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Sample records for national voucher programme

  1. A taxonomy and results from a comprehensive review of 28 maternal health voucher programmes.

    PubMed

    Bellows, Ben W; Conlon, Claudia M; Higgs, Elizabeth S; Townsend, John W; Nahed, Matta G; Cavanaugh, Karen; Grainger, Corinne G; Okal, Jerry; Gorter, Anna C

    2013-12-01

    -based distribution of vouchers; and tracking individual claims for performance purposes. Maternal voucher programmes differed on whether contracted providers were given training on clinical or administrative issues; whether some form of service verification was undertaken at facility or community-level; and the relative size of programme management costs in the overall programme budget. Evidence suggests voucher programmes can serve populations with national-level impact. Reaching scale depends on whether the voucher programme can: (i) keep management costs low, (ii) induce a large demand-side response among the bottom two quintiles, and (iii) achieve a quality of care that translates a greater number of facility-based deliveries into a reduction in maternal morbidity and mortality. PMID:24992806

  2. A Taxonomy and Results from a Comprehensive Review of 28 Maternal Health Voucher Programmes

    PubMed Central

    Conlon, Claudia M.; Higgs, Elizabeth S.; Townsend, John W.; Nahed, Matta G.; Cavanaugh, Karen; Grainger, Corinne G.; Okal, Jerry; Gorter, Anna C.

    2013-01-01

    -based distribution of vouchers; and tracking individual claims for performance purposes. Maternal voucher programmes differed on whether contracted providers were given training on clinical or administrative issues; whether some form of service verification was undertaken at facility or community-level; and the relative size of programme management costs in the overall programme budget. Evidence suggests voucher programmes can serve populations with national-level impact. Reaching scale depends on whether the voucher programme can: (i) keep management costs low, (ii) induce a large demand-side response among the bottom two quintiles, and (iii) achieve a quality of care that translates a greater number of facility-based deliveries into a reduction in maternal morbidity and mortality.

  3. Safe motherhood voucher programme coverage of health facility deliveries among poor women in South-western Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kanya, Lucy; Obare, Francis; Warren, Charlotte; Abuya, Timothy; Askew, Ian; Bellows, Ben

    2014-07-01

    There has been increased interest in and experimentation with demand-side mechanisms such as the use of vouchers that place purchasing power in the hands of targeted consumers to improve the uptake of healthcare services in low-income settings. A key measure of the success of such interventions is the extent to which the programmes have succeeded in reaching the target populations. This article estimates the coverage of facility deliveries by a maternal health voucher programme in South-western Uganda and examines whether such coverage is correlated with district-level characteristics such as poverty density and the number of contracted facilities. Analysis entails estimating the voucher coverage of health facility deliveries among the general population and poor population (PP) using programme data for 2010, which was the most complete calendar year of implementation of the Uganda safe motherhood (SM) voucher programme. The results show that: (1) the programme paid for 38% of estimated deliveries among the PP in the targeted districts, (2) there was a significant negative correlation between the poverty density in a district and proportions of births to poor women that were covered by the programme and (3) improving coverage of health facility deliveries for poor women is dependent upon increasing the sales and redemption rates. The findings suggest that to the extent that the programme stimulated demand for SM services by new users, it has the potential of increasing facility-based births among poor women in the region. In addition, the significant negative correlation between the poverty density and the proportions of facility-based births to poor women that are covered by the voucher programme suggests that there is need to increase both voucher sales and the rate of redemption to improve coverage in districts with high levels of poverty. PMID:24173430

  4. Educational Vouchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickard, Brent W.; Richards, Donald M.

    1976-01-01

    Summarizes the rationale for educational voucher systems, outlines model voucher systems, discusses implications of voucher systems, and suggests a generalized plan for applying voucher systems in continuing education. (Available from the Department of Educational Administration, The University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, T6G 2G5;…

  5. Education Vouchers: The Experience at Alum Rock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    In 1970, the Office of Economic Opportunity tried to establish several voucher test sites to evaluate the voucher concept. Alum Rock Union School District, San Jose, California, was the only district in the country to agree to be a test site. In July 1973, responsibility for the Education Voucher Program was transferred to the National Institute…

  6. Capacity Issue Looms for Vouchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2011-01-01

    State-level momentum in support of vouchers and tax credits that help students go to private schools highlights what has been a largely theoretical issue: private school capacity to support voucher-financed enrollment. Academics say the national supply of seats in secular and religious private schools is sufficient to meet short-term demand from…

  7. Launch vouchers for space science research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macauley, Molly K.

    1989-01-01

    Recent national space policy proposes the use of space transportation vouchers to increase opportunities for space-based science research and to support the U.S. space transportation industry. Vouchers issued and financially backed by the government would be given to researchers for redemption on any mode of space transportation. This paper examines the economic costs and benefits of vouchers; incentive-based strategies for effective program design; and areas where the voucher scheme is weak. It is concluded that, under plausible assumptions, vouchers may well be a cost-effective way to achieve near-term space transportation for space research payloads.

  8. National and regional asthma programmes in Europe.

    PubMed

    Selroos, Olof; Kupczyk, Maciej; Kuna, Piotr; Łacwik, Piotr; Bousquet, Jean; Brennan, David; Palkonen, Susanna; Contreras, Javier; FitzGerald, Mark; Hedlin, Gunilla; Johnston, Sebastian L; Louis, Renaud; Metcalf, Leanne; Walker, Samantha; Moreno-Galdó, Antonio; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Rosado-Pinto, José; Powell, Pippa; Haahtela, Tari

    2015-09-01

    This review presents seven national asthma programmes to support the European Asthma Research and Innovation Partnership in developing strategies to reduce asthma mortality and morbidity across Europe. From published data it appears that in order to influence asthma care, national/regional asthma programmes are more effective than conventional treatment guidelines. An asthma programme should start with the universal commitments of stakeholders at all levels and the programme has to be endorsed by political and governmental bodies. When the national problems have been identified, the goals of the programme have to be clearly defined with measures to evaluate progress. An action plan has to be developed, including defined re-allocation of patients and existing resources, if necessary, between primary care and specialised healthcare units or hospital centres. Patients should be involved in guided self-management education and structured follow-up in relation to disease severity. The three evaluated programmes show that, thanks to rigorous efforts, it is possible to improve patients' quality of life and reduce hospitalisation, asthma mortality, sick leave and disability pensions. The direct and indirect costs, both for the individual patient and for society, can be significantly reduced. The results can form the basis for development of further programme activities in Europe. PMID:26324809

  9. National programme for prevention of burn injuries.

    PubMed

    Gupta, J L; Makhija, L K; Bajaj, S P

    2010-09-01

    The estimated annual burn incidence in India is approximately 6-7 million per year. The high incidence is attributed to illiteracy, poverty and low level safety consciousness in the population. The situation becomes further grim due to the absence of organized burn care at primary and secondary health care level. But the silver lining is that 90% of burn injuries are preventable. An initiative at national level is need of the hour to reduce incidence so as to galvanize the available resources for more effective and standardized treatment delivery. The National Programme for Prevention of Burn Injuries is the endeavor in this line. The goal of National programme for prevention of burn injuries (NPPBI) would be to ensure prevention and capacity building of infrastructure and manpower at all levels of health care delivery system in order to reduce incidence, provide timely and adequate treatment to burn patients to reduce mortality, complications and provide effective rehabilitation to the survivors. Another objective of the programme will be to establish a central burn registry. The programme will be launched in the current Five Year Plan in Medical colleges and their adjoining district hospitals in few states. Subsequently, in the next five year plan it will be rolled out in all the medical colleges and districts hospitals of the country so that burn care is provided as close to the site of accident as possible and patients need not to travel to big cities for burn care. The programme would essentially have three components i.e. Preventive programme, Burn injury management programme and Burn injury rehabilitation programme. PMID:21321659

  10. National programme for prevention of burn injuries

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, J. L.; Makhija, L. K.; Bajaj, S. P.

    2010-01-01

    The estimated annual burn incidence in India is approximately 6-7 million per year. The high incidence is attributed to illiteracy, poverty and low level safety consciousness in the population. The situation becomes further grim due to the absence of organized burn care at primary and secondary health care level. But the silver lining is that 90% of burn injuries are preventable. An initiative at national level is need of the hour to reduce incidence so as to galvanize the available resources for more effective and standardized treatment delivery. The National Programme for Prevention of Burn Injuries is the endeavor in this line. The goal of National programme for prevention of burn injuries (NPPBI) would be to ensure prevention and capacity building of infrastructure and manpower at all levels of health care delivery system in order to reduce incidence, provide timely and adequate treatment to burn patients to reduce mortality, complications and provide effective rehabilitation to the survivors. Another objective of the programme will be to establish a central burn registry. The programme will be launched in the current Five Year Plan in Medical colleges and their adjoining district hospitals in few states. Subsequently, in the next five year plan it will be rolled out in all the medical colleges and districts hospitals of the country so that burn care is provided as close to the site of accident as possible and patients need not to travel to big cities for burn care. The programme would essentially have three components i.e. Preventive programme, Burn injury management programme and Burn injury rehabilitation programme. PMID:21321659

  11. The WHO national diabetes programme initiative.

    PubMed

    Gruber, W; King, H

    1996-10-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that diabetes is a highly prevalent disease, with developing countries and minority populations now facing the highest risk. This places a strain on the health authorities, and consequently, has attracted increasing attention from the World Health Organization (WHO). The social and economic burden of diabetes is high, due to the seriousness of the complication of the disease. Many of these complications may be delayed or prevented, offering considerable opportunities for both reduction in costs to the authorities and improvements in quality of life for those affected. Following a resolution on the prevention and control of diabetes, adopted by the Forty-second World Health Assembly in 1989, the WHO diabetes programme prepared guidelines for the development of national diabetes programmes. Goals, targets and supporting materials have also been developed at the regional level by the WHO Regional Offices for Europe and for the Eastern Mediterranean. In 1994, WHO organized a meeting on the implementation of national diabetes programmes at its headquarters in Geneva. There were 70 participants and 32 counties were represented. The purposes of the meeting were to exchange information, motivate, consider evaluation, stimulate new programmes, define educational needs and prepare a written report. WHO plays a major role in the development of national diabetes programmes. In co-operation, WHO Headquarters and Regional Offices can act as clearing houses/information centres for data collection, programme monitoring and evaluation and the exchange of experience and technical information. The national diabetes programme initiative should result in improvements in diabetes control and care worldwide. PMID:9015663

  12. Can food vouchers improve nutrition and reduce health inequalities in low-income mothers and young children: a multi-method evaluation of the experiences of beneficiaries and practitioners of the Healthy Start programme in England

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Good nutrition is important during pregnancy, breastfeeding and early life to optimise the health of women and children. It is difficult for low-income families to prioritise spending on healthy food. Healthy Start is a targeted United Kingdom (UK) food subsidy programme that gives vouchers for fruit, vegetables, milk, and vitamins to low-income families. This paper reports an evaluation of Healthy Start from the perspectives of women and health practitioners. Methods The multi-method study conducted in England in 2011/2012 included focus group discussions with 49 health practitioners, an online consultation with 620 health and social care practitioners, service managers, commissioners, and user and advocacy groups, and qualitative participatory workshops with 85 low-income women. Additional focus group discussions and telephone interviews included the views of 25 women who did not speak English and three women from Traveller communities. Results Women reported that Healthy Start vouchers increased the quantity and range of fruit and vegetables they used and improved the quality of family diets, and established good habits for the future. Barriers to registration included complex eligibility criteria, inappropriate targeting of information about the programme by health practitioners and a general low level of awareness among families. Access to the programme was particularly challenging for women who did not speak English, had low literacy levels, were in low paid work or had fluctuating incomes. The potential impact was undermined by the rising price of food relative to voucher value. Access to registered retailers was problematic in rural areas, and there was low registration among smaller shops and market stalls, especially those serving culturally diverse communities. Conclusions Our evaluation of the Healthy Start programme in England suggests that a food subsidy programme can provide an important nutritional safety net and potentially improve

  13. Can vouchers make a difference to the use of private primary care services by older people? Experience from the healthcare reform programme in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background As part of its ongoing healthcare reform, the Hong Kong Government introduced a voucher scheme, intended for encouraging older patients to use primary healthcare services in the private sector, thereby, reducing burden on the overwhelmed public sector. The voucher program is also considered one of the strategies to further develop the public private partnership in healthcare, a policy direction of high political priority as indicated in the Chief Executive Policy Address in 2008-09. This study assessed whether the voucher scheme, as implemented so far, has reached its intended goals, and how it might be further improved in the context of public-private partnership. Methods This was a cross-sectional study using structured questionnaires by face-to-face interviews with older people aged 70 or above in Hong Kong, the target group of the demand-side voucher program. Results 71.2% of 1,026 older people were aware of the new voucher scheme but only 35.0% had ever used it. The majority of the older people used the vouchers for acute curative services in the private sector (82.4%) and spent less on preventive services. Despite the provision of vouchers valued US$30 per year as an incentive to encourage the use of private primary care services, after 12-months of implementation, 66.2% of all respondents agreed with the statement that "the voucher scheme does not change their health seeking behaviours on seeing public or private healthcare professionals". The most common reasons for no change in their behaviours included "I am used to seeing doctors in the public system" and "The amount of the subsidy is too low". Those who usually used a mix of public and private doctors and those with better self-reported health condition compared to last year were more likely to perceive a change in their own health seeking behaviours. Conclusions Our study showed that despite a reasonably high awareness of the voucher scheme, its usage was low. The voucher alone was not

  14. United Nations Environment Programme. Annual Review 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi (Kenya).

    This edition of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) annual report is structured in three parts. Part 1 focuses on three contemporary problems (ground water, toxic chemicals and human food chains and environmental economics) and attempts to solve them. Also included is a modified extract of "The Annual State of the Environment Report"…

  15. Education and Selective Vouchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piolatto, Amedeo

    2010-01-01

    A widely accepted result in the literature is that the majority of voters are against the introduction of universal vouchers. Chen and West (2000) predict that voters' attitudes towards selective vouchers (SV) may be different. They claim that voters are indifferent between the no-voucher and SV regimes, unless competition leads to a reduction in…

  16. Voting down Vouchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolick, Clint

    2008-01-01

    In 1999 the Ohio Supreme Court found the Cleveland school voucher program to be constitutional, thereby allowing the three-year-old initiative to continue. However, the school voucher program was ended when Judge Solomon Oliver enjoined the program after the anti-voucher coalition filed suit asking for a preliminary injunction. The judge's…

  17. Education Vouchers. A Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Philip C.; Hollender, Mary Jo

    This document is intended to serve both as a primer and as an annotated bibliography about educational vouchers. As a primer, it introduces the reader to the concept of vouchers and to the variety of issues--including political, economic, legal, and educational issues--associated with vouchers. As an annotated bibliography, it provides a summary…

  18. National Radiobiology Archives distributed access programmer's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Prather, J. C.; Smith, S. K.; Watson, C. R.

    1991-12-01

    The National Radiobiology Archives is a comprehensive effort to gather, organize, and catalog original data, representative specimens, and supporting materials related to significant radiobiology studies. This provides researchers with information for analyses which compare or combine results of these and other studies and with materials for analysis by advanced molecular biology techniques. This Programmer's Guide document describes the database access software, NRADEMO, and the subset loading script NRADEMO/MAINT/MAINTAIN, which comprise the National Laboratory Archives Distributed Access Package. The guide is intended for use by an experienced database management specialist. It contains information about the physical and logical organization of the software and data files. It also contains printouts of all the scripts and associated batch processing files. It is part of a suite of documents published by the National Radiobiology Archives.

  19. Vouchers for health: A demand side output-based aid approach to reproductive health services in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Janisch, C P; Albrecht, M; Wolfschuetz, A; Kundu, F; Klein, S

    2010-01-01

    Reaching the United Nation's Millennium Development Goals has been a focus for many countries and development partners. In Kenya, as in many other countries with low levels of development, access to and equity of basic quality health services is limited, especially for the very poor. Among poor populations, maternal mortality is high as access to medical care and financial means are lacking. In 2005, the Governments of Kenya and Germany in cooperation with KfW Banking Group made funds available for the Reproductive Health OBA Voucher Programme offering vouchers for Safe Motherhood, Family Planning and Gender Violence Recovery Services. This programme, herein referred to as Vouchers for Health, was launched in June of 2006 in five Kenyan districts with the aim of providing health services for safe deliveries, long-term family planning methods and victims of gender violence. The way that the programme is being implemented in Kenya demonstrates that the voucher-based approach comprises a variety of key structural elements of a national health insurance scheme: accreditation; quality assurance; reimbursement system; claims processing; integrating the private sector; client choice; provider competition; and access to and equity of services provided. PMID:20099183

  20. Evaluation of national malaria control programmes in Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Bryce, J.; Roungou, J. B.; Nguyen-Dinh, P.; Naimoli, J. F.; Breman, J. G.

    1994-01-01

    Evaluation is an essential management tool for the improvement of public health programmes or projects. As malaria morbidity and mortality continue to increase in most countries in Africa, international agencies and malaria control programme managers have identified the strengthening of programme evaluation as an important strategy for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of malaria control programmes. Managers can develop an evaluation strategy only after they have defined programme objectives and planned specific programme activities. Indicators should be directly related to programme objectives and should be selected on the basis of the following criteria: their validity; reliability; ability to detect change within a reasonable time period and as a result of successful programme implementation; ability to be interpreted; and usefulness in guiding programme change. Only those indicators that can be measured with available programme resources should be selected. Managers will also need to identify the sources of indicator data and to determine how often each indicator will be measured. Programme managers should develop criteria or indicators for the following: programme policies and plans; the process of programme implementation; the outcomes of malaria control interventions in disease management and prevention; and programme impact in terms of reductions in malaria-related mortality and morbidity. Key issues related to the management of evaluation activities within a national programme include the need to begin with available resources and build incrementally; to explore options for administering evaluation activities; to select, train and supervise staff who carry out evaluation activities; to develop quality control strategies; and to ensure that data are managed and communicated in ways that support effective programme decision-making. For evaluation to lead to improvements in malaria control programmes it must be clearly defined as a part of the

  1. Education Vouchers. Fastback 210.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catterall, James S.

    The education voucher idea is reviewed and comparisons are made among three existing plans. The basic idea is that the government issues a voucher of monetary value directly to families to pay for education. Existing proposals include the California Coons/Sugarman plan from the 1970's, the Friedman plan, and the Jencks proposal. These plans vary…

  2. Vouchers Impact Teachers, Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Robert R.; Carey, Helen

    1979-01-01

    Interviews with participants in the Alum Rock Voucher Project revealed that the effects of a voucher system on teachers were varied and profound: greater teacher autonomy but increased responsibilities; more within-program cohesion but increased competition between programs; and greater parent involvement, requiring teachers to improve…

  3. Education Vouchers: Boon or Bane?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, David G.

    The idea of educational vouchers goes back to Adam Smith in 1778, according to this examination of past and present discussions about vouchers. The author begins by defining educational vouchers and summarizing the idea's history, especially since its revival in 1955 by economist Milton Friedman. Seven models of voucher systems are briefly…

  4. School Vouchers: Examining the Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnoy, Martin

    This study reviews recent empirical research on the effect of school vouchers on student achievement (particularly for low-income minorities attending private schools) and the effect of the threat of vouchers on low-performing public schools. The study examines the Milwaukee voucher experiment, the Cleveland voucher program, and new voucher…

  5. Special Education Vouchers: Four State Approaches. inForum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Eve; Ahearn, Eileen

    2007-01-01

    The National Association of State Directors of Special Education has published documents on home schooling and various aspects of the charter school movement, but not on other types of school choice such as vouchers. This Project Forum document focuses on voucher programs that are specifically designed to provide public funds for parental…

  6. Proving the Viability of a School Choice Voucher. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haller, Scott

    2015-01-01

    A recent Pioneer Institute report written by Ken Ardon and Cara Stilling Candal, "Modeling Urban Scholarship Vouchers in Massachusetts," explores the viability of a school choice voucher program in the Commonwealth. Nationally, school choice has been shown to improve parent satisfaction and student achievement, reduce racial segregation,…

  7. Lessons from sexual and reproductive health voucher program design and function: a comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Developing countries face challenges in financing healthcare; often the poor do not receive the most basic services. The past decade has seen a sharp increase in the number of voucher programs, which target output-based subsidies for specific services to poor and underserved groups. The dearth of literature that examines lessons learned risks the wheel being endlessly reinvented. This paper examines commonalities and differences in voucher design and implementation, highlighting lessons learned for the design of new voucher programmes. Methodology The methodology comprised: discussion among key experts to develop inclusion/exclusion criteria; up-dating the literature database used by the DFID systematic review of voucher programs; and networking with key contacts to identify new programs and obtain additional program documents. We identified 40 programs for review and extracted a dataset of more than 120 program characteristics for detailed analysis. Results All programs aimed to increase utilisation of healthcare, particularly maternal health services, overwhelmingly among low-income populations. The majority contract(ed) private providers, or public and private providers, and all facilitate(d) access to services that are well defined, time-limited and reflect the country’s stated health priorities. All voucher programs incorporate a governing body, management agency, contracted providers and target population, and all share the same incentive structure: the transfer of subsidies from consumers to service providers, resulting in a strong effect on both consumer and provider behaviour. Vouchers deliver subsidies to individuals, who in the absence of the subsidy would likely not have sought care, and in all programs a positive behavioural response is observed, with providers investing voucher revenue to attract more clients. A large majority of programs studied used targeting mechanisms. Conclusions While many programs remain too small to address

  8. Interested in developing a national programme to reduce dietary salt?

    PubMed

    Campbell, N R C; Neal, B C; MacGregor, G A

    2011-12-01

    High dietary salt is a major contributor to increased blood pressure, the leading risk for death worldwide. In several countries, national programmes to reduce dietary salt have been implemented with leadership and involvement of hypertension experts. Other hypertension experts may be interested in assisting or leading a national programme to reduce dietary salt, however, may not have the experience or training to do so. The article is based on the experiences of three hypertension experts who have led the development of national dietary salt reduction programmes in the United Kingdom, Australia and Canada. The article advises developing leadership and a coalition, conducting a nation-specific environmental scan of facilitators and barriers, estimating the national health and financial costs of high dietary salt and the benefits of reducing salt intake, obtaining core documents to provide the scientific rational for the programme, developing a policy statement to outline the required actions to be undertaken, engaging government and industry, using media to gain public support, overcoming industry supported opposition and sustaining the effort long term. Resources and potential sources for international collaboration are provided as well as caveats for developing the programme within the specific nations' context and overall effort to improve health. Developing and leading a national salt reduction programme is a major commitment, however, reducing dietary salt is estimated to be one of the most effective strategies to improve a nation's health. PMID:21451570

  9. Review of national tuberculosis programmes: the experience in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Kumaresan, J A; de Colombani, P; Smith, I

    1999-12-01

    Tuberculosis control efforts should be evaluated periodically to assess progress made by national programmes and to plan for the future. Simple and reliable tools are required for such assessments. This paper summarises the methodology and results of the review of the national tuberculosis programme in Bangladesh conducted in 1997. The authors conclude that similar reviews would not only help to verify the reports from the routine recording system, but would also assist policy development and future planning. PMID:10599021

  10. National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Programme in India.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, B K; Kundu, A K; Bansal, R D

    1995-01-01

    Iodine Deficiency Disorders are one of the biggest worldwide public health problem of today. Their effect is hidden and profound affecting the quality of human life. An attempt has been made to describe the various aspects of the National Iodine Deficiency Disorders control Programme (NIDDCP) being implemented in the country. The paper also focuses about the problems associated in implementing this national programme. PMID:8690502

  11. Educational Vouchers: Rhetoric and Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puckett, John L.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the history of the educational voucher concept and describes three voucher models: the Jencks "regulated compensatory" model, the Friedman "unregulated market" model, and the Coons "Family Power Equalizing" model (more recently called the "Quality Choice" model). (JOW)

  12. The Potential Impact of Vouchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwan, Patrick J.

    2004-01-01

    This article provides an updated review of recent empirical research on the potential impact of private school vouchers. It addresses 3 questions: (a) do students that use vouchers to attend a private school obtain better outcomes than would be obtained in a public school? (b) Do vouchers encourage student sorting and how does sorting affect…

  13. Is Colorado's Voucher System Worth Vouching for?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prescott, Brian T.

