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Sample records for native mussel diplodon

  1. Biomarker responses to sewage pollution in freshwater mussels (Diplodon chilensis) transplanted to a Patagonian river.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Virginia A; Rocchetta, Iara; Luquet, Carlos M

    2014-09-19

    Field and laboratory experiments were combined to evaluate biomarker responses of Diplodon chilensis to sewage pollution. Mussels from an unpolluted area in Lacar lake (S0) were caged at a reference site (S1) and at two sites with increasing sewage pollution (S2, S3) in Pocahullo river (all in Argentina). After 1 month, gill (g) glutathione S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) activities, and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) were found to be significantly elevated in S3, gGST being positively correlated with fecal bacteria (FC) concentration. Digestive gland (dg) enzyme activities were depressed and dgTBARS were increased in all transplanted mussels. After 3 mo, most variables returned to control levels in S1 mussels except for dgCAT and dgTBARS. After seven months, GST and CAT activities of S0 and S3 mussels were evaluated in the laboratory, before and after acute exposure (8 h) to high fecal bacteria concentration ([FC] in S3x 2). gGST increased in both groups, while dgGST responded only in S3 mussels. gCAT and dgCAT activities were similarly increased by acute exposure in both groups. Our results suggest that gGST and gCAT are suitable biomarkers for high FC pollution regardless of previous exposure history. In addition, we show that dgCAT is sensitive to the acute increase in FC load, both in naive and long-term exposed individuals, while dgGST becomes responsive after long-term acclimatization. PMID:24967561

  2. Health status and bioremediation capacity of wild freshwater mussels (Diplodon chilensis) exposed to sewage water pollution in a glacial Patagonian lake.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Virginia A; Castro, Juan M; Rocchetta, Iara; Bieczynski, Flavia; Luquet, Carlos M

    2014-04-01

    Deleterious effects on health and fitness are expected in mussels chronically exposed to sewage water pollution. Diplodon chilensis inhabiting SMA, an area affected by untreated and treated sewage water, shows increased hemocyte number and phagocytic activity, while bacteriolytic and phenoloxidase activities in plasma and reactive oxygen species production in hemocytes are lower compared to mussels from an unpolluted area (Yuco). There are not differences in cell viability, lysosomal membrane stability, lipid peroxidation and total oxygen scavenging capacity between SMA and Yuco mussels' hemocytes. Energetic reserves and digestive gland mass do not show differences between groups; although the condition factor is higher in SMA than in Yuco mussels. Gills of SMA mussels show an increase in mass and micronuclei frequency compared to those of Yuco. Mussels from both sites reduce bacterial loads in polluted water and sediments, improving their quality with similar feeding performance. These findings suggest that mussels exposed to sewage pollution modulate physiological responses by long-term exposure; although, gills are sensitive to these conditions and suffer chronic damage. Bioremediation potential found in D. chilensis widens the field of work for remediation of sewage bacterial pollution in water and sediments by filtering bivalves. PMID:24589503

  3. Modulating effects of orally supplied Euglena gracilis on the physiological responses of the freshwater mussel Diplodon chilensis, exposed to sewage water pollution in a Patagonian river (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Virginia A; Castro, Juan M; Rocchetta, Iara; Conforti, Visitación; Pascual, Mariano; Luquet, Carlos M

    2016-04-01

    In order to test if orally supplied Euglena sp. cells modulate the physiological status of bivalves during bioremediation procedures, we evaluated the effect of Euglena gracilis diet on the immune response, oxidative balance and metabolic condition of Diplodon chilensis exposed to sewage water pollution. Mussels were fed for 90 days with E. gracilis (EG) or Scenedesmus vacuolatus (SV, control diet), and then exposed for 10 days at three sites along the Pocahullo river basin: 1) an unpolluted site, upstream of the city (control, C); 2) upstream (UpS) and 3) downstream (DoS) from the main tertiary-treated sewage discharge, in the city of San Martín de los Andes, Northwest Patagonia, Argentina. Our results show that the total hemocyte number decreases while pollution load increases along the river course for both, EG and SV mussels. Phagocytic activity is higher in EG mussels than in SV ones under all conditions. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in hemocytes increases with the increase in the pollution load, being significantly higher for EG mussels than for SV ones at DoS; no changes are observed for total oxyradical scavenging capacity (TOSC). Hemocytes' viability is increased for E. gracilis diet at C and remains unchanged in this group of mussels when exposed at the polluted sites. Lysosomal membrane stability is higher in EG mussels than in SV ones for all conditions, although it is decreased at polluted sites compared with that at C. Antioxidant (catalase) and detoxifying (gluthatione S-transferase) defenses are generally lower in gills and digestive gland of EG mussels than in SV ones. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS) is evident in gills of EG mussels at C, and in digestive gland of the same group, at all the sites. Gill mass factor (GF) is affected by the E. gracilis diet; it is increased at C and decreased at polluted sites when compared with that of SV ones. Digestive gland mass factor (DGF) is higher in EG mussels than in SV ones. In D

  4. Phytoplankton composition of the water and gastrointestinal tract of the mussel Diplodon enno (Ortmann, 1921) from São Francisco river (Bahia, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Alves, T; Lima, P; Lima, G M S; Cunha, M C C; Ferreira, S; Domingues, B; Machado, J

    2016-06-01

    The knowledge on diet composition of the freshwater mussel Diplodon enno (Ortmann) would aid in its culture and propagation allowing, this way, the replacement of natural endangered populations in Brazil. Microalgae are the main food source for captive mussels and unionids have displayed an ability to sort algae based on the cellular characteristics prior to ingestion. The main objective of the present work is to analyze the phytoplankton composition of the water from and of the gastrointestinal contents of the mussel D. enno, as an initial step for development of a suitable rearing diet. Therefore, water samples and bivalve specimens were collected from S. Francisco River, city of Paulo Afonso, Bahia, Brazil. The microalgal composition found in water and stomach/gut content samples was very diverse being represented by the following divisions: Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, Dinophyta and Heterokontophyta (Diatoms). Concerning the relative abundance of microalgae divisions, it is possible to state, for the water and gastrointestinal contents, that Cyanophyta represents 15% and 14%, Chlorophyta 54% in both, Heterokontophyta 31% and 27% and Dinophyta 0% and 5%, respectively. According to the Brazilian CETESB criteria for phytoplankton species classification, 50% of Cyanophyta and 15% of Chlorophyta species observed in the water samples were classified as "very frequent", as were 68% of Heterokontophyta and 33% of Chlorophyta species in the gut/stomach tract samples. Focusing at a species level, although in the water only Coelastrum sp. and Chroococcus sp. were observed in 100% and 75% of the samples, respectively, in the gastrointestinal tract the species Staurastrum sp., Aulacoseira sp., Scenedesmus sp. and Fragilaria crotonensis occurred in 80% to 100% of the samples. The present results showed that D. enno feeds not only on small chlorophytes microalgae, due to their convenient size that facilitates higher feeding rates, but also on large size diatoms, due to a possible

  5. NATIVE FRESHWATER FISH AND MUSSEL SPECIES RICHNESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    These data represent predicted current distributions of all native freshwater fish and freshwater mussels in the Middle-Atlantic region. The data are available for both 8-digit HUCs and EMAP hexagons and represent total species counts for each spatial unit.

  6. Review of techniques to prevent introduction of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) during native mussel (Unionoidea) conservation activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cope, W.G.; Newton, T.J.; Gatenby, C.M.

    2003-01-01

    Because of the declines in diversity and abundance of native freshwater mussels (superfamily Unionoidea), and the potential decimation of populations of native mussels resulting from the rapid spread of the exotic zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha, management options to eliminate or reduce the threat of the zebra mussel are needed. Relocating native mussels to refugia (artificial and natural) has been proposed to mitigate the threat of zebra mussels to native species. Relocation of native mussels to refugia such as fish hatchery facilities or natural habitats within their historic range. Which are unlikely to be infested by zebra mussels, necessitates that protocols be developed to prevent the inadvertent introduction of zebra mussels. Several recent studies have developed Such protocols, and have assessed their effectiveness on the health and survival of native mussels during subsequent relocation to various refugia. The purpose of this project is to synthesize and evaluate the current protocols and to develop a set of procedures that resource managers and researchers should consider before conducting conservation activities in zebra mussel infested waters. We found that the existing protocols have many common points of concern, such as facility modification and suitability, zebra mussel risk assessment and management procedures, and health and disease management procedures. These conservation protocols may have broad applicability to other situations and locations. A summary and evaluation of the information in these main areas, along with recommended guidelines, are presented in this article.

  7. Cellular biomarkers for monitoring estuarine environments: transplanted versus native mussels.

    PubMed

    Nigro, M; Falleni, A; Barga, I Del; Scarcelli, V; Lucchesi, P; Regoli, F; Frenzilli, G

    2006-05-25

    In developed countries, estuarine environments are often subjected to chemical pollution, whose biological impact is profitably evaluated by the use of multi-biomarker approaches on sentinel species. In this paper, we investigate genotoxicity and lysosomal alterations in the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis), from the estuary of the River Cecina (Tuscany, Italy), selected as "pilot basin" within the Water Frame Directive (2000/60 European Community). Both native and 1 month transplanted mussels were used in order to compare these two approaches in terms of sensitiveness of specific biomarker responses. Genotoxic effects were evaluated as strand breaks, by single cell gel electrophoresis (or Comet assay), and as chromosomal alterations, by the micronucleus test in gill cells. Lysosomal alterations were assessed by the neutral red retention time (in haemocytes), lipofuscin accumulation and ultrastructure (in digestive cells). Heavy metal bioaccumulation was also analysed. Mussels from the River Cecina showed a general alteration of all the biomarkers investigated, accompanied by an elevation of tissue metal levels. However, some differences in specific responses occurred between transplanted and native mussels. Early biomarkers, such as those based on DNA and lysosomal membrane integrity, were induced at similar degree in native and transplanted mussels; while alterations resulting from cumulative events, as the increase of micronuclei frequency were much more elevated in native specimens (23.1+/-7.6) than in transplanted (9.3+/-4.7) and reference ones (5.8+/-5.2). Similarly, the comparison between lipofuscin accumulation and mean lysosomal diameter in impacted and control sites, gave significant differences exclusively with transplanted mussels. These results suggest that the parallel use of caged and native mussels in environmental biomonitoring can improve the characterization of the study area. PMID:16480782

  8. Is the body condition of the invasive zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) enhanced through attachment to native freshwater mussels (Bivalvia, Unionidae)?

    PubMed

    Pilotto, Francesca; Sousa, Ronaldo; Aldridge, David C

    2016-05-15

    The invasion of zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, into Western Europe and North America has driven widespread ecological change. Attachment of zebra mussels to the shell of native unionoid mussels has resulted in reductions in unionoid abundance and, in extreme cases, their localised extirpations. While the impacts of zebra mussels on infested unionoids are well documented, the possible benefits of the association to the zebra mussel have been little considered. We collected zebra mussels attached to unionoids and to inanimate structures. Zebra mussels attached to unionoids had significantly larger shells, higher standardized body mass and glycogen content than those attached to inanimate substrates, suggesting that D. polymorpha benefits from settling upon unionoids. The body condition of individual zebra mussels was negatively correlated with the number of zebra mussels attached to the unionoid, indicating intraspecific competition. Therefore, zebra mussels seem positively affected through attachment to unionoid mussels, but that these benefits decrease at higher densities of fouling. This association may offer advantages to the spread of zebra mussels within unionoid-rich systems, especially at sites with soft substrates and at the early stages of the invasion process where intraspecific competition is likely to be lower and benefits to the zebra mussels are higher. PMID:26925735

  9. Heavy metal contamination along the China coastline: A comprehensive study using Artificial Mussels and native mussels.

    PubMed

    Degger, Natalie; Chiu, Jill M Y; Po, Beverly H K; Tse, Anna C K; Zheng, Gene J; Zhao, Dong-Mei; Xu, Di; Cheng, Yu-Shan; Wang, Xin-Hong; Liu, Wen-Hua; Lau, T C; Wu, Rudolf S S

    2016-09-15

    A comprehensive study was carried out to assess metal contamination in five cities spanning from temperate to tropical environment along the coastal line of China with different hydrographical conditions. At each of the five cities, Artificial Mussels (AM) were deployed together with a native species of mussel at a control site and a polluted site. High levels of Cr, Cu and Hg were found in Qingdao, high level of Cd, Hg and Pb was found in Shanghai, and high level of Zn was found in Dalian. Furthermore, level of Cu contamination in all the five cities was consistently much higher than those reported in similar studies in other countries (e.g., Australia, Portugal, Scotland, Iceland, Korea, South Africa and Bangladesh). Levels of individual metal species in the AM showed a highly significant correlation with that in the native mussels (except for Zn in Mytilus edulis and Cd in Perna viridis), while no significant difference can be found between the regression relationships of metal in the AM and each of the two native mussel species. The results demonstrated that AM can provide a reliable time-integrated estimate of metal concentration in contrasting environments over large biogeographic areas and different hydrographic conditions, and overcome the shortcomings of monitoring metals in water, sediment and the use of biomonitors. PMID:27233049

  10. Assessing the Exposure and Relative Sensitivity of Native Freshwater Mussels to Environmental Stressors and Laboratory Conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. Expands the database for pesticide toxicity on native freshwater mussels. 2. Aids in determining any potential differences in toxic sensitivity of gravid female mussel attributed to age and laboratory holding times. 3. Aids in determining potential differences in juvenile ...

  11. Differential recruitment of introduced Pacific oysters and native mussels at the North Sea coast: coexistence possible?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diederich, Susanne

    2005-04-01

    Pacific oysters ( Crassostrea gigas Thunberg 1793) have been introduced into the Wadden Sea (North Sea), where they settle on native mussel beds ( Mytilus edulis L.), which represent the only extensive insular hard substrata in this soft-sediment environment. As abundances of C. gigas rose, some mussel beds became increasingly overgrown with oysters, whereas others did not. Field experiments revealed that recruitment of C. gigas was higher in the lower intertidal than in the upper subtidal zone, that it was higher on conspecifics than on mussels, and that it was not affected by barnacle epigrowth except when settling on mussels. Mussel recruitment is known from inter- and subtidal zones. It occurred equally on oyster and mussel shells but showed a clear preference for barnacle epigrowth over clean shells. Assuming that settlement and recruitment are key processes for species abundances on the North Sea coast, it is predicted that the positive feedback in oyster settlement will lead to rapid reef formation of this invader at the expense of mussel beds. Mussels, however, may escape competitive exclusion by settling between or on the larger oysters especially when barnacles are abundant. Experimental patches with mussels were more often covered by fucoid algae ( Fucus vesiculosus forma mytili Nienburg) than patches with oysters, and oyster recruitment was poor underneath such algal canopies. Thus, fucoids may provide the native mussels with a refuge from the invading oysters and the two bivalves may coexist, provided food is not limiting.

  12. Predation on exotic zebra mussels by native fishes: Effects on predator and prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Magoulick, D.D.; Lewis, L.C.

    2002-01-01

    1. Exotic zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, occur in southern U.S. waterways in high densities, but little is known about the interaction between native fish predators and zebra mussels. Previous studies have suggested that exotic zebra mussels are low profitability prey items and native vertebrate predators are unlikely to reduce zebra mussel densities. We tested these hypotheses by observing prey use of fishes, determining energy content of primary prey species of fishes, and conducting predator exclusion experiments in Lake Dardanelle, Arkansas. 2. Zebra mussels were the primary prey eaten by 52.9% of blue catfish, Ictalurus furcatus; 48.2% of freshwater drum, Aplodinotus grunniens; and 100% of adult redear sunfish, Lepomis microlophus. Blue catfish showed distinct seasonal prey shifts, feeding on zebra mussels in summer and shad, Dorosoma spp., during winter. Energy content (joules g-1) of blue catfish prey (threadfin shad, Dorosoma petenense; gizzard shad, D. cepedianum; zebra mussels; and asiatic clams, Corbicula fluminea) showed a significant species by season interaction, but shad were always significantly greater in energy content than bivalves examined as either ash-free dry mass or whole organism dry mass. Fish predators significantly reduced densities of large zebra mussels (>5 mm length) colonising clay tiles in the summers of 1997 and 1998, but predation effects on small zebra mussels (???5 mm length) were less clear. 3. Freshwater drum and redear sunfish process bivalve prey by crushing shells and obtain low amounts of higher-energy food (only the flesh), whereas blue catfish lack a shell-crushing apparatus and ingest large amounts of low-energy food per unit time (bivalves with their shells). Blue catfish appeared to select the abundant zebra mussel over the more energetically rich shad during summer, then shifted to shad during winter when shad experienced temperature-dependent stress and mortality. Native fish predators can suppress adult zebra

  13. Mortality, movement and behaviour of native mussels during a planned water-level drawdown in the Upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newton, Teresa J.; Zigler, Steven J.; Gray, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    Collectively, these data suggest that drawdowns can influence the mortality, movement and behaviour of mussels in the UMR. However, more information on spatial and temporal distributions of mussels is needed to better understand the magnitude of these effects. Results from this study are being used by resource managers to better evaluate the effects of this management tool on native mussel assemblages.

  14. Population assessment and potential functional roles of native mussels in the Upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newton, Teresa J.; Zigler, Steven J.; Rogala, James T.; Gray, Brian R.; Davis, Mike

    2011-01-01

    1. Despite a heightened global concern for native mussels, fundamental research on mussel ecology in large rivers is lacking. These gaps in knowledge about where mussels occur, and why, are limiting habitat restoration activities. 2. Large-scale systematic surveys for native mussels in three reaches of the Upper Mississippi River documented mussel communities composed of 16–23 species and ranging from 2.9–4.5 live mussels m-2 that were actively recruiting new cohorts into their populations (87–100% of the species were found as juveniles 5 years old). Estimates of mean tissue biomass and production in these reaches ranged from 2.1–3.1 g C m-2 and 0.4–0.6 g C m-2year-1, respectively. 3. Mussels filtered a significant amount of water (range, 0.05–0.07 m3m-2d-1) over a 480 km reach of the Upper Mississippi River — amounting to a filtration rate of 53.1 million m3day-1. The filtration rate of mussels as a percentage of river discharge ranged from 0.5–1.4% at high flows (5% exceedance), from 1.5–4.4% at moderate flows (50% exceedance) and from 4.4–12.2% during low flows (95% exceedance). 4. Collectively, these data suggest that native mussels play an integral role in this ecosystem by sequestering suspended materials that can be used by other benthic organisms.

  15. Diplodon shells from Northwest Patagonia as continental proxy archives: Oxygen isotopic results and sclerochronological analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldati, A. L.; Beierlein, L.; Jacob, D. E.

    2009-04-01

    Freshwater mussels of the genus Diplodon (Bivalvia, Hyriidae) are the most abundant bivalve (today and in the past) in freshwater bodies at both sides of the South-Andean Cordillera. There are about 25 different Diplodon genera in Argentina and Chile that could be assigned almost completely to the species Diplodon chilensis (Gray, 1828) and two subspecies: D. ch. chilensis and D. ch. patagonicus; this latter species is found in Argentina between Mendoza (32˚ 52' S; 68˚ 51' W) and Chubut (45˚ 51' S; 67˚ 28' W), including the lakes and rivers of the target area, the Nahuel Huapi National Park (Castellanos, 1960). Despite their wide geographic distribution, Diplodon species have only rarely been used as climate archives in the southern hemisphere. Kaandorp et al. (2005) demonstrated for Diplodon longulus (Conrad 1874) collected from the Peruvian Amazonas that oxygen isotopic patterns in the shells could be used in order to reconstruct the precipitation regime and dry/wet seasonal of the monsoonal system in Amazonia. Although this study demonstrated the potential of Diplodon in climatological and ecological reconstructions in the southern hemisphere, as of yet, no systematic study of Diplodon as a multi-proxy archive has been undertaken for the Patagonian region. In this work we present sclerochronological analyses supported by ^18Oshell in recent mussel of Diplodon chilensis patagonicus (D'Orbigny, 1835) collected at Laguna El Trébol (42°S-71°W, Patagonia Argentina), one of the best studied water bodies in the region for paleoclimate analysis. Water temperature was measured every six hours for one year using a temperature sensor (Starmon mini®) placed at 5m depth in the lake, close to a mussel bank. Additionally, ^18Owater was measured monthly for the same time range.g^18Oshell values obtained by micro-milling at high spatial resolution in the growth increments of three Diplodon shells were compared to these records, and to air temperature and

  16. Characteristics of a refuge for native freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae) in Lake St. Clair

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGoldrick, D.J.; Metcalfe-Smith, J. L.; Arts, M.T.; Schloesser, D.W.; Newton, T.J.; Mackie, G.L.; Monroe, E.M.; Biberhofer, J.; Johnson, K.

    2009-01-01

    The Lake St. Clair delta (??? 100??km2) provides an important refuge for native freshwater mussels (Unionidae) wherein 22 of the ??? 35 historical species co-occur with invasive dreissenids. A total of 1875 live unionids representing 22 species were found during snorkeling surveys of 32 shallow (??? 1??m) sites throughout the delta. Richness and density of unionids and zebra mussel infestation rates varied among sites from 3 to 13 unionid species, 0.02 to 0.12 unionids/m2, and < 1 to 35 zebra mussels/unionid, respectively. Zebra mussel infestation of unionids in the delta appears to be mitigated by dominant offshore currents, which limit densities of zebra mussel veligers in nearshore compared to offshore waters (13,600 vs. 28,000/m3, respectively). Glycogen concentrations in the tissues of a common and widespread species in the delta (Lampsilis siliquoidea) suggest that zebra mussels may be adversely affecting physiological condition of unionids in a portion of the Lake St. Clair delta. Physiological condition and community structure of unionids within the delta may also be influenced by differences in food quantity and quality resulting from the uneven distribution of water flowing from the St. Clair River. The delta likely supports the largest living unionid community in the lower Great Lakes and includes several species that have been listed as Endangered or Threatened in Canada and/or the state of Michigan, making it an important refuge for the conservation of native unionids. Crown Copyright ?? 2009.

  17. Polymethylene-interrupted fatty acids: Biomarkers for native and exotic mussels in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mezek, Tadej; Sverko, Ed; Ruddy, Martina D.; Zaruk, Donna; Capretta, Alfredo; Hebert, Craig E.; Fisk, Aaron T.; McGoldrick, Daryl J.; Newton, Teresa J.; Sutton, Trent M.; Koops, Marten A.; Muir, Andrew M.; Johnson, Timothy B.; Ebener, Mark P.; Arts, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    Freshwater organisms synthesize a wide variety of fatty acids (FAs); however, the ability to synthesize and/or subsequently modify a particular FA is not universal, making it possible to use certain FAs as biomarkers. Herein we document the occurrence of unusual FAs (polymethylene-interrupted fatty acids; PMI-FAs) in select freshwater organisms in the Laurentian Great Lakes. We did not detect PMI-FAs in: (a) natural seston from Lake Erie and Hamilton Harbor (Lake Ontario), (b) various species of laboratory-cultured algae including a green alga (Scenedesmus obliquus), two cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Synechococystis sp.), two diatoms (Asterionella formosa, Diatoma elongatum) and a chrysophyte (Dinobryon cylindricum) or, (c) zooplankton (Daphnia spp., calanoid or cyclopoid copepods) from Lake Ontario, suggesting that PMI-FAs are not substantively incorporated into consumers at the phytoplankton–zooplankton interface. However, these unusual FAs comprised 4-6% of total fatty acids (on a dry tissue weight basis) of native fat mucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea) and plain pocketbook (L. cardium) mussels and in invasive zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (D. bugensis) mussels. We were able to clearly partition Great Lakes' mussels into three separate groups (zebra, quagga, and native mussels) based solely on their PMI-FA profiles. We also provide evidence for the trophic transfer of PMI-FAs from mussels to various fishes in Lakes Ontario and Michigan, further underlining the potential usefulness of PMI-FAs for tracking the dietary contribution of mollusks in food web and contaminant-fate studies.

  18. Competitive replacement of invasive congeners may relax impact on native species: interactions among zebra, quagga, and native unionid mussels.

    PubMed

    Burlakova, Lyubov E; Tulumello, Brianne L; Karatayev, Alexander Y; Krebs, Robert A; Schloesser, Donald W; Paterson, Wendy L; Griffith, Traci A; Scott, Mariah W; Crail, Todd; Zanatta, David T

    2014-01-01

    Determining when and where the ecological impacts of invasive species will be most detrimental and whether the effects of multiple invaders will be superadditive, or subadditive, is critical for developing global management priorities to protect native species in advance of future invasions. Over the past century, the decline of freshwater bivalves of the family Unionidae has been greatly accelerated by the invasion of Dreissena. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current infestation rates of unionids by zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (D. rostriformis bugensis) mussels in the lower Great Lakes region 25 years after they nearly extirpated native unionids. In 2011-2012, we collected infestation data for over 4000 unionids from 26 species at 198 nearshore sites in lakes Erie, Ontario, and St. Clair, the Detroit River, and inland Michigan lakes and compared those results to studies from the early 1990 s. We found that the frequency of unionid infestation by Dreissena recently declined, and the number of dreissenids attached to unionids in the lower Great Lakes has fallen almost ten-fold since the early 1990s. We also found that the rate of infestation depends on the dominant Dreissena species in the lake: zebra mussels infested unionids much more often and in greater numbers. Consequently, the proportion of infested unionids, as well as the number and weight of attached dreissenids were lower in waterbodies dominated by quagga mussels. This is the first large-scale systematic study that revealed how minor differences between two taxonomically and functionally related invaders may have large consequences for native communities they invade. PMID:25490103

  19. Competitive Replacement of Invasive Congeners May Relax Impact on Native Species: Interactions among Zebra, Quagga, and Native Unionid Mussels

    PubMed Central

    Burlakova, Lyubov E.; Tulumello, Brianne L.; Karatayev, Alexander Y.; Krebs, Robert A.; Schloesser, Donald W.; Paterson, Wendy L.; Griffith, Traci A.; Scott, Mariah W.; Crail, Todd; Zanatta, David T.

    2014-01-01

    Determining when and where the ecological impacts of invasive species will be most detrimental and whether the effects of multiple invaders will be superadditive, or subadditive, is critical for developing global management priorities to protect native species in advance of future invasions. Over the past century, the decline of freshwater bivalves of the family Unionidae has been greatly accelerated by the invasion of Dreissena. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current infestation rates of unionids by zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (D. rostriformis bugensis) mussels in the lower Great Lakes region 25 years after they nearly extirpated native unionids. In 2011–2012, we collected infestation data for over 4000 unionids from 26 species at 198 nearshore sites in lakes Erie, Ontario, and St. Clair, the Detroit River, and inland Michigan lakes and compared those results to studies from the early 1990s. We found that the frequency of unionid infestation by Dreissena recently declined, and the number of dreissenids attached to unionids in the lower Great Lakes has fallen almost ten-fold since the early 1990s. We also found that the rate of infestation depends on the dominant Dreissena species in the lake: zebra mussels infested unionids much more often and in greater numbers. Consequently, the proportion of infested unionids, as well as the number and weight of attached dreissenids were lower in waterbodies dominated by quagga mussels. This is the first large-scale systematic study that revealed how minor differences between two taxonomically and functionally related invaders may have large consequences for native communities they invade. PMID:25490103

  20. Competitive replacement of invasive congeners may relax impact on native species: Interactions among zebra, quagga, and native unionid mussels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burlakova, Lyubov E.; Tulumello, Brianne L.; Karatayev, Alexander Y.; Krebs, Robert A.; Schloesser, Donald W.; Paterson, Wendy L.; Griffith, Traci A.; Scott, Mariah W.; Crail, Todd D.; Zanatta, David T

    2014-01-01

    Determining when and where the ecological impacts of invasive species will be most detrimental and whether the effects of multiple invaders will be superadditive, or subadditive, is critical for developing global management priorities to protect native species in advance of future invasions. Over the past century, the decline of freshwater bivalves of the family Unionidae has been greatly accelerated by the invasion of Dreissena. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current infestation rates of unionids by zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (D. rostriformis bugensis) mussels in the lower Great Lakes region 25 years after they nearly extirpated native unionids. In 2011–2012, we collected infestation data for over 4000 unionids from 26 species at 198 nearshore sites in lakes Erie, Ontario, and St. Clair, the Detroit River, and inland Michigan lakes and compared those results to studies from the early 1990s. We found that the frequency of unionid infestation by Dreissena recently declined, and the number of dreissenids attached to unionids in the lower Great Lakes has fallen almost ten-fold since the early 1990s. We also found that the rate of infestation depends on the dominant Dreissena species in the lake: zebra mussels infested unionids much more often and in greater numbers. Consequently, the proportion of infested unionids, as well as the number and weight of attached dreissenids were lower in waterbodies dominated by quagga mussels. This is the first large-scale systematic study that revealed how minor differences between two taxonomically and functionally related invaders may have large consequences for native communities they invade.

  1. The role of habitat-selection in restricting invasive blue mussel advancement to protect native populations in San Francisco Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittal, N.; Saarman, N. P.; Pogson, G.

    2013-12-01

    Introduced species contribute to decline of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Introduced species threaten native species by increasing competition for space and resources, changing their habitat, and disrupting species interactions. Protecting native species is crucial to preserving ecosystem services (i.e. medicinal, agricultural, ecological, and cultural benefits) for future generations. In marine communities, the number of invasive species is dramatically increasing every year, further magnifying the negative impact on native species. This research determines if habitat-specific selection can protect native species from their invasive relatives, and could allow targeted habitat restoration for native species to maintain high levels of biodiversity. Blue mussels provide an ideal system for studying the impact of an invasive species (Mytilus galloprovincialis) on native mussels (M. trossulus), because M. galloprovincialis is marked as one of the world's 100 worst invasive species. Hybridization between M. galloprovincialis and M. trossulus occurs wherever their distributions overlap (i.e. Japan, Puget Sound, and central California). In central California, hybrids form in a broad variety of habitats ever since M. galloprovincialis was introduced about 100 years ago. The current level of threat posed to native mussels in central California is unknown. When population growth rate of an invasive species is higher than the native within a hybrid zone, the invader's genes become more prominent in the hybrids than the native species' genes. This uneven mix of genes and decrease of pure native mussels threatens to drive M. trossulus to extinction. Therefore, it is important to research which environment fosters highest success of pure native species. We conducted a field experiment in San Francisco Bay where mussels were reared in different habitats. We then collected samples and extracted DNA from each treatment, and genotyped them by a next-generation sequencing

  2. Manganese speciation in Diplodon chilensis patagonicus shells: a XANES study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldati, A. L.; Vicente-Vilas, V.; Goettlicher, J.; Jacob, D. E.

    2009-04-01

    In addition to other types of climate archives, biogenic skeletons of a variety of different organisms (i.e. shells of bivalves, skeletal hard parts of corals or sponges) are increasingly used for high-resolution climate reconstructions. Bivalves are particularly suited for such analyses because they are geographically broadly distributed and have been shown to record climate and environmental information reliably and over long time intervals. Variation of environmental parameters such as food supply, substratum type, salinity, illumination, temperature, concentration of dissolved oxygen or oxygen/carbon dioxide ratio, among others, may affect growth pattern, shell structure, mineralogy, isotopic fractionation and chemistry. Thus, shell features, minor and trace element composition patterns and isotopic signals may serve as an archive of environmental history. In turn, palaeoclimatic parameters such as ambient temperature, precipitation gradients, seawater salinity and primary production can be reconstructed from the shells by means of sclerochronological and geochemical methods. However, the distribution of minor and trace elements in the biominerals is not only influenced by the environment or vital effects, but also by intrinsic biomineralisation parameters like the carbonate polymorphism and the mineral habit (Soldati et al., 2008a). Generally, it is assumed that the X2+ ions are replacing the Ca2+ ion in the calcium carbonate (CaCO3) structure, but newest findings show that amorphous (or disordered) phases may play a role in hosting some of the elements use as proxies (Meibom et al., 2008; and Finch and Allison, 2007). In this work we focused on the freshwater clam Diplodon chilensis patagonicus, a widely distributed inhabitant of lakes and rivers in southern South America. Thanks to its long life span and seasonal growth Diplodon mussels exhibit excellent characteristics to construct an accurate chronological archive, with time windows of up to around a

  3. Assessment of the Species Composition, Densities, and Distribution of Native Freshwater Mussels along the Benton County Shoreline of the Hanford Reach, Columbia River, 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Robert P.; Tiller, Brett L.; Bleich, Matthew D.; Turner, Gerald; Welch, Ian D.

    2011-01-31

    The Hanford Reach of the Columbia River is the last unimpounded section of the river and contains substrate characteristics (cobble, gravel, sand/silt) suitable for many of the native freshwater mussels known to exist in the Pacific Northwest. Information concerning the native mussel species composition, densities, and distributions in the mainstem of the Columbia River is limited. Under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted an assessment of the near-shore habitat on the Hanford Reach. Surveys conducted in 2004 as part of the Ecological Monitoring and Compliance project documented several species of native mussels inhabiting the near-shore habitat of the Hanford Reach. Findings reported here may be useful to resource biologists, ecologists, and DOE-RL to determine possible negative impacts to native mussels from ongoing near-shore remediation activities associated with Hanford Site cleanup. The objective of this study was to provide an initial assessment of the species composition, densities, and distribution of the freshwater mussels (Margaritiferidae and Unionidae families) that exist in the Hanford Reach. Researchers observed and measured 201 live native mussel specimens. Mussel density estimated from these surveys is summarized in this report with respect to near-shore habitat characteristics including substrate size, substrate embeddedness, relative abundance of aquatic vegetation, and large-scale geomorphic/hydrologic characteristics of the Hanford Reach.

  4. Microsatellite loci for dreissenid mussels (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Dreissenidae) and relatives: markers for assessing exotic and native populations.

    PubMed

    Feldheim, Kevin A; Brown, Joshua E; Murphy, Douglas J; Stepien, Carol A

    2011-07-01

    We developed and tested 14 new polymorphic microsatellite loci for dreissenid mussels, including the two species that have invaded many freshwater habitats in Eurasia and North America, where they cause serious industrial fouling damage and ecological alterations. These new loci will aid our understanding of their genetic patterns in invasive populations as well as throughout their native Ponto-Caspian distributions. Eight new loci for the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha polymorpha and six for the quagga mussel D. rostriformis bugensis were compared with new results from six previously published loci to generate a robust molecular toolkit for dreissenid mussels and their relatives. Taxa tested include D. p. polymorpha, D. r. bugensis, D. r. grimmi, D. presbensis, the 'living fossil'Congeria kusceri, and the dark false mussel Mytilopsis leucophaeata (the latter also is invasive). Overall, most of the 24 zebra mussel (N = 583) and 13 quagga mussel (N = 269) population samples conformed to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations for the new loci following sequential Bonferroni correction. The 11 loci (eight new, three previously published) evaluated for D. p. polymorpha averaged 35.1 alleles and 0.72 mean observed heterozygosity per locus, and 25.3 and 0.75 for the nine loci (six new, three previously published) developed for D. r. bugensis. All but three of these loci successfully amplified the other species of Dreissena, and all but one also amplified Congeria and Mytilopsis. All species and populations tested were significantly divergent using the microsatellite data, with neighbour-joining trees reflecting their evolutionary relationships; our results reveal broad utility for resolving their biogeographic, evolutionary, population and ecological patterns. PMID:21457480

  5. Native Dreissena freshwater mussels in the Balkans: in and out of ancient lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilke, T.; Schultheiß, R.; Albrecht, C.; Bornmann, N.; Trajanovski, S.; Kevrekidis, T.

