and distribution of vouchers and claims processing and reimbursement. Key implementation challenges included limited feedback to providers on the outcomes of quality assurance and accreditation and budgetary constraints that limited effective marketing leading to inadequate information to clients on the benefit package. Claims processing and reimbursement was sophisticated but required adherence to time consuming procedures and in some cases private providers complained of low reimbursement rates for services provided. Conclusions OBA voucher schemes can be implemented successfully in similar settings. For effective scale up, strong partnership will be required between the public and private entities. The government’s role is key and should include provision of adequate funding, stewardship and looking for opportunities to utilize

  1. Examining mediators of housing mobility on adolescent asthma: results from a housing voucher experiment.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Nicole M; Lincoln, Alisa K; Nguyen, Quynh C; Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores; Osypuk, Theresa L

    2014-04-01

    Literature on neighborhood effects on health largely employs non-experimental study designs and does not typically test specific neighborhood mediators that influence health. We address these gaps using the Moving to Opportunity (MTO) housing voucher experiment. Research has documented both beneficial and adverse effects on health in MTO, but mediating mechanisms have not been tested explicitly. We tested mediation of MTO effects on youth asthma (n = 2829). MTO randomized families living in public housing to an experimental group receiving a voucher to subsidize rental housing, or a control group receiving no voucher, and measured outcomes 4-7 years following randomization. MTO had a harmful main effect vs. controls for self-reported asthma diagnosis (b = 0.24, p = 0.06), past-year asthma attack (b = 0.44, p = 0.02), and past-year wheezing (b = 0.17, p = 0.17). Using Inverse Odds Weighting mediation we tested mental health, smoking, and four housing dimensions as potential mediators of the MTO-asthma relationship. We found no significant mediation overall, but mediation may be gender-specific. Gender-stratified models displayed countervailing mediation effects among girls for asthma diagnosis by smoking (p = 0.05) and adult-reported housing quality (p = 0.06), which reduced total effects by 35% and 42% respectively. MTO treatment worsened boys' mental health and mental health reduced treatment effects on asthma diagnosis by 27%. Future research should explore other potential mediators and gender-specific mediators of MTO effects on asthma. Improving measurement of housing conditions and other potential mediators may help elucidate the "black box" of neighborhood effects. PMID:24607675

  2. Financing A Voucher Program for Cocaine Abusers Through Community Donations in Spain

    PubMed Central

    GarcÍa-RodrÍguez, Olaya; Secades-Villa, Roberto; Higgins, Stephen T; Fernández-Hermida, José R; Carballo, José L

    2008-01-01

    This study analyzed the viability of financing a voucher program for cocaine addicts in Spain through public and private donations. Of the 136 companies contacted, 52 (38%) provided donations. The difference between the benefits (15,670€/$20,371) and the costs (3,734€/$4,854) was 11,936€/$15,517. The type of reinforcer a company can offer, the size of the company, and the time elapsed before responding may be determining variables in a company's decision whether to collaborate. PMID:19192866

  3. Building a global business continuity programme.

    PubMed

    Lazcano, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Business continuity programmes provide an important function within organisations, especially when aligned with and supportive of the organisation's goals, objectives and organisational culture. Continuity programmes for large, complex international organisations, unlike those for compact national companies, are more difficult to design, build, implement and maintain. Programmes for international organisations require attention to structural design, support across organisational leadership and hierarchy, seamless integration with the organisation's culture, measured success and demonstrated value. This paper details practical, but sometimes overlooked considerations for building successful global business continuity programmes. PMID:24854730

  4. The ESO Observing Programmes Committee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerlund, B. E.

    1982-06-01

    Since 1978 the ESO Observing Programmes Committee (OPC) has "the function to inspect and rank the proposals made for observing programmes at La Silla, and thereby to advise the Director General on the distribution of observing time". The members (one from each member country) and their alternates are nominated by the respective national committees for five-year terms (not immediately renewable). The terms are staggered so that each year one or two persons are replaced. The Chairman is appointed annually by the Council. He is invited to attend Council meetings and to report to its members.

  5. The Effectiveness of Private School Franchises in Chile's National Voucher Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elacqua, Gregory; Contreras, Dante; Salazar, Felipe; Santos, Humberto

    2011-01-01

    There is persistent debate over the role of scale of operations in education. Some argue that school franchises offer educational services more effectively than small independent schools. Skeptics counter that large centralized operations create hard-to-manage bureaucracies and foster diseconomies of scale and that small schools are more effective…

  6. Innovations in Education for the Seventies: Selected Readings. Accountability, Behavioral Objectives, Differentiated Staffing, Education Vouchers, Individualized Instruction, Open Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Carlo, Julia E., Ed.; Madon, Constant A., Ed.

