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Sample records for nationwide blood collection

  1. Blood Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The method that is used for the collection, storage and real-time analysis of blood and other bodily fluids has been licensed to DBCD, Inc. by NASA. The result of this patent licensing agreement has been the development of a commercial product that can provide serum or plasma from whole blood volumes of 20 microliters to 4 milliliters. The device has a fibrous filter with a pore size of less than about 3 microns, and is coated with a mixture of mannitol and plasma fraction protein. The coating causes the cellular fraction to be trapped by the small pores, leaving the cellular fraction intact on the fibrous filter while the acellular fraction passes through the filter for collection in unaltered form from the serum sample collection chamber. The method used by this product is useful to NASA for blood analysis on manned space missions.

  2. 75 FR 9277 - Proposed Information Collection (Nation-Wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys) Activity: Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Nation-Wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys) Activity: Comment.... Title: Nation-wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys, VA Forms 1465-2 through 1465-4. OMB Control...

  3. 77 FR 2349 - Proposed Information Collection (Nation-wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys) Activity: Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Nation-wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys) Activity: Comment... forms of information technology. Title: Nation-wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys, VA Forms 10-1465-...

  4. 75 FR 25320 - Agency Information Collection (Nation-wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys) Activities Under OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Nation-wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys) Activities Under OMB... INFORMATION: Title: Nation-wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys, VA Forms 1465-2 through 1465-4. OMB...

  5. 77 FR 64382 - Agency Information Collection (Nation-Wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys) Activities Under OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Nation-Wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys) Activities Under OMB....'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Nation-wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys, VA Forms 10-1465- 2 through...

  6. Stabilized dried blood spot collection.

    PubMed

    McMorran, Darren; Chung, Dwayne Chung Kim; Toth, Monika; Liew, Oi Wah; Muradoglu, Murat; Ng, Tuck Wah

    2016-08-01

    During the collection phase of the dried blood spot method, practitioners need to ensure that there is no smearing of the blood sample on the filter paper or else readings from it will be invalid. This can be difficult to accomplish in the field if there is relative motion between the site of blood discharge on the finger and the filter paper. In this article, a gyroscope stabilization method is introduced and demonstrated to provide consistent and improved dried blood spot collection within a circular guide region notwithstanding the presence of rocking. PMID:27156813

  7. Data mining analysis of factors influencing children's blood pressure in a nation-wide health survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasiewicz, Piotr; Kulaga, Zbigniew; Litwin, Mieczyslaw

    2009-06-01

    Blood pressure in childhood and adolescents is important indicator of good health and strong predictor of BP in adulthood. Genetic susceptibility, environmental and socioeconomic factors are related both with life style, obesity and cardiovascular risk including elevated BP. Increased body mass index is strictly correlated with BP, and obesity and overweight is main intermediate phenotype of childhood hypertension. However, despite current obesity epidemic available data do not fully support the hypothesis that it has resulted in increase of BP in children. We analysed data obtained from 7591 children participating in nation-wide health survey using data mining methodology. Results reveal relationships of obesity and high blood pressure with school environment characteristics.

  8. Evolutionary analysis of HBV "S" antigen genetic diversity in Iranian blood donors: a nationwide study.

    PubMed

    Pourkarim, Mahmoud Reza; Sharifi, Zohre; Soleimani, Ali; Amini-Bavil-Olyaee, Samad; Elsadek Fakhr, Ahmed; Sijmons, Steven; Vercauteren, Jurgen; Karimi, Gharib; Lemey, Philippe; Maes, Piet; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Van Ranst, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The genetic diversity of the HBV S gene has a significant impact on the prophylaxis and treatment of hepatitis B infection. The effect of selective pressure on this genetic alteration has not yet been studied in Iranian blood donors. To explore HBV evolution and to analyze the effects and patterns of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) mutations on blood screening assays, 358 Iranian blood donors diagnosed as asymptomatic HBV carriers were enrolled in this nationwide study. Large S and partial S genes were amplified and sequenced. HBV (sub) genotypes and synonymous and nonsynonymous mutations were investigated. The impact of naturally occurring mutations on HBsAg ELISA results was explored. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that isolated strains were of genotype D. The dominant subgenotype/subtype was D1/ayw2. Deletions and naturally occurring stop codons in the pre-S1 and major hydrophilic region (MHR) were identified. In total, 32.8% of the studied strains harbored 195 single or multiple mutations in the MHR, the majority of which were located at the first loop of the "a determinant" domain. The ayw2 subtype showed a significant effect on the ELISA signal/cut-off value and carried fewer mutations in the MHR. Nonsynonymous/synonymous substitution value indicated that negative selection was the dominant evolutionary force in the HBV S gene. This nationwide study revealed that mutation frequency of HBsAg among Iranian blood donors was much higher than previous reports from the different local regions. These findings regarding the significant differences in reactivity of ELISA among different subtypes of HBV and its correlation with the number of mutations at the MHR will be valuable to public health authorities. PMID:24150816

  9. Collecting Family Health History using an Online Social Network: a Nationwide Survey among Potential Users

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Brandon M.; O’Connell, Nathaniel S.; Qanungo, Suparna; Halbert-Hughes, Chanita; Schiffman, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Family health history (FHx) is one of the most important risk factors for disease. Unfortunately, collection and use of FHx is under-utilized in the clinical setting. Efforts to improve collection of FHx have had minimal impact. A novel approach to collect FHx using social networking capabilities is being explored. We conducted a nationwide survey of 5,258 respondents to 1- assess the interest in using an online social network for FHx, 2- identify if such a tool would have clinical utility, and 3- identify notable trends and potential concerns. We found survey respondents to be very supportive of the proposed approach and interesting trends related to age, education, and race were identified. Results from this survey will be used to guide future research and development of a proposed FHx social network application. PMID:26958272

  10. Allogenic Blood Transfusion Following Total Hip Arthroplasty: Results from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, 2000 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Anas; Small, Travis; Chandran Pillai, Aiswarya Lekshmi Pillai; Schiltz, Nicholas K.; Klika, Alison K.; Barsoum, Wael K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The large-scale utilization of allogenic blood transfusion and its associated outcomes have been described in critically ill patients and those undergoing high-risk cardiac surgery but not in patients undergoing elective total hip arthroplasty. The objective of this study was to determine the trends in utilization and outcomes of allogenic blood transfusion in patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty in the United States from 2000 to 2009. Methods: An observational cohort of 2,087,423 patients who underwent primary total hip arthroplasty from 2000 to 2009 was identified in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification procedure codes 99.03 and 99.04 were used to identify patients who received allogenic blood products during their hospital stay. Risk factors for allogenic transfusions were identified with use of multivariable logistic regression models. We used propensity score matching to estimate the adjusted association between transfusion and surgical outcomes. Results: The rate of allogenic blood transfusion increased from 11.8% in 2000 to 19.0% in 2009. Patient-related risk factors for receiving an allogenic blood transfusion include an older age, female sex, black race, and Medicaid insurance. Hospital-related risk factors include rural location, smaller size, and non-academic status. After adjusting for confounders, allogenic blood transfusion was associated with a longer hospital stay (0.58 ± 0.02 day; p < 0.001), increased costs ($1731 ± $49 [in 2009 U.S. dollars]; p < 0.001), increased rate of discharge to an inpatient facility (odds ratio, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.26 to 1.31), and worse surgical and medical outcomes. In-hospital mortality was not affected by allogenic blood transfusion (odds ratio, 0.97; 95% confidence interval, 0.77 to 1.21). Conclusions: The increase in allogenic blood transfusion among total hip arthroplasty patients is concerning

  11. 75 FR 2557 - Interim Policy for the Sharing of Information Collected by the Coast Guard Nationwide Automatic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ... in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Background and Purpose The Coast... SECURITY Coast Guard Interim Policy for the Sharing of Information Collected by the Coast Guard Nationwide Automatic Identification System AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of policy and request for...

  12. 21 CFR 640.13 - Collection of the blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Collection of the blood. 640.13 Section 640.13...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.13 Collection of the blood. (a) The source blood shall be collected as prescribed in § 640.4. (b) Source blood may also...

  13. The rationale behind collecting umbilical cord blood

    PubMed Central

    Zech, Nicolas H.; Broer, Nikolas; Ribitsch, Iris; Zech, Mathias H.; Broer, Karl-heinz; Ertan, Kubilay; Preisegger, Karl-heinz

    2010-01-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is an increasingly important and rich source of stem cells. These cells can be used for the treatment of many diseases, including cancers and immune and genetic disorders. For patients for whom no suitable related donor is available, this source of hematopoietic stem cells offers substantial advantages, notably the relative ease of procurement, the absence of risk to the donor, the small likelihood of transmitting clinically important infections, the low risk of severe graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and the rapid availability of placental blood for transplantation centers. Even though almost 80 diseases are treatable with cord blood stem cells, 97 percent of cord blood is still disposed of after birth and lost for patients in need! To improve availability of stem cells to a broader community, efforts should be undertaken to collect cord blood and expectant parents should be properly informed of their options with regard to cord blood banking. PMID:24591908

  14. 21 CFR 640.4 - Collection of the blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Collection of the blood. 640.4 Section 640.4 Food... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Whole Blood § 640.4 Collection of the blood. (a) Supervision. Blood shall be drawn from the donor by a qualified physician or under his supervision...

  15. 21 CFR 640.4 - Collection of the blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Collection of the blood. 640.4 Section 640.4 Food... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Whole Blood § 640.4 Collection of the blood. (a) Supervision. Blood shall be drawn from the donor by a qualified physician or under his supervision...

  16. 21 CFR 640.4 - Collection of the blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Collection of the blood. 640.4 Section 640.4 Food... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Whole Blood § 640.4 Collection of the blood. (a) Supervision. Blood shall be drawn from the donor by a qualified physician or under his supervision...

  17. 21 CFR 640.4 - Collection of the blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Collection of the blood. 640.4 Section 640.4 Food... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Whole Blood § 640.4 Collection of the blood. (a) Supervision. Blood shall be drawn from the donor by a qualified physician or under his supervision...

  18. 21 CFR 640.4 - Collection of the blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Collection of the blood. 640.4 Section 640.4 Food... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Whole Blood § 640.4 Collection of the blood. (a) Supervision. Blood shall be drawn from the donor by a qualified physician or under his supervision...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1675 - Blood specimen collection device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood specimen collection device. 862.1675 Section... Systems § 862.1675 Blood specimen collection device. (a) Identification. A blood specimen collection device is a device intended for medical purposes to collect and to handle blood specimens and to...

  20. 21 CFR 862.1675 - Blood specimen collection device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood specimen collection device. 862.1675 Section... Systems § 862.1675 Blood specimen collection device. (a) Identification. A blood specimen collection device is a device intended for medical purposes to collect and to handle blood specimens and to...

  1. 21 CFR 862.1675 - Blood specimen collection device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood specimen collection device. 862.1675 Section... Systems § 862.1675 Blood specimen collection device. (a) Identification. A blood specimen collection device is a device intended for medical purposes to collect and to handle blood specimens and to...

  2. 21 CFR 862.1675 - Blood specimen collection device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood specimen collection device. 862.1675 Section... Systems § 862.1675 Blood specimen collection device. (a) Identification. A blood specimen collection device is a device intended for medical purposes to collect and to handle blood specimens and to...

  3. 21 CFR 862.1675 - Blood specimen collection device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood specimen collection device. 862.1675 Section... Systems § 862.1675 Blood specimen collection device. (a) Identification. A blood specimen collection device is a device intended for medical purposes to collect and to handle blood specimens and to...

  4. 21 CFR 640.13 - Collection of the blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Collection of the blood. 640.13 Section 640.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.13 Collection of the blood....

  5. 21 CFR 640.13 - Collection of the blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Collection of the blood. 640.13 Section 640.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.13 Collection of...

  6. 21 CFR 640.13 - Collection of the blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Collection of the blood. 640.13 Section 640.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.13 Collection of...

  7. 21 CFR 640.13 - Collection of the blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Collection of the blood. 640.13 Section 640.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.13 Collection of...

  8. Stability of phenytoin in blood collected in vacuum blood collection tubes.

    PubMed

    Parish, R C; Alexander, T

    1990-01-01

    The stability of phenytoin in blood collected in plain and serum separator tubes (SSTs) was investigated under simulated storage and transport conditions. The drug was generally more stable in plain collection tubes than in SSTs. No degradation occurred in plain red-top tubes or in refrigerated SSTs, but clinically significant degradation was present in SSTs stored at room temperature (25 degrees C) and at elevated temperature (32 degrees C) 24 h after collection. The mean loss was 17.9% at 25 degrees C and 25.9% at 32 degrees C. It is recommended that if blood is to be transported or stored in SSTs, the samples be refrigerated unless assay can be performed within 8 h. PMID:2305426

  9. [Blood donation: Representations and issues associated with blood product collection].

    PubMed

    Loquier, B; Zegierman, A; Pelletier, B

    2015-08-01

    In order to answer to its aim of standardised self-sufficiency, the Établissement français du sang (main French national platform for blood donation) needs to know well the donors, what moves them, what motivates them, and the meaning that they give to their action. This knowledge allows the EFS to better understand the different sensitivities among donors, and therefore to improve the strategy regarding loyalty or/and newcomers. In this paper we follow, without attempting to be fully exhaustive, the evolution of the research regarding blood donation. The aim is to highlight the role played by social and historical representations regarding donation in general. In a given community, its norms, and its values influence both the image of donors as well as the meaning attached to the act itself of donation. Moreover, these norms have also influenced the way that research has tried to analyse this topic. The initial studies conducted in this field tried generally to understand the meaning and the symbolism attached to the act of blood donation. Later on, researchers started to focus on the assessment of notions such as generosity, and then solidarity. Nowadays, research is more focused on describing the population that gives blood. They are more scrutinised through their socio-demographic traits (who they are) than through the specific study of how they donate, the reasons behind the decision to act and the notion of satisfaction. PMID:26112917

  10. [Nationwide survey of nuclear medicine practice and estimation of collective effective dose in Japan.].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Masaki; Nishizawa, Kanae; Iwai, Kazuo; Akahane, Keiichi; Maruyama, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    For the estimation of collective effective dose from radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine diagnosis, a national survey was carried out in Japan. The survey contents covered radiopharmaceutical use, sex, age, activity, and so on of each patient in October 1997 and the monthly number of examinations in 1997. The annual number of diagnostic examinations using radiopharmaceuticals was 0.82 million for males and 0.74 million for females. The frequency of examination was about 3% for patients less than 17 years old and about 60% for those more than 60 years old. Effective dose was calculated on the basis of such literature as ICRP publications. The dose used most frequently was 5-6mSv per examination. The collective effective doses from diagnostic nuclear medicine examinations were estimated to be 13100 man .Sv for males and 20200 man .Sv for females. PMID:17164536

  11. Interferences from blood collection tube components on clinical chemistry assays

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Raffick A.R.; Remaley, Alan T.

    2014-01-01

    Improper design or use of blood collection devices can adversely affect the accuracy of laboratory test results. Vascular access devices, such as catheters and needles, exert shear forces during blood flow, which creates a predisposition to cell lysis. Components from blood collection tubes, such as stoppers, lubricants, surfactants, and separator gels, can leach into specimens and/or adsorb analytes from a specimen; special tube additives may also alter analyte stability. Because of these interactions with blood specimens, blood collection devices are a potential source of pre-analytical error in laboratory testing. Accurate laboratory testing requires an understanding of the complex interactions between collection devices and blood specimens. Manufacturers, vendors, and clinical laboratorians must consider the pre-analytical challenges in laboratory testing. Although other authors have described the effects of endogenous substances on clinical assay results, the effects/impact of blood collection tube additives and components have not been well systematically described or explained. This review aims to identify and describe blood collection tube additives and their components and the strategies used to minimize their effects on clinical chemistry assays. PMID:24627713

  12. A nationwide report on blood pressure of children and adolescents according to socioeconomic status: The CASPIAN-IV study

    PubMed Central

    Fallah, Zahra; Kelishadi, Roya; Heshmat, Ramin; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Ardalan, Gelayol; Kasaeian, Amir; Asayesh, Hamid; Qorbani, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hypertension is a major leading factor for global burden of diseases. Blood pressure (BP) tracks from childhood to adulthood. So, it is important to investigate its aff ecting factors. In this study we aimed to compare the BP status in the Iranian pediatric population according to the socioeconomic status (SES) of their living area. Materials and Methods: In this nationwide study, a representative sample of 14,880 students, aged 6-18 years was chosen by multistage random cluster sampling from 30 provinces in Iran. Anthropometric indices and BP were measured. A validated questionnaire, including the questions of the World Health Organization Global School-based Student Health Survey was completed. Findings were compared across the four regions of the country, categorized based on their elevating SES: Southeast, north-northeast, west, and central. Results: Participants consisted of 13,486 children and adolescents, that is, a participation rate of 90.6%, composed of 49.2% girls and 75.6% urban residents. The mean (standard deviation) age of participants was 12.47 (3.36) years. The region with highest SES (central) had the lowest rate of high BP (HBP), that is, 3.0% (95% of confidence interval [CI]: 2.4-3.9), and the region with lowest SES (southeast) had the highest rate, that is, 7.4% (4.4-12.2). The mean (95% CI) values of systolic BP for the four regions from lowest to highest SES were 100.5 (99.6-101.3), 100.9 (100.3-101.4), 101.7 (101.3-102), and 101.7 (101.2-102.1) mmHg. The corresponding mean Diastolic BP values were as follows: 65.4 (64.6-66.1), 63.4 (62.9-63.8), 65.6 (65.3-65.8), and 64.4 (64.0-64.7) mmHg. Conclusion: We found significant differences in mean BP and the frequency of HBP according to the SES of the living area. Further studies are necessary to find the underlying factors resulting in such differences. PMID:26622253

  13. Good practices in collecting umbilical cord and placental blood 1

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Lauren Auer; Bernardino, Elizabeth; Crozeta, Karla; Guimarães, Paulo Ricardo Bittencourt

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to identify the factors related to the quality of umbilical cord and placental blood specimens, and define best practices for their collection in a government bank of umbilical cord and placental blood. Method: this was a descriptive study, quantitative approach, performed at a government umbilical cord and placental blood bank, in two steps: 1) verification of the obstetric, neonatal and operational factors, using a specific tool for gathering data as non-participant observers; 2) definition of best practices by grouping non-conformities observed before, during and after blood collection. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and the following statistical software: Statistica(r) and R(r). Results: while there was a correlation with obstetrical and neonatal factors, there was a larger correlation with operational factors, resulting in the need to adjust the professional practices of the nursing staff and obstetrical team involved in collecting this type of blood. Based on these non-conformities we defined best practices for nurses before, during and after blood collection. Conclusion: the best practices defined in this study are an important management tool for the work of nurses in obtaining blood specimens of high cell quality. PMID:27556876

  14. On the improvement of blood sample collection at clinical laboratories

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Blood samples are usually collected daily from different collection points, such hospitals and health centers, and transported to a core laboratory for testing. This paper presents a project to improve the collection routes of two of the largest clinical laboratories in Spain. These routes must be designed in a cost-efficient manner while satisfying two important constraints: (i) two-hour time windows between collection and delivery, and (ii) vehicle capacity. Methods A heuristic method based on a genetic algorithm has been designed to solve the problem of blood sample collection. The user enters the following information for each collection point: postal address, average collecting time, and average demand (in thermal containers). After implementing the algorithm using C programming, this is run and, in few seconds, it obtains optimal (or near-optimal) collection routes that specify the collection sequence for each vehicle. Different scenarios using various types of vehicles have been considered. Unless new collection points are added or problem parameters are changed substantially, routes need to be designed only once. Results The two laboratories in this study previously planned routes manually for 43 and 74 collection points, respectively. These routes were covered by an external carrier company. With the implementation of this algorithm, the number of routes could be reduced from ten to seven in one laboratory and from twelve to nine in the other, which represents significant annual savings in transportation costs. Conclusions The algorithm presented can be easily implemented in other laboratories that face this type of problem, and it is particularly interesting and useful as the number of collection points increases. The method designs blood collection routes with reduced costs that meet the time and capacity constraints of the problem. PMID:24406140

  15. 21 CFR 864.9100 - Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of blood and blood components. 864.9100 Section 864.9100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9100 Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components. (a) Identification. An empty container for...

  16. 21 CFR 864.9100 - Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of blood and blood components. 864.9100 Section 864.9100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9100 Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components. (a) Identification. An empty container for...

  17. 21 CFR 864.9100 - Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of blood and blood components. 864.9100 Section 864.9100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9100 Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components. (a) Identification. An empty container for...

  18. 21 CFR 864.9100 - Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of blood and blood components. 864.9100 Section 864.9100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9100 Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components. (a) Identification. An empty container for...

  19. 21 CFR 864.9100 - Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of blood and blood components. 864.9100 Section 864.9100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9100 Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components. (a) Identification. An empty container for...

  20. Comparison of blood specimens from plain and gel vacuum blood collection tubes.

    PubMed

    Wiwanitkit, V

    2001-05-01

    This study was set in the Division of Laboratory Medicine, Chulalongkorn Hospital. All 2,000 blood specimens were randomly collected using evacuated blood collection by plain or gel vacuum tubes. After collection, each specimen was considered and judged using criteria of specimen rejection to determine how proper the specimen presentations were. All data were reviewed, collected and interpreted. It revealed that there were only 20 (1%) improper specimens and all were improper in quality. There was no significant difference between the ratio of improper specimens in both groups (P > 0.30). From this study, it revealed that efficacy of both types of vacuum tubes was not different. The new gel vacuum tube seems to be an effective tool in the evacuated blood collection system due to its advantage in reduction of time in specimen processing. PMID:11560224

  1. Hematological assessment in pet guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus): blood sample collection and blood cell identification.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Kurt; Moore, David M; Smith, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    Pet guinea pigs are presented to veterinary clinics for routine care and treatment of clinical diseases. In addition to obtaining clinical history and exam findings, diagnostic testing may be required, including hematological assessments. This article describes common blood collection methods, including venipuncture sites, the volume of blood that can be safely collected, and handling of the blood. Hematological parameters for normal guinea pigs are provided for comparison with in-house or commercial test results. A description of the morphology of guinea pig leukocytes is provided to assist in performing a differential count. PMID:25421024

  2. Hematological assessment in pet rabbits: blood sample collection and blood cell identification.

    PubMed

    Moore, David M; Zimmerman, Kurt; Smith, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    Pet rabbits are presented to veterinary clinics for routine care and treatment of clinical diseases. In addition to obtaining clinical history, additional diagnostic testing may be required, including hematological assessments. This article describes common blood collection methods, including venipuncture sites, volume of blood that can be safely collected, and handling of the blood. Hematological parameters for normal rabbits are provided for comparison with in-house or commercial test results. A description of the morphology of rabbit leukocytes is provided to assist in performing a differential count. Differential diagnoses are provided for abnormal values identified in the hemogram. PMID:25421022

  3. 21 CFR 864.6150 - Capillary blood collection tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Capillary blood collection tube. 864.6150 Section 864.6150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6150...

  4. 21 CFR 864.6150 - Capillary blood collection tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Capillary blood collection tube. 864.6150 Section 864.6150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6150...

  5. 21 CFR 864.6150 - Capillary blood collection tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Capillary blood collection tube. 864.6150 Section 864.6150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6150...

  6. 21 CFR 864.6150 - Capillary blood collection tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Capillary blood collection tube. 864.6150 Section 864.6150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6150...

  7. 21 CFR 864.6150 - Capillary blood collection tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Capillary blood collection tube. 864.6150 Section 864.6150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6150...

  8. The use of vascular access ports for blood collection in feline blood donors.

    PubMed

    Aubert, Isabelle; Abrams-Ogg, Anthony C G; Sylvestre, Anne M; Dyson, Doris H; Allen, Dana G; Johnstone, Ian B

    2011-01-01

    We investigated vascular access ports for feline blood donation. Eight cats were anesthetized for conventional blood collection by jugular venipuncture at the beginning and end of the study. In-between conventional collections, vascular access ports were used for collection with or without sedation every 6 to 8 wk for 6 mo. Ports remained functional except for one catheter breakage, but intermittent occlusions occurred. Systolic blood pressure was lower during conventional collection. Behavioral abnormalities occurred during 3 port collections. Packed red cells prepared from collected blood were stored at 4°C for 25 d and assessed for quality pre- and post-storage. With both collection methods, pH and glucose level declined, and potassium level, lactate dehydrogenase activity and osmotic fragility increased. There were no differences between methods in pre-storage albumin and HCO(3)(-) levels, and pre and post-storage hematocrit, lactate dehydrogenase activity, and glucose and potassium levels. Pre-storage pH and pCO(2) were higher with conventional collection, and pre- and post-storage osmotic fragility were greater with port collection. One port became infected, but all cultures of packed red cells were negative. Tissue inflammation was evident at port removal. In a second study of conventional collection in 6 cats, use of acepromazine in premedication did not exacerbate hypotension. The use of vascular access ports for feline blood donation is feasible, is associated with less hypotension, and may simplify donation, but red cell quality may decrease, and effects on donors must be considered. PMID:21461192

  9. 21 CFR 640.64 - Collection of blood for Source Plasma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Collection of blood for Source Plasma. 640.64... (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.64 Collection of blood for Source Plasma. (a) Supervision. All blood for the collection of Source Plasma...

  10. 21 CFR 640.64 - Collection of blood for Source Plasma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Collection of blood for Source Plasma. 640.64... (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.64 Collection of blood for Source Plasma. (a) Supervision. All blood for the collection of Source Plasma...

  11. 21 CFR 640.64 - Collection of blood for Source Plasma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Collection of blood for Source Plasma. 640.64... (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.64 Collection of blood for Source Plasma. (a) Supervision. All blood for the collection of Source Plasma...

  12. 21 CFR 640.64 - Collection of blood for Source Plasma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Collection of blood for Source Plasma. 640.64... (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.64 Collection of blood for Source Plasma. (a) Supervision. All blood for the collection of Source Plasma...

  13. 21 CFR 640.64 - Collection of blood for Source Plasma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Collection of blood for Source Plasma. 640.64... (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.64 Collection of blood for Source Plasma. (a) Supervision. All blood for the collection of Source Plasma...

  14. 21 CFR 864.9125 - Vacuum-assisted blood collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vacuum-assisted blood collection system. 864.9125... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9125 Vacuum-assisted blood collection system. (a) Identification. A vacuum-assisted blood collection system is a device intended for medical purposes that uses a vacuum...

  15. 21 CFR 864.9125 - Vacuum-assisted blood collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vacuum-assisted blood collection system. 864.9125... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9125 Vacuum-assisted blood collection system. (a) Identification. A vacuum-assisted blood collection system is a device intended for medical purposes that uses a vacuum...

  16. 21 CFR 864.9125 - Vacuum-assisted blood collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vacuum-assisted blood collection system. 864.9125... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9125 Vacuum-assisted blood collection system. (a) Identification. A vacuum-assisted blood collection system is a device intended for medical purposes that uses a vacuum...

  17. 21 CFR 864.9125 - Vacuum-assisted blood collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vacuum-assisted blood collection system. 864.9125... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9125 Vacuum-assisted blood collection system. (a) Identification. A vacuum-assisted blood collection system is a device intended for medical purposes that uses a vacuum...

  18. 21 CFR 864.9125 - Vacuum-assisted blood collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vacuum-assisted blood collection system. 864.9125... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9125 Vacuum-assisted blood collection system. (a) Identification. A vacuum-assisted blood collection system is a device intended for medical purposes that uses a vacuum...

  19. Hematologic Assessment in Pet Rats, Mice, Hamsters, and Gerbils: Blood Sample Collection and Blood Cell Identification.

    PubMed

    Lindstrom, Nicole M; Moore, David M; Zimmerman, Kurt; Smith, Stephen A

    2015-09-01

    Hamsters, gerbils, rats, and mice are presented to veterinary clinics and hospitals for prophylactic care and treatment of clinical signs of disease. Physical examination, history, and husbandry practice information can be supplemented greatly by assessment of hematologic parameters. As a resource for veterinarians and their technicians, this article describes the methods for collection of blood, identification of blood cells, and interpretation of the hemogram in mice, rats, gerbils, and hamsters. PMID:26297409

  20. Hematologic assessment in pet rats, mice, hamsters, and gerbils: blood sample collection and blood cell identification.