    2010-06-01

    The Balkans is a biogeographically highly diverse region and a worldwide hotspot of endemic freshwater diversity. A substantial part of this diversity is attributed to well recognized and potential ancient lakes in its southwestern part. Despite considerable research efforts, faunal relationships among those lakes are, however, not well understood. Therefore, genetic information from native representatives of the mussel genus Dreissena is used here to test the biogeographical zonation of the Southwestern Balkans, to relate demographic changes to environmental changes, to assess the degree of eco-insularity, to reconstruct their evolutionary history, and to explore the potential of native taxa for becoming invasive. Phylogeographical and population genetic analyses indicate that most populations studied belong to two native species: D. presbensis (incl. the distinct genetic subgroup from Lake Ohrid, D. ''stankovici'') and D. blanci. In addition, the first confirmed record of invasive D. polymorpha in the Southwestern Balkan is presented. The distribution of native Dreissena spp. is largely in concordance with the biogeographical zonations previously proposed based on fish data. Disagreement, however, consists regarding the assignment of the ancient lakes in the area to biogeographical regions. The data for Lake Ohrid are not conclusive. For Lake Prespa, however, a closer biogeographical connection to lakes of the Vardar region and possibly the Northern Ionian region is suggested. While reconstructing the evolutionary histories of Dreissena spp., signs of major demographic and spatial expansions were found. They started some 320 000-300 000 years ago in D. ''stankovici'', some 160 000-140 000 years ago in D. blanci, and some 110 000-70 000 years ago in D. presbensis. These time frames are discussed within the context of available paleogeological data for lakes Ohrid and Prespa. It is suggested that regional environmental changes may have had pronounced effects on the

  6. Native Dreissena freshwater mussels in the Balkans: in and out of ancient lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilke, T.; Schultheiß, R.; Albrecht, C.; Bornmann, N.; Trajanovski, S.; Kevrekidis, T.

    2010-10-01

    The Balkans is a biogeographically highly diverse region and a worldwide hotspot of endemic freshwater diversity. A substantial part of this diversity is attributed to well recognized and potential ancient lakes in its southwestern part. However, despite considerable research efforts, faunal relationships among those lakes are not well understood. Therefore, genetic information from native representatives of the mussel genus Dreissena is here used to test the biogeographical zonation of the southwestern Balkans, to relate demographic changes to environmental changes, to assess the degree of eco-insularity, to reconstruct their evolutionary history, and to explore the potential of native taxa for becoming invasive. Phylogeographical and population genetic analyses indicate that most studied populations belong to two native species: D. presbensis (including the distinct genetic subgroup from Lake Ohrid, "D. stankovici") and D. blanci. In addition, the first confirmed record of invasive D. polymorpha in the southwestern Balkan is presented. The distribution of native Dreissena spp. generally coincides with the biogeographical zonations previously suggested based on fish data. However, there is disagreement on the assignment of the ancient lakes in the area to respective biogeographical regions. The data for Lake Ohrid are not conclusive. A closer biogeographical connection to lakes of the Vardar region and possibly the northern Ionian region is, however, suggested for Lake Prespa. The reconstruction of the evolutionary history of Dreissena spp. suggests that populations underwent demographic and spatial expansions in the recent past. Expansions started around 320 000-300 000 years ago in "D. stankovici", 160 000-140 000 years ago in D. blanci, and 110 000-70 000 years ago in D. presbensis. These time frames are discussed within the context of available paleogeological data for lakes Ohrid and Prespa. It is suggested that regional environmental changes may have had

  7. Transcriptomic responses to salinity stress in invasive and native blue mussels (genus Mytilus).

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Brent L; Somero, George N

    2011-02-01

    The invasive marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis has displaced the native congener Mytilus trossulus from central and southern California, but the native species remains dominant at more northerly sites that have high levels of freshwater input. To determine the extent to which interspecific differences in physiological tolerance to low salinity might explain limits to the invasive species' biogeography, we used an oligonucleotide microarray to compare the transcriptional responses of these two species to an acute decrease in salinity. Among 6777 genes on the microarray, 117 genes showed significant changes that were similar between species, and 12 genes showed significant species-specific responses to salinity stress. Osmoregulation and cell cycle control were important aspects of the shared transcriptomic response to salinity stress, whereas the genes with species-specific expression patterns were involved in mRNA splicing, polyamine synthesis, exocytosis, translation, cell adhesion, and cell signalling. Forty-five genes that changed expression significantly during salinity stress also changed expression during heat stress, but the direction of change in expression was typically opposite for the two forms of stress. These results (i) provide insights into the role of changes in gene expression in establishing physiological tolerance to acute decreases in salinity, and (ii) indicate that transcriptomic differences between M. galloprovincialis and M. trossulus in response to salinity stress are subtle and involve only a minor fraction of the overall suite of gene regulatory responses. PMID:21199031

  8. Sensor data as a measure of native freshwater mussel impact on nitrate formation and food digestion in continuous-flow mesocosms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bril, Jeremy S.; Durst, Jonathan J.; Hurley, Brion M.; Just, Craig L.; Newton, Teresa J.

    2014-01-01

    Native freshwater mussels can influence the aquatic N cycle, but the mechanisms and magnitude of this effect are not fully understood. We assessed the effects of Amblema plicata and Lampsilis cardium on N transformations over 72 d in 4 continuous-flow mesocosms, with 2 replicates of 2 treatments (mesocosms with and without mussels), equipped with electronic water-chemistry sensors. We compared sensor data to discrete sample data to assess the effect of additional sensor measurements on the ability to detect mussel-related effects on NO3– formation. Analysis of 624 sensor-based data points detected a nearly 6% increase in NO3– concentration in overlying water of mesocosms with mussels relative to mesocosms without mussels (p 3– between treatments. Mussels also significantly increased NO2– concentrations in the overlying water, but no significant difference in total N was observed. We used the sensor data for phytoplankton-N and NH4+ to infer that digestion times in mussels were 13 ± 6 h. The results suggest that rapid increases in phytoplankton-N levels in the overlying water can lead to decreased lag times between phytoplankton-N and NH4+ maxima. This result indicates that mussels may adjust their digestion rates in response to increased levels of food. The adjustment in digestion time suggests that mussels have a strong response to food availability that can disrupt typical circadian rhythms. Use of sensor data to measure directly and to infer mussel effects on aquatic N transformations at the mesocosm scale could be useful at larger scales in the future.

  9. Distribution of native mussel (unionidae) assemblages in coastal areas of Lake Erie, Lake St. Clair, and connecting channels, twenty-five years after a dreissenid invasion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zanatta, David T.; Bossenbroek, Jonathan M.; Burlakova, Lyubov E.; Crail, Todd D.; Szalay, Ferenc de; Griffith, Traci A.; Kapusinski, Douglas; Karatayev, Alexander Y.; Krebs, Robert A.; Meyer, Elizabeth S.; Paterson, Wendy L.; Prescott, Trevor J.; Rowe, Matthew T.; Schloesser, Donald W.; Walsh, Mary C.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, unionid mussels in the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America have been adversely impacted by invasive dreissenid mussels, which directly (e.g., by attachment to unionid shells) and indirectly (e.g., by competing for food) cause mortality. Despite the invasion, unionids have survived in several areas in the presence of dreissenid mussels. We investigated current spatial patterns in these native mussel refuges based on surveys for unionid mussels across 48 sampling locations (141 sites) in 2011 and 2012, and documented species abundance and diversity in coastal areas of lakes St. Clair and Erie. The highest-quality assemblages of native mussels (densities, richness, and diversity) appear to be concentrated in the St. Clair delta, where abundance continues to decline, as well as in in Thompson Bay of Presque Isle in Lake Erie and in just a few coastal wetlands and drowned river-mouths in the western basin of Lake Erie. The discovery of several new refuge areas suggests that unionids have a broader distribution within the region than previously thought.

  10. Patterns in species richness and assemblage structure of native mussels in the Upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zigler, Steven J.; Newton, Teresa J.; Davis, Mike; Rogala, James T.

    2012-01-01

    1. To evaluate patterns in mussel assemblages in the Upper Mississippi River (UMR), data from systematic surveys of mussels conducted in three large reaches (Navigation Pools 5, 6, and 18) from 2005–2007 were analysed. 2. Nonmetric multi-dimensional scaling analyses and permutation tests indicated that assemblages differed among reaches. The mussel assemblage in Pool 18 was substantially different from the assemblage in Pool 5 and moderately different from the assemblage in Pool 6, whereas assemblages in Pools 5 and 6 were similar. Assemblages in broadly defined, flowing aquatic habitats did not substantially differ. 3. The dissimilarity of Pool 18 was primarily the result of Pool 18 having higher abundances of three Quadrula species (Q. quadrula, Q. pustulosa, and Q. nodulata), and lower abundances of Amblema plicata and Fusconaia flava. 4. Rarefaction analyses showed that species richness and species density were higher in Pool 18 compared with the other two pools. 5. Large-scale patterns in mussel assemblages may be related to other longitudinal trends in the system including geomorphology, water quality, and abundances of fish species that serve as hosts for glochidial larvae. 6. The results suggest that management goals and actions in the UMR may need to account for important differences in mussel assemblages that occur among reaches.

  11. Long-term feeding with Euglena gracilis cells modulates immune responses, oxidative balance and metabolic condition in Diplodon chilensis (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Hyriidae) exposed to living Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Virginia A; Castro, Juan M; Rocchetta, Iara; Nahabedian, Daniel E; Conforti, Visitación; Luquet, Carlos M

    2015-02-01

    We evaluated the modulating effect of long-term feeding with lyophilized Euglena gracilis cells on immune response, oxidative balance and metabolic condition of the freshwater mussel Diplodon chilensis. Mussels, previously fed with Scenedesmus vacuolatus (SV) or E. gracilis (EG) for 90 days, were challenged with an environmentally relevant concentration of Escherichia coli in water for 5 days, under feeding or starvation conditions. EG diet increased overall phagocytic activity and tissue hemocyte accumulation (gill and mantle), and favored hemocyte viability upon E. coli challenge. Tissular hemocyte accumulation, and humoral bacteriolytic activity and protein content were similarly stimulated by EG and E. coli, with no further effect when both stimuli were combined. Both, E. coli challenge and EG diet reduced gill bacteriolytic activity with respect to nonchallenged SV mussels, while no effect was observed in challenged EG mussels. Gill and digestive gland protein contents, along with digestive gland bacteriolytic activity were higher in EG than in SV mussels. Both SV and EG mussels showed increased gill mass upon E. coli challenge, while digestive gland mass was increased by bacterial challenge only in SV mussels. Bacterial challenge produced no effect on humoral reactive oxygen species levels of both groups. Total oxyradical scavenging capacity levels was reduced in challenged SV mussels but remained unaffected in EG ones. In general, EG diet decreased glutathione S-transferase and catalase activities in gill and digestive gland, compared with SV diet; but increased enzyme activity was evident in challenged mussels of both groups. Gill and digestive gland lipid peroxidation levels were higher in EG than in SV mussels but E. coli challenge had stronger effect on SV mussels. Adductor muscle RNA:DNA ratio was higher in EG mussels than in SV ones, and increased upon E. coli challenge in mussels of both groups. E. gracilis can be suggested as a nutritional and

  12. The introduced ribbed mussel (Geukensia demissa) in Estero de Punta Banda, Mexico: Interactions with the native cord grass, Spartina foliosa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torchin, M.E.; Hechinger, R.F.; Huspeni, T.C.; Whitney, K.L.; Lafferty, K.D.

    2005-01-01

    Introduced populations of Guekensia demissa occur on the west coast of North America. They have been reported in San Francisco Bay, four southern California wetlands, and in Estero de Punta Banda (EPB), Baja California Norte, Mexico. We randomly sampled benthic invertebrates in four habitat types within EPB: marsh, channel, mudflat and pan. Geukensia demissa was the most abundant bivalve in the wetland at EPB. It was significantly associated with the native cordgrass, Spartina foliosa, and occurred at higher average densities in vegetated marsh sites (24/m2) and Spartina-dominated tidal channels (35/m2), compared to mudflat (0/m2), and pan (0/m 2) sites. We estimated that the total biomass of this invader was over four times that of the next most abundant bivalve, Tagelus spp., in EPB. We examined G. demissa for parasites and found that only a few native parasites colonized this introduced host at very low prevalences and intensities. We performed bird surveys to determine the habitat overlap and potential impact of this mussel on the EPB population of light-footed clapper rails (Rallus longirostrus levipes), an endangered species in the United States. The high abundance of G. demissa in EPB, its presence in clapper rail habitat, and its known effects on salt marsh habitat in it's native range, warrant further investigations of the impact of this invader in EPB and elsewhere. ?? Springer 2005.

  13. Effects of Coarse Legacy Sediment on Rivers of the Ozark Plateaus and Implications for Native Mussel Fauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erwin, S. O.; Jacobson, R. B.; Eric, A. B.; Jones, J. C.; Anderson, B. W.

    2015-12-01

    Perturbations to sediment regimes due to anthropogenic activities may have long lasting effects, especially in systems dominated by coarse sediment where travel times are relatively long. Effectively evaluating management alternatives requires understanding the future trajectory of river response at both the river network and reach scales. The Ozark Plateaus physiographic province is a montane region in the interior US composed primarily of Paleozoic sedimentary rock. Historic land-use practices around the turn of the last century accelerated delivery of coarse sediment to river channels. Effects of this legacy sediment persist in two national parks, Ozark National Scenic Riverways, MO and Buffalo National River, AR, and are of special concern for management of native mussel fauna. These species require stable habitat, yet they occupy inherently dynamic environments: alluvial rivers. At the river-network scale, analysis of historical data reveals the signature of sediment waves moving through river networks in the Ozarks. Channel planform alternates between relatively stable, straight reaches, and wider, multithread reaches which have been more dynamic over the past several decades. These alternate planform configurations route and store sediment differently, and translate into different patterns of bed stability at the reach scale, which in turn affects the distribution and availability of habitat for native biota. Geomorphic mapping and hydrodynamic modeling reveal the complex relations between planform (in)stability, flow dynamics, bed mobility, and aquatic habitat in systems responding to increased sediment supply. Reaches that have a more dynamic planform may provide more hydraulic refugia and habitat heterogeneity compared to stable, homogeneous reaches. This research provides new insights that may inform management of sediment and mussel habitat in rivers subject to coarse legacy sediment.

  14. Efficacy of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A spray dried powder for controlling zebra mussels adhering to native unionid mussels within field enclosures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luoma, James A.; Weber, Kerry L.; Severson, Todd J.; Mayer, Denise A.

    2015-01-01

    Group 1 mussel survival did not differ between treatment groups (p > 0.05); however, a difference was detected (p < 0.01) in the survival of Group 2 mussels. The survival of Group 2 mussels did not differ (p > 0.23) between control and treated groups. A difference in Group 2 mussel survival was detected (p = 0.03; odds ratio [OR] = 0.290) between the 50- and 100-mg/L treatment groups (that is, the survival was highest in the 50-mg/L treatment group and lowest in the 100-mg/L treatment group), however, the biological significance of the difference is indeterminate.

  15. Understanding Marine Mussel Adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    H. G. Silverman; F. F. Roberto

    2007-12-01

    In addition to identifying the proteins that have a role in underwater adhesion by marine mussels, research efforts have focused on identifying the genes responsible for the adhesive proteins, environmental factors that may influence protein production, and strategies for producing natural adhesives similar to the native mussel adhesive proteins. The production-scale availability of recombinant mussel adhesive proteins will enable researchers to formulate adhesives that are waterimpervious and ecologically safe and can bind materials ranging from glass, plastics, metals, and wood to materials, such as bone or teeth, biological organisms, and other chemicals or molecules. Unfortunately, as of yet scientists have been unable to duplicate the processes that marine mussels use to create adhesive structures. This study provides a background on adhesive proteins identified in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and introduces our research interests and discusses the future for continued research related to mussel adhesion.

  16. Understanding marine mussel adhesion.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Heather G; Roberto, Francisco F

    2007-01-01

    In addition to identifying the proteins that have a role in underwater adhesion by marine mussels, research efforts have focused on identifying the genes responsible for the adhesive proteins, environmental factors that may influence protein production, and strategies for producing natural adhesives similar to the native mussel adhesive proteins. The production-scale availability of recombinant mussel adhesive proteins will enable researchers to formulate adhesives that are water-impervious and ecologically safe and can bind materials ranging from glass, plastics, metals, and wood to materials, such as bone or teeth, biological organisms, and other chemicals or molecules. Unfortunately, as of yet scientists have been unable to duplicate the processes that marine mussels use to create adhesive structures. This study provides a background on adhesive proteins identified in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and introduces our research interests and discusses the future for continued research related to mussel adhesion. PMID:17990038

  17. Understanding Marine Mussel Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Roberto, Francisco F.

    2007-01-01

    In addition to identifying the proteins that have a role in underwater adhesion by marine mussels, research efforts have focused on identifying the genes responsible for the adhesive proteins, environmental factors that may influence protein production, and strategies for producing natural adhesives similar to the native mussel adhesive proteins. The production-scale availability of recombinant mussel adhesive proteins will enable researchers to formulate adhesives that are water-impervious and ecologically safe and can bind materials ranging from glass, plastics, metals, and wood to materials, such as bone or teeth, biological organisms, and other chemicals or molecules. Unfortunately, as of yet scientists have been unable to duplicate the processes that marine mussels use to create adhesive structures. This study provides a background on adhesive proteins identified in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and introduces our research interests and discusses the future for continued research related to mussel adhesion. PMID:17990038

  18. The Importance of Non-Native Prey, the Zebra Mussel Dreissena polymorpha, for the Declining Greater Scaup Aythya marila: A Case Study at a Key European Staging and Wintering Site.

    PubMed

    Marchowski, Dominik; Neubauer, Grzegorz; Ławicki, Łukasz; Woźniczka, Adam; Wysocki, Dariusz; Guentzel, Sebastian; Jarzemski, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    The European population of Greater Scaup Aythya marila has experienced an alarming, ~60% decline in numbers over the last two decades. The brackish lagoons of the Odra River Estuary (ORE) in the south-western Baltic Sea, represent an important area for the species during the non-breeding season in Europe. The lagoons regularly support over 20 000 Scaup, with peaks exceeding 100 000 (38%-70% of the population wintering in NW Europe and the highest number recorded in April 2011-105 700). In the ORE, Scaup feed almost exclusively on the non-native Zebra Mussel Dreissena polymorpha. This mussel was present in the ORE already in the 19th century and continues to be superabundant. Using the results of 22 Scaup censuses (November to April 2002/2003 to 2013/2014) from the whole ORE (523 km2 of water), we show that Scaup flocks follow areas with the greatest area of occurrence and biomass of the Zebra Mussel, while areas with low mussel densities are ignored. The numbers of Scaup in the ORE are primarily related to the area of Zebra Mussel occurrence on the lagoon's bottom (km2) in a non-linear fashion. Zebra Mussels were absolutely prevalent (97% of biomass) in the digestive tracts of birds unintentionally by-caught in fishing nets (n = 32). We estimate that Scaup alone consume an average of 5 400 tons of Zebra Mussels annually, which represents 5.6% of the total resources of the mussel in the ORE. Our results provide a clear picture of the strong dependence of the declining, migratory duck species on the non-native mussel, its primary food in the ORE. Our findings are particularly important as they can form the basis for the conservation action plan aimed at saving the north-western European populations of Scaup. PMID:26709707

  19. The Importance of Non-Native Prey, the Zebra Mussel Dreissena polymorpha, for the Declining Greater Scaup Aythya marila: A Case Study at a Key European Staging and Wintering Site

    PubMed Central

    Marchowski, Dominik; Neubauer, Grzegorz; Ławicki, Łukasz; Woźniczka, Adam; Wysocki, Dariusz; Guentzel, Sebastian; Jarzemski, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    The European population of Greater Scaup Aythya marila has experienced an alarming, ~60% decline in numbers over the last two decades. The brackish lagoons of the Odra River Estuary (ORE) in the south-western Baltic Sea, represent an important area for the species during the non-breeding season in Europe. The lagoons regularly support over 20 000 Scaup, with peaks exceeding 100 000 (38%–70% of the population wintering in NW Europe and the highest number recorded in April 2011–105 700). In the ORE, Scaup feed almost exclusively on the non-native Zebra Mussel Dreissena polymorpha. This mussel was present in the ORE already in the 19th century and continues to be superabundant. Using the results of 22 Scaup censuses (November to April 2002/2003 to 2013/2014) from the whole ORE (523 km2 of water), we show that Scaup flocks follow areas with the greatest area of occurrence and biomass of the Zebra Mussel, while areas with low mussel densities are ignored. The numbers of Scaup in the ORE are primarily related to the area of Zebra Mussel occurrence on the lagoon’s bottom (km2) in a non-linear fashion. Zebra Mussels were absolutely prevalent (97% of biomass) in the digestive tracts of birds unintentionally by-caught in fishing nets (n = 32). We estimate that Scaup alone consume an average of 5 400 tons of Zebra Mussels annually, which represents 5.6% of the total resources of the mussel in the ORE. Our results provide a clear picture of the strong dependence of the declining, migratory duck species on the non-native mussel, its primary food in the ORE. Our findings are particularly important as they can form the basis for the conservation action plan aimed at saving the north-western European populations of Scaup. PMID:26709707

  20. DIAGNOSING CAUSES OF NATIVE FISH AND MUSSEL SPECIES DECLINE IN THE CLINCH AND POWELL RIVER WATERSHED, VIRGINIA, USA.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The free-flowing Clinch and Powell watershed in Virginia, USA harbors a high number of endemic mussel and fish species but they are declining or going extinct at an alarming rate. In order to prioritize resource management strategies with respect to these fauna, a Graphical Info...

  1. Heavy metal concentrations and biomarkers of oxidative stress in native mussels (Mytilus edulis chilensis) from Beagle Channel coast (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Duarte, Claudia A; Giarratano, Erica; Amin, Oscar A; Comoglio, Laura I

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of oxidative stress biomarkers of pollution in native mussels Mytilus edulis chilensis from the Beagle Channel. Spatial and seasonal variations of catalase, glutathione-S-transferase and lipid peroxidation in gills and digestive gland were analyzed in relation to environmental parameters, heavy metals in sediment and in tissue. Four sites with anthropogenic impact and a control site were selected and monitored during the four seasons of 2007. We found significant differences among sites in concentrations of dissolved nutrients and heavy metals in sediments, with the highest values recorded at sites with anthropogenic pressure. Different patterns were observed between concentrations of metals in tissues and in sediments suggesting differences in bioavailability. There were also significant differences in biomarker responses among sites, despite the strong seasonal variability. Our results showed relatively moderate levels of pollution in the study area as a result of urban influences. PMID:21704346

  2. Effects of ammonia on freshwater mussels in the St. Croix River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newton, Teresa J.

    2004-01-01

    The St. Croix River contains a diverse and abundant group of freshwater mussels. The St. Croix is one of the few rivers in the Midwest not substantially affected by the invasion of the exotic zebra mussel, which encrusts and kills native freshwater mussels. Increased concentrations of ammonia in river sediments, however, poses a significant threat to mussels.

  3. New Concerns Emerge as Zebra Mussel Spreads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Martha L., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    Reports on the Zebra Mussel invasion of North American inland waterways. Discusses United States Army Corps of Engineers operations that may facilitate or be affected by the spread of Zebra Mussels, the threat to native clams, chemical and mechanical control methods, natural solutions, and ongoing research. (MCO)

  4. Radionuclides, Trace Metals, and Organic Compounds in Shells of Native Freshwater Mussels Along the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River: 6000 Years Before Present to Current Times

    SciTech Connect

    B. L. Tiller; T. E. Marceau

    2006-01-25

    This report documents concentrations of radionuclides, trace metals, and semivolatile organic compounds measured in shell samples of the western pearl shell mussel collected along the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River.

  5. Mussel Glue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A mytilus edilus, a common blue ocean mussel is attaching itself to the underside of a wet glass in a laboratory. It secretes a glue like substance in the form of multiple threads which attach to surfaces such as shells, rocks, piers and ships. This natural super glue hardens within minutes and tightly affixes to its selected platform even in the roughest seas. Its superior adhesive properties suggest many practical applications. One company, Bio-Polymers, Inc., has developed a synthetic mussel glue for the commercial market.

  6. Mussel watch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contamination of U.S. coastal areas may be decreasing as a result of environmental regulations that have banned or curtailed toxic chemicals, concludes a report by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The report, “Recent Trends in Coastal Environmental Quality: Results from the Mussel Watch Project,” presents results of analyzing chemical concentrations found in mussel and oyster tissues collected every year since 1986.These mollusks are collected once a year at more than 240 sites nationwide and analyzed for over 70 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, chlorinated pesticides, butyltins, and toxic trace elements such as copper, cadmium, and lead. The report states that from 1986 to 1993 there were many more decreases than increases in chemical concentrations in coastal regions. These decreasing trends were not unexpected; all of the monitored chlorinated hydrocarbons have been banned for use in the United States, and tributyltin has been banned as a biocide on recreational boats.

  7. Acute toxicity of NaCl and Na2SO4 mixtures to juveniles of a freshwater unionid mussel (fatmucket, Lampsilis siliquoidea)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Native freshwater mussels are in serious global decline and urgently need protection and conservation. Nearly 70% of the 300 species in North America are endangered, threatened, of special concern, or already extinct. Previous studies indicate that freshwater mussels are sensitiv...

  8. Threats of habitat and water-quality degradation to mussel diversity in the Meramec River Basin, Missouri, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Wang, Ning; Augspurger, Tom; Barnhart, M. Christopher; McMurray, Stephen E.; Roberts, Andrew D.; Schrader, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    The Meramec River Basin in east-central Missouri is an important stronghold for native freshwater mussels (Order: Unionoida) in the United States. Whereas the basin supports more than 40 mussel species, previous studies indicate that the abundance and distribution of most species are declining. Therefore, resource managers have identified the need to prioritize threats to native mussel populations in the basin and to design a mussel monitoring program. The objective of this study was to identify threats of habitat and water-quality degradation to mussel diversity in the basin. Affected habitat parameters considered as the main threats to mussel conservation included excess sedimentation, altered stream geomorphology and flow, effects on riparian vegetation and condition, impoundments, and invasive non-native species. Evaluating water-quality parameters for conserving mussels was a main focus of this study. Mussel toxicity data for chemical contaminants were compared to national water quality criteria (NWQC) and Missouri water quality standards (MWQS). However, NWQC and MWQS have not been developed for many chemical contaminants and some MWQS may not be protective of native mussel populations. Toxicity data indicated that mussels are sensitive to ammonia, copper, temperature, certain pesticides, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products; these compounds were identified as the priority water-quality parameters for mussel conservation in the basin. Measures to conserve mussel diversity in the basin include expanding the species and life stages of mussels and the list of chemical contaminants that have been assessed, establishing a long term mussel monitoring program that measures physical and chemical parameters of high priority, conducting landscape scale modeling to predict mussel distributions, determining sublethal effects of primary contaminants of concern, deriving risk-based guidance values for mussel conservation, and assessing the effects of wastewater

  9. Preliminary characterization of digestive enzymes in freshwater mussels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauey, Blake W.; Amberg, Jon J.; Cooper, Scott T.; Grunwald, Sandra K.; Newton, Teresa J.; Haro, Roger J.

    2015-01-01

    Resource managers lack an effective chemical tool to control the invasive zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha. Zebra mussels clog water intakes for hydroelectric companies, harm unionid mussel species, and are believed to be a reservoir of avian botulism. Little is known about the digestive physiology of zebra mussels and unionid mussels. The enzymatic profile of the digestive glands of zebra mussels and native threeridge (Amblema plicata) and plain pocketbook mussels (Lampsilis cardium) are characterized using a commercial enzyme kit, api ZYM, and validated the kit with reagent-grade enzymes. A linear correlation was shown for only one of nineteen enzymes, tested between the api ZYM kit and a specific enzyme kit. Thus, the api ZYM kit should only be used to make general comparisons of enzyme presence and to observe trends in enzyme activities. Enzymatic trends were seen in the unionid mussel species, but not in zebra mussels sampled 32 days apart from the same location. Enzymatic classes, based on substrate, showed different trends, with proteolytic and phospholytic enzymes having the most change in relative enzyme activity.

  10. The Mussels' Message.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolzenburg, William

    1992-01-01

    Presents research findings about mussels, an indicator species for the health of U.S. rivers and streams. Provides mussel descriptions, a history of the decline of mussel populations and cooperative efforts to repair damaged ecosystems cited as the root of the problem. (MCO)

  11. Microcystin accumulation and antioxidant responses in the freshwater clam Diplodon chilensis patagonicus upon subchronic exposure to toxic Microcystis aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Sabatini, Sebastián E; Brena, Beatríz M; Luquet, Carlos M; San Julián, Magdalena; Pirez, Macarena; Carmen Ríos de Molina, María Del

    2011-07-01

    We investigated the accumulation and toxicity of microcystin-LR (MCLR) in the digestive gland of the freshwater clam Diplodon chilensis patagonicus. Treated clams were fed with a toxic strain of Microcystis aeruginosa (NPJB1) during 6 weeks and control clams received the non-toxic strain NPDC1. Filtration rate was estimated for both groups. Toxic effects were evaluated through the hepatosomatic index (HSI) and different oxidative stress biomarkers, lipid peroxidation (content of thiobarbituric reactive substances-TBARS), protein oxidation (carbonyl groups) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, and enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). The extractable MCLR measured by ELISA in digestive gland extracts showed little or no change during the first 3 weeks and increased significantly at weeks 5 and 6. HSI was reduced by 30% in treated clams at weeks 5 and 6. No significant oxidative damage to lipids or proteins was. All the antioxidant defense parameters analyzed were significantly increased at week 5 or 6. GSH increased in treated clams at week 5, reaching 62% increase at week 6. SOD, CAT and GST activities were significantly increased in treated clams by 50%, 66% and 60%, respectively, at the end of the experiment. D. chilensis patagonicus can be exposed to prolonged cyanobacterial blooms accumulating significant quantities of MCLR, which could be a risk for mammals and birds, which feed on this species and, in a lesser extent, to humans. PMID:21477863

  12. Survival, growth and condition of freshwater mussels: effects of municipal wastewater effluent.

    PubMed

    Nobles, Trey; Zhang, Yixin

    2015-01-01

    Freshwater mussels (Family Unionidae) are among the most imperiled group of organisms in the world, with nearly 65% of North American species considered endangered. Anthropogenic disturbances, including altered flow regimes, habitat alteration, and pollution, are the major driver of this group's decline. We investigated the effects of tertiary treated municipal wastewater effluent on survivorship, growth, and condition of freshwater mussels in experimental cages in a small Central Texas stream. We tested the effluent effects by measuring basic physical parameters of native three ridge mussels (Amblema plicata) and of non-native Asian clams (Corbicula fluminea), before and after 72-day exposure at four sites above and below a municipal wastewater treatment plant outfall. Survivorship and growth of the non-native Asian clams and growth and condition indices of the native three ridge mussels were significantly higher at the reference site above the outfall than in downstream sites. We attribute this reduction in fitness below the outfall to elevated nutrient and heavy metal concentrations, and the potential presence of other untested-for compounds commonly found in municipal effluent. These results, along with an absence of native mussels below the discharge, indicate a significant negative impact of wastewater effluent on both native and non-native mussels in the stream. PMID:26042840

  13. Survival, Growth and Condition of Freshwater Mussels: Effects of Municipal Wastewater Effluent

    PubMed Central

    Nobles, Trey; Zhang, Yixin

    2015-01-01

    Freshwater mussels (Family Unionidae) are among the most imperiled group of organisms in the world, with nearly 65% of North American species considered endangered. Anthropogenic disturbances, including altered flow regimes, habitat alteration, and pollution, are the major driver of this group's decline. We investigated the effects of tertiary treated municipal wastewater effluent on survivorship, growth, and condition of freshwater mussels in experimental cages in a small Central Texas stream. We tested the effluent effects by measuring basic physical parameters of native three ridge mussels (Amblema plicata) and of non-native Asian clams (Corbicula fluminea), before and after 72-day exposure at four sites above and below a municipal wastewater treatment plant outfall. Survivorship and growth of the non-native Asian clams and growth and condition indices of the native three ridge mussels were significantly higher at the reference site above the outfall than in downstream sites. We attribute this reduction in fitness below the outfall to elevated nutrient and heavy metal concentrations, and the potential presence of other untested-for compounds commonly found in municipal effluent. These results, along with an absence of native mussels below the discharge, indicate a significant negative impact of wastewater effluent on both native and non-native mussels in the stream. PMID:26042840

  14. Clearance Rate of the Mussel Anodonta Californiensis Exposed to Nannochloropsis Algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castañeda, G. R.; Luthy, R. G.; Ismail, N.

    2012-12-01

    Bivalves such as mussels and clams are filter feeding organisms that can be utilized to remove particulate matter from water. The native mussel species Anodonta californiensis is being studied for use as a potential natural treatment mechanism to filter water within treatment wetlands. Quantifying the ability of these mussels to remove particulate matter is important information necessary to understand their potential to purify water. Results from clearance rate experiments will be discussed. Information obtained from these clearance rate experiments can potentially be extrapolated to understand the capability of mussels to remove other particulate matter or contaminants.

  15. Effects of elevated water temperature on physiological responses in adult freshwater mussels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ganser, Alissa M.; Newton, Teresa J.; Haro, Roger J.

    2015-01-01

    These data suggest that elevated temperatures can alter metabolic rates in native mussels and may decrease the amount of energy that is available for key biological processes, such as survival, growth and reproduction.

  16. Annual variation in recruitment of freshwater mussels and its relationship with river discharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ries, Patricia R.; Newton, Teresa; Haro, Roger J.; Zigler, Steven J.; Davis, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Understanding variation in recruitment dynamics of native mussels and its relationship to river discharge will be useful in designing effective management strategies to enhance conservation of this imperilled fauna.

  17. Mitigation of unionid mortality caused by zebra mussel infestation: cleaning of unionids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Don W.

    1996-01-01

    Exotic zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha have infested and caused mortality of native unionids in the Great Lakes since 1986; no other such parasitism of native unionids occurs in North America. Survival of unionids threatened by zebra mussel infestation was tested by suspending uncleaned and cleaned unionids in nearshore waters of western Lake Erie. Survival was determined, and newly settled zebra mussels were removed from clean unionids at eight intervals that ranged from 21 d to 77 d between 5 July 1990 and 3 July 1991. After 1 year, survival rates of uncleaned and cleaned unionids were 0% and 42%, respectively. Of the 10 species examined, only indivduals from 3 species (Amblema plicata plicata, Fusconaia flava, and Quadrula quadrula) survived 1 year. These species have relatively thick shells, which may have contributed to their survival. Removal of newly settled zebra mussels may be important to unionid survival because 98% of the zebra mussels removed after the initial cleaning were small mussels (<10 mm long) that could rapidly grow and cover unionids. At present, we do not know how zebra mussels cause mortality of unionids, but the removal of zebra mussels from unionids is the only method known that successfully reduces unionid mortality in waters colonized by zebra mussels.

  18. Zebra mussel monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Hennagir, T.

    1994-01-01

    In less than a decade, zebra mussels have become the latest environmental scourge to plague the North American power industry. Infestations in the Great Lakes region have already reached natural disaster proportions. The invasion shows little sign of subsiding; Michigan's inland waters are the next most likely threatened area. In the southern United States, the mussles' migration has extended about 50 miles deeper than experts had originally predicted. By the year 2000, zebra mussel monitoring and control efforts will cost business and industry $5 billion, according to the federal Aquatic Nuisance Prevention and Control Act of 1990. Estimates of more than $1 million to control mussel fouling are projected for the Great Lakes area alone. While small independent hydropower stations are not as susceptible to zebra mussles as coal or nuclear facilities, there is cause for concern. Infestations can quickly foul hydropower plant components, hampering equipment operation and reducing facility efficiency. In extreme cases, leaving the mussels unchecked can result in stoplog gate flow blockage or false water level gauge readings. Advance prevention is often an effective first-line of defense against this troublesome, rapidly spreading and extremely prolific mollusk. Mussel monitoring efforts should begin a year in advance of when zebra mussels are expected to appear in a given location. Hydropower facility components that come into contact or rely exclusively on raw water are at greatest risk, as are other external components such as embayment walls, screens, trashracks and fish ladders.