    A variety of innovations are being introduced in schools throughout the country for the purposes of improving instruction and enriching the learning experiences of students. This text covers six major innovations in education. They are: (1) accountability; (2) behavioral objectives; (3) differentiated staffing; (4) education vouchers; (5)…

  7. Schools' Responses to Voucher Policy: Participation Decisions and Early Implementation Experiences in the Indiana Choice Scholarship Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Megan J.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the supply side of voucher programs, despite schools' central role in program effectiveness. Using survey and interview data on the Indiana Choice Scholarship Program (ICSP), I analyze schools' participation decisions and early implementation experiences to understand better how schools respond to program regulations. I find…

  8. 75 FR 61253 - Final Fair Market Rents for Fiscal Year 2011 for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ... FR 46958), this notice establishes FY 2011 Small Area FMRs for the Housing Choice Voucher program in... published on October 2, 2000 (65 FR 58870), established 50th percentile FMRs for certain areas. Electronic.... Government Printing Office Web site, http://www.gpoaccess.gov/fr/index.html . Complete documentation of...

  9. 76 FR 78292 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment for the Housing Choice Voucher Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... Following Information Title of Proposal: Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) Program: Application, Allowances for... objectives and plans for administering the HCV program. The application is reviewed by HUD Headquarters and...-prescribed forms to determine if the units meet the housing quality standards (HQS) of the HCV program....

  10. Segregation Levels in Milwaukee Public Schools and the Milwaukee Voucher Program. School Choice Issues in the State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Greg

    2006-01-01

    This study compares segregation levels in Milwaukee public schools and in private schools participating in the Milwaukee voucher program. Using a segregation index that measures the difference between the percent of students in a school who are white and the percentage of school-age children in the greater metro area who are white, it finds that…

  11. Vouchers, Responses, and the Test-Taking Population: Regression Discontinuity Evidence from Florida. Staff Report No. 486

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakrabarti, Rajashri

    2011-01-01

    While there is a rich literature that investigates whether accountability regimes induce schools to manipulate their test-taking population by strategically excluding weaker students, no study thus far investigates whether voucher programs induce schools to engage in similar strategic behavior. This paper analyzes a Florida program that embedded…

  12. 77 FR 55492 - Notice of Availability: Funding for Tenant-Protection Vouchers for Certain At-Risk Households in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ...HUD announces the availability, on its Web site, of instructions, eligibility, and selection criteria on the funding process for tenant protection vouchers for certain at-risk households in low-vacancy areas, as provided for in the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2012 (2012 Appropriations Act), and seeks public comment on these instructions and criteria. The......

  13. School Vouchers and Student Achievement: What We Know So Far. Policy Briefs: Education Reform. Volume 3, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Helen F.

    2003-01-01

    Although small, carefully managed voucher programs might provide a helpful safety valve for some disadvantaged children, policy makers should be under no illusion that such programs will address the fundamental challenge of providing an adequate education to the large numbers of such students in many urban centers. Contrary to the claims of many…

  14. 77 FR 17086 - Section 8 Housing Choice Vouchers: Revised Implementation of the HUD-VA Supportive Housing Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... 6, 2008 (73 FR 25026). The appropriations acts funding the HUD-VASH program authorize the HUD... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Section 8 Housing Choice Vouchers: Revised Implementation of the HUD-VA Supportive... Housing, Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street SW., Room 4216, Washington, DC...

  15. Effect of a Consumer-Directed Voucher and a Disease-Management-Health-Promotion Nurse Intervention on Home Care Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meng, Hongdao; Friedman, Bruce; Wamsley, Brenda R.; Mukamel, Dana; Eggert, Gerald M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: We describe the impact of two interventions, a consumer-directed voucher for in-home supportive services and a chronic disease self-management-health-promotion nurse intervention, on the probability of use of two types of home care-skilled home health care and personal assistance services-received by functionally impaired Medicare…

  16. 75 FR 30845 - Request Voucher for Grant Payment and Line of Credit Control System (LOCCS) Voice Response System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ...The proposed information collection requirement described below has been submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act. The Department is soliciting public comments on the subject proposal. Payment request vouchers for distribution of grant funds using the automated Voice Response System (VRS). An authorization form is submitted......

  17. The programmer`s guide to the software copyright

    SciTech Connect

    Wehrli, J.E.