    PubMed

    Lindstrom, Nicole M; Moore, David M; Zimmerman, Kurt; Smith, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    Hamsters, gerbils, rats, and mice are presented to veterinary clinics and hospitals for prophylactic care and treatment of clinical signs of disease. Physical examination, history, and husbandry practice information can be supplemented greatly by assessment of hematologic parameters. As a resource for veterinarians and their technicians, this article describes the methods for collection of blood, identification of blood cells, and interpretation of the hemogram in mice, rats, gerbils, and hamsters. PMID:25421023

  1. Peripheral blood collection: the first step towards gene expression profiling.

    PubMed

    Franken, Carmen; Remy, Sylvie; Lambrechts, Nathalie; Hollanders, Karen; Den Hond, Elly; Schoeters, Greet

    2016-07-01

    A crucial challenge for gene expression analysis in human biomonitoring studies on whole blood samples is rapid sample handling and mRNA stabilization. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of short bench times (less than 30 min) on yield, quality and gene expression of mRNA in the presence of different stabilization buffers (Tempus(TM) Blood RNA tube and RNAlater(®) Stabilization Reagent). Microarray analyzes showed significant changes over short periods of time in expression of a considerate part of the transcriptome (2356 genes) with a prominent role for NFкB-, cancer- and glucocorticoid-mediated networks, and specifically interleukin-8 (IL-8). These findings suggest that even short bench times affect gene expression, requiring to carry out blood collection in a strictly standardized way. PMID:26984061

  2. Working with rather than against macaques during blood collection.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Viktor

    2003-01-01

    Training macaques to cooperate during blood collection is a practicable and safe alternative to the traditional procedure implying forced restraint. It takes a cumulative total of about 1 hr to train an adult female or adult male rhesus macaque successfully to present a leg voluntarily and accept venipuncture in the homecage. Cooperative animals do not show the significant cortisol response and defensive reactions that typically occur in animals who are forcibly restrained during this common procedure. PMID:14612267

  3. Cord blood collection for banking and the risk of maternal hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Amat, Lluís; Sabrià, Joan; Martínez, Eva; Rodríguez, Núria L; Querol, Sergio; Lailla, Josep M

    2011-09-01

    We determined the effect of cord blood collection before placental expulsion on postpartum maternal blood loss in a retrospective study between a group of cord blood donors and a group of non-donors. The study was conducted in a university hospital blood bank and obstetric services and included Spanish women entered in a European study project (EUPHRATES) and who had consented to donate cord blood for public banking purposes. We measured blood volume lost during delivery by a bag collection method, as well as the need for transfusion and postpartum anemia symptoms. Deliveries at which cord blood was collected presented a significant increase in blood loss (321 ± 273 vs. 255 ± 237 ml, p=0.02). Instrumental deliveries were associated with higher postpartum blood loss than spontaneous deliveries. Cord blood collection can increase intrapartum blood loss, especially at instrumental deliveries. Additional staff who handle the collection are required to allow the leading clinician to focus on maternal care. PMID:21564030

  4. Bacteriological Safety of Blood Collected for Transfusion at University of Gondar Hospital Blood Bank, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Shiferaw, Yitayal

    2013-01-01

    Background. Transfusion associated bacterial infection has remained more frequent with a sever risk of morbidity and mortality. This study assessed the bacteriological safety of blood collected for transfusion. Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted at University of Gondar hospital blood bank from December 2011 to June 2012. Bacterial isolation, identification, and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were done as per the standard procedure. Chi-square test and P value were used to assess associations between risk factors and the bacterial isolation rate. Results. Twenty-one (15.33%) blood units were found contaminated with bacteria, and 95.24% contamination was due to external sources. The commonly isolated bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus, Coagulase negative Staphylococci, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, Streptococci species, Enterobacter species, and Citrobacter species. All of the bacteria isolated were 100% sensitive to Gentamicin, Chloramphenicol, Amoxicillin, and Doxycycline. Multiple antimicrobial resistances were observed in 66.7% of the isolates. Not using glove by phlebotomist, touching disinfected phlebotomy site and double puncture at the same hand or both hands of a donor were found to be risk factors for bacterial contamination. Conclusion. Bacterial contamination of blood to be transfused is a common problem in the hospital. So attention should be given to activities performed at the blood bank for safe transfusion practices. PMID:23864956

  5. Nationwide Snapshot

    SciTech Connect

    Mapes, Terry S.; Iverson, Megan M.; Fassbender, Linda L.; Britt, Michelle L.

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this effort was to create a nationwide snapshot of the current residential building practices in the United States, and to identify trends in building practices as they relate to building energy efficiency. Information on typical insulation levels, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) efficiencies, window profiles, and other residential building components and assemblies provided a foundation for (1) identifying trends in residential building practices over time, (2) assessing energy-efficiency improvements in single-family homes over time and correlating them with the applicable building energy codes if possible, and (3) identifying building energy code adoption and compliance needs. This report seeks to identify trends in the residential building practice from 1996 to 2009.

  6. Frequencies and ethnic distribution of ABO and Rh(D) blood groups in Mauritania: results of first nationwide study.

    PubMed

    Hamed, C T; Bollahi, M A; Abdelhamid, I; Med Mahmoud, M A; Ba, B; Ghaber, S; Habti, N; Houmeida, A

    2012-04-01

    There is no data available on the ABO/Rh(D) frequencies in the Mauritanian population. We retrospectively analysed records of a 5-year database that contained ABO/Rh phenotype and ethnic origin of 10 116 volunteers giving blood at the national blood transfusion centre to derive the frequencies of ABO/Rh(D) groups in the Mauritanian population. The two race categories in the country and their sub-ethnic groups: the Moors (whites and black) and the black Africans (Pulhars, Soninkes and Wolof) were included in this study. Globally, group O had the highest frequency (49.10%) followed by A (28.28%), B (18.56%) and AB (4.05%). This order more common in North African populations was found in four of the five ethnic groups composing our population. Allele frequencies were, respectively, 70.20%, 17.74% and 12.04% giving the same order of O > A > B. We observed no significant variation in these frequencies between the different ethnic groups. Rhesus study showed that with a percentage of 94.23% Rh(D) positive is by far the most prevalent, while Rh(D) negative is present only in 5.77% of the total population. This frequency distribution supports the mixed-race composition of the Mauritanian population. PMID:22128837

  7. Collection of sibling donor cord blood for children with thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Reed, W; Walters, M; Lubin, B H

    2000-01-01

    Bone marrow transplantation has curative potential for patients with thalassemia major who have a matched sibling marrow donor, but usefulness of alternative stem cell sources is undergoing investigation. Cord blood (CB) from a sibling has different characteristics from marrow and has potential advantages and disadvantages as a stem cell source. Whereas many families caring for a child with thalassemia major (or other transplant-treatable condition) experience an additional pregnancy, most give birth at hospitals without the infrastructure needed to collect and process the new infant's CB. To address this, and with funding from the National Institutes of Health, we have developed the first noncommercial CB program, operating across the United States, designed specifically to facilitate medically indicated CB collections from sibling donors. Using a case-management model, we have collected CB for 25 thalassemia families in eight states. Three of these CB units have now been used for transplantation; two others are human leukocyte antigen-identical and contain adequate nucleated cell dose to perform transplantation in their intended recipient. We conclude that a CB bank focused on sibling donations may be a useful stem cell resource and that families with specific medical need, such as a child with thalassemia, should consider preserving CB from siblings. PMID:11132238

  8. Tritium concentrations of blood samples collected throughout Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Hisamatsu, Shun`ichi; Takizawa, Yukio; Inoue, Yoshikazu

    1995-04-01

    Tritium concentrations were measured for blood samples collected from 20 cities throughout Japan during 1989-1990. The mean {sup 3}H concentration was found to be 1.4 {plus_minus} 0.4 Bq L{sup -1} and 1.0 {plus_minus} 0.4 Bq L{sup -1} (combustion water) for free water {sup 3}H and organically-bound {sup 3}H, respectively, excluding the abnormally high data of one city. The organically-bound {sup 3}H contents clearly depended on the latitudes of sampling locations, although the free water {sup 3}H concentrations showed no correlation with the latitudes. Organically-bound {sup 3}H is considered to be more suitable than free water {sup 3}H as an indicator of long time {sup 3}H exposure to human.

  9. Ochratoxin A (OTA) in coffee: nation-wide evaluation of data collected by German Food Control 1995-1999.

    PubMed

    Otteneder, H; Majerus, P

    2001-05-01

    The evaluation process involved data collected by Official Food Control Laboratories during the period 1995 until 1999. A total of 613 samples analysed for ochratoxin A and complying with a detection limit lower than 0.6 microg/kg were evaluated. With the assistance of statistical process analysis the median concentrations for green coffee (0.4 microg/kg), for roasted coffee (0.6 microg/kg), for decaffeinated roasted coffee along with low-acid decaffeinated roasted coffee (0.4 microg/kg) as well as for soluble coffee (0.7 microg/kg) were determined. The result is a mean daily total intake per consumer of 9 ng OTA. PMID:11358184

  10. 77 FR 10756 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Opinions and Perspectives About the Current Blood Donation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... donating in the group of self-identified MSM who are active blood donors in the U.S. Participants from the... Perspectives About the Current Blood Donation Policy for Men Who Have Sex With Men SUMMARY: In compliance with... public comment on proposed data collection projects, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute...

  11. A.I.e. in-flight blood collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hank, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    The hardware selected to obtain and partially process human blood samples during the Skylab missions is described and consists of the following three major items: a centrifuge, an evacuation regulator, and a Beta cloth bag.

  12. Handling and blood collection in the little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus).

    PubMed

    Hooper, Sarah E; Amelon, Sybill K

    2014-06-01

    Bats are useful animal models for the study of unique physiological mechanisms such as echolocation and sensory integration as well as for research on white-nose syndrome. These studies may involve collecting blood samples from bats. This column describes safe techniques for restraint, weighing, fluid administration and blood collection from the little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus). PMID:24845004

  13. [Counter-measures against patient misidentification and specimen mismanagement with blood collection].

    PubMed

    Ohgoe, Kazuhiko

    2013-08-01

    My theme for this symposium is counter-measures against patient misidentification and specimen mismanagement with blood collection due to the lack of using authentication systems. What is applicable to our laboratory is patient misidentification counter-measures for specimen management at the time of inpatient ward blood collection and specimen examination (mistakes in appending bar code labels and entering specimen numbers). During the period from January 2008 to July 2012 at our laboratory, there were 9 cases of patient misidentification for hospital ward blood collection and specimen management. There were 2 cases in 2008 (1 for blood collection, 1 for specimen management), no cases in 2009, 3 cases in 2010 involving blood collection, 1 case in 2011 involving specimen management, and 3 cases in 2012 (1 for blood collection, 2 for specimen management). All patient misidentifications involving hospital ward blood collection arose from bedside blood collection. As a counter-measure, training slides were created at a medical safety management review session, repeated training in attention and patient check procedures was conducted with staff members, and hands-on training in pointing and naming was carried out. With these training slides, the goal was the execution of verification duties by encouraging conversations that include the patient's name, such as "Mr./Ms. XXXX, today we'll be collecting 3 tubes of blood," as a link to patient verification duties. With specimen management, 3 of the 4 cases occurred during overtime for day-shift work. As counter measures: 1) adherence to 1 patient, 1 tray, and signing when matching; 2) as a counter-measure against mistaking specimens for blood gas hemolysis, confirmation as other specimens, separating approximately 3 drops of blood that cannot be used for sampling, confirming hemolysis, and preventing misidentification. PMID:24218774

  14. 77 FR 38838 - Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 230.110-Registration of Blood Banks, Other Firms Collecting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 230.110--Registration of Blood Banks, Other Firms Collecting, Manufacturing, Preparing, or Processing Human Blood or Blood Products... Registration of Blood Banks, Other Firms Collecting, Manufacturing, Preparing, or Processing Human Blood...

  15. Blood collected on filter paper for wildlife serology: evaluating storage and temperature challenges of field collections.

    PubMed

    Curry, Patricia S; Ribble, Carl; Sears, William C; Orsel, Karin; Hutchins, Wendy; Godson, Dale; Lindsay, Robbin; Dibernardo, Antonia; Campbell, Mitch; Kutz, Susan J

    2014-04-01

    Filter-paper (FP) blood sampling can facilitate wildlife research and expand disease surveillance. Previous work indicated that Nobuto FP samples from caribou and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus subspecies) had comparable sensitivity and specificity to serum samples (≥ 80% for both) in competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (cELISAs) for Brucella spp., Neospora caninum, and West Nile virus. The same sensitivity and specificity criteria were met in indirect ELISAs for Brucella spp., bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1), parainfluenza virus type 3 (PI-3), and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), with adjusted FP thresholds used for PI-3 and BRSV. Comparable sensitivity and specificity values to serum were also observed for FP in virus neutralization (VN) assays for bovine viral diarrhea virus types I and II; however, reduced sensitivity is a potential limitation of FP samples in protocols that require undiluted serum (i.e., VN and N. caninum cELISA). We evaluated the performance of FP samples from reindeer and caribou in these nine assays after simulating potential challenges of high-latitude field collections: 1) different durations of storage and 2) different processing/storage regimes involving freezing or drying. Sample pairs (serum and FP) were collected from reindeer and caribou populations in 2007-10 and were tested in duplicate. Comparable performance to serum was defined as sensitivity and specificity ≥ 80%. In the storage experiments, FP performance was determined after 2 mo of storage dry at room temperature, and after two longer periods (variable depending on assay; up to 2 yr). After 1 yr, compared to frozen serum stored for the same period, sensitivity was ≥ 88% for all but two assays (68% BHV-1; 75% PI-3), and specificity remained >90%. A limited trial evaluated the effect of freezing FP samples as opposed to drying them for storage. There were no observed detrimental effects of freezing on FP sample performance, but rigorous investigation

  16. Isolation of Bartonella (Rochalimaea) henselae: effects of methods of blood collection and handling.

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, S A; Rooney, J A; Manzewitsch, P; Regnery, R L

    1997-01-01

    Bartonella (Rochalimaea) henselae causes cat-scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis, peliosis hepatis, and fever in humans. B. henselae can be difficult to culture axenically, and as many as 5 weeks may be required before colonies are visible. We compared how different methods of blood collection and handling affect isolation of this pathogen. Blood specimens from B. henselae-infected cats were collected in both EDTA and Isolator blood-lysis tubes and were subsequently plated onto rabbit blood-brain heart infusion agar by using three different schedules: plating immediately, plating after 24 h at 25 degrees C, and plating after 26 days at -65 degrees C. Colonies were counted 14 and 35 days after plating. Blood collected in tubes containing EDTA, frozen at -65 degrees C, and then plated on blood agar yielded a median of 60,000 CFU/ml, compared with 25,333 CFU/ml after collection in the Isolator tubes (P < 0.01). Frozen blood yielded the largest number of B. henselae colonies for any of the schedules tested. These results support previous observations that the Isolator system is more sensitive than tubes containing EDTA for isolation of B. henselae and suggest that, for cat blood, collection in tubes containing EDTA and subsequent freezing may further improve the sensitivity of detection of B. henselae. PMID:9041385

  17. Optimizing Donor Selection for Public Cord Blood Banking: Influence of Maternal, Infant and Collection Characteristics on Cord Blood Unit Quality

    PubMed Central

    Page, Kristin M.; Mendizabal, Adam; Betz-Stablein, Brigid; Wease, Stephen; Shoulars, Kevin; Gentry, Tracy; Prasad, Vinod K.; Sun, Jessica; Carter, Shelly; Balber, Andrew E.; Kurtzberg, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Background Banked unrelated donor umbilical cord blood (CB) has improved access to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for patients without a suitably matched donor. In a resource-limited environment, ensuring that the public inventory is enriched with high-quality cord blood units (CBUs) addressing the needs of a diverse group of patients is a priority. Identification of donor characteristics correlating with higher CBU quality could guide operational strategies to increase the yield of banked high-quality CBUs. Methods Characteristics of 5267 CBUs donated to the Carolinas Cord Blood Bank, a public bank participating in the National Cord Blood Inventory, were retrospectively analyzed. Eligible CBUs, collected by trained personnel, were processed using standard procedures. Routine quality and potency metrics [post-processing total nucleated cell count (post-TNCC), CD34+, colony-forming units (CFUs)] were correlated with maternal, infant, and collection characteristics. Results High-quality CBUs were defined as those with higher post-TNCC (>1.25×109), and CD34+ + CFU in the upper quartile. Factors associated with higher CD34+ or CFU content included a shorter interval from collection to processing (<10 hours), younger gestational age (34–37 weeks; CD34++CFU) Caucasian race, higher birth weight (>3500grams) and larger collection volumes (>80ml). Conclusions We describe characteristics identifying high-quality CBUs, which can be used to inform strategies for CBU collection for public banks. Efforts should be made to prioritize collections from larger babies born before 38 weeks of gestation. CBUs should be rapidly transported to the processing laboratory. The lower quality of CBUs from non-Caucasian donors highlights the challenges of building a racially diverse public CB inventory. PMID:23711284

  18. Pseudopolycythemia, pseudothrombocytopenia, and pseudoleukopenia due to overfilling of blood collection vacuum tubes.

    PubMed

    Pewarchuk, W; VanderBoom, J; Blajchman, M A

    1992-01-01

    A patient blood sample with an unexpectedly high hemoglobin level, high hematocrit, low white blood cell count, and low platelet count was recognized as being spurious based on previously available data. Repeated testing of the original sample showed a gradual return of all parameters to expected levels. We provide evidence that the overfilling of blood collection vacuum tubes can lead to inadequate sample mixing and that, in combination with the settling of the cellular contents in the collection tubes, can result in spuriously abnormal hematological parameters as estimated by an automated method. PMID:1734839

  19. Nationwide Eclipse Ballooning Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colman Des Jardins, Angela; Berk Knighton, W.; Larimer, Randal; Mayer-Gawlik, Shane; Fowler, Jennifer; Harmon, Christina; Koehler, Christopher; Guzik, Gregory; Flaten, James; Nolby, Caitlin; Granger, Douglas; Stewart, Michael

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of the Nationwide Eclipse Ballooning Project is to make the most of the 2017 rare eclipse event in four main areas: public engagement, workforce development, partnership development, and science. The Project is focused on two efforts, both student-led: online live video of the eclipse from the edge of space and the study of the atmospheric response to the eclipse. These efforts, however, involving more than 60 teams across the US, are challenging in many ways. Therefore, the Project is leveraging the NASA Space Grant and NOAA atmospheric science communities to make it a success. The first and primary topic of this poster is the NASA Space Grant supported online live video effort. College and high school students on 48 teams from 31 states will conduct high altitude balloon flights from 15-20 locations across the 8/21/2017 total eclipse path, sending live video and images from near space to a national website. Video and images of a total solar eclipse from near space are fascinating and rare. It’s never been done live and certainly not in a network of coverage across a continent. In addition to the live video to the web, these teams are engaged in several other science experiments as secondary payloads. We also briefly highlight the eclipse atmospheric science effort, where about a dozen teams will launch over one hundred radiosondes from across the 2017 path, recording an unprecedented atmospheric data sample. Collected data will include temperature, density, wind, humidity, and ozone measurements.

  20. [Operating Procedure of Collection, Processing and Preservation of 3000 Units Umbilical Cord Blood in Shangdong Cord Blood Bank

    PubMed

    Zhou, Sheng-Li; Shen, Bai-Jun; Yan, Wen-Ying; Xu, Ri; Pan, Jie; Ma, Xiu-Feng; Song, Dao-Gang

    2001-06-01

    The experience with the umbilical cord blood (UCB) stem cells for unrelated transplantation from our 3 000 UCB storage was described. UCB, collected from closed blood bags, were mixed with hydroxyethyl starch for nucleated cell (NC) enrichment. After finishing CD34 analysis, culture of hematopoietic progenitors (CFU-GM and CFU-GEMM) assays, microbial culture, HLA Class I (A, B) serology and class II (DR) low resolution SSP typing, cord blood units are stored in the liquid nitrogen for clinical applicatoin. Cord blood contained an average of nuclear cell (NC) (1.2 +/- 0.6) x 10(9), CD34(+) cells (3.0 +/- 3.7) x 10(6), CFU-GM (1.1 +/- 0.7) x 10(6) and CFU-GEMM (1.1 +/- 1.2) x 10(6) for storage and the recovery rates were 91%, 88%, 85% and 82%, respectively. The recovery rates for red blood cell and Hb were (39 +/- 9)% and (40 +/- 8)%, respectively. The storage volume was (35.1 +/- 7.1) ml in a 50 ml storage bags. The mean time from collection to processing of 15 hours (range 4 - 24 hours) had no influence on cell viability. The cell viability before processing is more than 95% and 92% after UCB thawing. The recovery rates of NC, CD34(+) cells and CFU-GM post-thawing were 96%, 90% and 91%, respectively. There were no HIV antibody (HIVAb) positive in all of UCB units. For an incidence of processed samples, infection with syphilis, HBsAg, HBcAb, HCVAb, CMV, bacterial contamination and abnormal hemoglobin were 0.1%, 0.8%, 3.2%, 0.2%, 87.1%, 1.2% and 0.1%, respectively. More than 3 HLA loci matched can be found for random patients in our cord blood bank and 6 HLA loci matched have 5%. For transplantation with nucleated cell counts of > 2.7 x 10(7) cells/kg, our cord blood bank will be able to provide all of the umbilical cord blood stem cell samples for children and 50% of units can be used for some of adult recipients transplantation in the country. It is concluded that: (1) The large cord blood banking for 20 000 UCB storage is feasible in China. (2) Our system of whole

  1. Blood meal identification and feeding habits of uranotaenia species collected in the ryukyu archipelago.

    PubMed

    Toma, Takako; Miyagi, Ichiro; Tamashiro, Mikako

    2014-09-01

    To know the blood meal in the stomach of Uranotaenia species, blood-fed mosquitoes were collected by 4 methods at different sites in the mountain forest of 3 islands, Amamioshima, Okinawajima, and Iriomotejima in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan from 2005 to 2012. One hundred twenty-four blood-fed Uranotaenia mosquitoes of 7 species (Ur. jacksoni, nivipleura, ohamai, yaeyamana, annandalei, lateralis, and macfarlanei) were collected. The collection rates are 0.26, 0.6, 0.31, and 0.66 by black light trap, black light blue with dry ice trap, frog call trap, and sweeping net, respectively. The blood meals of 107 females (86.3%) were successfully identified by a polymerase chain reaction-based method. All Uranotaenia species fed on cold-blooded animals, especially amphibians (99.1%), and notably on frogs. They would feed readily on available frogs in a given region having no close connection with the breeding (calling) season of each frog. They also fed on reptiles (0.9%), but not on warm-blooded animals. PMID:25843097

  2. Emergency whole-blood use in the field: a simplified protocol for collection and transfusion.

    PubMed

    Strandenes, Geir; De Pasquale, Marc; Cap, Andrew P; Hervig, Tor A; Kristoffersen, Einar K; Hickey, Matthew; Cordova, Christopher; Berseus, Olle; Eliassen, Håkon S; Fisher, Logan; Williams, Steve; Spinella, Philip C

    2014-05-01

    Military experience and recent in vitro laboratory data provide a biological rationale for whole-blood use in the treatment of exsanguinating hemorrhage and have renewed interest in the reintroduction of fresh whole blood and cold-stored whole blood to patient care in austere environments. There is scant evidence to support, in a field environment, that a whole blood-based resuscitation strategy is superior to a crystalloid/colloid approach even when augmented by a limited number of red blood cell (RBC) and plasma units. Recent retrospective evidence suggests that, in this setting, resuscitation with a full compliment of RBCs, plasma, and platelets may offer an advantage, especially under conditions where evacuation is delayed. No current evacuation system, military or civilian, is capable of providing RBC, plasma, and platelet units in a prehospital environment, especially in austere settings. As a result, for the vast minority of casualties, in austere settings, with life-threatening hemorrhage, it is appropriate to consider a whole blood-based resuscitation approach to provide a balanced response to altered hemostasis and oxygen debt, with the goal of reducing the risk of death from hemorrhagic shock. To optimize the successful use of fresh whole blood/cold-stored whole blood in combat field environments, proper planning and frequent training to maximize efficiency and safety will be required. Combat medics will need proper protocol-based guidance and education if whole-blood collection and transfusion are to be successfully and safely performed in austere environments. In this article, we present the Norwegian Naval Special Operation Commando unit-specific remote damage control resuscitation protocol, which includes field collection and transfusion of whole blood. This protocol can serve as a template for others to use and adjust for their own military or civilian unit-specific needs and capabilities for care in austere environments. PMID:24365879

  3. Quality of packed red blood cells and platelet concentrates collected by multicomponent collection using the MCS plus device.

    PubMed

    Leitner, G C; Jilma-Stohlawetz, P; Stiegler, G; Weigel, G; Horvath, M; Tanzmann, A; Höcker, P; Fischer, M B

    2003-01-01

    The demand for blood components is constantly increasing, while the exclusion criteria for donors are strengthened in order to reach maximal safety for donors and patients. To counterbalance reduced availability of volunteers, multicomponent collections (MCC) is an attractive approach to produce more than one component during a single apheresis procedure from one donor, such as packed red blood cells (PRBCs) and platelet concentrates (PCs). Further, the exposures of patients to a limited number of donors reduces the possibility of alloimmunization and transfusion-related diseases. We measured the quality of PRBCs and PCs obtained by MCC, using the MCS+ device with the LDPRBC program, Revision B, and compared them with the quality of manually collected PRBCs and PCs collected with the Revision C2 of the MCS+. We found higher pH levels and lower hemolysis assessed by means of fHb and K+ in the supernatant of PRBCs over the whole storage period of 42 days in MCC-derived PRBCs. The functional metabolism assessed by intracellular ATP was higher in PRBCs collected by MCC than in manually collected units. Furthermore, PCs obtained during MCC showed an increase in p-selectin expression on day 5 of storage compared to PCs collected with the Revision C2 of the MCS+. The p-selectin expression on MCC platelets was within the range of p-selectin expression found in PCs obtained by other apheresis devices. These results indicate less storage lesion in MCC-derived PRBCs compared to manually collected units and no compromise in the quality of MCC PCs obtained in the same apheresis procedure. PMID:12717789

  4. Blood groups and human groups: Collecting and calibrating genetic data after World War Two

    PubMed Central

    Bangham, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Arthur Mourant's The Distribution of the Human Blood Groups (1954) was an “indispensable” reference book on the “anthropology of blood groups” containing a vast collection of human genetic data. It was based on the results of blood-grouping tests carried out on half-a-million people and drew together studies on diverse populations around the world: from rural communities, to religious exiles, to volunteer transfusion donors. This paper pieces together sequential stages in the production of a small fraction of the blood-group data in Mourant's book, to examine how he and his colleagues made genetic data from people. Using sources from several collecting projects, I follow how blood was encountered, how it was inscribed, and how it was turned into a laboratory resource. I trace Mourant's analytical and representational strategies to make blood groups both credibly ‘genetic’ and understood as relevant to human ancestry, race and history. In this story, ‘populations’ were not simply given, but were produced through public health, colonial and post-colonial institutions, and by the labour and expertise of subjects, assistants and mediators. Genetic data were not self-evidently ‘biological’, but were shaped by existing historical and geographical identities, by political relationships, and by notions of kinship and belonging. PMID:25066898

  5. An economic evaluation of plasma production via erythroplasmapheresis and whole blood collection.

    PubMed

    Connelly, Luke B; Pink, Anne

    2002-10-01

    This paper presents cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) of plasma collection via two alternative methods: whole blood collection (WBC) and erythroplasmapheresis collection (EPC). The objective of the study is to provide an answer to the question 'What is the least-cost method of plasma production'. This question is answered, both from the viewpoint of the blood collection agency (using financial CEA) and from that of 'society' as a whole (using economic CEA). We employ detailed financial data and economic survey data for collections made by a blood collection agency and to WBC and EPC donors in Brisbane, Australia. The results indicate that, despite the superior yield provided by EPC, WBC is actually more cost-effective. This result is robust to thorough sensitivity analysis and arises regardless of whether an economic or financial perspective is taken. We conclude that, ceteris paribus, the cost of recruiting new plasma donors would need to be quite substantial for marginal investments in EPC to be considered cost-effective. PMID:12350045

  6. Comparison of blood chemistry values for samples collected from juvenile chinook salmon by three methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Congleton, J.L.; LaVoie, W.J.