    2010-01-01

    In 2004 Colorado passed legislation enacting the nation's first voucher-based approach to financing higher education, known as the College Opportunity Fund (COF). The work of an unusual coalition that included higher education leaders, generally conservative policymakers, and others, COF completely replaced the traditional approach of subsidizing…

  14. Introducing vouchers for malaria prevention in Ghana and Tanzania: context and adoption of innovation in health systems.

    PubMed

    de Savigny, Don; Webster, Jayne; Agyepong, Irene Akua; Mwita, Alex; Bart-Plange, Constance; Baffoe-Wilmot, Aba; Koenker, Hannah; Kramer, Karen; Brown, Nick; Lengeler, Christian

    2012-10-01

    There are striking similarities in health system and other contexts between Tanzania and Ghana that are relevant to the scaling up of continuous delivery of insecticide treated nets (ITNs) for malaria prevention. However, specific contextual factors of relevance to ITN delivery have led implementation down very different pathways in the two countries. Both countries have made major efforts and investments to address this intervention through integrating consumer discount vouchers into the health system. Discount vouchers require arrangements among the public, private and non-governmental sectors and constitute a complex intervention in both health systems and business systems. In Tanzania, vouchers have moved beyond the planning agenda, had policies and programmes formulated, been sustained in implementation at national scale for many years and have become as of 2012 the main and only publicly supported continuous delivery system for ITNs. In Ghana national-scale implementation of vouchers never progressed beyond consideration on the agenda and piloting towards formulation of policy; and the approach was replaced by mass distribution campaigns with less dependency on or integration with the health system. By 2011, Ghana entered a phase with no publicly supported continuous delivery system for ITNs. To understand the different outcomes, we compared the voucher programme timelines, phases, processes and contexts in both countries in reference to the main health system building blocks (governance, human resources, financing, informatics, technologies and service delivery). Contextual factors which provided an enabling environment for the voucher scheme in Tanzania did not do so in Ghana. The voucher scheme was never seen as an appropriate national strategy, other delivery systems were not complementary and the private sector was under-developed. The extensive time devoted to engagement and consensus building among all stakeholders in Tanzania was an important and

  15. Another Try for Vouchers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubow, Arthur

    1978-01-01

    Two law professors at the University of California, Berkeley, John E. Coons and Stephen D. Sugarman, argue that a child's education should be selected by his parents. With that premise, they urge a return to the educational voucher system of school financing. (Author/RK)

  16. The United Nations programme on space applications: priority thematic areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haubold, H.

    The Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNISPACE III) was held in 1999 with efforts to identify world wide benefits of developing space science and technology, particularly in the developing nations. One of the main vehicles to implement recommendations of UNISPACE III is the United Nations Programme on Space Applications of the Office for Outer Space Affairs at UN Headquarters in Vienna. Following a process of prioritization by Member States, the Programme focus its activities on (i) knowledge-based themes as space law and basic space science, (ii) application-based themes as disaster management, natural resources management, environmental monitoring, tele-health, and (iii) enabling technologies such as remote sensing satellites, communications satellites, global navigation satellite systems, and small satellites. Current activities of the Programme will be reviewed. Further information available at http://www.oosa.unvienna.org/sapidx.html

  17. United Nations Environment Programme, Annual Review, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarsfield, Mairuth, Ed.; Emes, John, Ed.

    The 1978 Annual State of the Environment Report of the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) focused on four selected environmental problems of international significance: (1) chemicals and the environment; (2) malaria; (3) the use of agricultural and agro-industrial residues to increase the base for food production; and (4) the conservation…

  18. Vaccines in the national immunization programme.

    PubMed

    Bass, A G

    1993-06-01

    Papua New Guinea has been providing expanded immunization services for more than 14 years. While immunization coverage has risen dramatically, recent surveys have raised serious questions regarding vaccine potency at the service delivery level. Operational practices in vaccine distribution and in the delivery system have been identified in this paper. The international and national standards for vaccine management are described along with the main requirements for maintaining vaccine potency. Quality assurance measures, the responsible personnel and the appropriate intervention points are detailed, along with easily applied guidelines for implementation. An approach to assessing the effectiveness of the quality assurance measures is proposed. PMID:8154196

  19. Great Expectations: Teacher Learning in a National Professional Development Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armour, Kathleen M.; Makopoulou, Kyriaki

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports findings from an evaluation of a national continuing professional development (CPD) programme for teachers in England. Data showed that the localised implementation, opportunities for interactive learning, and "collective participation" were positive factors. Research participants reported difficulties, however, in "cascading"…

  20. India: new trends in the national programme.

    PubMed

    Katti, A P

    1979-01-01

    India's joint conference of the Central Councils of Health and Family Welfare, meeting during April 1979, scaled down the national family planning target for 1979-80 due to the poor performance by some states during 1978-79. The target is now 9.65 million rather than 10.7 million people. The conference also recommended a country wide campaign to explain the concept of the small family and its benefits and a system of incentives and appropriate community awards. Focusing on specific issues, the conference called for initiating a gigantic effort to reduce infant and child mortality by at least 50%. At this time the infant mortality rate is 122/1000. The conference called for family welfare to be integrated with the national adult education program, approved the goal of primary health care for all by the year 2000, and recommended that a higher percentage of the plan budget be allocated to the minimum needs program in the health sector. Another topic considered was the National Development Council (NDC) decision to transfer most of the centrally sponsored health schemes to the state sector. One of the most closely monitored programs in the country, the Family Welfare Program, is being evaluated periodically by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare to assess how far the objectives and operational goals have been realized. Some interesting facts emerged from the most recent studies conducted by the Population Research Center on the impact of the Family Welfare Program on marriage age, sterilization, IUD, fertility, abortion and the role of trade unions, Panchayats, and voluntary organizations. There has been a rise in the age of marriage for both male and females in urban and rural areas, but it is small and slow. A vast majority of acceptors were within the reproductive age group, but a substantial percentage of acceptors belong to the low fertility age group with a large number of living children. A majority of acceptors of sterilization or other permanent methods

  1. The impact of vouchers on the use and quality of health care in developing countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Brody, Carinne Meyer; Bellows, Nicole; Campbell, Martha; Potts, Malcom

    2013-01-01

    One approach to delivering healthcare in developing countries is through voucher programmes, where vouchers are distributed to a targeted population for free or subsidised health care. Using inclusion/exclusion criteria, a search of databases, key journals and websites review was conducted in October 2010. A narrative synthesis approach was taken to summarise and analyse five outcome categories: targeting, utilisation, cost efficiency, quality and health outcomes. Sub-group and sensitivity analyses were also performed. A total of 24 studies evaluating 16 health voucher programmes were identified. The findings from 64 outcome variables indicates: modest evidence that vouchers effectively target specific populations; insufficient evidence to determine whether vouchers deliver healthcare efficiently; robust evidence that vouchers increase utilisation; modest evidence that vouchers improve quality; no evidence that vouchers have an impact on health outcomes; however, this last conclusion was found to be unstable in a sensitivity analysis. The results in the areas of targeting, utilisation and quality indicate that vouchers have a positive effect on health service delivery. The subsequent link that they improve health was found to be unstable from the data analysed; another finding of a positive effect would result in robust evidence. Vouchers are still new and the number of published studies is limiting. PMID:23336251

  2. Vouchers Revisited: The Prospects for Education Vouchers in the Eighties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ralph, John H.

    Political and social changes that have increased the public's interest in educational vouchers are summarized in three categories. The first category, new support for the arguments made by voucher advocates, includes Milton Friedman's suggestion of a free and competitive market for education, and John E. Coons and Stephen D. Sugarman's…

  3. Prepare Vouchers & Pay Vouchers. Student's Manual and Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamer, Jean

    Supporting performance objectives 49 and 50 of the V-TECS (Vocational-Technical Education Consortium of States) Secretarial Catalog, both a set of student materials and an instructor's manual on preparing vouchers and pay vouchers are included in this packet, which is one of a series. The student materials include five business transactions…

  4. Kidney paired donation: a plea for a Swiss National Programme.

    PubMed

    Hadaya, Karine; Fehr, Thomas; Rüsi, Barbara; Ferrari-Lacraz, Sylvie; Jean, Villard; Ferrari, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Growing incidence of end-stage renal disease, shortage of kidneys from deceased donors and a better outcome for recipients of kidneys from living donor have led many centres worldwide to favour living donor kidney transplantation programmes. Although criteria for living donation have greatly evolved in recent years with acceptance of related and unrelated donors, an immunological incompatibility, either due to ABO incompatibility and/or to positive cross-match, between a living donor and the intended recipient, could impede up to 40% of such procedures. To avoid refusal of willing and healthy living donors, a number of strategies have emerged to overcome immunological incompatibilities. Kidney paired donation is the safest way for such patients to undergo kidney transplantation. Implemented with success in many countries either as national or multiple regional independent programmes, it could include simple exchanges between any number of incompatible pairs, incorporate compatible pairs and non-directed donors (NDDs) to start a chain of compatible transplantations, lead to acceptance of ABO-incompatible matching, and integrate desensitising protocols. Incorporating all variations of kidney paired donation, the Australian programme has been able to facilitate kidney transplantation in 49% of registered incompatible pairs. This review is a plea for implementing a national kidney paired donation programme in Switzerland. PMID:25742633

  5. Education Answers That Vouchers Question.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sroufe, Gerald E.

    This speech explains education voucher programs and responds to criticisms of such programs. The education voucher system is described as one that questions traditional structures and methods while it equalizes opportunities to purchase education, fosters federally funded and controlled alternative school settings and programs, and gives parents…

  6. The Supreme Court and Vouchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Charles J.; Mawdsley, Ralph D.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the facts and state and federal constitutional law related to "Zelman v. Simons-Harris," a Cleveland school-voucher case before the United States Supreme Court. Argues that the Court will likely uphold the constitutionality of the Cleveland voucher program, finding that it does not advance religion in violation of the First Amendment.…

  7. Public Voucher Plans. Trends and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadderman, Margaret

    This document provides an overview of public-school voucher plans. Educational vouchers originated in the 1960s when Milton Friedman argued that vouchers would improve educational efficiency. Parents would receive the equivalent of per-pupil expenditures in the form of vouchers that could then be used at any school, either public and private. But…

  8. Status of national diabetes programmes in the Americas.

    PubMed Central

    White, F.; Nanan, D.

    1999-01-01

    Reported are the responses in the latter half of 1997 of all ministries of health in the Region of the Americas to the Declaration of the Americas on Diabetes, which was adopted by the Directing Council of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) in 1996 as a basis for national programme development in diabetes. The short-term targets were the designation of national focal points, the preparation of national estimates of the disease burden, and the development and implementation of national strategies and plans to deal with diabetes. The survey found that most countries recognized diabetes as a significant public health problem. In terms of global relevance, a number of lessons have been learned from this exercise: the role of broadly based participation in gaining recognition at the national health policy level; the wide acceptance of an integrated programme model; the relevance of process-related targets to achieve short-term success; and the critical role of having a designated focal point within the managerial approach. PMID:10680245

  9. Small Satellites and the Nigerian National Space Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borroffice, Robert; Chizea, Francis; Sun, Wei; Sweeting, Martin, , Sir

    2002-01-01

    Space technology and access to space have been elusive to most developing countries over the last half of the 21st century, which is attributed to very low par capital income and the lack of awareness of policy/decision makers about the role of space technology in national development. Space technology was seen as very expensive and prestigious, meant only for the major industrialized countries, while the developing countries should focus on building their national economy and providing food, shelter and other social amenities for their ever-growing populations. In the last decade, the trend has changed with many developing countries embracing spaced technology as one of the major ways of achieving sustainable development. The present trend towards the use of small satellites in meeting national needs has aided this transition because, apart from the small size, they are cheaper to build and to launch, with shorter development time, lower complexity, improved effectiveness and reduced operating costs. This in turn has made them more affordable and has opened up new avenues for the acquisition of satellite technology. The collaborative work between National Space Research and Development Agency of Nigeria (NASRDA) and Surrey Satellite and Technology Limited (SSTL) is a programme aimed at building two small satellites as a way of kick- starting the national space programme. The first project, NigeriaSAT-1, is an enhanced microsatellite carrying Earth observation payloads able to provide 32 metre GSD 3 band multispectral images with a 600km swath width. NigeriaSAT-1 is one of six microsatellites forming the Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC) alongside microsatellites contributed by Algeria, China, Turkey, Thailand and UK. Through participation in this international constellation, Nigeria will be able to receive images with a daily revisit worldwide. The EO images generated by NigeriaSAT-1 and the partner microsatellites will be used for providing rapid coverage

  10. A national teleradiology programme in Mali: implementation and results.

    PubMed

    Sangaré, Mohamed; Tanner, Lydia; Voss, Sarah; Laureys, Francois; Hollow, David; Touré, Mahamadou

    2015-04-01

    We reviewed the national teleradiology programme in Mali to establish whether it improved diagnosis for patients and improved the referring doctor's ability to give an accurate diagnosis. The teleradiology programme connected the University Hospital in Bamako to all seven regional hospitals in Mali and one private health clinic. The pilot phase began in 2005 in three hospitals. Initially the implementation involved connections via broadband, but subsequently satellite antennae were provided at three remote hospitals in the north. Between 2005 and 2013, X-ray and mammogram images from 5628 patients were read by teleradiology. Radiologists provided the sole diagnosis for 29% of cases (i.e. the referrer did not make a diagnosis) and altered the regional doctor's diagnosis in 12% of cases. The proportion of cases for which the regional doctor gave no diagnosis decreased from 93% to 24% over the same period, indicating an increase in the doctors' confidence and incentive to test their own diagnosis. The percentage of cases for which regional doctors made an inaccurate diagnosis decreased to 3% in 2013. Use of the teleradiology service varied widely between hospitals. Successful implementation depended on local ownership of a network, which was developed in close collaboration with hospital leadership, national radiologists and other healthcare personnel. PMID:25680387

  11. Operational programs for national radioactive waste and spent fuel management programme in Slovenia

    SciTech Connect

    Zeleznik, Nadja; Kralj, Metka; Mele, Irena

    2007-07-01

    The first separate National Radioactive Waste and Spent Fuel Management Programme (National Programme) was prepared in Slovenia in 2005 as a supplementary part of the National Environmental Action Programme and was adopted in February 2006 by the Slovenian Parliament. The new National Programme includes all topics being relevant for the management of the radioactive waste and spent fuel which are produced in Slovenia, from the legislation and identification of different waste streams, to the management of radioactive waste and spent fuel, the decommissioning of nuclear facilities and management of (TE)NORM in the near future from 2006 up to the 2015. The National Programme identified the existing and possible future problems and proposed the technical solutions and action plans for two distinctive periods: 2006-2009 and 2010- 2015. According to the requirement of Act on Protection against Ionising Radiation and Nuclear Safety the national Agency for Radwaste Management (ARAO) prepared the operational programmes for the four year period with technical details on implementation of the National programme. ARAO gained the detailed plans of different involved holders and proposed 9 operational programmes with aims, measures, individual organizations in charge, expenses and resources for each of the programmes. The Operational programmes were already reviewed by the Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning and are under acceptance. The orientation of the radioactive waste management according to the National Programme and operational activities within additional limitations based on the strategical decisions of Slovenian Government is presented in the paper. (authors)

  12. Piloting a national laboratory electronic programme status reporting system.

    PubMed

    Cassim, Naseem; Coetzee, Lindi; Motlonye, Bahule; Mpele, Nobantu; Glencross, Deborah K

    2013-01-01

    The NHLS performs close to 4 million CD4 tests per annum for the public sector in South Africa through a network of 60 CD4 testing laboratories. CD4 laboratory data provides an assessment of the number of patients on ART and HIV-positive patients in the pre-ART wellness programs. This study aims to develop a laboratory based Comprehensive Care, Management and Treatment of HIV and AIDS (CCMT) programme status reporting system for CD4 testing at three health facilities in the Ekurhuleni health district using a newly developed CCMT request form, the Laboratory Information System (LIMS) and Corporate Data Warehouse (CDW). The study will generate monitoring and evaluation data to assist in the management of health facilities through a national electronic corporate data warehouse. PMID:23920920

  13. Developing Multi-Agency Teams: Implications of a National Programme Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simkins, Tim; Garrick, Ros

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the factors which influence the effectiveness of formal development programmes targeted at multi-agency teams in children's services. It draws on two studies of the National College for School Leadership's Multi-Agency Teams Development programme, reporting key characteristics of the programme, short-term outcomes in terms of…

  14. 78 FR 36520 - Rural Development Voucher Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... Rural Housing Service Rural Development Voucher Program AGENCY: Rural Housing Service, USDA. ACTION... demonstration Rural Development Voucher Program, as authorized under Section 542 of the Housing Act of 1949 as... the Rural Development Voucher Program and also sets forth the general policies and procedures for...

  15. Education Vouchers in Spain: The Valencian Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granell, Rafael

    2002-01-01

    Description and economic evaluation of the first Spanish education-voucher program: The nursery voucher system in Valencia. Evaluation focuses on equality of opportunity and parental choice. Finds that vouchers allow a number of poor children to be schooled as well as allowing a number of parents to choose the school they prefer. Discusses…

  16. Embedding operational research into national disease control programme: lessons from 10 years of experience in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Mahendradhata, Yodi; Probandari, Ari; Widjanarko, Bagoes; Riono, Pandu; Mustikawati, Dyah; Tiemersma, Edine W; Alisjahbana, Bachti

    2014-01-01

    There is growing recognition that operational research (OR) should be embedded into national disease control programmes. However, much of the current OR capacity building schemes are still predominantly driven by international agencies with limited integration into national disease control programmes. We demonstrated that it is possible to achieve a more sustainable capacity building effort across the country by establishing an OR group within the national tuberculosis (TB) control programme in Indonesia. Key challenges identified include long-term financial support, limited number of scientific publications, and difficulties in documenting impact on programmatic performance. External evaluation has expressed concerns in regard to utilisation of OR in policy making. Efforts to address this concern have been introduced recently and led to indications of increased utilisation of research evidence in policy making by the national TB control programme. Embedding OR in national disease control programmes is key in establishing an evidence-based disease control programme. PMID:25361728

  17. Embedding operational research into national disease control programme: lessons from 10 years of experience in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Mahendradhata, Yodi; Probandari, Ari; Widjanarko, Bagoes; Riono, Pandu; Mustikawati, Dyah; Tiemersma, Edine W.; Alisjahbana, Bachti

    2014-01-01

    There is growing recognition that operational research (OR) should be embedded into national disease control programmes. However, much of the current OR capacity building schemes are still predominantly driven by international agencies with limited integration into national disease control programmes. We demonstrated that it is possible to achieve a more sustainable capacity building effort across the country by establishing an OR group within the national tuberculosis (TB) control programme in Indonesia. Key challenges identified include long-term financial support, limited number of scientific publications, and difficulties in documenting impact on programmatic performance. External evaluation has expressed concerns in regard to utilisation of OR in policy making. Efforts to address this concern have been introduced recently and led to indications of increased utilisation of research evidence in policy making by the national TB control programme. Embedding OR in national disease control programmes is key in establishing an evidence-based disease control programme. PMID:25361728

  18. Front-Line Advocacy: Fighting Off a Voucher Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimesey, Robert P., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    In September 2010, the U.S. Senate's Armed Services Committee approved an amendment to the proposed National Defense Authorization Act. The amendment, known as Section 583, authorized a Defense Department pilot voucher program to mitigate the cost of private school tuition for special-needs children of military parents. Sen. Jim Webb, a member of…

  19. Book Vouchers: An Exploratory Analysis of Their Use and Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Book vouchers serve as one component of need-based financial aid packages at the College of Southern Nevada (CSN), one of the nation's largest community colleges. This study compared the academic performance of Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) applicants in attendance at CSN during the 2008-09 and 2009-10 academic years. A basic…

  20. Evaluation of the national roll-out of parenting programmes across England: the parenting early intervention programme (PEIP)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence based parenting programmes can improve parenting skills and the behaviour of children exhibiting, or at risk of developing, antisocial behaviour. In order to develop a public policy for delivering these programmes it is necessary not only to demonstrate their efficacy through rigorous trials but also to determine that they can be rolled out on a large scale. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the UK government funded national implementation of its Parenting Early Intervention Programme, a national roll-out of parenting programmes for parents of children 8–13 years in all 152 local authorities (LAs) across England. Building upon our study of the Pathfinder (2006–08) implemented in 18 LAs. To the best of our knowledge this is the first comparative study of a national roll-out of parenting programmes and the first study of parents of children 8–13 years. Methods The UK government funded English LAs to implement one or more of five evidence based programmes (later increased to eight): Triple P, Incredible Years, Strengthening Families Strengthening Communities, Families and Schools Together (FAST), and the Strengthening Families Programme (10–14). Parents completed measures of parenting style (laxness and over-reactivity), and mental well-being, and also child behaviour at three time points: pre- and post-course and again one year later. Results 6143 parents from 43 LAs were included in the study of whom 3325 provided post-test data and 1035 parents provided data at one-year follow up. There were significant improvements for each programme, with effect sizes (Cohen’s d) for the combined sample of 0.72 parenting laxness, 0.85 parenting over-reactivity, 0.79 parent mental well-being, and 0.45 for child conduct problems. These improvements were largely maintained one year later. All four programmes for which we had sufficient data for comparison were effective. There were generally larger effects on both parent and child measures

  1. Expanding Global Language Education in Public Primary Schools: The National English Programme in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The paper examines the recent national programme of English language instruction in the Mexican public primary schools, called the "Programa Nacional de Inglés en Educación Básica" (PNIEB). The programme, initiated in 2009 by the Ministry of Education as part of the national curriculum, represents the largest expansion of English…

  2. Cultural Voucher Program; Program Abstract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Museums Collaborative, Inc., New York, NY.