    1996-06-01

    This booklet was written specifically for anyone who writes computer programs at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is intended to provide basic information on how the law of copyright applies to computer software. It is not intended to be a legal reference for copyright attorneys, but an accessible reference for the people whose creative efforts result in software others want to use. Whether you are a chemist who writes software to help you with your work or a professional Berkeley Lab programmer you should benefit from this booklet. The information in this booklet is written in an informal conversational style, not a legal style. It is simply a direct response to a need for information that I have observed. Since I have written it from a programmer`s viewpoint and for a programmer`s use, it does not cover copyright law in general and focuses only on those areas of copyright law specific to computer software. Moreover, it does not attempt to address other areas of law that may be applicable to computer software. It is certainly not intended to replace the timely legal advice of Berkeley Lab`s Patent Department. However, just as it is helpful to read the computer manual before calling tech support, it will also be helpful to read this booklet before calling the Patent Department, not so much to answer any and all questions, but to give you the vocabulary to better understand and digest the information provided by the Department.

  18. ColectoR, a digital field notebook for voucher specimen collection for smartphones1

    PubMed Central

    Maya-Lastra, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: ColectoR was developed to aid botanists in the collection of data for voucher specimens using smartphones, accelerating the process of data capture in situ and its subsequent organization. Methods and Results: ColectoR features a minimalist design that uses an intuitive iconic interface. The integration of external application programming interfaces (APIs) and an automated spreadsheet extends its functionality and increases the information and tools available to the user. This app is currently supported by any Android device. Conclusions: ColectoR provides an efficient method for capturing data in the field while also serving to organize the information into a coherent database, thereby greatly reducing the time required for postcapture data organization and label printing. PMID:27437169

  19. Differential Health and Social Needs of Older Adults Waitlisted for Public Housing or Housing Choice Vouchers.

    PubMed

    Carder, Paula; Luhr, Gretchen; Kohon, Jacklyn

    2016-01-01

    Affordable housing is an important form of income security for low-income older persons. This article describes characteristics of older persons waitlisted for either public housing or a housing choice voucher (HCV; previously Section 8) in Portland, Oregon. 358 persons (32% response rate) completed a mailed survey with questions about demographics, health and housing status, food insecurity, and preference for housing with services. Findings indicate that many waitlisted older persons experienced homelessness or housing instability, poor health, high hospital use, and food insecurity. Public housing applicants were significantly more likely to report lower incomes, homelessness, and food insecurity than HCV applicants. We conclude with policy implications for housing and health agencies that serve low-income older persons. PMID:26959488

  20. Introduction of Syphilis Point-of-Care Tests, from Pilot Study to National Programme Implementation in Zambia: A Qualitative Study of Healthcare Workers’ Perspectives on Testing, Training and Quality Assurance

    PubMed Central

    Ansbro, Éimhín M.; Gill, Michelle M.; Reynolds, Joanna; Shelley, Katharine D.; Strasser, Susan; Sripipatana, Tabitha; Ncube, Alexander Tshaka; Tembo Mumba, Grace; Terris-Prestholt, Fern; Peeling, Rosanna W.; Mabey, David

    2015-01-01

    Syphilis affects 1.4 million pregnant women globally each year. Maternal syphilis causes congenital syphilis in over half of affected pregnancies, leading to early foetal loss, pregnancy complications, stillbirth and neonatal death. Syphilis is under-diagnosed in pregnant women. Point-of-care rapid syphilis tests (RST) allow for same-day treatment and address logistical barriers to testing encountered with standard Rapid Plasma Reagin testing. Recent literature emphasises successful introduction of new health technologies requires healthcare worker (HCW) acceptance, effective training, quality monitoring and robust health systems. Following a successful pilot, the Zambian Ministry of Health (MoH) adopted RST into policy, integrating them into prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV clinics in four underserved Zambian districts. We compare HCW experiences, including challenges encountered in scaling up from a highly supported NGO-led pilot to a large-scale MoH-led national programme. Questionnaires were administered through structured interviews of 16 HCWs in two pilot districts and 24 HCWs in two different rollout districts. Supplementary data were gathered via stakeholder interviews, clinic registers and supervisory visits. Using a conceptual framework adapted from health technology literature, we explored RST acceptance and usability. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Key themes in qualitative data were explored using template analysis. Overall, HCWs accepted RST as learnable, suitable, effective tools to improve antenatal services, which were usable in diverse clinical settings. Changes in training, supervision and quality monitoring models between pilot and rollout may have influenced rollout HCW acceptance and compromised testing quality. While quality monitoring was integrated into national policy and training, implementation was limited during rollout despite financial support and mentorship. We illustrate that new

  1. Introduction of Syphilis Point-of-Care Tests, from Pilot Study to National Programme Implementation in Zambia: A Qualitative Study of Healthcare Workers' Perspectives on Testing, Training and Quality Assurance.