    2001-01-01

    Thirteen blood chemistry indices were compared for samples collected by three commonly used methods: caudal transection, heart puncture, and caudal vessel puncture. Apparent biases in blood chemistry values for samples obtained by caudal transection were consistent with dilution with tissue fluids: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), triglyceride, and K+ were increased and Na+ and Cl- were decreased relative to values for samples obtained by caudal vessel puncture. Some enzyme activities (ALT, AST, LDH) and K+ concentrations were also greater in samples taken by heart puncture than in samples taken by caudal vessel puncture. Of the methods tested, caudal vessel puncture had the least effect on blood chemistry values and should be preferred for blood chemistry studies on juvenile salmonids.

  7. A standardized technique for efficient platelet and leukocyte collection using the Model 30 Blood Processor.

    PubMed

    Aisner, J; Schiffer, C A; Wolff, J H; Wiernik, P H

    1976-01-01

    The Model 30 Blood Processor is a safe and simple means of harvesting blood cell components. Presently cell collection depends on a visual assessment by the operator of the indistinct boundaries of cell fractions. To determine when each cell component could best be harvested, serial samples were taken from the output port at fixed intervals anf the results of counts and differentials were graphed and tabulated. Studies in normal donors were done using acid-citrate-dextrose (ACD), 2 per cent sodium citrate in 6 per cent hydroxyethyl starch (HES), or heparin as anticoagulants. There was considerable overlap between the latter part of the platelet band, the leukocyte band and the rising hematocrit with all three anticoagulants. Normally functional lymphocytes could be harvested efficiently (approximately 80%) using ACD or heparin. Platelets could be harvested from ACD very efficiently (approximately 90%). Granulocytes could not be harvested from ACD (less than 10%) since they were dispersed in the red blood cell (RBC) layer. Using HES, granulocytes could be harvested efficiently (approximately 70%) by extending collection into the RBC layer. Based on these data, a standard technique for cell collection has been devised. The flow rate is slowed to 20 ml/min and collection is carried 30 ml (90 seconds at a rate of 20 ml/min) for platelets. The RBC loss is approximately 6 to 8 and 2 to 3 ml/pass respectively. These studies indicate that the Model 30 is a highly efficient apparatus for blood cell separation, but the volume of blood processed is limited by the intermittent blood flow. PMID:62425

  8. Comparison of drug concentrations in blood and oral fluid collected with the Intercept sampling device.

    PubMed

    Gjerde, Hallvard; Mordal, Jon; Christophersen, Asbjørg S; Bramness, Jørgen G; Mørland, Jørg

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the study was to determine drug concentration ratios between oral fluid collected with the Intercept device and whole blood. Samples of blood and oral fluid were obtained from patients admitted to acute psychiatric treatment and drivers suspected of drugged driving. Samples were analyzed for illegal drugs, benzodiazepines, opioids, carisoprodol, and meprobamate. Drugs were detected in samples of both blood and oral fluid from 59 subjects; altogether, 17 different drugs were found. Concentration ratios between oral fluid and blood were determined for all cases. The distributions of drug concentration ratios were wide for most drugs and do not allow reliable estimations of drug concentrations in blood using concentrations in oral fluid. The median oral fluid/blood drug concentration ratios for the most prevalent drugs were 0.036 diazepam, 0.027 nordiazepam, 7.1 amphetamine, 2.9 methamphetamine, 5.4 codeine, 1.9 morphine, and 4.7 tetrahydrocannabinol. The correlation coefficients between drug concentrations in oral fluid and blood ranged from 0.15 to 0.96 for the six most prevalent drugs. PMID:20465866

  9. Quality impact on diagnostic blood specimen collection using a new device to relieve venipuncture pain.

    PubMed

    Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Montagnana, Martina; Picheth, Geraldo; Guidi, Gian Cesare

    2013-07-01

    A new device called Buzzy(®) has been recently presented that combines a cooling ice pack and a vibrating motor in order to relieve the venipuncture pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of Buzzy(®) use during diagnostic blood specimen collection by venipuncture for routine immunochemistry tests. Blood was collected from 100 volunteers by a single, expert phlebotomist. A vein was located on the left forearm without applying tourniquet, in order to prevent any interference from venous stasis, and blood samples were collected using a 20-G straight needle directly into 5 mL vacuum tubes with clot activator and gel separator. In sequence, external cold and vibration by Buzzy(®) was applied on the right forearm-5 cm above the chosen puncture site-for 1 min before venipuncture and continued until the end of the same procedure already done in the left forearm. The panel of tests included the following: glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, albumin, c-reactive protein, urea, creatinine, uric acid, alkaline phosphatase, amylase, AST, ALT, g-glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, total bilirubin, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, iron, sodium, potassium, chloride, lipase, cortisol, insulin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, total triiodothyronine, free triiodothyronine, total thyroxine, free thyroxine and haemolysis index. Clinically significant differences between samples were found only for: total protein, albumin and transferrin. The Buzzy(®) can be used during diagnostic blood specimens collection by venipuncture for the majority of the routine immunochemistry tests. We only suggest avoiding this device during blood collection when protein, albumin and transferrin determinations should be performed. PMID:24426217

  10. Role of the Collecting Duct Renin Angiotensin System in Regulation of Blood Pressure and Renal Function.

    PubMed

    Ramkumar, Nirupama; Kohan, Donald E

    2016-04-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the renal tubular renin angiotensin system regulates urinary Na(+) and water excretion and blood pressure. Three key components of the tubular renin angiotensin system, namely renin, prorenin receptor, and angiotensin-II type 1 receptor, are localized to the collecting duct. This system may modulate collecting duct Na(+) and water reabsorption via angiotensin-II-dependent and angiotensin-II-independent pathways. Further, the system may be of greatest relevance in hypertensive states and particularly those characterized by high circulating angiotensin-II. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the synthesis, regulation, and function of collecting duct-derived renin angiotensin system components and examine recent developments with regard to regulation of blood pressure and renal fluid and Na(+) excretion. PMID:26951246

  11. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells (RBC) deliver oxygen from your lungs to your tissues and organs. White blood cells (WBC) fight infection and are part of your ...

  12. The Incidence and Prevalence of Thromboangiitis Obliterans in Taiwan: A Nationwide, Population-based Analysis of Data Collected from 2002 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jie-Fu; Chen, Yi-Ming; Chen, Der-Yuan; Lin, Ching-Heng; Chen, Hsin-Hua

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence and prevalence of thromboangiitis obliterans in Taiwan in the period spanning from 2002 to 2011. METHODS: We identified all incident and prevalent cases with a diagnosis of thromboangiitis obliterans (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code 443.1) in the period spanning from 2002 to 2011 using Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database. We calculated the age- and sex-specific incidence and prevalence rates of thromboangiitis obliterans during the study period. RESULTS: From 2002 to 2011, 158 patients were diagnosed with thromboangiitis obliterans; of these, 76% were men. Most (63%) of the patients were <50 years old when they were first diagnosed. After reaching 20 years of age, the incidence rate increased with age and peaked among those aged ≥60 years. The average incidence rate of thromboangiitis obliterans during the 2002–2011 period was 0.068 per 105 years. The incidence of thromboangiitis obliterans decreased with time, from 0.10 per 105 years in 2002 to 0.04 per 105 years in 2011. The prevalence increased from 0.26 × 10−5 in 2002 to 0.65 × 10−5 in 2011. CONCLUSION: This is the first epidemiologic study of thromboangiitis obliterans using claims data from a general population in Taiwan. This nationwide, population-based study found that the incidence and prevalence of thromboangiitis obliterans in Taiwan in the 2002–2011 period were lower than those in other countries before 2000. This study also revealed a trend of decreasing incidence with simultaneous increasing prevalence of thromboangiitis obliterans in Taiwan from 2002 to 2011. PMID:27464297

  13. Healthcare Chip for Checking Health Condition from Analysis of Trace Blood Collected by Painless Needle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oki, Akio; Takai, Madoka; Ogawa, Hiroki; Takamura, Yuzuru; Fukasawa, Takayuki; Kikuchi, Jun; Ito, Yoshitaka; Ichiki, Takanori; Horiike, Yasuhiro

    2003-06-01

    A healthcare chip for checking the health condition at home has been studied based on the analysis of a trace amount of blood collected by a painless needle. A microcapillary as the main component for the blood flow was fabricated by molding its reverse pattern made of a quartz plate on a cheap and disposable poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) plate with an area of 2 cm× 2 cm. The painless needle was fabricated by polishing the tip of a stainless steel tube (SUS) with a 100 μm diameter at an angle of 10 degrees using chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) and subsequently finishing it by electropolishing. Coating the 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) polymer on the inner surface of the capillary effectively suppressed the adsorption of corpuscles. A quartz electroosmosis flow pump embedded in the PET plate introduced the blood into a U-shaped capillary through the needle and the blood was centrifugally separated into the corpuscles and plasma on the chip. The plasma was then conveyed to ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFETs) set on the capillary and the Na+ and K+ ion concentrations were measured with high selectivity. Finally, a series of chip operations from blood collection to measurements of the pH, Na+ and K+ ion concentrations was demonstrated.

  14. 25OHD analogues and vacuum blood collection tubes dramatically affect the accuracy of automated immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Songlin; Cheng, Xinqi; Fang, Huiling; Zhang, Ruiping; Han, Jianhua; Qin, Xuzhen; Cheng, Qian; Su, Wei; Hou, Li’an; Xia, Liangyu; Qiu, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Variations in vitamin D quantification methods are large, and influences of vitamin D analogues and blood collection methods have not been systematically examined. We evaluated the effects of vitamin D analogues 25OHD2 and 3-epi 25OHD3 and blood collection methods on vitamin D measurement, using five immunoassay systems and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Serum samples (332) were selected from routine vitamin D assay requests, including samples with or without 25OHD2 or 3-epi 25OHD3, and analysed using various immunoassay systems. In samples with no 25OHD2 or 3-epi 25OHD3, all immunoassays correlated well with LC-MS/MS. However, the Siemens system produced a large positive mean bias of 12.5 ng/mL and a poor Kappa value when using tubes with clot activator and gel separator. When 25OHD2 or 3-epi 25OHD3 was present, correlations and clinical agreement decreased for all immunoassays. Serum 25OHD in VACUETTE tubes with gel and clot activator, as measured by the Siemens system, produced significantly higher values than did samples collected in VACUETTE tubes with no additives. Bias decreased and clinical agreement improved significantly when using tubes with no additives. In conclusion, most automated immunoassays showed acceptable correlation and agreement with LC-MS/MS; however, 25OHD analogues and blood collection tubes dramatically affected accuracy. PMID:26420221

  15. 25OHD analogues and vacuum blood collection tubes dramatically affect the accuracy of automated immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Yu, Songlin; Cheng, Xinqi; Fang, Huiling; Zhang, Ruiping; Han, Jianhua; Qin, Xuzhen; Cheng, Qian; Su, Wei; Hou, Li'an; Xia, Liangyu; Qiu, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Variations in vitamin D quantification methods are large, and influences of vitamin D analogues and blood collection methods have not been systematically examined. We evaluated the effects of vitamin D analogues 25OHD2 and 3-epi 25OHD3 and blood collection methods on vitamin D measurement, using five immunoassay systems and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Serum samples (332) were selected from routine vitamin D assay requests, including samples with or without 25OHD2 or 3-epi 25OHD3, and analysed using various immunoassay systems. In samples with no 25OHD2 or 3-epi 25OHD3, all immunoassays correlated well with LC-MS/MS. However, the Siemens system produced a large positive mean bias of 12.5 ng/mL and a poor Kappa value when using tubes with clot activator and gel separator. When 25OHD2 or 3-epi 25OHD3 was present, correlations and clinical agreement decreased for all immunoassays. Serum 25OHD in VACUETTE tubes with gel and clot activator, as measured by the Siemens system, produced significantly higher values than did samples collected in VACUETTE tubes with no additives. Bias decreased and clinical agreement improved significantly when using tubes with no additives. In conclusion, most automated immunoassays showed acceptable correlation and agreement with LC-MS/MS; however, 25OHD analogues and blood collection tubes dramatically affected accuracy. PMID:26420221

  16. Use of a simple, inexpensive device for collection of blood during acute normovolaemic haemodilution in a Jehovah's Witness patient.

    PubMed

    Dunseth, C; Collins, L; Reddy, S; Schlueter, A J

    2016-02-01

    Postoperative anaemia is a concern for patients who refuse blood products or have rare blood types. Acute normovolaemic haemodilution (ANH) is a potential solution for these challenging populations. However, protocols for ANH provide limited detail on preparation of blood collection systems. This report describes a novel protocol for ANH and an example of a patient who clearly benefited from ANH. PMID:26509493

  17. [The probability of microbiological contamination during the collection and processing of umbilical cord blood].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mei-Ling; Chen, Ru-Guang; Xi, Yong-Zhi; Hu, Yan-Fen; Ouyang, Ling; Zhang, Jian; Huang, Jian-Guo

    2002-08-01

    To study the pathogens incidences in cord blood and the efficiency of different detective methods, 60 samples were drawn and reserved from collected and processed cord blood, respectively. The BACTEC 9050 system, improved Martin/thioglycollate broth (22 degrees C) and thioglycollate broth (35 degrees C) were employed to detected bacteria (including fungus) at the same time. Two hundred and six cord blood serum samples were used to detect the HBV DNA and HCV RNA by molecular biology technique, HBsAg, Anti-HBC, Anti-HCV, Anti-HCMV-IgM, HTLV-1, HTLV-2, HIV-1 and HIV-2 by ELISA and RBC agglutination test were used to detect the TPHA. Results showed that using BACTEC 9050 system, the incidence of bacteria and fungus was 3.33% and 0% respectively in collected cord blood; in processed cord blood, the rates increased to 6.67% and 1.67%, respectively. The sensitivity of BACTEC 9050 was higher than that of Martin/thioglycollate broth (22 degrees C/35 degrees C) culture. In 206 serum samples, the positive rate of HBV DNA was 5.8%, HCV RNA was 2.4%, HBsAg was 2.4%, HCMV-IgM was 1.89%, HCV was 2.4% and Anti-HBC was 29.4%. In those samples that Anti-HBC was positive, the positive rate of HBV DNA was 6.7%. It was concluded that the incidences of microbiological contamination in cord blood were high. The routine culture system would lead to false negative results of obligate anaerobes. It was necessary to replace the current culture system with improved system, such as BACTEC 9050 system. The molecular biology technique would make up for the default of ELISA. PMID:12513773

  18. Experimental basis of standardized specimen collection: effect of posture on blood picture.

    PubMed

    Leppänen, E A; Gräsbeck, R

    1988-03-01

    22 subjectively healthy females were supine, sat in an armchair and stood while specimens of peripheral venous blood were collected after at least 15 min in each position without using a tourniquet. The albumin, haemoglobin, erythrocyte concentration and the haematocrit increased significantly when the subjects assumed a more erect position, probably as a result of increased hydrostatic pressure. The leucocyte count did not rise, and there was a statistically significant drop in the lymphocyte concentration when changing from supine to sitting. However, the leucocyte concentration rose significantly from supine to sitting or standing. When interpreting laboratory data, the difference in the behaviour of different cell species should be kept in mind. However, on the whole this study supports the stipulation contained in international recommendations that the posture of the subject should be standardized before collection of peripheral blood for haematological tests. PMID:3356238

  19. Optimizing cord blood collections: Assessing the role of maternal and neonatal factors

    PubMed Central

    Philip, Joseph; Kushwaha, Neerja; Chatterjee, Tathagata; Mallhi, Rajiv Singh

    2015-01-01

    Background: As processing and cryopreservation of cord blood is time consuming and costly, it is essential to select units with optimal CD34+ cells, total nucleated cell (TNC) number and colony forming units (CFUs). These are the most important factors affecting outcome of UCB transplantation and are influenced by various maternal and neonatal factors. Aim and objectives: To determine the maternal and neonatal factors affecting TNC and CD34+ cell counts in cord blood so as to aid in proper selection of cord blood units for cryopreservation. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 UCB units were collected from normal vaginal deliveries, processed and assessed for volume, TNC, CD34+ cell count and CFU-GM. These parameters were then analyzed to find out whether they correlated with maternal and neonatal characteristics such as mother's age, parity, gestational age, baby's birth weight, and sex. Results: The volume of CB collected significantly correlated with the TNC, CD34+ cell, and CFU-GM yields (P < 0.02). A heavier placenta (P < 0.05), and a heavier baby (P < 0.002) were associated with a significantly greater volume of CB whereas the age, parity of mother and the sex of the baby had no significant effect. Conclusion: The only factors found to affect the TNC and CD34+ cell counts significantly were weight of the baby and placenta and the volume of cord blood collected. Since these factors are of prognostic significance, their analysis will aid in deciding which UCB unit should be processed and cryopreserved for UCB banking and subsequent transplantation. PMID:26420937

  20. [Influence of obstetric factors on the quality of cord blood units collected for allogeneic transplantation].

    PubMed

    Atanassova, V; Atanassova, M; Nikolov, A; Zlatkov, V; Mihaylova, A; Naumova, E

    2012-01-01

    Umbilical cord blood (CB) as a source of haematopoietic stem cells for allogeneic transplantation has many advantages over bone marrow and peripheral blood, however, a main limitation to its use in clinical setting is cell numbers. This study aimed to assess the impact of mother/neonatal factors on the quality of CB units, collected for allogeneic transplantation. We analyzed 33 CB units collected in University Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynaecology "Maichin dom" and donated to the National public bank for stem cells, University Hospital "Alexandrovska", Sofia. A significant increase (p < 0.001) of total nucleated cell (TNC) values was found after CB processing. A trend of higher values of CD34+ cells was observed in CB units obtained from vaginal deliveries compared to Cesarian section births, and from female newborns compared to their male counterparts. CD34+ cell number positively correlated with CD34+ percentage and TNC count. Our preliminary data demonstrate the need of a large retrospective evaluation of different obstetric factors in order to establish criteria for appropriate selection in our country of umbilical cord blood donors for public banking. PMID:23234008

  1. A new voluntary blood collection method for the Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus) and Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus).

    PubMed

    Otaki, Yusuke; Kido, Nobuhide; Omiya, Tomoko; Ono, Kaori; Ueda, Miya; Azumano, Akinori; Tanaka, Sohei

    2015-01-01

    Various training methods have been developed for animal husbandry and health care in zoos and one of these trainings is blood collection. One training method, recently widely used for blood collection in Ursidae, requires setting up a sleeve outside the cage and gives access to limited blood collection sites. A new voluntary blood collection method without a sleeve was applied to the Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus) and Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) with access to various veins at the same time. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of this new method and suggests improvements. Two Andean and two Asiatic black bears in Yokohama and Nogeyama Zoological Gardens, respectively, were trained to hold a bamboo pipe outside their cages. We could, thereby, simultaneously access superficial dorsal veins, the dorsal venous network of the hand, the cephalic vein from the carpal joint, and an area approximately 10 cm proximal to the carpal joint. This allowed us to evaluate which vein was most suitable for blood collection. We found that the cephalic vein, approximately 10 cm proximal to the carpal joint, was the most suitable for blood collection. This new method requires little or no modification of zoo facilities and provides a useful alternative method for blood collection. It could be adapted for use in other clinical examinations such as ultrasound examination. PMID:26197968

  2. Dried Blood Spot Collection of Health Biomarkers to Maximize Participation in Population Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ostler, Michael W.; Porter, James H.; Buxton, Orfeu M.

    2014-01-01

    Biomarkers are directly-measured biological indicators of disease, health, exposures, or other biological information. In population and social sciences, biomarkers need to be easy to obtain, transport, and analyze. Dried Blood Spots meet this need, and can be collected in the field with high response rates. These elements are particularly important in longitudinal study designs including interventions where attrition is critical to avoid, and high response rates improve the interpretation of results. Dried Blood Spot sample collection is simple, quick, relatively painless, less invasive then venipuncture, and requires minimal field storage requirements (i.e. samples do not need to be immediately frozen and can be stored for a long period of time in a stable freezer environment before assay). The samples can be analyzed for a variety of different analytes, including cholesterol, C-reactive protein, glycosylated hemoglobin, numerous cytokines, and other analytes, as well as provide genetic material. DBS collection is depicted as employed in several recent studies. PMID:24513728

  3. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... fight infection and are part of your body's defense system. Platelets help blood to clot when you have a cut or wound. Bone marrow, the spongy material inside your bones, makes new blood cells. Blood cells ...

  4. EFFECT OF STORAGE TIME AND STORAGE CONDITIONS ON ANTIBODY DETECTION IN BLOOD SAMPLES COLLECTED ON FILTER PAPER.

    PubMed

    Bevins, Sarah; Pappert, Ryan; Young, John; Schmit, Brandon; Kohler, Dennis; Baeten, Laurie

    2016-07-01

    Using filter paper to collect blood from wildlife for antibody analysis can be a powerful technique to simplify the collection, transport, and storage of blood samples. Despite these advantages, there are limited data that detail how long these samples can be stored and how storage conditions affect antibody longevity. We used blood samples collected on filter paper from coyotes experimentally infected with Yersinia pestis to determine optimum sample storage conditions over time. Blood samples collected on filter paper were stored for 454 d or more in four groups: 1) at ambient temperature and at ambient relative humidity, 2) at ambient temperature with desiccant, 3) at 4 C with desiccant, and 4) at -20 C with desiccant. Samples stored at 4 C or -20 C with desiccant had detectable antibody for a longer period of time than the samples stored at room temperature. PMID:27187032

  5. Pain assessment during blood collection from sedated and mechanically ventilated children

    PubMed Central

    Dantas, Layra Viviane Rodrigues Pinto; Dantas, Thiago Silveira Pinto; Santana-Filho, Valter Joviniano; Azevedo-Santos, Isabela Freire; DeSantana, Josimari Melo

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study assessed pain and observed physiological parameters in sedated and mechanically ventilated children during a routine procedure. Methods This observational study was performed in a pediatric intensive care unit. Thirty-five children between 1 month and 12 years of age were assessed before, during, and five minutes after an arterial blood collection for gas analysis (painful procedure). Face, Legs, Activity, Cry and Consolability scale was used to assess pain. In addition, patients' heart rate, respiratory rate, peripheral saturation of oxygen and blood pressure (diastolic and systolic) were recorded. COMFORT-B scale was applied before the pain and physiological parameter assessments to verify sedation level of the subjects. Results There was an increase in Face, Legs, Activity, Cry and Consolability score (p = 0.0001) during painful stimuli. There was an increase in heart rate (p = 0.03), respiratory rate (p = 0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.006) due to pain caused by the routine procedure. Conclusions This study suggests that assessments of pain using standard scales, such as Face, Legs, Activity, Cry and Consolability score, and other physiological parameters should be consistently executed to optimize pain management in pediatric intensive care units. PMID:27096676

  6. 75 FR 36060 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Blood and Tissue...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-24

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Blood and Tissue Collection at Slaughtering and Rendering Establishments AGENCY: Animal and Plant... and Plant Health Inspection Service's intention to request an extension of approval of an...

  7. Development of a novel noncapillary plasma microsampling device for ultra-low volume of blood collection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji; Lok, David; Gray, Jesse; Grossman, Steve; Jones, Matt

    2016-05-01

    The desire for serial microsampling in mice has led to extensive research in this field within the pharmaceutical industry. The ability to profile a compound's in vivo properties with less material and fewer mice has obvious advantages. A new device and workflow was developed at the Takeda Oncology site to allow scientists to isolate plasma from very low volumes of mouse blood (as low as 20 μl) collected using standard microsampling techniques. A side-by-side in vitro comparison of plasma concentrations was performed using this new device and conventional sampling methods with commercial and in-house molecules. The plasma concentrations of the molecules tested were very consistent between the conventional sampling techniques and this new device/workflow. In addition, several in-life studies have also been conducted to validate this new technique as a primary PK screening tool at the Takeda Boston. The new device is simple to use and very cost effective with the added benefit that no additional training is needed for the animal technicians and the same centrifuge equipment can be employed. This device can be used for blood volumes ranging from 20 to 100 μl enabling studies not just in rat and dog but more importantly in mice. PMID:27072051

  8. Blood Substrate Collection and Handling Procedures under Pseudo-Field Conditions: Evaluation of Suitability for Inflammatory Biomarker Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Danese, Andrea; Shalev, Idan; Williams, Benjamin S.; Caspi, Avshalom

    2015-01-01

    Routine incorporation of blood-based biomarker measurements in population studies has been hampered by challenges in obtaining samples suitable for biomarker assessment outside of laboratory settings. Here, we assessed the suitability of venous blood left unprocessed for four, 24 or 48 hours post-collection at either room temperature or 4°C for quantification of two biomarkers, Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-Reactive Protein (CRP). Blood samples were collected in both K2EDTA tubes and a dedicated plasma-preservation tube, P100. Dried Blood Spot (DBS) samples from the same subjects were also collected in order to compare delayed-processing plasma performance against a popular alternative collection method. K2EDTA mean plasma concentrations of both IL-6 and CRP were not significantly different from concentrations in plasma processed immediately; this was observed for tubes stored up to 48 hours pre-processing at either temperature. Concentrations of IL-6 measured in P100 tubes showed significant time-dependent increases when stored at room temperature; otherwise, levels of IL-6 and CRP were similar to those processed immediately. Levels of CRP in DBS were correlated with plasma CRP levels, even when pre-processed blood was stored for up to 48 hours. These data indicate that plasma is suitable for IL-6 and CRP estimation under data-collection conditions that involve processing delays. PMID:26652682

  9. Evaluation of new automated hematopoietic progenitor cell analysis in the clinical management of peripheral blood stem cell collections

    PubMed Central

    Peerschke, Ellinor I.; Moung, Christine; Pessin, Melissa S.; Maslak, Peter

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Successful peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) depends on the collection and infusion of adequate numbers of peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPCs). Several predictors of PBPC yield are used currently, including white blood cell (WBC) count and CD34 analysis. This study evaluated the utility of the new automated hematopoietic progenitor cell count available on Sysmex XN hematology analyzers (XN-HPCs) in PBSCT. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS The performance characteristics of XN-HPC, CD34+, and WBC analysis were compared using 107 matched peripheral blood and apheresis samples. RESULTS Good correlation was observed between XN-HPC and CD34+ cell counts in peripheral blood (r = 0.88; slope, 0.81) and apheresis collections (r = 0.91; slope, 0.89). Moreover, peripheral blood XN-HPC and CD34 analysis showed comparable ability to predict successful PBPC harvests (≥ 2 × 106 CD34+ cells/kg). At a cutoff of 20 × 106 progenitor cells/L, peripheral blood XN- HPC and CD34 analysis both showed negative predictive values (NPVs) of 100% and positive predictive values (PPVs) of 55.4 and 63%, respectively. Using an optimized cutoff of 38 × 106 progenitor cells/L, derived from receiver operating characteristic analysis, the PPV for XN-HPC and CD34 analysis increased to 71.4 and 78.9%, respectively, with relatively unchanged NPVs (XN-HPC 97.7%, CD34+ 98.0%). In contrast, the correlation between peripheral blood WBC and CD34 analysis was poor (r = 0.48; slope, 669.85), and the peripheral blood WBC count (cutoff, 10 × 109/L) was a poor predictor of PBPC harvest (NPV 60%, PPV 43.1%). CONCLUSION XN-HPC compares favorably with CD34 analysis and may be a surrogate for CD34 analysis to predict optimal timing of PBPC collections. PMID:25808236

  10. Bridging the gap between sample collection and laboratory analysis: using dried blood spots to identify human exposure to chemical agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamelin, Elizabeth I.; Blake, Thomas A.; Perez, Jonas W.; Crow, Brian S.; Shaner, Rebecca L.; Coleman, Rebecca M.; Johnson, Rudolph C.