  19. Zebra mussel life history

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, J.D.

    1995-06-01

    The success of introduced zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas) and Dreissena bugensis Andrusova) can be related in large parttot a life history that is unlike that of the indigenous freshwater fauna and yet is conserved with marine bivalves. Following external fertilization and embryological development, there is a brief trochophore stage. With the development of a velum and the secretion of a D-shaped larval shell, the larva becomes a D-shaped veliger, which is the first recognizable planktonic larva. Later, the secretion of a second larval shell leads to the last obligate free-swimming veliger stage known as the veliconcha. The last larval stage known as the pediveliger, however, can both swim using its velum or crawl using its fully-functional foot. Pediveligers actively select substrates on which they {open_quotes}settle{close_quotes} by secreting byssal threads and undergo metamorphosis to become plantigrade mussels. The secretion of the adult shell and concomitant changes in growth axis leads to the heteromyariant or mussel-like shape, which is convergent with marine mussels. Like a number of other bivalves, zebra mussels produce byssal threads as adults, but these attachments may be broken enabling their translocation to new areas. The recognition and examination of these life history traits will lead to a better understanding of zebra mussel biology.

  20. Freshwater mussel population status and habitat quality in the Clinch River, Virginia and Tennessee, USA: a featured collection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zipper, Carl E.; Beaty, Braven; Johnson, Gregory C.; Jones, Jess W.; Krstolic, Jennifer Lynn; Ostby, Brett J.K.; Wolfe, William J.; Donovan, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The Clinch River of southwestern Virginia and northeastern Tennessee is arguably the most important river for freshwater mussel conservation in the United States. This featured collection presents investigations of mussel population status and habitat quality in the Clinch River. Analyses of historic water- and sediment-quality data suggest that water column ammonia and water column and sediment metals, including Cu and Zn, may have contributed historically to declining densities and extirpations of mussels in the river's Virginia sections. These studies also reveal increasing temporal trends for dissolved solids concentrations throughout much of the river's extent. Current mussel abundance patterns do not correspond spatially with physical habitat quality, but they do correspond with specific conductance, dissolved major ions, and water column metals, suggesting these and/or associated constituents as factors contributing to mussel declines. Mussels are sensitive to metals. Native mussels and hatchery-raised mussels held in cages in situ accumulated metals in their body tissues in river sections where mussels are declining. Organic compound and bed-sediment contaminant analyses did not reveal spatial correspondences with mussel status metrics, although potentially toxic levels were found. Collectively, these studies identify major ions and metals as water- and sediment-quality concerns for mussel conservation in the Clinch River.

  1. Biomarker responses in mussels, an integrated approach to biological effects measurements.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Steven; Lyons, Brett; Goodsir, Freya; Bignell, John; Thain, John

    2009-01-01

    Biological effects techniques have been used with the aim to further integrate biological effects measurements with chemical analysis and apply these methods to provide an assessment of mussel health status. Live native mussels were collected from selected coastal and estuarine sites around the British Isles, including the rivers Test, Thames, Tees, and Clyde, and Lunderston Bay. A suite of biological effects techniques was undertaken on these mussels, including whole organism responses (scope for growth), tissue responses (histopathology), and subcellular responses (lysosomal stability, multi-xenobiotic resistance [MXR], and Comet assay). In addition, whole mussel homogenates were used to measure organic (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAH], polychlorinated biphenyls [PCB]) and metal concentrations. Overall the mussels collected from the Thames were in relatively poor health, based on histopathological markers, significantly higher DNA damage, and elevated expression of MXR detoxifying proteins. In contrast, the mussels collected from the River Test were in the best health, based on histopathological markers, respiration rate (SFG), and low frequency of DNA damage. In conclusion, the biological effects techniques were able to distinguish between relatively contaminated and clean environments, with the Thames mussels in worst health. Mussel tissue chemistry data were not able to explain the variations in biological response. Evidence indicates that the difference in the health of the mussels between the different sites was due to either effects of contaminants that were not measured, or the combined effects of mixture toxicity resulting in a threshold effect. PMID:19184734

  2. Evaluation of freshwater mussel relocation as a conservation and management strategy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cope, W.G.; Waller, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    The relocation of unionacean mussels is commonly used as a conservation and management tool in large rivers and streams. Relocation has been used to recolonize areas where mussel populations have been eliminated by prior pollution events, to remove mussels from construction zones and to re-establish populations of endangered species. More recently, relocation has been used to protect native freshwater mussels from colonization by the exotic zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha. We conducted a literature review of mussel relocations and evaluated their relative success as a conservation and management strategy. We found that 43% of all relocations were conducted because of construction projects that were forced to comply with the Endangered Species Act 1973 and that only 16% were monitored for five or more consecutive years. Most (43%) relocation projects were conducted from July to September, presumably a period when reproductive stress is relatively low for most species and the metabolic rate is sufficient for reburrowing in the substrate. The mortality of relocated mussels was unreported in 27% of projects; reported mortality varied widely among projects and species and was difficult to assess. The mean mortality of relocated mussels was 49% based on an average recovery rate of 43%. There is little guidance on the methods for relocation or for monitoring the subsequent long-term status of relocated mussels. Based on this evaluation, research is needed to develop criteria for selecting a suitable relocation site and to establish appropriate methods and guidelines for conducting relocation projects.

  3. Dreissenid mussel research priorities workshop

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sytsma, Mark; Phillips, Stephen; Counihan, Timothy D.

    2016-01-01

    On November 4-5, 2015, a Dreissenid Mussel Research Priorities Workshop funded by the Great Northern Landscape Conservation Cooperative occurred at Portland State University. The purpose of the workshop was to update research priorities in the 2010 Quagga-Zebra Mussel Action Plan in light of the westward expansion of mussels in the United States and Canada.

  4. USGS Zebra Mussel Monitoring Program for north Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Churchill, Christopher J.; Baldys, Stanley

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Zebra Mussel Monitoring Program for north Texas provides early detection and monitoring of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) by using a holistic suite of detection methods. The program is designed to assess zebra mussel occurrence, distribution, and densities in north Texas waters by using four approaches: (1) SCUBA diving, (2) water-sample collection with plankton tow nets (followed by laboratory analyses), (3) artificial substrates, and (4) water-quality sampling. Data collected during this type of monitoring can assist rapid response efforts and can be used to quantify the economic and ecological effects of zebra mussels in the north Texas area. Monitoring under this program began in April 2010. The presence of large zebra mussel populations often causes undesirable economic and ecological effects, including damage to water-processing infrastructure and hydroelectric powerplants (with an estimated 10-year cost of $3.1 billion), displacement of native mussels, increases in concentrations of certain species of cyanobacteria, and increases in concentrations of geosmin (an organic compound that results in taste and odor issues in water). Since no large-scale, environmentally safe eradication method has been developed for zebra mussels, it is difficult to remove established populations. Broad physicochemical adaptability, prolific reproductive capacity, and rapid dispersal methods have enabled zebra mussels, within a period of about 20 years, to establish populations under differing environmental conditions across much of the eastern part of the United States. In Texas, the presence of zebra mussels was first confirmed in April 2009 in Lake Texoma in the Red River Basin along the Texas-Oklahoma border. They were most likely introduced into Lake Texoma through overland transport from an infested water body. Since then, the presence of zebra mussels has been reported in both the Red River and Washita River arms of Lake Texoma, in

  5. Zebra mussel mitigation; overview

    SciTech Connect

    Claudi, R.

    1995-06-01

    Zebra mussels cause a number of problems to industrial raw water users as well as having serious impact on civil structures exposed to mussel infested waters. The largest volume of water (up to 90% of the total) drawn into most industrial and power generating plants, is for cooling and heat transfer. The rest of the volume is used for other plant processes, such as make-up in steam systems, and service systems used for cleaning, air conditions, fire protection and human consumption. All raw water systems are vulnerable to zebra mussel infestation to greater or lesser degree. To-date, many different chemical and non-chemical techniques for zebra mussel control have been investigated. However, the treatment of choice for most facilities is based on chemical control. This has been the common practice in Europe and so far it has been the case in North America. This is likely to change as the environmental constraints on release of chemicals into natural water bodies continue to increase. This paper deals with the different steps raw water users should take when deciding on a mitigation strategy, the mitigation measures available to-date and those that have been proposed for the control of zebra mussels in industrial systems.

  6. Of Mussels and Men.

    PubMed

    Evans, Robert G

    2016-08-01

    Some species are more equal than others. Robert T. Paine (American ecologist, 1933-2016) discovered that if you remove starfish - what he called a "keystone species" - from a tide pool, the complex ecosystem collapses. Without the predator starfish, mussels choke out other animals and plants. This phenomenon is general. Sea otters eat the sea urchins that eat the kelp that provides food and habitat for other species. On the vast Serengeti plains, wildebeest "mow" the grass, protecting habitat for many other species. Understanding the "rules" that govern the numbers and diversity of species in an ecosystem is essential to efficient and sustainable management. But those same rules apply to us. Free of predation, humans are swarming over the planet, choking out other species. We are the planetary mussels. What next? A "mussel-bound" world, or perhaps renewed microbial predation? PMID:27585022

  7. Response of glutathione in mussels (Mytilus) exposed to common environmental contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Inouye, L.S.; Casillas, E.

    1995-12-31

    Mussels (Mytilus sp.) were exposed to PCBs, a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), or extracts of contaminated sediments to determine the response of glutathione content in gill and digestive gland to chemicals contaminants. In addition, a field transplant investigation was conducted to determine if the differences observed in tissue glutathione levels of mussels from reference and contaminated sites were due to the presence of chemical contaminants rather than to population differences in basal glutathione concentrations. Exposure to PCBs or to sediment extracts from a contaminated site resulted in a decrease in glutathione content in the digestive gland, but an increase in glutathione content in gills. In contrast, no alterations in tissue glutathione were observed after exposure to PAHs. Transplant investigation results were consistent with those from the contaminated sediment extract exposure. Glutathione content in digestive glands was higher in mussels from a reference site compared to that found in mussels from the contaminated site, while the opposite trend was found in gill glutathione content of the same mussels. Eight weeks after being transplanted from the reference site to the contaminated site or alternatively from a contaminated site to a reference site, glutathione levels in the gland tissues matched those found in mussels native to the site to which they were transplanted. Although gill glutathione content was significantly different from that found at the site of origin, it did not match levels found in mussels native to the site to which they had been transplanted.

  8. Predation of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) by freshwater drum in western Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, John R. P., III; Bur, Michael T.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental and economic problems associated with the colonization of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) in western Lake Erie created a need to investigate control mechanisms. Predation by fishes is one potential means of control, but predation on zebra mussels by native fishes in Lake Erie is unknown. The freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) is the most likely fish predator since it is the only fish with pharyngeal teeth capable of crushing mollusk shells. In 1990, freshwater drum were collected in western Lake Erie from 9 sites near rocky reefs and 13 sites with silt or sand bottoms, and gut contents were examined. Predation on zebra mussels increased as drum size increased. Small drum (200-249 mm in length) fed mainly on dipterans, amphipods, and small fish; small zebra mussels (375 mm in length) fed almost exclusively on zebra mussels (seasons and locations combined). The smallest drum capable of crushing zebra mussel shells was 265 mm. Since freshwater drum over 375 mm feed heavily on zebra mussels, they may become a possible biological control mechanism for mussels in portions of North America.

  9. Mussel dynamics model: A hydroinformatics tool for analyzing the effects of different stressors on the dynamics of freshwater mussel communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morales, Y.; Weber, L.J.; Mynett, A.E.; Newton, T.J.

    2006-01-01

    A model for simulating freshwater mussel population dynamics is presented. The model is a hydroinformatics tool that integrates principles from ecology, river hydraulics, fluid mechanics and sediment transport, and applies the individual-based modelling approach for simulating population dynamics. The general model layout, data requirements, and steps of the simulation process are discussed. As an illustration, simulation results from an application in a 10 km reach of the Upper Mississippi River are presented. The model was used to investigate the spatial distribution of mussels and the effects of food competition in native unionid mussel communities, and communities infested by Dreissena polymorpha, the zebra mussel. Simulation results were found to be realistic and coincided with data obtained from the literature. These results indicate that the model can be a useful tool for assessing the potential effects of different stressors on long-term population dynamics, and consequently, may improve the current understanding of cause and effect relationships in freshwater mussel communities. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Evidence for PSP in mussels in Trinidad.

    PubMed

    Ammons, D; Rampersad, J; Poli, M A

    2001-06-01

    Herein we present the first evidence for the presence of Paralytic Shellfish Poison (PSP) in Trinidadian waters. The toxin was found in a meat extract of the mussel, Perna viridis. PSP has not previously been demonstrated in the shellfish of Caribbean islands. The presence of PSP in Trinidad is therefore significant in that it presents an opportunity to better understand the dynamics of PSP and algal blooms in both a region and island environment not normally associated with PSP.P. viridis is not native to Trinidad, but rather originates from eastern Asia. It presented itself only recently in Trinidadian waters. Interestingly, shellfish consumption and algal blooms have had a long history of coexistence in Trinidad without any record of human intoxications. In this context, potential Public Health implications of finding PSP in a non-native shellfish species are briefly discussed. PMID:11137550

  11. Potential impacts of blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis on the growth, survival and juvenile recruitment of the non-native green mussel Perna viridis in southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Katherine; Jean, Fred; Thébault, Julien; Volety, Aswani K

    2016-01-01

    Red tide blooms formed by Karenia brevis are frequent along the Gulf coast of Florida and it is unclear what tolerance the green mussel Perna viridis, a recently introduced species to coastal waters, has toward these events. Established populations of P. viridis were monitored along the coastal waters of Estero Bay, Florida before, during and following two consecutive red tide blooms to assess the potential effects on growth, survival and juvenile recruitment. Upon onset of the bloom, growth rates fell from 6 to 10 mm month(-1) (March 2011-November 2011) to less than 3 mm month(-1). In the succeeding years, K. brevis blooms were present, and average growth of individually tagged mussels remained below 3 mm month(-1). During growth monitoring the use of calcein as an internal marker was tested with positive staining results and no observed effect on growth or survival. In March 2012, following the first red tide bloom, a population-wide mortality event was observed. Following this event, increased mortality rates were observed with peaks during onset of the bloom in the fall of 2012 and 2013. Juvenile recruitment was also limited during years in which blooms persisted into the spring spawning period suggesting gamete and/or larval sensitivity to K. brevis. Although it cannot be conclusively determined that the cause of reduced growth and survival is due to red tide events, the parallels observed suggest that K. brevis is a factor in the observed changes in population structure. PMID:26647288

  12. Detroit Edison conquers zebra mussels

    SciTech Connect

    Harwood, D.B.; Buda, D.J. )

    1993-11-01

    A potentially troublesome zebra mussel infestation at Detroit Edison's Harbor Beach Power Plant was nipped in time. Reducing the oxygen content of water inside the plant's water systems and using steam to thermally treat a colony of mussels that was established in the plant's screenhouse prevented the problem. So successful was the temperature treatment that it will be used regularly as part of the plant's annual mussel removal program.

  13. High Pressure Inactivation of HAV within Mussels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential of hepatitis A virus (HAV) to be inactivated within Mediterranean mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) by high pressure processing was evaluated. HAV was bioaccumulated within mussels to approximately 6-log10 PFU by exposure of mussels to HAV-contamina...

  14. Active and passive biomonitoring suggest metabolic adaptation in blue mussels (Mytilus spp.) chronically exposed to a moderate contamination in Brest harbor (France).

    PubMed

    Lacroix, Camille; Richard, Gaëlle; Seguineau, Catherine; Guyomarch, Julien; Moraga, Dario; Auffret, Michel

    2015-05-01

    Brest harbor (Bay of Brest, Brittany, France) has a severe past of anthropogenic chemical contamination, but inputs tended to decrease, indicating a reassessment of its ecotoxicological status should be carried out. Here, native and caged mussels (Mytilus spp.) were used in combination to evaluate biological effects of chronic chemical contamination in Brest harbor. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination was measured in mussel tissues as a proxy of harbor and urban pollution. Biochemical biomarkers of xenobiotic biotransformation, antioxidant defenses, generation of reducing equivalents, energy metabolism and oxidative damage were studied in both gills and digestive glands of native and caged mussels. In particular, activities of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDP), pyruvate kinase (PK) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) were measured and lipid peroxidation was assessed by malondialdehyde (MDA) quantification. In addition, a condition index was calculated to assess the overall health of the mussels. Moderate PAH contamination was detected in digestive glands of both native and caged individuals from the exposed site. Modulations of biomarkers were detected in digestive glands of native harbor mussels indicating the presence of a chemical pressure. In particular, results suggested increased biotransformation (GST), antioxidant defenses (CAT), NADPH generation (IDP) and gluconeogenesis (PEPCK), which could represent a coordinated response against chemically-induced cellular stress. Lipid peroxidation assessment and condition index indicated an absence of acute stress in the same mussels suggesting metabolic changes could, at least partially, offset the negative effects of contamination. In caged mussels, only GR was found modulated compared to non-exposed mussels but significant differences in

  15. Freshwater Mussels as Biological Sensors and Cyclers of Aquatic Nitrogen Constituents: An Experimental Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruger, A.; Just, C. L.; Mudumbai, R.; Dasgupta, S.; Newton, T. J.; Durst, J.; Boddicker, M. D.; Diken, M. B.; Bril, J.; Baidoo-Williams, H. E.

    2011-12-01

    One of the most extensive manifestations of anthropogenic mismanagement of nitrogen is eutrophication of the Gulf of Mexico. Leaching and runoff transport nitrate compounds-excess agricultural fertilizer and animal waste-via the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico. Phytoplankton then multiplies exponentially, and consumes most of the dissolved oxygen. This hypoxia kills fish and other organisms, leading to so-called dead zones in the Gulf that can cover 6,000-7,000 square miles. Dead zone mitigation plans call for coupling management actions with enhanced monitoring, modeling, and research on nitrogen delivery to, as well as processing within, the Mississippi River. Our vision is to create a biosensor network of native freshwater mussels in a major river to monitor, comprehend, and ultimately model key components of the nitrogen cycle. Native freshwater mussels are a guild of long-lived, suspension feeding bivalves that perform important ecological functions in aquatic systems. Mussels can influence nutrient cycling by transferring nutrients from the water column to the riverbed. A major problem for environmental scientists is that relatively little is known about the diurnal behaviors of freshwater mussels or the impacts these behaviors may have on the aquatic nitrogen cycle. Our multidisciplinary team is performing a series of laboratory experiments exploring the feasibility of using freshwater mussels as sensors of and capacitors for nitrates. For sensing, we place Hall-effect sensors on mussels to monitor the rhythmic opening and closing of their valves (gape). One shortcoming of previous work is that mussels were monitored in artificial conditions: glued fast in laboratory flumes, or tethered in constrained settings. To overcome this shortcoming, our team has built a mussel microhabitat with a constant river water feed stock, solar simulator, and a variety of water chemistry sensor. A main thrust of our work is to develop the technology to monitor mussel

  16. Variability of metals and metallothionein in mussels from San Francisco and Tomales bays

    SciTech Connect

    Knezovich, J.P.; Novacek, J.M.; Harrison, F.L. )

    1988-09-01

    The bay mussel, Mytilus edulis, has been used widely as an indicator of metal contamination in the marine environment. However, factors affecting the variability of metals and metallothionein (MT) concentrations in these organisms are poorly understood and must be defined before metal and MT levels can be used as valid indices of environmental contamination. They authors studied mussels from a relatively pristine environment (Tomales Bay) and a metal-contaminated region of San Francisco Bay. Data obtained from monthly sampling over a two-year period indicated that significant differences in metal and MT concentrations occur seasonally in native populations of mussels and that the dynamics of change are not the same. In mussels transplanted from Tomales Bay to San Francisco Bay, evidence for the induction of MT was obtained and metal and MT levels reflected the change in their environment as well as seasonal changes.

  17. Interactions among zebra mussel shells, invertebrate prey, and Eurasian ruffe or yellow perch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolar, C.S.; Fullerton, A.H.; Martin, K.M.; Lamberti, G.A.

    2002-01-01

    The exotic zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, is established in all of the Laurentian Great Lakes and may affect benthivorous fishes by increasing the complexity of benthic substrates and changing energy flow patterns within the food web. Native yellow perch, Perca flavescens, and the nonindigenous Eurasian ruffe, Gymnocephalus cernuus, are benthivores that may compete for limited food resources. As ruffe spread to areas with more dense zebra mussel populations, the zone of interaction among zebra mussels, yellow perch, and ruffe will increase and intensify. In the laboratory, the effect of zebra mussel shells on the ability of these fishes to forage on amphipods (Gammarus pseudolimnaeus) and chironomids (Chironomus plumosus) was examined in light and darkness. In 12 h, ruffe consumed more amphipods than did similar-sized yellow perch, particularly in darkness on bare cobble, and in light within zebra mussels. Amphipods decreased activity more in the presence of ruffe than yellow perch. More amphipods were found in zebra mussel shells than in bare cobble, whether or not fish were present. In darkness, when ruffe consumed more amphipods on bare cobble, amphipods became more associated with zebra mussel shells. Although ruffe consumed more amphipods than yellow perch, perch consumed more chironomids than ruffe on bare cobble. The presence of zebra mussel shells altered the relative consumption of invertebrates in some substrate-light combinations. Experiments such as these help to improve understanding of the direct and indirect effects of predation between and among native and nonindigenous species that may exert structuring forces on the nearshore communities of the Great Lakes currently or in the future.

  18. Restoration and colonization of freshwater mussels and fish in a southeastern United States tailwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Layzer, J.B.; Scott, E.M., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    The French Broad River originates in North Carolina, flows west into Tennessee and at its confluence with the Holston River forms the Tennessee River. Douglas Dam, located on the French Broad River 52 km above its mouth, is operated primarily for peaking hydroelectric power and flood control. Prior to completion of the dam in 1943, the lower French Broad River contained about 53 species of freshwater mussels and 100 species of fish. By 1977, the fauna in the 52-km-long tailwater was reduced to 12 species of mussels and 42 native species of fish. Improvements in tailwater conditions occurred following initiation of minimum flows in 1987, and consistent reaeration of discharge in 1993. From 1988 to 2002, we sampled three sites (4, 28, and 39 km downstream of the dam) to monitor the fish assemblage. Each year since 1988, we have collected one or more additional species, indicating continued immigration. We collected 82 native and 9 exotic species of fish overall, but the maximum of 67 species in 1 year suggests that some species reside in the tailwater at low densities or all immigrants may not successfully colonize the tailwater. There is limited potential for most extirpated species of mussels to naturally recolonize the tailwater because source populations are isolated. Consequently, 19 754 adult mussels of 19 species were introduced between 1997 and 2000. Survival of translocated mussels has been high, and successful reproduction of at least one translocated species has occurred. Additionally, four mussel species are naturally colonizing the tailwater. Colonization and recruitment of additional mussel species is expected as populations of their host fishes increase. We believe that the improved conditions of the tailwater may allow for the re-establishment of sustaining populations of 30 mussel species of historic occurrence, but the continued operation of Douglas Dam as a peaking hydroelectric project will reduce the probability of successfully reintroducing some

  19. Effects of high salinity wastewater discharges on unionid mussels in the Allegheny River, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kathleen Patnode; Hittle, Elizabeth A.; Robert Anderson; Lora Zimmerman; Fulton, John W.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effect of high salinity wastewater (brine) from oil and natural gas drilling on freshwater mussels in the Allegheny River, Pennsylvania, during 2012. Mussel cages (N = 5 per site) were deployed at two sites upstream and four sites downstream of a brine treatment facility on the Allegheny River. Each cage contained 20 juvenile northern riffleshell mussels Epioblasma torulosa rangiana). Continuous specific conductance and temperature data were recorded by water quality probes deployed at each site. To measure the amount of mixing throughout the entire study area, specific conductance surveys were completed two times during low-flow conditions along transects from bank to bank that targeted upstream (reference) reaches, a municipal wastewater treatment plant discharge upstream of the brine-facility discharge, the brine facility, and downstream reaches. Specific conductance data indicated that high specific conductance water from the brine facility (4,000–12,000 µS/cm; mean 7,846) compared to the reference reach (103–188 µS/cm; mean 151) is carried along the left descending bank of the river and that dilution of the discharge via mixing does not occur until 0.5 mi (805 m) downstream. Juvenile northern riffleshell mussel survival was severely impaired within the high specific conductance zone (2 and 34% at and downstream of the brine facility, respectively) and at the municipal wastewater treatment plant (21%) compared to background (84%). We surveyed native mussels (family Unionidae) at 10 transects: 3 upstream, 3 within, and 4 downstream of the high specific conductance zone. Unionid mussel abundance and diversity were lower for all transects within and downstream of the high conductivity zone compared to upstream. The results of this study clearly demonstrate in situ toxicity to juvenile northern riffleshell mussels, a federally endangered species, and to the native unionid mussel assemblage located downstream of a brine discharge to the

  20. Zebra mussel control using periodic chlorine dioxide treatments. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mussalli, Y.G.; Martin, P.D.

    1995-11-01

    Chlorine dioxide was injected into the water intakes at two power plants in Illinois and one in Indiana in an effort to eradicate the existing population of zebra mussels and mitigate further settlement in station river water cooling systems. Results of the treatments at Illinois Power Company`s Wood River Station on the Mississippi River, Central Illinois Public Service`s Meredosia Station on the Illinois River, and SI Energy`s Gallagher Station on the Ohio River are reported. Treatments were performed on a turnkey basis, with three treatments performed at Meredosia Station in 1994, six treatments performed at Wood River Station between July 1993 and September 1994, and 2 treatments performed at Gallagher Station in 1994. For each treatment, a contractor installed and operated a portable chlorine dioxide generator, monitored water quality and oxidant levels, and provided and monitored bioboxes containing test mussels. Results of the treatments were very favorable, indicating a good potential for periodic treatments with chlorine dioxide to control zebra mussel infestations in the raw water systems of power plants and other industrial facilities. Some difficulties with the chlorine dioxide generation system and cold temperature effects reduced the treatment effectiveness, particularly the second treatment at Gallagher Station. Average induced mortalities ranged from 70 to 100% at Wood River, 87 to 92% at Meredosia, and 30 to 100% at Gallagher for native mussels. Dechlorination successfully kept total oxidant residual levels at or below 0.05 ppM during all treatments at all stations.

  1. Pathogens and diseases of freshwater mussels in the United States: Studies on bacterial transmission and depuration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Starliper, Clifford E.

    2011-01-01

    Unionid mussels are recognized as important contributors to healthy aquatic ecosystems, as well as bioindicators of environmental perturbations. Because they are sedentary, filter feeding animals and require hosts (i.e., fishes) to transform embryonic glochidia, mussels are susceptible to direct adverse environmental parameters, and indirect parameters that restrict the timely presence of the host(s). Their numbers have declined in recent decades to a point that this fauna is regarded as one of the most imperiled in North America. The most significant threat to populations of native unionids in recent years has been the introduction and spread of zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha. Many federal and state agencies, and private interests are now engaged in mussel conservation efforts, including collecting selected imperiled species from impacted rivers and lakes and propagating them at refuges for future population augmentations. One essential consideration with mussel propagation and their intensive culture at refugia is the prevention of pathogen introductions and control of diseases. Currently, there are few reports of etiological agents causing diseases among freshwater mussels; however, because of increased observations of mussel die-offs in conjunction with transfers of live animals between natural waters and refugia, disease problems can be anticipated to emerge. This review summarizes research to develop bacterial isolation techniques, study pathogen transmission between fish and mussels, identify causes of seasonal mussel die-offs, and develop non-destructive methods for pathogen detection. These efforts were done to develop disease preventative techniques for use by resource managers to avoid potential large-scale disease problems in restoration and population augmentation efforts among imperiled populations.

  2. Zebra mussel mortality with chlorine

    SciTech Connect

    Van Benschoten, J.E.; Jensen, J.N.; Harrington, D.; DeGirolamo, D.J.

    1995-05-01

    The rate of mortality of the zebra mussel in response to chlorine is described by a kinetic model that combines a statistical characterization of mussel mortality with a disinfection-type modeling approach. Parameter estimates were made with nine sets of data from experiments conducted in Niagara River water. From the kinetic model, an operational diagram was constructed that describes the time to 95% mortality as a function of chlorine concentration and temperature. Either the model or the diagram can be used to assist utilities in planning chlorination treatments for controlling zebra mussels.

  3. Size limitation on zebra mussels consumed by freshwater drum may preclude the effectiveness of drum as a biological controller

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, John R. P., III; Love, Joy G.

    1995-01-01

    The septa lengths of bivalve shells were used to estimate shell lengths of the largest zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) crushed and consumed by freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) to determine if size limitation could preclude the effectiveness of drum as a biological controller of the zebra mussel. We examined gut samples of drum (273 to 542 mm long) collected from western Lake Erie in 1991, found the largest mussel (shell length = 21.4 mm) in the 11th largest drum (TL = 405 mm), and observed a reduction of mussel size in larger drum. The lack of a relationship between mussel size and drum size for larger specimens suggests that either drum prefer smaller mussels or the gape between the upper and lower pharyngeal teeth restricts drum feeding to zebra mussels of limited size. Although drum may reduce zebra mussel populations, because of the apparent size limitation of prey it is unlikely that drum would be fully effective as a biological controller; thus, this fish should not be introduced beyond its native range for that purpose.

  4. Cultivation of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) within their invaded range to improve water quality in reservoirs.

    PubMed

    McLaughlan, C; Aldridge, D C

    2013-09-01

    Algal and cyanobacterial blooms in reservoirs are driven by nutrient enrichment and may present economic and conservation challenges for water managers. Current approaches such as suppression of algal growth with barley straw, ferric dosing or manipulation of fish stocks have not yielded long term successes. A possibility that has sparked growing interest is the encouragement and cultivation of natural filter feeders, such as mussels, which remove suspended matter from the water and reduce nutrient levels through biodeposition and assimilation. This review focusses on the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) as a tool for enhancement of water quality in reservoirs. Native to the Ponto-Caspian region, this species has invaded many lakes and reservoirs across North America and Western Europe, where it occurs in very high densities. While purposeful introduction of a non-native species into new sites is socially unacceptable, we investigate the possible benefits of encouraging increased abundance of zebra mussels in sites where the species is already established. We estimate that the annual nitrogen and phosphorus input into a large UK reservoir (Grafham Water) could be assimilated into zebra mussel biomass by encouraging settlement onto 3075 m and 1400 m of commercial mussel ropes, respectively. While zebra mussel cultivation has an incredible capacity to push eutrophic systems towards a clear water state, there are many risks associated with encouraging an invasive species, even within sites where it has already established. The zebra mussel is a prominent biofouler of native unionid mussels and raw water pipes, it changes the physical characteristics of the places it inhabits, in sites low in phosphorus it can be responsible for toxic cyanobacterial blooms, it alters nutrient cycling and community structure and it can have negative impacts on amenity value. Increased propagule pressure from elevated numbers of veliger larvae in the water column may increase the risk

  5. Nonlethal evaluation of the physiological health of unionid mussels: Method for biopsy and glycogen analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naimo, T.J.; Damschen, E.D.; Rada, R.G.; Monroe, E.M.

    1998-01-01

    In long-lived unionid mussels, many short-term measures of growth are of limited value. Changes in physiological condition may be an early indication of stress, because the increased energy demand associated with stress often results in a depletion of glycogen reserves, the principal storage form of carbohydrates in unionid mussels. Our goal was to nonlethally extract tissue from freshwater mussels and then to develop a rapid and dependable method for the analysis of glycogen in the tissue extracts. A biopsy technique was developed to remove between 5 and 10 mg of food tissue in Amblema plicata plicata. The survival rate did not differ between biopsied and non-biopsied mussels during a 581-d observation period, demonstrating that the biopsy technique will allow nonlethal evaluation of the physiological condition of individual mussels through measurement of changes in contaminant, genetic, and biochemical indicators in tissue. We also modified the standard alkaline digestion and phenol-sulfuric acid analysis of glycogen for use on the small samples of biopsied tissue and to reduce analysis time and cost. We present quality control data, including method detection limits and estimates of precision and bias. The modified analytical method is rapid and accurate and has a method detection limit of 0.014 mg glycogen. Glycogen content in the biopsied samples was well above the method detection limit; it ranged from 0.09 to 0.36 mg, indicating that the method should be applicable to native mussels.

  6. Hydrological Controls on Water Chemistry that Supports Freshwater Mussel Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestegaard, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    Native freshwater mussel species ranges and population sizes have been declining throughout N. America. Due to their sedentary nature, adult mussels are vulnerable to both local habitat changes (often associated with land-use changes, contaminants, and biological invaders) and to climate changes that can alter river flow regimes, bed stability, and water chemistry. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between water chemistry and hydrological events in rivers that support native mussel populations. USGS ion concentration and water quality (pH, temperature, conductivity) data were used to calculate saturation indices for aragonite. For some sites, electrical conductivity was highly correlated with calcium and bicarbonate concentrations and could be used to estimate concentrations when ion chemistry was not measured. Continuous water quality data from datasondes could thus be used to evaluate saturation indices for aragonite on a daily basis for 10-15 year periods. For the Delaware River, which has relatively few carbonate rocks in its watershed, tributary aragonite saturation tended to reflect local geological conditions. The lower main stem of the river integrates the water chemistry of the basin and also responds to climatic conditions. The lower Delaware supports aragonite precipitation approximately 50 days per year, with considerable inter-annual variability. During most years, aragonite precipitation could occur during both the spring and late summer periods, but years with heavy spring rains rather than snowmelt shifts aragonite precipitation to late summer periods. In 2011 when several major tropical storms hit the Delaware basin, streamflow was too dilute for aragonite precipitation for most of the summer period. These data suggest that hydrological changes associated with climatic changes may influence the water chemistry and affect the suitability of some rivers as mussel habitat.

  7. Conservation status of freshwater mussels of the United States and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, J.D.; Warren, M.L., Jr.; Cummings, K.S.; Harris, J.L.; Neves, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    The American Fisheries Society (AFS) herein provides a list of all native freshwater mussels (families Margaritiferidae and Unionidae) in the United States and Canada. This report also provides state and provincial distributions; a comprehensive review of the conservation status of all taxa; and references on biology, conservation, and distribution of freshwater mussels. The list includes 297 native freshwater mussels, of which 213 taxa (71.7%) are considered endangered, threatened, or of special concern. Twenty-one taxa (7.1%) are listed as endangered but possibly extinct, 77 (20.6%) as endangered but extant, 43 (14.5%) as threatened, 72 (24.2%) as of special concern, 14 (4.7%) as undetermined, and only 70 (23.6%) as currently stable. The primary reasons for the decline of freshwater mussels are habitat destruction from dams, channel modification, siltation, and the introduction of nonindigenous mollusks. The high numbers of imperiled freshwater mussels in the United States and Canada, which harbor the most diverse fauna in the world, portend a trajectory toward an extinction crisis that, if unchecked, will severely impoverish one of our richest components of aquatic biodiversity.

  8. Are Predators Limiting Zebra Mussel Colonization of Unionid Mussels in Great Lake Coastal Wetlands?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Szalay, F. A.; Bowers, R.