    PubMed

    Ansbro, Éimhín M; Gill, Michelle M; Reynolds, Joanna; Shelley, Katharine D; Strasser, Susan; Sripipatana, Tabitha; Tshaka Ncube, Alexander; Tembo Mumba, Grace; Terris-Prestholt, Fern; Peeling, Rosanna W; Mabey, David

    2015-01-01

    Syphilis affects 1.4 million pregnant women globally each year. Maternal syphilis causes congenital syphilis in over half of affected pregnancies, leading to early foetal loss, pregnancy complications, stillbirth and neonatal death. Syphilis is under-diagnosed in pregnant women. Point-of-care rapid syphilis tests (RST) allow for same-day treatment and address logistical barriers to testing encountered with standard Rapid Plasma Reagin testing. Recent literature emphasises successful introduction of new health technologies requires healthcare worker (HCW) acceptance, effective training, quality monitoring and robust health systems. Following a successful pilot, the Zambian Ministry of Health (MoH) adopted RST into policy, integrating them into prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV clinics in four underserved Zambian districts. We compare HCW experiences, including challenges encountered in scaling up from a highly supported NGO-led pilot to a large-scale MoH-led national programme. Questionnaires were administered through structured interviews of 16 HCWs in two pilot districts and 24 HCWs in two different rollout districts. Supplementary data were gathered via stakeholder interviews, clinic registers and supervisory visits. Using a conceptual framework adapted from health technology literature, we explored RST acceptance and usability. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Key themes in qualitative data were explored using template analysis. Overall, HCWs accepted RST as learnable, suitable, effective tools to improve antenatal services, which were usable in diverse clinical settings. Changes in training, supervision and quality monitoring models between pilot and rollout may have influenced rollout HCW acceptance and compromised testing quality. While quality monitoring was integrated into national policy and training, implementation was limited during rollout despite financial support and mentorship. We illustrate that new

  2. Case mix, outcome and length of stay for admissions to adult, general critical care units in England, Wales and Northern Ireland: the Intensive Care National Audit & Research Centre Case Mix Programme Database

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, David A; Brady, Anthony R; Rowan, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    Introduction The present paper describes the methods of data collection and validation employed in the Intensive Care National Audit & Research Centre Case Mix Programme (CMP), a national comparative audit of outcome for adult, critical care admissions. The paper also describes the case mix, outcome and activity of the admissions in the Case Mix Programme Database (CMPD). Methods The CMP collects data on consecutive admissions to adult, general critical care units in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. Explicit steps are taken to ensure the accuracy of the data, including use of a dataset specification, of initial and refresher training courses, and of local and central validation of submitted data for incomplete, illogical and inconsistent values. Criteria for evaluating clinical databases developed by the Directory of Clinical Databases were applied to the CMPD. The case mix, outcome and activity for all admissions were briefly summarised. Results The mean quality level achieved by the CMPD for the 10 Directory of Clinical Databases criteria was 3.4 (on a scale of 1 = worst to 4 = best). The CMPD contained validated data on 129,647 admissions to 128 units. The median age was 63 years, and 59% were male. The mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score was 16.5. Mortality was 20.3% in the CMP unit and was 30.8% at ultimate discharge from hospital. Nonsurvivors stayed longer in intensive care than did survivors (median 2.0 days versus 1.7 days in the CMP unit) but had a shorter total hospital length of stay (9 days versus 16 days). Results for the CMPD were comparable with results from other published reports of UK critical care admissions. Conclusions The CMP uses rigorous methods to ensure data are complete, valid and reliable. The CMP scores well against published criteria for high-quality clinical databases. PMID:15025784

  3. Case mix, outcome and length of stay for admissions to adult, general critical care units in England, Wales and Northern Ireland: the Intensive Care National Audit & Research Centre Case Mix Programme Database

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Introduction The present paper describes the methods of data collection and validation employed in the Intensive Care National Audit & Research Centre Case Mix Programme (CMP), a national comparative audit of outcome for adult, critical care admissions. The paper also describes the case mix, outcome and activity of the admissions in the Case Mix Programme Database (CMPD). Methods The CMP collects data on consecutive admissions to adult, general critical care units in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. Explicit steps are taken to ensure the accuracy of the data, including use of a dataset specification, of initial and refresher training courses, and of local and central validation of submitted data for incomplete, illogical and inconsistent values. Criteria for evaluating clinical databases developed by the Directory of Clinical Databases were applied to the CMPD. The case mix, outcome and activity for all admissions were briefly summarised. Results The mean quality level achieved by the CMPD for the 10 Directory of Clinical Databases criteria was 3.4 (on a scale of 1 = worst to 4 = best). The CMPD contained validated data on 129,647 admissions to 128 units. The median age was 63 years, and 59% were male. The mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score was 16.5. Mortality was 20.3% in the CMP unit and was 30.8% at ultimate discharge from hospital. Nonsurvivors stayed longer in intensive care than did survivors (median 2.0 days versus 1.7 days in the CMP unit) but had a shorter total hospital length of stay (9 days versus 16 days). Results for the CMPD were comparable with results from other published reports of UK critical care admissions. Conclusions The CMP uses rigorous methods to ensure data are complete, valid and reliable. The CMP scores well against published criteria for high-quality clinical databases.