    A description of the Museums Collaborative Voucher Program, a system through which cultural institutions conduct programs with large, heterogeneous, adult populations in New York City is provided in this paper. The program began with two goals: to broaden the audience served by New York City's cultural institutions and to provide the institutions…

  3. The Alum Rock Voucher Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwest Network, Hayward, CA.

    During the 1972-73 school year, the Alum Rock Voucher Program, an experimental program, was begun in 6 neighborhood schools in East San Jose, California. The program was designed to allow greater parent participation and choice in their children's education. This illustrated, bilingual pamphlet, written as a story told by 2 caricatures, discusses…

  4. Programmable Beam Spatial Shaping System for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Heebner, J; Borden, M; Miller, P; Hunter, S; Christensen, K; Scanlan, M; Haynam, C; Wegner, P; Hermann, M; Brunton, G; Tse, E; Awwal, A; Wong, N; Seppala, L; Franks, M; Marley, E; Wong, N; Seppala, L; Franks, M; Marley, E; Williams, K; Budge, T; Henesian, M; Stolz, C; Suratwala, T; Monticelli, M; Walmer, D; Dixit, S; Widmayer, C; Wolfe, J; Bude, J; McCarty, K; DiNicola, J M

    2011-01-21

    A system of customized spatial light modulators has been installed onto the front end of the laser system at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The devices are capable of shaping the beam profile at a low-fluence relay plane upstream of the amplifier chain. Their primary function is to introduce 'blocker' obscurations at programmed locations within the beam profile. These obscurations are positioned to shadow small, isolated flaws on downstream optical components that might otherwise limit the system operating energy. The modulators were designed to enable a drop-in retrofit of each of the 48 existing Pre Amplifier Modules (PAMs) without compromising their original performance specifications. This was accomplished by use of transmissive Optically Addressable Light Valves (OALV) based on a Bismuth Silicon Oxide photoconductive layer in series with a twisted nematic liquid crystal (LC) layer. These Programmable Spatial Shaper packages in combination with a flaw inspection system and optic registration strategy have provided a robust approach for extending the operational lifetime of high fluence laser optics on NIF.

  5. Educational Vouchers. School Management Digest Series 1, No. 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindelow, John

    This review of research and other literature on educational vouchers provides an overview and history of the voucher concept and voucher programs. The author first looks at several existing versions of the voucher idea, such as the G.I. Bill and Denmark's free schools. California's Alum Rock voucher experiment is evaluated, with suggestions about…

  6. Peaceful Uses for Tuition Vouchers: Looking Back and Looking Forward.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lines, Patricia M.

    This paper reviews the theoretical basis for educational voucher proposals, the various types of vouchers proposed, and the experience that has been had with voucher systems so far. The paper looks first at the claims made by voucher supporters that vouchers will redistribute political and economic power and simplify the administration of…

  7. On Thin Ice: How Advocates and Opponents Could Misread the Public's Views on Vouchers and Charter Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farkas, Steve; Johnson, Jean; Foleno, Anthony

    This study explored public opinion with regard to educational vouchers and charter schools. It summarizes findings from an in-depth national survey conducted in 1999 of 1,200 members of the public, including 394 parents of school-age children. The study also examined parents' attitudes in several areas where vouchers and charter schools are now…

  8. The Commercial Market For Priority Review Vouchers.

    PubMed

    Ridley, David B; Régnier, Stephane A

    2016-05-01

    In 2007 the US Congress created the priority review voucher program to encourage the development of drugs for neglected diseases. Under the program, the developer of a drug that treats a neglected disease receives both a faster review of the drug by the Food and Drug Administration and a voucher for a faster review of a different drug. The developer can sell the voucher. We estimated the commercial value of the voucher using US sales of new treatments approved in the period 2007-09. A third of the commercial value of a voucher comes from capturing market share from competitors, nearly half from the value of earlier sales because of the expedited review, and less than a quarter from lengthening the time between approval and the launch of a generic competitor. We estimate that if only one priority review voucher is available in a year, it will be worth more than $200 million, but if four vouchers are available, the value could fall below $100 million. Congress should be cautious about expanding the voucher program, because increasing the number of vouchers sharply decreases the expected price. Lower voucher prices could undermine the incentive to develop new medicines for neglected diseases. PMID:27140982

  9. Using a voucher system to extend health services to migrant farmworkers.

    PubMed

    Slesinger, D P; Ofstead, C

    1996-01-01

    FAMILY HEALTH/LA CLINICA de los Campesinos, Inc., is a federally funded migrant health clinic in the heart of Wisconsin's farmland that has offered outpatient health care since 1973 and an accompanying "voucher" program since 1988. The charges for outpatient care are based on the ability to pay. The clinic issues vouchers not only to migrant workers living and working in remote parts of the State but also to patients needing services the clinic does not offer. Between 1 April 1992 and 30 March 1993, 677 participants submitted 1,794 vouchers that provided for $83,833 in partial health care payments. La Clinica paid a median amount of $22 for each voucher, its reimbursement value ranging from $1 to $979. Hospitals received the highest median payment and pharmacies the lowest. Voucher payments generally covered 60% of the bill, but dentists commanded a higher percentage(70%) and clinics and medical groups a lower one (42%). Most vouchers paid for procedures and services La Clinica could not provide. This program shows how a health care provider in one location, with a patient population scattered throughout a sizeable geographic area, can coordinate services not offered at its facility. With the national spotlight on health care reform, the concept of vouchers for people in outlying or underserved regions deserves further investigation. PMID:8610192

  10. The rise and fall of a National Safety Promotion Programme:the case of Sweden.

    PubMed

    Skjonberg, Guldbrand; Svanstrom, Leif; Schelp, Lothar

    2011-06-01

    In 1982, when Sweden got a new Health Service Act, the health sector was given a new role - to collect, analyse and actively disseminate the knowledge it gained. A National Safety Promotion Programme was build up by the National Board for Health and Welfare, and a National Inter-sector Cooperation Group and medical advisory board were established. In 1992, the programme was transferred to the National Institute of Public Health. Later the Institute was given a new role and therefore the programme was relocated to the Swedish Rescue Service Agency. In some aspects we can see a parallel with the paradigm that was behind the Civil Protection Act 2003 and the Health Service Act 1982. It was a logic consequence to move the national programme to the rescue service sector. Within the National Rescue Service Agency the programme ended up in the line organisation, which lacked a cross-sector work orientation. The programme was closed down. In the article the reason for the decisions is described and also the background and the possibilities for the programme to act in different national boards as well as the preconditions for an inter-sector group. PMID:21442504

  11. Privatization And Vouchers In Colombia And Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenas, Alberto

    2004-07-01

    The voucher model of financing schooling is becoming increasingly common throughout Latin America, with at least 12 countries using vouchers or voucher-like schemes. The present study focuses on the voucher models of Colombia and Chile, which have the most extensive programs of this type and those of the longest standing in the region. Using empirical evidence, the author compares the two models along four evaluative dimensions: educational quality, segregation, choice and socialization. After weighing the successes and weaknesses of each system, he concludes that, among other characteristics, the most effective and equitable voucher model features: (a) a flexible interpretation of educational quality; (b) financial grants which target solely the poor; (c) vouchers which cover the entire cost of tuition; (d) open enrolment at participating schools; (e) the participation of both secular and religious private schools; (f) accessible and meaningful information to parents; and (g) strong systems of accountability.

  12. Implementing the "Voucher" Demonstration in Alum Rock, or "Taking the 'OUCH' Out of Vouchers."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Stephen S.

    Educational voucher plans envision the creation of diverse educational options among which informed parents may make a choice for the schooling of their children. One specific voucher plan--the "regulated, compensatory voucher" plan advocated by the Center for the Study of Public Policy (the CSPP model)--has given rise to a federal effort to…

  13. Why Indiana Voucher Parents Choose Private Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, Indiana enacted the broadest school voucher program in the country. In the program's first year, almost 4,000 families used vouchers to attend participating private schools, with the number of students applying for vouchers more than doubling in each of the following two years, to 9,324 students in 2012-13, and 19,809 in 2013-14. The…

  14. Why vouchers matter in botanical research1

    PubMed Central

    Culley, Theresa M.

    2013-01-01

    What is a voucher and why is it important in research? As a preserved specimen of an identified taxon deposited in a permanent and accessible storage facility, the voucher serves as the supporting material for published studies of the taxon and ensures that the science is repeatable. Vouchers are crucial in authenticating the taxonomy of an organism, as a tool for identifying localities of the taxon, and for additional taxonomic, genetic, ecological, and/or environmental research. PMID:25202501

  15. Evaluation of the Undergraduate Physics Programme at Indira Gandhi National Open University: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, Arundhati; Vijayshri; Garg, Suresh

    2009-01-01

    The undergraduate science programme was launched at the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) in 1991-92 with an enrolment of 1,210 students. The programme was well received, and enrolments increased over the years. However, the success rates have not kept pace with enrolment. In this paper, the authors report the results of an evaluation…

  16. Accreditation of Library and Information Science Programmes in the Gulf Cooperation Council Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehman, Sajjad ur

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the accreditation possibilities and prospects for the library and information science education programmes located in the six member nations of the Gulf Cooperation Council. This paper has been based on the findings of a study focused on the evaluation practices of these programmes and the perceptions of the leading…

  17. Sure Start Local Programmes: Implications of Case Study Data from the National Evaluation of Sure Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunstill, Jane; Allnock, Debbie; Akhurst, Sofie; Garbers, Claudia

    2005-01-01

    This paper is based on case study data on Sure Start Local Programmes collected within the Implementation Module of the Department for Education and Skills commissioned National Evaluation of Sure Start, between 2002 and 2004. Part one describes and discusses some key challenges for programme stakeholders which are associated with the optimum…

  18. Individual-level outcomes from a national clinical leadership development programme.

    PubMed

    Patton, Declan; Fealy, Gerard; McNamara, Martin; Casey, Mary; Connor, Tom O; Doyle, Louise; Quinlan, Christina

    2013-08-01

    A national clinical leadership development programme was instituted for Irish nurses and midwives in 2010. Incorporating a development framework and leadership pathway and a range of bespoke interventions for leadership development, including workshops, action-learning sets, mentoring and coaching, the programme was introduced at seven pilot sites in the second half of 2011. The programme pilot was evaluated with reference to structure, process and outcomes elements, including individual-level programme outcomes. Evaluation data were generated through focus groups and group interviews, individual interviews and written submissions. The data provided evidence of nurses' and midwives' clinical leadership development through self and observer-reported behaviours and dispositions including accounts of how the programme participants developed and displayed particular clinical leadership competencies. A key strength of the new programme was that it involved interventions that focussed on specific leadership competencies to be developed within the practice context. PMID:24099226

  19. Alum Rock Voucher Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Jim

    1976-01-01

    Notes that thus far surveys show that the children like the project, the parents like it and the teachers love it. Even the National Institute of Education likes it. Yet it is the only one of its kind in the country and seems likely to remain so for the foreseeable future. (Author/AM)

  20. Voucher Payments and the Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Colleen

    This report presents the case for competition in education, tenders the voucher plan as a means of fostering competition and providing choice in education, and discusses some problems associated with education voucher proposals. Two primary problems -- segregation and church-state conflict -- are given particular attention. The author also…

  1. What Is the Verdict on School Vouchers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Martha M.

    2000-01-01

    The central federal question surrounding vouchers is whether participation of sectarian schools violates the First Amendment's Establishment clause. The U.S. Supreme Court, through its interpretation of the federal Constitution, may have the final word in determining voucher proposals' future. Litigation in Cleveland, Milwaukee, Vermont, and Maine…

  2. Vouchers--An Illusion of Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Janet M.

    2002-01-01

    Vouchers have been touted as a means to give parents more choice in their child's education, with the rationale that this choice will improve their child's chances of succeeding in school. Studies have produced mixed and inconclusive results. Critics argue that only the more motivated and higher income families will use the vouchers, thus…

  3. Educational "Choice" (Vouchers) and Social Mobility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manski, Charles F.

    1992-01-01

    Uses a model of student and school behavior to simulate effects of differing voucher amounts on students in different income categories, drawing on two major assumptions concerning service delivery and competition. Poor youngsters would not be better off under voucher system. Even under highly favorable conditions, a systemic choice system would…

  4. The Fall and Rise of Education Vouchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salganik, Laura Hersh

    1981-01-01

    Looks at lessons learned from the Alum Rock voucher experiment and at the current politics of educational vouchers. Condensed from a report of the same name, published by the Center for Social Organization of Schools, The Johns Hopkins University (Report No. 307, March 1981). (Editor/SJL)

  5. 78 FR 49374 - Rural Development Voucher Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Housing Service 7 CFR Part 3560 RIN 0575-AC96 Rural Development Voucher... agency within the Rural Development mission area, is adding new regulations to implement its Rural Development Voucher Program (RDVP). Section 542 of the Housing Act of 1949, as amended, authorizes RDVP....

  6. The Legality of School Vouchers: Round Two

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Martha

    2006-01-01

    In 2002 the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that state-supported vouchers, which parents can redeem in private schools, do not offend the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment. Thus, the legality of government vouchers to fund education will be determined primarily on the basis of state law. Specifically, programs are being challenged under state…

  7. Nutrition advocacy and national development: the PROFILES programme and its application.

    PubMed Central

    Burkhalter, B. R.; Abel, E.; Aguayo, V.; Diene, S. M.; Parlato, M. B.; Ross, J. S.

    1999-01-01

    Investment in nutritional programmes can contribute to economic growth and is cost-effective in improving child survival and development. In order to communicate this to decision-makers, the PROFILES nutrition advocacy and policy development programme was applied in certain developing countries. Effective advocacy is necessary to generate financial and political support for scaling up from small pilot projects and maintaining successful national programmes. The programme uses scientific knowledge to estimate development indicators such as mortality, morbidity, fertility, school performance and labour productivity from the size and nutritional condition of populations. Changes in nutritional condition are estimated from the costs, coverage and effectiveness of proposed programmes. In Bangladesh this approach helped to gain approval and funding for a major nutrition programme. PROFILES helped to promote the nutrition component of an early childhood development programme in the Philippines, and to make nutrition a top priority in Ghana's new national child survival strategy. The application of PROFILES in these and other countries has been supported by the United States Agency for International Development, the United Nations Children's Fund, the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank, the Micronutrient Initiative and other bodies. PMID:10361758

  8. Some Thoughts on the Evaluation of the Chilean Voucher System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapelli, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    Many papers describe the Chilean voucher system as the "textbook" voucher case. But this is mistaken and has prevented research to undertake the key question of how the particular design of the Chilean voucher system determines the results obtained in Chile. This also prevents discussion of how a voucher system with a different design could lead…

  9. Power to the Parents? The Story of Education Vouchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, David K.; Farrar, Eleanor

    1977-01-01

    Educational vouchers opened the door for power shifts. That they did not affect the ways in which work, authority, and child rearing are apportioned in society is one conclusion of this discussion of vouchers. The Alum Rock school district voucher plan is analyzed as an example of an implemented voucher plan. (Author/JP)

  10. Private Voucher and Scholarship Plans. Trends and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadderman, Margaret

    This article examines an increasingly popular alternative to government-funded voucher plans: private voucher and scholarship plans. Through the 1998-99 school year, spending on privately funded voucher programs totalled $61 million. Private vouchers began with the Golden Rule Program in Indianapolis in 1991 and was inspired by insurance CEO J.…

  11. The Voucher Movement as a Freedom of Choice Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picus, Larry

    After describing the history of the educational voucher movement, this paper briefly discusses the various voucher models that have been proposed and considers some of the issues for and against the establishment of voucher systems. Tracing the voucher concept back to Adam Smith, Thomas Paine, and John Stuart Mill, the author notes that after the…

  12. Issues in Business Education Programme: Challenges to National Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajisafe, Olatunbosun Emmanuel; Bolarinwa, Kayode Omotayo; Tuke, Edeh

    2015-01-01

    Transformation engenders change, and change denotes a departure from the old order to a new one. National transformation therefore implies fundamental change in the building block of a nation; change in the social, economic, infrastructural and political landscape of a nation. For transformation to be achieved, it must encompass all levels of…

  13. National tuberculosis programme review: experience over the period 1990-95.

    PubMed Central

    Pio, A.; Luelmo, F.; Kumaresan, J.; Spinaci, S.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1990 the WHO Global Tuberculosis Programme (GTB) has promoted the revision of national tuberculosis programmes to strengthen the focus on directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS) and close monitoring of treatment outcomes. GTB has encouraged in-depth evaluation of activities through a comprehensive programme review. Over the period 1990-95, WHO supported 12 such programme reviews. The criteria for selection were as follows: large population (Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, Mexico, and Thailand); good prospects of developing a model programme for a region (Nepal, Zimbabwe); or at advanced stage of implementation of a model programme for a region (Guinea, Peru). The estimated combined incidence of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis was 82 per 100,000 population, about 43% of the global incidence. The prevalence of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was variable, being very high in Ethiopia and Zimbabwe, but negligible in Bangladesh, China, Nepal and Peru. The programme reviews were conducted by teams of 15-35 experts representing a wide range of national and external institutions. After a 2-3-month preparatory period, the conduct of the review usually lasted 2-3 weeks, including a first phase of meetings with authorities and review of documents, a second phase for field visits, and a third phase of discussion of findings and recommendations. The main lessons learned from the programme reviews were as follows: programme review is a useful tool to secure government commitment, reorient the tuberculosis control policies and replan the activities on solid grounds; the involvement of public health and academic institutions, cooperating agencies, and nongovernmental organizations secured a broad support to the new policies; programme success is linked to a centralized direction which supports a decentralized implementation through the primary health care services; monitoring and evaluation of case management functions

  14. The Impact of the National Newborn Hearing Screening Programme on Educational Services in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCracken, Wendy; Young, Alys; Tattersall, Helen; Uus, Kai; Bamford, John

    2005-01-01

    This article presents results related to the impact on educational support services of the introduction of the first phase of the national Newborn Hearing Screening Programme (NHSP) in England. This study was funded by the Department of Health and undertaken as one element of a national evaluation of NHSP across a range of domains. It presents…

  15. The Voucher Debate after "Zelman v. Simmons-Harris": The Need to Focus on Core Education Issues. Policy Briefs: Education Reform. Volume 2, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiske, Edward B.; Ladd, Helen F.

    2002-01-01

    The decision of the U.S. Supreme Court in "Zelman v. Simmons-Harris" will significantly alter debate over national education policy in the U.S., mainly because vouchers have suddenly become a more realistic political option. Until June 27, 2002, the day the high court issued its ruling, it was possible in to dismiss voucher proposals out of hand.…

  16. [The interactions between the national, regional and intra-regional levels in public health programmes].