    2005-05-01

    Although many native mollusc populations have been eliminated in the Laurentian Great Lakes by the exotic zebra mussel, recent surveys have found abundant unionid (Bivalvia: Unionidae) populations in some coastal wetlands. Unionid burrowing in soft sediments and predation by fish have been shown to reduce numbers of attached zebra mussels, and we tested these factors in a Lake Erie coastal wetland. In 2002, we held live unionids (Leptodea fragilis, Quadrula quadrula) and Pyganodon grandis shells in exclosures with wire mesh bottoms that were buried to sediment depths of either 5, 10, or 20 cm. After 2 months, numbers of attached dreissenids on unionids were significantly higher inside all exclosure treatments than outside exclosures. This indicated that either unionid burrowing was prevented in all sediment depth treatments or molluscivores were excluded by exclosures. In 2004, we measured dreissenid colonization on Q. quadrula and PVC plates in bottomless exclosures with different mesh sizes. After 6 months, dreissenid numbers on PVC plates and on Q. quadrula in 2.5 cm X 2.5 cm and 5 cm X 10 cm mesh exclosures were significantly higher than in open exclosures. These data suggest that molluscivores are important in limiting dreissenids in Great Lake coastal wetlands.

  9. Caged mussels and semipermeable membrane devices as indicators of organic contaminant uptake in Dorchester and Duxbury Bays, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Peven, C.S.; Uhler, A.D.; Querzoli, F.J.

    1996-02-01

    An experiment to measure organic contaminant depuration by the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) was carried out by transplanting mussels in stainless steel cages from a known contaminated site in Dorchester Bay, Massachusetts to a documented clean site in Duxbury Bay, Massachusetts approximately 30 nmi south of the original collection site. A parallel contaminant uptake experiment was performed in which mussels from Duxbury Bay were collected and deployed in similar cages in Dorchester Bay. The bivalves were collected from each transplant site at set intervals over a period of 95 days to monitor the rates and selectivity of depuration and uptake, respectively, of polynuclear atomic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), and chlorinated pesticides. In a related study, semipermeable membrane devices (SPMD: polyethylene bags) containing the lipid material triolein were deployed in Dorchester Bay and collected at the same frequency as the caged mussels to evaluate their effectiveness as models for estimating bioconcentration of target organic contaminants. At the Duxbury site, results suggest that the caged mussels depurated contaminants within 68 days to levels found in native animals at the site. At the Dorchester site, bivalves concentrated the contaminants to a level similar to the native M. edulis. PCB and DDT uptake rates were found to be similar between caged mussels and SPMDs; PAH uptake by the SPMDs was initially lower than by transplanted bivalves. PCB and PAH assemblages were noticeably different between bivalves and SPMDs deployed at the same site.

  10. Spatial organisation and biomass development after relaying of mussel seed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capelle, Jacob J.; Wijsman, Jeroen W. M.; Schellekens, Tim; van Stralen, Marnix R.; Herman, Peter M. J.; Smaal, Aad C.

    2014-01-01

    It is not known whether and by what factors spatial heterogeneity in mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) affects mussel production in human-created mussel beds. In a field experiment, the same number of mussels was relayed on four different areas within plots of the same size, resulting in four treatments with different mussel densities. Density, individual weight and spatial structure of mussels were followed per treatment. The uniformly placed mussels on different areas redistributed into new patches, but mussels did not spread out over a larger area. Initial mussel density affected redistribution and mussel survival. At high densities mussels redistributed into a uniform matrix or in a few larger patches, that showed larger losses than at low densities, where mussels redistributed into a high number of patches. Growth rate and condition index of the mussels did not differ between treatments and no relation was found between treatment and number of foraging shore crabs, which was the major predator of mussels in this experiment. We hypothesise that the relation between initial mussel density and mussel loss after relaying is associated with redistribution, with less competition for space when mussels are positioned at the edge of a mussel patch. The very high mussel losses that we observed in the experiment within four weeks after relaying were the major factor in biomass development. Mussel bed formation concerns mussel growers and managers involved in natural mussel bed restoration. Initial mussel survival determines the success of these activities. The present study shows the effects of mussel relaying on spatial redistribution for the first time under field conditions, and underlines the importance of edge effects in understanding mussel loss in redistribution. Mussel survival after relaying will be higher when the mussels are distributed homogeneously and in relatively low density.

  11. Great Lakes clams find refuge from zebra mussels in restored, lake-connected marsh (Ohio)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, S. Jerrine; Wilcox, Douglas A.

    2004-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, more than 95 percent of the freshwater clams once found in Lake Erie have died due to the exotic zebara mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). Zebra mussels attach themselves to native clams in large numbers, impeding the ability of the clams to eat and burrow. However, in 1996, we discovered a population of native clams in Metzger Marsh in western Lake Erie (about 50 miles [80 km] east of Toledo) that were thriving despite the longtime presence of zebra mussel in surrounding waters. At that time, Metzger Marsh was undergoing extensive restoration, including construction of a dike to replace the eroded barrier beach and of a water-control structure to maintain hydrologic connections with the lake (Wilcox and Whillans 1999). The restoration plan called for a drawdown of water levels to promote plant growth from the seedbank -- a process that would also destroy most of the clam population. State and federal resource managers recommended removing as many clams as possible to a site that was isolated from zebra mussels, and then returning them to the marsh after it was restored. We removed about 7,000 native clams in 1996 and moved them back to Metzger Marsh in 1999.

  12. Chlorination-induced genotoxicity in the mussel Perna viridis: assessment by single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay.

    PubMed

    Chavan, Pooja; Kumar, Rajesh; Kirubagaran, Ramalingam; Venugopalan, Vayalam P

    2016-08-01

    Mussels are important fouling organisms in the cooling water systems of coastal power plants. Continuous low-dose chlorination (CLDC) is being practiced as an effective method to control mussel biofouling in power plant cooling water systems. CLDC effectively controls mussel fouling by discouraging larval settlement rather than by killing the larvae or adults. Mussels are an integral part of the natural benthic community in the receiving water body where the coolant water is discharged. Hence, from a toxicological point of view, they can serve as both target and non-target organisms. Previous researchers have indicated that chlorine residual, rather than elevated temperature, can be the major stress factor in the effluents released from coastal power plants. However, very little data are available on the sub-lethal effects of low level chlorination on representative benthic fauna. In this study, we used native and transplanted mussels (Perna viridis) to study lethal and sub-lethal effects of chlorination in the cooling water circuit of an operating power plant. Experiments involving comet assay suggested that CLDC can cause DNA damage in treated mussels. However, activation of DNA repair appeared to get initiated after the accrued damage reached a threshold. The results indicate that, at chlorine residual levels observed at the discharge point, exposure to chlorinated effluents is unlikely to cause significant genetic damage to mussels in the recipient water body. PMID:27155389

  13. Invasive blue mussels threaten regional scale genetic diversity in mainland and remote offshore locations: the need for baseline data and enhanced protection in the Southern Ocean.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Jonathan P A; Zbawicka, Małgorzata; Westfall, Kristen M; Wenne, Roman

    2016-09-01

    Human-mediated biological transfers of species have substantially modified many ecosystems with profound environmental and economic consequences. However, in many cases, invasion events are very hard to identify because of the absence of an appropriate baseline of information for receiving sites/regions. In this study, use of high-resolution genetic markers (single nucleotide polymorphisms - SNPs) highlights the threat of introduced Northern Hemisphere blue mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) at a regional scale to Southern Hemisphere lineages of blue mussels via hybridization and introgression. Analysis of a multispecies SNP dataset reveals hotspots of invasive Northern Hemisphere blue mussels in some mainland New Zealand locations, as well as the existence of unique native lineages of blue mussels on remote oceanic islands in the Southern Ocean that are now threatened by invasive mussels. Samples collected from an oil rig that has moved between South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand were identified as invasive Northern Hemisphere mussels, revealing the relative ease with which such non-native species may be moved from region to region. In combination, our results highlight the existence of unique lineages of mussels (and by extension, presumably of other taxa) on remote offshore islands in the Southern Ocean, the need for more baseline data to help identify bioinvasion events, the ongoing threat of hybridization and introgression posed by invasive species, and the need for greater protection of some of the world's last great remote areas. PMID:27124277

  14. Factors driving changes in freshwater mussel (Bivalvia, Unionida) diversity and distribution in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Zieritz, Alexandra; Lopes-Lima, Manuel; Bogan, Arthur E; Sousa, Ronaldo; Walton, Samuel; Rahim, Khairul Adha A; Wilson, John-James; Ng, Pei-Yin; Froufe, Elsa; McGowan, Suzanne

    2016-11-15

    Freshwater mussels (Bivalvia, Unionida) fulfil important ecosystem functions and are one of the most threatened freshwater taxa globally. Knowledge of freshwater mussel diversity, distribution and ecology in Peninsular Malaysia is extremely poor, and the conservation status of half of the species presumed to occur in the region has yet to be assessed. We conducted the first comprehensive assessment of Peninsular Malaysia's freshwater mussels based on species presence/absence and environmental data collected from 155 sites spanning all major river catchments and diverse habitat types. Through an integrative morphological-molecular approach we recognised nine native and one widespread non-native species, i.e. Sinanodonta woodiana. Two species, i.e. Pilsbryoconcha compressa and Pseudodon cambodjensis, had not been previously recorded from Malaysia, which is likely a result of morphological misidentifications of historical records. Due to their restriction to single river catchments and declining distributions, Hyriopsis bialata, possibly endemic to Peninsular Malaysia, Ensidens ingallsianus, possibly already extinct in the peninsula, and Rectidens sumatrensis, particularly require conservation attention. Equally, the Pahang, the Perak and the north-western river catchments are of particular conservation value due to the presence of a globally unique freshwater mussel fauna. Statistical relationships of 15 water quality parameters and mussel presence/absence identified acidification and nutrient pollution (eutrophication) as the most important anthropogenic factors threatening freshwater mussel diversity in Peninsular Malaysia. These factors can be linked to atmospheric pollution, deforestation, oil-palm plantations and a lack of functioning waste water treatment, and could be mitigated by establishing riparian buffers and improving waste water treatment for rivers running through agricultural and residential land. PMID:27473771

  15. How well can fishes prey on zebra mussels in eastern North America?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, John R. P., III

    1993-01-01

    Literature on mollusk-eating fishes was reviewed to determine the potential for different species of fish to control zebra mussels in eastern North America. At least six species are potential predators of zebra mussels because they possess (1) both upper and lower pharyngeal teeth or (2) lower pharyngeal teeth and chewing pads located on the dorsal roof for crushing mollusk shells. Freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) and two centrarchids, redear sunfish (Lepomis microlophus) and pumpkinseed (L. gibbosus), possess both upper and lower pharyngeal teeth and are likely to consume more zebra mussels than fishes with only lower pharyngeal teeth. Only two catostomid species, copper and river redhorses (Moxostoma hubbsi and M. carinatum), have chewing pads that enable them to crush mollusks. The exotic omnivorous common carp (Cyprinus carpio), possessing lower teeth and a chewing pad, may prey on zebra mussels when aquatic insect larvae, its preferred food, become rare. Managing populations of drum, sunfishes and redhorses to reduce exploitation of large individuals and improve their habitats are suggested as means to intensify biological control of zebra mussels in eastern North America. Other Eurasian molluscivores, the roach (Rutilus rutilus) and the black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) should not be introduced into North America because research has shown repeatedly that an introduced biological controller usually does not forage for unwanted pests or reside only in preferred habitats of pests. Drum, sunfishes and redhorses should be preferred over these exotics as biological controllers of zebra mussels in North America because these native fishes will likely occupy newly established habitats of zebra mussels.

  16. MAINE MUSSEL SEED CONSERVATION AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SEED shows point locations of Maine mussel seed conservation areas at 1:24,000 scale. Data for this coverage were screen digitized on a 1:24000 scale base using descriptions contained in Maine Department of Marine Resources (MDMR) rules. Coastal arcs from Maine Office of GIS 1:24...

  17. The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771), in North America: impact on raw water users

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffiths, Ronald W.; Kovalak, William P.; Schloesser, Donald W.

    1989-01-01

    The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas), is a small mollusc native to the Black, Caspian, and Azov Seas that was discovered in Lake Erie of the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America in 1988. Its presence there raises immediate concerns for users of raw water because it can become abundant enough to obstruct the flow of water through pipes, hoses, screens, and condensers. Biofouling attributed to this mussel was observed at several power plants, water treatment plants, and food processing and industrial facilities along Lake Erie in 1989. Estimated densities at one power plant intake canal were as high as 700,000 per m2. In addition, large numbers were found in main steam condensors and in the service water system, threatening the water supply for cooling, fire protection, and dust suppression systems. Municipal water intakes along the Canadian and United States shorelines have also been impaired. In one southeast Michigan city, drinking water withdrawal from Lake Erie was reduced 45% by the mussel. Routine checks of raw water supplies for free-floating zebra mussel veligers are reommended to determine if reproducing adult populations are present in local water bodies. After an early alert, raw water intakes could be protected to alleviate damage from the biofouling zebra mussel.

  18. Sensitivity of freshwater mussels at two life stages to acute or chronic effects of sodium chloride or potassium chloride

    EPA Science Inventory

    Native freshwater mussels are in serious global decline and urgently need protection and conservation. Nearly 70% of the 300 species in North America are endangered, threatened, of special concern, or already extinct. The declines in the abundance and diversity of North American ...

  19. Zebra mussels invade Lake Erie muds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berkman, Paul Arthur; Haltuch, Melissa A.; Tichich, Emily; Garton, David W.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Gannon, John E.; Mackey, Scudder D.; Fuller, Jonathan A.; Liebenthal, Dale L.

    1998-01-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) originated in western Russia but have now become widespread in Europe and North America. They are widely known for their conspicuous invasion of rocks and other hard substrates in North American and European watersheds. We have found beds of zebra mussels directly colonizing sand and mud sediments each year across hundreds of square kilometres of North America's Lake Erie. This transformation of sedimentary habitats into mussel beds represents an unforeseen change in the invasive capacity of this species.

  20. Environmental DNA mapping of Zebra Mussel populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amberg, Jon; Merkes, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) has become a popular tool for detecting aquatic invasive species, but advancements have made it possible to potentially answer other questions like reproduction, movement, and abundance of the targeted organism. In this study we developed a Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) eDNA protocol. We then determined if this assay could be used to help determine Zebra Mussel biomass in a lake with a well-established population of Zebra Mussels and a lake with an emerging population of mussels. Our eDNA assay detected DNA of Zebra Mussels but not DNA from more than 20 other species of fish and mussels, many commonly found in Minnesota waters. Our assay did not predict biomass. We did find that DNA from Zebra Mussels accumulated in softer substrates in both lakes, even though the mussels were predominately on the harder substrates. Therefore, we concluded that eDNA may be useful to detect the presence of Zebra Mussels in these lakes but our assay/approach could not predict biomass.

  1. Zebra mussels. The assault continues

    SciTech Connect

    Lamarre, L.

    1993-09-01

    Over the past seven years, zebra mussel infestation has spread relentlessly, fouling up utility cooling intakes and other industrial operations that draw fresh water. The striped invader has flourished in all of the Great Lakes and most of the major river systems east of and including the Mississippi. It has also migrated much deeper into the South than experts anticipated and is making its way westward. Now biologists have turned up a separate, look-alike species they fear may be just as destructive. EPRI is continuing its work to improve control techniques and has published a comprehensive monitoring and control guide that outlines the best practices currently available for dealing with the mussel problem. This article reviews the results of this work.

  2. Dynamics of mussel plaque detachment.

    PubMed

    Desmond, Kenneth W; Zacchia, Nicholas A; Waite, J Herbert; Valentine, Megan T

    2015-09-14

    Mussels are well known for their ability to generate and maintain strong, long-lasting adhesive bonds under hostile conditions. Many prior studies attribute their adhesive strength to the strong chemical interactions between the holdfast and substrate. While chemical interactions are certainly important, adhesive performance is also determined by contact geometry, and understanding the coupling between chemical interactions and the plaque shape and mechanical properties is essential in deploying bioinspired strategies when engineering improved adhesives. To investigate how the shape and mechanical properties of the mussel's plaque contribute to its adhesive performance, we use a custom built load frame capable of fully characterizing the dynamics of the detachment. With this, we can pull on samples along any orientation, while at the same time measuring the resulting force and imaging the bulk deformations of the plaque as well as the holdfast-substrate interface where debonding occurs. We find that the force-induced yielding of the mussel plaque improves the bond strength by two orders of magnitude and that the holdfast shape improves bond strength by an additional order of magnitude as compared to other simple geometries. These results demonstrate that optimizing the contact geometry can play as important a role on adhesive performance as optimizing the chemical interactions as observed in other organisms and model systems. PMID:26223522

  3. Alien parasitic copepods in mussels and oysters of the Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsner, Nikolaus O.; Jacobsen, Sabine; Thieltges, David W.; Reise, Karsten

    2011-09-01

    Molluscan intestinal parasites of the genus Mytilicola, specifically M. intestinalis, were initially introduced into bivalves in the North Sea in the 1930s. It was presumably introduced from the Mediterranean with ship-fouling mussels, then attained epidemic proportions in Mytilus edulis in the 1950s and is now widely established in the North Sea region. Mytilicola orientalis was co-introduced with Pacific oysters to France in the 1970s and in the southern North Sea in the early 1990s. Its main host Crassostrea gigas has massively invaded the Wadden Sea with a concomitant decline in mussels. To explore whether introduced mytilicolid parasites could play a role in the shifting dominance from native mussels to invasive oysters, we analysed 390 mussels and 174 oysters collected around the island of Sylt in the northern Wadden Sea. We show that M. intestinalis has a prevalence >90% and a mean intensity of 4 adult copepods in individual mussels with >50 mm shell length at all sheltered sites. By contrast, none were found in the oysters. However, at one site, we found M. orientalis in C. gigas with a prevalence of 10% and an intensity of 2 per host individual (August 2008). This constitutes the most northern record in Europe for this Pacific parasite until now. Alignments of partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene and the nuclear internal transcribed spacers (ITS) and 18S rDNA sequences each show a distinct difference between the two species, which confirms our morphological identification. We suggest that the high parasite load in mussels compared to oysters may benefit the continued expansion of C. gigas in the Wadden Sea.

  4. Research continues on zebra mussel control

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    Researchers are working on many fronts to learn methods for controlling and combatting zebra mussels, a species of mussel that can attach to the inside of water intakes at hydroelectric and thermal power plants, and can reduce or block water flow. Biologists at the University of Toledo in Ohio report that compounds from the African soapberry plant called lemmatoxins are lethal to zebra mussels. In laboratory tests, researchers have determined 1 to 2 milligrams of purified lemmatoxins per liter will kill the mussels. In field tests, biologist Harold Lee flushed water through a mussel-infested pipe. He found that the berry extract killed mussels in four to eight hours, making continuous treatment of water intake pipes unnecessary, according to a report in New Scientists. The University of Toledo participated in another project, funded by the American Water Works Association Research Foundation. That project team included the cities of Toledo and Cleveland, Ohio, Finkbeiner, Pettis Strout, Ltd. consulting engineers, and researchers from Ohio's Case Western Reserve University. The team identified a chemical oxidant, sodium hypochlorite, as a cost-effective agent for controlling zebra mussels at water treatment plant intakes. Toledo has used the sodium hypochlorite and reports the chemical has cleared colonies of zebra mussels that had attached to the intake of its water treatment plant.

  5. Zebra mussels anchor byssal threads faster and tighter than quagga mussels in flow.

    PubMed

    Peyer, Suzanne M; McCarthy, Alice J; Lee, Carol Eunmi

    2009-07-01

    While the invasive zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha has rapidly spread throughout the Great Lakes and inland waterways, it is being displaced by the quagga mussel Dreissena bugensis in shallow water habitats. However, zebra mussels remain dominant in areas with higher water velocity. We hypothesized that the persistence of zebra over quagga mussels in habitats with higher water velocity might result from greater rate and strength of byssal thread attachment. We examined whether zebra mussels relative to quagga mussels have: (1) higher byssal thread synthesis rate, (2) lower dislodgment in flow and (3) greater mechanical force required for detachment from substrate. Specifically, we examined byssal thread synthesis rate and dislodgment of both species in response to water velocities of 0, 50, 100 and 180 cm s(-1). Byssal thread synthesis rate was significantly higher for zebra than for quagga mussels at all velocities. Dislodgment from the substrate increased for both species with increasing velocity but was significantly lower for zebra than for quagga mussels. We also tested the mechanical force to detach mussels after short (32 h) and long (two and three months) periods of attachment on hard substrate. Detachment force was significantly higher for zebra than for quagga mussels only after short-term attachment. Higher byssal thread synthesis rate in zebra mussels was a likely factor that minimized their dislodgment in flow and increased short-term attachment strength. Differences in byssal thread synthesis rate between the two species might partly account for the ability of zebra mussels to maintain dominance over quagga mussels in habitats with high velocities. PMID:19525429

  6. A dominance shift from the zebra mussel to the invasive quagga mussel may alter the trophic transfer of metals.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Jonathan; Schipper, Aafke M; Hendriks, A Jan; Yen Le, T T; Bij de Vaate, Abraham; van der Velde, Gerard; Leuven, Rob S E W

    2015-08-01

    Bioinvasions are a major cause of biodiversity and ecosystem changes. The rapid range expansion of the invasive quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) causing a dominance shift from zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) to quagga mussels, may alter the risk of secondary poisoning to predators. Mussel samples were collected from various water bodies in the Netherlands, divided into size classes, and analysed for metal concentrations. Concentrations of nickel and copper in quagga mussels were significantly lower than in zebra mussels overall. In lakes, quagga mussels contained significantly higher concentrations of aluminium, iron and lead yet significantly lower concentrations of zinc66, cadmium111, copper, nickel, cobalt and molybdenum than zebra mussels. In the river water type quagga mussel soft tissues contained significantly lower concentrations of zinc66. Our results suggest that a dominance shift from zebra to quagga mussels may reduce metal exposure of predator species. PMID:25910461

  7. Estimating Survival and Recruitment in a Freshwater Mussel Population Using Mark-recapture Techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Villella, R.F.; Smith, D.R.; Lemarie, D.P.

    2004-01-01

    We used a mark-recapture method and model averaging to estimate apparent survival, recruitment and rate of population growth in a native freshwater mussel population at a site on the Cacapon River, which is a tributary to the Potomac River. Over 2200 Elliptio complanata, E. fisheriana and Lampsilis cariosa were uniquely tagged over a period of 4 y. Recapture probabilities were higher in spring and summer than in winter except for L. cariosa which had a low probability of recapture regardless of time of year. All three species had high annual adult survival rates (>90%) with lower estimated survival of small (???55 mm) mussels (43%-69%). The variation in apparent survival over time was similar for all three species. This suggests that whatever environmental variables affect survival of mussels in this site affected all three species the same. Recruitment rates were low (1-4%) for both E. complanata and L. cariosa, with E. fisheriana having several periods of high (15-23%) recruitment. Distribution within the site was affected by both downstream and upstream movement, though movement rates were generally <1%. Average population growth rates for E. complanata (?? = 0.996, SE = 0.053), L. cariosa (?? = 0.993, SE = 0.076) and E. fisheriana (?? = 1.084, SE = 0.276) indicated static populations. Population growth rate approximating 1.0 suggests this site supports a stable freshwater mussel population through a life history strategy of low but constant recruitment and high annual adult survival.

  8. Comparison of population genetic patterns in two widespread freshwater mussels with contrasting life histories in western North America.

    PubMed

    Mock, K E; Brim Box, J C; Chong, J P; Furnish, J; Howard, J K

    2013-12-01

    We investigate population genetic structuring in Margaritifera falcata, a freshwater mussel native to western North America, across the majority of its geographical range. We find shallow rangewide genetic structure, strong population-level structuring and very low population diversity in this species, using both mitochondrial sequence and nuclear microsatellite data. We contrast these patterns with previous findings in another freshwater mussel species group (Anodonta californiensis/A. nuttalliana) occupying the same continental region and many of the same watersheds. We conclude that differences are likely caused by contrasting life history attributes between genera, particularly host fish requirements and hermaphroditism. Further, we demonstrate the occurrence of a 'hotspot' for genetic diversity in both groups of mussels, occurring in the vicinity of the lower Columbia River drainage. We suggest that stream hierarchy may be responsible for this pattern and may produce similar patterns in other widespread freshwater species. PMID:24118560

  9. Making the Best of a Pest: The Potential for Using Invasive Zebra Mussel ( Dreissena Polymorpha) Biomass as a Supplement to Commercial Chicken Feed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlan, Claire; Rose, Paul; Aldridge, David C.

    2014-11-01

    Invasive non-native species frequently occur in very high densities. When such invaders present an economic or ecological nuisance, this biomass is typically removed and landfill is the most common destination, which is undesirable from both an economic and ecological perspective. The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, has invaded large parts of Europe and North America, and is routinely removed from raw water systems where it creates a biofouling nuisance. We investigated the suitability of dried, whole zebra mussels as a supplement to poultry feed, thus providing a more attractive end-use than disposal to landfill. Measurable outcomes were nutrient and energy composition analyses of the feeds and production parameters of the birds over a 14 day period. Zebra mussels were a palatable feed supplement for chickens. The mussel meal contained high levels of calcium (344.9 g kg-1), essential for egg shell formation, which was absorbed and retained easily by the birds. Compared with standard feed, a mussel-supplemented diet caused no significant effects on production parameters such as egg weight and feed conversion ratio during the study period. However, protein and energy levels in the zebra mussel feed were much lower than expected from the literature. In order for zebra mussels to be a viable long-term feed supplement for poultry, flesh would need to be separated from the shells in an economically viable way. If zebra mussels were to be used with the shells remaining, it seems that the resultant mussel meal would be more suitable as a calcium supplement.

  10. Environmentally Safe Control of Zebra Mussel Fouling

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Molloy

    2008-02-29

    The two primary objectives of this USDOE-NETL contract were successfully achieved during the project: (1) to accelerate research on the development of the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A (Pf-CL145A) as a biocontrol agent for zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis)--two invasive freshwater bivalve species that are infesting water pipes in power plants; and (2) to identify a private-sector company that would move forward to commercialize Pf-CL145A as a substitute for the current polluting use of biocide chemicals for control of these dreissenid mussels in power plant pipes.

  11. Interactions between ecosystem engineers: A native species indirectly facilitates a non-native one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sueiro, María Cruz; Schwindt, Evangelina; Mendez, María Martha (Pitu); Bortolus, Alejandro

    2013-08-01

    The positive impact that native species have on the survival, persistence and/or range-expansion of invasive species, is receiving increasing attention from ecologists and land managers trying to better understand and predict future invasions worldwide. Ecosystem engineers are among the best-known model organisms for such studies. The austral cordgrass Spartina densiflora is an ecosystem engineer native to South America coast, where it colonizes rocky shores that were recently successfully invaded by the acorn barnacle Balanus glandula. We conducted a field experiment combining living Spartina transplants and artificial model plants in order to address the following questions: Does the native ecosystem engineer S. densiflora facilitate the invasion of rocky shores by B. glandula? If so, how much of this facilitation is caused by its physical structure alone? We found that S. densiflora had a positive effect on the invasive barnacle by trapping among its stems, the mussels, shells and gravels where B. glandula settles. Dislodged mussels, cobbles, and small shells covered and agglutinated by living barnacles were retained within the aboveground structures of S. densiflora while the control plots (without living or artificial plant structures) remained mostly bare throughout the experiment, showing how plant structures speed the colonization process. Moreover, transplanting living Spartina and artificial Spartina models led to a maximum increase in the area covered by barnacles of more than 1700% relative to the unvegetated control plots. Our study clearly shows how a native ecosystem engineers can enhance the success of invasive species and facilitate their local spread.

  12. Controlling zebra mussel infestations at hydroelectric plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sblendorio, R.P.; Malinchock, J.C. ); Claudi, R. )

    1991-07-01

    U.S. and Canadian utilities in the great lakes area have adopted techniques to temporarily prevent infestation of the zebra mussel in their hydro facilities, but are still looking for more permanent solutions.

  13. pH-dependent cross-linking of catechols through oxidation via Fe(3+) and potential implications for mussel adhesion.

    PubMed

    Fullenkamp, Dominic E; Barrett, Devin G; Miller, Dusty R; Kurutz, Josh W; Messersmith, Phillip B

    2014-01-01

    The mussel byssus is a remarkable attachment structure that is formed by injection molding and rapid in-situ hardening of concentrated solutions of proteins enriched in the catecholic amino acid 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (DOPA). Fe(3+), found in high concentrations in the byssus, has been speculated to participate in redox reactions with DOPA that lead to protein polymerization, however direct evidence to support this hypothesis has been lacking. Using small molecule catechols, DOPA-containing peptides, and native mussel foot proteins, we report the first direct observation of catechol oxidation and polymerization accompanied by reduction of Fe(3+) to Fe(2+). In the case of the small molecule catechol, we identified two dominant dimer species and characterized their connectivities by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), with the C6-C6 and C5-C6 linked species as the major and minor products, respectively. For the DOPA-containing peptide, we studied the pH dependence of the reaction and demonstrated that catechol polymerization occurs readily at low pH, but is increasingly diminished in favor of metal-catechol coordination interactions at higher pH. Finally, we demonstrate that Fe(3+) can induce cross-links in native byssal mussel proteins mefp-1 and mcfp-1 at acidic pH. Based on these findings, we discuss the potential implications to the chemistry of mussel adhesion. PMID:25243062

  14. pH-dependent cross-linking of catechols through oxidation via Fe3+ and potential implications for mussel adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Fullenkamp, Dominic E.; Barrett, Devin G.; Miller, Dusty R.; Kurutz, Josh W.; Messersmith, Phillip B.

    2014-01-01

    The mussel byssus is a remarkable attachment structure that is formed by injection molding and rapid in-situ hardening of concentrated solutions of proteins enriched in the catecholic amino acid 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (DOPA). Fe3+, found in high concentrations in the byssus, has been speculated to participate in redox reactions with DOPA that lead to protein polymerization, however direct evidence to support this hypothesis has been lacking. Using small molecule catechols, DOPA-containing peptides, and native mussel foot proteins, we report the first direct observation of catechol oxidation and polymerization accompanied by reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+. In the case of the small molecule catechol, we identified two dominant dimer species and characterized their connectivities by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), with the C6-C6 and C5-C6 linked species as the major and minor products, respectively. For the DOPA-containing peptide, we studied the pH dependence of the reaction and demonstrated that catechol polymerization occurs readily at low pH, but is increasingly diminished in favor of metal-catechol coordination interactions at higher pH. Finally, we demonstrate that Fe3+ can induce cross-links in native byssal mussel proteins mefp-1 and mcfp-1 at acidic pH. Based on these findings, we discuss the potential implications to the chemistry of mussel adhesion. PMID:25243062

  15. Altered trophic pathway and parasitism in a native predator (Lepomis gibbosus) feeding on introduced prey (Dreissena polymorpha).

    PubMed

    Locke, Sean A; Bulté, Grégory; Marcogliese, David J; Forbes, Mark R

    2014-05-01

    Populations of invasive species tend to have fewer parasites in their introduced ranges than in their native ranges and are also thought to have fewer parasites than native prey. This 'release' from parasites has unstudied implications for native predators feeding on exotic prey. In particular, shifts from native to exotic prey should reduce levels of trophically transmitted parasites. We tested this hypothesis in native populations of pumpkinseed sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus) in Lake Opinicon, where fish stomach contents were studied intensively in the 1970s, prior to the appearance of exotic zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) in the mid-1990s. Zebra mussels were common in stomachs of present-day pumpkinseeds, and stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen confirmed their importance in long-term diets. Because historical parasite data were not available in Lake Opinicon, we also surveyed stomach contents and parasites in pumpkinseed in both Lake Opinicon and an ecologically similar, neighboring lake where zebra mussels were absent. Stomach contents of pumpkinseed in the companion lake did not differ from those of pre-invasion fish from Lake Opinicon. The companion lake, therefore, served as a surrogate "pre-invasion" reference to assess effects of zebra mussel consumption on parasites in pumpkinseed. Trophically transmitted parasites were less species-rich and abundant in Lake Opinicon, where fish fed on zebra mussels, although factors other than zebra mussel consumption may contribute to these differences. Predation on zebra mussels has clearly contributed to a novel trophic coupling between littoral and pelagic food webs in Lake Opinicon. PMID:24562470

  16. Introduced species, zebra mussels in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Don W.

    1995-01-01

    The discovery of zebra mussels in North America in 1988 raised concern for water users because the species became abundant enough to obstruct the flow of water in human-made structures such as pipes and screens. This work reviews the biology, distribution, and impacts of zebra mussels in the context of its discovery in the Laurentian Great Lakes and its impending spread to most surface waters of North America.

  17. Stravation tolerance of zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, R.; McMahon, R.F.

    1995-06-01

    Samples of zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha (n=30), were held without food at 5{degrees}, 15{degrees}, or 25{degrees}C and examined daily for mortality. Further samples of 210 mussels at each test temperature were periodically subsampled (n=10) throughout the starvation period. Tissues and shells of sampled specimens were dried to a constant weight. Zebra mussels held at 25{degrees}C experienced 100% mortality after 166 days of starvation while mussels at 15{degrees}C experienced 100% mortality after 545 days. A mortality of 60% was recorded in mussels after 524 days at 5{degrees}C. Dry shell weight (DSW) of starving zebra mussels at 25{degrees}C remained constant; at 15{degrees}C, DSW increased, likely due to deposition of new shell without increase in length. At 5{degrees}C DSW decreased possibly due to the high solubility of shell calcium carbonate at this low temperature. Dry tissue weight (DTW) decreased linearly during starvation at all test temperatures with the rate of DTW loss increasing at higher holding temperatures. Estimated percent tissue biomass reductions in a 20 mm long starved individual were 73.8% after 132 days at 25{degrees}C, 68.9% after 545 days at 15{degrees}C and 61.6% after 516 days at 5{degrees}C. When DTW loss rates were converted to O{sub 2} consumption rates (O{sub 2}), the O{sub 2} of a 20 mm long mussel was estimated to be 22.2% of prestarvation O{sub 2} at 25{degrees}C, 11.0% at 15{degrees}C and 10.2% at 5{degrees}C. Major reduction in metabolic demand in starving zebra mussels at low temperatures allows overwintering without appreciable loss of organic energy stores.

  18. Radium-226 accumulation in Florida freshwater mussels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brenner, M.; Smoak, J.M.; Leeper, D.A.; Streubert, M.; Baker, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    Selected lakes in Hillsborough County, Florida have been hydrologically augmented with groundwater to offset stage declines caused by excessive pumping of the Floridan Aquifer. Augmentation water can be relatively rich in 226Ra (>5 decays per minute [dpm] L-1). We measured 226Ra activities in shells and soft tissues of adult bivalve molluscs (Elliptio cf. buckleyi) from groundwater-augmented and nonaugmented lakes to assess bioaccumulation of 226Ra by mussels. Mussels from augmented lakes displayed higher 226Ra in both shells and tissues than did mussels from nonaugmented lakes. Within a sample, 226Ra activity in Elliptio tissues was higher than the value measured in shells. Highest activities were found in a composite mussel sample (n = 6) from an augmented lake; soft tissue activity was 619 ?? 33 dpm g-1 dry weight and shell activity was 147 ?? 7 dpm g-1 g dry weight. Large mussels displayed greater activities in soft tissues and shells than did small mussels. We transplanted animals from a nonaugmented lake into a groundwater-augmented water body. 226Ra activity in dry tissue rose from 32 ?? 1 to 196 ?? 2 dpm g-1 within 2 months. When 226Ra-rich mussels (232 ?? 2 dpm g-1) from the augmented lake were transferred to the nonaugmented lake, they showed no significant 226Ra loss over the 69-d experiment. Large Elliptio mussels concentrated 226Ra in their soft tissues to levels about 1,000 to 25,000 times concentrations in lake water. Pumping of groundwater in Florida for residential, agricultural, and industrial use contributes dissolved 226Ra to some surface water bodies, where it can be bioaccumulated by bivalve molluscs. ?? 2007, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

  19. Refocusing Mussel Watch on contaminants of emerging concern (CECs): the California pilot study (2009-10).

    PubMed

    Maruya, Keith A; Dodder, Nathan G; Schaffner, Rebecca A; Weisberg, Stephen B; Gregorio, Dominic; Klosterhaus, Susan; Alvarez, David A; Furlong, Edward T; Kimbrough, Kimani L; Lauenstein, Gunnar G; Christensen, John D

    2014-04-30

    To expand the utility of the Mussel Watch Program, local, regional and state agencies in California partnered with NOAA to design a pilot study that targeted contaminants of emerging concern (CECs). Native mussels (Mytilus spp.) from 68 stations, stratified by land use and discharge scenario, were collected in 2009-10 and analyzed for 167 individual pharmaceuticals, industrial and commercial chemicals and current use pesticides. Passive sampling devices (PSDs) and caged Mytilus were co-deployed to expand the list of CECs, and to assess the ability of PSDs to mimic bioaccumulation by Mytilus. A performance-based quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) approach was developed to ensure a high degree of data quality, consistency and comparability. Data management and analysis were streamlined and standardized using automated software tools. This pioneering study will help shape future monitoring efforts in California's coastal ecosystems, while serving as a model for monitoring CECs within the region and across the nation. PMID:23886247

  20. Steam treatment of zebra mussels

    SciTech Connect

    Tsou, J.; Rybarik, D.L.; Thiel, J.