    2016-05-01

    Public health response to large scale chemical emergencies presents logistical challenges for sample collection, transport, and analysis. Diagnostic methods used to identify and determine exposure to chemical warfare agents, toxins, and poisons traditionally involve blood collection by phlebotomists, cold transport of biomedical samples, and costly sample preparation techniques. Use of dried blood spots, which consist of dried blood on an FDA-approved substrate, can increase analyte stability, decrease infection hazard for those handling samples, greatly reduce the cost of shipping/storing samples by removing the need for refrigeration and cold chain transportation, and be self-prepared by potentially exposed individuals using a simple finger prick and blood spot compatible paper. Our laboratory has developed clinical assays to detect human exposures to nerve agents through the analysis of specific protein adducts and metabolites, for which a simple extraction from a dried blood spot is sufficient for removing matrix interferents and attaining sensitivities on par with traditional sampling methods. The use of dried blood spots can bridge the gap between the laboratory and the field allowing for large scale sample collection with minimal impact on hospital resources while maintaining sensitivity, specificity, traceability, and quality requirements for both clinical and forensic applications.

  11. 77 FR 35408 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request: Opinions and Perspectives About the Current Blood Donation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... donating in the group of self-identified MSM who are active blood donors in the U.S. Participants from the... Perspectives About the Current Blood Donation Policy for Men Who Have Sex With Men SUMMARY: Under the... Blood Institute ] (NHLBI), the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has submitted to the Office...

  12. Knowledge and attitudes of pregnant women with regard to collection, testing and banking of cord blood stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Conrad V.; Gordon, Kevin; Hof, Michiel Van den; Taweel, Shaureen; Baylis, Françoise

    2003-01-01

    Background Umbilical cord blood is used as a source of hematopoietic stem cells for bone marrow transplantation in the treatment of malignant and nonmalignant disease. We sought to examine pregnant women's knowledge and attitudes regarding cord blood banking, as their support is crucial to the success of cord blood transplant programs. Methods A questionnaire examining sociodemographic factors and women's attitudes to cord blood banking was developed on the basis of findings from 2 focus groups and a pilot study. The questionnaire was distributed to 650 women attending antenatal clinics at a regional women's hospital between April and July 2001. Results A total of 443 women (68%) responded. More than half of the women (307/438 or 70% [95% confidence interval, CI, 66% to 74%]) reported poor or very poor knowledge about cord blood banking. Many of the respondents (299/441 or 68% [95% CI 63% to 72%]) thought that physicians should talk to pregnant women about the collection of cord blood, and they wanted to receive information about this topic from health care professionals (290/441 or 66% [95% CI 61% to 70%]) or prenatal classes (308/441 or 70% [95% CI 65% to 74%]). Most of the women (379/442 or 86% [95% CI 82% to 89%]) would elect to store cord blood in a public bank, many citing altruism as the reason for this choice. A much smaller proportion (63/442 or 14% [95% CI 11% to 18%]) would elect private banking, indicating that this would be a good investment or that they would feel guilty if the blood had not been stored. Additional acceptable uses for cord blood included research (mentioned by 294/436 women or 67% [95% CI 63% to 72%]) and gene therapy (mentioned by 169/437 women or 39% [95% CI 34% to 43%]). Interpretation Most of the women in this study supported the donation of cord blood to public cord blood banks for potential transplantation and research. PMID:12642424

  13. Method and Apparatus for the Collection, Storage, and Real Time Analysis of Blood and Other Bodily Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiitson, Peggy A. (Inventor); Clift, Vaughan L. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides a method and apparatus for separating a blood sample having a volume of up to about 20 milliliters into cellular and acellular fractions. The apparatus includes a housing divided by a fibrous filter into a blood sample collection chamber having a volume of at least about 1 milliliter and a serum sample collection chamber. The fibrous filter has a pore size of less than about 3 microns, and is coated with a mixture including between about 1-40 wt/vol % mannitol and between about 0.1-15 wt/vol % of plasma fraction protein (or an animal or vegetable equivalent thereof). The coating causes the cellular fraction to be trapped by the small pores, leaving the cellular fraction intact on the fibrous filter while the acellular fraction passes through the filter for collection in unaltered form from the serum sample collection chamber.

  14. Method and Apparatus for the Collection Storage and Real Time Analysis of Blood and Other Bodily Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, Peggy A. (Inventor); Clift, Vaughan L. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides an apparatus for separating a relatively large volume of blood into cellular and acellular fractions without the need for centrifugation. The apparatus comprises a housing divided by a fibrous filter into a blood sample collection chamber having a volume of at least about 1 milliliter and a serum sample collection chamber. The fibrous filter has a pore size of less than about 3 microns, and is coated with a mixture of mannitol and plasma fraction protein (or an animal or vegetable equivalent thereof). The coating causes the cellular fraction to be trapped by the small pores, leaving the cellular fraction intact on the fibrous filter while the acellular fraction passes through the filter for collection in unaltered form from the serum sample collection chamber.

  15. Collection and storage of capillary blood in glass fibre filters for glycated haemoglobin measurement by a microcolorimetric method.

    PubMed

    Ng, M L; Sazali, B S; Khalid, B A

    1991-11-01

    A filter method for collection and storage of capillary blood spots for glycated haemoglobin (gHb) has been developed. Glass fibre filters (GFB) impregnated with 0.8 M boric acid were used to collect and store capillary blood. Haemoglobin from the dried blood spots was eluted into water and determined by Drabkin's method, while gHb in the eluates was determined by the microcolorimetric method. The intraassay coefficients of variation (CVs) were 4.5, 4.5 and 3.1% at 882, 1101 and 1704 pmol HMF/mg Hb, respectively. The corresponding inter-assay CVs were 8.6, 8.6 and 6.3%, respectively. A total of 63 paired capillary and venous blood samples were measured by both the direct and GFB method. The GFB method showed excellent correlation with the direct method (r = 0.948 and r = 0.994) after 7 and 14 days' storage at room temperature. The GFB method will enable prior collection and postage of blood samples by patients. PMID:1776812

  16. NONPOINT SOURCE - STREAM NUTRIENT LEVEL RELATIONSHIPS: A NATIONWIDE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    National Eutrophication Survey (NES) data for a nationwide collection of 928 non-point source watersheds were studied for relationships between macro-drainage area characteristics (particularly land use) and nutrient levels in streams. Both the total and inorganic forms of phosph...

  17. An overview of restraint and blood collection techniques in exotic pet practice.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Stephen M; Cervasio, Erika L

    2008-09-01

    As more data about blood test results become available, blood sampling becomes increasingly important as a diagnostic tool. The increased availability of biochemistry analyzers that sample small volumes of blood has made it possible to get diagnostic profiles and hematology results from pets that have only small volumes of blood to contribute. This article describes techniques for restraint, phlebotomy, and sample preparation of several of the more popular exotic animals in the pet trade. The species covered include birds, lizards, chelonians, snakes, frogs, salamanders, fish, rabbits, ferrets, guinea pigs, mice, rats, hamsters, gerbils, hedgehogs, sugar gliders, and giant spiders (tarantulas). PMID:18675727

  18. Tomographic gated blood pool studies: The parameters for collection and reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Doherty, P.W.; King, M.A.; Schwinger, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    Because of the acquisition time and data processing load problems associated with the collection and analysis of multiple gated views required to obtain cine tomographic sections, the authors attempted to document the minimum data requirement for a high quality study. An idealized study (64 views over 360/sup 0/, 32 frames per R-R interval) with an ultra high resolution collimator, and a 20% asymmetric energy window was obtained and analyzed using multiple combinations of views, frames per view, and total count. Optimal image quality was maintained while using 16 views over 180/sup 0/ (RAO 45/sup 0/ to LPO 33.75/sup 0/), 16 frames per view, and an acquisition time of 2 minutes per view which with a 25 mCi dose of Tc-99m provided approximately 10/sup 6/ counts per view. These were the parameters utilized in subsequent patient studies. Using several different types of pre and post reconstruction filtering, optimum image quality was obtained with Metz spatial and low-pass temporal domain prefiltering and a ramp reconstruction filter. As an alternative to cine display, functional images of the transverse sections based on pixel by pixel time activity curves were generated. These included ejection fraction, phase, and maximum positive and negative first derivative image sets. The overall processing time for such studies is 20 minutes with the aid of an array processor, with a patient through-put time of 45 minutes. The authors conclude that good quality gated blood pool studies can be acquired in a clinically acceptable time frame. However, there persists a significant problem with data storage, handling and image interpretation.

  19. Impact of a large-scale educational intervention program on venous blood specimen collection practices

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Phlebotomy performed with poor adherence to venous blood specimen collection (VBSC) guidelines jeopardizes patient safety and may lead to patient suffering and adverse events. A first questionnaire study demonstrated low compliance to VBSC guidelines, motivating an educational intervention of all phlebotomists within a county council. The aim was to evaluate the impact of a large-scale educational intervention program (EIP) on primary health care phlebotomists’ adherence to VBSC guidelines. We hypothesised that the EIP would improve phlebotomists’ VBSC practical performance. Methods The present study comprise primary health care centres (n = 61) from two county councils in northern Sweden. The final selected study group consisted of phlebotomists divided into an intervention group (n = 84) and a corresponding control group (n = 79). Both groups responded to a validated self-reported VBSC questionnaire twice. The EIP included three parts: guideline studies, an oral presentation, and an examination. Non-parametric statistics were used for comparison within and between the groups. Results Evaluating the EIP, we found significant improvements in the intervention group compared to the control group on self-reported questionnaire responses regarding information search (ES = 0.23-0.33, p < 0.001-0.003), and patient rest prior to phlebotomy (ES = 0.27, p = 0.004). Test request management, patient identity control, release of venous stasis, and test tube labelling had significantly improved in the intervention group but did not significantly differ from the control group (ES = 0.22- 0.49, p = < 0.001- 0.006). The control group showed no significant improvements at all (ES = 0–0.39, p = 0.016-0.961). Conclusions The present study demonstrated several significant improvements on phlebotomists’ adherence to VBSC practices. Still, guideline adherence improvement to several crucial phlebotomy practices is needed. We

  20. Levels of Adipokines in Amniotic Fluid and Cord Blood Collected from Dichorionic-Diamniotic Twins Discordant for Fetal Growth

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joong Shin; Norwitz, Errol R.; Panyavatthanasinh, Sitthysack; Kim, Sun Min; Lee, JoonHo; Park, Chan-Wook; Kim, Byoung Jae; Jun, Jong Kwan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the concentrations of adipokines in amniotic fluid (AF) and cord blood collected from discordant dichorionic-diamniotic (DCDA) twin fetuses. Study Design The study population included DCDA twins discordant for fetal growth (birth weight difference >10%) who either underwent mid-trimester amniocentesis for routine clinical indication (Cohort 1) or whose amniotic fluid was collected at the time of delivery (Cohort 2). In both cohorts, cord blood was collected at delivery. Results A total of 92 twin pairs were enrolled (n = 49 in Cohort 1; n = 43 in Cohort 2). In Cohort 1, the concentrations of adiponectin (median, 68.5 ng/mL vs 61.4 ng/mL; p<0.05) and leptin (median, 13.9 ng/mL vs 11.2 ng/mL; p<0.1) in mid-trimester AF were significantly higher in smaller compared with larger twins. In Cohort 2, the concentration of serpin E1 (median, 246.0 ng/mL vs 182.8 ng/mL; p<0.01) in AF at delivery was significantly higher in smaller twins, but no difference was noted in adiponectin and leptin concentrations. Levels of adiponectin (median, 10425.5 ng/mL vs 11552.0 ng/mL; p<0.005) and leptin (median, 2.1 ng/mL vs 2.6 ng/mL; p<0.005) were significantly lower in the cord blood of smaller twins whereas cord blood concentrations of serpin E1 (median, 15.5 ng/mL vs 13.3 ng/mL; p<0.05) was higher in the smaller twins. Conclusion In discordant DCDA twin pairs, concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, and serpin E1 in mid-trimester AF, AF at delivery, and cord blood at birth vary significantly but predictably between the smaller and larger twins. PMID:27135745

  1. Variation in blood sample collection for determination of hemodialysis adequacy. Council on Renal Nutrition National Research Question Collaborative Study Group.

    PubMed

    Beto, J A; Bansal, V K; Ing, T S; Daugirdas, J T

    1998-01-01

    Inadequate dialysis has been associated with high morbidity and mortality in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis. The accurate estimation of dialysis adequacy, measured either as a calculated urea kinetics (Kt/V) or a simple urea reduction ratio (URR) is dependent on the proper collection of blood samples for predialysis and postdialysis blood urea nitrogen (BUN) determination. Because no established protocol exists for blood sampling, we surveyed the study cohort of dialysis centers participating in the National Kidney Foundation Council on Renal Nutrition National Research Question Collaborative Study to determine the comparability of BUN data that were collected to calculate URR to determine adequacy of dialysis. Surveys were completed by 100% of the 202 units participating: 195 in the United States (from 43 states) and seven from Canada, treating approximately 15,000 hemodialysis patients in total. The distribution of the sample by the type of facility mirrored that of 1996 United States Renal Data System (USRDS) Annual Report facilities data. Results showed a 5.0% error in predialysis blood draw and an 8.4% to 41.6% error in the postdialysis counterpart. There was a large variability in the observed postdialysis methods in general. Dilution of predialysis sample with either heparin or saline will falsely underestimate Kt/V and URR. The presence of access-derived, recirculated blood in the postdialysis sample will falsely overestimate Kt/V and URR. Excessive delay in drawing postdialysis sample will reduce Kt/V and URR because of urea rebound. Adoption by all dialysis providers of a uniform blood sample draw procedure will result in a consistency necessary to allow reliable and valid comparison of adequacy of dialysis parameters within and between ESRD patients, units, and clinical trials. PMID:9428465

  2. Fetal Cord Blood Mononuclear Cells Collected At Term from HIV-1 Infected Women Harbor Transcriptionally Active Integrated Proviral DNA

    PubMed Central

    ELLIS, Jane E.; HAIR, Greg A.; LINDSAY, Michael K.; ANSARI, Aftab A.; SUNDSTROM, J. Bruce

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine levels of intrauterine infection and transcriptional activity in cord blood mononuclear cells collected at term from fetuses born to HIV-infected pregnant women on highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). Methods RNA and DNA were isolated from maternal placental tissues and fetal cord blood specimens obtained at term from HIV-infected pregnant women on HAART. Levels of integrated HIV provirus and mRNA transcripts were determined by real-time PCR. Results Detectable levels of transcriptionally active integrated provirus were present in approximately 27% of cord blood samples (n=22) collected from fetuses, born to HIV-positive mothers on HAART. Levels of HIV-p24 antigen in cultures detected in randomly selected cord blood samples confirmed the presence of inducible infectious virus. Conclusions These findings suggest that some fetuses from HIV-infected mothers on HAART who may present as HIV-negative infants postpartum, can harbor circulating leukocytes that are productively infected by intrauterine transmission (IUT) of HIV. PMID:17904964

  3. Effects on Animal Wellbeing and Sample Quality of 2 Techniques for Collecting Blood from the Facial Vein of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Francisco, Cassie C; Howarth, Gordon S; Whittaker, Alexandra L

    2015-01-01

    When sampling blood from mice, several different techniques can be used, with retroorbital sinus sampling traditionally being the most common. Given the severe tissue trauma caused by retroorbital sampling, alternative methods such as the facial vein route have been developed. The aim of this study was to evaluate 2 techniques for facial vein bleeding in conscious mice to ascertain whether differences in clinical outcomes, practicability of sample collection, and hematologic parameters were apparent. Blood samples were obtained from the facial vein of 40 BALB/c mice by using either a 21-gauge needle or a lancet. Subsequently, the protocol was repeated with isoflurane-anesthetized mice sampled by using the lancet method (n = 20). Behavior immediately after sampling was observed, and sample quantity, sampling time, and time until bleeding ceased were measured. Clinical pathology data and hematoma diameter at necropsy were analyzed also. The mean sample quantity collected (approximately 0.2 mL) was comparable among methods, but sampling was much more rapid when mice were anesthetized by using isoflurane. The only other noteworthy finding was a significantly reduced number of platelets in samples from anesthetized mice. Adverse, ongoing clinical signs were rare regardless of the method used. The results revealed no significant differences in welfare implications or blood sample quality among the methods or between conscious and anesthetized mice. Therefore, any of the methods we evaluated for obtaining blood samples from the facial vein are appropriate for use in research studies. PMID:25651095

  4. Adjustment of Cell-Type Composition Minimizes Systematic Bias in Blood DNA Methylation Profiles Derived by DNA Collection Protocols.

    PubMed

    Shiwa, Yuh; Hachiya, Tsuyoshi; Furukawa, Ryohei; Ohmomo, Hideki; Ono, Kanako; Kudo, Hisaaki; Hata, Jun; Hozawa, Atsushi; Iwasaki, Motoki; Matsuda, Koichi; Minegishi, Naoko; Satoh, Mamoru; Tanno, Kozo; Yamaji, Taiki; Wakai, Kenji; Hitomi, Jiro; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Kubo, Michiaki; Tanaka, Hideo; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Sobue, Kenji; Shimizu, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Differences in DNA collection protocols may be a potential confounder in epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) using a large number of blood specimens from multiple biobanks and/or cohorts. Here we show that pre-analytical procedures involved in DNA collection can induce systematic bias in the DNA methylation profiles of blood cells that can be adjusted by cell-type composition variables. In Experiment 1, whole blood from 16 volunteers was collected to examine the effect of a 24 h storage period at 4°C on DNA methylation profiles as measured using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. Our statistical analysis showed that the P-value distribution of more than 450,000 CpG sites was similar to the theoretical distribution (in quantile-quantile plot, λ = 1.03) when comparing two control replicates, which was remarkably deviated from the theoretical distribution (λ = 1.50) when comparing control and storage conditions. We then considered cell-type composition as a possible cause of the observed bias in DNA methylation profiles and found that the bias associated with the cold storage condition was largely decreased (λ adjusted = 1.14) by taking into account a cell-type composition variable. As such, we compared four respective sample collection protocols used in large-scale Japanese biobanks or cohorts as well as two control replicates. Systematic biases in DNA methylation profiles were observed between control and three of four protocols without adjustment of cell-type composition (λ = 1.12-1.45) and no remarkable biases were seen after adjusting for cell-type composition in all four protocols (λ adjusted = 1.00-1.17). These results revealed important implications for comparing DNA methylation profiles between blood specimens from different sources and may lead to discovery of disease-associated DNA methylation markers and the development of DNA methylation profile-based predictive risk models. PMID:26799745

  5. Detecting and collecting traces of semen and blood from outdoor crime scenes using crime scene dogs and presumptive tests.

    PubMed

    Skalleberg, A G; Bouzga, M M

    2016-07-01

    In 2009, the Norwegian police academy educated their first crime scene dogs, trained to locate traces of seminal fluid and blood in outdoor and indoor crime scenes. The Department of Forensic Biology was invited to take part in this project to educate the police in specimen collection and presumptive testing. We performed tests where seminal fluid was deposited on different outdoor surfaces from between one hour to six days, and blood on coniferous ground from between one hour to two days. For both body fluids the tests were performed with three different volumes. The crime scene dogs located the stains, and acid phosphatase/tetrabasebariumperoxide was used as presumptive tests before collection for microscopy and DNA analysis. For seminal fluid the dogs were able to locate all stains for up to two days and only the largest volume after four days. The presumptive tests confirmed the dog's detection. By microscopy we were able to detect spermatozoa for the smallest volumes up to 32h, and for the largest volume up to 4 days, and the DNA results are in correlation to these findings. For blood all the stains were detected by the dogs, except the smallest volume of blood after 32h. The presumptive tests confirmed the dog's detection. We were able to get DNA results for most stains in the timeframe 1-48h with the two largest volumes. The smallest volume shows diversities between the parallels, with no DNA results after 24h. These experiments show that it is critical that body fluids are collected within a timeframe to be able to get a good DNA result, preferably within the first 24-48h. Other parameters that should be taken into account are the weather conditions, type of surfaces and specimen collection. PMID:27174517

  6. Microfluidic evaluation of red cells collected and stored in modified processing solutions used in blood banking.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yimeng; Giebink, Adam; Spence, Dana M

    2014-01-01

    The most recent American Association of Blood Banks survey found that 40,000 units of blood are required daily for general medicine, hematology/oncology, surgery, and for accident and trauma victims. While blood transfusions are an extremely important component of critical healthcare, complications associated with transfusion of blood components still exist. It is well-established that the red blood cell (RBC) undergoes many physical and chemical changes during storage. Increased oxidative stress, formation of advanced glycation endproducts, and microparticle formation are all known to occur during RBC storage. Furthermore, it is also known that patients who receive a transfusion have reduced levels of available nitric oxide (NO), a major determinant in blood flow. However, the origin of this reduced NO bioavailability is not completely understood. Here, we show that a simple modification to the glucose concentration in the solutions used to process whole blood for subsequent RBC storage results in a remarkable change in the ability of these cells to stimulate NO. In a controlled in vitro microflow system, we discovered that storage of RBCs in normoglycemic versions of standard storage solutions resulted in RBC-derived ATP release values 4 weeks into storage that were significantly greater than day 1 release values for those RBCs stored in conventional solutions. During the same storage duration, microfluidic technologies enabled measurements of endothelium-derived NO that were stimulated by the ATP release from the stored RBCs. In comparison to currently accepted processing solutions, the NO production increased by more than 25% in the presence of the RBCs stored in the normoglycemic storage solutions. Control experiments using inhibitors of ATP release from the RBCs, or ATP binding to the endothelium, strongly suggest that the increased NO production by the endothelium is directly related to the ability of the stored RBCs to release ATP. We anticipate these

  7. Design and implementation of the first nationwide, web-based Chinese Renal Data System (CNRDS)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In April 2010, with an endorsement from the Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China, the Chinese Society of Nephrology launched the first nationwide, web-based prospective renal data registration platform, the Chinese Renal Data System (CNRDS), to collect structured demographic, clinical, and laboratory data for dialysis cases, as well as to establish a kidney disease database for researchers and policy makers. Methods The CNRDS program uses information technology to facilitate healthcare professionals to create a blood purification registry and to deliver an evidence-based care and education protocol tailored to chronic kidney disease, as well as online forum for communication between nephrologists. The online portal https://www.cnrds.net is implemented as a Java web application using an Apache Tomcat web server and a MySQL database. All data are stored in a central databank to establish a Chinese renal database for research and publication purposes. Results Currently, over 270,000 clinical cases, including general patient information, diagnostics, therapies, medications, and laboratory tests, have been registered in CNRDS by 3,669 healthcare institutions qualified for hemodialysis therapy. At the 2011 annual blood purification forum of the Chinese Society of Nephrology, the CNRDS 2010 annual report was reviewed and accepted by the society members and government representatives. Conclusions CNRDS is the first national, web-based application for collecting and managing electronic medical records of patients with dialysis in China. It provides both an easily accessible platform for nephrologists to store and organize their patient data and acts as a communication platform among participating doctors. Moreover, it is the largest database for treatment and patient care of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients in China, which will be beneficial for scientific research and epidemiological investigations aimed at improving the quality of life of

  8. Survey of Blood Collection Centers and Implementation of Guidance for Prevention of Transfusion-Transmitted Zika Virus Infection - Puerto Rico, 2016.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Amber M; Sapiano, Mathew R P; Basavaraju, Sridhar V; Kuehnert, Matthew J; Rivera-Garcia, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    Since November 2015, Puerto Rico has reported active mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus (1). Because of the potential for Zika virus to be transmitted through transfusion of blood components, and because a high percentage of persons infected with Zika virus are asymptomatic (2), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommended that blood collections cease in areas of the United States affected by active vector-borne transmission of Zika virus until laboratory screening of blood donations or pathogen reduction technology (PRT)* for treatment of blood components can be implemented (3). To inform efforts to maintain the safety and availability of the blood supply in Puerto Rico, CDC, in collaboration with the Puerto Rico Department of Health, conducted a rapid assessment of blood collection and use on the island. A total of 139,369 allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) units,(†) 45,243 platelet units, and 56,466 plasma units were collected in or imported to Puerto Rico during 2015, and 135,966 allogeneic RBC units, 13,526 therapeutic platelet units,(§) and 25,775 plasma units were transfused. Because of the potential for local Zika virus transmission in areas with a competent mosquito vector (4), other areas of the United States should develop plans to ensure local blood safety and adequacy. Blood collection organizations and public health agencies should collaborate to maintain the safety and availability of local blood supplies in accordance with FDA guidance. PMID:27078190

  9. Effects of Clove Oil as a Euthanasia Agent on Blood Collection Efficiency and Serum Cortisol Levels in Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Davis, Daniel J; Klug, Jenna; Hankins, Miriam; Doerr, Holly M; Monticelli, Stephanie R; Song, Ava; Gillespie, Catherine H; Bryda, Elizabeth C

    2015-09-01

    Zebrafish are an important laboratory animal model for biomedical research and are increasingly being used for behavioral neuroscience. Tricaine methanesulfonate (MS222) is the standard agent used for euthanasia of zebrafish. However, recent studies of zebrafish behavior suggest that MS222 may be aversive, and clove oil might be a possible alternative. In this study, we compared the effects of MS222 or clove oil as a euthanasia agent in zebrafish on the volume of blood collected and on serum levels of cortisol. Greater amounts of serum could be collected and lower serum levels of cortisol were present in fish euthanized with clove oil compared with equipotent dose of MS222. Euthanasia with clove oil did not blunt the expected elevation of serum cortisol levels elicited by an acute premortem stress. According to our findings, clove oil is a fast-acting agent that minimizes the cortisol response to euthanasia in zebrafish and allows the collection of large volumes of blood postmortem. These results represent a significant refinement in euthanasia methods for zebrafish. PMID:26424256

  10. Effects of Clove Oil as a Euthanasia Agent on Blood Collection Efficiency and Serum Cortisol Levels in Danio rerio

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Daniel J; Klug, Jenna; Hankins, Miriam; Doerr, Holly M; Monticelli, Stephanie R; Song, Ava; Gillespie, Catherine H; Bryda, Elizabeth C

    2015-01-01

    Zebrafish are an important laboratory animal model for biomedical research and are increasingly being used for behavioral neuroscience. Tricaine methanesulfonate (MS222) is the standard agent used for euthanasia of zebrafish. However, recent studies of zebrafish behavior suggest that MS222 may be aversive, and clove oil might be a possible alternative. In this study, we compared the effects of MS222 or clove oil as a euthanasia agent in zebrafish on the volume of blood collected and on serum levels of cortisol. Greater amounts of serum could be collected and lower serum levels of cortisol were present in fish euthanized with clove oil compared with equipotent dose of MS222. Euthanasia with clove oil did not blunt the expected elevation of serum cortisol levels elicited by an acute premortem stress. According to our findings, clove oil is a fast-acting agent that minimizes the cortisol response to euthanasia in zebrafish and allows the collection of large volumes of blood postmortem. These results represent a significant refinement in euthanasia methods for zebrafish. PMID:26424256

  11. A Model-Based Product Evaluation Protocol for Comparison of Safety-Engineered Protection Mechanisms of Winged Blood Collection Needles.