    PubMed

    Jabot, F; Demeulemeester, R

    2005-12-01

    Defined and recognised as a relevant level for steering health policy, the regional level is also a strategically important level for integrating national orientations and local projects. Management models are identified based on an analysis of national plans and about twenty regional programmes. If normative reference irrevocably shapes the representation of programme implementation, then the experience of regional health programmes based on the establishment of partnerships and skills sharing has played an important training role function and has influenced the methods used at the national level. There is a need to find a balance between the drafting of plans and the awareness of local characteristics, and to build new relationships between these levels and clarify their roles. PMID:16485440

  17. The Environment Programme for the Whole of the United Nations 1990-95: 13 Broad Programmes, Emphasizing Research, Assessment, Technical Assistance and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNEP News, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Lists titles of 31 environmental programs over 13 broad categories including terrestrial ecosystems, oceans, health and welfare, and energy, industry and transportation. Describes the general objectives, implementing agencies, and the role of UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme). (YP)

  18. Interval cancers in a national colorectal cancer screening programme

    PubMed Central

    Stanners, Greig; Lang, Jaroslaw; Brewster, David H; Carey, Francis A; Fraser, Callum G

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about interval cancers (ICs) in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Objective The purpose of this study was to identify IC characteristics and compare these with screen-detected cancers (SCs) and cancers in non-participants (NPCs) over the same time period. Design This was an observational study done in the first round of the Scottish Bowel Screening Programme. All individuals (772,790), aged 50–74 years, invited to participate between 1 January 2007 and 31 May 2009 were studied by linking their screening records with confirmed CRC records in the Scottish Cancer Registry (SCR). Characteristics of SC, IC and NPC were determined. Results There were 555 SCs, 502 ICs and 922 NPCs. SCs were at an earlier stage than ICs and NPCs (33.9% Dukes’ A as against 18.7% in IC and 11.3% in NPC), screening preferentially detected cancers in males (64.7% as against 52.8% in IC and 59.7% in NPC): this was independent of a different cancer site distribution in males and females. SC in the colon were less advanced than IC, but not in the rectum. Conclusion ICs account for 47.5% of the CRCs in the screened population, indicating approximately 50% screening test sensitivity: guaiac faecal occult blood testing (gFOBT) sensitivity is less for women than for men and gFOBT screening may not be effective for rectal cancer.

  19. The Politics and Administration of the Voucher Demonstration in Alum Rock: The First Year, 1972-1973. Analysis of the Education Voucher Demonstration. A Working Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Stephen S.; Kellen, Konrad

    The Educational Voucher Demonstration began in the Alum Rock Union Elementary School District, San Jose, California, in September 1972. Initially sponsored by the Office of Economic Opportunity, it is now under the aegis of the National Institute of Education. This publication describes the socioeconomic and cultural setting of the school…

  20. Reaching targets in the national cervical screening programme: are current practices unethical?

    PubMed Central

    Foster, P; Anderson, C M

    1998-01-01

    The principle of informed consent is now well established within the National Health Service (NHS) in relation to any type of medical treatment. However, this ethical principle appears to be far less well established in relation to medical screening programmes such as Britain's national cervical screening programme. This article will critically examine the case for health care providers vigorously pursuing women to accept an invitation to be screened. It will discuss the type of information which women would need in order to make an informed decision about whether or not to be screened. The lack of such information in current patient leaflets on the "smear test" will then be documented. Finally, the article will explore possible ways of maximising women's autonomy in relation to the cervical screening programme without sacrificing any of its main benefits. PMID:9650108

  1. Do Vouchers Lead to Sorting under Random Private School Selection? Evidence from the Milwaukee Voucher Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakrabarti, Rajashri

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of voucher design on student sorting in the application and enrollment phases of parental choice. Much of the existing literature investigates the question of sorting where private schools can screen students. However, the publicly funded U.S. voucher programs require private schools to accept all students unless…

  2. Educational Vouchers in New Rochelle. Phase I: General Design of Voucher Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Marwick, Mitchell and Co., New York, NY.

    Part 1 of this report outlines the concept of vouchers and the nature and objectives of the New Rochelle study. The more pertinent work tasks undertaken to accomplish the objectives are contained in the appendix. The authors describe their position regarding the voucher plan, highlight its major elements, and outline the steps the district should…

  3. The State of the World Environment, 1987. United Nations Environment Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi (Kenya).

    One of the main activities assigned to the Governing Council of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is to review the world environmental situation to insure that emerging environmental problems of wide international significance receive appropriate and adequate consideration by governments. Accordingly, UNEP has assessed the state of…

  4. Teacher Performance and Student Learning: Linking Evidence from Two National Assessment Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taut, Sandy; Valencia, Edgar; Palacios, Diego; Santelices, Maria V.; Jiménez, Daniela; Manzi, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the validity of a national, standards-based teacher evaluation programme by examining the relationship between teachers' evaluation results and their students' learning progress. We used census achievement data that assessed the same cohort of students at the end of 8th and 10th grade. We applied multilevel modelling and…

  5. United Nations Environment Programme. Annual Report of the Executive Director, 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi (Kenya).

    This report provides a comprehensive overview of the major activities, programs, events, and developments within the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in 1983. Its purpose is to provide a broad understanding of what UNEP is, how it functions, and what it does with the money it has at its disposal. Chapter I summarizes 1983 in terms of…

  6. Generation: Portrait of the United Nations Development Programme, 1950-1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Development Programme, New York, NY. Div. of Information.

    In one generation, development progress has transformed the prospects for humankind, and international cooperation has been a catalyst. Technical assistance for developing countries through two predecessor organizations of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) had small beginnings in 1950, and grew to become a multimillion dollar…

  7. Perceived Effects of the Malaysian National Tobacco Control Programme on Adolescent Smoking Cessation: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Hizlinda, Tohid; Noriah, Mohd Ishak; Noor Azimah, Muhammad; Farah Naaz, Momtaz Ahmad; Anis Ezdiana, Abdul Aziz; Khairani, Omar

    2012-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of teenage smoking has decreased over the past decade following the implementation of the national tobacco control programme. However, the effect of the programme on smoking cessation in teenagers has not been determined. Methods: Twenty-eight participants (12 teenagers, 8 teachers, and 8 doctors) were interviewed using 5 in-depth interviews and 3 group discussions. Social cognitive theory (SCT) was applied as the theoretical framework. Semi-structured interview protocols were used, and thematic analysis and analytic generalisation utilising SCT were performed. Results: The current national tobacco control programme was found to be ineffective in promoting smoking cessation among teenagers. The participants attributed the ineffective campaign to the followings: inadequacy of message content, lack of exposure to the programme, and poor presentation and execution. In addition, the participants perceived the developed tobacco control policies to be a failure based on poor law enforcement, failure of retailers to comply with the law, social availability of cigarettes to teenagers, and easy availability of cheap, smuggled cigarettes. This study highlighted that the programme-related problems (environmental factors) were not the only factors contributing to its perceived ineffectiveness. The cunning behaviour of the teenagers (personal factor) and poor self-efficacy to overcome nicotine addiction (behavioural factor) were also found to hinder cessation. Conclusion: Tobacco control programmes should include strategies beyond educating teenagers about smoking and restricting their access to cigarettes. Strategies to manage the cunning behaviour of teenagers and strategies to improve their self-efficacy should also be implemented. These comprehensive programmes should have a foundation in SCT, as this theory demonstrates the complex interactions among the environmental, personal, and behavioural factors that influence teenage smoking. PMID

  8. The United Nations development programme initiative for sustainable energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hurry, S.

    1997-12-01

    Energy is central to current concerns about sustainable human development, affecting economic and social development; economic growth, the local, national, regional, and global environment; the global climate; a host of social concerns, including poverty, population, and health, the balance of payments, and the prospects for peace. Energy is not an end in itself, but rather the means to achieve the goals of sustainable human development. The energy systems of most developing countries are in serious crisis involving insufficient levels of energy services, environmental degradation, inequity, poor technical and financial performance, and capital scarcity. Approximately 2.5 billion people in the developing countries have little access to commercial energy supplies. Yet the global demand for energy continues to grow: total primary energy is projected to grow from 378 exajoules (EJ) per year in 1990 to 571 EJ in 2020, and 832 EJ in 2050. If this increase occurs using conventional approaches and energy sources, already serious local (e.g., indoor and urban air pollution), regional (eg., acidification and land degradation), and global (e.g., climate change) environmental problems will be critically aggravated. There is likely to be inadequate capital available for the needed investments in conventional energy sources. Current approaches to energy are thus not sustainable and will, in fact, make energy a barrier to socio-economic development. What is needed now is a new approach in which energy becomes an instrument for sustainable development. The two major components of a sustainable energy strategy are (1) more efficient energy use, especially at the point of end-use, and (2) increased use of renewable sources of energy. The UNDP Initiative for Sustainable Energy (UNISE) is designed to harness opportunities in these areas to build upon UNDP`s existing energy activities to help move the world toward a more sustainable energy strategy by helping program countries.

  9. Assessing the Higher National Diploma Chemical Engineering programme in Ghana: students' perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boateng, Cyril D.; Cudjoe Bensah, Edem; Ahiekpor, Julius C.

    2012-05-01

    Chemical engineers have played key roles in the growth of the chemical and allied industries in Ghana but indigenous industries that have traditionally been the domain of the informal sector need to be migrated to the formal sector through the entrepreneurship and innovation of chemical engineers. The Higher National Diploma Chemical Engineering programme is being migrated from a subject-based to a competency-based curriculum. This paper evaluates the programme from the point of view of students. Data were drawn from a survey conducted in the department and were analysed using SPSS. The survey involved administering questionnaires to students at all levels in the department. Analysis of the responses indicated that the majority of the students had decided to pursue chemical engineering due to the career opportunities available. Their knowledge of the programme learning outcomes was, however, poor. The study revealed that none of the students was interested in developing indigenous industries.

  10. Voucher/Choice Battle Heats Up. Pro: Families Should Have Choice; Con: Public School Vouchers Jeopardize Equal Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathan, Joe; Finch, Lew

    1985-01-01

    Joe Nathan, author of "Free to Teach: Achieving Equity and Excellence in Schools," argues in favor of educational vouchers; Lew Finch, superintendent of the Anoka-Hennepin Independent School District, Minnesota, argues against vouchers. (MLF)

  11. 7 CFR 97.7 - Deposit of Voucher Specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION The Application § 97.7 Deposit of Voucher Specimen. (a) Voucher specimen types. As regards the deposit of voucher specimen material for purposes of plant variety protection... self-replication either directly or indirectly. Representative examples include seeds, plant...

  12. Educational Vouchers. The Best of ERIC, Number 41.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, Eugene, OR.

    This annotated bibliography highlights eleven publications on educational vouchers. Issues discussed include several voucher systems, the value of increased parental decision-making, and nonvoucher systems of educational options. The authors included in the bibliography also discuss how vouchers may promote freedom of choice but reduce equality of…

  13. Vouchers, Class Size Reduction, and Student Achievement: Considering the Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Alex

    Proponents of private school vouchers argue that vouchers empower poor families and raise the academic achievement of poor children. They also argue that vouchers may improve achievement by forcing the public schools to compete in an education marketplace in which poor parents hold the power of the purse. Juxtaposed against this issue of vouchers…

  14. School Vouchers and Student Outcomes: Experimental Evidence from Washington, DC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Patrick J.; Kisida, Brian; Gutmann, Babette; Puma, Michael; Eissa, Nada; Rizzo, Lou

    2013-01-01

    School vouchers are the most contentious form of parental school choice. Vouchers provide government funds that parents can use to send their children to private schools of their choice. Here we examine the empirical question of whether or not a school voucher program in Washington, DC, affected achievement or the rate of high school graduation…

  15. 23 CFR 1200.23 - Vouchers and project agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Implementation and Management of the Highway Safety Program § 1200.23 Vouchers and project agreements. Each State... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vouchers and project agreements. 1200.23 Section 1200.23... project agreement(s) and supporting documentation for the vouchers, and any amendments thereto, shall...

  16. Colorado's Voucher Legislation and the Consequences for Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbour, Clifford P.; Davies, Timothy Gray; Lewis, Chance W.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors examine the new voucher program used to subsidize undergraduate education at Colorado community colleges and four-year institutions. The authors explain the voucher program and discuss the fiscal and policy conditions that led to its adoption. This baseline account of the voucher program and the underlying conditions…

  17. Irreconcilable Differences? Education Vouchers and the Suburban Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    d'Entremont, Chad; Huerta, Luis A.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the limited use of education vouchers in an era of unprecedented growth in school choice. It is divided into two parts: first, a description of the policy, political, and legal barriers that may limit the expansion of large-scale voucher programs is presented. Discussion then shifts to the efforts of voucher advocates to…

  18. Private School Vouchers: What Are the Real Choices?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kober, Nancy

    The term "vouchers" encompasses various proposals with the common goal of providing public funding to parents to use toward the costs of educating their children in a private school. This booklet presents an overview of educational vouchers and explains why they are an ineffective and inequitable strategy to improve education. Vouchers ignore the…

  19. Generating Quitline calls during Australia's National Tobacco Campaign: effects of television advertisement execution and programme placement

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, T; Rock, B

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The study sought to measure the relative efficiency of different television advertisements and types of television programmes in which advertisements were placed, in generating calls to Australia's national Quitline. Design: The study entailed an analysis of the number of calls generated to the Quitline relative to the weight of advertising exposure (in target audience rating points (TARPs) for particular television advertisements and for placement of these advertisements in particular types of television programmes. A total of 238 television advertisement placements and 1769 calls to the Quitline were analysed in Sydney and Melbourne. Results: The more graphic "eye" advertisement conveying new information about the association between smoking and macular degeneration leading to blindness was more efficient in generating quitline calls than the "tar" advertisement, which reinforced the message of tar in a smoker's lungs. Combining the health effects advertisements with a quitline modelling advertisement tended to increase the efficiency of generating Quitline calls. Placing advertisements in lower involvement programmes appears to provide greater efficiency in generating Quitline calls than in higher involvement programmes. Conclusions: Tobacco control campaign planners can increase the number of calls to telephone quitlines by assessing the efficiency of particular advertisements to generate such calls. Pairing of health effect and quitline modelling advertisements can increase efficiency in generating calls. Placement of advertisements in lower involvement programme types may increase efficiency in generating Quitline calls. PMID:12878772

  20. A Public School Voucher Demonstration: The First Year at Alum Rock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiler, Daniel; And Others

    The Education Voucher Demonstration is a large-scale educational and social intervention that began in the Alum Rock Union Elementary School District, San Jose, California, in September 1972. First funded by the Office of Economic Opportunity, it is now sponsored by the National Institute of Education. This report describes the development of…

  1. A Public School Voucher Demonstration: The First Year at Alum Rock. Technical Appendix.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiler, Daniel; And Others

    The Education Voucher Demonstration is a large-scale educational and social intervention that began in the Alum Rock Union Elementary School District, San Jose, California, in September 1972. First funded by the Office of Economic Opportunity, it is now sponsored by the National Institute of Education. This technical appendix is the third of four…

  2. Levels of cardiovascular disease risk factors in Singapore following a national intervention programme.

    PubMed Central

    Cutter, J.; Tan, B. Y.; Chew, S. K.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of the National Healthy Lifestyle Programme, a noncommunicable disease intervention programme for major cardiovascular disease risk factors in Singapore, implemented in 1992. METHODS: The evaluation was carried out in 1998 by the Singapore National Health Survey (NHS). The reference population was 2.2 million multiracial Singapore residents, 18-69 years of age. A population-based survey sample (n = 4723) was selected by disproportionate stratified and systematic sampling. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were carried out on all subjects and blood samples were taken for biochemical analysis. FINDINGS: The 1998 results suggest that the National Healthy Lifestyle Programme significantly decreased regular smoking and increased regular exercise over 1992 levels and stabilized the prevalence of obesity and diabetes mellitus. However, the prevalence of high total blood cholesterol and hypertension increased. Ethnic differences in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and smoking; and in lipid profile and exercise levels were also observed. CONCLUSION: The intervention had mixed results after six years. Successful strategies have been continued and strengthened. PMID:11693972

  3. Evaluation of the national control of diarrhoeal disease programme in the Philippines, 1980-93.

    PubMed Central

    Baltazar, Jane C.; Nadera, Dinah P.; Victora, Cesar G.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of the National Control of Diarrhoeal Disease Programme (NCDDP) in the Philippines over the period 1980-93, describing levels and trends in programme activities, and relating them to severe diarrhoea morbidity and mortality among under-5-year-olds. METHODS: Routinely collected data on morbidity and mortality trends were obtained from health statistics reports of the Health Intelligence Service and the NCDDP. Socioeconomic indicators, including annual average family income and expenditures, gross national product, and unemployment rates, were derived from the Philippine population census data collected by the National Statistics Office. FINDINGS: In relation to baseline levels, diarrhoea mortality among infants and young children fell by about 5% annually over the 18-year period under review. The decline was faster than those related to acute respiratory infections (ARIs) among children of similar age and to perinatal causes. Diarrhoea hospital admission rates registered an annual decline of 2.4% relative to the baseline level. CONCLUSION:These findings suggest that the programme had a substantial impact; the period under review also witnessed some degree of improvement in other factors with positive influences on health, such as exclusive breastfeeding, nutrition and environmental sanitation. The quality, particularly completeness and reliability, of the existing data did not allow further analysis, thus, making it difficult to conclude beyond doubt that the observed trends indicate that they were solely due to NCDDP. PMID:12219155

  4. Challenges to implementing the national programme for information technology (NPfIT): a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Hendy, Jane; Reeves, Barnaby C; Fulop, Naomi; Hutchings, Andrew; Masseria, Cristina

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To describe the context for implementing the national programme for information technology (NPfIT) in England, actual and perceived barriers, and opportunities to facilitate implementation. Design Case studies and in depth interviews, with themes identified using a framework developed from grounded theory. Setting Four acute NHS trusts in England. Participants Senior trust managers and clinicians, including chief executives, directors of information technology, medical directors, and directors of nursing. Results The trusts varied in their circumstances, which may affect their ability to implement the NPfIT. The process of implementation has been suboptimal, leading to reports of low morale by the NHS staff responsible for implementation. The overall timetable is unrealistic, and trusts are uncertain about their implementation schedules. Short term benefits alone are unlikely to persuade NHS staff to adopt the national programme enthusiastically, and some may experience a loss of electronic functionality in the short term. Conclusions: The sociocultural challenges to implementing the NPfIT are as daunting as the technical and logistical ones. Senior NHS staff feel these have been neglected. We recommend that national programme managers prioritise strategies to improve communication with, and to gain the cooperation of, front line staff. PMID:16081447

  5. National programmes for validating physician competence and fitness for practice: a scoping review

    PubMed Central

    Horsley, Tanya; Lockyer, Jocelyn; Cogo, Elise; Zeiter, Jeanie; Bursey, Ford; Campbell, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore and categorise the state of existing literature for national programmes designed to affirm or establish the continuing competence of physicians. Design Scoping review. Data sources MEDLINE, ERIC, Sociological Abstracts, web/grey literature (2000–2014). Selection Included when a record described a (1) national-level physician validation system, (2) recognised as a system for affirming competence and (3) reported relevant data. Data extraction Using bibliographic software, title and abstracts were reviewed using an assessment matrix to ensure duplicate, paired screening. Dyads included both a methodologist and content expert on each assessment, reflective of evidence-informed best practices to decrease errors. Results 45 reports were included. Publication dates ranged from 2002 to 2014 with the majority of publications occurring in the previous six years (n=35). Country of origin—defined as that of the primary author—included the USA (N=32), the UK (N=8), Canada (N=3), Kuwait (N=1) and Australia (N=1). Three broad themes emerged from this heterogeneous data set: contemporary national programmes, contextual factors and terminological consistency. Four national physician validation systems emerged from the data: the American Board of Medical Specialties Maintenance of Certification Program, the Federation of State Medical Boards Maintenance of Licensure Program, the Canadian Revalidation Program and the UK Revalidation Program. Three contextual factors emerged as stimuli for the implementation of national validation systems: medical regulation, quality of care and professional competence. Finally, great variation among the definitions of key terms was identified. Conclusions There is an emerging literature focusing on national physician validation systems. Four major systems have been implemented in recent years and it is anticipated that more will follow. Much of this work is descriptive, and gaps exist for the extent to which systems build

  6. Collaborative Framework for Designing a Sustainability Science Programme: Lessons Learned at the National Autonomous University of Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charli-Joseph, Lakshmi; Escalante, Ana E.; Eakin, Hallie; Solares, Ma. José; Mazari-Hiriart, Marisa; Nation, Marcia; Gómez-Priego, Paola; Pérez-Tejada, César A. Domínguez; Bojórquez-Tapia, Luis A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The authors describe the challenges and opportunities associated with developing an interdisciplinary sustainability programme in an emerging economy and illustrate how these are addressed through the approach taken for the development of the first postgraduate programme (MSc and PhD) in sustainability science at the National Autonomous…

  7. The Australian National University Music Education Programme: Developing a New Approach to Ongoing Engagement in Music Making for All Ages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The Music Education Programme at the Australian National University has developed a new, system-wide model in music education, focusing on peer and inter-generational social engagement through music making during and beyond the school years. One aim of the programme is to find alternative ways of fostering lifelong engagement in music making. A…

  8. Delivering a national programme of anticipatory care in primary care: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, Catherine A; Mackenzie, Mhairi; Reid, Maggie; Turner, Fiona; Clark, Julia; Wang, Yinging; Sridharan, Sanjeev; Platt, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Background Primary prevention often occurs against a background of inequalities in health and health care. Addressing this requires practitioners and systems to acknowledge the contribution of health-related and social determinants and to deal with the lack of interconnectedness between health and social service providers. Recognising this, the Scottish Government has implemented a national programme of anticipatory care targeting individuals aged 45–64 years living in areas of socioeconomic deprivation and at high risk of cardiovascular disease. This programme is called Keep Well. Aim To explore the issues and tensions underpinning the implementation of a national programme of anticipatory care. Design and setting A qualitative study in five Wave 1 Keep Well pilot sites, located in urban areas of Scotland, and involving 79 general practices. Method Annual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 74 key stakeholders operating at national government level, local pilot level and within general practices, resulting in 118 interviews. Interview transcripts were analysed using the framework approach. Results Four underlying tensions were identified. First, those between a patient-focused general-practice approach versus a population-level health-improvement approach, linking disparate health and social services; secondly, medical approaches versus wider social approaches; thirdly, a population-wide approach versus individual targeting; and finally, reactive versus anticipatory care. Conclusion Implementing an anticipatory care programme to address inequalities in cardiovascular disease identified several tensions, which need to be understood and resolved in order to inform the development of such approaches in general practice and to develop systems that reduce the degree of fragmentation across health and social services. PMID:22520917

  9. Educational Vouchers for Universal Pre-Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Henry M.; Schwartz, Heather L.