    1995-06-01

    Steam injection into intake bays is a nonchemical method to control zebra mussels. This technique was demonstrated at Dairyland Power Cooperative`s J.P. Madgett Station located in Alma, Wisconsin. The project was funded by the EPRI Zebra Mussel Consortium which includes: Dairyland Power Cooperative, Central Illinois Public Service, Duke Power, Illinois Power Company, PSI Energy, Public Service Electric & Gas, and Tennessee Valley Authority. This technique can be used by other power plants with a similar problem. A contract between Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation (Stone & Webster) was initiated in August 1994. The steam treatments were performed at the J.P. Madgett intake in Alma, Wisconsin, on September 14 and 18, 1994. The J.P. Madgett Station has two water intake bays with storage capacities of approximately 295,000 and 265,000 gallons, respectively. Each intake can be isolated, permitting either full or reduced generation depending on river temperature conditions. In addition to the intake bays, the outside fire protection loop and hydrants were also treated with the hot water from one of the bays. This paper presents the process design, piping and steam educator configurations, portable industrial boiler sizing and description, and the thermocouples to monitor the water temperature in the intake bay. The biological mortality and control test protocol and treatment results are also presented. Treatment effectiveness was 100%; however, equipment installation and operation was more problematic than anticipated. A generic computer program is developed and verified using thermal data from the test. The PC program will allow other utilities to size the boiler and estimate the heat losses from an intake bay. The treatment also provided valuable information that simplifies future applications and provides for more realistic design and installation schedules and costs.

  1. Quagga and zebra mussels: biology, impacts, and control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nalepa, Thomas F., (Edited By); Schloesser, Don W.

    2013-01-01

    Quagga and Zebra Mussels: Biology, Impacts, and Control, Second Edition provides a broad view of the zebra/quagga mussel issue, offering a historic perspective and up-to-date information on mussel research. Comprising 48 chapters, this second edition includes reviews of mussel morphology, physiology, and behavior. It details mussel distribution and spread in Europe and across North America, and examines policy and regulatory responses, management strategies, and mitigation efforts. In addition, this book provides extensive coverage of the impact of invasive mussel species on freshwater ecosystems, including effects on water clarity, phytoplankton, water quality, food web changes, and consequences to other aquatic fauna. It also reviews and offers new insights on how zebra and quagga mussels respond and adapt to varying environmental conditions. This new edition includes seven video clips that complement chapter text and, through visual documentation, provide a greater understanding of mussel behavior and distribution.

  2. Bibliography of Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussels) and Dreissena rostriformis bugensis (QUAGGA mussels): 1989 to 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Don W.; Schmuckal, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Dreissenid mussels invaded and colonized waters of the Laurentian Great Lakes during the late 1980s. Their colonization and resulting impact have been characterized as one of the most important ecological changes in freshwater systems in North America. The need for information on dreissenid mussels has grown during the past 2 decades, which has prompted the compilation of this bibliography. Two previous bibliographies of dreissenid mussels indicate average publication rates were 6 publications/year between 1771 and 1964 (1,180 in 194 y) and 30 publications/year between 1964 and 1993 (885 in 30 y). In the current bibliography, the average rate of publication doubled during the past 23 y (1989 to 2011) to 66 publications/year based on a total of 1,502 publications. These rates may be biased by increased numbers of researchers and journals over time but, at a minimum, these rates indicate continued interest and concern by humans about the impact of dreissenid mussels on water availability and the expanding range of dreissenids throughout the world. The current bibliography has a 94% efficiency rate for subject and 100% efficiency for title search criteria when compared with references in published studies of dreissenid mussels in 2011. In addition to publications, we included 206 student theses and 225 chapters in 26 books including 6 books devoted solely to dreissenid mussels. A vast majority of student theses were about dreissenid mussels in North America, especially in the Laurentian Great Lakes. The 6 books devoted to dreissenid mussels contained a variety of chapters that described biology, impact, control, and ecology of dreissenid mussels in both Europe (published in 1992 and 2010) and North America (1993, 1994, 1997, and 2000). In addition, there is a 7th book devoted solely to dreissenid mussels that is near completion.

  3. Cheating the Locals: Invasive Mussels Steal and Benefit from the Cooling Effect of Indigenous Mussels

    PubMed Central

    Lathlean, Justin A.; Seuront, Laurent; McQuaid, Christopher D.; Ng, Terence P. T.; Zardi, Gerardo I.; Nicastro, Katy R.

    2016-01-01

    The indigenous South African mussel Perna perna gapes during periods of aerial exposure to maintain aerobic respiration. This behaviour has no effect on the body temperatures of isolated individuals, but when surrounded by conspecifics, beneficial cooling effects of gaping emerge. It is uncertain, however, whether the presence of the invasive mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis limits the ability of P. perna for collective thermoregulation. We investigated whether varying densities of P. perna and M. galloprovincialis influences the thermal properties of both natural and artificial mussel beds during periods of emersion. Using infrared thermography, body temperatures of P. perna within mixed artificial beds were shown to increase faster and reach higher temperatures than individuals in conspecific beds, indicating that the presence of M. galloprovincialis limits the group cooling effects of gaping. In contrast, body temperatures of M. galloprovincialis within mixed artificial mussel beds increased slower and exhibited lower temperatures than for individuals in beds comprised entirely of M. galloprovincialis. Interestingly, differences in bed temperatures and heating rates were largely dependent on the size of mussels, with beds comprised of larger individuals experiencing less thermal stress irrespective of species composition. The small-scale patterns of thermal stress detected within manipulated beds were not observed within naturally occurring mixed mussel beds. We propose that small-scale differences in topography, size-structure, mussel bed size and the presence of organisms encrusting the mussel shells mask the effects of gaping behaviour within natural mussel beds. Nevertheless, the results from our manipulative experiment indicate that the invasive species M. galloprovincialis steals thermal properties as well as resources from the indigenous mussel P. perna. This may have significant implications for predicting how the co-existence of these two species may

  4. Cheating the Locals: Invasive Mussels Steal and Benefit from the Cooling Effect of Indigenous Mussels.

    PubMed

    Lathlean, Justin A; Seuront, Laurent; McQuaid, Christopher D; Ng, Terence P T; Zardi, Gerardo I; Nicastro, Katy R

    2016-01-01

    The indigenous South African mussel Perna perna gapes during periods of aerial exposure to maintain aerobic respiration. This behaviour has no effect on the body temperatures of isolated individuals, but when surrounded by conspecifics, beneficial cooling effects of gaping emerge. It is uncertain, however, whether the presence of the invasive mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis limits the ability of P. perna for collective thermoregulation. We investigated whether varying densities of P. perna and M. galloprovincialis influences the thermal properties of both natural and artificial mussel beds during periods of emersion. Using infrared thermography, body temperatures of P. perna within mixed artificial beds were shown to increase faster and reach higher temperatures than individuals in conspecific beds, indicating that the presence of M. galloprovincialis limits the group cooling effects of gaping. In contrast, body temperatures of M. galloprovincialis within mixed artificial mussel beds increased slower and exhibited lower temperatures than for individuals in beds comprised entirely of M. galloprovincialis. Interestingly, differences in bed temperatures and heating rates were largely dependent on the size of mussels, with beds comprised of larger individuals experiencing less thermal stress irrespective of species composition. The small-scale patterns of thermal stress detected within manipulated beds were not observed within naturally occurring mixed mussel beds. We propose that small-scale differences in topography, size-structure, mussel bed size and the presence of organisms encrusting the mussel shells mask the effects of gaping behaviour within natural mussel beds. Nevertheless, the results from our manipulative experiment indicate that the invasive species M. galloprovincialis steals thermal properties as well as resources from the indigenous mussel P. perna. This may have significant implications for predicting how the co-existence of these two species may

  5. Molecular mechanics of mussel adhesion proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J.

    2014-01-01

    Mussel foot protein (mfp), a natural glue produced by marine mussel, is an intriguing material because of its superior ability for adhesion in various environments. For example, a very small amount of this material is sufficient to affix a mussel to a substrate in water, providing structural support under extreme forces caused by the dynamic effects of waves. Towards a more complete understanding of its strength and underwater workability, it is necessary to understand the microscropic mechanisms by which the protein structure interacts with various substrates. However, none of the mussel proteins' structure is known, preventing us from directly using atomistic modeling to probe their structural and mechanical properties. Here we use an advanced molecular sampling technique to identify the molecular structures of two mussel foot proteins (mfp-3 and mfp-5) and use those structures to study their mechanics of adhesion, which is then incorporated into a continuum model. We calculate the adhesion energy of the mussel foot protein on a silica substrate, compute the adhesion strength based on results obtained from molecular modeling, and compare with experimental data. Our results show good agreement with experimental measurements, which validates the multiscale model. We find that the molecular structure of the folded mussel foot protein (ultimately defined by its genetic sequence) favors strong adhesion to substrates, where L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (or DOPA) protein subunits work in a cooperative manner to enhance adhesion. Our experimental data suggests a peak attachment force of 0.4±0.1 N, which compares favorably with the prediction from the multiscale model of Fc=0.21-0.33 N. The principles learnt from those results could guide the fabrication of new interfacial materials (e.g. composites) to integrate organic with inorganic surfaces in an effective manner.

  6. IDENTIFYING SOURCES OF STRESS TO NATIVE AQUATIC SPECIES USING A WATERSHED ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT FRAMEWORK.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The free-flowing Clinch and Powell River basin, located in southwestern Virginia, U.S.A., historically had one of the richest assemblages of native fish and freshwater mussels in the world. Nearly half of the species once residing here are now extinct, threatened or endangered....

  7. Native Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seven, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Amid concerns from tribal leaders that No Child Left Behind testing is squeezing out electives that have traditionally covered their history and cultures, an ambitious brace of programs is making Native America part of the core curriculum at David Wolfle Elementary School and other schools in the western Washington State. By tapping into…

  8. Crayfish (Orconectes virilis) predation on zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, Joy; Savino, Jacqueline F.

    1993-01-01

    In laboratory studies, we quantified predation rates and handling time of crayfish (Orconectes virilis) on zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and rainbow trout (Oncorhhynchus mykiss) eggs. In single prey species tests, crayfish ate zebra mussels at similar rates as they ate rainbow trout eggs. When both prey were present, crayfish preferred rainbow trout eggs. Handling time of mussels was about twice that of rainbow trout eggs, and energetic content of mussels was lower. Therefore, net benefit for foraging on rainbow trout eggs was about three times that of foraging on zebra mussels.

  9. Mussel-Inspired Adhesives and Coatings

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bruce P.; Messersmith, P.B.; Israelachvili, J.N.; Waite, J.H.

    2011-01-01

    Mussels attach to solid surfaces in the sea. Their adhesion must be rapid, strong, and tough, or else they will be dislodged and dashed to pieces by the next incoming wave. Given the dearth of synthetic adhesives for wet polar surfaces, much effort has been directed to characterizing and mimicking essential features of the adhesive chemistry practiced by mussels. Studies of these organisms have uncovered important adaptive strategies that help to circumvent the high dielectric and solvation properties of water that typically frustrate adhesion. In a chemical vein, the adhesive proteins of mussels are heavily decorated with Dopa, a catecholic functionality. Various synthetic polymers have been functionalized with catechols to provide diverse adhesive, sealant, coating, and anchoring properties, particularly for critical biomedical applications. PMID:22058660

  10. Changing perspectives on pearly mussels, North America's most imperiled animals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strayer, David L.; Downing, John A.; Haag, Wendell R.; King, Timothy L.; Layzer, James B.; Newton, Teresa J.; Nichols, S. Jerrine

    2004-01-01

    Pearly mussels (Unionacea) are widespread, abundant, and important in freshwater ecosystems around the world. Catastrophic declines in pearly mussel populations in North America and other parts of the world have led to a flurry of research on mussel biology, ecology, and conservation. Recent research on mussel feeding, life history, spatial patterning, and declines has augmented, modified, or overturned long-held ideas about the ecology of these animals. Pearly mussel research has begun to benefit from and contribute to current ideas about suspension feeding, life-history theory, metapopulations, flow refuges, spatial patterning and its effects, and management of endangered species. At the same time, significant gaps in understanding and apparent paradoxes in pearly mussel ecology have been exposed. To conserve remaining mussel populations, scientists and managers must simultaneously and aggressively pursue both rigorous research and conservation actions.

  11. Chlorine dioxide treatment for zebra mussel control

    SciTech Connect

    Rybarik, D.; Byron, J.; Germer, M.

    1995-06-01

    Chlorine is recognized and commonly used biocide for power plant cooling water and service water treatment programs, including the control of zebra mussels. Chlorine dioxide has recently become a popular method of zebra mussel control because of its economy, safety, environmental acceptability, and effectiveness when compared to other mussel control methods. This control technique was recently demonstrated at Dairyland Power Cooperative`s Alma Generating Station on the east bank of the upper Mississippi River in Alma, Wisconsin. The project was assisted with EPRI Tailored Collaboration Program funds. The Dairyland Power Alam Generating Station consists of five generating units that utilize raw, untreated Mississippi River water for condenser, circulating, and service water supplies. The first units were built in 1947, with the final and largest unit being completed in 1960. Total station generating capacity is 200 MW. Because of recent increases in the zebra mussel density at the station intake, Dairyland Power selected the team of Nalco and Rio Linda to perform a chlorine dioxide treatment of the station`s new water systems to eradicate and control the mussels before their presence created operational difficulties. This paper will present the results of the treatment including treatment theory, design and construction of the treatment system, the method of chlorine dioxide generation, treatment concentration, analytical methods o monitoring chlorine dioxide generation, residuals and trihalomethane (THM) concentrations, protocol for monitoring treatment mortality, and the effects of chlorine dioxide and detoxification on other water chemistry parameters and equipment materials. The goal of this paper is to inform and assist users with establishing consistent and uniform practices for safely utilizing and monitoring chlorine dioxide in the eradication and control of zebra mussels.

  12. Native Skies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benningfield, Damond

    2001-03-01

    People native to North America practiced their own version of astronomy. They tracked the motions of the Sun to help them decide when to plant crops, move their camps, and stage sacred rituals. Some tribes built great circles of stones to help them predict the changing seasons. Others built great mounds of earth to reflect the patterns they saw in the heavens and to align their ceremonial centers with the Sun and the Moon.

  13. Genetic variability and phylogeography of the invasive zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas).

    PubMed

    Astanei, Iulian; Gosling, Elizabeth; Wilson, Jim; Powell, Eithne

    2005-05-01

    The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas), a bivalve species originally native to the Black and Caspian seas, has invaded Ireland in the last decade. Five microsatellite loci were used to investigate genetic diversity and population structure in 10 populations across Europe (Ireland, UK, the Netherlands and Romania) and the Great Lakes (Lake Ontario and Lake St Clair). Levels of allelic diversity and mean expected heterozygosity were high for all populations (mean number of alleles/locus and H(E) were 10-15.2 and 0.79-0.89, respectively). High levels of polymorphism observed in Irish populations suggest that the Irish founder population(s) were large and/or several introductions took place after foundation. Significant deficits of heterozygotes were recorded for all populations, and null alleles were the most probable factor contributing to these deficits. Pairwise comparisons using Fisher exact tests and F(ST) values revealed little genetic differentiation between Irish populations. The UK sample was not significantly differentiated from the Irish samples, most probably reflecting an English origin for Irish zebra mussels. No significant differentiation was detected between the two Great Lakes populations. Our data support a northwest rather than a central or east European source for North American zebra mussels. PMID:15836640

  14. Zebra mussels enter the compost pile

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    Zebra mussels, introduced accidentally into the Great Lakes, are overpopulating at phenomenal rates, especially in Lake Erie, where they damage oyster beds, foster excessive algae growth and cling to boats. They also clog the intake pipes of city water systems and power generating plants. The expense of cleaning intake screens is considerable, since they have to be physically removed and cleaned. Then the mussels must be disposed of, costing some power plants as much as $50,000 a year to landfill, says Wayne Koser of the Michigan Department of Natural Resources.

  15. Micro-organic pollutants and biological response of mussels in marinas and ship building/breaking yards in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Okay, O S; Karacık, B; Güngördü, A; Ozmen, M; Yılmaz, A; Koyunbaba, N C; Yakan, S D; Korkmaz, V; Henkelmann, B; Schramm, K-W

    2014-10-15

    Concentrations of PAHs, PCBs and OCPs in sediments and mussels (caged and/or native) were determined at 16 stations in six major sites of coastal Turkey. The biological effects of pollution were evaluated using sediment toxicity tests and enzyme activity assays. EROD, PROD, GST, AChE, CaE, and GR activities were evaluated using the digestive glands of mussels. The total PAH concentrations in the sediments varied between nd and 79,674 ng g(-1) dw, while the total OCP concentrations were in the range of nd to 53.7 ng g(-1) dw. The total PAH concentrations in mussels varied between 22.3 and 37.4 ng g(-1) ww. The average concentrations of total PCBs in mussels were 2795 pg g(-1) ww in the shipyard, 797 pg g(-1) ww in Marina 2 and 53 pg g(-1) ww in Marina 1 stations. The results of whole-sediment toxicity tests showed a strong correlation between toxicity test results and pollutant concentrations. Selected cytosolic enzyme activities in digestive glands differed significantly depending on localities. These differences in enzyme activities were mainly related to the different pollutant levels of the sampling sites. The micro-organic contaminant profile patterns, toxicity tests and biomarker studies showed that shipyards and shipbreaking yards are the major potential sources of organic pollution in coastal areas. PMID:25079235

  16. Establishment of the green mussel, Perna viridis (Linnaeus 1758) (Mollusca: Mytilidae) on the West Coast of Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, A.J.; Marelli, D.C.; Frischer, M.E.; Danforth, J.M.; Williams, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    In 1999, the green mussel, Perna viridis, was first observed in Tampa Bay, Florida. This was the first reported occurrence of this Indo-Pacific marine bivalve in North America. The mussels found in Tampa Bay were confirmed to be P. viridis based on both morphological and genetic characteristics. Since the initial discovery, surveys in Tampa Bay and on the west coast of Florida have documented the growth, recruitment, and range expansion of P. viridis. From November 1999 to July 2000, the mean shell length of a Tampa Bay population increased from 49.0 mm to 94.1 mm, an increase of 97%. Populations of P. viridis are successfully reproducing in Tampa Bay. Recruitment was observed on sampling plates in May and continued through July 2000. The full extent of mussel colonization is not clear, but mussels were found outside Tampa Bay in St. Petersburg, Florida, south to Venice. Based on these studies it is evident that P. viridis has successfully invaded Tampa Bay and the west coast of Florida. The long-term impact of P. viridis on native communities off the west coast of Florida cannot be predicted at this time.

  17. Evaluation of several chemical disinfectants for removing zebra mussels from unionid mussels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waller, D.L.; Fisher, S.W.

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated the safety and effectiveness of chemical treatments for killing veliger and juvenile stages of the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha attached to unionid mussels. Static toxicity tests were conducted on eight unionid mussel species with common aquaculture chemicals (benzalkonium chloride, formalin, hydrogen peroxide, calcium chloride, potassium chloride, and sodium chloride). The concentration and duration of each chemical treatment tested had previously been found to kill zebra mussel veligers and juveniles. Several species (e.g., Elliptio dilatata, Lampsilis cardium, and Lasmigona complanata) incurred less than 10% mortality in chloride salt treatments, while in other species (e.g., Obliquaria reflexa and Leptodea fragilis) mortality varied greatly among treatment regimes. Treatments with benzalkonium chloride, formalin, and hydrogen peroxide were less than 90% effective on juvenile stages of zebra mussels and, therefore, were ruled out after preliminary trials. Limited application of specific chemical treatments may be feasible for more tolerant species; however, effective disinfection of unionid shells will require the use of chemical treatment followed by a quarantine period to completely remove zebra mussel larvae and juveniles.

  18. Mytilid mussels: global habitat engineers in coastal sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buschbaum, Christian; Dittmann, Sabine; Hong, Jae-Sang; Hwang, In-Seo; Strasser, Matthias; Thiel, Martin; Valdivia, Nelson; Yoon, San-Pil; Reise, Karsten

    2009-03-01

    Dense beds of mussels of the family Mytilidae occur worldwide on soft-bottoms in cold and warm temperate coastal waters and have usually been considered hot spots of biodiversity. We examined intertidal mussel beds at four distant locations around the globe with the same sampling method, to find out whether this “hot spot” designation holds universally. We studied species assemblages within the matrices of byssally interconnected mussels engineered by Mytilus edulis in the North Sea, by mixed Perumytilus purpuratus and Mytilus chilensis at the southern Chilean coast, by Musculista senhousia in the Yellow Sea and by Xenostrobus inconstans at the coast of southern Australia. In all cases, species assemblages inside mussel beds were significantly different from those outside with many species being restricted to one habitat type. However, species richness and diversity were not generally higher in mussel beds than in ambient sediments without mussels. In the North Sea ( M. edulis) and at the Chilean coast ( P. purpuratus, M. chilensis), mussel beds have markedly higher species numbers and diversities than surrounding sediments, but this was not the case for mussel beds in Australia ( X. inconstans) and the Yellow Sea ( M. senhousia) where numbers of associated species were only slightly higher and somewhat lower than in adjacent sediments, respectively. In conclusion, although soft bottom mytilid mussels generally enhance habitat heterogeneity and species diversity at the ecosystem level, mussel beds themselves are not universal centres of biodiversity, but the effects on associated species are site specific.

  19. Processes limiting mussel bed restoration in the Wadden-Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Paoli, Hélène; van de Koppel, Johan; van der Zee, Els; Kangeri, Arno; van Belzen, Jim; Holthuijsen, Sander; van den Berg, Aniek; Herman, Peter; Olff, Han; van der Heide, Tjisse

    2015-09-01

    This paper reports on experimental restoration of mussel beds in the Wadden Sea and the processes that might limit successful restoration of this foundation species (i.e. substrate, predation, hydrodynamics). The importance of substrate, predation, hydrodynamic conditions and location on mussel restoration success was studied using artificially created mussel beds. Experimental beds established on a stable substrate (coir net) were compared with control beds established on sand, at three locations in the Wadden Sea. Their persistence was followed over time. The results revealed a near disappearance of all experimental beds in just over 7 months. Providing a stable substrate did not improve mussel survival. Predation could not explain the disappearance of the beds, as the maximal predation rate by birds was found to be insufficient to have a significant effect on mussel cover. Differences in wave conditions alone could also not explain the variation in decline of mussel cover between the locations. However, the gradual disappearance of mussels from the seaward side of the bed strongly suggested that hydrodynamic conditions (i.e. combined effects of waves and current) played an important role in the poor persistence of the artificial beds. Our results highlight the fact that restoration of mussel beds in dynamic areas cannot simply be implemented by mussel transplantation, particularly if additional measures to prevent wave losses are not taken, even when artificial substrate is provided to facilitate mussel adhesion.

  20. Zebra mussel-directed foodchain transfer of environmental contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, S.W.; Bruner, K.A.; Landrum, P.F.

    1994-12-31

    Zebra mussel densities in some near-shore areas of Lake Erie exceed 500,000 individuals m{sup 3}. Because of their large biomass, the zebra mussels can collectively filter the entire volume of Lake Erie`s western basin in approximately 7 days. In so doing, the mussels remove a significant fraction of suspended particles, including algae and sediment. If those particles are contaminated with PCBs, the mussels could potentially redirect contaminant cycling in Lake Erie. Their data show that contaminated particles are a significant source of contaminants for the zebra mussel with sediment being more significant source than algae. When particles are the source of contamination for the zebra mussel, significant foodchain contamination may result from direct consumption of contaminated mussels or via an indirect route in which unassimilated contaminants are shunted into zebra mussel feces and the latter are consumed by benthic invertebrates. Trophic transfer of PCBs from zebra mussel feces to gammarids was measured. Importantly, biomagnification of some PCB congeners occurred during foodchain transfer from particles to mussels to feces such that the indirect route of transfer through ingestion of contaminated feces is more significant ecologically. Implications for Lake Erie foodchains will be discussed.

  1. Heart Rate Sensor for Freshwater Mussels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Just, C. L.; Vial, D. P.; Kruger, A.; Niemeier, J. J.; Lee, H. W.; Schroer, H. W.

    2014-12-01

    Researchers have long been interested the cardiac activity of mollusks. First, it is important as a basic measure of the animal's metabolism. Further, activities such as feeding and burrowing affect heart rate, as do environmental factors such as water salinity, water temperature, exposure, and predation. We have developed a small, noninvasive sensor for measuring freshwater mussel heart rate. Its working principle is as follows. An infrared (IR) light-emitting diode is placed in contact with the mussel shell. Some of the IR penetrates through the shell, reflects off internal organs, and traverses back. A photodetector detects this IR, and electronics condition the signal. The heartbeat of the animal modulates the IR, allowing one to measure the heart rate. The technique is widely-used in finger heart-rate monitors in humans. The sensors do not have to be positioned above the heart and several locations on the mussel shell work well. The sensor is small (8 mm × 10 mm) and consumes less than 1 mA, and has a simple one-wire interface that allows for easy integration into data acquisition hardware. We present heart rate measurements for the common pocketbook (lampsilis cardium) freshwater mussel.

  2. Unique alloys prevent zebra mussel attachment

    SciTech Connect

    Ranschaert, B.; Maxson, D.

    1995-10-01

    This article describes cooperative research and application by a utility and an intake screen manufacturer of materials that are resistive to fouling by mussels. The article describes the intake structure, the screen manufacturer`s efforts to identify resistive materials, manufacture and installation of screens using the resistive copper alloys and the results achieved.

  3. Zebra Mussel Monitoring and Control Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Zebra Mussel Monitoring and Control Guide is a comprehensive compilation of US and European practices as reported in the open literature as of the end of 1992. EPRI considers the guide to be a living' document and will update it periodically in order to provide results of current research on chemical and nonchemical control technologies and utility experiences. The zebra mussel has infested all of the Great Lakes and other major rivers and waterways and is positioned to spread even more to the adjoining river basins. The impact of the zebra mussel on industrial power plantsis as a biofouler that clogs water systems and heat exchangers. This EPRI guideline identifies the zebra mussel, discusses its distribution in the United States, presents the potential threats to power plants, and presents the methods to initiate monitoring and control programs. Both preventive and corrective measures are presented. Preventive measures include various monitoring methods to initiate control techniques. The control techniques include both chemical and nonchemical together with combining techniques. Corrective methods include operational considerations, chemical cleaning, and mechanical/physical cleaning. It also may be possible to incorporate design changes, such as open to closed-loop backfit, backflushing, or pretreatment for closed systems. Various appendices are included that contain specifications to aid utilities in implementing several of the monitoring and control technologies, results of chemical evaluations at Cleveland Electric Illuminating Company plants, and data on the fate of various commercial molluscicides.

  4. Zebra mussel control using acoustic energy

    SciTech Connect

    Tiller, G.W.; Gaucher, T.A.; Menezes, J.K.; Dolat, S.W. )

    1992-01-01

    A practical and economical device or method that reduces zebra mussel colonization without detrimental side effects is highly desirable. An ideal method is one that could be installed near, on, or in existing raw water intakes and conduits. It must have a known effect that is limited to a defined area, should have maximum effects on a targeted species, and preferably have a low life cycle cost than the current alternative methods of control and maintenance. Underwater sound could be such a desirable solution, if found to be an effective control measure for zebra mussels. Although sound most often applies specifically to acoustic energy that is audible to humans, 20 Hertz (Hz) to 20 kiloHertz (kHz), in this report we will use the terms sound and acoustic to include acoustic energy between 100 Hz and 100 MegaHertz (MHz). This research on zebra mussel biofouling is designed to effect the early developmental stages in the life cycle of Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas). Vulnerable stages in the development of D. polymorpha that might yield to site-specific acoustic deterrence measures include the free-swimming larval veliger stage, the postveliger pre-attachment demersal stage, and the immediate post-attachment stage. The proposed applications include surface treatment to prevent, reduce or eliminate colonization on underwater structures, and the stream treatment to reduce or eliminate (destroy) mussel larvae entrained in a moving volume of water.

  5. Immune Response in Mussels To Environmental Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Stephen C.; Facher, Evan

    1997-01-01

    Describes the use of mussels in measuring the extent of chemical contamination and its variation in different coastal regions. Presents an experiment to introduce students to immune response and the effects of environmental pollution on marine organisms. Contains 14 references. (JRH)

  6. Control of zebra mussels with ultraviolet radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, D.P.

    1998-07-01

    This paper presents the results of research on the effects of low and medium pressure ultraviolet (UV) radiation on zebra mussel mortality carried out between 1992 and 1995. An initial 1992 study, carried out by Aquatic Sciences (ASI), showed that flow-through UV systems have the ability to kill zebra mussels and prevent them from attaching to downstream surfaces. However, this work did not include expanded testing to determine the limitations of UV radiation at higher flow rates or to further define effective working parameters. The 1994 study was carried out at the Lennox Thermal Generating Station (TGS) of Ontario Hydro in Kingston, Ontario. This study involved the testing of two open channel UV systems (medium and low pressure) in an effort to determine flow rates and volumes for which UV disinfection would be effective and practical for the prevention of zebra mussel infestation. It was recommended that medium pressure (MP) and low pressure (LP) UV systems be tested for their ability to control downstream settlement of zebra mussels, in flow-through trials.

  7. An updated molecular basis for mussel immunity.

    PubMed

    Gerdol, Marco; Venier, Paola

    2015-09-01

    Non-self recognition with the consequent tolerance or immune reaction is a crucial process to succeed as living organisms. At the same time the interactions between host species and their microbiome, including potential pathogens and parasites, significantly contribute to animal life diversity. Marine filter-feeding bivalves, mussels in particular, can survive also in heavily anthropized coastal waters despite being constantly surrounded by microorganisms. Based on the first outline of the Mytilus galloprovincialis immunome dated 2011, the continuously growing transcript data and the recent release of a draft mussel genome, we explored the available sequence data and scientific literature to reinforce our knowledge on the main gene-encoded elements of the mussel immune responses, from the pathogen recognition to its clearance. We carefully investigated molecules specialized in the sensing and targeting of potential aggressors, expected to show greater molecular diversification, and outlined, whenever relevant, the interconnected cascades of the intracellular signal transduction. Aiming to explore the diversity of extracellular, membrane-bound and intracellular pattern recognition receptors in mussel, we updated a highly complex immune system, comprising molecules which are described here in detail for the first time (e.g. NOD-like receptors) or which had only been partially characterized in bivalves (e.g. RIG-like receptors). Overall, our comparative sequence analysis supported the identification of over 70 novel full-length immunity-related transcripts in M. galloprovincialis. Nevertheless, the multiplicity of gene functions relevant to immunity, the involvement of part of them in other vital processes, and also the lack of a refined mussel genome make this work still not-exhaustive and support the development of more specific studies. PMID:25700785

  8. Establishing mussel behavior as a biomarker in ecotoxicology.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Jason T; Beggel, Sebastian; Auerswald, Karl; Stoeckle, Bernhard C; Geist, Juergen

    2016-01-01

    Most freshwater mussel species of the Unionoida are endangered, presenting a conservation issue as they are keystone species providing essential services for aquatic ecosystems. As filter feeders with limited mobility, mussels are highly susceptible to water pollution. Despite their exposure risk, mussels are underrepresented in standard ecotoxicological methods. This study aimed to demonstrate that mussel behavioral response to a chemical stressor is a suitable biomarker for the advancement of ecotoxicology methods that aids mussel conservation. Modern software and Hall sensor technology enabled mussel filtration behavior to be monitored real-time at very high resolution. With this technology, we present our method using Anodonta anatina and record their response to de-icing salt pollution. The experiment involved an environmentally relevant 'pulse-exposure' design simulating three subsequent inflow events. Three sublethal endpoints were investigated, Filtration Activity, Transition Frequency (number of changes from opened to closed, or vice versa) and Avoidance Behavior. The mussels presented a high variation in filtration behavior, behaving asynchronously. At environmentally relevant de-icing salt exposure scenarios, A. anatina behavior patterns were significantly affected. Treated mussels' Filtration Activity decreased during periods of very high and long de-icing salt exposure (p<0.001), however, increased during short de-icing salt exposure. Treated mussels' Transition Frequency increased during periods of very high and long de-icing salt exposure (p<0.001), which mirrored the Avoidance Behavior endpoint observed only by mussels under chemical stress. Characteristics of Avoidance Behavior were tighter shell closures with repeated and irregular shell movements which was significantly different to their undisturbed resting behavior (p<0.001). Additionally, we found that mussels were sensitive to a chemical stressor even when the mussel's valves were closed. Due

  9. The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha), a new pest in North America: reproductive mechanisms as possible targets of control strategies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ram, Jeffrey L.; Fong, Peter; Croll, Roger P.; Nichols, Susan J.; Wall, Darcie

    1992-01-01

    The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) has spread rapidly in temperate fresh waters of North America since its introduction into the Great Lakes in 1985 or 1986. It attaches to hard substrates, forming layers, occluding water intakes, encrusting and killing native mussels, filtering algae in competition with other planktivores, and possibly interfering with fish spawning. It reproduces prolifically, suggesting that an approach to its control may be by controlling its reproduction. Previous literature suggests that spawning in bivalves is regulated by both environmental and internal chemical cues. A suggested sequence is that phytoplankton chemicals initially trigger spawning; chemicals associated with gametes provide a species-specific pheromonal positive feedback for spawning; and the response to environmental chemicals is mediated internally by serotonin (5-HT). The role of 5-HT in zebra mussels is under investigation. Both males and females can be induced to spawn by either injection or external application of 5-HT. The response can also be activated by 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)-tetralin, an agonist at 5-HT1A receptors. HPLC analysis has detected 5-HT as the major biogenic amine in both male and female gonads. 5-HT immunocytochemistry demonstrates nerves containing serotonergic fibers innervating gonads of both males and females, with prominent varicosities surrounding the follicles in both sexes. A role of 5-HT in mediating spawning responses in zebra mussels is thus strongly supported. These studies have shown that reproductive behavior of zebra mussels can be modified by outside chemicals, a property that may be exploited for purposes of control.