  4. Immigrants and the Education System. An Action Programme for the Work of the National Board of Education in Connection with Immigrant Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Swedish Board of Education, Stockholm.

    The Swedish National Board of Education's action program for long-term planning of work relating to the teaching of immigrants and minorities is outlined in this report. First, material is presented which describes the background and focus of the program, the immigrant population to be served, and Sweden's general immigration policy as it applies…

  5. Designing Adult Education Activities: A Case of Civic Education Programmes by National Commission for Civic Education in the Ashaiman Municipality in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afriyie, Sally Adwoa

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the efficiency of the design of educational activities of the National Commission for Civic Education (NCCE) in Ashaiman municipality in Ghana. Using a descriptive case study design, data was collected from seven (7) Community Based Groups in Ashaiman. The results of the study indicated that to a large extent, there was…

  6. A Survey of a Study on the Reasons Responsible for Student Dropout from the Bachelor of Science Programme at Indira Gandhi National Open University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fozdar, Bharat Inder; Kumar, Lalita S.; Kannan, S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a report on students who decided to drop out of the BSc program offered by Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU). This study was designed to determine the reasons leading to students' decisions to withdraw from the program. Identified and reported in this study are nine major reasons leading to drop out. Results of…

  7. Breaking Through: TOSTAN's Non-Formal Basic Education Programme in National Languages in Senegal. Education for All: Making It Work. Innovation Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttman, Cynthia

    Since 1988, thousands of rural villagers across Senegal have participated in a basic education program called TOSTAN, which means "breakthrough" in Wolof, the majority language. Supported by UNICEF and implemented in the six national languages of Senegal, TOSTAN goes beyond traditional literacy programs to link literacy learning with life skills…

  8. Evaluation of quality improvement programmes.

    PubMed

    Øvretveit, J; Gustafson, D

    2002-09-01

    In response to increasing concerns about quality, many countries are carrying out large scale programmes which include national quality strategies, hospital programmes, and quality accreditation, assessment and review processes. Increasing amounts of resources are being devoted to these interventions, but do they ensure or improve quality of care? There is little research evidence as to their effectiveness or the conditions for maximum effectiveness. Reasons for the lack of evaluation research include the methodological challenges of measuring outcomes and attributing causality to these complex, changing, long term social interventions to organisations or health systems, which themselves are complex and changing. However, methods are available which can be used to evaluate these programmes and which can provide decision makers with research based guidance on how to plan and implement them. This paper describes the research challenges, the methods which can be used, and gives examples and guidance for future research. It emphasises the important contribution which such research can make to improving the effectiveness of these programmes and to developing the science of quality improvement. PMID:12486994

  9. 76 FR 60967 - Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation Single...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ...Section 8(c)(1) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 (USHA) requires the Secretary to publish FMRs periodically, but not less than annually, adjusted to be effective on October 1 of each year. The primary uses of FMRs are to determine payment standards for the Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) program, to determine initial renewal rents for some expiring project-based Section 8 contracts, to......

  10. 75 FR 27808 - Section 8 Housing Choice Voucher Program-Demonstration Project of Small Area Fair Market Rents in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ...Section 8(c)(1) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 (USHA) requires the Secretary to publish FMRs periodically, but not less than annually, adjusted to be effective on October 1 of each year. The primary uses of FMRs are to determine payment standard amounts for the Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) program, to determine initial renewal rents for some expiring project-based Section 8......

  11. National survey on school-based fluoride mouth-rinsing programme in Japan: regional spread conditions from preschool to junior high school in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Komiyama, Karin; Kimoto, Kazunari; Taura, Katsuhiko; Sakai, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    Aims We surveyed the state of implementation of the school-based fluoride mouth-rinsing programme (S-FMR) in schools in Japan from March 2010. Methods Questionnaires on the implementation status of S-FMR in each type of school (including preschool and kindergarten) were sent by post to the oral health administration departments of all 47 prefectures and 89 cities (18 ordinance-designated cities, 23 special wards, 41 core cities and seven public health centres in ordinance-designated cities) with public health centres. Results The S-FMR implementation rate was low, at only 11% of all schools in Japan and only 6% of all participating school children aged 4–14 years. In many regions, the S-FMR was implemented more widely and received higher participation from children in either elementary schools and junior high schools or preschools and kindergartens. Conclusions Inter-prefectural disparities were seen in S-FMR implementation, as some prefectures and cities did not include topical fluoride application in their health promotion plans, and some local public bodies did not include targets for fluoride mouth-rinsing. To reduce this disparity in Japan where systemic fluoride application is not performed, each local public body must consider implementing the S-FMR as a public health measure. We propose using the results of this survey as basic data for formulating S-FMR goals (numerical targets) and adopting S-FMR as a concrete measure in the second Healthy Japan 21, to be launched in the fiscal year for 2013, and within the basic matters of the Act Concerning the Promotion of Dental and Oral Health. PMID:24256345