    2007-01-01

    This article considers two issues regarding preschool education. First, it provides a brief set of arguments for government funding of universal, pre-school education. Second, it explores the applicability of a voucher plan using a regulated market approach for the funding of universal, pre-school education. Four criteria are used to assess the…

  10. Milwaukee Voucher Schools 2003-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Policy Forum, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This brochure provides charted reference information for Milwaukee Voucher Schools for the 2003-2004 school year. Schools are grouped by grade level; the following is included: Name, Address, Telephone, Religion/Denomination; Capacity; Total Enrollment' Milwaukee Parent Choice School Program (MPCP) percent: Number of Teachers; Years in MPCP;…

  11. Economic Modeling and Analysis of Educational Vouchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epple, Dennis; Romano, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of educational vouchers has evolved from market-based analogies to models that incorporate distinctive features of the educational environment. These distinctive features include peer effects, scope for private school pricing and admissions based on student characteristics, the linkage of household residential and school choices in…

  12. The Case for Special Education Vouchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Stuart; Greene, Jay P.

    2010-01-01

    The big battles over school vouchers in American education have focused on programs serving low-income children who live in urban areas. Milwaukee's program, begun in 1990, is the biggest and oldest in the country, and the District of Columbia effort, funded by the federal government, has been the most carefully studied. Both have been focal…

  13. [Alum Rock Voucher Project. Information Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alum Rock Union Elementary School District, San Jose, CA.

    This packet contains (1) informational booklets for parents in the Alum Rock Union Elementary School District, (2) a booklet on the pros and cons of a voucher system, (3) promotional material, (4) a progress report on the project, (5) the project proposal to OEO, and (6) a sample school and program preferences form. The program, according to the…

  14. Indiana Grapples with Impact of Voucher Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zubrzycki, Jaclyn

    2012-01-01

    As the 3,919 students who participated in the first year of Indiana's new, wide-reaching school voucher program near the end of the first semester in their new schools, the program faces its next challenge: A state court hearing opened on Dec. 19 on a lawsuit arguing the program violates Indiana's constitution. The Choice Scholarship program, one…

  15. Milwaukee Voucher Schools: 2009-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Policy Forum, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This brochure provides charted reference information for Milwaukee Voucher Schools for the 2009-2010 school year. Schools are grouped by grade level. The following is included: Name, Address, Telephone, Grades; Religion/Denomination; Enrollment; Choice Student Enrollment; Number of Teachers; School Hours; Before/After School Programs;…

  16. Sounding Rockets within Swedish National Balloon and Rocket Programme- Providing Access to Space from Esrange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjolander, K.; Karlsson, T.; Lockowandt, C.

    2015-09-01

    Initiated in 2012 by the Swedish National Space Board (SNSB), a new programme dedicated for Swedish scientists to gain access to space using balloons and sounding rockets was started. This programme promotes the possibility to ensure continuity in both the science and the technology used. The sounding rocket part of this national programme started with three possible missions. SPIDER (Small Payloads for Investigation of Disturbances in Electrojet by Rockets) from the Space and Plasma physics department of KTH, 0-STATES (Oxygen Species and Thermospheric Airglow in The Earth's Sky) from the Department of Meteorology Stockholm University (MISU) and LEEWAVES (Local Excitation and Effects of Waves on Atmospheric VErtical Structure) that is collaboration between KTH and MISU. These three missions were planned for launches in 2015 and 2016. SSc has been contracted on a launch ticket basis to provide the launch and service to the scientific instrumentation. This paper presents the SPIDER, 0-STATES and LEEWAVES missions focussing on a mission related technical solutions perspective.

  17. The Educational Voucher Intrigue: An Analysis of Its Impact on the Alum Rock Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Felix; Chacon, Gloria

    The 2 essays on educational vouchers given in this publication are: (1) "The Economics of Educational Vouchers: Schools and Parents", and (2) "The Alum Rock Voucher Program". "The Economics of Educational Vouchers: Schools and Parents" traces the roots of the voucher concept from Adam Smith to the conservative economist, Milton Friedman, to its…

  18. Progress towards malaria control targets in relation to national malaria programme funding

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Malaria control has been dramatically scaled up the past decade, mainly thanks to increasing international donor financing since 2003. This study assessed progress up to 2010 towards global malaria impact targets, in relation to Global Fund, other donor and domestic malaria programme financing over 2003 to 2009. Methods Assessments used domestic malaria financing reported by national programmes, and Global Fund/OECD data on donor financing for 90 endemic low- and middle-income countries, WHO estimates of households owning one or more insecticide-treated mosquito net (ITN) for countries in sub-Saharan Africa, and WHO-estimated malaria case incidence and deaths in countries outside sub-Saharan Africa. Results Global Fund and other donor funding is concentrated in a subset of the highest endemic African countries. Outside Africa, donor funding is concentrated in those countries with highest malaria mortality and case incidence rates over the years 2000 to 2003. ITN coverage in 2010 in Africa, and declines in case and death rates per person at risk over 2004 to 2010 outside Africa, were greatest in countries with highest donor funding per person at risk, and smallest in countries with lowest donor malaria funding per person at risk. Outside Africa, all-source malaria programme funding over 2003 to 2009 per case averted ($56-5,749) or per death averted ($58,000-3,900,000) over 2004 to 2010 tended to be lower (more favourable) in countries with higher donor malaria funding per person at risk. Conclusions Increases in malaria programme funding are associated with accelerated progress towards malaria control targets. Associations between programme funding per person at risk and ITN coverage increases and declines in case and death rates suggest opportunities to maximize the impact of donor funding, by strategic re-allocation to countries with highest continued need. PMID:23317000

  19. Establishing the European Research Area in Ageing: a network of national research programmes.

    PubMed

    Geyer, Gerda

    2005-10-01

    The following paper gives a summary of the European Commission's research policy with regard to the ERA-NET scheme and especially with regard to the ERA-AGE project that was launched in March 2004. All the partner institutions in the ERA-AGE project are main national funding agencies, research councils or ministries. Some selected examples of programme funding by the partner institutions may demonstrate their different ways of funding research and show the great variety of programmes. The long-term objective of the ERA-AGE project is to create a sustainable basis for the planning, implementation and exploitation of transnational research. In future, the European Research Area in Ageing could gain an added value from research investments by integrating existing funding mechanisms and research infrastructures, by commonly deciding on research priorities for funding activities in order to reduce fragmentation and duplication, and by the recruitment of young researchers. PMID:16154308

  20. Sudan: national health programme and primary health care 1977/78-1983/84

    PubMed Central

    Idriss, A. A.; Lolik, P.; Khan, R. A.; Benyoussef, A.

    1976-01-01

    As a follow-up to the national health programming process developed in 1975 in Sudan, a primary health care programme for the whole country was formulated with assistance from WHO. In this article the methods used in the programming and formulation are described and discussed. These methods ensured an intersectoral approach on which technical, cultural, socioeconomic, financial, and political considerations were based. Areas in the field of health and rural development requiring government and community action during the period 1977/78-1983/84 are identified. Details on the strategies for population coverage of rural and nomadic communities with primary health care are given. Fundamental to these strategies is community participation in the development of primary health care within community development as a whole. The guiding principles of these strategies are their technical, political, social and financial feasibility. The social relevance of the primary health care programme for the community and the developmental sectors is emphasized. PMID:1086739

  1. Improving Child Oral Health: Cost Analysis of a National Nursery Toothbrushing Programme

    PubMed Central

    Anopa, Yulia; McMahon, Alex D.; Conway, David I.; Ball, Graham E.; McIntosh, Emma; Macpherson, Lorna M. D.

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most common diseases of childhood. The aim of this study was to compare the cost of providing the Scotland-wide nursery toothbrushing programme with associated National Health Service (NHS) cost savings from improvements in the dental health of five-year-old children: through avoided dental extractions, fillings and potential treatments for decay. Methods Estimated costs of the nursery toothbrushing programme in 2011/12 were requested from all Scottish Health Boards. Unit costs of a filled, extracted and decayed primary tooth were calculated using verifiable sources of information. Total costs associated with dental treatments were estimated for the period from 1999/00 to 2009/10. These costs were based on the unit costs above and using the data of the National Dental Inspection Programme and then extrapolated to the population level. Expected cost savings were calculated for each of the subsequent years in comparison with the 2001/02 dental treatment costs. Population standardised analysis of hypothetical cohorts of 1000 children per deprivation category was performed. Results The estimated cost of the nursery toothbrushing programme in Scotland was £1,762,621 per year. The estimated cost of dental treatments in the baseline year 2001/02 was £8,766,297, while in 2009/10 it was £4,035,200. In 2002/03 the costs of dental treatments increased by £213,380 (2.4%). In the following years the costs decreased dramatically with the estimated annual savings ranging from £1,217,255 in 2003/04 (13.9% of costs in 2001/02) to £4,731,097 in 2009/10 (54.0%). Population standardised analysis by deprivation groups showed that the largest decrease in modelled costs was for the most deprived cohort of children. Conclusions The NHS costs associated with the dental treatments for five-year-old children decreased over time. In the eighth year of the toothbrushing programme the expected savings were more than two and a half times the costs of the

  2. The use of quantitative methods in planning national cancer control programmes*

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    There is a strong need to allocate in a rational and cost-effective way the available resources for cancer control in countries. Continuation of current priorities in resource allocation can only lead to unnecessarily high incidence, morbidity and mortality from cancer. Two cancer control models for cost-effectiveness, which were developed by WHO to help Member States set priorities in national cancer control programmes, have been tested and found useful. This article discusses cost-effectiveness analysis and describes the two models and their application in countries. PMID:3100079

  3. A cost-outcome approach to pre and post-implementation of national sports injury prevention programmes.

    PubMed

    Gianotti, Simon; Hume, Patria A

    2007-12-01

    In New Zealand (NZ), the Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC) has developed a pre and post-implementation cost-outcome formulae for sport injury prevention to provide information regarding the success of a prevention programme. The ACC provides for the cost of all personal injuries in NZ and invests in prevention programmes to offset 1.6 million annual claims that cost $NZD 1.9 billion. The ACC invests in nine national community sport injury prevention programmes that represent 40% of sport claims and costs. Pre-implementation is used to determine the decision whether to invest in implementation and to determine the level of such investment for the injury prevention programme. Post-implementation is calculated two ways: unadjusted, assuming ceteris paribus; and adjusted assuming no prevention programme was in place. Post-implementation formulae provide a return on investment (ROI) for each dollar invested in the programme and cost-savings. The cost-outcome formulae approach allows ACC to manage expectations of the prevention programme as well as when it will provide a ROI, allowing it to take a long-term view for investment in sport injury prevention. Originally developed for its sport injury prevention programmes, the cost-outcome formulae have now been applied to the other prevention programmes ACC invests in such as home, road and workplace injury prevention. PMID:17353149

  4. Establishment and Development of a National Newborn Screening Programme for Congenital Hypothyroidism in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Dilli, Dilek; Özbaş, Sema; Acıcan, Deniz; Yamak, Nergiz; Ertek, Mustafa; Dilmen, Uğur

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the Turkish National Newborn Screening Programme (NNSP) for congenital hypothyroidism (CH). Retrospective study based on the data from NNSP. Methods: Since December 2006, a nationwide screening programme for CH has been conducted in Turkey by the Turkish Directorate of Public Health (TDPH) in cooperation with several institutions. We evaluated the database between January 2008 and July 2010 of this programme. According to the methodology of the NNSP, between three and five days of age (or at discharge from the hospital, if this occurs earlier) blood specimens were routinely collected from neonates on filter paper, by puncturing the heel. The accepted thyroid-stimulating hormone cut-off level for recall was 20 mU/L initially and 15 mU/L subsequently. The incidence of possible CH by years was reported. Results: During the evaluation period, 3223765 newborns were tested. The mean annual incidence of possible CH showed a gradual increase over the years (1:888 in 2008, 1:592 in 2009, and 1:469 in 2010). Regional differences were noted. Although the mean age of blood sampling did not change by years, the mean age at notification for suspected CH decreased from 19.2 to 15.7 days from 2008 to 2010. Conclusions: We reported the first assessment of NNSP in Turkey. An improvement in performance measures for the CH screening programme has been noted. Knowledge on incidence of confirmed CH is not yet available in the database. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:23748057

  5. Monitoring HIV Prevention Programme Outcomes among Key Populations in Kenya: Findings from a National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Musyoki, Helgar; Anthony, John; Kioko, Japheth; Kaosa, Shem; Ogwang, Bernard E.; Githuka, George; Sirengo, Martin; Birir, Sarah; Blanchard, James F.; Muraguri, Nicholas; Isac, Shajy; Moses, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    In preparation for the implementation of the Kenya AIDS Strategic Framework 2014/15-2018/19, the Kenya National AIDS and STI Control Programme facilitated a national polling booth survey as part of a baseline assessment of HIV-related risk behaviours among FSWs, MSM, and PWID, and their utilization of existing preventive interventions, as well as structural factors that may influence KPs’ vulnerability to HIV. The survey was conducted among “key populations” (female sex workers, men who have sex with men, and people who inject drugs) to understand current HIV risk and prevention behaviours, utilization of existing programmes and services, and experiences of violence. In total, 3,448 female sex workers, 1,308 men who have sex with men, and 690 people who inject drugs were randomly selected to participate in polling booth survey sessions from seven priority sites. Survey responses were aggregated and descriptive statistics derived. In general, reported condom use among all key populations was quite high with paying clients, and lower with regular, non-paying partners. Many participants reported unavailability of condoms or clean injecting equipment within the past month. Exposure to, and utilization of, existing HIV prevention services varied significantly among the groups, and was reported least commonly by female sex workers. Encouragingly, approximately three-quarters of all key population members reported receiving an HIV test in the past three months. All key population groups reported experiencing high levels of physical and sexual violence from partners/clients, and/or arrest and violence by law enforcement officials. Although some of the findings are encouraging, there is room for improvement in HIV prevention programmes and services for key populations across Kenya. PMID:26313642

  6. Monitoring HIV Prevention Programme Outcomes among Key Populations in Kenya: Findings from a National Survey.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Parinita; McClarty, Leigh M; Musyoki, Helgar; Anthony, John; Kioko, Japheth; Kaosa, Shem; Ogwang, Bernard E; Githuka, George; Sirengo, Martin; Birir, Sarah; Blanchard, James F; Muraguri, Nicholas; Isac, Shajy; Moses, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    In preparation for the implementation of the Kenya AIDS Strategic Framework 2014/15-2018/19, the Kenya National AIDS and STI Control Programme facilitated a national polling booth survey as part of a baseline assessment of HIV-related risk behaviours among FSWs, MSM, and PWID, and their utilization of existing preventive interventions, as well as structural factors that may influence KPs' vulnerability to HIV. The survey was conducted among "key populations" (female sex workers, men who have sex with men, and people who inject drugs) to understand current HIV risk and prevention behaviours, utilization of existing programmes and services, and experiences of violence. In total, 3,448 female sex workers, 1,308 men who have sex with men, and 690 people who inject drugs were randomly selected to participate in polling booth survey sessions from seven priority sites. Survey responses were aggregated and descriptive statistics derived. In general, reported condom use among all key populations was quite high with paying clients, and lower with regular, non-paying partners. Many participants reported unavailability of condoms or clean injecting equipment within the past month. Exposure to, and utilization of, existing HIV prevention services varied significantly among the groups, and was reported least commonly by female sex workers. Encouragingly, approximately three-quarters of all key population members reported receiving an HIV test in the past three months. All key population groups reported experiencing high levels of physical and sexual violence from partners/clients, and/or arrest and violence by law enforcement officials. Although some of the findings are encouraging, there is room for improvement in HIV prevention programmes and services for key populations across Kenya. PMID:26313642

  7. [Childhood vaccinations anno 2004. I. Effectiveness and acceptance of the Dutch National Vaccination Programme].

    PubMed

    Rümke, H C; Visser, H K

    2004-02-21

    Vaccinations are the most effective measures in public health. In the Netherlands after the second world war the morbidity and mortality of infectious diseases were a great problem. Nowadays these diseases are gone or reduced at a minimal level and for the greater part under control. The Dutch National Vaccination Programme aims at 10 infectious diseases. In the Netherlands there has always been a relatively small group of religious people who live together and reject vaccinations. Since the start of the vaccination programme in this group several small epidemics of poliomyelitis and measles have been observed. The other dispersed living non-vaccinated people are protected by herd-immunity, as long as the vaccination coverage is above 90%. During recent years an increasing number of people have doubts over the use and safety of vaccinations. There is a worldwide anti-vaccination movement, in the Netherlands represented by the 'Nederlandse Vereniging Kritisch Prikken'. The finding that there is now a greater spread of areas with a low or insufficient vaccination coverage, is cause for concern because experiences in several countries have shown that infectious diseases with all complications will recur when the vaccination percentage decreases. There is no scientific support for the hypothesis that vaccinations overwhelm or weaken the immune system of infants and there is no objection to start with vaccination at the age of two months. Anthroposofic and homeopathic arguments are neither scientifically, nor practically supported. Good promotion and education about the vaccination programme is of great importance and can be improved. Parents should make decisions based on good, objective information. Possible risks and side effects of vaccination should not be concealed. PMID:15032088

  8. Introducing auto-disable syringes to the national immunization programme in Madagascar.

    PubMed Central

    Drain, Paul K.; Ralaivao, Josoa S.; Rakotonandrasana, Alexander; Carnell, Mary A.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and coverage benefits of auto-disable (AD) syringes, weighed against the financial and logis- tical costs, and to create appropriate health policies in Madagascar. METHODS: Fifteen clinics in Madagascar, trained to use AD syringes, were randomized to implement an AD syringe only, mixed (AD syringes used only on non-routine immunization days), or sterilizable syringe only (control) programme. During a five-week period, data on administered vaccinations were collected, interviews were conducted, and observations were recorded. FINDINGS: The use of AD syringes improved coverage rates by significantly increasing the percentage of vaccines administered on non-routine immunization days (AD-only 4.3%, mixed 5.7%, control 1.1% (P<0.05)). AD-only clinics eliminated sterilization sessions for vaccinations, whereas mixed clinics reduced the number of sterilization sessions by 64%. AD syringes were five times more expensive than sterilizable syringes, which increased AD-only and mixed clinics' projected annual injection costs by 365% and 22%, respectively. However, introducing AD syringes for all vaccinations would only increase the national immunization budget by 2%. CONCLUSION: The use of AD syringes improved vaccination coverage rates by providing ready-to-use sterile syringes on non-routine immunization days and decreasing the number of sterilization sessions, thereby improving injection safety. The mixed programme was the most beneficial approach to phasing in AD syringes and diminishing logistical complications, and it had minimal costs. AD syringes, although more expensive, can feasibly be introduced into a developing country's immunization programme to improve vaccination safety and coverage. PMID:14576886

  9. The Gambian National Impregnated Bednet Programme: evaluation of the 1994 cost recovery trial.

    PubMed

    Müller, O; Cham, K; Jaffar, S; Greenwood, B

    1997-06-01

    Following the success of a controlled trial of insecticide-impregnated bednets in reducing mortality in children. The Gambia started a National Impregnated Bednet Programme (NIBP) in 1992. The objectives of this programme were to introduce impregnated bednets into all primary health care (PHC) villages and to establish a system of cost recovery over a three-year period. During the initial phase of the programme, when insecticide was given out free, a high uptake was achieved. However, after small user charges were introduced in 1993, coverage dropped to a low level. In 1994, different systems of insecticide distribution and permethrin formulations were tried in an attempt to improve coverage. A nationwide cross-sectional survey carried out during the 1994 rainy season measured coverage by distribution channel, as well as the knowledge, attitudes and practices of health workers and villagers during the intervention. Overall, only 16% of bednets were impregnated in 1994, compared to 80% when the insecticide was offered free of charge in previous years. Lack of money was the major reason given by villagers for not impregnating their bednets in 1994. Use of impregnated bednets was higher in areas where the sale of permethrin emulsion by village health workers was supplemented by the sale of insecticide in individual packages through shops. In villages where insecticide was distributed free to women with small children through governmental mother and child health (MCH) services, higher levels of coverage were achieved among women and young children than in villages where other distribution systems were used. We conclude that the sale of insecticide through the private sector may increase bednet impregnation rates in African communities, and that the free distribution of insecticide through MCH services may be an effective way of targeting young children, the group most at risk of malaria. PMID:9194251

  10. An assessment of opportunities and challenges for public sector involvement in the maternal health voucher program in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Continued inequities in coverage, low quality of care, and high out-of-pocket expenses for health services threaten attainment of Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 in many sub-Saharan African countries. Existing health systems largely rely on input-based supply mechanisms that have a poor track record meeting the reproductive health needs of low-income and underserved segments of national populations. As a result, there is increased interest in and experimentation with results-based mechanisms like supply-side performance incentives to providers and demand-side vouchers that place purchasing power in the hands of low-income consumers to improve uptake of facility services and reduce the burden of out-of-pocket expenditures. This paper describes a reproductive health voucher program that contracts private facilities in Uganda and explores the policy and implementation issues associated with expansion of the program to include public sector facilities. Methods Data presented here describes the results of interviews of six district health officers and four health facility managers purposefully selected from seven districts with the voucher program in southwestern Uganda. Interviews were transcribed and organized thematically, barriers to seeking RH care were identified, and how to address the barriers in a context where voucher coverage is incomplete as well as opportunities and challenges for expanding the program by involving public sector facilities were investigated. Results The findings show that access to sexual and reproductive health services in southwestern Uganda is constrained by both facility and individual level factors which can be addressed by inclusion of the public facilities in the program. This will widen the geographical reach of facilities for potential clients, effectively addressing distance related barriers to access of health care services. Further, intensifying ongoing health education, continuous monitoring and evaluation, and