    PubMed

    Haupt, C; Spaeth, J; Ahne, T; Goebel, U; Steinmann, D

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate differences in product characteristics and user preferences of safety-engineered protection mechanisms of winged blood collection needles. DESIGN Randomized model-based simulation study. SETTING University medical center. PARTICIPANTS A total of 33 third-year medical students. METHODS Venipuncture was performed using winged blood collection needles with 4 different safety mechanisms: (a) Venofix Safety, (b) BD Vacutainer Push Button, (c) Safety-Multifly, and (d) Surshield Surflo. Each needle type was used in 3 consecutive tries: there was an uninstructed first handling, then instructions were given according to the operating manual; subsequently, a first trial and second trial were conducted. Study end points included successful activation, activation time, single-handed activation, correct activation, possible risk of needlestick injury, possibility of deactivation, and preferred safety mechanism. RESULTS The overall successful activation rate during the second trial was equal for all 4 devices (94%-100%). Median activation time was (a) 7 s, (b) 2 s, (c) 9 s, and (d) 7 s. Single-handed activation during the second trial was (a) 18%, (b) 82%, (c) 15%, and (d) 45%. Correct activation during the second trial was (a) 3%, (b) 64%, (c) 15%, and (d) 39%. Possible risk of needlestick injury during the second trial was highest with (d). Possibility of deactivation was (a) 0%, (b) 12%, (c) 9%, and (d) 18%. Individual preferences for each system were (a) 11, (b) 17, (c) 5, and (d) 0. The main reason for preference was the comprehensive safety mechanism. CONCLUSION Significant differences exist between safety mechanisms of winged blood collection needles. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:505-511. PMID:26868306

  12. Adjustment of Cell-Type Composition Minimizes Systematic Bias in Blood DNA Methylation Profiles Derived by DNA Collection Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Shiwa, Yuh; Hachiya, Tsuyoshi; Furukawa, Ryohei; Ohmomo, Hideki; Ono, Kanako; Kudo, Hisaaki; Hata, Jun; Hozawa, Atsushi; Iwasaki, Motoki; Matsuda, Koichi; Minegishi, Naoko; Satoh, Mamoru; Tanno, Kozo; Yamaji, Taiki; Wakai, Kenji; Hitomi, Jiro; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Kubo, Michiaki; Tanaka, Hideo; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Sobue, Kenji; Shimizu, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Differences in DNA collection protocols may be a potential confounder in epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) using a large number of blood specimens from multiple biobanks and/or cohorts. Here we show that pre-analytical procedures involved in DNA collection can induce systematic bias in the DNA methylation profiles of blood cells that can be adjusted by cell-type composition variables. In Experiment 1, whole blood from 16 volunteers was collected to examine the effect of a 24 h storage period at 4°C on DNA methylation profiles as measured using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. Our statistical analysis showed that the P-value distribution of more than 450,000 CpG sites was similar to the theoretical distribution (in quantile-quantile plot, λ = 1.03) when comparing two control replicates, which was remarkably deviated from the theoretical distribution (λ = 1.50) when comparing control and storage conditions. We then considered cell-type composition as a possible cause of the observed bias in DNA methylation profiles and found that the bias associated with the cold storage condition was largely decreased (λadjusted = 1.14) by taking into account a cell-type composition variable. As such, we compared four respective sample collection protocols used in large-scale Japanese biobanks or cohorts as well as two control replicates. Systematic biases in DNA methylation profiles were observed between control and three of four protocols without adjustment of cell-type composition (λ = 1.12–1.45) and no remarkable biases were seen after adjusting for cell-type composition in all four protocols (λadjusted = 1.00–1.17). These results revealed important implications for comparing DNA methylation profiles between blood specimens from different sources and may lead to discovery of disease-associated DNA methylation markers and the development of DNA methylation profile-based predictive risk models. PMID:26799745

  13. Can Epstein-Barr virus DNA load in nasopharyngeal brushings or whole blood predict recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma in a non-endemic region? A prospective nationwide study of the Dutch Head and Neck Oncology Cooperative Group.

    PubMed

    Stoker, Sharon D; Wildeman, Maarten A; Novalic, Zlata; Fles, Renske; van der Noort, Vincent; de Bree, Remco; Braunius, Weibel W; van den Broek, Guido B; Kreike, Bas; Kross, Kenneth W; Juwana, Hedy; Ramayanti, Octavia; Verkuijlen, Sandra A W M; de Boer, Jan Paul; Greijer, Astrid E; Middeldorp, Jaap M; Tan, I Bing

    2016-06-01

    This study estimated the value of quantitative measurements of EBV markers in the clinical management of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in a non-endemic area. The aim was to predict prognosis and detect recurrent and residual disease. In 72 patients, EBV DNA load in blood and nasopharyngeal brushes, and IgA VCA-p18 and EBNA1 in plasma were measured at different time points. At diagnosis and post-treatment, a cut-off value was used for detecting disease [positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive value]. The markers were correlated as a continuous variable with tumor stage, disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). The Cox hazard ratio model assessed hazard ratios. At diagnosis, the markers were above the COV in 45, 92, 85 and 83 % of the patients, respectively. Post-treatment, DNA load test in blood and brush had the best discriminating power (blood DNA load test: PPV 39 % and NPV 97 %, brush for local disease: PPV 75 % and NPV 99 %). Post-treatment, DNA load in blood was the best predictor for OS and DFS [hazard ratio 3.2 (95 % CI 1.51-3.5) and 2.3 (95 % CI 1.72-5.8)]. Assessing the EBV DNA load in blood has significant prognostic value, although the clinical value is for discussion. The EBV DNA load in the brush might improve early detection of local failures post-treatment. PMID:25929413

  14. Prototype Device for Computerized Blood Sampling and Data Collection in Freely Moving Swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Collecting biofluid samples or physiological and behavioral data from animals presents challenges from excessive human intervention, and the stress of manual sampling. Our objective was to construct a device capable of protecting external leads and tubing used to facilitate automated sampling, dosin...

  15. Vector-borne pathogens in ticks and EDTA-blood samples collected from client-owned dogs, Kiev, Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Hamel, Dietmar; Silaghi, Cornelia; Zapadynska, Svitlana; Kudrin, Anton; Pfister, Kurt

    2013-02-01

    Due to the availability of adequate habitats in urban environments, e.g. city parks and recreational green areas, ticks from such settings may also carry pathogens of veterinary and public health concern. Thus, tick-borne infections may readily be identified in companion animals residing in urbanised areas. To investigate the presence of vector-borne pathogens in Kiev, Ukraine, 52 engorged adult ticks, 33 Dermacentor reticulatus and 19 Ixodes ricinus, were collected from 15 dogs in the spring of 2010, and further 23 canine EDTA-blood samples were obtained in the spring of 2011 from client-owned patients presented in a veterinary clinic in Kiev. DNA of 9 pathogens was detected by PCR in ticks and canine EDTA-blood samples: Babesia canis canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia helvetica, Ri. monacensis, Ri. raoultii, and Dirofilaria repens (by proxy) were identified in engorged ticks and B. c. canis, Hepatozoon canis, Di. immitis, Di. repens, and Mycoplasma haemocanis in canine EDTA-blood samples. This is the first description of Ri. raoultii in the Ukraine. This study adds information on the occurrence of vector-borne pathogens of veterinary and public health importance in Kiev, Ukraine. PMID:23069260

  16. Use of Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization for Rapid Identification of Staphylococci in Blood Culture Samples Collected in a Portuguese Hospital ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, Ana; Inácio, João; Melo-Cristino, José; Couto, Isabel

    2008-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used for the direct identification of staphylococci in blood cultures collected at a Portuguese hospital where staphylococci account for up to 35% of clinically relevant blood cultures. The assay was able to detect the presence/absence of staphylococci and distinguish Staphylococcus aureus from coagulase-negative staphylococci in 4.5 h. PMID:18562589

  17. NHEXAS PHASE I REGION 5 STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE--HUMAN BIOLOGICAL MARKERS:BLOOD AND URINE SAMPLE COLLECTION AND ANALYSES (EOHSI-AP-209-040)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This procedure describes the process for collecting and analyzing blood and urine samples. The presence of chemical contaminants in biological specimens such as blood, urine, and hair represent a measure of the internal dose or body burden for a given individual derived from the ...

  18. Assessment of Blood Collection from the Lateral Saphenous Vein for Microfilaria Counts in Mongolian Gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) Infected with Brugia pahangi

    PubMed Central

    Alworth, Leanne C; Berghaus, Roy D; Kelly, Lisa M; Supakorndej, Prasit; Burkman, Erica J; Savadelis, Molly D; Cooper, Tanya L; Salyards, Gregory W; Harvey, Stephen B; Moorhead, Andrew R

    2015-01-01

    The NIH guidelines for survival bleeding of mice and rats note that using the retroorbital plexus has a greater potential for complications than do other methods of blood collection and that this procedure should be performed on anesthetized animals. Lateral saphenous vein puncture has a low potential for complications and can be performed without anesthesia. Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) are the preferred rodent model for filarial parasite research. To monitor microfilaria counts in the blood, blood sampling from the orbital plexus has been the standard. Our goal was to refine the blood collection technique. To determine whether blood collection from the lateral saphenous vein was a feasible alternative to retroorbital sampling, we compared microfilaria counts in blood samples collected by both methods from 21 gerbils infected with the filarial parasitic worm Brugia pahangi. Lateral saphenous vein counts were equivalent to retroorbital counts at relatively high counts (greater than 50 microfilariae per 20 µL) but were significantly lower than retroorbital counts when microfilarial concentrations were lower. Our results indicate that although retroorbital collection may be preferable when low concentrations of microfilariae need to be enumerated, the lateral saphenous vein is a suitable alternative site for blood sampling to determine microfilaremia and is a feasible refinement that can benefit the wellbeing of gerbils. PMID:26678366

  19. Race and ethnicity influences collection of G-CSF mobilized peripheral blood progenitor cells from unrelated donors, a CIBMTR analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Jack W.; Wingard, John R.; Logan, Brent R.; Chitphakdithai, Pintip; Akpek, Gorgun; Anderlini, Paolo; Artz, Andrew S.; Bredeson, Chris; Goldstein, Steven; Hale, Gregory; Hematti, Pieman; Joshi, Sarita; Kamble, Rammurti T.; Lazarus, Hillard M.; O'Donnell, Paul V.; Pulsipher, Michael A.; Savani, Bipin; Schears, Raquel M.; Shaw, Bronwen E.; Confer, Dennis L.

    2014-01-01

    Little information exists on the effect of race and ethnicity on collection of peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) for allogeneic transplantation. We studied 10776 donors from the National Marrow Donor Program who underwent PBSC collection from 2006-2012. Self-reported donor race/ethnic information included Caucasian, Hispanic, Black/African American (AA), Asian/Pacific Islander (API), and Native American (NA). All donors were mobilized with subcutaneous filgrastim (G-CSF) at an approximate dose of 10 µg/kg/d for 5 days. Overall, AA donors had the highest median yields of mononuclear cells (MNC)/L and CD34+ cells/L blood processed (3.1 × 109 and 44 × 106 respectively) while Caucasians had the lowest median yields at 2.8 × 109 and 33.7 × 106 respectively. Multivariate analysis of CD34+/L mobilization yields using Caucasians as the comparator and controlling for age, gender, body mass index, and year of apheresis revealed increased yields in overweight and obese AA and API donors. In Hispanic donors, only male obese donors had higher CD34+/L mobilization yields compared to Caucasian donors. No differences in CD34+/L yields were seen between Caucasian and NA donors. Characterization of these differences may allow optimization of mobilization regimens to allow enhancement of mobilization yields without compromising donor safety. PMID:25316111

  20. Concentrations of drugs determined in blood samples collected from suspected drugged drivers in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Burch, Hilary J; Clarke, Elizabeth J; Hubbard, Alison M; Scott-Ham, Michael

    2013-05-01

    This communication reports the blood concentrations of alcohol and drugs from 376 cases of alleged driving under the influence of drugs analysed at the Forensic Science Service Chorley and London laboratories between February 2010 and March 2011. The samples were analysed for alcohol, amphetamine, benzodiazepines, cocaine, MDMA, opiates, γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), ketamine, methadone and methylmethcathinone (the 4-isomer of which is known as mephedrone). The results were interpreted with respect to the number and type of drugs of abuse detected and the concentrations measured. Alcohol was quantified in 113 cases (30%), and of these a level in excess of the prescribed UK limit for driving of 80 mg% was present in 90 cases. In 80 cases, only the concentration of alcohol was measured, the concentrations of both drugs and alcohol were measured in 33 cases. In the remaining 263 cases, only the concentrations of relevant drugs of abuse were measured. The most common drug of abuse quantified was cocaine which was detected in 92 cases, either as the active drug or as its major metabolite benzoylecgonine, followed by diazepam which was quantified in 76 cases. Concentrations of some new drugs, and drugs rarely reported in driving under the influence cases are also presented. PMID:23622475

  1. Buprenorphine and major metabolites in blood specimens collected for drug analysis in law enforcement purposes.

    PubMed

    Oechsler, Stephanie; Skopp, Gisela

    2010-02-25

    A liquid chromatographic/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric method for the quantification of buprenorphine (BUP), norbuprenorphine (NBUP), buprenorphine-3-beta-D-glucuronide (BUPG) and norbuprenorphine-3-beta-D-glucuronide (NBUPG) in serum samples was developed and validated. Pre-treatment of BUP and NBUP was by liquid-liquid extraction, while glucuronides were favourably isolated by solid phase extraction. Separation in 2 separate runs (2 x 5 min) was achieved using isocratic elution. The method was applied to 20 authentic serum specimens collected for law enforcement purposes where BUP intake had been indicated. The parent drug was not detectable in half of the specimens at a lower limit of detection of 0.2 ng/mL, whereas NBUP could be determined from any sample but one. NBUPG is the major metabolite present, which could be identified along with BUPG in all samples under investigation. In authentic specimens it could be advisable to monitor BUP metabolites along with the parent drug. PMID:20006453

  2. Method and apparatus for the collection, storage, and real time analysis of blood and other bodily fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, Peggy A. (Inventor); Clift, Vaughan L. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The present invention provides a simple, portable, relatively inexpensive apparatus for accurately and efficiently collecting, separating, testing, and even storing between about 1-20 ml, preferably about 1-10 ml, of blood or other bodily fluid in situ. The apparatus includes a collection chamber bounded on its sides by an opening in a sheet of material, preferably clear plastic, abutting a filter card. The filter card is made of fibrous material, preferably less than about a millimeter thick, having an average pore size of less than about 3 microns. Preferably, the fibers are glass and the fibrous material has an average pore size of about 1 micron. The fibrous material is treated with a carbohydrate/protein mixture which contains between about 1-40 percent wt/vol carbohydrate and about 0.1-15 percent wt/vol nonspecific protein, preferably between about 10-20 percent carbohydrate and about 5-8 percent protein. A preferred carbohydrate/protein mixture comprises about 10 percent mannitol and about 6 percent albumin. The blood or other fluid moves through the filter card by capillary action aided by an absorbent matrix with a high Klemm factor which abuts the filter card. The absorbent matrix and/or filter card can be treated with a wide spectrum of test reagents. The speed, cleanliness, and efficiency of the separation process can be altered by: (a) changing the absolute concentration of the carbohydrate/protein mixture; (b) applying positive or negative pressure to one side of the filter; and/or (c) varying the relative density and pore size of the filter card and absorbent matrix.

  3. Field Evaluation of Capillary Blood Samples as a Collection Specimen for the Rapid Diagnosis of Ebola Virus Infection During an Outbreak Emergency

    PubMed Central

    Strecker, Thomas; Palyi, Bernadett; Ellerbrok, Heinz; Jonckheere, Sylvie; de Clerck, Hilde; Bore, Joseph Akoi; Gabriel, Martin; Stoecker, Kilian; Eickmann, Markus; van Herp, Michel; Formenty, Pierre; Di Caro, Antonino; Becker, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Background. Reliable reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)–based diagnosis of Ebola virus infection currently requires a blood sample obtained by intravenous puncture. During the current Ebola outbreak in Guinea, we evaluated the usability of capillary blood samples collected from fingersticks of patients suspected of having Ebola virus disease (EVD) for field diagnostics during an outbreak emergency. Methods. A total of 120 venous and capillary blood samples were collected from 53 patients admitted to the Ebola Treatment Centre in Guéckédou, Guinea, between July and August 2014. All sample specimens were analyzed by RT-PCR using the RealStar Filovirus Screen RT-PCR Kit 1.0 from altona Diagnostics (Germany). We compared samples obtained by venipuncture and those obtained by capillary blood sampling absorbed onto swab devices. Results. The resulting sensitivity and specificity of tests performed with capillary blood samples were 86.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 71.9%–95.6%; 33/38 patients) and 100% (95% CI, 84.6%–100%; 22/22 patients), respectively. Conclusions. Our data suggest that capillary blood samples could serve as an alternative to venous blood samples for the diagnosis of EVD in resource-limited settings during a crisis. This can be of particular advantage in cases when venipuncture is difficult to perform—for example, with newborns and infants or when adult patients reject venipuncture for cultural or religious reasons. PMID:25991465

  4. The post-occipital spinal venous sinus of the Nile crocodile Crocodylus niloticus: its anatomy and use for blood sample collection and intravenous infusions.

    PubMed

    Myburgh, Jan G; Kirberger, Robert M; Steyl, Johan C A; Soley, John T; Booyse, Dirk G; Huchzermeyer, Fritz W; Lowers, Russel H; Guillette, Louis J

    2014-01-01

    The post-occipital sinus of the spinal vein is often used for the collection of blood samples from crocodilians. Although this sampling method has been reported for several crocodilian species, the technique and associated anatomy has not been described in detail in any crocodilian, including the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus). The anatomy of the cranial neck region was investigated macroscopically, microscopically, radiographically and by means of computed tomography. Latex was injected into the spinal vein and spinal venous sinus of crocodiles to visualise the regional vasculature. The spinal vein ran within the vertebral canal, dorsal to and closely associated with the spinal cord and changed into a venous sinus cranially in the post-occipital region. For blood collection, the spinal venous sinus was accessed through the interarcuate space between the atlas and axis (C1 and C2) by inserting a needle angled just off the perpendicular in the midline through the craniodorsal cervical skin, just cranial to the cranial borders of the first cervical osteoderms. The most convenient method of blood collection was with a syringe and hypodermic needle. In addition, the suitability of the spinal venous sinus for intravenous injections and infusions in live crocodiles was evaluated. The internal diameter of the commercial human epidural catheters used during these investigations was relatively small, resulting in very slow infusion rates. Care should be taken not to puncture the spinal cord or to lacerate the blood vessel wall using this route for blood collection or intravenous infusions. PMID:24831995

  5. Optimization of blood collection card method/enzyme-linked immunoassay for monitoring exposure of bottlenose dolphin to brevetoxin-producing red tides.

    PubMed

    Maucher, Jennifer M; Briggs, Lyn; Podmore, Colleen; Ramsdell, John S

    2007-01-15

    Blood collection cards have been successfully used as a tool to monitor brevetoxin (PbTx) exposure in several species, including fish, mice, and rats. Previous methanolic methods used for extracting brevetoxin from blood collection cards have shown dolphin blood to have matrix difficulties in several biological assays. To better biomonitor protected marine mammal species in the Florida area, which is historically prone to unusual mortality events caused by brevetoxin exposure, we have modified the previous extraction method to consistently recover brevetoxin with a known efficiency from dolphin blood collection card samples with minimal matrix interference. A combination of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) with 6% MeOH and 100% acetonitrile was used to elute blood from the cellulose card and precipitate proteins, respectively. Analysis was performed using a newly developed direct enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA), which yields a sample limit of quantification of 1 ng PbTx-3 equiv/mL. This extraction method allowed for linear recovery of PbTx-3 spiked into dolphin blood (1-30 ng/mL) with a consistent recovery rate of 58% and has subsequently been used to monitor brevetoxins in dolphins, as well as sea turtles and manatees, in regions endemic to red tides. In addition, two known metabolites of PbTx-2 were isolated and also found to be detectable using the ELISA. The cysteine conjugate (m/z 1018) and cysteine sulfoxide conjugate (m/z 1034) were found to have linear recoveries of 87% and 66%, respectively. In summary, this method of extracting brevetoxins and their metabolites from blood collection cards, in conjunction with the ELISA detection method, is a simple and reliable way to biomonitor physiologically relevant toxin levels in protected marine animals. PMID:17310722

  6. Evaluation of Trapper-Collected Nobuto Filter-Paper Blood Samples for Distemper and Parvovirus Antibody Detection in Coyotes (Canis latrans) and Raccoons (Procyon lotor).

    PubMed

    Kamps, Amanda J; Dubay, Shelli A; Langenberg, Julie; Maes, Roger K

    2015-07-01

    Blood samples are often collected from free-ranging wildlife for antibody detection. However, filter-paper (FP) strips are more cost efficient and easy to collect and store. We evaluated trapper-collected FP strips and body-cavity blood for canine distemper (CDV) and parvovirus (CPV-2) antibody detection in raccoons (Procyon lotor) and coyotes (Canis latrans). From 2008 to 2010, licensed trappers near Madison and Milwaukee, Wisconsin, US collected paired samples from harvested animals. Canine distemper antibodies were detected using virus neutralization and parvovirus antibodies were detected using hemagglutination inhibition. Titers ≥ 1:32 for CDV and ≥ 1:25 for CPV-2 were considered evidence of exposure. Using Cohen's kappa test of agreement, FP strip titers agreed with sera for CDV in coyotes (n = 28, K = 0.772) and raccoons (n = 29, K = 0.858) and for CPV-2 in coyotes (n = 40, K = 0.775) and raccoons (n = 70, K = 0.646). However, raccoons determined to be exposed to CPV-2 from sera were unexposed by FP strips in 35% of the samples. Titer results may be affected by quality and volume of blood samples, interval between collection and processing, small sample sizes, and diagnostic testing procedures. Filter-paper strips can be useful for detecting CDV and CPV-2 exposure in coyotes and raccoons with correct field sample collection and appropriate diagnostic testing procedures. PMID:25973631

  7. A nationwide study of the epidemiology of relapsing polychondritis

    PubMed Central

    Horváth, Anna; Páll, Nóra; Molnár, Katalin; Kováts, Tamás; Surján, György; Vicsek, Tamás; Pollner, Péter

    2016-01-01

    Objective Relapsing polychondritis (RP) is a rare autoimmune inflammatory disease that attacks mainly cartilaginous structures or causes serious damage in proteoglycan-rich structures (the eyes, heart, blood vessels, inner ear). This study shows results regarding the epidemiology, progression, and associations of this highly variable disease by collecting all cases from a 124-million-person-year Central European nationwide cohort. Methods We used the Hungarian Health Care Database to identify all persons with possible RP infection. We followed patients who had International Classification of Diseases 10th edition code M94.1 at least once in their inpatient or outpatient records between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2013 in Hungary. We classified these patients into disease severity groups by their drug consumption patterns between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2013. We analyzed the regional distribution of RP incidences as well. Overall maps of comorbidity are presented with network layouts. Results We identified 256 patients with RP among cumulatively 11.5 million registered inhabitants. We classified these patients into four severity classes as “extremely mild” (n=144), “mild” (n=22), “moderate” (n=41), and “severe” (n=4). Two additional groups were defined for patients without available drug data as “suspected only” (n=23) and “confirmed but unknown treatment” (n=22). The age and sex distributions of patients were similar to worldwide statistics. Indeed, the overall survival was good (95% confidence interval for 5 years was 83.6%–92.9% and for 10 years was 75.0%–88.3% which corresponds to the overall survival of the general population in Hungary), and the associations with other autoimmune disorders were high (56%) in Hungary. Almost any disease can occur with RP; however, the symptoms of chromosomal abnormalities are only incidental. Spondylosis can be a sign of the activation of RP, while Sjögren syndrome is the most frequent

  8. NHEXAS PHASE I MARYLAND STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION, STORAGE, AND SHIPMENT OF BLOOD SAMPLES FOR METAL, PESTICIDE, PAH, VOC, AND LIPID ANALYSIS (F11)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to describe collection, storage, and shipment requirements of blood samples for metal, pesticide, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), volatile organic compound (VOC), and lipid analysis. Seven samples were taken from a single puncture: two 3-mL t...

  9. Lead levels - blood

    MedlinePlus

    Blood lead levels ... A blood sample is needed. Most of the time blood is drawn from a vein located on the inside ... may be used to puncture the skin. The blood collects in a small glass tube called a ...

  10. Measurement of thyroid hormones in donkey (Equus asinus) blood and milk: validation of ELISA kits and evaluation of sample collection, handling and storage.

    PubMed

    Todini, Luca; Malfatti, Alessandro; Salimei, Elisabetta; Fantuz, Francesco

    2010-11-01

    Donkey's milk is well tolerated by human infants with cow's milk allergy and is useful in the treatment of human immune-related diseases and in the prevention of atherosclerosis. Thyroid hormones (TH) stimulate lactation and active triiodothyronine (T3) in colostrum and milk could take paracrine action supporting lactogenesis in the mother, and play physiological roles for the suckling offspring (systemic or within the gastrointestinal tract). The aims were to measure TH concentrations in donkey blood and milk, validate ELISA methods, evaluate the effects of sample collection and post-collection handling and the stability of TH in milk and blood serum and plasma samples. In milk and blood samples obtained from lactating jennies total concentrations of TH were assayed using competitive-type ELISA kits. Good validation results were obtained for both TH concentrations in blood serum and plasma and T3 in milk samples extracted with cold (-20°C) ethanol alkalinized (pH 9·0) with NH4OH. In most of the milk extract samples, thyroxine (T4) concentrations resulted below the sensitivity threshold. Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variations of TH concentrations in different blood and milk samples were below 10%. Parallelism tests gave displacement lines parallel to those of the calibrators for both TH in blood serum and plasma and for T3 in milk extracts. Mean recovery rates were between 95% and 123%, but the concentration values approaching the highest calibrators were overestimated. Therefore, serum and plasma samples for T3 assay must be previously diluted with buffer. Both TH concentrations in blood serum and plasma and T3 in milk did not change during storage for up to 6 months at -20°C. In conclusion, the ELISA methods tested in the present study are suitable for determination of both TH concentrations in donkey blood samples, and for T3 measurement in milk, after extraction with cold alkaline ethanol. PMID:20822570

  11. Student Evaluation of Teaching Effectiveness of a Nationwide Innovative Education Program on Image Display Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yueh, Hsiu-Ping; Chen, Tzy-Ling; Chiu, Li-An; Lee, San-Liang; Wang, An-Bang

    2012-01-01

    The study presented here explored a student evaluation of the teaching effectiveness of a nationwide innovative education program on image display technology in Taiwan. Using survey data collected through an online questionnaire system, covering 165 classes across 30 colleges and universities in Taiwan, the study aimed to understand the teaching…

  12. Developing a Successful State-Level Environmental Education Organization: A Nationwide Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smaldone, David; Dey, Shannon E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a nationwide assessment of state-level environmental education (EE) organizations to determine the components that are essential to the establishment and success of these organizations. E-mail surveys were used to collect data from North American Association for Environmental Education state affiliates, and…

  13. Alcohol Education Provided to Opioid Treatment Program Patients: Results of a Nationwide Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Shiela M.; Harris, Gavin; Katigbak, Carina; Rindskopf, David M.; Singh, Sheena; Greenblum, Ilana; Brown, Lawrence S.; Kipnis, Steven; Kritz, Steven A.; Parrino, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol-related problems are especially common among opioid treatment program (OTP) patients, suggesting that educating OTP patients about alcohol and its harmful effects needs to be a priority in OTPs. Using data collected in interviews with a nationwide U.S. sample of OTP directors (N = 200) in 25 states, we identified factors that differentiate…

  14. Impact of Angiotensin Type 1A Receptors in Principal Cells of the Collecting Duct on Blood Pressure and Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Chen, Daian; Stegbauer, Johannes; Sparks, Matthew A; Kohan, Donald; Griffiths, Robert; Herrera, Marcela; Gurley, Susan B; Coffman, Thomas M

    2016-06-01

    The main actions of the renin-angiotensin system to control blood pressure (BP) are mediated by the angiotensin type 1 receptors (AT1Rs). The major murine AT1R isoform, AT1AR, is expressed throughout the nephron, including the collecting duct in both principal and intercalated cells. Principal cells play the major role in sodium and water reabsorption. Although aldosterone is considered to be the dominant regulator of sodium reabsorption by principal cells, recent studies suggest a role for direct actions of AT1R. To specifically examine the contributions of AT1AR in principal cells to BP regulation and the development of hypertension in vivo, we generated inbred 129/SvEv mice with deletion of AT1AR from principal cells (PCKO). At baseline, we found that BPs measured by radiotelemetry were similar between PCKOs and controls. During 1-week of low-salt diet (<0.02% NaCl), BPs fell significantly (P<0.05) and to a similar extent in both groups. On a high-salt (6% NaCl) diet, BP increased but was not different between groups. During the initial phase of angiotensin II-dependent hypertension, there was a modest but significant attenuation of hypertension in PCKOs (163±6 mm Hg) compared with controls (178±2 mm Hg; P<0.05) that was associated with enhanced natriuresis and decreased alpha epithelial sodium channel activation in the medulla of PCKOs. However, from day 9 onward, BPs were indistinguishable between groups. Although effects of AT1AR on baseline BP and adaptation to changes in dietary salt are negligible, our studies suggest that direct actions of AT1AR contribute to the initiation of hypertension and epithelial sodium channel activation. PMID:27141055

  15. Study protocol: first nationwide comparative audit of acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Oakland, Kathryn; Guy, Richard; Uberoi, Raman; Seeney, Frances; Collins, Gary; Grant-Casey, John; Mortensen, Neil; Murphy, Mike; Jairath, Vipul

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB) is a common indication for emergency hospitalisation worldwide. In contrast to upper GIB, patient characteristics, modes of investigation, transfusion, treatment and outcomes are poorly described. There are minimal clinical guidelines to inform care pathways and the use of endoscopy, including (diagnostic and therapeutic yields), interventional radiology and surgery are poorly defined. As a result, there is potential for wide variation in practice and clinical outcomes. Methods and analysis The UK Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding Audit is a large nationwide audit of adult patients acutely admitted with LGIB or those who develop LGIB while hospitalised for another reason. Consecutive, unselected presentations with LGIB will be enrolled prospectively over a 2-month period at the end of 2015 and detailed data will be collected on patient characteristics, comorbidities, use of anticoagulants, transfusion, timing and modalities of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, clinical outcome, length of stay and mortality. These will be audited against predefined minimum standards of care for LGIB. It is anticipated that over 80% of all acute hospitals in England and some hospitals in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland will participate. Data will be collected on the availability and organisation of care, provision of diagnostic and therapeutic GI endoscopy, interventional radiology, surgery and transfusion protocols. Ethics and dissemination This audit will be conducted as part of the national comparative audit programme of blood transfusion through collaboration with specialists in gastroenterology, surgery and interventional radiology. Individual reports will be provided to each participant site as well as an overall report and disseminated through specialist societies. Results will also be published in peer-reviewed journals. The study has been funded by National Health Services (NHS) Blood and Transplant and the

  16. Esophageal and Gastric Cancer Pearl: a nationwide clinical biobanking project in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Haverkamp, L; Parry, K; van Berge Henegouwen, M I; van Laarhoven, H W; Bonenkamp, J J; Bisseling, T M; Siersema, P D; Sosef, M N; Stoot, J H; Beets, G L; de Steur, W O; Hartgrink, H H; Verspaget, H W; van der Peet, D L; Plukker, J T; van Etten, B; Wijnhoven, B P L; van Lanschot, J J; van Hillegersberg, R; Ruurda, J P

    2016-07-01

    Esophageal and gastric cancer is associated with a poor prognosis since many patients develop recurrent disease. Treatment requires specific expertise and a structured multidisciplinary approach. In the Netherlands, this type of expertise is mainly found at the University Medical Centers (UMCs) and a few specialized nonacademic centers. Aim of this study is to implement a national infrastructure for research to gain more insight in the etiology and prognosis of esophageal and gastric cancer and to evaluate and improve the response on (neoadjuvant) treatment. Clinical data are collected in a prospective database, which is linked to the patients' biomaterial. The collection and storage of biomaterial is performed according to standard operating procedures in all participating UMCs as established within the Parelsnoer Institute. The collected biomaterial consists of tumor biopsies, blood samples, samples of malignant and healthy tissue of the resected specimen and biopsies of recurrence. The collected material is stored in the local biobanks and is encoded to respect the privacy of the donors. After approval of the study was obtained from the Institutional Review Board, the first patient was included in October 2014. The target aim is to include 300 patients annually. In conclusion, the eight UMCs of the Netherlands collaborated to establish a nationwide database of clinical information and biomaterial of patients with esophageal and gastric cancer. Due to the national coverage, a high number of patients are expected to be included. This will provide opportunity for future studies to gain more insight in the etiology, treatment and prognosis of esophageal and gastric cancer. PMID:25824294

  17. Prediction model for CD34 positive cell yield in peripheral blood stem cell collection on the fourth day after G-CSF administration in healthy donors.