  12. Evidence for validity of a national physician and patient-reported, cross-sectional survey in China and UK: the Disease Specific Programme

    PubMed Central

    Babineaux, S M; Curtis, B; Holbrook, T; Milligan, G; Piercy, J

    2016-01-01

    Objective Diabetes represents a significant challenge for Chinese healthcare providers. Healthcare decision-making is generally based on many data sources, including randomised controlled and real-world studies; however, good-quality data from Chinese diabetes patients are scarce. We performed an initial validation to assess the representativeness of one source of real-world data—the Diabetes Adelphi Disease Specific Programme (DSP) in China. Setting China, UK. Participants The Chinese DSP included 2060 patients with previously diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) sampled by 200 physicians. The reference Chinese population comprised 238 639 patients with previously diagnosed T2DM. The UK DSP contained 1481 patients with T2DM sampled by 125 physicians; the reference UK population comprised 289 patients with diabetes. Primary and secondary outcomes The primary outcome was comparison of unweighted China DSP and reference data for sex, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), patients achieving glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c)<7%, total cholesterol, coronary heart disease and dyslipidaemia. The secondary outcome was comparison of weighted UK DSP and reference data for BMI, BP, mean HbA1c, total cholesterol, smoking and insulin status. Results Comparison of unweighted China DSP and reference data revealed statistical equivalence for BMI, systolic BP, proportion of patients achieving HbA1c <7%, total cholesterol, coronary heart disease and dyslipidaemia. Sex, age, diabetes duration, diastolic BP and mean HbA1c level were not equivalent, although differences were generally small. Weighting of data did not substantially affect the results. A similar pattern was observed for UK data. Conclusions This study provides evidence that the methodology used for the China and UK parts of the Diabetes DSP produces representative samples that are comparable with other independent sources of patient treatment outcomes data, which may ultimately inform public health decision

  13. The use of vouchers in HIV prevention, referral treatment, and care for young MSM and young transgender people in Dhaka, Bangladesh: experience from ‘HIM’ initiative

    PubMed Central

    Oyewale, Tajudeen O.; Ahmed, Shale; Ahmed, Farid; Tazreen, Mona; Uddin, Ziya; Rahman, Anisur; Oyediran, Kola A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The study described the effectiveness of a voucher scheme to access sexual and reproductive health and HIV services among young MSM and transgender people aged 15–24 years in Dhaka, Bangladesh, a country with HIV prevalence of less than 0.1%. Methods Descriptive and analytical methods were used to assess the net effects of biodemographic factors of the respondents on the voucher scheme. Effectiveness of the scheme was contextualized as target population coverage, and turnaround time of voucher redemption to access services. Results and discussion A total of 210 (87.9%) out of the 239 vouchers distributed were redeemed. The mean age of the identified young people was 19.6 years (SD = +2.6 years). The coverage of the scheme against the target population of 200 young MSM and 936 young transgender people was 88% (n = 175) and 4% (n = 35) respectively, with P < 0.001. The median turnaround time for voucher redemption was 7 days. The predictors of voucher turnaround time were age, education, and population group (P < 0.001). HIV testing and counselling was accessed by 160 (76%) respondents, one was positive and linked to antiretroviral treatment and 110 (52%) were diagnosed and treated for sexually transmitted infections. Conclusion The voucher scheme was effective in linking young MSM with sexual and reproductive health and HIV services in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The findings are consistent with the low HIV prevalence in the country. The scheme is, however, not optimal for linking young transgender people with services. PMID:26945145

  14. Increasing Healthy Start food and vitamin voucher uptake for low income pregnant women (Early Years Collaborative Leith Pioneer Site)