  11. Human papillomavirus infection in Bhutan at the moment of implementation of a national HPV vaccination programme

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is the most common female cancer in Bhutan, the first low/middle-income country to implement a national human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme. Methods To provide a robust baseline for future evaluations of vaccine effectiveness, cervical cell specimens were obtained from 2,505 women aged 18–69 years from the general population, and biopsies from 211 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) and 112 invasive cervical cancer (ICC) cases. Samples were tested for HPV using GP5+/6+ PCR. Results Among the general population, HPV prevalence was 26%, being highest (33%) in women ≤24 years, but remaining above 15% in all age-groups. Determinants of HPV included age, marital status, and number of sexual partners. Among the eight percent with cytological abnormalities, 24 CIN3 and 4 ICC were histologically confirmed. Even after additional testing with a sensitive E7 PCR, no infections with vaccine-targeted HPV types were detected in the few vaccinated women (n = 34) compared to 6% prevalence in unvaccinated women of similar age (p = 0 · 215). Conclusion Based upon type-specific prevalence among biopsies, at least 70% of ICC in Bhutan are theoretically preventable by HPV16/18 vaccination, but screening programmes should be expanded among older women, who have an important underlying burden of CIN3 and ICC. PMID:25047665

  12. Medication education in nursing programmes in Finland--findings from a national survey.

    PubMed

    Sulosaari, Virpi; Huupponen, Risto; Torniainen, Kirsti; Hupli, Maija; Puukka, Pauli; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2014-01-01

    Medication management is one of the fundamental roles of nurses. Deficiencies in registered nurses' medication competence have been highlighted in previous research. It is important to ensure adequate medication competence to ensure safe practice upon graduation to nursing profession. Yet, little is known of the current medication education in undergraduate nursing programmes. This study aims to describe the current medication education in Finland. More precisely, we explored the curriculum content, teaching and evaluation methods. A national survey in which data was collected with two questionnaires was conducted: one targeted programme managers responsible for curriculum (n = 22) and the other one teachers (n = 136) involved with medication education. The data was analyzed statistically. The amount of medication education varied between the polytechnic schools involved. It appears that the content of teaching is quite comprehensive. However, we found under-emphasis on theoretical basis of medication care. This result is worrying since the understanding of the principles is essential for safe delivery of medication care. Also more emphasis on the use of self-treatment medications and therefore on patient education is warranted. The most often used teaching methods were lectures and skill laboratories. In all of the polytechnic schools, nurse students' medication competence was regularly evaluated. Based on previous research, there is scope for educational initiatives to improve nurse students' medication competence. Therefore, it is important to develop medication education to ensure that medication education with relevant content and with contemporary and evidence-based methods is provided during nurses' basic education. PMID:25632730

  13. Telemedicine for retinal care in developing nations: the ORBIS Cyber-Sight programme, 2003-2011.

    PubMed

    Amin, Sarina; Patel, Rikin; Beilan, Jonathan; Helveston, Eugene M; Shaikh, Saad

    2014-05-29

    ORBIS International has provided a web-based ophthalmic disease consultation service, Cyber-Sight, for developing nations since 2003. The system connects partner physicians with mentor physicians. We have reviewed consultations concerning retinal cases submitted from June 2003 to December 2011. Of 943 retinal consultations reviewed, 117 were excluded, mainly for reasons of technical limitations at the partner sites. Of the 826 included cases, 504 patients were male and 322 were female. The average age of the patients was 43 years (range 2 months to 86 years). Cases were submitted from partner physicians in 30 countries, with five countries accounting for 82% of the cases (India, Vietnam, Indonesia, China, Jordan). There was a rise in the case submission rate to a peak of 251 cases in 2010. The mean consultant response time was 5 days (SD 9). The mean time to case closure was 19 days (SD 92). The most common diagnoses were diabetic retinopathy (n = 101), retinal vascular occlusion (n = 75) and retinal detachment (n = 61). The working diagnosis submitted by the partner did not match the mentor's diagnosis in 153 cases (19%). The number of incorrect initial partner diagnoses demonstrates that the teleretinal programme serves a useful diagnostic role for partner physicians. The Cyber-Sight programme is a viable method of delivering advanced retinal expertise to partner institutions and increasing capacity for partner doctors in the developing world. PMID:24875929

  14. Indian National GNSS Programme: Crustal deformation measurements in the Indian Sub-continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Mithila; Bansal, Brijesh K.

    2012-05-01

    The Indian National GNSS Programme was launched about one and half decades ago with a view to provide a boost to crustal deformation measurements for constraining the movement of Indian plate, identifying the regions of strain accumulation, and to estimate the convergence rates across some identified faults/boundaries. Under this programme, a network of 50 permanent GPS receivers has been established, which is fully functional for the last about 8 yrs. The network has generated very important data sets, which in turn have helped in the estimation of Indian plate motion, regions and rate of strain accumulation, rate of convergence across some identified faults, etc. The measurements have also been utilized in monitoring co-seismic and postseismic deformation related to recent earthquakes that occurred in India and adjoining regions, such as the 2001 Bhuj, 2004 Sumatra-Andaman and 2005 Kashmir earthquake. This article presents some salient results obtained for specific corridors in the Himalaya, Indo-Burmese arc region, Andaman-Nicobar Island region and Indian plate interior region.

  15. Buruli Ulcer in Cameroon: The Development and Impact of the National Control Programme

    PubMed Central

    Tabah, Earnest Njih; Nsagha, Dickson Shey; Bissek, Anne-Cécile Zoung-Kanyi; Njamnshi, Alfred Kongnyu; Bratschi, Martin W.; Pluschke, Gerd; Um Boock, Alphonse

    2016-01-01

    Background Cameroon is endemic for Buruli ulcer (BU) and organised institutional BU control began in 2002. The objective was to describe the evolution, achievements and challenges of the national BU control programme (NBUCP) and to make suggestions for scaling up the programme. Methods We analysed collated data on BU from 2001 to 2014 and reviewed activity reports NBUCP in Cameroon. Case-detection rates and key BU control indicators were calculated and plotted on a time scale to determine trends in performance. A linear regression analysis of BU detection rate from 2005–2014 was done. The regression coefficient was tested statistically for the significance in variation of BU detection rate. Principal findings In 14 years of BU control, 3700 cases were notified. The BU detection rate dropped significantly from 3.89 to 1.45 per 100 000 inhabitants. The number of BU endemic health districts rose from two to 64. Five BU diagnostic and treatment centres are functional and two more are planned for 2015. The health system has been strengthened and BU research and education has gained more interest in Cameroon. Conclusion/Significance Although institutional BU control Cameroon only began 30 years after the first cases were reported in 1969, a number of milestones have been attained. These would serve as stepping stones for charting the way forward and improving upon control activities in the country if the major challenge of resource allocation is dealt with. PMID:26760499

  16. Evaluating Voucher Programs: The Milwaukee Parental Choice Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, John F.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is the first summary of two studies and 10 years of evaluating the Milwaukee Parental Choice (voucher) Program (MPCP). This paper discusses school voucher evaluations in general terms and how these studies are carried out. The paper outlines the types of studies completed in "Study I" and "Study II" and the results…

  17. Educational Voucher Demonstration Archive: Project-Level Documentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leinwand (C.M.) Associates, Inc., Newton, MA.

    This report describes the Educational Voucher Demonstration, serves as a guide for its documentation, and offers an extensive bibliography. Part 1 gives background information and summarizes the implementation of the Alum Rock Demonstration based on a transitional voucher model and involving six public schools, each offering at least two distinct…

  18. Parental Decision Making in an Education Voucher System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridge, R. Gary

    Parental decisionmaking is the keystone of any voucher model. This paper examines the parental decisionmaking process as it has unfolded in the educational voucher experiment in the Alum Rock school system near San Jose, California. The author assumed at the outset that parents cannot make intelligent choices between schooling alternatives if they…

  19. Education Vouchers. Working Paper in Education Finance No. 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, C. Kent

    In this background paper, the author provides a brief history of the educational voucher and outlines various suggested voucher plans. Included is a discussion of the plan that was tried at Alum Rock, California, and the plans that were voted on in statewide referendums in Michigan and California. The author provides a list of the pros and cons of…

  20. Vouchers and Educational Freedom: A Debate. Policy Analysis No. 269.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bast, Joseph L.; And Others

    Advocates of educational freedom disagree about whether school vouchers would liberate schools and families and lead to greater freedom of choice or trap private schools in a web of subsidy and regulation that would destroy their independence and quality. In this exchange of opinions, Joseph L. Bast and David Harmer argue that voucher plans would…

  1. School Vouchers in a Climate of Political Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Lenford C.; King, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    Legal scrutiny of school voucher policies initially focused on the establishment clause concerning with allocating public dollars to schools sponsored by religious organizations. In recent years, advocates asserted that the exclusion of faith-based organizations from voucher plans that permit expenditures in secular private organizations violates…

  2. Under the Law: Vouchers Multiply Even without Public Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Public funding of private K-12 schooling through vouchers continues to be a contentious issue across the U.S., even though a solid majority of Americans continues to oppose them. The voucher plans run the risk of legal challenge for how they handle the rights of students with disabilities and whether they violate state constitutional provisions…

  3. A Nineteenth-Century French Proposal to Use School Vouchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Vliet, W.; Smyth, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    In light of the current American interest in school vouchers as proposed by economist Milton Friedman, recapitulates the origins, content, and fate of an 1872 law drafted by a French parliamentary commission to establish a countrywide voucher scheme for primary schools. (NEC)

  4. Colorado's Voucher Law: Examining the Claim of Fiscal Neutrality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welner, Kevin G.

    2004-01-01

    Colorado's voucher law was declared unconstitutional by the Colorado Supreme Court on June 28, 2004. Voucher supporters have begun drafting revised legislation designed to address the legal problem. This article calls into question the key financial claim of revenue neutrality--a claim that was central to the promotion and passage of the departing…

  5. 7 CFR 97.7 - Deposit of Voucher Specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... types. As regards the deposit of voucher specimen material for purposes of plant variety protection applications under 7 U.S.C. 2321 et seq., the term voucher specimen shall include material that is capable of... cells, cell lines, and plots of vegetative material of self-incompatible parental lines of hybrids....

  6. Competitive Effects of Means-Tested School Vouchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figlio, David N.; Hart, Cassandra M. D.

    2010-01-01

    School choice options--including both voucher and neo-voucher options like tuition tax credit funded scholarship programs--have become increasingly prevalent in recent years (Howell, Peterson, Wolf and Campbell, 2006). One popular argument for school choice policies, drawing from economic theory, is that public schools will improve the education…

  7. What We Know about Vouchers: The Facts behind the Rhetoric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelsheimer, Erica

    This report examines research on education vouchers. It discusses how most studies have focused on the systems in place in Milwaukee, Cleveland, and New York City. Although researchers have accused each other of specious findings, some generally consistent results have arisen: families that are served by vouchers are generally low income, parents…

  8. The Voucher Decision: Charting the New Landscape of School Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Mark; Gehring, John; Gewertz, Catherine; Zehr, Mary Ann; Robelen, Eric W.

    2002-01-01

    These articles highlight reactions to the U.S. Supreme Court's landmark ruling upholding the Cleveland voucher program. "Justices Settle Case, Nettle Policy Debate" (Mark Walsh) discusses how the ruling has rejuvenated the school choice movement and reinvigorated debates over how best to improve education for all students. "Voucher Battles Head to…

  9. Integration of hepatitis B vaccination into national immunisation programmes. Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board.

    PubMed Central

    Van Damme, P.; Kane, M.; Meheus, A.

    1997-01-01

    Hepatitis B is a major public health problem even though safe and effective vaccines have been available for over 10 years. Because hepatitis B infection is largely asymptomatic with long term complications occurring after many years it has not received the attention it deserves. Strategies to immunise those at high risk have failed to control the disease. Delegates to the World Health Assembly of the World Health Organisation recommended in May 1992 that all countries should integrate hepatitis B vaccination into their national immunisation programmes by 1997. Some western European countries remain unconvinced that the burden of disease warrants the expense of universal vaccination. However, epidemiological data and economic evaluation show that universal hepatitis B vaccination is cost effective in countries with low endemicity and that it will control hepatitis B, reinforcing the necessity for action. PMID:9112852

  10. Depleted Uranium—Experience of the United Nations Environmental Programme Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Åkerblom, Gustav

    2008-08-01

    Depleted Uranium (DU) is used in ammunition designed for armour-piercing. DU was used in the Gulf war 1991, wars in Bosnia 1994-1995, Kosovo 1999 and Iraq 2003. The United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) Post-Conflict Branch investigated sites where DU was used and evaluated health and environmental risks during missions to Kosovo, Serbia and Bosnia. During a mission to Lebanon in 2006, UNEP also sampled areas where DU was supposed to have been used but did not find any DU. Due to the grave risks to the lives of UN personnel, no UNEP mission was carried out in Iraq. UNEP has provided training for personnel engaged in decontamination of DU in Bosnia and Iraq.

  11. Market-Based Higher Education: Does Colorado's Voucher Model Improve Higher Education Access and Efficiency?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillman, Nicholas W.; Tandberg, David A.; Gross, Jacob P. K.

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, Colorado introduced the nation's first voucher model for financing public higher education. With state appropriations now allocated to students, rather than institutions, state officials expect this model to create cost efficiencies while also expanding college access. Using difference-in-difference regression analysis, we find…

  12. Educational Vouchers and Social Cohesion: A Statistical Analysis of Student Civic Attitudes in Sweden, 1999-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb; Myers, John P.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the Swedish national educational voucher scheme and changes in social cohesion. We conduct a statistical analysis using data from the 1999 and 2009 rounds of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement's civic education study of 14-year-old students and their attitudes toward the rights of…

  13. Voucher-based incentives. A substance abuse treatment innovation.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Stephen T; Alessi, Sheila M; Dantona, Robert L

    2002-01-01

    In this report we provide an overview of research on the voucher-based incentives approach to substance abuse treatment. This approach was originally developed as a novel method for improving retention and increasing cocaine abstinence among cocaine-dependent outpatients. The efficacy of vouchers for those purposes is now well established, and plans are underway to move the intervention into effectiveness testing in community clinics. The use of vouchers also has been extended to the treatment of alcohol, marijuana, nicotine, and opioid dependence. Particularly noteworthy is that vouchers hold promise as an efficacious intervention with special populations of substance abusers, including pregnant and recently postpartum women, adolescents, and those with serious mental illness. Overall, voucher-based incentives hold promise as an innovative treatment intervention that has efficacy across a wide range of substance abuse problems and populations. PMID:12369474

  14. The Early Experience in Vouchering On-The-Job Training: A Report on Progress in the Portland Voucher Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Ann; Sharp, Laure M.

    The report describes the first few months of operation of an experimental Work Incentive Program (WIN) in Portland, Oregon to test the feasibility of the use of vouchers for on-the-job training (OJT). Voucher holders were required to decide on a training occupation, and then locate and negotiate for an employer to provide the training. WIN staff…

  15. The Future Of Vouchers: Lessons from the Adoption, Design, and Court Challenges of Florida's Three Voucher Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Douglas N.; Herrington, Carolyn D.; Albee, Amy

    2007-01-01

    This study considers why Florida has been the most aggressive state in adopting school vouchers. Vouchers are consistent with Florida's tradition of aggressive educational accountability policies, arising from the state's moderate social conservatism, openness to privatization, and state demographic characteristics. Even with this fertile…

  16. From Theory to Practice: Considerations for Implementing a Statewide Voucher System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Denis P.

    This monograph analyzes trends in American educational philosophy and history in its proposal to implement an all-public statewide school voucher system. Following an introduction, section 1, "Alternative Voucher Systems," discusses three concepts: universal unregulated vouchers, favored by Milton Friedman; regulated compensatory vouchers,…

  17. Looking Inside the Black Box: What School Factors Explain Voucher Gains in Washington, DC?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Patrick J.; Hoople, Daniel S.

    2006-01-01

    Several evaluations of private school voucher programs in the United States have reported achievement gains for voucher users, particularly African Americans. These studies tend to be structured as Randomized Field Trials (RFTs) in which participants are assigned to treatment (offered a voucher) and control (not offered a voucher) groups by…

  18. Looking inside the Black Box: What School Factors Explain Voucher Gains in Washington, D.C.?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Patrick J.

    Recently, a number of evaluations of private school voucher programs in the United States have reported achievement gains for voucher users, especially African Americans. These studies tend to be structured as Randomized Field Trials (RFTs), where participants are assigned to treatment (offered a voucher) and control (not offered a voucher) groups…

  19. Diffusion of an e-learning programme among Danish General Practitioners: A nation-wide prospective survey

    PubMed Central

    Waldorff, Frans Boch; Steenstrup, Annette Plesner; Nielsen, Bente; Rubak, Jens; Bro, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    Background We were unable to identify studies that have considered the diffusion of an e-learning programme among a large population of general practitioners. The aim of this study was to investigate the uptake of an e-learning programme introduced to General Practitioners as part of a nation-wide disseminated dementia guideline. Methods A prospective study among all 3632 Danish GPs. The GPs were followed from the launching of the e-learning programme in November 2006 and 6 months forward. Main outcome measures: Use of the e-learning programme. A logistic regression model (GEE) was used to identify predictors for use of the e-learning programme. Results In the study period, a total of 192 different GPs (5.3%) were identified as users, and 17% (32) had at least one re-logon. Among responders at first login most have learnt about the e-learning programme from written material (41%) or from the internet (44%). A total of 94% of the users described their ability of conducting a diagnostic evaluation as good or excellent. Most of the respondents used the e-learning programme due to general interest (90%). Predictors for using the e-learning programme were Males (OR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.1; 2.0) and members of Danish College of General Practice (OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.5; 3.1), whereas age, experience and working place did not seem to be influential. Conclusion Only few Danish GPs used the e-learning programme in the first 6 months after the launching. Those using it were more often males and members of Danish College of General Practice. Based on this study we conclude, that an active implementation is needed, also when considering electronic formats of CME like e-learning. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00392483. PMID:18439279

  20. Community experiences and perceptions of reproductive health vouchers in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Research on demand-side health care financing approaches such as output-based aid (OBA) programs have focused on evaluating the role of the programs improving such outcomes as utilization of services and quality of services with limited focus on the experiences and perceptions of the target communities. This paper examines community members’ views of the output-based aid voucher program in Kenya. Methods A household survey was conducted in 2010 among 1,336 women aged 15-49 years living in the catchment areas of contracted health facilities in three districts participating in the voucher program (Kisumu, Kiambu and Kitui). Twenty seven focus group discussions were conducted with voucher users, non-users, opinion leaders and voucher distributors in the three districts as well as in Nairobi. Analysis of the quantitative data involved frequency distributions and cross-tabulations. Qualitative data were transcribed and analyzed by adopting framework analysis and further triangulation of themes across respondents. Results Majority (84%) of survey respondents had heard about the safe motherhood voucher compared to 24% and 1% that had heard about the family planning and gender-based violence recovery services (GBVRS) vouchers respectively. Similarly, 20% of the respondents had used the safe motherhood voucher compared to 2% for family planning and none for the GBVRS vouchers. From the community members’ perspectives, the voucher program is associated with improvements in access to health services for poor women, improved quality of care, and empowerment of women to make health care decisions. However, community members cited difficulties in accessing some accredited health facilities, limitations with the system of selling vouchers, lack of male involvement in women’s reproductive health issues, and poor understanding of the benefits associated with purchasing the voucher. Conclusion The findings of this paper showed that the voucher program in Kenya is

  1. Policies Regulating the Assignments of the Bachelor of Education Programme of Indira Gandhi National Open University: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bose, Sutapa

    2016-01-01

    This case study examines the policies formulated by the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU), an open and distance learning university of India for regulating the practices related to the assignments of its Bachelor of Education programme. Following the examination it argues that some policies are formulated in the context of the…

  2. Cultural Differences in Learning and Implications for Distance Delivery of Educational Programmes to Developing Nations: A Case Study in Fiji

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Morris W.

    2008-01-01

    Shanahan (2006) found that to be effective the delivery of distance learning programmes to developing nations had to overcome certain constraints, such as cultural constrictions (i.e., issues of language), tradition-based limitations (i.e., paternalistic and hierarchical structures), an inherited past (colonialism), and poor infrastructure…

  3. International Education in a National Context: Introducing the International Baccalaureate Middle Years Programme in Dutch Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visser, Alderik

    2010-01-01

    Some bilingual secondary schools in the Netherlands have introduced or are introducing the International Baccalaureate (IB) Middle Years Programme (MYP).The implementation of this international scheme at (semi-) public national Dutch schools proves anything but unproblematic. Based on a series of questionnaires filled out by school managers and…

  4. ASE and the New National Curriculum Programme of...Study for Primary Science--Your Views "Were" Heard!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naylor, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    The new National Curriculum Programme of Study for primary science in England includes most of the topics with which primary teachers are familiar. However, when looking at the science enquiry section, the changes are much more far-reaching. Science enquiry has been renamed as "working scientifically" and is integrated with developing…

  5. Knowledge and Practice of Sun Protection in Schools in South Africa Where No National Sun Protection Programme Exists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Caradee Y.; Reeder, Anthony I.; Albers, Patricia N.