  10. The quagga mussel crisis at Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Nevada (U.S.A.).

    PubMed

    Hickey, Valerie

    2010-08-01

    Parks are cornerstones of conservation; and non-native invasive species drive extensive changes to biological diversity in parks. Knowing this, national park staff at Lake Mead National Recreation Area in the southwestern United States had a program in place for early detection of the non-native, invasive quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis). Upon finding the mussel in January 2007, managers moved quickly to access funding and the best available science to implement a response. Managers considered four options--doing nothing, closing the park, restricting movement on the lakes, and educating and enforcing park visitors--and decided to focus on education and enforcing existing laws. Nonetheless, quagga spread throughout the park and soon began to appear throughout the western United States. I examined why efforts to control the expansion failed and determined the general lessons to be learned from this case. Concentrating human visitation on the lakes through land-use zoning opened a pathway for invasion, reduced management options, and led to the rapid spread of quagga. To reconcile competing mandates to protect nature and provide recreation, zoning in parks has become a common practice worldwide. It reduces stress on some areas of a park by restricting and thus concentrating human activity in particular areas. Concentrating the human activity in one area does three things: cements pathways that repeatedly import and export vectors of non-native invasive species; creates the disturbed area necessary to enable non-native invasive species to gain a foothold; and, establishes a source of invasions that, without appropriate controls, can quickly spread to a park's wilderness areas. PMID:20337691

  11. Mussel beds — amensalism or amelioration for intertidal fauna?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmann, Sabine

    1990-09-01

    The faunal assemblages of a mussel bed ( Mytilus edulis L.) and ambient sandflat were compared to study how a bioherm of suspension feeding organisms affects benthic communities in a tidal flat. During a survey of mussel beds in the Wadden Sea at the island of Sylt (North Sea), a total of 52 macrofaunal species and 44 meiobenthic plathelminth species were detected. They occupied different microhabitats in the mussel bed. 56% of the macrofauna species were dwelling in the sediment beneath the mussels and 42% were epibenthic or epiphytic. The latter were restricted in their occurrence to the mussel bed. Along a transect from the sandflat to the mussel bed the mean species densities of macrofauna did not differ significantly, while abundances were significantly lower in the mussel bed than in the sandflat. The composition of the assemblages shifted from a dominance of Polychaeta in the sandflat to Oligochaeta in the mussel bed. Surface filter-feeding polychaetes of the sandflat ( Tharyx marioni) were displaced by deposit feeding polychaetes under the mussel cover ( Capitella capitata, Heteromastus filiformis). The total meiobenthic density was lower and single taxa (Ostracoda, Plathelminthes, Nematoda) were significantly less abundant in the mud of the mussel bed. The plathelminth assemblage was dominated by grazing species ( Archaphanostoma agile), and differed in community structure from a sandflat aseemblage. An amensalistic relationship was found between the suspension-feeding mussels and suspension-feeding infauna, while deposit-feeders were enhanced. The presence of epibenthic microhabitats results in a variety of trophic groups co-occurring in a mussel bed. This is hypothesized as trophic group amelioration and described as an attribute of heterotrophic reefs.

  12. Extirpation of freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae) following the invasion of dreissenid mussels in an interconnecting river of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Don W.; Metcalfe-Smith, Janice L.; Kovalak, William P.; Longton, Gary D.; Smithee, Rick D.

    2006-01-01

    Previous (1992-1994) surveys for native freshwater mussels (Unionidae) along main channels of the Detroit River showed that unionids had been extirpated from all but four sites in the upper reaches of the river due to impacts of dreissenid mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and D. bugensis). These four sites were surveyed again in 1998 using the same sampling method (timed-random searches) to determine if they may serve as ''refugia'' where unionids and dreissenids co-exist. Two additional sites were sampled using additional methods (excavated-quadrat and line-transect searches) for comparison with unpublished data collected in 1987 and 1990. A total of four individuals of four species (Actinonaias ligamentina, Cyclonaias tuberculata, Lasmigona complanata and Pleurobema sintoxia) were found by timed-random searches at four sites in 1998 compared to 720 individuals of 24 species in 1992 and 39 individuals of 13 species in 1994. Excavated-quadrat and line-transect searches at the two additional sites yielded only one live specimen of Ptychobranchus fasciolaris compared to 288 individuals of 18 species in 1987 and 1990. Results of this study suggest that remaining densities of unionids in channels of the Detroit River are too low to support viable reproducing populations of any species. Therefore, we conclude that unionids have been extirpated from main channels of the Detroit River due to dreissenid infestation. As the Detroit River was one of the first water bodies in North America to be invaded by dreissenids, it is likely that unionids will also be extirpated from many other rivers and lakes across eastern North America over the next few decades. Resource agencies should be encouraged to implement active management programs to protect remaining unionid populations from zebra mussels.

  13. Factors Affecting Zebra Mussel Kill by the Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2004-02-24

    The specific purpose of this research project was to identify factors that affect zebra mussel kill by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Test results obtained during this three-year project identified the following key variables as affecting mussel kill: treatment concentration, treatment duration, mussel siphoning activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and naturally suspended particle load. Using this latter information, the project culminated in a series of pipe tests which achieved high mussel kill inside power plants under once-through conditions using service water in artificial pipes.

  14. The interaction between sediment, hydraulics and mussels in a river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzwälder, Kordula

    2015-04-01

    Sarah Scholtissek Technische Universität München, Hydraulic and Water Resources Engineering, München, Germany Peter Rutschmann Technische Universität München, Hydraulic and Water Resources Engineering, München, Germany Bottom structures in rivers are not only depending on the current profile, turbulence in the flow and other hydraulic conditions, but also on the biota living in the river like e.g. mussels. There is also some influence of the sediment on the biota and their decision where they settle and so on. The interaction between the current, the mussels and the sediment is actually not very well known, especially in fresh waters. Therefore experiments were cunducted in a flume in the lab in Obernach to gain more information about these interactions. The mussels used for these experiments are painters mussels (Unio Pictorum). These mussels are widely spreaded in European fresh waters, but their behaviour is also comparable to mussels which are more sensitive and therefore rare like the pearl mussel (Margaritifera Margaritifera). In the experiments 15 individuals are monitored how they move and spread in the flume. Then the hydraulic conditions and the sediment around the mussels are measured with laser scanning and PIV (particle image velocimetry). with the help of these measurement techniques it is possible to do contactless measurements even of the small eddies around and caused by the mussels which exist only for a very short time but have an enormous effect on the sediment.

  15. A sampling method for conducting relocation studies with freshwater mussels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waller, D.L.; Rach, J.J.; Cope, W.G.; Luoma, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Low recovery of transplanted mussels often prevents accurate estimates of survival. We developed a method that provided a high recovery of transplanted mussels and allowed for a reliable assessment of mortality. A 3 x 3 m polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe grid was secured to the sediment with iron reinforcing bars. The grid was divided into nine 1-m super(2) segments and each treatment segment, was stocked with 100 marked mussels. The recovery of mussels after six months exceeded 80% in all but one treatment group.

  16. Mussel adhesion is dictated by time-regulated secretion and molecular conformation of mussel adhesive proteins

    PubMed Central

    Petrone, Luigi; Kumar, Akshita; Sutanto, Clarinda N.; Patil, Navinkumar J.; Kannan, Srinivasaraghavan; Palaniappan, Alagappan; Amini, Shahrouz; Zappone, Bruno; Verma, Chandra; Miserez, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Interfacial water constitutes a formidable barrier to strong surface bonding, hampering the development of water-resistant synthetic adhesives. Notwithstanding this obstacle, the Asian green mussel Perna viridis attaches firmly to underwater surfaces via a proteinaceous secretion (byssus). Extending beyond the currently known design principles of mussel adhesion, here we elucidate the precise time-regulated secretion of P. viridis mussel adhesive proteins. The vanguard 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (Dopa)-rich protein Pvfp-5 acts as an adhesive primer, overcoming repulsive hydration forces by displacing surface-bound water and generating strong surface adhesion. Using homology modelling and molecular dynamics simulations, we find that all mussel adhesive proteins are largely unordered, with Pvfp-5 adopting a disordered structure and elongated conformation whereby all Dopa residues reside on the protein surface. Time-regulated secretion and structural disorder of mussel adhesive proteins appear essential for optimizing extended nonspecific surface interactions and byssus' assembly. Our findings reveal molecular-scale principles to help the development of wet-resistant adhesives. PMID:26508080

  17. Mussel adhesion is dictated by time-regulated secretion and molecular conformation of mussel adhesive proteins.

    PubMed

    Petrone, Luigi; Kumar, Akshita; Sutanto, Clarinda N; Patil, Navinkumar J; Kannan, Srinivasaraghavan; Palaniappan, Alagappan; Amini, Shahrouz; Zappone, Bruno; Verma, Chandra; Miserez, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Interfacial water constitutes a formidable barrier to strong surface bonding, hampering the development of water-resistant synthetic adhesives. Notwithstanding this obstacle, the Asian green mussel Perna viridis attaches firmly to underwater surfaces via a proteinaceous secretion (byssus). Extending beyond the currently known design principles of mussel adhesion, here we elucidate the precise time-regulated secretion of P. viridis mussel adhesive proteins. The vanguard 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (Dopa)-rich protein Pvfp-5 acts as an adhesive primer, overcoming repulsive hydration forces by displacing surface-bound water and generating strong surface adhesion. Using homology modelling and molecular dynamics simulations, we find that all mussel adhesive proteins are largely unordered, with Pvfp-5 adopting a disordered structure and elongated conformation whereby all Dopa residues reside on the protein surface. Time-regulated secretion and structural disorder of mussel adhesive proteins appear essential for optimizing extended nonspecific surface interactions and byssus' assembly. Our findings reveal molecular-scale principles to help the development of wet-resistant adhesives. PMID:26508080

  18. Mussel adhesion is dictated by time-regulated secretion and molecular conformation of mussel adhesive proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrone, Luigi; Kumar, Akshita; Sutanto, Clarinda N.; Patil, Navinkumar J.; Kannan, Srinivasaraghavan; Palaniappan, Alagappan; Amini, Shahrouz; Zappone, Bruno; Verma, Chandra; Miserez, Ali

    2015-10-01

    Interfacial water constitutes a formidable barrier to strong surface bonding, hampering the development of water-resistant synthetic adhesives. Notwithstanding this obstacle, the Asian green mussel Perna viridis attaches firmly to underwater surfaces via a proteinaceous secretion (byssus). Extending beyond the currently known design principles of mussel adhesion, here we elucidate the precise time-regulated secretion of P. viridis mussel adhesive proteins. The vanguard 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (Dopa)-rich protein Pvfp-5 acts as an adhesive primer, overcoming repulsive hydration forces by displacing surface-bound water and generating strong surface adhesion. Using homology modelling and molecular dynamics simulations, we find that all mussel adhesive proteins are largely unordered, with Pvfp-5 adopting a disordered structure and elongated conformation whereby all Dopa residues reside on the protein surface. Time-regulated secretion and structural disorder of mussel adhesive proteins appear essential for optimizing extended nonspecific surface interactions and byssus' assembly. Our findings reveal molecular-scale principles to help the development of wet-resistant adhesives.

  19. Metabolomics analysis of shucked mussels' freshness.

    PubMed

    Aru, Violetta; Pisano, Maria Barbara; Savorani, Francesco; Engelsen, Søren Balling; Cosentino, Sofia; Cesare Marincola, Flaminia

    2016-08-15

    In this work a NMR metabolomics approach was applied to analyze changes in the metabolic profile of the bivalve mollusk Mytilus galloprovincialis upon storage at 0°C and 4°C for 10 and 6 days, respectively. The most significant microbial groups involved in spoilage of mussels were also investigated. The time-related metabolic signature of mussels was analysed by Orthogonal Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) which revealed a clear discrimination between the fresh samples and those stored at 0°C and 4°C. The results evidenced a noticeable increase in acetate, lactate, succinate, alanine, branched chain amino acids, trimethylamine and a progressive decline of osmolytes like betaine, homarine and taurine during storage. Exploration of the correlations of these metabolites with microbial counts suggested their use as potential biomarkers of spoilage. The results support the use of NMR metabolomics as a valuable tool to provide information on seafood freshness. PMID:27006214

  20. Ocean acidification impacts mussel control on biomineralisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzer, Susan C.; Phoenix, Vernon R.; Cusack, Maggie; Kamenos, Nicholas A.

    2014-08-01

    Ocean acidification is altering the oceanic carbonate saturation state and threatening the survival of marine calcifying organisms. Production of their calcium carbonate exoskeletons is dependent not only on the environmental seawater carbonate chemistry but also the ability to produce biominerals through proteins. We present shell growth and structural responses by the economically important marine calcifier Mytilus edulis to ocean acidification scenarios (380, 550, 750, 1000 µatm pCO2). After six months of incubation at 750 µatm pCO2, reduced carbonic anhydrase protein activity and shell growth occurs in M. edulis. Beyond that, at 1000 µatm pCO2, biomineralisation continued but with compensated metabolism of proteins and increased calcite growth. Mussel growth occurs at a cost to the structural integrity of the shell due to structural disorientation of calcite crystals. This loss of structural integrity could impact mussel shell strength and reduce protection from predators and changing environments.

  1. Zebra mussel infestation of unionid bivalves (Unionidae) in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Don W.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Mackie, Gerald L.

    1996-01-01

    In 1989, zebra mussels received national attention in North America when they reached densities exceeding 750,000/m2 in a water withdrawal facility along the shore of western Lake Erie of the Laurentian Great Lakes. Although water withdrawal problems caused by zebra mussels have been of immediate concern, ecological impacts attributed to mussels are likely to be the more important long-term issue for surface waters in North America. To date, the epizoic colonization (i.e., infestation) of unionid bivalve mollusks by zebra mussels has caused the most direct and severe ecological impact. Infestation of and resulting impacts caused by zebra mussels on unionids in the Great Lakes began in 1988. By 1990, mortality of unionids was occurring at some locations; by 1991, extant populations of unionids in western Lake Erie were nearly extirpated; by 1992, unionid populations in the southern half of Lake St. Clair were extirpated; by 1993, unionids in widely separated geographic areas of the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River showed high mortality due to mussel infestation. All infested unionid species in the Great Lakes (23) have become infested and exhibited mortality within two to four years after heavy infestation began. Data indicate that mean zebra mussel densities >5,000–6,000/m2 and infestation intensities >100-200/unionid in the presence of heavy zebra mussel recruitment results in near total mortality of unionids. At present, all unionid species in rivers, streams, and akes that sympatrically occur with zebra mussels have been infested and, in many locations, negatively impacted by zebra mussels. We do not know the potential consequences of infestation on the 297 unionid species found in North America, but believe zebra mussels pose an immediate threat to the abundance and diversity of unionids.

  2. Rope can help with early detection of zebra mussels

    SciTech Connect

    McNabb, C.

    1993-06-01

    Many of the waters in the western US meet all the ecological requirements of suitable habitat for zebra mussels, which can spread to new bodies of water by attaching to boats. With that in mind, Reclamation has launched Zebra Mussel Watch, a program aimed at early detection of the mussel in western waters. As part of the watch program, Reclamation suggests attaching one end of a rope to a weight such as a brock, rick, or cinder block, and placing the weight in shallow water to detect the arrival of zebra mussels. Any kind of rope will do, but nylon is preferred because small mussels are easier to distinguish on nylon's smooth surface than on ropes with rough surfaces. Young mussels smaller than the head of a common straight pin are transparent when they first settle and probably will not be visible to the naked eye for several weeks, when they are larger and they take on the appearance of small, dark-colored clams. [Note: over time, algae, bacteria, and debris will cause the rope to darken. So the color of the rope used doesn't make much difference.] Hang a rope in 8 feet or less of well-oxygenated water where wave action will not move the bottom of the rope to any great degree. (Zebra mussels like slow currents and will not attach where the current is moving 4 to 5 feet per second or faster.) Leave the rope in the water two or three weeks to allow microorganisms to grow on it. Young mussels will settle on surfaces that are coated with algae and other microscopic organisms. Then, at two- to three-week intervals, lift the rope and examine it for young mussels. If adults are around, the young eventually will show up. Reclamation believes that by detecting the first arrival of the mussels, it can implement plans to control the spread of the mussels and alert nearby projects to the approaching menace.

  3. Mussel byssus attachment weakened by ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, Michael J.; George, Matthew N.; Carrington, Emily

    2013-06-01

    Biomaterials connect organisms to their environments. Their function depends on biological, chemical and environmental factors, both at the time of creation and throughout the life of the material. Shifts in the chemistry of the oceans driven by anthropogenic CO2 (termed ocean acidification) have profound implications for the function of critical materials formed under these altered conditions. Most ocean acidification studies have focused on one biomaterial (secreted calcium carbonate), frequently using a single assay (net rate of calcification) to quantify whether reductions in environmental pH alter how organisms create biomaterials. Here, we examine biological structures critical for the success of ecologically and economically important bivalve molluscs. One non-calcified material, the proteinaceous byssal threads that anchor mytilid mussels to hard substrates, exhibited reduced mechanical performance when secreted under elevated pCO2 conditions, whereas shell and tissue growth were unaffected. Threads made under high pCO2 (>1,200μatm) were weaker and less extensible owing to compromised attachment to the substratum. According to a mathematical model, this reduced byssal fibre performance, decreasing individual tenacity by 40%. In the face of ocean acidification, weakened attachment presents a potential challenge for suspension-culture mussel farms and for intertidal communities anchored by mussel beds.

  4. Fluoranthene transport in mussel blood plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Lazinsky, D.; Robinson, W.E.

    1995-12-31

    The role of mussel (Mytilus edulis) blood plasma in fluoranthene transport was investigated using in vitro binding studies and invivo exposure studies. In vitro binding studies on fluoranthene-spiked plasma utilized dialysis, ultrafiltration and fluorescence quenching. A significant degree of fluoranthene binding was observed with all the methods; as much 99.7% of the fluoranthene was bound to plasma proteins. Conditional affinity constants (log K{sub a}), calculated using a single component complexation model, averaged 6.8 M{sup {minus}1} suggesting a moderate affinity interaction between fluoranthene and plasma proteins. Mussels were exposed in vivo to {sup 3}H-fluoranthene and blood and tissues were sampled at 0.5, 3.5, 7, 24, 72 h post exposure. The mussels removed an average of 90% of the fluoranthene from the seawater within the first 0.5 h of exposure. Body tissues rapidly accumulated fluoranthene. Approximately 50% of the absorbed dose was present in the tissues by 0.5 h and this increased to 96% by 3.5 h of exposure. Within the blood, fluoranthene was mainly partitioned in the plasma. Plasma fluoranthene decreased to 50% within 3.5 h. The fluoranthene distribution remained relatively constant throughout the remainder of the 72 h exposure. Ultrafiltration of plasma exposed in vivo indicated that fluoranthene was not free, but bound to plasma proteins. The plasma protein concentrations fluctuated during exposure, but were virtually the same at 0.5 h and 72 h post exposure.

  5. Zebra mussel control with backwash filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Dardeau, E.A. Jr.; Bivens, T.

    1995-12-31

    Zebra Mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) were found in North American waters in 1988 at Lake St. Clair, Michigan, when a ship from a European freshwater port released its ballast water. These organisms quickly spread from the Great Lakes to many midwestern, eastern, and southern streams and lakes. As macrofoulers, they quickly colonize new areas on many natural and artificial substrates. Zebra mussels clog intakes, piping, and screens. Power production facilities that withdraw large quantities of raw water to generate electricity and cool critical components are especially vulnerable. Many control strategies have been proposed and tested; however, not all of them are environmentally acceptable. The US Army Corps of Engineers, under the auspices of the Nonindigenous Aquatic Nuisance Prevention and Control Act of 1990, has initiated a research program to control zebra mussels at public facilities. One test being conducted under this research program is a cooperative effort between the Corps` Nashville District, the Corps` Waterways Experiment Station, and several other agencies. The test involves the design and test of a backwash filtration system for a hydropower project in the Cumberland River Basin. The preliminary design, based on lessons learned from associated tests, is discussed. In addition, recommendations for future use are presented.

  6. Relationships between community structure of freshwater mussels and host fishes in a central Ohio watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The diversity of freshwater mussel communities has declined over the past several decades within watersheds in the Midwestern United States. Host fishes play an important role in the life cycle of freshwater mussels because they serve as hosts for parasitic mussel larvae to ensure successful mussel ...

  7. Invasion of the Zebra Mussels: A Mock Trial Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Judy A.; Czerniak, Charlene M.

    2005-01-01

    In this activity, students learn about the important topic of invasive species, specifically Zebra Mussels. Students role-play different characters in a real-life situation: the trial of the Zebra Mussel for unlawful disruption of the Great Lakes ecosystem. Students will also learn about jurisprudential inquiry by examining the trial process. This…

  8. Reducing costly zebra mussel infestations at power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Smythe, G.

    1994-10-01

    The fast-spreading-zebra mussel has significant potential to foul intakes and other water systems at North American hydro projects. Chemical controls can be effective in reducing infestations, but most have environmental and other drawbacks. Several non-chemical methods promise to help project operators reduce problems associated with the mussels.

  9. In situ assessment of genotoxicity using caged freshwater mussels

    SciTech Connect

    Black, M.C.; Westerfield, S.M.

    1995-12-31

    In recent years a decline in mussel populations has been documented in many areas, particularly in contaminated environments. Mussels are particularly vulnerable to exposure to xenobiotics in sediment and/or water because of their modes of feeding and respiration and close association with sediments. Because of this potential for exposure, their apparent sensitivity to xenobiotics, and their ease in collection and handling, mussels are an excellent species for in situ biomonitoring. Recently the authors have adapted an electrophoretic assay for detecting DNA strand breakage in freshwater mussels. Using this assay DNA damage was quantified in selected tissues in two mussel species, Quadrula quadrula and Anodonta grandis, following subchronic laboratory exposures to lead and benzo[a]pyrene. Current experiments involve exposing mussels in situ in polyethylene cages and exposure racks in several environments containing genotoxic agents, including a fly ash settling pond and a site contaminated with mercury. Mussels will be exposed for 1 week to 3 months and sampled at 2 to 4week intervals. Upon removal mussels will be dissected, and mantle, adductor muscle, and foot tissue will be analyzed for DNA strand breakage and xenobiotic residues. These data will be compared with laboratory exposures to single compounds conducted over the same exposure durations.

  10. IMPACT OF WATER PH ON ZEBRA MUSSEL MORTALITY

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2002-10-15

    The experiments conducted this past quarter have suggested that the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL0145A is effective at killing zebra mussels throughout the entire range of pH values tested (7.2 to 8.6). Highest mortality was achieved at pH values characteristic of preferred zebra mussel waterbodies, i.e., hard waters with a range of 7.8 to 8.6. In all water types tested, however, ranging from very soft to very hard, considerable mussel kill was achieved (83 to 99% mean mortality), suggesting that regardless of the pH or hardness of the treated water, significant mussel kill can be achieved upon treatment with P. fluorescens strain CL0145A. These results further support the concept that this bacterium has significant potential for use as a zebra mussel control agent in power plant pipes receiving waters with a wide range of physical and chemical characteristics.

  11. Cumberlandian Mollusk Conservation Program. Activity 1: mussel distribution surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlstedt, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    The distribution of Cumberlandian mollusks in the Tennessee Valley is one of nine research activities developed as part of TVA's Cumberlandian Mollusk Conservation Program (CMCP). The name Cumberlandian refers to an endemic faunal assemblage that encompasses portions of 7 states bordering the southern Appalachian Mountains and the Cumberland Plateau Region. This geographic region is known as one of the major centers for mussel speciation and is considered the most prolific areas of the world for this particular group of organisms. Nine Tennessee Valley streams were selected for intensive qualitative and quantitative mussel surveys under Activity I of the CMCP. The surveys were designed to gather information on the present distribution of Cumberlandian mollusks. The streams chosen for surveys were based on the documented presence of diverse mussel fauna, endangered mussels, and/or sufficient information (diverse fish fauna, good water quality, etc.) to suggest potential for occurrence of diverse mussel fauna or endangered species.

  12. Evaluation of the mussel fishery in Wheeler Reservoir, Tennessee River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, Zack H.; Malvestuto, S. P.; Davies, W. D.; Crance, J. H.

    1994-01-01

    We evaluated the freshwater mussel fishery on Wheeler Reservoir, a 27,155-hectare mainstream impoundment of the Tennessee River in Alabama. During July 1991 through June 1992, we used a roving creel survey to conduct 285 interviews over 57 weekdays and 12 weekend days. Total harvest during the 12-month survey period was estimated to be 570 metric tons, and included 15 mussel species. The most frequently harvested species were the washboard Megalonaias nervosa. Ohio pigtoe Pleurobema cordatum, and butterfly Ellipsaria lineolata. Harvest peaked in June at 290,414 mussels. Among collection techniques, total estimated effort was highest for divers (71,160 musseler-hours). The total estimated value of the 12-month mussel harvest (in terms of money paid to harvesters) from Wheeler Reservoir was US$2,119,921.

  13. California sea mussel and bay mussel: Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Southwest)

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, W.N.; Hassler, T.J.; Moran, D.P.

    1988-09-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, distribution, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. They are prepared to assist in environmental impact assessment. The California sea mussel, Mytilus californianus, and the bay mussel, M. edulis, are commonly collected for bait. Some commercial landing and aquaculture occurs at a very low level of production. Both species are distributed along the California coast; the sea mussel is more commonly found on intertidal coastal rocks and the bay mussel on pilings and other hard substrates in bays and estuaries. The eggs of both species develop into a trochophore stage in 12--24 hours after fertilization, and the planktonic larval stage lasts 3--4 weeks. Sexual maturity can occur in one year. Spawning of the sea mussel occurs sporadically throughout the year; the bay mussel spawns in central California in late fall and winter. Maximum length is 120--150 mm for the bay mussel and 200--250 mm for the sea mussel. Both species are regarded as unsafe to eat from May 1 to October 31 due to the possible presence of paralytic shellfish poisoning. 55 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Native American Discursive Tactic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Jason Edward

    2013-01-01

    This essay derives from a course called ‘"The Rhetoric of Native America,’" which is a historical-critical survey of Native American primary texts. The course examines the rhetoric employed by Natives to enact social change and to build community in the face of exigencies. The main goal of exploring a native text (particularly, Simon Pokagon's…

  15. A major protein precursor of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) byssus: deduced sequence and significance.

    PubMed

    Anderson, K E; Waite, J H

    1998-04-01

    The zebra mussel is a nonindigenous invader of North American lakes and rivers and one of the few freshwater bivalve molluscs having a byssus--a sclerotized organ used by the mussel for opportunistic attachment to hard surfaces. We have sequenced a foot-specific cDNA whose composite protein sequence was deduced from a series of overlapping but occasionally nonidentical cDNA fragments. The overall deduced sequence matches tryptic peptides from a major byssal precursor protein--Dreissena polymorpha foot protein 1 (Dpfp1). The calculated mass of Dpfp1 is 49 kDa; but this is known to be extensively hydroxylated and O-glycosylated during maturation. Purified native Dpfp1 analyzed using matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization mass spectrometry with time-of-flight indicates that the protein occurs as at least two size variants with masses of 48.6 and 54.5 kDa. In all probability, the sequence variants reported in this study are related to the larger mass variant. Dpfp1 has a block copolymer-like structure defined by two consensus motifs that are sharply segregated into domains. The N-terminal side of Dpfp1 has 22 tandem repeats of a heptapeptide consensus (P-[V/E]-Y-P-[T/S/delta]-[K/Q]-X); the C-terminal side has 16 repeats of a tridecapeptide motif (K-P-G-P-Y-D-Y-D-G-P-Y-D-K). Both consensus repeats are unique, with some limited homology to other proteins functioning in tension: marine mussel adhesives, plant extensins, titin, and trematode eggshell precursors. PMID:9604314

  16. Water and sediment toxicity of freshwater mussels from population crashes of Asiatic clams

    SciTech Connect

    Scheller, J.L.; Cherry, D.S.; Yeager, M.M.; Lynde, S.R.; Shepard, N.D.

    1994-12-31

    The Clinch River watershed in Virginia contains one of the most diverse communities of freshwater bivalves or unionids in North America. These communities are becoming depleted over the past few decades due to various point (industrial, municipal) and nonpoint (roadside and agricultural runoff) discharges. By the latter 1980`s, the Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) had invaded most reaches of this system and may be becoming a contributing factor to the demise of native mussels by the natural release of toxic ammonia from dense population crashes during late summer, low flow conditions. When densities surpassed 1,500 clams/m{sup 2}, crashes resulting in >99% mortality have been observed in various areas of the river. Total ammonia release from dying clams reached and sustained 70 mg/L for several days in laboratory artificial stream experiments. These ammonia levels resulted in acute toxicity and reproductive chronic impairment to Daphnia magna in 10-day sediment toxicity tests. Pediveliger larvae of Corbicula were acutely sensitive (48 hr LC{sub 50}) to 1.72 mg/L total ammonia (O.05 mg/L unionized), mortality was 100% to juvenile and adult clams in 9 to 13 days at 16.1 mg/L total (0.74 mg/L unionized ammonia). Mussel glochidia were sensitive to 24-hr ammonia exposures (LC{sub 50} = 3.29 and 0.11 mg/L as total and unionized ammonia, respectively). Juvenile and adult mussels are predicted to be less sensitive members of the unionid life cycle as observed from earlier studies involving copper toxicity in the Clinch River.

  17. Comparative study of predatory responses in blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis L.) produced in suspended long line cultures or collected from natural bottom mussel beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Helle Torp; Dolmer, Per; Petersen, Jens Kjerulf; Tørring, Ditte

    2012-03-01

    Blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis L.) are a valuable resource for commercial shellfish production and may also have uses as a tool in habitat improvement, because mussel beds can increase habitat diversity and complexity. A prerequisite for both commercial mussel production and habitat improvement is the availability of seed mussels collected with minimum impact on the benthic ecosystem. To examine whether mussels collected in suspended cultures can be used for bottom culture production and as tool in habitat improvement, the differences in predatory defence responses between suspended and bottom mussels exposed to the predatory shore crab ( Carcinus maenas L.) were tested in laboratory experiments and in the field. Predatory defence responses (byssal attachment and aggregation) and morphological traits were tested in laboratory, while growth and mortality were examined in field experiments. Suspended mussels had an active response in relation to the predator by developing a significantly firmer attachment to the substrate and a closer aggregated structure. Bottom mussels had a passive strategy by having a thicker shell and larger relative size of the adductor muscle. In a field experiment mussels originated from suspended cultures had a higher length increment and lower mortality when compared to bottom mussels. It is concluded that suspended mussels potentially are an alternative resource to bottom culture and can be used in habitat improvement of mussel beds, but that the use of suspended mussels has to be tested further in large-scale field experiments.

  18. Procedures for conducting underwater searches for invasive mussels (Dreissena sp.)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, Noah

    2010-01-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) were first detected in the Great Lakes in 1988. They were likely transported as larvae or young adults inside the ballast tanks of large ocean-going ships originating from Europe. Since their introduction, they have spread throughout the Eastern, Midwestern, and Southern United States. In 2007, Quagga mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) were found in the Western United States in Lake Mead, Nevada; part of the Lower Colorado River Basin. State and Federal managers are concerned that the mussels (hereafter referred to as dreissenid mussels or mussels) will continue to spread to the Columbia River Basin and have a major impact on the region?s ecosystem, water delivery infrastructure, hydroelectric projects, and the economy. The transport and use of recreational watercraft throughout the Western United States could easily result in spreading mussels to the Columbia River Basin. The number of recreational watercraft using Lake Mead can range from 350 to 3,500 a day (Bryan Moore, National Park Service, oral commun., June 21, 2008). Because recreational watercrafts are readily moved around and mussels may survive for a period of time when they are out of the water, there is a high potential to spread mussels from Lake Mead to other waterways in the Western United States. Efforts are being made to prevent the spread of mussels; however, there is great concern that these efforts will not be 100 percent successful. When prevention efforts fail, early detection of mussels may provide an opportunity to implement rapid response management actions to minimize the impact. Control and eradication efforts are more likely to be successful if they are implemented when the density of mussels is low and the area of infestation is small. Once the population grows and becomes established, the mussels are extremely difficult, if not impossible, to control. Although chemicals may be used to kill the mussels, the chemicals that are currently

  19. Mortality of unionid bivalves (Mollusca) associated with Dreissenid mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and D. bugensis) in Presque Isle Bay, Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Don W.; Masteller, Edwin C.

    1999-01-01

    Two exotic species of dreissenid mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and D. bugensis) began to colonize bottom substrates in Presque Isle Bay, Lake Erie in 1990. By 1991, all native unionid (Unionidae) shells were infested by dreissenids. In 1990 and 1991, about 500 individual unionids of 15 species were collected: in 1992, 246 individuals of 12 species were collected; in 1993, 64 individuals of 6 species; in 1994, three individuals of three species; and in 1995, no unionids were found. In general, infestation indices of unionids were relatively low in 1990 and 1991, increased in 1992, and decreased in 1993. Mortality of unionids associated with infestation in the bay occurred in a shorter period of time (ca. two to three years) than has been documented in other water bodies. Observations in an area of Presque Isle not included in the present study, indicate that a small remnant population of unionids exists in the presence of heavily-colonized substrates by dreissenid mussels. Since other shallow-water areas of Lake Erie support infestation-free unionids in the presence of dreissenid mussels, it is hoped that some unionids will survive in Presque Isle Bay of Lake Erie.

  20. Effects of low and high salinity regimes on seasonal gametogenesis of the ribbed mussel Geukensia granosissima in coastal Louisiana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honig, Aaron; LaPeyre, Megan K.; Supan, John

    2014-01-01

    Benthic intertidal bivalves play an essential role in estuarine ecosystems by contributing to habitat provision, water filtration, and host vegetation productivity. As such, ecosystem level changes that impact population distributions and persistence of local bivalve populations may have large ecosystem level consequences, making it important to better understand the population ecology of native bivalves. In order to determine potential impacts of shifting salinity and temperature regimes along the northern Gulf of Mexico, the seasonal timing of gametogenesis in the Gulf estuarine ribbed mussel, Geukensia granossisima, was examined across a salinity gradient in southeastern Louisiana, from July 2011 through October 2012. Ten mussels were randomly sampled monthly from low (~ 5) and high (~25) salinity marsh sites in southeastern Louisiana, and histologically processed to determine the seasonal progression of gametogenesis. Peak ripeness occurred at both sites between April and September, was positively correlated with temperature, and coincided with seasonal shifts in salinity. Mussels located in lower salinity waters demonstrated a shorter period of gametogenesis, and lower rates of ripeness indicating that changes in salinity regimes may impact long-term population dynamics.

  1. Molecular ecology of zebra mussel invasions.

    PubMed

    May, Gemma E; Gelembiuk, Gregory W; Panov, Vadim E; Orlova, Marina I; Lee, Carol Eunmi

    2006-04-01

    The invasion of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, into North American waters has resulted in profound ecological disturbances and large monetary losses. This study examined the invasion history and patterns of genetic diversity among endemic and invading populations of zebra mussels using DNA sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene. Patterns of haplotype frequency indicate that all invasive populations of zebra mussels from North America and Europe originated from the Ponto-Caspian Sea region. The distribution of haplotypes was consistent with invasive populations arising from the Black Sea drainage, but could not exclude the possibility of an origin from the Caspian Sea drainage. Similar haplotype frequencies among North American populations of D. polymorpha suggest colonization by a single founding population. There was no evidence of invasive populations arising from tectonic lakes in Turkey, while lakes in Greece and Macedonia contained only Dreissena stankovici. Populations in Turkey might be members of a sibling species complex of D. polymorpha. Ponto-Caspian derived populations of D. polymorpha (theta = 0.0011) and Dreissena bugensis (one haplotype) exhibited low levels of genetic diversity at the COI gene, perhaps as a result of repeated population bottlenecks. In contrast, geographically isolated tectonic lake populations exhibited relatively high levels of genetic diversity (theta = 0.0032 to 0.0134). It is possible that the fluctuating environment of the Ponto-Caspian basin facilitated the colonizing habit of invasive populations of D. polymorpha and D. bugensis. Our findings were concordant with the general trend of destructive freshwater invaders in the Great Lakes arising from the Ponto-Caspian Sea basin. PMID:16599964

  2. Occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and eel (Anguilla anguilla) from Bizerte lagoon, Tunisia, and associated human health risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barhoumi, Badreddine; El Megdiche, Yassine; Clérandeau, Christelle; Ameur, Walid Ben; Mekni, Sabrine; Bouabdallah, Sondes; Derouiche, Abdelkader; Touil, Soufiane; Cachot, Jérôme; Driss, Mohamed Ridha

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to measure PAHs concentrations in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and fish (Anguilla anguilla) from the Bizerte lagoon (north Tunisia), and evaluate their distribution and sources, in order to provide a baseline of the state of PAH contamination in this lagoon and assess their human health risk. For this purpose, several native mussel and fish specimens were collected and analyzed using a high-performance liquid chromatography method with fluorescence detection for 15 EPA priority PAHs. PAHs levels in mussels and fish ranged from 107.4 to 430.7 ng g-1 dw and 114.5-133.7 ng g-1 dw, respectively. Naphthalene was the major component measured in mussels (31.5-272.6 ng g-1 dw) and fish (57.9-68.6 ng g-1 dw) and all specimens were classified as moderately contaminated. The PAHs composition pattern was similar for both species and was dominated by the presence of PAHs with 2- to 3-rings. The study of PAH ratios indicated a mixed petrogenic/pyrolytic origin. The health risks by consumption of these species was assessed and showed to present no threat to public health concerning PAH intakes. The results of this study would provide a useful aid for sustainable marine management in the region.