    PubMed

    Yoshizato, Tetsuichi; Watanabe-Okochi, Naoko; Nannya, Yasuhito; Ichikawa, Motoshi; Takahashi, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Tomohiko; Masuda, Akiko; Yatomi, Yutaka; Tsuno, Nelson Hirokazu; Kurokawa, Mineo; Takahashi, Koki

    2013-07-01

    Allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) is an indispensable treatment option for hematological malignancy. The optimal collection day after granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) administration should be determined by peripheral blood pre-apheresis CD34 positive (CD34⁺) cell percentage. However, pre-apheresis CD34⁺ cell analysis is not available for most institutions in Japan. Prediction of the optimal collection day based on objective parameters, other than direct CD34⁺ cell count, is thus an important matter for investigation. To identify potential predictive factors, clinical parameters in 79 related donors who received allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) collection were analyzed. Eight factors were significantly correlated with the number of CD34⁺ cells per donor body weight on the fourth day (day 4) after G-CSF administration in univariate analysis. Using multi-regression analysis, we made a simple scoring system comprising age, sex, LDH on day 4 and RBC count at the baseline, which significantly predicted CD34⁺ cell yield (P = 0.048). This system allows us to determine the optimal PBSC collection day. When the score is 0 or 1 on day 4, starting apheresis on day 5 potentially helps avoiding the need for multiple harvests. Score 3 or 4 on day 4 is indicative of better performance if apheresis is started on day 4. PMID:23695795

  18. Using improved technology for filter paper-based blood collection to survey wild Sika deer for antibodies to hepatitis E virus

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Carl; Stone, Roger; Engle, Ronald E.; Elkins, William; Nardone, Glenn A.; Emerson, Suzanne U.; Purcell, Robert H.

    2009-01-01

    Recent reports from Japan implicated wild Sika deer (Cervus nippon) in the zoonotic transmission of hepatitis E to humans. Seroprevalence studies were performed to determine if imported feral populations of Sika deer in Maryland and Virginia posed a similar risk of transmitting hepatitis E virus (HEV). Hunters collected blood on filter paper disks from freshly killed deer. The disks were desiccated and delivered to a collection point. The dried filters were weighed to estimate the amount of blood absorbed and were eluted and collected in one tube via a novel extraction system. The procedure was quantified and validated with negative and positive serum and blood samples obtained from domestic Sika deer before and after immunization with HEV recombinant capsid protein, respectively. None of the 155 tested samples contained antibody to HEV, suggesting that Sika deer in these populations, unlike those in Japan, do not pose a significant zoonotic threat for hepatitis E. However, the new method developed for collecting and eluting the samples should prove useful for field studies of many other pathogens. PMID:17336401

  19. Using improved technology for filter paper-based blood collection to survey wild Sika deer for antibodies to hepatitis E virus.

    PubMed

    Yu, Claro; Zimmerman, Carl; Stone, Roger; Engle, Ronald E; Elkins, William; Nardone, Glenn A; Emerson, Suzanne U; Purcell, Robert H

    2007-06-01

    Recent reports from Japan implicated wild Sika deer (Cervus nippon) in the zoonotic transmission of hepatitis E to humans. Seroprevalence studies were performed to determine if imported feral populations of Sika deer in Maryland and Virginia posed a similar risk of transmitting hepatitis E virus (HEV). Hunters collected blood on filter paper discs from freshly killed deer. The discs were desiccated and delivered to a collection point. The dried filters were weighed to estimate the amount of blood absorbed and were eluted and collected in one tube via a novel extraction system. The procedure was quantified and validated with negative and positive serum and blood samples obtained from domestic Sika deer before and after immunization with HEV recombinant capsid protein, respectively. None of the 155 tested samples contained antibody to HEV, suggesting that Sika deer in these populations, unlike those in Japan, do not pose a significant zoonotic threat for hepatitis E. However, the new method developed for collecting and eluting the samples should prove useful for field studies of many other pathogens. PMID:17336401

  20. Nationwide tsunami hazard assessment project in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, K.; Fujiwara, H.; Nakamura, H.; Osada, M.; Ohsumi, T.; Morikawa, N.; Kawai, S.; Aoi, S.; Yamamoto, N.; Matsuyama, H.; Toyama, N.; Kito, T.; Murashima, Y.; Murata, Y.; Inoue, T.; Saito, R.; Akiyama, S.; Korenaga, M.; Abe, Y.; Hashimoto, N.

    2014-12-01

    In 2012, we began a project of nationwide Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment (PTHA) in Japan to support various measures (Fujiwara et al., 2013, JpGU; Hirata et al., 2014, AOGS). The most important strategy in the nationwide PTHA is predominance of aleatory uncertainty in the assessment but use of epistemic uncertainty is limited to the minimum, because the number of all possible combinations among epistemic uncertainties diverges quickly when the number of epistemic uncertainties in the assessment increases ; we consider only a type of earthquake occurrence probability distribution as epistemic uncertainty. We briefly show outlines of the nationwide PTHA as follows; (i) we consider all possible earthquakes in the future, including those that the Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion (HERP) of Japanese Government, already assessed. (ii) We construct a set of simplified earthquake fault models, called "Characterized Earthquake Fault Models (CEFMs)", for all of the earthquakes by following prescribed rules (Toyama et al., 2014, JpGU; Korenaga et al., 2014, JpGU). (iii) For all of initial water surface distributions caused by a number of the CEFMs, we calculate tsunamis by solving a nonlinear long wave equation, using FDM, including runup calculation, over a nesting grid system with a minimum grid size of 50 meters. (iv) Finally, we integrate information about the tsunamis calculated from the numerous CEFMs to get nationwide tsunami hazard assessments. One of the most popular representations of the integrated information is a tsunami hazard curve for coastal tsunami heights, incorporating uncertainties inherent in tsunami simulation and earthquake fault slip heterogeneity (Abe et al., 2014, JpGU). We will show a PTHA along the eastern coast of Honshu, Japan, based on approximately 1,800 tsunami sources located within the subduction zone along the Japan Trench, as a prototype of the nationwide PTHA. This study is supported by part of the research

  1. Impact of the phlebotomy training based on CLSI/NCCLS H03-A6 - procedures for the collection of diagnostic blood specimens by venipuncture.

    PubMed Central

    Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Montagnana, Martina; Picheth, Geraldo; Guidi, Gian Cesare

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The activities involving phlebotomy, a critical task for obtaining diagnostic blood samples, are poorly studied as regards the major sources of errors and the procedures related to laboratory quality control. The aim of this study was to verify the compliance with CLSI documents of clinical laboratories from South America and to assess whether teaching phlebotomists to follow the exact procedure for blood collection by venipuncture from CLSI/NCCLS H03-A6 - Procedures for the Collection of Diagnostic Blood Specimens by Venipuncture might improve the quality of the process. Materials and methods: A survey was sent by mail to 3674 laboratories from South America to verify the use of CLSI documents. Thirty skilled phlebotomists were trained with the CLSI H03-A6 document to perform venipuncture procedures for a period of 20 consecutive working days. The overall performances of the phlebotomists were further compared before and after the training program. Results: 2622 from 2781 laboratories that did answer our survey used CLSI documents to standardize their procedures and process. The phlebotomists’ training for 20 days before our evaluation completely eliminated non-conformity procedures for: i) incorrect friction of the forearm, during the cleaning of the venipuncture site to ease vein location; ii) incorrect sequence of vacuum tubes collection; and iii) inadequate mixing of the blood in primary vacuum tubes containing anticoagulants or clot activators. Unfortunately the CLSI H03-A6 document does not caution against both unsuitable tourniquet application time (i.e., for more than one minute) and inappropriate request to clench the fist repeatedly. These inadequate procedures were observed for all phlebotomists. Conclusion: We showed that strict observance of the CLSI H03-A6 document can remarkably improve quality, although the various steps for collecting diagnostic blood specimens are not a gold standard, since they may still permit errors. Tourniquet

  2. Emergency Department Crowding Disparity: a Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated national differences in emergency department (ED) crowding to identify factors significantly associated with crowding in institutes and communities across Korea. This was a cross-sectional nationwide observational study using data abstracted from the National Emergency Department Information System (NEDIS). We calculated mean occupancy rates to quantify ED crowding status and divided EDs into three groups according to their occupancy rates (cutoffs: 0.5 and 1.0). Factors potentially related to ED crowding were collected from the NEDIS. We performed a multivariate regression analysis to identify variables significantly associated with ED crowding. A total of 120 EDs were included in the final analysis. Of these, 73 were categorized as 'low crowded' (LC, occupancy rate < 0.50), 37 as 'middle crowded' (MC, 0.50 ≤ occupancy rate < 1.00), 10 EDs as 'high crowded' (HC, 1.00 ≤ occupancy rate). The mean ED occupancy rate varied widely, from 0.06 to 2.33. The median value was 0.39 with interquartile ranges (IQRs) from 0.20 to 0.71. Multivariate analysis revealed that after adjustment, ED crowding was significantly associated with the number of visits, percentage of patients referred, number of nurses, and ED disposition. This nationwide study observed significant variety in ED crowding. Several input, throughput, and output factors were associated with crowding. PMID:27478347

  3. Emergency Department Crowding Disparity: a Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Cha, Won Chul; Ahn, Ki Ok; Shin, Sang Do; Park, Jeong Ho; Cho, Jin Sung

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we evaluated national differences in emergency department (ED) crowding to identify factors significantly associated with crowding in institutes and communities across Korea. This was a cross-sectional nationwide observational study using data abstracted from the National Emergency Department Information System (NEDIS). We calculated mean occupancy rates to quantify ED crowding status and divided EDs into three groups according to their occupancy rates (cutoffs: 0.5 and 1.0). Factors potentially related to ED crowding were collected from the NEDIS. We performed a multivariate regression analysis to identify variables significantly associated with ED crowding. A total of 120 EDs were included in the final analysis. Of these, 73 were categorized as 'low crowded' (LC, occupancy rate < 0.50), 37 as 'middle crowded' (MC, 0.50 ≤ occupancy rate < 1.00), 10 EDs as 'high crowded' (HC, 1.00 ≤ occupancy rate). The mean ED occupancy rate varied widely, from 0.06 to 2.33. The median value was 0.39 with interquartile ranges (IQRs) from 0.20 to 0.71. Multivariate analysis revealed that after adjustment, ED crowding was significantly associated with the number of visits, percentage of patients referred, number of nurses, and ED disposition. This nationwide study observed significant variety in ED crowding. Several input, throughput, and output factors were associated with crowding. PMID:27478347

  4. Evaluation of Rapid Blood Sample Collection in the Detection of Circulating Filarial Antigens for Epidemiological Survey by rWbSXP-1 Capture Assay

    PubMed Central

    Ansel Vishal, Lawrence; Nazeer, Y.; Ravishankaran, Rajendran; Mahalakshmi, Natarajan; Kaliraj, Perumal

    2014-01-01

    Background Lymphatic filariasis is a neglected tropical disease leading to profound disfiguring causing socio economic burden in the tropics. Current diagnosis strategies available during field surveys and epidemics are based on traditional microscopic detections and a few antigen/antibody assays. We have compared different sampling methodologies and standardized the highly sensitive and reliable rWbSXP-1 antigen detection assay to our new sampling methodology. Methodology Samples collected as serum, whole blood, whole blood on filter paper and whole blood on microscopic slides from patients belonging to various clinical groups of filariasis [endemic normal(EN), chronic pathology(CP), microfilaraemic(MF) and non-endemic normal(NEN)] were collected and standardized the rWbSXP-1 antigen detection assay using monoclonal antibody raised against rWbSXP-1 protein. The whole blood collected on microscopic slide based sampling method was employed in the field and the presence of circulating filarial antigen (CFA) was assessed using the rWbSXP-1 assay. Principal Findings The sampling methods were compared and no significant difference was observed for the detection of CFA (MF, P = 0.304, EN, P = 0.675, CP, P = 0.5698, NEN, P = 0.4494). Further the optimized sampling method was utilized to collect the 1106 samples from Polur, Tiruvannamalai. The rWbSXP-1 assay gave 98 antigen positive results whereas the microscopic method gave only 17. Conclusions Four sampling methodologies were analyzed and the new sampling methodology of whole blood collected on microscopic slide was found to be convenient for the detection of CFA using rWbSXP-1 antigen detection assay. The 1106 samples from Polur were collected using the new method. The rWbSXP-1 antigen assay perceived a 7.32% increased result which was read as false negatives on the conventional microscopic staining method. This new sampling methodology coupled with the rWbSXP-1 antigen assay can be used in

  5. Prenatal recruitment of participants for a birth cohort study including cord blood collection: results of a feasibility study in Bremen, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Sinja Alexandra; Günther, Kathrin; Frambach, Torsten; Zeeb, Hajo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Prospective birth cohort studies comprising follow up of children from pregnancy or birth over a long period of time, and collecting various biological samples at different times through the life-course offer a promising approach to enhance etiologic knowledge of various diseases. Especially for those where early lifetime exposures and conditions are thought to play an important role. The collection and storage of biological samples is a critical component in epidemiological studies, notably for research regarding prenatal exposures to various environmental factors as well as for DNA extraction. Our feasibility study for a birth cohort within the scope of etiology of childhood leukemia with prospective sampling of mothers and their future newborns aimed to investigate the willingness of pregnant women to participate in a birth cohort study involving collection of blood and umbilical cord blood samples. The overall aim was to develop practice-based research recommendations for a possible German birth cohort study. Methods: The study was conducted in Bremen, Germany, between January 2012 and March 2013. Pregnant women were eligible for recruitment if (i) their expected date of delivery was during the study recruitment phase (September 2012–February 2013), (ii) they planned to give birth at the cooperating hospital’s obstetric unit and (iii) their knowledge of the German language was sufficient to understand study materials, details of participation and to fill out the prenatal self-administered questionnaire. Maternal blood and umbilical cord blood samples to be used for later research activities were collected and stored at a stem cell bank already collaborating with the hospital. 22 primary care gynecologists were invited to enroll pregnant women for the study and cooperation with one hospital was established. Expectant women were recruited during the last trimester of pregnancy, either during one of their prenatal care visits at their primary care

  6. Measurement of brevetoxin levels by radioimmunoassay of blood collection cards after acute, long-term, and low-dose exposure in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Woofter, Ricky; Dechraoui, M-Yasmine Bottein; Garthwaite, Ian; Towers, Neale R; Gordon, Christopher J; Córdova, José; Ramsdell, John S

    2003-01-01

    We developed a radioimmunoassay (RIA) using a sheep anti-brevetoxin antiserum to evaluate detection of brevetoxin on blood collection cards from mice treated with the brevetoxin congener PbTx-3. The RIA has high affinity for PbTx-3 [half-maximal effective concentration (EC(50)) +/- SE = 1.2 +/- 0.2 nM; n = 10] and recognizes both type 1 and type 2 brevetoxins, but not ciguatoxin. Direct comparison of the RIA with a radiolabeled [(3)H]-PbTx-3 receptor-binding assay (RBA) revealed excellent sensitivity, congener selectivity, and minimal interference from blood matrix. We first analyzed blood samples from an acute time course exposure, using a maximal nonlethal dose [180 microg/kg body weight (bw)] for 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 24 hr. Mean blood brevetoxin levels were 36 nM at 30 min and stayed above 20 nM during the 1-4 hr time points. We next analyzed blood brevetoxin levels after longer exposure (0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 7 days). Mean blood brevetoxin levels were 26.0 nM at 0.5 days, decreased to 8.2 nM at 1.0 day, and maintained a significant level (p < 0.05) of 1.3 nM at day 2. We next determined the lowest measurable dose using increasing concentrations of PbTx-3 (10-300 micro g/kg bw). Analysis of the blood samples at 60 min revealed a linear relationship between administered and internal doses (r(2) = 0.993). All doses of brevetoxin administered were detectable at 1 hr, with significant levels found for the lowest administered dose of 10 micro g/kg bw--a dose that was 10-fold lower than the lowest observable effect level. This RIA provides an optimal first-tier detection of brevetoxin from blood collection cards and, used in combination with the RBA and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, should provide a complete panel of methods to biomonitor brevetoxin exposure. PMID:14527838

  7. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Infected Patients Accept Finger Stick Blood Collection for Point-Of-Care CD4 Testing

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Lesley; Potgieter, Joachim; Kestens, Luc; Stevens, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction HIV-infected patients require antiretroviral treatment for life. To improve access to care, CD4 enumeration and viral load tests have been redesigned to be used as point-of-care techniques using finger-stick blood. Accurate CD4 counting in capillary blood requires a free flowing blood drop that is achieved by blade incision. The aim of this study was to assess the attitude of the patients toward blade-based finger-stick blood donation. Methods Four hundred and ninety-nine patients were included (299 patients from South Africa and 200 from Belgium). They completed a questionnaire to express their preference for finger stick or venipuncture, after undergoing both. The South African patient cohort was divided in two groups, receiving either single or multiple finger stick for CD4 and other HIV-related tests. The Belgian patients received a single finger stick for CD4 testing, and were asked to respond directly and again after two days. Results The majority of the patients preferred the finger stick to the venipuncture. The perceived pain using the blade was superior to a small needle, but similar to a large needle. They preferred up to three finger sticks over one venipuncture. Up to 30% of the patients changed their mind over two days. The main reason for choosing a finger stick was continued bleeding after venipuncture. The most cited objection to finger stick was pain/soreness. Conclusion Patient perceptions support the implementation of donating capillary blood with blade-based finger stick during CD4 point-of-care testing. PMID:27556894

  8. [A new separation protocol (DRBCP-F) for automated blood component donation with the MCS 3p cell separator for collection of leukocyte depleted erythrocyte concentrates and plasma].

    PubMed

    Zeiler, T; Kretschmer, V

    1997-01-01

    Previously published studies on automated blood component donation with the MCS 3p cell separator proved fairly good quality of the collected red blood cells (RBC) and fresh frozen plasma (FFP), with the disadvantage of a low hematocrit of the filtered RBC and a high platelet contamination of the FFP (RBCP-F protocol.) The DRBCP-F protocol was designed to eliminate the above-mentioned disadvantages and to provide 1 unit of leuko-depleted (filtered) RBC, 2 units of FFP, and additionally 1 platelet concentrate (PC) from the buffy coat. Twenty automated blood component collections (2 cycles, Latham bowl at 5,500 rpm, 230 ml isotonic saline for volume balance, PAGGS-M as additive solution) were performed. The RBC were filtered in a closed system after storage at 4 degrees C for 24 h. Blood cell counts and biochemical parameters of the RBC were determined initially and after 49 days. PC were separated from buffy coat after a soft spin. The volume of the RBC amounted to 293 +/- 12 ml (mean +/- SD) with a hematocrit of 0.61 +/- 0.05 l/l. Residual leukocytes after filtration were found to be 0.04 x 10(6) +/- 0.06 per unit. After storage, the following data were obtained: hemolysis 0.38%, ATP 2.1 +/- 0.4 mumol/g Hb, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) 1.4 +/- 0.3 mumol/g Hb, ph 6.3 +/- 0.1, potassium 6.4 mmol per unit, and LDH in the supernatant was 219 U/l. None of the RBC showed bacterial growth after 49 days. The volume of the collected FFP was 398 +/- 32 ml, with 3.4 +/- 3.5 x 10(3) residual platelets and 5 +/- 12 leukocytes per microliter. Platelet concentrates contained 90.2 +/- 32 x 10(9) platelets in 88 +/- 14 ml plasma. Automated blood donation with the DRBCP-F protocol provided RBC with very low residual leukocyte counts, adequate hematocrit and good metabolic status up to 49 days, and FFP with low platelet contamination. The platelet concentrates were even superior to those prepared from whole blood using the buffy coat method. The storable leuko-depleted RBC are

  9. Positive Reinforcement Training for Blood Collection in Grizzly Bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) Results in Undetectable Elevations in Serum Cortisol Levels: A Preliminary Investigation.

    PubMed

    Joyce-Zuniga, Nicole M; Newberry, Ruth C; Robbins, Charles T; Ware, Jasmine V; Jansen, Heiko T; Nelson, O Lynne

    2016-01-01

    Training nonhuman animals in captivity for participation in routine husbandry procedures is believed to produce a lower stress environment compared with undergoing a general anesthetic event for the same procedure. This hypothesis rests largely on anecdotal evidence that the captive subjects appear more relaxed with the trained event. Blood markers of physiological stress responses were evaluated in 4 captive grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) who were clicker-trained for blood collection versus 4 bears who were chemically immobilized for blood collection. Serum cortisol and immunoglobulin A (IgA) and plasma β-endorphin were measured as indicators of responses to stress. Plasma β-endorphin was not different between the groups. Serum IgA was undetectable in all bears. Serum cortisol was undetectable in all trained bears, whereas chemically immobilized bears had marked cortisol elevations (p < .05). The highest cortisol elevations were found in 2 bears with extensive recent immobilization experience. These findings support the use of positive reinforcement training for routine health procedures to minimize anxiety. PMID:26847149

  10. Validation and Clinical Evaluation of a Novel Method To Measure Miltefosine in Leishmaniasis Patients Using Dried Blood Spot Sample Collection

    PubMed Central

    Rosing, H.; Hillebrand, M. J. X.; Blesson, S.; Mengesha, B.; Diro, E.; Hailu, A.; Schellens, J. H. M.; Beijnen, J. H.

    2016-01-01

    To facilitate future pharmacokinetic studies of combination treatments against leishmaniasis in remote regions in which the disease is endemic, a simple cheap sampling method is required for miltefosine quantification. The aims of this study were to validate a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method to quantify miltefosine in dried blood spot (DBS) samples and to validate its use with Ethiopian patients with visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Since hematocrit (Ht) levels are typically severely decreased in VL patients, returning to normal during treatment, the method was evaluated over a range of clinically relevant Ht values. Miltefosine was extracted from DBS samples using a simple method of pretreatment with methanol, resulting in >97% recovery. The method was validated over a calibration range of 10 to 2,000 ng/ml, and accuracy and precision were within ±11.2% and ≤7.0% (≤19.1% at the lower limit of quantification), respectively. The method was accurate and precise for blood spot volumes between 10 and 30 μl and for Ht levels of 20 to 35%, although a linear effect of Ht levels on miltefosine quantification was observed in the bioanalytical validation. DBS samples were stable for at least 162 days at 37°C. Clinical validation of the method using paired DBS and plasma samples from 16 VL patients showed a median observed DBS/plasma miltefosine concentration ratio of 0.99, with good correlation (Pearson's r = 0.946). Correcting for patient-specific Ht levels did not further improve the concordance between the sampling methods. This successfully validated method to quantify miltefosine in DBS samples was demonstrated to be a valid and practical alternative to venous blood sampling that can be applied in future miltefosine pharmacokinetic studies with leishmaniasis patients, without Ht correction. PMID:26787691

  11. Mobilization and collection of peripheral blood stem cells in healthy donors: risks, adverse events and follow-up.

    PubMed

    Moalic, V

    2013-04-01

    Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the choice treatment for many haematological malignancies. Granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been widely used to mobilize stem cells into the peripheral blood from healthy siblings or volunteer unrelated donors. To a large extent, the use of mobilized peripheral blood haematopoietic stem cells has replaced marrow-derived stem cells as the preferred source of donor haematopoietic stem cells. Clinicians have been aware since the first clinical use, that administration of G-CSF, even in a single short course, could possibly be a risk for healthy donors either in short-term or as a delayed effect. The immediate side effects of G-CSF have been established for a long time, most of them are frequent but transient, self-limited and without long-term consequences. Questions have been raised about potential long-term adverse effects such as an elevated risk of haematological malignancies after G-CSF administration. More long-term safety data from registries are needed to adequately evaluate such a relationship. Our objective in this article is to provide an in-depth review of reported adverse events associated with the use of G-CSF in healthy donors and to focus attention on unanswered questions related to their long-term follow-up. PMID:23199456

  12. Primary Care Use before Cancer Diagnosis in Adolescents and Young Adults – A Nationwide Register Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahrensberg, Jette Møller; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Vedsted, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Survival rates of cancer patients have generally improved in recent years. However, children and older adults seem to have experienced more significant clinical benefits than adolescents and young adults (AYAs). Previous studies suggest a prolonged diagnostic pathway in AYAs, but little is known about their pre-diagnostic healthcare use. This study investigates the use of primary care among AYAs during the two years preceding a cancer diagnosis. Methods The study is a retrospective population-based matched cohort study using Danish nationwide registry data. All persons diagnosed with cancer during 2002–2011 in the age group 15–39 years were included (N = 12,306); each participant was matched on gender, age and general practice with 10 randomly selected references (N = 123,060). The use of primary healthcare services (face-to-face contacts, blood tests and psychometric tests) was measured during the two years preceding the diagnosis (index date), and collected data were analysed in a negative binomial regression model. Results The cases generally increased their use of primary care already from 8 months before a cancer diagnosis, whereas a similar trend was not found for controls. The increase was observed for all cancer types, but it started at different times: 17 months before a diagnosis of CNS tumour, 12 months before a diagnosis of soft tissue sarcoma, 9 months before a diagnosis of lymphoma, 5–6 months before a diagnosis of leukaemia, bone tumour or GCT, and 3 months before a diagnosis of malignant melanoma. Conclusion The use of primary care among AYAs increase several months before a cancer diagnosis. The diagnostic intervals are generally short for malignant melanomas and long for brain tumours. A prolonged diagnostic pathway may indicate non-specific or vague symptomatology and low awareness of cancer among AYAs primary-care personnel. The findings suggest potential of faster cancer diagnosis in AYAs. PMID:27203083

  13. [Blood cultures in the paediatric emergency department. Guidelines and recommendations on their indications, collection, processing and interpretation].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Bou, S; Álvarez Álvarez, C; Campo Fernández, M N; García Herrero, M A; Gené Giralt, A; Giménez Pérez, M; Piñeiro Pérez, R; Gómez Cortés, B; Velasco, R; Menasalvas Ruiz, A I; García García, J J; Rodrigo Gonzalo de Liria, C

    2016-05-01

    Blood culture (BC) is the gold standard when a bacteraemia is suspected, and is one of the most requested microbiological tests in paediatrics. Some changes have occurred in recent years: the introduction of new vaccines, the increasing number of patients with central vascular catheters, as well as the introduction of continuous monitoring BC systems. These changes have led to the review and update of different factors related to this technique in order to optimise its use. A practice guideline is presented with recommendations on BC, established by the Spanish Society of Paediatric Emergency Care and the Spanish Society for Paediatric Infectious Diseases. After reviewing the available scientific evidence, several recommendations for each of the following aspects are presented: BC indications in the Emergency Department, how to obtain, transport and process cultures, special situations (indications and interpretation of results in immunosuppressed patients and/or central vascular catheter carriers, indications for anaerobic BC), differentiation between bacteraemia and contamination when a BC shows bacterial growth and actions to take with a positive BC in patients with fever of unknown origin. PMID:26227314

  14. 78 FR 22554 - Nationwide Differential Global Positioning System (NDGPS)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... Nationwide Differential Global Positioning System (NDGPS) AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS and Research and... future user needs and requirements of the Nationwide Differential Global Positioning System (NDGPS). The NDGPS was designed to broadcast signals to improve the accuracy and integrity of the Global...