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, Graham; Dougall, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Poverty has a detrimental impact on health and wellbeing. Healthy Start food and vitamin vouchers provide support for low income families across the UK, but at least 25% of eligible women and children miss out. We set out to increase uptake, with an aim of 90% of eligible women and children (n~540 eligible, varying over time) receiving vouchers in the initial team's catchment area by December 2015. Starting with one midwife and one pregnant woman in March 2014 we used the model for improvement to identify ways to improve documentation, sign up, and referral. Weekly data on process measures and monthly data on voucher receipt were plotted on run charts. Comparing medians for January-June 2014 and March-August 2015 there was a 13.3% rise in voucher receipt in Lothian (increase from 313 to 355 women), versus an 8.4% decline for the rest of Scotland (fall from 1688 to 1546 women). Figures varied by team, influenced by staff, family, and area factors. The initial aim proved unrealistic, as signing up a woman for vouchers increases both the numerator and denominator. Accordingly, the percentage uptake has not increased at a regional level (remains at 75%), though the figure for the initiating team (“team 3” in graphs) has increased from 73.0% (January 2014) to 79.0% (November 2015). We have continued testing, achieving recent increases in the number of women referred for welfare rights advice on benefits, tax credits, employment rights, childcare, and debt, securing on average £4,500 per client during 2015/16 (£404k for 89 clients by mid September 2015). This improvement project, part of the Early Years Collaborative in Scotland, has had a measureable impact on pregnant women across Lothian. Success has relied on testing, an electronic maternity record, rapid dissemination of findings through direct engagement with clinical teams, and persistence. Our findings have relevance across the UK, particularly at a time of worsening finances for many families. PMID

  15. Increasing Healthy Start food and vitamin voucher uptake for low income pregnant women (Early Years Collaborative Leith Pioneer Site).

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Graham; Dougall, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Poverty has a detrimental impact on health and wellbeing. Healthy Start food and vitamin vouchers provide support for low income families across the UK, but at least 25% of eligible women and children miss out. We set out to increase uptake, with an aim of 90% of eligible women and children (n~540 eligible, varying over time) receiving vouchers in the initial team's catchment area by December 2015. Starting with one midwife and one pregnant woman in March 2014 we used the model for improvement to identify ways to improve documentation, sign up, and referral. Weekly data on process measures and monthly data on voucher receipt were plotted on run charts. Comparing medians for January-June 2014 and March-August 2015 there was a 13.3% rise in voucher receipt in Lothian (increase from 313 to 355 women), versus an 8.4% decline for the rest of Scotland (fall from 1688 to 1546 women). Figures varied by team, influenced by staff, family, and area factors. The initial aim proved unrealistic, as signing up a woman for vouchers increases both the numerator and denominator. Accordingly, the percentage uptake has not increased at a regional level (remains at 75%), though the figure for the initiating team ("team 3" in graphs) has increased from 73.0% (January 2014) to 79.0% (November 2015). We have continued testing, achieving recent increases in the number of women referred for welfare rights advice on benefits, tax credits, employment rights, childcare, and debt, securing on average £4,500 per client during 2015/16 (£404k for 89 clients by mid September 2015). This improvement project, part of the Early Years Collaborative in Scotland, has had a measureable impact on pregnant women across Lothian. Success has relied on testing, an electronic maternity record, rapid dissemination of findings through direct engagement with clinical teams, and persistence. Our findings have relevance across the UK, particularly at a time of worsening finances for many families. PMID:27134747

  16. Informationist programme in support of biomedical research: a programme description and preliminary findings of an evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Whitmore, Susan C.; Grefsheim, Suzanne F.; Rankin, Jocelyn A.

    2008-01-01

    Background The informationist programme at the Library of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, MD, USA has grown to 14 informationists working with 40 clinical and basic science research teams. Purpose This case report, intended to contribute to the literature on informationist programmes, describes the NIH informationist programme including implementation experiences, the informationists' training programme, their job responsibilities and programme outcomes. Brief description The NIH informationist programme was designed to enhance the library's service capacity. Over time, the steps for introducing the service to new groups were formalized to ensure support by leadership, the team being served and the library. Job responsibilities also evolved from traditional library roles to a wide range of knowledge management activities. The commitment by the informationist, the team and the library to continuous learning is critical to the programme's success. Results/outcomes NIH scientists reported that informationists saved them time and contributed to teamwork with expert searching and point-of-need instruction. Process evaluation helped refine the programme. Evaluation method High-level, preliminary outcomes were identified from a survey of scientists receiving informationist services, along with key informant interviews. Process evaluation examined service implementation, informationists' training, and service components. Anecdotal evidence has also indicated a favorable response to the programme. PMID:18494648

  17. ‘Health and happiness is more important than weight’: a qualitative investigation of the views of parents receiving written feedback on their child's weight as part of the National Child Measurement Programme

    PubMed Central

    Syrad, H; Falconer, C; Cooke, L; Saxena, S; Kessel, A S; Viner, R; Kinra, S; Wardle, J; Croker, H