    2016-01-01

    Interventions in primary schools that increase sun-protective behaviours and decrease ultraviolet radiation exposure, sunburn incidence and skin cancer risk can be effective. SunSmart School Accreditation Programmes (SSAP) are recommended. Prior to SSAP implementation in South Africa, we explored the feasibility of obtaining national baseline…

  6. Contingency management voucher redemption as an indicator of delayed gratification.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jesse B; Dierst-Davies, Rhodri; Reback, Cathy J

    2014-07-01

    This prospective analysis tested whether frequency of voucher redemptions during a contingency management (CM) substance use intervention was significantly associated with participants' ongoing substance use. Homeless, substance-dependent men who have sex with men (N=131) were randomized into either a "full" or "lite" voucher-based CM intervention. All participants earned vouchers for attendance and participation; participants in the CM-full condition also received vouchers for substance abstinence and enactment of prosocial and/or health-promoting behaviors. Multivariate longitudinal negative binomial regression analyses (n=118) assessed the association between substance use during the intervention and frequency of voucher redemptions. Participants who used methamphetamine (IRR=0.66; 95% CI=0.44-0.99) and/or opiates (IRR=0.60; 95% CI=0.40-0.99) during the intervention exhibited less time between voucher redemptions than individuals who achieved abstinence from these substances. Voucher redemption logs can be cost-effective and unobtrusive tools for measuring study participants' tendency to delay gratification. PMID:24674235

  7. Preparing the Dutch delta for future droughts: model based support in the national Delta Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ter Maat, Judith; Haasnoot, Marjolijn; van der Vat, Marnix; Hunink, Joachim; Prinsen, Geert; Visser, Martijn

    2014-05-01

    Keywords: uncertainty, policymaking, adaptive policies, fresh water management, droughts, Netherlands, Dutch Deltaprogramme, physically-based complex model, theory-motivated meta-model To prepare the Dutch Delta for future droughts and water scarcity, a nation-wide 4-year project, called Delta Programme, is established to assess impacts of climate scenarios and socio-economic developments and to explore policy options. The results should contribute to a national adaptive plan that is able to adapt to future uncertain conditions, if necessary. For this purpose, we followed a model-based step-wise approach, wherein both physically-based complex models and theory-motivated meta-models were used. First step (2010-2011) was to make a quantitative problem description. This involved a sensitivity analysis of the water system for drought situations under current and future conditions. The comprehensive Dutch national hydrological instrument was used for this purpose and further developed. Secondly (2011-2012) our main focus was on making an inventory of potential actions together with stakeholders. We assessed efficacy, sell-by date of actions, and reassessed vulnerabilities and opportunities for the future water supply system if actions were (not) taken. A rapid assessment meta-model was made based on the complex model. The effects of all potential measures were included in the tool. Thirdly (2012-2013), with support of the rapid assessment model, we assessed the efficacy of policy actions over time for an ensemble of possible futures including sea level rise and climate and land use change. Last step (2013-2014) involves the selection of preferred actions from a set of promising actions that meet the defined objectives. These actions are all modeled and evaluated using the complex model. The outcome of the process will be an adaptive management plan. The adaptive plan describes a set of preferred policy pathways - sequences of policy actions - to achieve targets under

  8. Understanding Heterogeneity in the Impact of National Neglected Tropical Disease Control Programmes: Evidence from School-Based Deworming in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Nikolay, Birgit; Mwandawiro, Charles S.; Kihara, Jimmy H.; Okoyo, Collins; Cano, Jorge; Mwanje, Mariam T.; Sultani, Hadley; Alusala, Dorcas; Turner, Hugo C.; Teti, Caroline; Garn, Josh; Freeman, Matthew C.; Allen, Elizabeth; Anderson, Roy M.; Pullan, Rachel L.; Njenga, Sammy M.; Brooker, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The implementation of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) treatment programmes occurs in varied environmental, social and economic contexts. Programme impact will be influenced by factors that affect the reduction in the prevalence and intensity of infections following treatment, as well as the subsequent rate of reinfection. To better understand the heterogeneity of programme impact and its underlying reasons, we investigated the influence of contextual factors on reduction in STH infection as part of the national school based deworming (SBD) programme in Kenya. Materials and Methods Data on the prevalence and intensity of infection were collected within the monitoring and evaluation component of the SBD programme at baseline and after delivery of two annual treatment rounds in 153 schools in western Kenya. Using a framework that considers STH epidemiology and transmission dynamics, capacity to deliver treatment, operational feasibility and financial capacity, data were assembled at both school and district (county) levels. Geographic heterogeneity of programme impact was assessed by descriptive and spatial analyses. Factors associated with absolute reductions of Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm infection prevalence and intensity were identified using mixed effects linear regression modelling adjusting for baseline infection levels. Principal Findings The reduction in prevalence and intensity of A. lumbricoides and hookworms varied significantly by county and within counties by school. Multivariable analysis of factors associated with programme impact showed that absolute A. lumbricoides reductions varied by environmental conditions and access to improved sanitation at schools or within the community. Larger reduction in prevalence and intensity of hookworms were found in schools located within areas with higher community level access to improved sanitation and within counties with higher economic and health service delivery indicator scores. Conclusions

  9. CSTAR support for the commercial Launch Voucher Demonstration Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Carter H.

    1993-01-01

    Congress mandated a Launch Voucher Demonstration Program (LVDP) in the NASA FY 1993 Authorization Bill. This program was to have been put into place by October 1, 1993 and would end on September 30, 1995, with a report to Congress on January 31, 1996. CSTAR was asked to provide a participatory relationship to NASA concerning the Launch Voucher Demonstration Program, specifically due to CSTAR's COMET experience and knowledge of the CCDS payload and transportation planning, budgeting, and contract management process. This paper describes CSTAR's involvement in the development of the Launch Voucher Demonstration Program.

  10. Protocol for developing the evidence base for a national salt reduction programme for India

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Claire; Mohan, Sailesh; Praveen, Deversetty; Woodward, Mark; Maulik, Pallab K; Shivashankar, Roopa; Amarchand, Ritvik; Webster, Jacqui; Dunford, Elizabeth; Thout, Sudhir Raj; MacGregor, Graham; He, Feng; Reddy, K Srinath; Krishnan, Anand; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Neal, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The scientific evidence base in support of salt reduction is strong but the data required to translate these insights into reduced population salt intake are mostly absent. The aim of this research project is to develop the evidence base required to formulate and implement a national salt reduction programme for India. Methods and analysis The research will comprise three components: a stakeholder analysis involving government, industry, consumers and civil society organisations; a population survey using an age-stratified and sex-stratified random samples drawn from urban (slum and non-slum) and rural areas of North and South India; and a systematic quantitative evaluation of the nutritional components of processed and restaurant foods. The stakeholder interviews will be analysed using qualitative methods to summarise the main themes and define the broad range of factors influencing the food environment in India. The population survey will estimate the mean daily salt consumption through the collection of 24 h urine samples with concurrent dietary surveys identifying the main sources of dietary sodium/salt. The survey of foods will record the nutritional composition of the chief elements of food supply. The findings from this research will be synthesised and proposals for a national salt reduction strategy for India will be developed in collaboration with key stakeholders. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the Human Research Ethics Committees of the University of Sydney and the Centre for Chronic Disease Control in New Delhi, and also by the Indian Health Ministry's Screening Committee. The project began fieldwork in February 2014 and will report the main results in 2016. The findings will be targeted primarily at public health policymakers and advocates, but will be disseminated widely through other mechanisms including conference presentations and peer-reviewed publications, as well as to the participating communities. PMID

  11. Do Vouchers Lead to Sorting under Random Private School Selection? Evidence from the Milwaukee Voucher Program. Working Paper #09-02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakrabarti, Rajashri

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of voucher design on student sorting, and more specifically investigates whether there are feasible ways of designing vouchers that can reduce or eliminate student sorting. It studies these questions in the context of the first five years of the Milwaukee voucher program. Much of the existing literature investigates…

  12. Preventing and Confronting School Bullying: A Comparative Study of Two National Programmes in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Efforts to prevent and curb school bullying have resulted in a proliferation of anti-school-bullying programmes, many based on intuitive appeal rather than systematic evidence. This article presents a comparative analysis of two Norwegian programmes whose developers have demonstrated the effectiveness of their interventions: the Olweus Programme…

  13. Born to Fail? Some Lessons from a National Programme to Improve Education in Poor Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrantes, Pedro; Roldao, Cristina; Amaral, Patricia; Mauritti, Rosario

    2013-01-01

    The article analyses the main benefits of a Portuguese programme, launched in 1996, which was designed to support schools in segregated districts (TEIPs). The first part of the article presents a theoretical framework, before moving on to the main features of the TEIP programme in contemporary Portuguese society and education. An explanation of…

  14. 48 CFR 49.302 - Discontinuance of vouchers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... proposal for fee to the TCO within 1 year from the effective date of termination, unless the period is extended by the TCO. When the use of vouchers is discontinued, the contractor shall submit all...

  15. 48 CFR 49.302 - Discontinuance of vouchers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... proposal for fee to the TCO within 1 year from the effective date of termination, unless the period is extended by the TCO. When the use of vouchers is discontinued, the contractor shall submit all...

  16. Preschoolers' Diets Improved After Federal Food Voucher Changes

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Preschoolers' Diets Improved After Federal Food Voucher Changes: Study More fruits, veggies, whole grains and low- ... 2016 THURSDAY, April 7, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A change to a U.S. government nutrition program improved the ...

  17. The experiences of districts in implementing a national incentive programme to promote safe delivery in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Powell-Jackson, Timothy; Morrison, Joanna; Tiwari, Suresh; Neupane, Basu Dev; Costello, Anthony M

    2009-01-01

    Background Nepal's Safe Delivery Incentive Programme (SDIP) was introduced nationwide in 2005 with the intention of increasing utilisation of professional care at childbirth. It provided cash to women giving birth in a health facility and an incentive to the health provider for each delivery attended, either at home or in the facility. We explored early implementation of the programme at the district-level to understand the factors that have contributed to its low uptake. Methods We conducted in ten study districts a series of key informant interviews and focus group discussions with staff from health facilities and the district health office and other stakeholders involved in implementation. Manual content analysis was used to categorise data under emerging themes. Results Problems at the central level imposed severe constraints on the ability of district-level actors to implement the programme. These included bureaucratic delays in the disbursement of funds, difficulties in communicating the policy, both to implementers and the wider public and the complexity of the programme's design. However, some district implementers were able to cope with these problems, providing reasons for why uptake of the programme varied considerably between districts. Actions appeared to be influenced by the pressure to meet local needs, as well individual perceptions and acceptance of the programme. The experience also sheds light on some of the adverse effects of the programme on the wider health system. Conclusion The success of conditional cash transfer programmes in Latin America has led to a wave of enthusiasm for their adoption in other parts of the world. However, context matters and proponents of similar programmes in south Asia should give due attention to the challenges to implementation when capacity is weak and health services inadequate. PMID:19508710

  18. Anthrax control and research, with special reference to national programme development in Africa: memorandum from a WHO meeting.

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The prevalence of anthrax in both animal and human populations has been increasing in Africa. It was therefore appropriate for this WHO meeting to be convened in an endemic area of the Western Province of Zambia in 1992. The participants reviewed anthrax epidemiology and control in some African countries, elaborated national anthrax control and research programmes in Africa, discussed international cooperation and work plans, and elaborated recommendations for anthrax control in Africa. The discussions centred on anthrax surveillance and reporting systems, diagnosis, vaccine production and immunization, disinfection and decontamination, carcass disposal, treatment of human cases, health systems, as well as intersectorial cooperation between public health services, veterinary services and other services such as wildlife conservation, so that national control programmes could take full account of the conditions prevailing in epidemic situations in Africa. The recommendations are applicable in other regions where anthrax poses similar problems in public, animal and environmental health. PMID:8131249

  19. Mobile phones to support adherence to antiretroviral therapy: what would it cost the Indian National AIDS Control Programme?

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Rashmi; Bogg, Lennart; Shet, Anita; Kumar, Dodderi Sunil; De Costa, Ayesha

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART) is critical to maintaining health and good clinical outcomes in people living with HIV/AIDS. To address poor treatment adherence, low-cost interventions using mobile communication technology are being studied. While there are some studies that show an effect of mobile phone reminders on adherence to ART, none has reported on the costs of such reminders for national AIDS programmes. This paper aims to study the costs of mobile phone reminder strategies (mHealth interventions) to support adherence in the context of India's National AIDS Control Program (NACP). Methods The study was undertaken at two tertiary level teaching hospitals that implement the NACP in Karnataka state, South India. Costs for a mobile phone reminder application to support adherence, implemented at these sites (i.e. weekly calls, messages or both) were studied. Costs were collected based on the concept of avoidable costs specific to the application. The costs that were assessed were one-time costs and recurrent costs that included fixed and variable costs. A sequential procedure for costing was used. Costs were calculated at national-programme level, individual ART-centre level and individual patient level from the NACP's perspective. The assessed costs were pooled to obtain an annual cost per patient. The type of application, number of ART centres and number of patients on ART were varied in a sensitivity analysis of costs. Results The Indian NACP would incur a cost of between 79 and 110 INR (USD 1.27–1.77) per patient per year, based on the type of reminder, the number of patients on ART and the number of functioning ART centres. The total programme costs for a scale-up of the mHealth intervention to reach the one million patients expected to be on treatment by 2017 is estimated to be 0.36% of the total five-year national-programme budget. Conclusions The cost of the mHealth intervention for ART-adherence support in the context of the

  20. Going beyond the vertical: leveraging a national HIV quality improvement programme to address other health priorities in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Jean Paul; Jerome, Gregory; Lambert, Wesler; Almazor, Patrick; Cupidon, Colette Eugene; Hirschhorn, Lisa R

    2015-07-01

    Although the central role of quality to achieve targeted population health goals is widely recognized, how to spread the capacity to measure and improve quality across programmes has not been widely studied. We describe the successful leveraging of expertise and framework of a national HIV quality improvement programme to spread capacity and improve quality across a network of clinics in HIV and other targeted areas of healthcare delivery in rural Haiti.The work was led by Zamni LaSante, a Haitian nongovernment organization and its sister organization, Partners In Health working in partnership with the Haitian Ministry of Health in the Plateau Central and Lower Artibonite regions in 12 public sector facilities.Data included routinely collected organizational assessments of facility quality improvement capacity, national HIV performance measures and Zamni LaSante programme records.We found that facility quality improvement capacity increased with spread from HIV to other areas of inpatient and outpatient care, including tuberculosis (TB), maternal health and inpatient services in all 12 supported healthcare facilities. A significant increase in the quality of HIV care was also seen in most areas, including CD4 monitoring, TB screening, HIV treatment (all P < 0.01) and nutritional assessment and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (both P < .05), with an increase in average facility performance from 39 to 72% (P < .01).In conclusion, using a diagonal approach to leverage a national vertical programme for wider benefit resulted in accelerated change in professional culture and increased capacity to spread quality improvement activities across facilities and areas of healthcare delivery. This led to improvement within and beyond HIV care and contributed to the goal of quality of care for all. PMID:26102627

  1. Healthy universities--time for action: a qualitative research study exploring the potential for a national programme.

    PubMed

    Dooris, Mark; Doherty, Sharon

    2010-03-01

    Despite the absence of national or international steers, there is within England growing interest in the Healthy University approach. This article introduces Healthy Universities; reports on a qualitative study exploring the potential for a national programme contributing to health, well-being and sustainable development; and concludes with reflections and recommendations. The study used questionnaires and interviews with key informants from English higher education institutions and national stakeholder organizations. The findings confirmed that higher education offers significant potential to impact positively on the health and well-being of students, staff and wider communities through education, research, knowledge exchange and institutional practice. There was strong support for extending the healthy settings approach beyond schools and further education, through a National Healthy Higher Education Programme that provides a whole system Healthy University Framework. Informants argued that although there are important public health drivers, it will also be necessary to show how a Healthy Universities can help achieve core business objectives and contribute to related agendas such as sustainability. Two models were discussed: an accreditation scheme with externally assessed standardized achievement criteria; and a flexible and light-touch framework focusing on change-related processes and utilizing self-assessment. While highlighting the appeal of league tables, many informants feared that a top-down approach could backfire, generating resistance and resulting in minimal compliance. In contrast, the majority felt that a process-focused aspirational model would be more likely to win hearts and minds and facilitate system-level change. Key recommendations relate to national programme development, research and evaluation and international collaboration and networking. PMID:20167825

  2. Expanding safer sex options: introducing the female condom into national programmes.

    PubMed

    Warren, Mitchell; Philpott, Anne

    2003-05-01

    Although the female condom has been introduced into over 90 countries since 1997, it has only been accepted in sexual and reproductive health programmes as a mainstream method in a few. This paper describes introductory strategies developed by Ministries of Health and non-governmental organisations in Brazil, Ghana, Zimbabwe and South Africa, supported by UNAIDS, and the manufacturers of the female condom, which have significantly expanded the number of female condoms being used. These projects have several key similarities: a focus on training for providers and peer educators, face-to-face communication with potential users to equip them with information and skills, an identified target audience, a consistent supply, a long assessment period to gauge actual use beyond the initial novelty phase, and a mix of public and private sector distribution. Female condom programmes require the sanction, leadership and funding of governments and donors. However, the non-governmental and private sectors have also played a major role in programme implementation. To ensure successful introduction of the female condom, it is crucial to involve a range of decision-makers, programme managers, service providers, community leaders and women's and youth groups. The rising cost of inaction and unprotected sex in the spread of HIV and AIDS force us to recognise the high cost of not providing female condoms alongside male condoms in family planning and AIDS prevention programmes. PMID:12800710

  3. Preparation and Use of Voucher Specimens for Documenting Research in Weed Science

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historically voucher specimens and herbarium collections have provided the basis for research in plant science. Available for study and verification by contemporary and future workers, voucher specimens are permanent records documenting identification, distribution, and interspecific and intraspeci...

  4. Health Education as an Important Component in the National Schistosomiasis Control Programme in The People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Zhong, B; Xu, J; Li, R-Z; Cao, C-L

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis control programme in The People's Republic of China had promoted the mass mobilization of health education in various forms, such as films, drama, traditional opera, poems, slogans, posters, exhibits. This paper is trying to review the impacts of those forms on different endemic settings and targeted populations. In the future, health education and health promotion will still be the effective strategy and one of the interventions in the national control programme for schistosomiasis and other infectious diseases, even in the pre- or posttransmission stages. With the social and economic development and improvement of people's living standard, it is necessary to establish a sustainable mechanism, in combination of health education with health guarantee of improving the quality of life, improving the production and living conditions, changing the unhealthy production methods and lifestyle of the residents in the endemic areas, in order to reach the goal of schistosomiasis elimination in The People's Republic of China. PMID:27137451

  5. Traditional healers and the potential for collaboration with the national tuberculosis programme in Vanuatu: results from a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was conducted in the Pacific island nation of Vanuatu. Our objective was to assess knowledge, attitudes and practice of traditional healers who treat lung diseases and tuberculosis (TB), including their willingness to collaborate with the national TB programme. Methods This was a descriptive study using both qualitative and quantitative methods. Quantitative analysis was based on the responses provided to closed-ended questions, and we used descriptive analysis (frequencies) to describe the knowledge, attitudes and practice of the traditional healers towards TB. Qualitative analysis was based on open-ended questions permitting fuller explanations. We used thematic analysis and developed a posteriori inductive categories to draw original and unbiased conclusions. Results Nineteen traditional healers were interviewed; 18 were male. Fifteen of the healers reported treating short wind (a local term to describe lung, chest or breathing illnesses) which they attributed to food, alcohol, smoking or pollution from contact with menstrual blood, and a range of other physical and spiritual causes. Ten said that they would treat TB with leaf medicine. Four traditional healers said that they would not treat TB. Twelve of the healers had referred someone to a hospital for a strong wet-cough and just over half of the healers (9) reported a previous collaboration with the Government health care system. Eighteen of the traditional healers would be willing to collaborate with the national TB programme, with or without compensation. Conclusions Traditional healers in Vanuatu treat lung diseases including TB. Many have previously collaborated with the Government funded health care system, and almost all of them indicated a willingness to collaborate with the national TB programme. The engagement of traditional healers in TB management should be considered, using an evidence based and culturally sensitive approach. PMID:24758174

  6. New Wine in Old Bottles? A Critique of Sweden's New National Training Programme for Head Teachers: Does It Strengthen or Undermine School Equality and Students' Educational Rights and Guarantees?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    This research seeks to look at the effect of the new Swedish training programme for head teachers by comparing it with the previous national training programme and does so primarily through an analysis of documents and texts that served to underpin the two different programmes. To put the Swedish teacher-training programme in an international…

  7. Determining the Legality of School Vouchers: Are State Courts the New Venue?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Martha

    2007-01-01

    Allowing public funds to be used for tuition and other expenses in private schools through a voucher system has been the source of debate in legislative and educational forums for almost half a century, but only recently have school vouchers become a serious school reform strategy. This article provides a brief overview of the voucher plans…

  8. A Win-Win Solution: The Empirical Evidence on School Vouchers. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Greg

    2011-01-01

    This report collects the results of all available empirical studies using the best available scientific methods to measure how school vouchers affect academic outcomes for participants, and all available studies on how vouchers affect outcomes in public schools. Contrary to the widespread claim that vouchers do not benefit participants and hurt…

  9. Vouchers--A Legal Draw. A Response to Benjamin Dowling-Sendor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Julie

    1999-01-01

    A court-approved Milwaukee voucher program permits up to 15% of the city's public schoolchildren to attend private/religious schools at state expense. This represents no victory for vouchers. Although the Wisconsin Supreme Court found vouchers constitutional, it may not believe they are valid under the federal constitution. (MLH)

  10. The First Year of the Education Voucher Demonstration: A Secondary Analysis of Student Achievement Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wortman, Paul M.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The Education Voucher Demonstration began in the Alum Rock Union Elementary School District during the 1972-73 school year. Under the voucher concept, parents freely select a school for their child and receive a credit or voucher equal to the cost of the child's education that is paid directly to the school upon enrollment. It was presumed that…

  11. Re: Voucher System as an Alternative Educational Program. Occasional Paper #4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Irving

    Voucher plans vary mainly in the value assigned each voucher, whether schools are permitted to charge extra tuition, provisions for the educationally disadvantaged, and the degree to which participating schools are regulated. A crucial factor in any voucher plan is the freedom of choice parents have in selecting their children's educational…

  12. Dynamic Selection Effects in Means-Tested, Urban School Voucher Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, William G.