  15. 47 CFR 90.19 - Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network. 90... Safety Broadband Network. Pursuant to the Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012, Public... First Responder Network Authority to deploy a nationwide public safety broadband network as...

  16. 47 CFR 90.19 - Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network. 90... Safety Broadband Network. Pursuant to the Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012, Public... First Responder Network Authority to deploy a nationwide public safety broadband network as...

  17. Epidemiology and Individual, Household and Geographical Risk Factors of Podoconiosis in Ethiopia: Results from the First Nationwide Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Deribe, Kebede; Brooker, Simon J.; Pullan, Rachel L.; Sime, Heven; Gebretsadik, Abeba; Assefa, Ashenafi; Kebede, Amha; Hailu, Asrat; Rebollo, Maria P.; Shafi, Oumer; Bockarie, Moses J.; Aseffa, Abraham; Reithinger, Richard; Cano, Jorge; Enquselassie, Fikre; Newport, Melanie J.; Davey, Gail

    2015-01-01

    Although podoconiosis is one of the major causes of tropical lymphoedema and is endemic in Ethiopia its epidemiology and risk factors are poorly understood. Individual-level data for 129,959 individuals from 1,315 communities in 659 woreda (districts) were collected for a nationwide integrated survey of lymphatic filariasis and podoconiosis. Blood samples were tested for circulating Wuchereria bancrofti antigen using immunochromatographic card tests. A clinical algorithm was used to reach a diagnosis of podoconiosis by excluding other potential causes of lymphoedema of the lower limb. Bayesian multilevel models were used to identify individual and environmental risk factors. Overall, 8,110 of 129,959 (6.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.1–6.4%) surveyed individuals were identified with lymphoedema of the lower limb, of whom 5,253 (4.0%, 95% CI 3.9–4.1%) were confirmed to be podoconiosis cases. In multivariable analysis, being female, older, unmarried, washing the feet less frequently than daily, and being semiskilled or unemployed were significantly associated with increased risk of podoconiosis. Attending formal education and living in a house with a covered floor were associated with decreased risk of podoconiosis. Podoconiosis exhibits marked geographical variation across Ethiopia, with variation in risk associated with variation in rainfall, enhanced vegetation index, and altitude. PMID:25404069

  18. Epidemiology and individual, household and geographical risk factors of podoconiosis in Ethiopia: results from the first nationwide mapping.

    PubMed

    Deribe, Kebede; Brooker, Simon J; Pullan, Rachel L; Sime, Heven; Gebretsadik, Abeba; Assefa, Ashenafi; Kebede, Amha; Hailu, Asrat; Rebollo, Maria P; Shafi, Oumer; Bockarie, Moses J; Aseffa, Abraham; Reithinger, Richard; Cano, Jorge; Enquselassie, Fikre; Newport, Melanie J; Davey, Gail

    2015-01-01

    Although podoconiosis is one of the major causes of tropical lymphoedema and is endemic in Ethiopia its epidemiology and risk factors are poorly understood. Individual-level data for 129,959 individuals from 1,315 communities in 659 woreda (districts) were collected for a nationwide integrated survey of lymphatic filariasis and podoconiosis. Blood samples were tested for circulating Wuchereria bancrofti antigen using immunochromatographic card tests. A clinical algorithm was used to reach a diagnosis of podoconiosis by excluding other potential causes of lymphoedema of the lower limb. Bayesian multilevel models were used to identify individual and environmental risk factors. Overall, 8,110 of 129,959 (6.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.1-6.4%) surveyed individuals were identified with lymphoedema of the lower limb, of whom 5,253 (4.0%, 95% CI 3.9-4.1%) were confirmed to be podoconiosis cases. In multivariable analysis, being female, older, unmarried, washing the feet less frequently than daily, and being semiskilled or unemployed were significantly associated with increased risk of podoconiosis. Attending formal education and living in a house with a covered floor were associated with decreased risk of podoconiosis. Podoconiosis exhibits marked geographical variation across Ethiopia, with variation in risk associated with variation in rainfall, enhanced vegetation index, and altitude. PMID:25404069

  19. 78 FR 35612 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Targeted Teacher Shortage Areas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ... collection of information from Chief State School Officers to support and document the request for teacher... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Targeted Teacher Shortage Areas Nationwide... to this notice will be considered public records. Title of Collection: Targeted Teacher...

  20. Single genome amplification of proviral HIV-1 DNA from dried blood spot specimens collected during early infant screening programs in Lusaka, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Seu, Lillian; Mwape, Innocent; Guffey, M. Bradford

    2014-01-01

    The ability to evaluate individual HIV-1 virions from the quasispecies of vertically infected infants was evaluated in a field setting at the Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia. Infant heel-prick blood specimens were spotted onto dried blood spot (DBS) filter paper cards at government health clinics. Nucleic acid was extracted and used as a template for HIV-1 proviral DNA detection by a commercial Amplicor HIV-1 PCR test (Roche, version 1.5). On samples that tested positive by commercial diagnostic assay, amplification of DNA was performed using an in-house assay of the 5′ and 3′ region of the HIV-1 genome. Additionally, fragments covering 1200 nucleotides within pol (full length protease and partial reverse transcriptase) and 1400 nucleotides within env (variable 1-variable 5 region) were further analyzed by single genome amplification (SGA). In summary, we have demonstrated an in-house assay for amplifying the 5′ and 3′ proviral HIV-1 DNA as well as pol and env proviral DNA fragments from DBS cards collected and analyzed entirely in Zambia. In conclusion, this study shows the feasibility of utilizing DBS cards to amplify the whole proviral HIV-1 genome as well as perform SGA on key HIV-1 genes. PMID:24667303

  1. Cord blood collection and banking from a population with highly diverse geographic origins increase HLA diversity in the registry and do not lower the proportion of validated cord blood units: experience of the Marseille Cord Blood Bank.

    PubMed

    Bordoni, C; Magalon, J; Gilbertas, C; Gamerre, M; Le Coz, P; Berthomieu, M; Chabannon, C; Di Cristofaro, J; Picard, C

    2015-04-01

    Several Cord Blood (CB) Bank studies suggested that ethnicity impaired CB unit (CBU) qualification. The Bone Marrow Donors Worldwide registries present an over-representation of unrelated donors (UD) from Northwestern European descent. This raises the question of equality of access to hematopoietic stem cells transplant, especially in the Mediterranean zone, which has taken in many waves of immigration. The aim of our study is to address whether, in the Marseille CB Bank, CBU qualification rate is impaired by geographic origin. The study compared biological characteristics of 106 CBU disqualified for total nucleated cell (TNC) count (dCBU) and 136 qualified CBU in relation to registry enrichment and haplotype origin. A high proportion (>80%) of both dCBU and CBU had at least one non-European haplotype and enrich CB and UD registries to a higher extent than those with two European haplotypes (P<0.001). No difference was observed between TNC count and volume according to geographic origin. Our study shows that diverse Mediterranean origins do not have an impact on the CBU qualification rate. Partnership with Mediterranean birth clinics with highly trained staff is a reasonable option to increase the HLA diversity of CB Bank inventories and to improve the representation of minorities. PMID:25621799

  2. [Chen Muhua announces nationwide census in 1982].

    PubMed

    1981-03-10

    A nationwide census, only the 3rd in the history of the People's Republic of China, will be taken in July 1982, announced Vice-Premier Chen Muhua at a meeting of the census office under the State Council which opened here today. The 1st census was conducted in 1953, and the 2nd in 1964. Chen, who is in charge of the census, told officials, population specialists and statisticians from across China it was unprecedented in both Chinese history and the history of the world to attempt to count a population that has been long estimated at 1 billion. The census has been proposed in order to ascertain a range of 20 demographic factors necessary for the effective administration of the current economic readjustment and China's modernization drive, the vice-premier said. It will assist family planning and population control, facilitate food and clothing supplies, and make possible assessment of construction needs--housing, hospitals, schools, and other public services, she continued. A great deal of trouble in planning and administration has been caused by the inadequacy of available figures, Chen said. The results will be calculated in 2 stages. Figures such as the number of households and people will be announced first, while other more precise breakdowns such as sex, age, nationality, education, marital status, and occupation will be available later. 2 experimental censuses were carried out in July, 1980. The 950,000 residents in both Wuxi City and Wuxi County in east China's Jiangsu Province, were surveyed. The conference, acting on reports and recommendations from these, will establish further experimental counts in the coming months, while preparatory procedures, organizational work, and regulations are to be discussed and consolidated. The 1982 nationwide census has the support of the UN's fund for population activities. PMID:12338073

  3. LC-MS/MS bioanalysis of loratadine (Claritin) in dried blood spot (DBS) samples collected by subjects in a clinical research study.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenkui; Doherty, John; Moench, Paul; Flarakos, Jimmy; Tse, Francis L S

    2015-03-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the quantitative analysis of loratadine, an H1 histamine antagonist, in human dried blood spot (DBS) samples following a single self-administered 10 or 20mg oral dose. The samples were produced by spotting approximately 30μl of whole blood onto PE-226 cards. Two 3-mm discs were cut from the DBS samples and extracted using aqueous methanol containing the internal standard. After transfer and drying of the resulting sample extract, the reconstituted residues were chromatographed using a Waters XSelect C18 column and isocratic elution for MS/MS detection. The possible impact due to hematocrit, volume of blood sample spotted, storage temperature, and humidity, on the accuracy of measured DBS results were investigated. The results showed that only spotted blood volume might have an impact; a small volume (10μl) tended to give a larger negative bias in the measured value than the large volume ones (≥20μl). The current method was fully validated over a dynamic range of 0.200-20.0ng/ml with correlation coefficients (r(2)) for three validation batches equal to or better than 0.990. The intra-day accuracy and precision at the LLOQ were -11.5 to 0.0% bias and 6.4 to 8.9% CV, respectively. For the other QC samples (0.600, 3.00, 10.0 and 15.0ng/ml), the precision ranged from 4.2 to 9.8% CV and from 6.3 to 8.1% CV, respectively, in the intra-day and inter-day evaluations; the accuracy ranged from -1.7 to 10.0% and 2.7 to 5.3% bias, respectively, in the intra-day and inter-day batches. Loratadine is stable in the DBS samples for at least 271 days at ambient temperature in a desiccator, for at least 24h at 60°C and under 80% relative humidity, followed by re-conditioning at ambient temperature in a desiccator. The current methodology has been applied to determine the loratadine levels in DBS samples collected by subjects in a clinical research study to

  4. Haptoglobin blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease Collection of blood (hematoma) Drug-induced immune hemolytic anemia Blood disorder in a fetus or newborn called erythroblastosis fetalis Hemolytic anemia due to G6PD deficiency Idiopathic autoimmune hemolytic anemia ...

  5. Blood Transfusions (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... re needed. Blood also collects waste products, like carbon dioxide, and takes them to the organs responsible for ... carry oxygen to the body's tissues and remove carbon dioxide. Red blood cells make up about 40%–45% ...

  6. Factors Associated with Adenoma Detection Rate and Diagnosis of Polyps and Colorectal Cancer during Colonoscopy in France: Results of a Prospective, Nationwide Survey

    PubMed Central

    Barret, Maximilien; Boustiere, Christian; Canard, Jean-Marc; Arpurt, Jean-Pierre; Bernardini, David; Bulois, Philippe; Chaussade, Stanislas; Heresbach, Denis; Joly, Isabelle; Lapuelle, Jean; Laugier, René; Lesur, Gilles; Pienkowski, Patrice; Ponchon, Thierry; Pujol, Bertrand; Richard-Molard, Bruno; Robaszkiewicz, Michel; Systchenko, Rémi; Abbas, Fatima; Schott-Pethelaz, Anne-Marie; Cellier, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Colonoscopy can prevent deaths due to colorectal cancer (CRC) through early diagnosis or resection of colonic adenomas. We conducted a prospective, nationwide study on colonoscopy practice in France. Methods An online questionnaire was administered to 2,600 French gastroenterologists. Data from all consecutive colonoscopies performed during one week were collected. A statistical extrapolation of the results to a whole year was performed, and factors potentially associated with the adenoma detection rate (ADR) or the diagnosis of polyps or cancer were assessed. Results A total of 342 gastroenterologists, representative of the overall population of French gastroenterologists, provided data on 3,266 colonoscopies, corresponding to 1,200,529 (95% CI: 1,125,936-1,275,122) procedures for the year 2011. The indication for colonoscopy was CRC screening and digestive symptoms in 49.6% and 38.9% of cases, respectively. Polypectomy was performed in 35.5% of cases. The ADR and prevalence of CRC were 17.7% and 2.9%, respectively. The main factors associated with a high ADR were male gender (p=0.0001), age over 50 (p=0.0001), personal or family history of CRC or colorectal polyps (p<0.0001 and p<0.0001, respectively), and positive fecal occult blood test (p=0.0005). The prevalence of CRC was three times higher in patients with their first colonoscopy (4.2% vs. 1.4%; p<0.0001). Conclusions For the first time in France, we report nationwide prospective data on colonoscopy practice, including histological results. We found an average ADR of 17.7%, and observed reduced CRC incidence in patients with previous colonoscopy. PMID:23874822

  7. Nationwide Groundwater Surveillance of Noroviruses in South Korea, 2008▿

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung-Geun; Jheong, Weon-Hwa; Suh, Chang-Il; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Joong-Bok; Jeong, Yong-Seok; Ko, GwangPyo; Jang, Kyung Lib; Lee, Gyu-Cheol; Paik, Soon-Young

    2011-01-01

    To inspect the norovirus contamination of groundwater in South Korea, a nationwide study was performed in the summer (June to August) and winter (October to December) of 2008. Three-hundred sites designated by the government ministry were inspected. Water samples were collected for analysis of water quality, microorganism content, and viral content. Water quality was assessed by temperature, pH, turbidity, residual chlorine, and nitrite nitrogen content. Microorganism contents were analyzed bacteria, total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and bacteriophage. Virus analyses included panenterovirus and norovirus. Two primer sets were used for the detection of norovirus genotypes GI and GII, respectively. Of 300 samples, 65 (21.7%) were norovirus positive in the summer and in 52 (17.3%) were norovirus positive in the winter. The genogroup GI noroviruses that were identified were GI-1, GI-2, GI-3, GI-4, GI-5, GI-6, and GI-8 genotypes; those in the GII genogroup were GII-4 and GII-Yuri genotypes. The analytic data showed correlative relationships between the norovirus detection rate and the following parameters: water temperature and turbidity in physical-chemical parameters and somatic phage in microbial parameters. It is necessary to periodically monitor waterborne viruses that frequently cause epidemic food poisoning in South Korea for better public health and sanitary conditions. PMID:21183642

  8. 21 CFR 640.1 - Whole Blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Whole Blood. 640.1 Section 640.1 Food and Drugs... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Whole Blood § 640.1 Whole Blood. The proper name of this product shall be Whole Blood. Whole Blood is defined as blood collected from human donors for...

  9. 21 CFR 640.1 - Whole Blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whole Blood. 640.1 Section 640.1 Food and Drugs... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Whole Blood § 640.1 Whole Blood. The proper name of this product shall be Whole Blood. Whole Blood is defined as blood collected from human donors for...

  10. 21 CFR 640.1 - Whole Blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Whole Blood. 640.1 Section 640.1 Food and Drugs... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Whole Blood § 640.1 Whole Blood. The proper name of this product shall be Whole Blood. Whole Blood is defined as blood collected from human donors for...

  11. 21 CFR 640.1 - Whole Blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Whole Blood. 640.1 Section 640.1 Food and Drugs... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Whole Blood § 640.1 Whole Blood. The proper name of this product shall be Whole Blood. Whole Blood is defined as blood collected from human donors for...

  12. 21 CFR 640.1 - Whole Blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Whole Blood. 640.1 Section 640.1 Food and Drugs... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Whole Blood § 640.1 Whole Blood. The proper name of this product shall be Whole Blood. Whole Blood is defined as blood collected from human donors for...

  13. 76 FR 22409 - Nationwide Cyber Security Review (NCSR) Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ... SECURITY Nationwide Cyber Security Review (NCSR) Assessment AGENCY: National Protection and Programs.... SUMMARY: The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), National Protection and Programs Directorate (NPPD), Office of Cybersecurity and Communications (CS&C), National Cyber Security Division (NCSD),...

  14. Implementation of nationwide image sharing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, SeungWook; Sim, Jungsuk; Ko, Wonsun; Park, ChanHyung; Lee, Jaeha; Lim, DongHyun; Lee, Juhyuk; Han, Jungu; Lee, Jongsu; Hong, HeonPyo; Choi, Bongsuk

    2003-05-01

    Korea is one of the leading countries in PACS implementation, and over 15% of all hospitals has been introducing and running in PACS. With the support of the Ministry of Health and Welfare, the National Computerization of Agency and National Cancer Center had a plan to try integration of PACS with a purpose of sharing medical image information. The target hospitals have been selected with over 500 beds, and the distance between hospitals from 40km and to 250km. As the vendors of PACS and HIS that had implemented in target hospitals were different, the 'sharing host' has been developed for the purpose of their integration, which enables communication through DICOM and HL7. In order to monitor the communication among the sharing hosts, the 'sharing center' also has been developed. This project was completed by November 2002. We expected that approximate of 100 doctors including 50 radiologists would use this project, high patient"s satisfaction and the decrease in national insurance fee for test and evaluation period. This project is the first attempt that the government has tried to integrate the independent PACS and HIS. On the model of this project, the government will try to expand it through all nation-wide.

  15. Systems Architecture for a Nationwide Healthcare System.

    PubMed

    Abin, Jorge; Nemeth, Horacio; Friedmann, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    From a national level to give Internet technology support, the Nationwide Integrated Healthcare System in Uruguay requires a model of Information Systems Architecture. This system has multiple healthcare providers (public and private), and a strong component of supplementary services. Thus, the data processing system should have an architecture that considers this fact, while integrating the central services provided by the Ministry of Public Health. The national electronic health record, as well as other related data processing systems, should be based on this architecture. The architecture model described here conceptualizes a federated framework of electronic health record systems, according to the IHE affinity model, HL7 standards, local standards on interoperability and security, as well as technical advice provided by AGESIC. It is the outcome of the research done by AGESIC and Systems Integration Laboratory (LINS) on the development and use of the e-Government Platform since 2008, as well as the research done by the team Salud.uy since 2013. PMID:26262000

  16. Nationwide residues of organochlorine compounds in wings of adult mallards and black ducks, 1976-77

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.

    1979-01-01

    Organochlorine residues in wings of adult mallards and black ducks were monitored nationwide during the 1976-77 hunting season. DDE was found in all samples. Levels were unchanged since the 1972-73 collections in all migratory routes except the Pacific Flyway, in which residue levels declined significantly. Dieldrin levels had not changed in any flyway and residues remained low. PCB levels declined significantly in the Atlantic Flyway but remained stable in other flyways. Heptachlor epoxide, mirex, endrin, hexachlorobenzene, and chlordane isomers were detected in low amounts in some samples.

  17. Blood Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... and protein. Over half of your blood is plasma. The solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Blood disorders affect one or more parts of the blood and prevent ...

  18. 76 FR 45262 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Current Good...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Current Good Manufacturing Practices and Related Regulations for Blood and Blood... current good manufacturing practice (CGMP) and related regulations for blood and blood components; and... of information technology. Current Good Manufacturing Practices and Related Regulations for Blood...

  19. What is the relationship between renal function and visit-to-visit blood pressure variability in primary care? Retrospective cohort study from routinely collected healthcare data

    PubMed Central

    Lasserson, Daniel S; Scherpbier de Haan, Nynke; de Grauw, Wim; van der Wel, Mark; Wetzels, Jack F; O'Callaghan, Christopher A

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship between renal function and visit-to-visit blood pressure (BP) variability in a cohort of primary care patients. Design Retrospective cohort study from routinely collected healthcare data. Setting Primary care in Nijmegen, the Netherlands, from 2007 to 2012. Participants 19 175 patients who had a measure of renal function, and 7 separate visits with BP readings in the primary care record. Outcome measures Visit-to-visit variability in systolic BP, calculated from the first 7 office measurements, including SD, successive variation, absolute real variation and metrics of variability shown to be independent of mean. Multiple linear regression was used to analyse the influence of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) on BP variability measures with adjustment for age, sex, diabetes, mean BP, proteinuria, cardiovascular disease, time interval between measures and antihypertensive use. Results In the patient cohort, 57% were women, mean (SD) age was 65.5 (12.3) years, mean (SD) eGFR was 75.6 (18.0) mL/min/1.73m2 and SD systolic BP 148.3 (21.4) mm Hg. All BP variability measures were negatively correlated with eGFR and positively correlated with age. However, multiple linear regressions demonstrated consistent, small magnitude negative relationships between eGFR and all measures of BP variability adjusting for confounding variables. Conclusions Worsening renal function is associated with small increases in measures of visit-to-visit BP variability after adjustment for confounding factors. This is seen across the spectrum of renal function in the population, and provides a mechanism whereby chronic kidney disease may raise the risk of cardiovascular events. PMID:27288374

  20. Selective screening for lysosomal storage diseases with dried blood spots collected on filter paper in 4,700 high-risk colombian subjects.

    PubMed

    Uribe, Alfredo; Giugliani, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) are a very heterogeneous group of hereditary disorders. The diagnostic process usually involves complex sampling, processing, testing, and validation procedures, performed by specialized laboratories only, which causes great limitations in reaching a diagnosis for patients affected by these diseases.There are few studies about LSDs in Colombia. The diagnostic limitations often make medical practitioners disregard the possibility of these disorders while diagnosing their patients. The current study documents the results of a 7-year screening in high-risk patients, aimed to detect LSDs using dried blood spots (DBS) collected on filter paper, with a micromethodology that facilitates diagnosis even with a large number of samples.The activities of α-galactosidase A, α glucosidase, α-L-iduronidase, arylsulfatase B, β-galactosidase, β-glucosidase, total hexosaminidase, iduronate sulfatase, and chitotriosidase were analyzed in high-risk patients for lysosomal disease. The catalytic activity was evaluated with fluorometric micromethods using artificial substrates marked with 4-methylumbelliferone.The reference values for a control population were established for the enzymes listed above, and 242 patients were found to have an enzyme deficiency, guiding to the following diagnoses: Fabry disease (n = 31), Pompe disease (n = 16), Hurler Syndrome (n = 15), Maroteaux-Lamy Syndrome (n = 34), GM1 Gangliosidosis (n = 10), Morquio B (n = 1), Gaucher disease (n = 101), Sandhoff disease (n = 1), Mucolipidosis (n = 2), and Hunter Syndrome (n = 31). In conclusion, this protocol provides a comprehensive diagnostic approach which could be carried out in Colombia and made it available to medical services spread around the country, enabling the identification of a large number of patients affected by LSDs, which could potentially benefit from the therapeutic tools already available for many of these diseases. PMID:23609959

  1. Incident Infection and Resistance Mutation Analysis of Dried Blood Spots Collected in a Field Study of HIV Risk Groups, 2007-2010

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xierong; Smith, Amanda J.; Forrest, David W.; Cardenas, Gabriel A.; Beck, Dano W.; LaLota, Marlene; Metsch, Lisa R.; Sionean, Catlainn; Owen, S. Michele; Johnson, Jeffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the utility of cost-effective dried blood spot (DBS) field sampling for incidence and drug resistance surveillance of persons at high risk for HIV infection. Methods We evaluated DBS collected in 2007–2010 in non-clinical settings by finger-stick from HIV-positive heterosexuals at increased risk of HIV infection (n = 124), men who have sex with men (MSM, n = 110), and persons who inject drugs (PWID, n = 58). Relative proportions of recent-infection findings among risk groups were assessed at avidity index (AI) cutoffs of ≤25%, ≤30%, and ≤35%, corresponding to an infection mean duration of recency (MDR) of 220.6, 250.4, and 278.3 days, respectively. Drug resistance mutation prevalence was compared among the risk groups and avidity indices. Results HIV antibody avidity testing of all self-reported ARV-naïve persons (n = 186) resulted in 9.7%, 11.3% and 14.0% with findings within the 221, 250, and 278-day MDRs, respectively. The proportion of ARV-naïve MSM, heterosexuals, and PWID reporting only one risk category who had findings below the suggested 30% AI was 23.1%, 6.9% and 3.6% (p<0.001), respectively. MSM had the highest prevalence of drug resistance and the only cases of transmitted multi-class resistance. Among the ARV-experienced, MSM had disproportionately more recent-infection results than did heterosexuals and PWID. Conclusions The disproportionately higher recent-infection findings for MSM as compared to PWID and heterosexuals increased as the MDR window increased. Unreported ARV use might explain greater recent-infection findings and drug resistance in this MSM population. DBS demonstrated utility in expanded HIV testing; however, optimal field handling is key to accurate recent-infection estimates. PMID:27415433

  2. A tuberculosis nationwide prevalence survey in Gambia, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, Lindsay; Bashorun, Adedapo; Linda, Christopher; Omoleke, Semeeh; Jeffries, David; Maane, Rahmatulai; Alorse, Beatrice Dei; Alorse, William Dei; Okoi, Catherine Bi; Mlaga, Kodjovi D; Kinteh, Ma Ansu; Donkor, Simon; de Jong, Bouke C; Antonio, Martin; d’Alessandro, Umberto

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the population prevalence of active pulmonary tuberculosis in Gambia. Methods Between December 2011 and January 2013, people aged ≥ 15 years participating in a nationwide, multistage cluster survey were screened for active pulmonary tuberculosis with chest radiography and for tuberculosis symptoms. For diagnostic confirmation, sputum samples were collected from those whose screening were positive and subjected to fluorescence microscopy and liquid tuberculosis cultures. Multiple imputation and inverse probability weighting were used to estimate tuberculosis prevalence. Findings Of 100 678 people enumerated, 55 832 were eligible to participate and 43 100 (77.2%) of those participated. A majority of participants (42 942; 99.6%) were successfully screened for symptoms and by chest X-ray. Only 5948 (13.8%) were eligible for sputum examination, yielding 43 bacteriologically confirmed, 28 definite smear-positive and six probable smear-positive tuberculosis cases. Chest X-ray identified more tuberculosis cases (58/69) than did symptoms alone (43/71). The estimated prevalence of smear-positive and bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis were 90 (95% confidence interval, CI: 53–127) and 212 (95% CI: 152–272) per 100 000 population, respectively. Tuberculosis prevalence was higher in males (333; 95% CI: 233–433) and in the 35–54 year age group (355; 95% CI: 219–490). Conclusion The burden of tuberculosis remains high in Gambia but lower than earlier estimates of 490 per 100 000 population in 2010. Less than half of all cases would have been identified based on smear microscopy results alone. Successful control efforts will require interventions targeting men, increased access to radiography and more accurate, rapid diagnostic tests. PMID:27274595

  3. Blood sugar test - blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... drink a certain amount of glucose ( oral glucose tolerance test ) How the Test will Feel When the ... a fasting blood glucose, HbA1c test , or glucose tolerance test , depending on your random blood glucose test ...