  3. Heavy metal pollution in sediments and mussels: assessment by using pollution indices and metallothionein levels.

    PubMed

    Okay, Oya S; Ozmen, Murat; Güngördü, Abbas; Yılmaz, Atilla; Yakan, Sevil D; Karacık, Burak; Tutak, Bilge; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2016-06-01

    In the present work, the concentration of eight metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) was determined in the sediments and transplanted and native mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis). The study was conducted in Turkish marinas, shipyards, and shipbreaking yards. The effect of metal pollution was evaluated by determining the levels of metallothionein (MT) in the mussels. The extent of contamination for each single metal was assessed by using the geoaccumulation index (I geo) and enrichment factor (EF). Whereas, to evaluate the overall metal pollution and effect, the pollution load index (PLI), modified contamination degree (mC d), potential toxicity response index (RI), mean effects range median (ERM) quotient (m-ERM-Q), and mean PEL quotient (m-PEL-Q) were calculated. The influence of different background values on the calculations was discussed. The results indicated a significant metal pollution caused by Cu, Pb, and Zn especially in shipyard and shipbreaking sites. Higher concentrations of MT were observed in the ship/breaking yard samples after the transplantation. PMID:27188302

  4. Refocusing Mussel Watch on contaminants of emerging concern (CECs): the California pilot study (2009-10)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maruya, Keith A.; Dodder, Nathan G.; Schaffner, Rebecca A.; Weisberg, Stephen B.; Gregorio, Dominic; Klosterhaus, Susan; Alvarez, David A.; Furlong, Edward T.; Kimbrough, Kimani L.; Lauenstein, Gunnar G.; Christensen, John D.

    2014-01-01

    To expand the utility of the Mussel Watch Program, local, regional and state agencies in California partnered with NOAA to design a pilot study that targeted contaminants of emerging concern (CECs). Native mussels (Mytilus spp.) from 68 stations, stratified by land use and discharge scenario, were collected in 2009–10 and analyzed for 167 individual pharmaceuticals, industrial and commercial chemicals and current use pesticides. Passive sampling devices (PSDs) and caged Mytilus were co-deployed to expand the list of CECs, and to assess the ability of PSDs to mimic bioaccumulation by Mytilus. A performance-based quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) approach was developed to ensure a high degree of data quality, consistency and comparability. Data management and analysis were streamlined and standardized using automated software tools. This pioneering study will help shape future monitoring efforts in California’s coastal ecosystems, while serving as a model for monitoring CECs within the region and across the nation.

  5. Network structure of the mussel plaque and its significance for load bearing and adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippidi, Emmanouela; Kim, Juntae; Waite, J. Herbert; Helgeson, Matthew; Valentine, Megan T.

    2015-03-01

    Marine mussels attach to rocks, each other, and a variety of surfaces via a flat, wide plaque that is interpenetrated by the collagen fibers of a thin, long thread that connects the plaque to the mussel body. The unusually strong adhesion of the plaque has long been attributed to the molecular design of its adhesive proteins that can form a variety of strong chemical bonds. However, the molecular energies for de-adhesion are orders of magnitude smaller than the macroscopic energies measured. We propose that the mesoscopic design of the plaque is critical in enhancing load bearing and eventually adhesion. We present new results on the structure of the plaque studied via electron microscopy and neutron scattering that exhibit a plaque geometry reminiscent of structural foams. Our studies reveal a collection of pores with an inner network, further connected with an outer network. The final structure can be described by two length scales. A synthetic soft system is constructed in an effort to mimic the two-lengthscale structure of the natural plaques. The structure of the native and synthetic systems is compared with the ultimate goal of evaluating the importance of the mesoscopic structure to mechanics and adhesion. NSF MRSEC IRG-I.

  6. Mortality of zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, veligers during downstream transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horvath, T.G.; Lamberti, G.A.

    1999-01-01

    1. Streams flowing from lakes which contain zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, provide apparently suitable habitats for mussel colonization and downstream range expansion, yet most such streams contain few adult mussels. We postulated that mussel veligers experience high mortality during dispersal via downstream transport. They tested this hypothesis in Christiana Creek, a lake-outlet stream in south-western Michigan, U.S.A., in which adult mussel density declined exponentially with distance downstream. 2. A staining technique using neutral red was developed and tested to distinguish quickly live and dead veligers. Live and dead veligers were distinguishable after an exposure of fresh samples to 13.3 mg L-1 of neutral red for 3 h. 3. Neutral red was used to determine the proportion of live veligers in samples taken longitudinally along Christiana Creek. The proportion of live veligers (mean ?? SE) declined from 90 ?? 3% at the lake outlet to 40 ?? 8% 18 km downstream. 4. Veligers appear to be highly susceptible to damage by physical forces (e.g. shear), and therefore, mortality in turbulent streams could be an important mechanism limiting zebra mussel dispersal to downstream reaches. Predictions of zebra mussel spread and population growth should consider lake-stream linkages and high mortality in running waters.

  7. Restoration of oiled mussel beds in Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Carls, Mark G; Harris, Patricia M; Rice, S D

    2004-06-01

    Natural loss of hydrocarbons was often low from mussel (Mytilus trossulus) beds (which were typically not cleaned after the Exxon Valdez oil spill), thus this habitat remained a long-term source of oil. Consequently, experimental restoration of nine contaminated beds was attempted in 1994; mussels were removed, contaminated surface sediment was replaced (33 metric tons), and original mussels were returned. Hydrocarbon concentrations and mussel populations were monitored for 5 years thereafter. Post-restoration mussel population fluctuations were indistinguishable from regional changes. Increased short-term oil loss was apparent, but long-term (5 year) improvement was equivocal and difficult to distinguish from natural losses. By 1999, oil concentrations in mussels were typically at baseline levels in restored and oiled reference beds; concentrations in replaced sediment were elevated in one third of restored beds, indicating recontamination from underlying or surrounding sediment. Our results suggest mussel relocation is feasible but suggest oil might more effectively be removed from sediment mechanically or chemically than manually. PMID:14967519

  8. Biochemical composition of three species of unionid mussels after emersion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greseth, Shari L.; Cope, W.G.; Rada, R.G.; Waller, D.L.; Bartsch, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    Freshwater mussels are emersed (exposed to air) during conservation activities such as surveys and relocations. Success of these activities depends upon the ability of mussels to survive emersion and to re-burrow in the substratum. We evaluated the acute sublethal effects of emersion on three species of unionid mussels [pocketbook, Lampsilis cardium (Rafinesque, 1820); pimpleback, Quadrula pustulosa pustulosa (I. Lea, 1831); spike, Elliptio dilatata (Rafinesque, 1820)] by measuring three biochemicals (carbohydrate, lipid, protein) indicative of biochemical function and energy storage. Mussels were acclimated in water at 25??C and exposed to five air temperatures (15, 20, 25, 35 and 45??C) for 15, 30 and 60 min. After emersion, mussels were returned to water at 25??C and observed for 14 days. Samples of mantle tissue were taken after the 14-day postexposure period and analysed for carbohydrate, lipid and protein. Three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) did not reveal consistent trends in carbohydrate, lipid or protein concentrations due to sex of mussels, duration of emersion, air temperature or their interaction terms that indicated biological compensation to stress. Overall mean carbohydrate concentrations were greatest (range 447-615 mg/g dry wt) among the species, followed by protein (179-289 mg/g dry wt) and lipids (26.7-38.1 mg/g dry wt). These results have positive implications for conducting conservation activities, because emersion over the range of temperatures (15-35??C) and durations (15-60 min) examined did not appear acutely harmful to mussels.

  9. Copper and copper-nickel alloys as zebra mussel antifoulants

    SciTech Connect

    Dormon, J.M.; Cottrell, C.M.; Allen, D.G.; Ackerman, J.D.; Spelt, J.K.

    1996-04-01

    Copper has been used in the marine environment for decades as cladding on ships and pipes to prevent biofouling by marine mussels (Mytilus edulis L.). This motivated the present investigation into the possibility of using copper to prevent biofouling in freshwater by both zebra mussels and quagga mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and D. bugensis collectively referred to as zebra mussels). Copper and copper alloy sheet proved to be highly effective in preventing biofouling by zebra mussels over a three-year period. Further studies were conducted with copper and copper-nickel mesh (lattice of expanded metal) and screen (woven wire with a smaller hole size), which reduced the amount of copper used. Copper screen was also found to be strongly biofouling-resistant with respect to zebra mussels, while copper mesh reduced zebra mussel biofouling in comparison to controls, but did not prevent it entirely. Preliminary investigations into the mechanism of copper antifouling, using galvanic couples, indicated that the release of copper ions from the surface of the exposed metal into the surrounding water is directly or indirectly responsible for the biofouling resistance of copper.

  10. Dreissenid mussels from the Great Lakes contain elevated thiaminase activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillitt, D.E.; Riley, S.C.; Evans, A.N.; Nichols, S.J.; Zajicek, J.L.; Rinchard, J.; Richter, C.A.; Krueger, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    We examined thiaminase activity in dreissenid mussels collected at different depths and seasons, and from various locations in Lakes Michigan, Ontario, and Huron. Here we present evidence that two dreissenid mussel species (Dreissena bugensis and D. polymorpha) contain thiaminase activity that is 5-100 fold greater than observed in Great Lakes fishes. Thiaminase activity in zebra mussels ranged from 10,600 to 47,900??pmol g- 1??min- 1 and activities in quagga mussels ranged from 19,500 to 223,800??pmol g- 1??min- 1. Activity in the mussels was greatest in spring, less in summer, and least in fall. Additionally, we observed greater thiaminase activity in dreissenid mussels collected at shallow depths compared to mussels collected at deeper depths. Dreissenids constitute a significant and previously unknown pool of thiaminase in the Great Lakes food web compared to other known sources of this thiamine (vitamin B1)-degrading enzyme. Thiaminase in forage fish of the Great Lakes has been causally linked to thiamine deficiency in salmonines. We currently do not know whether linkages exist between thiaminase activities observed in dreissenids and the thiaminase activities in higher trophic levels of the Great Lakes food web. However, the extreme thiaminase activities observed in dreissenids from the Great Lakes may represent a serious unanticipated negative effect of these exotic species on Great Lakes ecosystems.

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water, mussels ( Brachidontes sp., Tagelus sp.) and fish ( Odontesthes sp.) from Bahía Blanca Estuary, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, Andres H.; Spetter, Carla V.; Freije, Rubén H.; Marcovecchio, Jorge E.

    2009-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), one of the major groups of anthropogenic environmental pollutants, were firstly identified and measured in coastal waters, native mussels and fish of an industrialized South American estuary. The aim of this study was to measure the PAHs concentrations and evaluate distribution and sources in surface seawater, native mussels ( Brachidontes sp. and Tagelus sp.) and fish ( Odontesthes sp.) from various coastal sites of the Bahía Blanca Estuary, in order to put the estuary in a global context and assess it ecotoxicological risk. For this, 40 samples of surface water were collected between August 2004 and February 2006 and analyzed by GC/MS for 17 PAHs, including the 16 EPA priority PAHs. In addition, main physicochemical parameters, nutrients and pigments were simultaneously obtained as key parameters to evaluate possible relationships. Finally, several native mussel communities and fish specimens were also analyzed for PAHs contents. The area of study is located at the Argentinean coast and presents an intensive human and industrial activity at the north shoreline. Total PAHs (Σ17 PAHs) in whole surface waters ranged from undetected to more than 4 μg/l. Seasonal PAHs levels relationship with master parameters suggested a relationship between the phytoplankton microbiological cycling and the dissolved/suspended PAHs occurrence in water. In addition, Cluster Analysis was performed to identify the homogeneous groups of individual PAHs in water and Principal Component Analysis to extract underlying common factors. The result of PCA was similar to that of the cluster analysis; both could differentiate two subsets of pyrogenic sources and a petrogenic origin. PAHs levels in indigenous mussels ( Brachidontes sp. and Tagelus sp.) ranged from 348 to 1597 ng/g (dry weight). Fish specimens ( Odontesthes sp.) showed a mean concentration of 1095 ng/g d.w. in whole tissues. Mussel source ratios and PCA results were in good agreement with

  12. Evaluation of relocation of unionid mussels into artificial ponds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newton, T.J.; Monroe, E.M.; Kenyon, R.; Gutreuter, S.; Welke, K.I.; Thiel, P.A.

    2001-01-01

    Relocation of unionid mussels into refuges (e.g., hatchery ponds) has been suggested as a management tool to protect these animals from the threat of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) invasion. To evaluate the efficacy of relocation, we experimentally relocated 768 mussels, representing 5 species (Leptodea fragilis, Obliquaria reflexa, Fusconaia flava, Amblema plicata, and Quadrula quadrula) into an earthen pond at a National Fish Hatchery or back into the river. In both locations, mussels were placed into 1 of 4 treatments (mesh bags, corrals, and buried or suspended substrate-filled trays). Mussels were examined annually for survival, growth (shell length and wet mass), and physiological condition (glycogen concentration in foot and mantle and tissue condition index) for 36 mo in the pond or 40 mo in the river. We observed significant differences in mortality rates between locations (mortality was 4 times greater in the pond than in the river), among treatments (lowest mortality in the suspended trays), and among species (lower mortality in the amblemines than lamp-silines). Overall survival in both locations averaged 80% the 1st year; survival in the pond decreased dramatically after that. Although length and weight varied between locations and over time, these changes were small, suggesting that their utility as short-term measures of well being in long-lived unionids is questionable. Mussels relocated to the pond were in poor physiological condition relative to those in the river, but the magnitude of these differences was small compared to the inherent variability in physiological condition of reference mussels. These data suggest that relocation of unionids into artificial ponds is a high-risk conservation strategy; alternatives such as introduction of infected host fish, identification of mussel beds at greatest risk from zebra mussels, and a critical, large-scale assessment of the factors contributing to their decline should be explored.

  13. IMPACT OF WATER TEMPERATURE ON ZEBRA MUSSEL MORTALITY

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2002-08-07

    These tests conducted this past quarter have indicated that the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL0145A is effective at killing zebra mussels at water temperatures ranging from 7 to 23 C. Percent kill will likely be somewhat lower at very low temperatures, e.g., 7 C, but even at such low temperatures high mussel kill can still be achieved (>70% kill). This is significant because the development of a zebra mussel control method that is efficacious in such a wide range of temperatures broadens its usefulness as a potential commercial product.

  14. Effects of Fucus vesiculosus covering intertidal mussel beds in the Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, A.; Reise, K.

    1994-06-01

    The brown alga Fucus vesiculosus forma mytili (Nienburg) Nienhuis covered about 70% of mussel bed ( Mytilus edulis) surface area in the lower intertidal zone of Königshafen, a sheltered sandy bay near the island of Sylt in the North Sea. Mean biomass in dense patches was 584 g ash-free dry weight m-2 in summer. On experimental mussel beds, fucoid cover enhanced mud accumulation and decreased mussel density. The position of mussels underneath algal canopy was mainly endobenthic (87% of mussels with >1/3 of shell sunk into mud). In the absence of fucoids, mussels generated epibenthic garlands (81% of mussels with <1/3 of shell buried in mud). Mussel density underneath fucoid cover was 40 to 73% of mussel density without algae. On natural beds, barnacles (Balanidae), periwinkles ( Littorina littorea) and crabs (particularly juveniles of Carcinus maenas) were significantly less abundant in the presence of fucoids, presumably because most of the mussels were covered with sediment, whereas in the absence of fucoids, epibenthic mussel clumps provided substratum as well as interstitial hiding places. The endobenthic macrofauna showed little difference between covered and uncovered mussel beds. On the other hand, grazing herbivores — the flat periwinkle Littorina mariae, the isopod Jaera albifrons and the amphipods Gammarus spp. — were more abundant at equivalent sites with fucoid cover. The patchy growth of Fucus vesiculosus on mussel beds in the intertidal Wadden Sea affects mussels and their epibionts negatively, but supports various herbivores and increases overall benthic diversity.

  15. Mussel fishery affects diet and reduces body condition of Eiders Somateria mollissima in the Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laursen, Karsten; Asferg, Karen S.; Frikke, John; Sunde, Peter

    2009-06-01

    Although the Danish Wadden Sea is of international importance for several bird species, large-scale blue mussel Mytilus edulis fishing took place from 1984-1987, ceasing thereafter due to low mussel stocks. Mussel fishing removes much of the blue mussel biomass, especially larger individuals. Hence we predict that intensive mussel fishing will affect their predators, such as the Eider Somateria mollissima, which is predominantly a blue mussel feeder by, 1) reducing the amount of blue mussels in their diet relative to alternative prey items, 2) exploitation of smaller blue mussel shell classes, 3) loss of body condition, 4) changing feeding distribution to aggregate to the remaining mussel stocks, and 5) decreasing numbers. Before winter 1986/87 blue mussel biomass was estimated at 40,600 tons, decreasing to 15,400 tons in 1987/88 due to mussel fishery. We collected Eiders in both periods to monitor their diet and body mass and used aerial surveys to determine changes in numbers and distribution. Between the two periods, blue mussels declined in the Eiders diet, numbers of Eiders with empty stomachs increased and the mean length of blue mussel taken by Eiders decreased. Eider body condition declined from 1986/87 to 1987/88, mostly the result of the reduction in numbers of individuals with blue mussel remains in their gizzards and in better body condition compared to those taking alternative food items or having empty gizzards. Eiders shifted their distribution from the southern part of the Danish Wadden Sea to the northern part, where the remaining blue mussel stocks were situated. Eider numbers were lowest in 1987/88, the year of lowest blue mussel stocks. We conclude that intensive mussel fishery affected the Eider's diet, reduced their body condition and affected distribution and abundance. The results also showed that availability of blue mussels may have a key role in building up and maintaining body condition in Eiders during winter.

  16. Development of a molecular diagnostic system to discriminate Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel) and Dreissena bugensis (quagga mussel)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoy, M.S.; Kelly, K.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    A 3-primer PCR system was developed to discriminate invasive zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (Dreissena bugensis) mussel. The system is based on: 1) universal primers that amplifies a region of the nuclear 28s rDNA gene from both species and 2) a species-specific primer complementary to either zebra or quagga mussel. The species-specific primers bind to sequences between the binding sites for the universal primers resulting in the amplification of two products from the target species and one product from the nontarget species. Therefore, nontarget products are positive amplification controls. The 3-primer system accurately discriminated zebra and quagga mussels from seven geographically distinct populations.

  17. Mussel Coating Protein-Derived Complex Coacervates Mitigate Frictional Surface Damage

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The role of friction in the functional performance of biomaterial interfaces is widely reckoned to be critical and complicated but poorly understood. To better understand friction forces, we investigated the natural adaptation of the holdfast or byssus of mussels that live in high-energy surf habitats. As the outermost covering of the byssus, the cuticle deserves particular attention for its adaptations to frictional wear under shear. In this study, we coacervated one of three variants of a key cuticular component, mussel foot protein 1, mfp-1 [(1) Mytilus californianus mcfp-1, (2) rmfp-1, and (3) rmfp-1-Dopa], with hyaluronic acid (HA) and investigated the wear protection capabilities of these coacervates to surfaces (mica) during shear. Native mcfp-1/HA coacervates had an intermediate coefficient of friction (μ ∼0.3) but conferred excellent wear protection to mica with no damage from applied loads, F⊥, as high as 300 mN (pressure, P, > 2 MPa). Recombinant rmfp-1/HA coacervates exhibited a comparable coefficient of friction (μ ∼0.3); however, wear protection was significantly inferior (damage at F⊥ > 60 mN) compared with that of native protein coacervates. Wear protection of rmfp-1/HA coacervates increased 5-fold upon addition of the surface adhesive group 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, (Dopa). We propose a Dopa-dependent wear protection mechanism to explain the differences in wear protection between coacervates. Our results reveal a significant untapped potential for coacervates in applications that require adhesion, lubrication, and wear protection. These applications include artificial joints, contact lenses, dental sealants, and hair and skin conditioners. PMID:26618194

  18. Status of fresh water mussel research in Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Neves, R.J.

    1983-10-01

    In addition to the previously described mussel research projects in Virginia, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has undertaken a wide-ranging Cumberlandian Mollusc Conservation Program to (a) accumulate information on the present distribution, life histories, and ecological requirements of the Cumberlandian mussel fauna and (b) conserve or increase populations of these species in the Tennessee River drainage. This TVA program has contributed greatly toward a better understanding of species status, water quality problems, and research needs for this unique faunal group. The attention currently being given to fresh water mussels in the upper Tennessee River system is unprecedented, and participating State and Federal agencies are to be commended for supporting conservation activities far beyond what is legally required. The success of a mollusk conservation effort will depend on public awareness, not of mussels in and for themselves but as indicators of riverine degradation and its effect on environmental health and recreational opportunities for man.

  19. Mussels as a model system for integrative ecomechanics.

    PubMed

    Carrington, Emily; Waite, J Herbert; Sarà, Gianluca; Sebens, Kenneth P

    2015-01-01

    Mussels form dense aggregations that dominate temperate rocky shores, and they are key aquaculture species worldwide. Coastal environments are dynamic across a broad range of spatial and temporal scales, and their changing abiotic conditions affect mussel populations in a variety of ways, including altering their investments in structures, physiological processes, growth, and reproduction. Here, we describe four categories of ecomechanical models (biochemical, mechanical, energetic, and population) that we have developed to describe specific aspects of mussel biology, ranging from byssal attachment to energetics, population growth, and fitness. This review highlights how recent advances in these mechanistic models now allow us to link them together across molecular, material, organismal, and population scales of organization. This integrated ecomechanical approach provides explicit and sometimes novel predictions about how natural and farmed mussel populations will fare in changing climatic conditions. PMID:25195867

  20. Impact tolerance in mussel thread networks by heterogeneous material distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J.

    2013-07-01

    The Mytilidae, generally known as marine mussels, are known to attach to most substrates including stone, wood, concrete and iron by using a network of byssus threads. Mussels are subjected to severe mechanical impacts caused by waves. However, how the network of byssus threads keeps the mussel attached in this challenging mechanical environment is puzzling, as the dynamical forces far exceed the measured strength of byssus threads and their attachment to the environment. Here we combine experiment and simulation, and show that the heterogeneous material distribution in byssus threads has a critical role in decreasing the effect of impact loading. We find that a combination of stiff and soft materials at an 80:20 ratio enables mussels to rapidly and effectively dissipate impact energy. Notably, this facilitates a significantly enhanced strength under dynamical loading over 900% that of the strength under static loading.

  1. Impact tolerance in mussel thread networks by heterogeneous material distribution.

    PubMed

    Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J

    2013-01-01

    The Mytilidae, generally known as marine mussels, are known to attach to most substrates including stone, wood, concrete and iron by using a network of byssus threads. Mussels are subjected to severe mechanical impacts caused by waves. However, how the network of byssus threads keeps the mussel attached in this challenging mechanical environment is puzzling, as the dynamical forces far exceed the measured strength of byssus threads and their attachment to the environment. Here we combine experiment and simulation, and show that the heterogeneous material distribution in byssus threads has a critical role in decreasing the effect of impact loading. We find that a combination of stiff and soft materials at an 80:20 ratio enables mussels to rapidly and effectively dissipate impact energy. Notably, this facilitates a significantly enhanced strength under dynamical loading over 900% that of the strength under static loading. PMID:23880603

  2. Mussels as a Model System for Integrative Ecomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrington, Emily; Waite, J. Herbert; Sarà, Gianluca; Sebens, Kenneth P.

    2015-01-01

    Mussels form dense aggregations that dominate temperate rocky shores, and they are key aquaculture species worldwide. Coastal environments are dynamic across a broad range of spatial and temporal scales, and their changing abiotic conditions affect mussel populations in a variety of ways, including altering their investments in structures, physiological processes, growth, and reproduction. Here, we describe four categories of ecomechanical models (biochemical, mechanical, energetic, and population) that we have developed to describe specific aspects of mussel biology, ranging from byssal attachment to energetics, population growth, and fitness. This review highlights how recent advances in these mechanistic models now allow us to link them together across molecular, material, organismal, and population scales of organization. This integrated ecomechanical approach provides explicit and sometimes novel predictions about how natural and farmed mussel populations will fare in changing climatic conditions.

  3. Detection of mutagenicity in mussels and their ambient water

    SciTech Connect

    Kira, Shohei; Hayatsu, Hikoya; Ogata, Masana )

    1989-10-01

    Mussels provide an excellent system for monitoring marine pollutants: the system is often called mussel watch. Investigators have reported the susceptibility of this organism to petroleum hydrocarbons and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. The authors showed the applicability of this organism to monitor oil pollutions by detecting organosulfur compounds in field samples. In the present study, they undertook the mutagen screening of mussel bodies and ambient water, and investigated the correlation between the mussel- and water-mutagenicities. Mutagenic compounds being detected here are those adsorbable to blue cotton or blue rayon and extractable with a methanol-ammonia solution, and the Ames assay was used for the detection of mutagenicity, with Salmonella typhimurium TA98 as the ester strain and with S9-mix for metabolic activation.

  4. Mussel-inspired dendritic polymers as universal multifunctional coatings.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qiang; Achazi, Katharina; Liebe, Hendrik; Schulz, Andrea; Noeske, Paul-Ludwig Michael; Grunwald, Ingo; Haag, Rainer

    2014-10-20

    A rapid and universal approach for multifunctional material coatings was developed based on a mussel-inspired dendritic polymer. This new kind of polymer mimics not only the functional groups of mussel foot proteins (mfps) but also their molecular weight and molecular structure. The large number of catechol and amine groups set the basis for heteromultivalent anchoring and crosslinking. The molecular weight reaches 10 kDa, which is similar to the most adhesive mussel foot protein mfp-5. Also, the dendritic structure exposes its functional groups on the surface like the folded proteins. As a result, a very stable coating can be prepared on virtually any type of material surface within 10 min by a simple dip-coating method, which is as fast as the formation of mussel byssal threads in nature. PMID:25200129

  5. 78 FR 5481 - Quagga Mussel Strategic Planning Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... for working beyond FY13. Priorities for minimizing the spread of these mussels will be discussed. The..., February 20, 2013. ADDRESSES: The meeting will take place at the Utah Division of Wildlife, 1594 W...

  6. Alaska Natives & the Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Robert D.; And Others

    Pursuant to the Native land claims within Alaska, this compilation of background data and interpretive materials relevant to a fair resolution of the Alaska Native problem seeks to record data and information on the Native peoples; the land and resources of Alaska and their uses by the people in the past and present; land ownership; and future…

  7. Native American Healing Traditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portman, Tarrell A. A.; Garrett, Michael T.

    2006-01-01

    Indigenous healing practices among Native Americans have been documented in the United States since colonisation. Cultural encapsulation has deterred the acknowledgement of Native American medicinal practices as a precursor to folk medicine and many herbal remedies, which have greatly influenced modern medicine. Understanding Native American…

  8. Native American Homeschooling Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozon, Gina

    2000-01-01

    The Native American Home School Association helps Native parents to provide a good education free from the assimilationist tendencies of public school and to transmit Native values and culture. Discusses various home schooling styles, the effectiveness of home schooling in terms of academic achievement and socialization, and the effectiveness of…

  9. Prevention of zebra mussel infestation and dispersal during aquaculture operations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waller, D.L.; Fisher, S.W.; Dabrowska, H.

    1996-01-01

    The zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha, an exotic invasive species, poses a major threat to North American fish management programs and the aquaculture industry. Fish hatcheries may become infected with zebra mussels from a variety of sources, including the water supply, fish shipments, boats, and equipment. The hatcheries could then serve as agents for the overland dispersal of zebra mussels into stocked waters and to other fish hatcheries. We evaluated the effectiveness and safety of aquaculture chemicals for use in controlling zebra mussels in fish hatcheries and preventing dispersal of veligers during fish transport. Chemicals were evaluated for use in fish transport and as disinfectants for ponds and equipment. Standardized static toxicity tests were conducted with representative species of warmwater, coolwater, and coldwater fishes and with larval (3-d-old veligers), early juvenile (settling larvae), and adult zebra mussels. Chemical concentrations and exposure durations were based on recommended treatment levels for fish, eggs, and ponds. Recommended treatment levels were also exceeded, if necessary, to establish lethal levels for zebra mussels of different developmental stages. Our results indicate that some chemicals currently in use in hatcheries may be effective for controlling zebra mussels in various operations. Chloride salts were the safest and most effective therapeutants tested for use in fish transport. The toxicity of chloride salts to fish varied among species and with temperature; only one treatment regime (sodium chloride at 10,000 mg/L) was safe to all fish species that we tested, but it was only effective on veliger and settler stages of the zebra mussel. Effective disinfectants were benzalkonium chloride for use on equipment and rotenone for use in ponds after fish are harvested. The regulatory status of the identified chemicals is discussed as well as several nonchemical control alternatives.

  10. The effect of sodium chlorite solutions on zebra mussel mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Dion, J.; Richer, Y.; Messer, R.

    1995-06-01

    The effect of four dilutions, 8 ppm, 40 ppm, 120 ppm and 473 ppm of the stock solution of a first product, Z-8, on zebra mussel mortality was investigated in static continuous exposure systems and compared to controls. The entire size class spectrum of the mussel population present at the sampling site was tested by leaving mussels attached to their original rock substrata. Two size class grouping of mussels, 13 mm and less and more than 13 mm in length, were exposed in the same test chambers but were analyzed separately. No mortality occurred in the controls. Concentration 8 ppm had no effect after 166 hours on both size class groupings. Concentrations 40, 120 and 473 ppm had observable killing effect within the 331 hours of experiment for both size groupings. The smaller mussels died faster than the larger ones. Another product, Z-11, was similarly tested during fall 1994 with dilutions 8, 40, 80 and 120 ppm. At 8 ppm dilution, Z-11 had induced only little mortality on both size class groupings after 739 hours. At 40, 80 and 120 ppm dilutions, Z-11 had interesting killing effect for both mussel size groupings within the 739 hours of experiment considering the somehow intermittent treatment used. The results already appear to show that sodium chlorite solutions have the potential for eventually becoming a surrogate to the use of chlorine for the control of zebra mussels. That is because they already show a good killing efficiency without being involved in the formation of undesired by-products such as the use of chlorine is. On this purpose, the product is engaged in the process of homologation by Agriculture Canada for it use as treatment against zebra mussels.

  11. Effect of diet quality on mussel biomarker responses to pollutants.

    PubMed

    González-Fernández, Carmen; Lacroix, Camille; Paul-Pont, Ika; Le Grand, Fabienne; Albentosa, Marina; Bellas, Juan; Viñas, Lucía; Campillo, Juan A; Hegaret, Helene; Soudant, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    The effect of the quality of two microalgal species on select biological and biochemical responses used as indicators of pollution were assessed. Mussels were conditioned for 6 weeks with the diatom Chaetoceros neogracile and the dinoflagellate Heterocapsa triquetra, chosen for being two clearly different types of primary production quality that differ in both biometric and biochemical characteristics. After dietary conditioning, the mussels were exposed to a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, fluoranthene (FLU), for 1 week followed by 1 week of depuration. Results showed higher FLU accumulation in mussels fed on C. neogracile compared to those fed on H. triquetra. Concomitantly, a greater impact of this toxicant was observed in the biomarker responses of mussels fed on C. neogracile. These mussels showed an increase in the percentage of dead hemocytes, an activation of phagocytosis and ROS production of hemocytes after exposure. Some enzymatic activities also increased upon FLU exposure (superoxide dismutase -SOD-, catalase -CAT-, and glutathione reductases -GR-) and after depuration (glutathione-s-transferase -GST-). Results suggest that FLU exposure as well as food quality influence biomarker responses, with higher values of SOD, CAT and GR in non-exposed mussels fed on C. neogracile. In addition, upon exposure to the same FLU concentration, GR response varied according to dietary conditioning, suggesting that diet could act as a confounding factor in biomarker responses to pollution. Consequently, trophic conditions should be considered in marine pollution monitoring programs for a better interpretation of biomarker responses. PMID:27300503

  12. How does tidal flow affect pattern formation in mussel beds?

    PubMed

    Sherratt, Jonathan A; Mackenzie, Julia J

    2016-10-01

    In the Wadden Sea, mussel beds self-organise into spatial patterns consisting of bands parallel to the shore. A leading explanation for this phenomenon is that mussel aggregation reduces losses from dislodgement and predation, because of the adherence of mussels to one another. Previous mathematical modelling has shown that this can lead to spatial patterning when it is coupled to the advection from the open sea of algae-the main food source for mussels in the Wadden Sea. A complicating factor in this process is that the advection of algae will actually oscillate with the tidal flow. This has been excluded from previous modelling studies, and the present paper concerns the implications of this oscillation for pattern formation. The authors initially consider piecewise constant ("square-tooth") oscillations in advection, which enables analytical investigation of the conditions for pattern formation. They then build on this to study the more realistic case of sinusoidal oscillations. Their analysis shows that future research on the details of pattern formation in mussel beds will require an in-depth understanding of how the tides affect long-range inhibition among mussels. PMID:27343625

  13. Occurence of the Quagga Mussel Dreissena bugensis and the Zebra Mussel Dreissena polymorha in the Upper Mississippi River System

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript reports on a range expansion of the invasive quagga mussel in the Great Rivers of the Upper Missippi River Basin. This research will be of interest to great river ecologists and to invasive species specialists.

  14. Comparison of PCB and trace metal bioaccumulation in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and the ribbed mussel, Modiolus demissus, in New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, W.G.; Bergen, B.J.; Cobb, D.J.

    1995-03-01

    The accumulation of PCBs and trace metals was compared at 14-d intervals between two filter-feeding bivalves, the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and the ribbed mussel, Modiolus demissus, after deployment in New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, for up to 56 d. Contaminant uptake in deployed organisms also was compared with indigenous ribbed mussels. Significant mortality occurred in blue mussels after 28 d, when water temperatures exceeded 25 C. Therefore, tissue-residue comparisons between species are presented only up to day 28, while those between deployed and indigenous ribbed mussels continue to day 56. Results indicated that total PCB tissue residues and congener distributions were not statistically different in the two mussel species on day 28. Total PCB concentrations in both deployed mussel species reached approximately 30 {mu}g g{sup {minus}1} dry weight by day 28. Additionally, total PCB concentrations and congener distributions in the deployed ribbed mussels were not statistically different from the indigenous ribbed mussels on day 28, demonstrating that steady state was attained within 28 d. With respect to metal uptake, no single accumulation pattern occurred for the eight metals quantified. After 28 d, lead, cadmium, and iron concentrations in deployed blue and ribbed mussels were statistically similar. However, nickel and zinc accumulations were significantly greater in the blue mussels, and copper, chromium, and manganese were accumulated to significantly higher concentrations in the ribbed mussels. The comparison between the ribbed mussels indicated that cadmium and lead concentrations were significantly higher in indigenous than in deployed mussels after 28 d.