    2004-01-01

    Much of the controversy surrounding school vouchers, and privatization schemes generally, stems from concerns about social stratification. This paper identifies the form and magnitude of selection effects in a means-tested New York City voucher program. It compares students who applied for vouchers, with the eligible population of public-school…

  13. School Vouchers in Washington, DC: Achievement Impacts and Their Implications for Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Patrick J.

    2010-01-01

    The District of Columbia Opportunity Scholarship Program (OSP) is a school voucher initiative targeted to disadvantaged students in the US Capital. Vouchers worth up to $7,500 annually are awarded by lottery to students with family incomes near or below the federal poverty line. Students can then use their voucher at any of 60 participating…

  14. 77 FR 3435 - Notice of Funding Availability: Rural Development Voucher Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-24

    ... Rural Housing Service Notice of Funding Availability: Rural Development Voucher Program AGENCY: Rural... 542(b)). This Notice informs the public that funding ] is available for the Rural Development Voucher... of 150 days from original issuance, the Rural Development Voucher will become void, any funding...

  15. 76 FR 38352 - Notice of Funding Availability: Rural Development Voucher Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... Rural Housing Service Notice of Funding Availability: Rural Development Voucher Program AGENCY: Rural... funding is available for the Rural Development Voucher Program. The notice also sets forth the general... requirements of the voucher program but changed the funding level to $14,000,000, with a .2 percent...

  16. 75 FR 19353 - Notice of Funding Availability: Rural Development Voucher Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... Rural Housing Service Notice of Funding Availability: Rural Development Voucher Program AGENCY: Rural... funding is now available for the Rural Development Voucher Program. The notice also sets forth the general..., the Rural Development Voucher will become void, any funding will be cancelled, and the tenant will...

  17. An Analysis of the Ideas Behind, and the Evidence on, Education Vouchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hind, Ian

    An evaluation of the merits of education vouchers as a means of implementing educational reform is explored in this publication. The paper is divided into five sections. First, the historical and philosophical origins of the concept of vouchers are examined. The second section focuses on education vouchers in the context of recent developments in…

  18. On the Political Economy of Educational Vouchers. NBER Working Paper No. 17986

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epple, Dennis N.; Romano, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Two significant challenges hamper analyses of collective choice of educational vouchers. One is the multi-dimensional choice set arising from the interdependence of the voucher, public education spending, and taxation. The other is that household preferences between public and private schooling vary with the policy chosen. Even absent a voucher,…

  19. Jeopardizing a Legacy: A Closer Look at IDEA and Florida's Disability Voucher Program. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    People for the American Way, Washington, DC.

    This report examines the outcomes of the John M. McKay Scholarships Program, a statewide voucher program for students with disabilities in Florida that provides students with taxpayer-funded vouchers to be used at private schools or at other public schools. It argues that the McKay voucher program, which started in 1999, is rife with…

  20. Media in Distance Learning: The Nigerian National Teachers Institute Distance Education Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yusuf, Mudasiru Olalere; Falade, Ayotunde Atanda

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the use of media by distance learners enrolled in the NTI distance education programme. Two hundred and fifty five distance learners drawn from Oyo State, Nigeria, completed a questionnaire to determine the use of media, and factors militating against their effective use by distance learners. Research data were analyzed…

  1. Impact of a National Programme of Professional Development in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kudenko, Irina; Ratcliffe, Mary; Redmore, Alison; Aldridge, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of large-scale professional development programmes in a cost-effective but detailed manner presents challenges. Much of the research evidence on the effectiveness of professional development in science education has been the result of small-scale studies that use clustered or stratified sampling methods. Using the evidence collected…

  2. A Critical Evaluation of Training within the South African National Public Works Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mccord, Anna

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the ability of the training and work experience offered under public works programmes to promote employment in South Africa. Public works are a key component of South African labour market policy and are ascribed considerable potential in terms of addressing the core challenge of unemployment. However, despite this policy…

  3. Parents Supporting Parents: An Evaluative Report on the National Parent Support Programme Mid-West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Pat

    Dramatic increases in single parenthood and the number of employed mothers have led to the articulation of policies and programs designed to strengthen the family in Ireland. This report examines the experience of Community Mothers' Programme in Limerick City. Based on the assumption that the understanding, advice, and support of an experienced…

  4. The experience of Chinese physicians in the national health diplomacy programme deployed to Sudan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Gimbel, Sarah; Malik, Elfatih; Hassen, Sara; Hagopian, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Chinese Medical Teams have been working in developing countries since 1963 as a health diplomacy strategy. In 2010, 1252 Chinese medical personnel were assigned to 48 countries. We conducted a review of Chinese literature and governmental websites to describe the history and current distribution of Chinese Medical Teams around the world. In addition, we interviewed members of a 36-member Chinese Medical Team deployed to Sudan (primarily about their motivations to join the programme and the challenges and benefits they face), along with their Sudanese hosts. The most significant challenge health workers described was homesickness. Most members said they were able to maintain motivation through their curiosity and the doctor-friendly environment. All but two rated their own working performance as 'good' or 'very good', while their Sudanese colleagues consistently rated them even higher. Participants reported conflicting beliefs regarding the perceived responsibilities of the team and challenges around communication. Three pillars support the Chinese Medical Team programme in Sudan: bilateral government commitment, the professionalism of the Medical Teams, and the welcoming medical environment. Future success of this or similar Chinese programmes depend on the willingness of both governments to participate, the ongoing commitment of younger Chinese doctors, and the hospitality of physicians in the host country. There are also some threats to the programme, including a potentially diminishing need for Chinese doctors to support increasingly well-trained host country physicians. PMID:21728741

  5. Peer mentors, mobile phone and pills: collective monitoring and adherence in Kenyatta National Hospital's HIV treatment programme

    PubMed Central

    Moyer, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    In 2006, the Kenyan state joined the international commitment to make antiretroviral treatment free in public health institutions to people infected with HIV. Less than a decade later, treatment has reached over 60% of those who need it in Kenya. This paper, which is based on an in-depth ethnographic case study of the HIV treatment programme at Kenyatta National Hospital, conducted intermittently between 2008 and 2014, examines how HIV-positive peer mentors encourage and track adherence to treatment regimens within and beyond the clinic walls using mobile phones and computer technology. This research into the everyday practices of patient monitoring demonstrates that both surveillance and adherence are collective activities. Peer mentors provide counselling services, follow up people who stray from treatment regimens, and perform a range of other tasks related to patient management and treatment adherence. Despite peer mentors’ involvement in many tasks key to encouraging optimal adherence, their role is rarely acknowledged by co-workers, hospital administrators, or public health officials. Following a biomedical paradigm, adherence at Kenyatta and in Kenya is framed by programme administrators as something individual clients must do and for which they must be held accountable. This framing simultaneously conceals the sociality of adherence and undervalues the work of peer mentors in treatment programmes. PMID:25175291

  6. The UK's Surplus Source Disposal Programme: successful management of a national radioactive legacy.

    PubMed

    Williams, Clive; Burns, Philip; Wakerley, Malcolm; Watson, Isabelle; Cook, Marianne; Moloney, Barry

    2010-06-01

    Between 2004 and 2009, the Surplus Source Disposal Programme (SSDP) arranged and subsidised the safe disposal or recycling of more than 11,000 unwanted radioactive items containing in total more than 8.5 x 10(14) Bq of activity, from some 500 sites throughout the United Kingdom. Sources were removed principally from universities, schools and colleges, museums, and hospitals. SSDP was funded by the UK Government and managed by the Environment Agency. The programme was delivered at a total cost of pound sterling 7.14 million, nearly pound sterling 2 million less than its initial budget. This was a big success for health and safety, the environment, business and the public purse. Current legislative requirements under the High Activity Sealed Sources Directive, which came into effect during 2005, will prevent a build-up of high activity surplus sources in future. Continuing vigilance may be needed to avoid a build-up of lower activity disused sources. PMID:20530861

  7. [Analysis of fourteen French national programmes on physical activity and sports as determinants of health from 2001 to 2006].

    PubMed

    Bréchat, Pierre-Henri; Vogel, Thomas; Berthel, Marc; Kaltenbach, Georges; Le Divenah, Aude; Segouin, Christophe; Rymer, Roland; Lonsdorfer, Jean

    2009-01-01

    Physical activity and sports are considered as one of the determinants of health. The aim of this study is to review the rationale for the formulation of this public health issue and its integration in national action plans. The study shows that fourteen national programmes were drafted and implemented between 2001 and 2006 by seven institutions. The research methodology was based on crossing data obtained from semi-directed interviews and documents regarding the design, implementation and follow-up of these programmes. For the conditions of the success, the fourteen actions scored an average of 175.0 +/- 66.9 out of 300%. Public health actors and professionals must be given more opportunities to involve themselves and engage in developing stronger relationships and linkages, in particular with the institutional and community settings. In general, the most invested parts of a programme are the structural and operational aspects of activities. Six significant points surfaced from the study: consideration of drug use as an addictive behaviour; recognition of the psychological stress of professional athletes; acknowledgment of youth as being at high risk for doping behaviour; integration of the concept that physical activity and sports must take the benefit/risk perspective into account; and the necessity to promote health. Through the exchange of numerous local and regional experiences, an optimisation of their synergistic connections was made possible on a continuum extending from "health promotion through physical activity and sports" to "prevention of drug-use and doping behaviours". Professionals have been able to develop actions in the above-mentioned domains across this continuum that have, to date, remained isolated. Proposals are made to strengthen these dynamics. Other health determinants and public health priorities could be investigated with the same methodology. PMID:19425524

  8. Voucher Funding of Training: A Study of the GI Bill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, David; Ross, Sue Geotz

    The study assessed the use of vouchers for funding manpower training, using the GI bill as a test case. Focus was on vocational training, although on-the-job training (OJT), correspondence, and college training were also examined. The value of training was estimated by the extent to which it leads to increased earnings. Longitudinal earnings…

  9. California's Voucher Plan: A Private School Principal's Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szanto, Hubert S.

    1980-01-01

    Examines the impact the Coons and Sugarman voucher plan would have on both private and public schools. Expresses fear that religious schools would have to abandon their affiliations and that public schools would become dumping grounds for disorderly and low achieving students. (IRT)

  10. Cleveland School Vouchers: Where the Students Come from.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiller, Zach

    This report presents data on the Ohio Department of Education's Cleveland Scholarship and Tutoring program, examining where students who receive school vouchers attended school before entering the program. Overall, 33 percent of these students previously attended private schools, and 21 percent previously attended Cleveland public schools. The…

  11. The Fiscal Impact of the D.C. Voucher Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aud, Susan L.; Michos, Leon

    2006-01-01

    In August 2004 the first ever federally funded school voucher program began in Washington, D.C. Eligible students could attend a private school of their choice in the District of Columbia. Each participant received up to $7,500 for school tuition, fees, and transportation. In addition, the D.C. Public School System (DCPS) and D.C. charter school…

  12. False Choices: Why School Vouchers Threaten Our Children's Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Robert, Ed.; Miner, Barbara, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    A voucher system of schooling would destroy the few democratic gains made in public education in recent years, worsen inequalities that already permeate education, and block opportunities for meaningful reform. Articles included in this special issue are: (1) an introduction, "Why We Are Publishing False Choices" ("Rethinking Schools" Editorial…

  13. Racial Desegregation: Magnet Schools, Vouchers, Privatization, and Home Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeks, Loretta F.; Meeks, Wendell A.; Warren, Claudia A.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses whether the alternatives to traditional education that were promoted in the past decade have lived up to their promise of creating a school environment that is conducive to learning for all students, focusing on magnet schools, educational vouchers, privatization and charter schools, and home schooling. (SM)

  14. A Proposal for State, Income-Targeted, Preschool Vouchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, John F.

    2007-01-01

    This article proposes that states create low-income targeted voucher programs for 3- and/or 4-year-olds. The basis for this proposal is considerable research demonstrating long-term effects for a number of random assignment and quasi-experimental preschool programs. Benefit-costs rates of return for these programs are between $2 and $16 for every…

  15. Voucher Subsidized Child Care: The Hudson County Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catterall, Barbara; Williams, Carol

    From October 1982 through September 1984, the New Jersey Department of Human Services, Division of Youth and Family Services (DYFS) piloted a research and demonstration project to test the outcome of using vouchers to finance the public provision of child care. Because of historical funding patterns which tied day care subsidies to particular…

  16. School Vouchers and Privatization: A Reference Handbook. Contemporary Education Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, Danny

    This book looks at the privatization of education as an ideological construct. In exploring and assessing the concept of privatized education, it focuses on the debate over private choice and school vouchers. It also looks at the development of private curriculums and educational materials created by corporations, various scholarship-funding…

  17. Parental Voucher Enrollment Decisions: Choice within Choice in New Orleans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beabout, Brian R.; Cambre, Belinda M.

    2013-01-01

    Set in the context of a choice-saturated public school system, this study examines the school choice process of low-income parents who participated in Louisiana's 2008 voucher program. Based on semistructured interviews with 16 parents at 1 Catholic school, we report that spirituality, small class and school size, character/values,…

  18. Measuring Competitive Effects from School Voucher Programs: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egalite, Anna J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of the competition effects from voucher or tuition tax credit scholarship programs on public school student academic outcomes have taken place in seven locations throughout the United States, with the majority of studies taking place in Florida, followed by Wisconsin. This article reviews 21 total studies of the impacts on student academic…

  19. Responses of Private and Public Schools to Voucher Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filer, Randall K.; Munich, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The post-communist Czech Republic provides a laboratory in which to investigate possible responses to the adoption of universal education vouchers. Private schools appear to have arisen in response to distinct market incentives. They are more common in fields where public school inertia has resulted in an under-supply of available slots. They are…

  20. Justices Query Lawyers in Florida Court Showdown over Voucher Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Florida's Opportunity Scholarships faced their most crucial test in June 2005, as the state supreme court heard arguments in a case about the constitutionality of the voucher program. In more than an hour of oral arguments in "Bush v. Holmes," held June 7, in Tallahassee and shown live on the Internet, lawyers sparred over the implications for…

  1. Contexts Matter: Selection in Means-Tested School Voucher Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Cassandra M. D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines public school characteristics, and public and private school market characteristics, associated with participation among elementary-aged students in a means-tested school voucher program in Florida. Participants are more likely than eligible nonparticipants to come from disadvantaged public schools on multiple dimensions. On…

  2. The Milwaukee School Voucher Initiative: Impact on Black Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Walter C., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    The Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP) is the result of a unique alliance formed between middle-class, Caucasian conservatives and liberal, inner-city minorities, who advocated for the creation of publicly funded private school vouchers. A review of the circumstances surrounding the initiation of the MPCP in 1990 as well as an assessment of…

  3. Women, Education and the Law: Vouchers, Tax Credits, & Legal Confusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    First, Patricia F.

    2003-01-01

    In early 2003, two distinguished researchers in school law analyzed aspects of the law vis-a-vis vouchers and tax credits and the public schools (McCarthy, 2003; Welner, 2003). The issues were confusing, and the author wondered how educators and the public responded. How can policy makers make reasonable decisions about public education without a…

  4. 24 CFR 401.556 - Leasing units to voucher holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leasing units to voucher holders. 401.556 Section 401.556 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... PROGRAM (MARK-TO-MARKET) Implementation of the Restructuring Plan After Closing § 401.556 Leasing units...

  5. The Private Cost of National Certificate in Education (NCE) through National Teachers Institute Distance Learning Programme in Ekiti State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borode, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    The study set out to examine the private cost of a National Certificate in Education, through the distance learning mode as organized by the National Teachers Institute (NTI) Ekiti State branch in Nigeria. This was to open the eyes of the prospective students to know what on the average he has to spend, and also to provide data for the state…

  6. Considering nontraditional alternatives: charters, private contracts, and vouchers.

    PubMed

    Koppich, J E

    1997-01-01

    Charter schools, vouchers, and contracts with private agencies providing educational services all reflect the belief that a substantial part of educational budgeting, decision making, and accountability should be based at the level of individual schools, rather than at the school district level. Though states are moving quickly to set up charter schools, and some states and districts are debating the merits of vouchers or experimenting with private contracts, in fact there is little information about the educational effectiveness of these innovations. Charter schools face substantial challenges in financing and business operations; many state charter school laws provide no start-up or capital funds and only limited operational funds. In addition, many charter school laws are vague on key questions of authority and school-district relations. Contracting with private agencies presents a wide range of options, many of which have been tried in only a few locations. The most publicized contracts with private agencies to run multiple schools have included some highly visible disappointments and no clear successes as yet, though experience is too limited to draw conclusions about contracting in general. Vouchers that may be used at private schools are extremely controversial for several reasons. Because private schools can decide which students they will accept, opponents are concerned that extensive use of vouchers may dramatically change the composition of the public school student body. It is also unclear whether vouchers to religious schools (which comprise 82% of all private schools in the United States) violate the constitutional requirement for separation of church and state. PMID:10892468

  7. A 3-year community-based periodontal disease prevention programme for adults in a developing nation.

    PubMed

    Cutress, T W; Powell, R N; Kilisimasi, S; Tomiki, S; Holborow, D

    1991-12-01

    A field trail of a community programme for improving periodontal health of adults was carried out in a geographically remote, unsophisticated rural population in the South Pacific islands of Tonga. The 3-year project (1986-89) involved three village communities, each with a population of approximately 1200. Village N received supplies of toothbrushes and toothpaste without charge, health education (videos, talks, posters) and periodic dental scaling (ultrasonic). Village K received the same as N except that dental scaling was not provided. Village E received none of the services provided to the villages N and K. Baseline and final examinations of 20-44-year olds showed that unsupervised self-care promoted at the community level, when supplemented with periodic removal of subgingival calculus, significantly improved periodontal health. Improvement was age dependent. PMID:1800382

  8. The National Programme for IT: will it be good for children?

    PubMed

    Low, David C

    2009-01-01

    NHS Connecting for Health set up a Child Health Programme in 2007 to map out and make the case for a common core content for electronic child health records. Because of the relatively low level of integration of existing systems, sharing is technically difficult, and a consistent community-based detailed care record does not yet exist. However, Government policy and good clinical care, emphasised by Lord Laming in 2003 and again this year, stress the importance of information sharing and a common record. A record with a common core content, readily available for every child and parent or carer and for each professional delivering their health care, would be an advantage. The basis of one already exists as the Personal Child Health Record. Systems are developing and are in operation in different parts of the country which are beginning to share information between different health organisations as well as integrating different systems. PMID:20120879

  9. Community-based health insurance programmes and the national health insurance scheme of Nigeria: challenges to uptake and integration

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nigeria has included a regulated community-based health insurance (CBHI) model within its National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS). Uptake to date has been disappointing, however. The aim of this study is to review the present status of CBHI in SSA in general to highlight the issues that affect its successful integration within the NHIS of Nigeria and more widely in developing countries. Methods A literature survey using PubMed and EconLit was carried out to identify and review studies that report factors affecting implementation of CBHI in SSA with a focus on Nigeria. Results CBHI schemes with a variety of designs have been introduced across SSA but with generally disappointing results so far. Two exceptions are Ghana and Rwanda, both of which have introduced schemes with effective government control and support coupled with intensive implementation programmes. Poor support for CBHI is repeatedly linked elsewhere with failure to engage and account for the ‘real world’ needs of beneficiaries, lack of clear legislative and regulatory frameworks, inadequate financial support, and unrealistic enrolment requirements. Nigeria’s CBHI-type schemes for the informal sectors of its NHIS have been set up under an appropriate legislative framework, but work is needed to eliminate regressive financing, to involve scheme members in the setting up and management of programmes, to inform and educate more effectively, to eliminate lack of confidence in the schemes, and to address inequity in provision. Targeted subsidies should also be considered. Conclusions Disappointing uptake of CBHI-type NHIS elements in Nigeria can be addressed through closer integration of informal and formal programmes under the NHIS umbrella, with increasing involvement of beneficiaries in scheme design and management, improved communication and education, and targeted financial assistance. PMID:24559409

  10. Teenagers and young adults with cancer in Europe: from national programmes to a European integrated coordinated project.

    PubMed

    Stark, D; Bielack, S; Brugieres, L; Dirksen, U; Duarte, X; Dunn, S; Erdelyi, D J; Grew, T; Hjorth, L; Jazbec, J; Kabickova, E; Konsoulova, A; Kowalczyk, J R; Lassaletta, A; Laurence, V; Lewis, I; Monrabal, A; Morgan, S; Mountzios, G; Olsen, P R; Renard, M; Saeter, G; van der Graaf, W T; Ferrari, A

    2016-05-01

    Over 14 000 patients aged 15-24 are estimated to be diagnosed with cancer in the European Union (EU) each year. Teenagers and young adults (TYA) often fall down gaps between children's and adults cancer services. The specific challenges of providing optimal care to them are described, but we present a summary of recent progress. Progress to overcome these challenges is happening at different rates across Europe. We summarise the European national projects in this field but more recently we have seen the beginnings of European coordination. Within the EU 7th Funding Programme (FP7) European Network for Cancer Research in Children and Adolescents programme (ENCCA), a specific European Network for Teenagers and Young Adults with Cancer has held a series of scientific meetings, including professionals, patients and caregivers. This group has proposed unanswered research questions and agreed key features of a high-quality service that can improve outcomes for TYA with cancer, including the primacy of collaboration between adult and paediatric services to eliminate the gap in the management of TYA with cancer. PMID:26239724