  4. Nationwide mobile communication systems. Volume 2, chapter 5: Appendix A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schworer, William Joseph, III

    1990-06-01

    Previous chapters discussed nationwide mobile communication system technologies and modeled user costs and benefits. This chapter provides a brief overview of mobile communication system economics, the projected U.S. market for nationwide mobile communications, and the potential revenues. The basic cost structure of satellite and meteor-burst systems are also modeled. A combination of all these factors will ultimately govern which systems will be commercially successful. Because of improvements in technology, communication system costs and user terminal costs (A) per unit of capacity tend to decline over time. However, inflation tends to drive the price of an identical product upward over time.

  5. Using the developed cross-flow filtration chip for collecting blood plasma under high flow rate condition and applying the immunoglobulin E detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Chia-Hsien; Hung, Chia-Wei; Wu, Chun-Han; Lin, Yu-Cheng

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a cross-flow filtration chip for separating blood cells (white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets) and obtaining blood plasma from human blood. Our strategy is to flow the sample solution in parallel to the membrane, which can generate a parallel shear stress to remove the clogging microparticles on the membrane, so the pure sample solution is obtained in the reservoir. The cross-flow filtration chip includes a cross-flow layer, a Ni-Pd alloy micro-porous membrane, and a reservoir layer. The three layers are packaged in a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) frame to create the cross-flow filtration chip. Various dilutions of the blood sample (original, 2 × , 3 × , 5 × , and 10×), pore sizes with different diameters (1 µm, 2 µm, 4 µm, 7 µm, and 10 µm), and different flow rates (1 mL/min, 3 mL/min, 5 mL/min, 7 mL/min, and 10 mL/min) are tested to determine their effects on filtration percentage. The best filtration percentage is 96.2% when the dilution of the blood sample is 10 × , the diameter of pore size of a Ni-Pd alloy micro-porous membrane is 2 µm, and the flow rate is 10 mL/min. Finally, for the clinical tests of the immunoglobulin E (IgE) concentration, the cross-flow filtration chip is used to filter the blood of the allergy patients to obtain the blood plasma. This filtered blood plasma is compared with that obtained using the conventional centrifugation based on the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results reveal that these two blood separation methods have similar detection trends. The proposed filtration chip has the advantages of low cost, short filtration time, and easy operation and thus can be applied to the separation of microparticles, cells, bacteria, and blood.

  6. Blood transfusions

    MedlinePlus

    ... homologous blood donation. Many communities have a blood bank at which any healthy person can donate blood. ... to arrange with your hospital or local blood bank before your surgery to have directed donor blood. ...

  7. Blood pressure

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Normal blood pressure is important for proper blood flow to the body’s organs and tissues. The force of the blood on the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both ...

  8. Vomiting blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... first part of the small intestine, or esophagus Blood clotting disorders Defects in the blood vessels of the ... as a complete blood count (CBC), blood chemistries, blood clotting tests, and liver function tests Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) (placing ...

  9. Blood pressure

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Normal blood pressure is important for proper blood flow to the body’s organs and tissues. The force of the blood on the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart ...

  10. A Nationwide Census of ICU Capacity and Admissions in Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Mendsaikhan, Naranpurev; Begzjav, Tsolmon; Lundeg, Ganbold; Brunauer, Andreas; Dünser, Martin W.

    2016-01-01

    In Mongolia, a Central Asian lower-middle income country, intensive care medicine is an under-resourced and–developed medical specialty. The burden of critical illness and capacity of intensive care unit (ICU) services in the country is unknown. In this nationwide census, we collected data on adult and pediatric/neonatal ICU capacities and the number of ICU admissions in 2014. All hospitals registered to run an ICU service in Mongolia were surveyed. Data on the availability of an adult and/or pediatric/neonatal ICU service, the number of available ICU beds, the number of available functional mechanical ventilators, the number of patients admitted to the ICU, and the number of patients admitted to the study hospital were collected. In total, 70 ICUs with 349 ICU beds were counted in Mongolia (11.7 ICU beds/100,000 inhabitants; 1.7 ICU beds/100 hospital beds). Of these, 241 (69%) were adult and 108 (31%) pediatric/neonatal ICU beds. Functional mechanical ventilators were available for approximately half of the ICU beds (5.1 mechanical ventilators/100,000 inhabitants). While all provincial hospitals ran a pediatric/neonatal ICU, only dedicated pediatric hospitals in Ulaanbaatar did so. The number of adult and pediatric/neonatal ICU admissions varied between provinces. The number of adult ICU beds and adult ICU admissions per 100,000 inhabitants correlated (r = 0.5; p = 0.02), while the number of pediatric/neonatal ICU beds and pediatric/neonatal ICU admissions per 100,000 inhabitants did not (r = 0.25; p = 0.26). In conclusion, with 11.7 ICU beds per 100,000 inhabitants the ICU capacity in Mongolia is higher than in other low- and lower-middle-income countries. Substantial heterogeneities in the standardized ICU capacity and ICU admissions exist between Mongolian provinces. Functional mechanical ventilators are available for only half of the ICU beds. Pediatric/neonatal ICU beds make up one third of the national ICU capacity and appear to meet or even exceed the

  11. Estimation of HIV-1 DNA Level Interfering with Reliability of HIV-1 RNA Quantification Performed on Dried Blood Spots Collected from Successfully Treated Patients.

    PubMed

    Zida, Sylvie; Tuaillon, Edouard; Barro, Makoura; Kwimatouo Lekpa Franchard, Arnaud; Kagoné, Thérèse; Nacro, Boubacar; Ouedraogo, Abdoul Salam; Bolloré, Karine; Sanosyan, Armen; Plantier, Jean-Christophe; Meda, Nicolas; Sangaré, Lassana; Rouzioux, Christine; Rouet, François; Kania, Dramane

    2016-06-01

    The impact of HIV-1 DNA coamplification during HIV-1 RNA quantification on dried blood spots (DBS) was explored. False-positive HIV RNA detection (22/62, 35%) was associated with high HIV-1 DNA levels. Specificity of HIV-1 RNA assays on DBS should be evaluated following manufacturer protocols on samples with HIV-1 DNA levels of ≥1,000 copies/10(6) peripheral blood mononuclear cells. PMID:27008874

  12. Ongoing Surveillance for Lymphatic Filariasis in Togo: Assessment of Alternatives and Nationwide Reassessment of Transmission Status

    PubMed Central

    Budge, Philip J.; Dorkenoo, Ameyo M.; Sodahlon, Yao K.; Fasuyi, Omofolarin B.; Mathieu, Els

    2014-01-01

    Tremendous progress has been made towards the goal of global elimination of lymphatic filariasis (LF) transmission by 2020. The number of endemic countries reducing LF transmission through mass drug administration continues to increase, and therefore, the need for effective post-intervention surveillance also continues to increase. Togo is the first sub-Saharan African country to implement LF surveillance, and it has 6 years of experience with this passive surveillance system. We herein report the results of a recent evaluation of the Togolese LF surveillance system, including an evaluation of blood donors as a surveillance population, and provide updated results of ongoing surveillance, including expansion in remote areas. Since implementation of LF surveillance in 2006, only three cases of positive Wuchereria bancrofti filaremia have been detected, suggesting that interruption of transmission has been sustained. Given the impracticality of validating the surveillance system in the absence of ongoing transmission, we confirmed the lack of transmission through a nationwide reassessment survey. PMID:24189363

  13. 75 FR 39589 - Nationwide Life Insurance Company,et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... COMMISSION Nationwide Life Insurance Company, et al.; Notice of Application July 2, 2010. AGENCY: The... thereunder. Applicants: Nationwide Life Insurance Company (``NWL''); Nationwide Variable Account-II (the... life insurance company organized under the laws of the State of Ohio.\\1\\ NWL offers traditional...

  14. Student Consumer Knowledge: Results of a Nationwide Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brobeck, Stephen

    A nationwide test of consumer knowledge of high school students conducted in 1991 found that seniors are unprepared for critical purchasing decisions needed after they graduate. Random samples of the population, 428 high school seniors, were asked 250 questions about a range of consumer subjects such as credit, checking/saving accounts, auto…

  15. Where Are We Now? Statistics on Capstone Courses Nationwide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Susannah

    2010-01-01

    Capstone design courses are an increasingly common component of engineering curricula nationwide, but how much do we really know about the current practices? How do capstone courses differ across departments and institutions? How have capstone courses changed in the past 10 years? This paper highlights data from a survey of engineering capstone…

  16. Nationwide Survey of the Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Laura J.; Roehrig, Gillian H.

    2015-01-01

    A nationwide survey of the undergraduate physical chemistry course was conducted to investigate the depth and breadth of content that is covered, how content is delivered, how student understanding is assessed, and the experiences and beliefs of instructors. The survey was administered to instructors of physical chemistry (N = 331) at American…

  17. 76 FR 77483 - Nationwide Change in Postal Delivery Service Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... Nationwide Change in Postal Delivery Service Standards AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice... pair service standards would be modified to move overnight delivery to 2-day delivery, and to move a portion of 2-day delivery to 3-day delivery. Id. at 1. Although changes to service standards...

  18. Educational Credentials in Employment: A Nationwide Survey. GED Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malizio, Andrew G.; Whitney, Douglas R.

    A nationwide survey examined the role of educational credentials in the employment practices of private sector companies and institutions. In September 1983, surveys were mailed to a random sample of 1,500 members of the American Society for Personnel Administration. A follow-up mailing was conducted a month later. A total of 643 completed surveys…

  19. 76 FR 43696 - Nationwide Cyber Security Review (NCSR) Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... SECURITY Nationwide Cyber Security Review (NCSR) Assessment AGENCY: National Protection and Programs... Review (NCSR) Assessment. DHS previously published this ICR in the Federal Register on April 21, 2011... government to complete a cyber network security assessment so that a full measure of gaps and...

  20. 75 FR 66806 - Nationwide Life Insurance Company, et al.,

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ...Summary of Application: Applicants seek an order approving the proposed substitutions (the ``Substitutions'') of certain series of Nationwide Variable Insurance Trust (the ``Trust'' or ``NVIT'') for shares of series of other unaffiliated registered investment companies held by the Separate Accounts under certain variable annuity contracts and/or variable life insurance policies issued by the......

  1. 43 CFR 3106.6-2 - Statewide/nationwide bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Statewide/nationwide bond. 3106.6-2 Section 3106.6-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Transfers by...

  2. 43 CFR 3106.6-2 - Statewide/nationwide bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Statewide/nationwide bond. 3106.6-2 Section 3106.6-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Transfers by...

  3. 43 CFR 3106.6-2 - Statewide/nationwide bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Statewide/nationwide bond. 3106.6-2 Section 3106.6-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Transfers by...

  4. 43 CFR 3106.6-2 - Statewide/nationwide bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Statewide/nationwide bond. 3106.6-2 Section 3106.6-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Transfers by...

  5. Language Identity among Iranian English Language Learners: A Nationwide Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezaei, Saeed; Khatib, Mohammad; Baleghizadeh, Sasan

    2014-01-01

    The present study is a nationwide survey of language identity among English language learners in Iran. The participants who completed the survey in this research included 1851 English language learners from different parts of the country who belonged to different genders, age groups and English language proficiency levels. The main instrument was…

  6. Prospective Nationwide Study of Aeromonas Infections in France▿

    PubMed Central

    Lamy, Brigitte; Kodjo, Angeli; Laurent, Frédéric

    2009-01-01

    We report a systematic prospective multicenter nationwide study of clinical Aeromonas infections in France. During 6 months (May to October 2006), 78 cases of aeromonosis were reviewed for risk factors and clinical, microbiological, and antimicrobial susceptibility data. They included wound infections (44%), bacteremia (26%), enteritis (19%), respiratory tract infections (6%), and miscellaneous (5%) infections. PMID:19244464

  7. Nationwide residues of organochlorines in starlings, 1974

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.

    1976-01-01

    Organochlorine residues in starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) from 126 collection sites were monitored during the fall of 1974. DDE, DDT, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), and benzene hexachloride were present in all samples. Dieldrin, heptachlor expoxide, hexachlorobenzene, and oxychlordane were present in approximately 97% of the samples. DDE, dieldrin, and PCB residues in starlings were significantly lower than they had been in 1972.

  8. Nationwide residues of organochlorines in starlings, 1974.

    PubMed

    White, D H

    1976-06-01

    Organochlorine residues in starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) from 126 collection sites were monitored during the fall of 1974. DDE, DDT, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), and benzene hexachloride were present in all samples. Dieldrin, heptachlor expoxide, hexachlorobenzene, and oxychlordane were present in approximately 97% of the samples. DDE, dieldrin, and PCB residues in starlings were significantly lower than they had been in 1972. PMID:940731

  9. [Emergency drills and exercises to prepare the initial response and countermeasures for a disaster: an evacuation simulation for the hospital's outpatient blood collection room in the event of an earthquake].

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Makoto; Nakao, Hiroyuki; Morita, Kazuharu; Sone, Shinji; Masuda, Akiko; Yatomi, Yutaka

    2013-12-01

    In case of a disaster, the clinical laboratory's departmental staff is not only responsible for recovery efforts of routine work and the continuation of emergency tests, but also for protecting patients against both dangers and possible risks in the blood collecting room and physiology laboratory. For this reason, we decided to participate in an emergency drill, which focuses on the initial response to a disaster, specifically evacuation procedures and the cessation of phlebotomy operations. Since there were no existing manuals regarding disasters in our blood collection room, we first made a draft disaster plan. Additionally, since we were absolute beginners with regard to training and had inadequate knowledge of disaster countermeasures, we conducted theoretical simulations in advance. We decided to explain the evacuation details and had each participant in the exercise perform their own role in accordance with our scenario. Furthermore, we asked the participants to discuss the effectiveness of the training and seek out ways to improve our manuals. Although this was the first practice for the blood collection room, we were able to achieve our first goal by raising awareness of disaster prevention activities. The precautions against disaster that eliminate accidents require an immense amount of time and effort. Thus, it is necessary to continue training in order to increase the staffs awareness of disaster defense and to continue to improve our skills in the future. PMID:24605543

  10. 21 CFR 640.53 - Testing the blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Testing the blood. 640.53 Section 640.53 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Cryoprecipitate § 640.53 Testing the blood. (a) Blood... sample of blood collected at the time of collecting the source blood, and such sample container shall...

  11. 21 CFR 640.53 - Testing the blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Testing the blood. 640.53 Section 640.53 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Cryoprecipitate § 640.53 Testing the blood. (a) Blood... sample of blood collected at the time of collecting the source blood, and such sample container shall...

  12. 21 CFR 640.53 - Testing the blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Testing the blood. 640.53 Section 640.53 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Cryoprecipitate § 640.53 Testing the blood. (a) Blood... sample of blood collected at the time of collecting the source blood, and such sample container shall...

  13. 21 CFR 640.53 - Testing the blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Testing the blood. 640.53 Section 640.53 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Cryoprecipitate § 640.53 Testing the blood. (a) Blood... sample of blood collected at the time of collecting the source blood, and such sample container shall...

  14. Nationwide occurrence of radon and other natural radioactivity in public water supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, T. R.

    1985-10-01

    The nationwide study, which began in November of 1980, was designed to systematically sample water supplies in all 48 contiguous states. The results of the study will be used, in cooperation with EPA's Office of Drinking Water, to estimate population exposures nationwide and to support possible future standards for radon, uranium, and other natural radioactivity in public water supplies. Samples from more than 2500 public water supplies representing 35 states were collected. Although we sampled only about five percent of the total number of groundwater supplies in the 48 contiguous states of the US, those samples represent nearly 45 percent of the water consumed by US groundwater users in the 48 contiguous states. Sample results are summarized by arithmetic mean, geometric mean, and population weighted arithmetic mean for each state and the entire US. Results include radon, gross alpha, gross beta, Ra-226, Ra-228, total Ra, U-234, U-238, total U, and U-234/U-238 ratios. Individual public water supply results are found in the appendices. 24 refs., 91 figs., 51 tabs.

  15. Blood Thinners

    MedlinePlus

    If you have some kinds of heart or blood vessel disease, or if you have poor blood flow to your brain, your doctor may recommend that you take a blood thinner. Blood thinners reduce the risk of heart ...

  16. Donating Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... can give blood every 56 days. Before Donating Blood donation starts before you walk in the door of ... regenerate the red blood cells lost during a blood donation. An iron-fortified diet plus daily iron tablets ...

  17. Blood culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed . The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  18. The Basic Facts of Korean Breast Cancer in 2013: Results of a Nationwide Survey and Breast Cancer Registry Database

    PubMed Central

    Min, Sun Young; Kim, Zisun; Yoon, Chan Seok; Park, Eun-Hwa; Jung, Kyu-Won

    2016-01-01

    The Korean Breast Cancer Society (KBCS) has reported a nationwide breast cancer data since 1996. We present a comprehensive report on the facts and trends of breast cancer in Korea in 2013. Data on the newly diagnosed patients in the year 2013 were collected from 99 hospitals by using nationwide questionnaire survey. Clinical characteristics such as stage of cancer, histologic types, biological markers, and surgical management were obtained from the online registry database. A total of 19,316 patients were newly diagnosed with breast cancer in 2013. The crude incidence rate of female breast cancer including carcinoma in situ was 76.2 cases per 100,000 women. The median age at diagnosis was 50 years, and the proportions of postmenopausal women with breast cancer accounted for more than half of total patients. The proportion of early breast cancer increased consistently, and the pathologic features have changed accordingly. Breast-conserving surgery was performed in more cases than total mastectomy in the year. The total number of breast reconstruction surgeries markedly increased approaching 3-fold in last 11 years. According to annual percentile change of invasive cancer incidence, the incidence increased rapidly until 2010. And thereafter the increase of it became steadier. For ductal carcinoma in situ, the incidence consistently increased during the same period without any joinpoint. Analysis of nationwide registry data will contribute to defining of the trends and characteristics of breast cancer in Korea. PMID:27066090

  19. Blood sugar test - blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the way you normally talk or behave Fainting spells Seizures (for the first time) SCREENING FOR ... drawn are slight, but may include: Excessive bleeding Fainting or feeling lightheaded Hematoma (blood accumulating under the ...

  20. 75 FR 67992 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; HUD Stakeholder Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; HUD Stakeholder Survey... Stakeholder Survey. OMB Control Number, if applicable: 2501-New. Description of the need for the information... groups nationwide designed to educate stakeholders about HUD initiatives and policies. This...

  1. 78 FR 64929 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to the Office of Management and Budget for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to the Office of Management and Budget for Review and Approval; Comment Request; Targeted Teacher Shortage Areas Nationwide Listing Correction In...

  2. 1990 Nationwide Truck Activity and Commodity Survey selected tabulations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The Nationwide Truck Activity and Commodity Survey (NTACS) provides detailed activity data for a sample of trucks covered in the 1987 Truck Inventory and Use Survey (TIUS) for days selected at random over a 12-month period ending in 1990. The NTACS was conducted by the US Bureau of the Census for the US Department of Transportation (DOT). A Public Use File for the NTACS was developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under a reimbursable agreement with the DOT. The content of the Public Use File and the detailed design of the NTACS are described in the ORNL Report [open quotes]Technical Documentation for the 1990 Nationwide Truck Activity and Commodity Survey Public Use File[close quotes]. (1992). ORNL Technical Report No. TM-12188, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831. The main purpose of this summary report is to provide selected tables based on the public use file.

  3. Nationwide residues of organochlorine compounds in starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.

    1979-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticide and PCB residues in starlings from 126 sites within the contiguous 48 states were monitored during fall 1976. The average nationwide level of DDE and PCBs has increased significantly since 1974, but the number of sites reporting PCB residues has decreased fivefold. Dieldrin residues have remained unchanged since 1974. Highest DDE levels occurred in samples from parts of Arizona, Arkansas, California, Louisiana, and New Mexico.

  4. NASA Nationwide and the Year of the Solar System (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, K.

    2010-12-01

    NASA depends on the efforts of several volunteer networks to help implement its formal and informal education goals, to disseminate its key messages related to space and Earth science missions and to support broad public initiatives such as the upcoming Year of the Solar System (YSS), sponsored by the Planetary Science Education and Public Outreach Forum (SEPOF). These highly leveraged networks include programs such as Solar System Ambassadors, Solar System Educators, Night Sky Network, and NASA Explorer Schools. Founded in June 2008, NASA Nationwide: A Consortium of Formal and Informal Education Networks is a program that brings together these volunteer networks by creating an online community and shared resources which broadens the member networks’ base of support and provides opportunities to coordinate, cooperate, and collaborate with each other. Since its inception, NASA Nationwide has grown to include twelve NASA-funded volunteer networks as members and collaborates with three other NASA networks as affiliates. NASA Nationwide’s support for the Year of the Solar System includes management of several recently completed Solar System Nights kits, which will be made available regionally to collaborative teams of volunteers and affiliates for use in connecting with students in underserved, underrepresented and rural populations. In the latter part of 2010, the program will be further enhanced by the debut of the public NASA Nationwide website to showcase the successful efforts of these volunteers, provide information about member organizations and advertise their upcoming events in support of the Year of the Solar System. Through its broad reach and the dedicated enthusiasm of its members, NASA Nationwide will be an essential factor utilized to help achieve Year of the Solar System goals and ensure the ultimate success of the initiative.

  5. Development of a nationwide network for technology transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Louis B. C.; Brockman, Paul R.

    1987-01-01

    The winter and spring of 1987 saw the cooperative nationwide network for technology transfer translated from concept to reality. The most obvious of the network relationships which were developed or which are anticipated are summarized. The objective was to help assure that every U.S. business which has the capacity to exploit, or the need to obtain new technology in any form, has access to the technology it needs or can use.

  6. Nationwide residues of organochlorine compounds in starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), 1976.

    PubMed

    White, D H

    1979-03-01

    Organochlorine pesticide and PCB residues in starlings from 126 sites within the contiguous 48 states were monitored during fall 1976. The average nationwide level of DDE and PCBs has increased significantly since 1974, but the number of sites reporting PCB residues has decreased fivefold. Dieldrin residues have remained unchanged since 1974. Highest DDE levels occurred in samples from parts of Arizona, Arkansas, California, Louisiana, and New Mexico. PMID:111216

  7. Fetal blood testing (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... testing is performed during labor to test the blood pH of the baby which can determine its well- ... puncture is made in the scalp and fetal blood droplets are collected in a thin glass tube. Testing the scalp pH can help your doctor decide if your fetus ...

  8. A nationwide survey of hepatitis C services provided by drug treatment programs.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Shiela M; Falkin, Gregory P; Vassilev, Zdravko; Des Jarlais, Don C; Astone, Janetta

    2002-03-01

    Drug treatment programs are a site of opportunity for the delivery of primary and secondary hepatitis C (HCV) prevention services to drug users, a population at great risk for contracting and transmitting the virus. Using data collected from a random nationwide sample (N = 439) of drug treatment programs in the United States, this study examines the extent to which various types of HCV services are provided to their patients. Findings indicate that the majority of drug treatment programs educate at least some of their patients about HCV, and provide some type of support for patients who are infected with the virus. Only 29 of the programs in the sample test all of their patients for HCV, however, and 99 programs test none of them. For the most part, residential treatment programs offer more HCV related services than outpatient drug-free programs. PMID:11932130

  9. Evaluating a Nationwide Recreational Football Intervention: Recruitment, Attendance, Adherence, Exercise Intensity, and Health Effects

    PubMed Central

    Fløtum, Liljan av; Ottesen, Laila S.; Krustrup, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated a nationwide exercise intervention with Football Fitness in a small-scale society. In all, 741 adult participants (20–72 yrs) were successfully recruited for Football Fitness training in local football clubs, corresponding to 2.1% of the adult population. A preintervention test battery including resting heart rate (RHR), blood pressure, and body mass measurements along with performance tests (Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance level 1 (Yo-Yo IE1), the Arrowhead Agility Test, and the Flamingo Balance Test) were performed (n = 502). Training attendance (n = 310) was 1.6 ± 0.2 sessions per week (range: 0.6–2.9), corresponding to 28.8 ± 1.0 sessions during the 18 wk intervention period. After 18 wks mean arterial pressure (MAP) was −2.7 ± 0.7 mmHg lower (P < 0.05; n = 151) with even greater (P < 0.05) reductions for those with baseline MAP values >99 mmHg (−5.6 ± 1.5 mmHg; n = 50). RHR was lowered (P < 0.05) by 6 bpm after intervention (77 ± 1 to 71 ± 1 bpm). Yo-Yo IE1 performance increased by 41% (540 ± 27 to 752 ± 45 m), while agility and postural balance were improved (P < 0.05) by ~6 and ~45%, respectively. In conclusion, Football Fitness was shown to be a successful health-promoting nationwide training intervention for adult participants with an extraordinary recruitment, a high attendance rate, moderate adherence, high exercise intensity, and marked benefits in cardiovascular health profile and fitness. PMID:27437401

  10. Evaluating a Nationwide Recreational Football Intervention: Recruitment, Attendance, Adherence, Exercise Intensity, and Health Effects.

    PubMed

    Fløtum, Liljan Av; Ottesen, Laila S; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated a nationwide exercise intervention with Football Fitness in a small-scale society. In all, 741 adult participants (20-72 yrs) were successfully recruited for Football Fitness training in local football clubs, corresponding to 2.1% of the adult population. A preintervention test battery including resting heart rate (RHR), blood pressure, and body mass measurements along with performance tests (Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance level 1 (Yo-Yo IE1), the Arrowhead Agility Test, and the Flamingo Balance Test) were performed (n = 502). Training attendance (n = 310) was 1.6 ± 0.2 sessions per week (range: 0.6-2.9), corresponding to 28.8 ± 1.0 sessions during the 18 wk intervention period. After 18 wks mean arterial pressure (MAP) was -2.7 ± 0.7 mmHg lower (P < 0.05; n = 151) with even greater (P < 0.05) reductions for those with baseline MAP values >99 mmHg (-5.6 ± 1.5 mmHg; n = 50). RHR was lowered (P < 0.05) by 6 bpm after intervention (77 ± 1 to 71 ± 1 bpm). Yo-Yo IE1 performance increased by 41% (540 ± 27 to 752 ± 45 m), while agility and postural balance were improved (P < 0.05) by ~6 and ~45%, respectively. In conclusion, Football Fitness was shown to be a successful health-promoting nationwide training intervention for adult participants with an extraordinary recruitment, a high attendance rate, moderate adherence, high exercise intensity, and marked benefits in cardiovascular health profile and fitness. PMID:27437401