    2015-01-01

    Background The present study aimed to explore parental perceptions of overweight children and associated health risks after receiving National Child Measurement Programme (NCMP) weight feedback. Methods Fifty-two parents of overweight and obese children aged 4–5 years and 10–11 years enrolled in the NCMP programme in England in 2010–2011 participated in qualitative, semi-structured interviews about their perceptions of their child's weight and health risk after receiving weight feedback. Interviews were audio tape recorded and were conducted either by telephone (n = 9) or in the respondents’ homes (n = 41). Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using interpretative thematic analysis. Results Parents who received NCMP written feedback informing them that their child was overweight disregarded the results because they viewed ‘health and happiness as being more important than weight’. The feedback was viewed as less credible because it did not consider the individual child's lifestyle. ‘Broad definitions of healthy’ were described that did not include weight, such as reference to the child having good emotional and physical health and a healthy diet. Parents attributed weight to ‘inherited/acquired factors’ such as genetics or puppy fat, or did not regard their child's ‘appearance’ as reflecting being overweight. ‘Cultural influence’ also meant that being overweight was not viewed negatively by some non-white parents. Conclusions After receiving written weight feedback, parents use methods other than actual weight when evaluating their child's weight status and health risks. Parents’ conceptions of health and weight should be considered when communicating with parents, with the aim of bridging the gap between parental recognition of being overweight and subsequent behaviour change. PMID:26295077

  18. Use of food labels, awareness of nutritional programmes and participation in the special supplemental program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC): results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005-2006).

    PubMed

    Wojcicki, Janet M; Heyman, Melvin B

    2013-07-01

    Use of nutritional labels in choosing food is associated with healthier eating habits including lower fat intake. Current public health efforts are focusing on the revamping of nutritional labels to make them easier to read and use for the consumer. The study aims to assess the frequency of use of nutritional labels and awareness of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) nutritional programmes by low-income women including those participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) as surveyed in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006. Many low-income women do not regularly use the nutrition facts panel information on the food label and less than half had heard of the USDA Dietary Guidelines for Americans (38.9%). In multivariate logistic regression, we found that WIC participation was associated with reduced use of the nutrition facts panel in choosing food products [odds ratio (OR) 0.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.22-0.91], the health claims information (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.32-0.28) and the information on carbohydrates when deciding to buy a product (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.20-0.97) in comparison with WIC eligible non-participants. Any intervention to improve use of nutritional labels and knowledge of the USDA's nutritional programmes needs to target low-income women, including WIC participants. Future studies should evaluate possible reasons for the low use of nutrition labels among WIC participants in comparison with eligible non-participants. PMID:22171961

  19. Symbiota - A virtual platform for creating voucher-based biodiversity information communities.

    PubMed

    Gries, Corinna; Gilbert, Edward E; Franz, Nico M

    2014-01-01

    We review the Symbiota software platform for creating voucher-based biodiversity information portals and communities. Symbiota was originally conceived to promote small- to medium-sized, regionally and/or taxonomically themed collaborations of natural history collections. Over the past eight years the taxonomically diverse portals have grown into an important resource in North America and beyond for mobilizing, integrating, and using specimen- and observation-based occurrence records and derivative biodiversity information products. Designed to mirror the conceptual structure of traditional floras and faunas, Symbiota is exclusively web-based and employs a novel data model, information linking, and algorithms to provide highly dynamic customization. The themed portals enable meaningful access to biodiversity data for anyone from specialist to high school student. Symbiota emulates functionality of modern Content Management Systems, providing highly sophisticated yet intuitive user interfaces for data entry, batch processes, and editing. Each kind of content provision may be selectively accessed by authenticated information providers. Occupying a fairly specific niche in the biodiversity informatics arena, Symbiota provides extensive data exchange facilities and collaborates with other development projects to incorporate and not duplicate functionality as appropriate. PMID:25057252

  20. Symbiota – A virtual platform for creating voucher-based biodiversity information communities

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Edward E.; Franz, Nico M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We review the Symbiota software platform for creating voucher-based biodiversity information portals and communities. Symbiota was originally conceived to promote small- to medium-sized, regionally and/or taxonomically themed collaborations of natural history collections. Over the past eight years the taxonomically diverse portals have grown into an important resource in North America and beyond for mobilizing, integrating, and using specimen- and observation-based occurrence records and derivative biodiversity information products. Designed to mirror the conceptual structure of traditional floras and faunas, Symbiota is exclusively web-based and employs a novel data model, information linking, and algorithms to provide highly dynamic customization. The themed portals enable meaningful access to biodiversity data for anyone from specialist to high school student. Symbiota emulates functionality of modern Content Management Systems, providing highly sophisticated yet intuitive user interfaces for data entry, batch processes, and editing. Each kind of content provision may be selectively accessed by authenticated information providers. Occupying a fairly specific niche in the biodiversity informatics arena, Symbiota provides extensive data exchange facilities and collaborates with other development projects to incorporate and not duplicate functionality as appropriate. PMID:25057252