  15. Content in Native Literature Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Agnes

    Including Native literature in school curricula is an important way of enhancing the Native student's self-concept and providing accurate Native cultural knowledge to Native and non-Native students alike. Nevertheless, Canadian school literature programs generally contain neither contemporary nor traditional Native literature. Some programs…

  16. Biochemical composition of three species of unionid mussels after emersion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greseth, Shari L.; Cope, W.G.; Rada, R.G.; Waller, D.L.; Bartsch, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    Freshwater mussels are emersed (exposed to air) during conservation activities such as surveys and relocations. Success of these activities depends upon the ability of mussels to survive emersion and to re-burrow in the substratum. We evaluated the acute sublethal effects of emersion on three species of unionid mussels [pocketbook, Lampsilis cardium (Rafinesque, 1820); pimpleback, Quadrula pustulosa pustulosa (I. Lea, 1831); spike, Elliptio dilatata (Rafinesque, 1820)] by measuring three biochemicals (carbohydrate, lipid, protein) indicative of biochemical function and energy storage. Mussels were acclimated in water at 25A?C and exposed to five air temperatures (15, 20, 25, 35 and 45A?C) for 15, 30 and 60 min. After emersion, mussels were returned to water at 25A?C and observed for 14 days. Samples of mantle tissue were taken after the 14-day postexposure period and analysed for carbohydrate, lipid and protein. Three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) did not reveal consistent trends in carbohydrate, lipid or protein concentrations due to sex of mussels, duration of emersion, air temperature or their interaction terms that indicated biological compensation to stress. Overall mean carbohydrate concentrations were greatest (range 447a??615 mg/g dry wt) among the species, followed by protein (179a??289 mg/g dry wt) and lipids (26.7a??38.1 mg/g dry wt). These results have positive implications for conducting conservation activities, because emersion over the range of temperatures (15a??35A?C) and durations (15a??60 min) examined did not appear acutely harmful to mussels.

  17. Evaluation of relocation of unionid mussels to in situ refugia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cope, W.G.; Hove, M.C.; Waller, D.L.; Hornbach, D.J.; Bartsch, M.R.; Cunningham, L.A.; Dunn, H.L.; Kapuscinski, A.R.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the recovery and survival of four species of unionid mussles [pimpleback, Quadrula pustulosa pustulosa (I. Lea, 1831); spike, Elliptio dilatata (Rafinesque, 1820); Higgins eye, Lampsilis higginsii (I. Lea, 1857); and pocketbook, Lampsilis cardium (Rafinesque, 1820)] that were experimentally relocated to in situ refugia in the St Croix River of Minnesota and Wisconsin, USA. In 1996, 150 mussels of each of the first three species (450 total) were relocated to three 5 x 5 m study grids (Site A), one near Lakeland, Minnesota, which served as a source-site control, and two in the experimental refuge 48 km upstream, near Franconia, Minnesota. In a second relocation in 1997, L. Cardium was substituted for L. Higginsii and 150 mussels of this and each of the other two species (450 total), were relocated to two study grids (Site B). The source site control was near Sunrise, Minnesota and the experimental refuge was 14 km downstream near Almelund, Minnesota. Mussel recovery, survival and substratum characteristics were evaluated annually at Site A for 2 years and for 3 years at Site B. Mean annual recovery of all three species ranged from 90 to 100% at Site A, and from 34 to 70% at site B. The mean annual survival of recaptured mussels ranged from 85 to 100% at Site A, and from 88 to 100% at Site B. The textural characteristics of the substratum differed significantly between the control and the two refuge locations at the beginning of the study, but did not differ from this initial status among subsequent years at Site A. At Site B, there was a significant shift in textural characteristics from large to smaller fractions over the four years. The relatively high survival of mussels during this study demonstrates the importance of proper handling and transport protocols when relocating mussels and the selection of suitable relocation habitat with stable substratum. When established correctly, in situ refugia may be a viable tool for

  18. Evaluation of relocation of unionid mussels to in situ refugia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cope, W.G.; Hove, M.C.; Waller, D.L.; Hornbach, D.J.; Bartsch, M.R.; Cunningham, L.A.; Dunn, H.L.; Kapuscinski, A.R.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the recovery and survival of four species of unionid mussles [pimpleback, Quadrula pustulosa pustulosa (I. Lea, 1831); spike, Elliptio dilatata (Rafinesque, 1820); Higgins eye, Lampsilis higginsii (I. Lea, 1857); and pocketbook, Lampsilis cardium (Rafinesque, 1820)] that were experimentally relocated to in situ refugia in the St Croix River of Minnesota and Wisconsin, USA. In 1996, 150 mussels of each of the first three species (450 total) were relocated to three 5 ?? 5 m study grids (Site A), one near Lakeland, Minnesota, which served as a source-site control, and two in the experimental refuge 48 km upstream, near Franconia, Minnesota. In a second relocation in 1997, L. cardium was substituted for L. higginsii and 150 mussels of this and each of the other two species (450 total), were relocated to two study grids (Site B). The source site control was near Sunrise, Minnesota and the experimental refuge was 14 km downstream near Almelund, Minnesota. Mussel recovery, survival and substratum characteristics were evaluated annually at Site A for 2 years and for 3 years at Site B. Mean annual recovery of all three species ranged from 90 to 100% at Site A, and from 34 to 70% at site B. The mean annual survival of recaptured mussels ranged from 85 to 100% at Site A, and from 88 to 100% at Site B. The textural characteristics of the substratum differed significantly between the control and the two refuge locations at the beginning of the study, but did not differ from this initial status among subsequent years at Site A. At Site B, there was a significant shift in textural characteristics from large to smaller fractions over the four years. The relatively high survival of mussels during this study demonstrates the importance of proper handling and transport protocols when relocating mussels and the selection of suitable relocation habitat with stable substratum. When established correctly, in situ refugia may be a viable tool for

  19. Numerical modelling of blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) bacterial contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabrowski, Tomasz; Doré, William J.; Lyons, Kieran; Nolan, Glenn D.

    2014-05-01

    Bivalve shellfish such as oysters and mussels can concentrate human pathogens when grown in areas impacted by municipal wastewater. Under EU regulation this risk to consumers is controlled by determining the sanitary quality of bivalve shellfish production areas based on the concentration of Escherichia coli present in shellfish flesh. The authors present a modelling approach to simulate an uptake of E. coli from seawater and subsequent depuration by Mytilus edulis. The model that dynamically predicts E. coli concentration in the mussel tissue is embedded within a 3-D numerical modelling system comprising hydrodynamic, biogeochemical, shellfish ecophysiological and the newly proposed microbial modules. The microbial module has two state variables, namely, the concentrations of E. coli in water and in the mussel tissue. Novel formulations to calculate the filtration rates by mussels and the resulting uptake of bacteria are proposed; these rates are updated at every computational time step. Concentrations of E. coli in seawater are also updated accordingly taking into account the amounts ingested by mussels. The model has been applied to Bantry Bay in the south-west of Ireland. The results indicate that the model is capable of reproducing the official classification of shellfish waters in the bay based on monthly sampling at several stations. The predicted filtration rates and ratios of E. coli in water and mussels also compare well with the literature. The model thus forms a tool that may be used to assist in the classification of shellfish waters at much greater spatial and temporal detail than that offered by a field monitoring programme. Moreover, it can also aid in designing an efficient monitoring programme. The model can also be utilised to determine the contribution of individual point sources of pollution on the microbial loading in mussels and, when incorporated into an operational framework, it can provide a short-term forecasting of microbial

  20. Ingestion and potential risks to wildlife from Exxon Valdez oil residues in mussels

    SciTech Connect

    Hartung, R.

    1995-12-31

    Mussels are important bioaccumulators of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a toxicologically important fraction of crude oils. In some dense mussel beds in Prince William Sound, oil and PAH residues derived from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill (EVOS) have persisted. The potential risks to wildlife from the consumption of these mussels are related to the degree of contamination of the mussels, the dietary intake of mussels, and the toxicity of the oils. Sea Otters (Enhydra lutris), Harlequin Ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus), and American Black Oystercatchers (Haematopus bachmanil) were identified as species that consumed significant quantities of mussels. The consumption of mussels was estimated from the percentage of mussels in the diet and the caloric requirements of each species. Caloric requirements were taken either from direct observations or calculated from allometric equations adjusted for nonbasal energy expenditures. Daily intakes of oils were estimated from the percentage of PAHs in oils, PAH levels in mussels from contaminated beds, and mussel consumption by these species. The highest estimated daily oil intake occurred in Black Oystercatchers at 22 mg/kg bodyweight, assuming that these birds consumed mussels at the 95th percentile of oil contamination and that 75% of the caloric requirements are obtained from mussels. These levels of estimated oil ingestion are considerably lower than levels which have been found to produce toxicological effects in extended feeding studies in surrogate species.

  1. DNA ADDUCTS IN MARINE MUSSEL MYTILUS GALLOPROVINCIALIS LIVING IN POLLUTED AND UNPOLLUTED ENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have used a generally applicable 32P-postlabeling assay to examine for the presence of DNA adducts in mussels experimentally exposed to known carcinogens and in mussels collected from sites impacted by wastewaters. Mussels exposed to seawater artificially polluted with 2-amino...

  2. Change in diel catchability of young-of-year yellow perch associated with establishment of dreissenid mussels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Adams, Jean V.

    2009-01-01

    1. Non-native mussels have increased water clarity in many lakes and streams in North America and Europe. Diel variation in catchability of some fish species has been linked to visibility during survey trawls (used to measure escapement). 2. Water clarity increased in nearshore areas of western Lake Erie by the early 1990s, following passage of legislation in 1972 to improve water quality (e.g. reduce phosphorus loading) and the invasion of dreissenid mussels (Dreissena spp.) beginning in 1987. 3. We hypothesised that increased water clarity in Lake Erie resulted in decreased catchability of young-of-year (age-0) yellow perch (Perca flavescens Mitchill) during daylight compared to during night. We used a two-tiered modelling approach to test this hypothesis on the ratio (R) of catch per hour (CPH) during night to CPH during daylight in bottom trawl surveys conducted during 1961-2005. 4. First, we examined seven a priori models. The first model, the 'null' model, represented no change in R over time. Three more models tested whether the timing of the change in R was associated with passage of water quality legislation only, dreissenids only (two-period models) and both legislation and dreissenids (three-period models). Three additional models included a 3-year lag before the effects of legislation, dreissenids or both occurred. Secondly, all possible two- and three-period models with a minimum of 2 years per time period were explored a posteriori. The a posteriori procedure determined the temporal transitions to higher R that were best supported by the data, without regard to a priori hypotheses. 5. Night CPH was greater than daylight CPH in 3 of 11 years during 1961-72, in 10 of 15 years during 1973-87, and in 14 of 18 years during 1988-2005. During 1991-2005 night CPH exceeded daylight CPH in all years except one, and night CPH was more than twice daylight CPH in 10 years during this period. 6. The best a priori model had two periods, with a break between 1990 and

  3. The use of transplanted mussels in the California State Mussel Watch Program

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, M.D.; Ichikawa, G.S.; Goetzl, J.

    1995-12-31

    Many contaminant programs have been established to study the geographical distributions of potential pollutants, but unfortunately, many have relied solely on resident bivalves. This approach limits the versatility of monitoring programs in that residents are not often found in all the places necessary to sample and there are factors which are inherent in using residents that confound the results. The California State Mussel Watch Program has relied heavily on transplants because they eliminate much of the variation inherent in using residents and they can be transplanted almost anywhere. Examples are given that demonstrate the advantages of using transplants over residents.

  4. Zebra mussel effects on benthic invertebrates: physical or biotic?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Botts, P. Silver; Patterson, Benjamin A.; Schloesser, Don W.

    1996-01-01

    In soft sediments, Dreissena spp. create firm substrate in the form of aggregates of living mussels (druses) that roll free on the sediments. Druses provide physical structure which increases habitat heterogeneity, and the mussels increase benthic organic matter through the production of pseudofeces and feces. Descriptive and experimental studies were used to determine: 1) whether the density of benthic invertebrates in soft sediments increased in the presence of druses, and 2) whether the invertebrate assemblage responded to the physical structure provided by a druse or to some biotic effect associated with the presence of living mussels. In core samples collected biweekly during summer in Presque Isle Bay, Erie, Pennsylvania, amphipods, chironomids, oligochaetes, turbellarians, and hydrozoans were significantly more abundant in sand with druses than in bare sand. When mesh bags containing either a living druse, non-living druse, or no druse were incubated in the bay for 33 d, we found that chironomids were significantly more abundant in treatments with living druses than with non-living druses, and in treatments with non-living druses than with no druse; turbellarians, amphipods, and hydrozoans were significantly more abundant in treatments with living or non-living druses than with no druse; oligochaetes showed no significant differences among treatments. This study demonstrates that most taxa of benthic invertebrates in soft substrate respond specifically to the physical structure associated with aggregates of mussel shells, but further study is needed to examine chironomid responses to some biotic effect dependent on the presence of living mussels.

  5. Chemical regulation of spawning in the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ram, Jeffrey L.; Nichols, S. Jerrine

    1992-01-01

    Previous literature suggests that spawning in bivalves is chemically regulated, both by environmental chemical cues and by internal chemical mediators. In a model proposed for zebra mussels, chemicals from phytoplankton initially trigger spawning, and chemicals associated with gametes provide further stimulus for spawning. The response to environmental chemicals is internally mediated by a pathway utilizing serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, a neurotransmitter), which acts directly on both male and female gonads. The role of serotonin and most other aspects of the model have been tested only on bivalves other than zebra mussels. The effect of serotonin on zebra mussel spawning was tested. Serotonin (10-5 and 10-3 M) injected into ripe males induced spawning, but injection of serotonin into females did not. Gametes were not released by 10-6 serotonin; in most cases, serotonin injection did not release gametes from immature recipients. Serotonin injection provides a reliable means for identifying ripe male zebra mussels and for obtaining zebra mussel sperm without the need for dissection.

  6. Microplastics in mussels along the coastal waters of China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiana; Qu, Xiaoyun; Su, Lei; Zhang, Weiwei; Yang, Dongqi; Kolandhasamy, Prabhu; Li, Daoji; Shi, Huahong

    2016-07-01

    Microplastic has been confirmed as an emerging pollutant in marine environments. One of the primary environmental risks of microplastics is their bioavailability for aquatic organisms. Bivalves are of particular interest because their extensive filter-feeding activity exposes them directly to microplastics present in the water column. In the present study, we investigated microplastic pollution in mussels (Mytilus edulis) from 22 sites along 12,400 mile coastlines of China in 2015. The number of total microplastics varied from 0.9 to 4.6 items/g and from 1.5 to 7.6 items/individual. M. edulis contained more microplastics (2.7 items/g) in wild groups than that (1.6 items/g) in farmed groups. The abundance of microplastics was 3.3 items/g in mussels from the areas with intensive human activities and significantly higher than that (1.6 items/g) with less human activities. The most common microplastics were fibers, followed by fragments. The proportion of microplastics less than 250 μm in size arranged from 17% to 79% of the total microplastics. Diatom was distinguished from microplastics in mussels for the first time using Scanning Electron Microscope. Our results suggested that the numbers of microplastic kept within a relatively narrow range in mussels and were closely related to the contamination of the environments. We proposed that mussels could be used as a potential bioindicator of microplastic pollution of the coastal environment. PMID:27086073

  7. Influence of mussel biological variability on pollution biomarkers.

    PubMed

    González-Fernández, Carmen; Albentosa, Marina; Campillo, Juan A; Viñas, Lucía; Fumega, José; Franco, Angeles; Besada, Victoria; González-Quijano, Amelia; Bellas, Juan

    2015-02-01

    This study deals with the identification and characterization of biological variables that may affect some of the biological responses used as pollution biomarkers. With this aim, during the 2012 mussel survey of the Spanish Marine Pollution monitoring program (SMP), at the North-Atlantic coast, several quantitative and qualitative biological variables were measured (corporal and shell indices, gonadal development and reserves composition). Studied biomarkers were antioxidant enzymatic activities (CAT, GST, GR), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the physiological rates integrated in the SFG biomarker (CR, AE, RR). Site pollution was considered as the chemical concentration in the whole tissues of mussels. A great geographical variability was observed for the biological variables, which was mainly linked to the differences in food availability along the studied region. An inverse relationship between antioxidant enzymes and the nutritional status of the organism was evidenced, whereas LPO was positively related to nutritional status and, therefore, with higher metabolic costs, with their associated ROS generation. Mussel condition was also inversely related to CR, and therefore to SFG, suggesting that mussels keep an "ecological memory" from the habitat where they have been collected. No overall relationship was observed between pollution and biomarkers, but a significant overall effect of biological variables on both biochemical and physiological biomarkers was evidenced. It was concluded that when a wide range of certain environmental factors, as food availability, coexist in the same monitoring program, it determines a great variability in mussel populations which mask the effect of contaminants on biomarkers. PMID:25483414

  8. Do invasive mussels restrict offshore phosphorus transport in Lake Huron?

    PubMed

    Cha, Yoonkyung; Stow, Craig A; Nalepa, Thomas F; Reckhow, Kenneth H

    2011-09-01

    Dreissenid mussels were first documented in the Laurentian Great Lakes in the late 1980s. Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) spread quickly into shallow, hard-substrate areas; quagga mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) spread more slowly and are currently colonizing deep, offshore areas. These mussels occur at high densities, filter large water volumes while feeding on suspended materials, and deposit particulate waste on the lake bottom. This filtering activity has been hypothesized to sequester tributary phosphorus in nearshore regions reducing offshore primary productivity. We used a mass balance model to estimate the phosphorus sedimentation rate in Saginaw Bay, a shallow embayment of Lake Huron, before and after the mussel invasion. Our results indicate that the proportion of tributary phosphorus retained in Saginaw Bay increased from approximately 46-70% when dreissenids appeared, reducing phosphorus export to the main body of Lake Huron. The combined effects of increased phosphorus retention and decreased phosphorus loading have caused an approximate 60% decrease in phosphorus export from Saginaw Bay to Lake Huron. Our results support the hypothesis that the ongoing decline of preyfish and secondary producers including diporeia (Diporeia spp.) in Lake Huron is a bottom-up phenomenon associated with decreased phosphorus availability in the offshore to support primary production. PMID:21812427

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of live freshwater mussels (Unionidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michael, Holliman F.; Davis, D.; Bogan, A.E.; Kwak, T.J.; Gregory, Cope W.; Levine, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the soft tissues of live freshwater mussels, Eastern elliptio Elliptio complanata, via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), acquiring data with a widely available human whole-body MRI system. Anatomical features depicted in the profile images included the foot, stomach, intestine, anterior and posterior adductor muscles, and pericardial cavity. Noteworthy observations on soft tissue morphology included a concentration of lipids at the most posterior aspect of the foot, the presence of hemolymph-filled fissures in the posterior adductor muscle, the presence of a relatively large hemolymph-filled sinus adjacent to the posterior adductor muscle (at the ventral-anterior aspect), and segmentation of the intestine (a diagnostic description not reported previously in Unionidae). Relatively little is known about the basic biology and ecological physiology of freshwater mussels. Traditional approaches for studying anatomy and tissue processes, and for measuring sub-lethal physiological stress, are destructive or invasive. Our study, the first to evaluate freshwater mussel soft tissues by MRI, clarifies the body plan of unionid mussels and demonstrates the efficacy of this technology for in vivo evaluation of the structure, function, and integrity of mussel soft tissues. ?? 2008, The American Microscopical Society, Inc.

  10. Genetic management guidelines for captive propagation of freshwater mussels (unionoidea)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, J.W.; Hallerman, E.M.; Neves, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    Although the greatest global diversity of freshwater mussels (???300 species) resides in the United States, the superfamily Unionoidea is also the most imperiled taxon of animals in the nation. Thirty-five species are considered extinct, 70 species are listed as endangered or threatened, and approximately 100 more are species of conservation concern. To prevent additional species losses, biologists have developed methods for propagating juvenile mussels for release into the wild to restore or augment populations. Since 1997, mussel propagation facilities in the United States have released over 1 million juveniles of more than a dozen imperiled species, and survival of these juveniles in the wild has been documented. With the expectation of continued growth of these programs, agencies and facilities involved with mussel propagation must seriously consider the genetic implications of releasing captive-reared progeny. We propose 10 guidelines to help maintain the genetic resources of cultured and wild populations. Preservation of genetic diversity will require robust genetic analysis of source populations to define conservation units for valid species, subspecies, and unique populations. Hatchery protocols must be implemented that minimize risks of artificial selection and other genetic hazards affecting adaptive traits of progeny subsequently released to the wild. We advocate a pragmatic, adaptive approach to species recovery that incorporates the principles of conservation genetics into breeding programs, and prioritizes the immediate demographic needs of critically endangered mussel species.

  11. Dynamics of submersible mussel rafts in waves and current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin-xin; Swift, M. Robinson; Dewhurst, Tobias; Tsukrov, Igor; Celikkol, Barbaros; Newell, Carter

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the dynamics of submersible mussel rafts, the finite element program Aqua-FE™, developed by the University of New Hampshire (UNH), was applied to rafts moored at the surface and submerged. The submerged configuration is used to reduce wave forcing and to avoid contact with floating ice during winters in northern waters. Each raft consists of three pontoons connected by a grid framework. Rafts are intended to support densely spaced mussel ropes hung from the framework. When submerged, the pontoons are flooded, and the raft is held vertically by floats attached by lines. The computer models were developed in Aqua-FE™ to simulate the effects of waves and current. They were validated by comparison with wave tank results by use of a 1/10 scale raft physical model. Comparisons showed good agreement for the important heave (vertical) and pitch (rotational) motions, though there was a tendency towards conservative results for wave and current drag. Full-scale simulations of surface and submerged single raft and two rafts connected in tandem were performed. Submerged raft wave response was found to be reduced relative to that at the surface for both the single and two-raft configurations. In particular, the vertical motion of mussel rope connection points was significantly reduced by submergence, resulting in reduced potential for mussel drop-off. For example, the maximum vertical velocities of mussel rope attachment points in the submerged two raft case were 7%-20% of the corresponding velocities when at the surface.

  12. Characterization of ten highly polymorphic microsatellite loci for the intertidal mussel Perna perna, and cross species amplification within the genus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The brown mussel Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758) is a dominant constituent of intertidal communities and a strong invader with multiple non-native populations distributed around the world. In a previous study, two polymorphic microsatellite loci were developed and used to determine population-level genetic diversity in invasive and native P. perna populations. However, higher number of microsatellite markers are required for reliable population genetic studies. In this context, in order to understand P. perna origins and history of invasion and to compare population genetic structure in native versus invaded areas, we developed 10 polymorphic microsatellite markers. Findings Described microsatellite markers were developed from an enriched genomic library. Analyses and characterization of loci using 20 individuals from a population in Western Sahara revealed on average 11 alleles per locus (range: 5–27) and mean gene diversity of 0.75 (range: 0.31 - 0.95). One primer pair revealed possible linkage disequilibrium while heterozygote deficiency was significant at four loci. Six of these markers cross-amplified in P. canaliculus (origin: New Zealand). Conclusions Developed markers will be useful in addressing a variety of questions concerning P. perna, including dispersal scales, genetic variation and population structure, in both native and invaded areas. PMID:23039168

  13. Building Native Nations through Native Student's Commitment to Their Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Tiffany S.

    2009-01-01

    One aspect of building Native nations entails motivating American Indian/Alaska Native youth to become committed to their communities so as to sustain and move forward with the goals of American Indian/Alaska Native nations. This study determined the impact of one Native American Studies department on its Native students' life goals. Through its…

  14. Traditional Native Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Agnes

    1985-01-01

    While Native myths and legends were educational tools to transmit tribal beliefs and history, traditional American Indian poetry served a ritualistic function in everyday life. Few traditional Native songs, which all poems were, survive; only Mayan and Aztec poems were written, and most of these were burned by a Spanish bishop. In addition, many…

  15. AIDS and Native Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, G. Cajetan

    Native Americans throughout North America suffer from a greater prevalence of health problems than the population as a whole. One might believe that the problem of AIDS is insignificant for Native youth, but such a belief is inaccurate and shortsighted. As of March 1989, the Centers for Disease Control reported 1,792 cases of childhood and…

  16. Legends of Native Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flagg, Ann

    1999-01-01

    Presents a theme unit that includes elementary-level, cross-curricular lessons about lifestyle, belief systems, traditions, and history of Native Americans. The unit includes a poster which offers a traditional Cherokee story, literature on Native American legends, and a variety of cross-curricular activities. The unit ends with students writing…

  17. Native Speaker Insight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broughton, Geoffrey

    1978-01-01

    Defines the concept of native speaker insight and suggests that, for the purpose of teaching English as a second language, the goal should not be native speaker insight (NSI) but NS Type 1, a reduced, adequate and attainable goal for foreign learners. (CFM)

  18. Listen to the Natives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prensky, Marc

    2006-01-01

    "Digital natives" refer to today's students because they are native speakers of technology, fluent in the digital language of computers, video games, and the Internet. Those who were not born into the digital world are referred to as digital immigrants. Educators, considered digital immigrants, have slid into the 21st century--and into the digital…

  19. Native American Entrepreneurship. Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Nicole

    Although Native Americans have owned and started the fewest small businesses of all U.S. minority groups, entrepreneurship is considered to be an efficient tool for alleviating their economic problems. Barriers to Native American entrepreneurship include poverty, scarce start-up capital, poor access to business education and technical assistance,…

  20. Following Native Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neiburg, Michael S.

    Native language acquisition is a natural and non-natural stage-by-stage process. The natural first stage is development of speech and listening skills. In this stage, competency is gained in the home environment. The next, non-natural stage is development of literacy, a cultural skill taught in school. Since oral-aural native language development…

  1. Toxic and nutrient element concentrations in soft tissues of zebra and quagga mussels from Lakes Erie and Ontario.

    PubMed

    Rutzke, M A; Gutenmann, W H; Lisk, D J; Mills, E L

    2000-06-01

    Zebra and quagga mussels were collected from Lakes Erie and Ontario in 1997 and the soft mussel tissues were analyzed for Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, V and Zn. No consistent relationships were apparent when comparing element concentrations in soft mussel tissues and mussel type, size range or sampling location. Literature dealing with the absorption of metals by both mussel types is reviewed. PMID:10789974

  2. IMPACT OF OXYGEN CONCENTRATION ON ZEBRA MUSSEL MORTALITY

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2003-01-27

    These tests have indicated that the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL0145A is effective at killing zebra mussels in environments having dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations ranging from very low to very high. The results suggest that the highest mussel kill can be achieved in moderately to highly aerated environments, while kill may be 0-20% lower under conditions of very low oxygen. For example, under highly oxygenated conditions 97% kill was achieved while conditions having low DO produced 79% mussel kill. Service water measured in a local power plant indicated that DO concentrations were in the range of 8-9 ppm (e.g., highly aerated) within their pipes. Therefore, we will not expect to see decreases in the efficacy of CL0145A treatments due to oxygen levels within such power plant pipes.

  3. IMPACT OF FIVE TREATMENT FACTORS ON MUSSEL MORTALITY

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2003-12-08

    Under this USDOE-NETL contract, the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens is being developed as a biocontrol agent for zebra mussels. The specific purpose of the contract is to identify factors that affect mussel kill. Test results reported herein indicate that mussel kill should not be affected by: (1) air bubbles being carried by currents through power plant pipes; (2) pipe orientation (e.g., vertical or horizontal); (3) whether the bacterial cell concentration during a treatment is constant or slightly varying; (4) whether a treatment is between 3 hr and 12 hr in duration, given that the total quantity of bacteria being applied to the pipe is a constant; and (5) whether the water temperature is between 13 C and 23 C.

  4. Perforation of esophagus and subsequent mediastinitis following mussel shell ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Park, Il Hwan; Lim, Hyun Kyo; Song, Seung Woo

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal perforation is a very rare occurrence because accidental swallowing of foreign bodies is uncommon in adults. Thus, perforation due to swallowing of a foreign body and subsequent development of mediastinitis is rarely encountered by physicians. We experienced such a case and described an adult male patient who had perforated esophagus after accidentally swallowing a mussel shell. The patient visited our emergency department complaining of painful dysphagia for 4 days. A review of history revealed that he consumed a spicy seafood noodle soup containing mussel shells 4 days ago. Computed tomography (CT) of the chest showed the foreign body in the esophagus and pneumomediastinum was identified. We removed the mussel shell fragment using rigid esophagoscopy; explo-thoracotomy, debridement of mediastinal abscess and irrigation were performed.

  5. Mussel-Inspired Materials: Self-Healing through Coordination Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Krogsgaard, Marie; Nue, Vicki; Birkedal, Henrik

    2016-01-18

    Improved understanding of the underwater attachment strategy of the blue mussels and other marine organisms has inspired researchers to find new routes to advanced materials. Mussels use polyphenols, such as the catechol-containing amino acid 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), to attach to surfaces. Catechols and their analogues can undergo both oxidative covalent cross-linking under alkaline conditions and take part in coordination chemistry. The former has resulted in the widespread use of polydopamine and related materials. The latter is emerging as a tool to make self-healing materials due to the reversible nature of coordination bonds. We review how mussel-inspired materials have been made with a focus on the less developed use of metal coordination and illustrate how this chemistry can be widely to make self-healing materials. PMID:26558881

  6. DNA damage and apoptosis in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Micić, Milena; Bihari, Nevenka; Jaksić, Zeljko; Müller, Werner E G; Batel, Renato

    2002-04-01

    The effects of known genotoxic substances (4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide, benzo[a]pyrene, teniposide, etoposide, cycloheximide, tributyltin) on human cells (FLC, HL-60) and on mussels were investigated. The correlations between formation of DNA strand breaks and DNA fragmentation characteristic for the process of apoptosis were estimated. Strand breaks induced by 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide and benzo[a]pyrene did not correlate with DNA fragmentation detected in the process of apoptosis. Induction of internucleosomal DNA fragmentation in HL-60 cells was initiated by teniposide, etoposide and tributyltin, while in the gills of mussels this was detected only with tributyltin. Levels of DNA strand breaks in natural mussel populations, living at locations under the influence of urban and industrial wastes, do not mirror the apoptotic processes. PMID:11939292

  7. Native SAD is maturing.

    PubMed

    Rose, John P; Wang, Bi-Cheng; Weiss, Manfred S

    2015-07-01

    Native SAD phasing uses the anomalous scattering signal of light atoms in the crystalline, native samples of macromolecules collected from single-wavelength X-ray diffraction experiments. These atoms include sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, sulfur, chlorine, potassium and calcium. Native SAD phasing is challenging and is critically dependent on the collection of accurate data. Over the past five years, advances in diffraction hardware, crystallographic software, data-collection methods and strategies, and the use of data statistics have been witnessed which allow 'highly accurate data' to be routinely collected. Today, native SAD sits on the verge of becoming a 'first-choice' method for both de novo and molecular-replacement structure determination. This article will focus on advances that have caught the attention of the community over the past five years. It will also highlight both de novo native SAD structures and recent structures that were key to methods development. PMID:26175902

  8. Native SAD is maturing

    PubMed Central

    Rose, John P.; Wang, Bi-Cheng; Weiss, Manfred S.

    2015-01-01

    Native SAD phasing uses the anomalous scattering signal of light atoms in the crystalline, native samples of macromolecules collected from single-wavelength X-ray diffraction experiments. These atoms include sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, sulfur, chlorine, potassium and calcium. Native SAD phasing is challenging and is critically dependent on the collection of accurate data. Over the past five years, advances in diffraction hardware, crystallographic software, data-collection methods and strategies, and the use of data statistics have been witnessed which allow ‘highly accurate data’ to be routinely collected. Today, native SAD sits on the verge of becoming a ‘first-choice’ method for both de novo and molecular-replacement structure determination. This article will focus on advances that have caught the attention of the community over the past five years. It will also highlight both de novo native SAD structures and recent structures that were key to methods development. PMID:26175902

  9. Dreissenid mussels are not a "dead end" in Great Lakes food webs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenijan, Charles P.; Pothoven, Steven A.; Schneeberger, Philip J.; Ebener, Mark P.; Mohr, Lloyd C.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Bence, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Dreissenid mussels have been regarded as a “dead end” in Great Lakes food webs because the degree of predation on dreissenid mussels, on a lakewide basis, is believed to be low. Waterfowl predation on dreissenid mussels in the Great Lakes has primarily been confined to bays, and therefore its effects on the dreissenid mussel population have been localized rather than operating on a lakewide level. Based on results from a previous study, annual consumption of dreissenid mussels by the round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) population in central Lake Erie averaged only 6 kilotonnes (kt; 1 kt = one thousand metric tons) during 1995–2002. In contrast, our coupling of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) population models with a lake whitefish bioenergetics model revealed that lake whitefish populations in Lakes Michigan and Huron consumed 109 and 820 kt, respectively, of dreissenid mussels each year. Our results indicated that lake whitefish can be an important predator on dreissenid mussels in the Great Lakes, and that dreissenid mussels do not represent a “dead end” in Great Lakes food webs. The Lake Michigan dreissenid mussel population has been estimated to be growing more than three times faster than the Lake Huron dreissenid mussel population during the 2000s. One plausible explanation for the higher population growth rate in Lake Michigan would be the substantially higher predation rate by lake whitefish on dreissenid mussels in Lake Huron.

  10. Seasonal, geographic and individual variation of okadaic acid content in cultivated mussels in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Edebo, L; Lange, S; Li, X P; Allenmark, S; Lindgren, K; Thompson, R

    1988-11-01

    In Western Europe the dinoflagellate toxin, okadaic acid (OA) has been the main cause of diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP). Chemical determination of OA in mussels by homogenization of the hepatopancreas, extraction, purification, reaction with 9-anthryldiazomethane (ADAM), HPLC-separation, and fluorometric quantification has been used for weekly monitoring of mussel growing farms and to control harvested mussels. Within a week, substantial rises (from 0.41 to 5.4 micrograms OA/g hepatopancreas) as well as great reductions (from 7.2 to 1.8 micrograms/g hepatopancreas) were recorded. The rapid rise implies that weekly sampling is not sufficient to ensure that mussels are free from toxic levels of OA. The rapid decrease reveals that efficient toxin clearance mechanisms exist in the mussels. Substantial OA clearance occurs also at low temperatures (1.4-3 degrees C). Within a mussel growing site the OA concentrations could differ considerably between adjacent mussels (0.63 and 4.2 micrograms OA/g hepatop.) and even more between mussels grown at different depths along the same rope (0.63 and 10 micrograms OA/g hepatop.). These data emphasize the importance of sampling in studies on DST in mussels. Great differences between the different mussel growing sites were also observed. These data have been discussed with respect to the spread of the toxin by the sea, and the possibilities of reducing the exposure of the mussels to the toxic algae. PMID:3196475

  11. Survey design for detecting rare freshwater mussels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.R.

    2006-01-01

    A common objective when surveying freshwater mussels is to detect the presence of rare populations. In certain situations, such as when endangered or threatened species are potentially in the area of a proposed impact, the survey should be designed to ensure a high probability of detecting species presence. Linking survey design to probability of detecting species presence has been done for quantitative surveys, but commonly applied designs that are based on timed searches have not made that connection. I propose a semiquantitative survey design that links search area and search efficiency to probability of detecting species presence. The survey can be designed to protect against failing to detect populations above a threshold abundance (or density). I illustrate the design for surveys to detect clubshell (Pluerobema clava) and northern riffleshell (Epioblasma torulosa rangiana) in the Allegheny River. Monte Carlo simulation indicated that the proposed survey design performs well under a range of spatial distributions and low densities (<0.05 m2) where search area is sufficient to ensure that the probability of detecting species presence is predicted to be ???0.85. ?? 2006 by The North American Benthological Society.

  12. Proceedings: Third International Zebra Mussel Conference, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Tsou, J.L.; Mussalli, Y.G.

    1993-06-01

    This Third International Conference on Zebra Mussels was held on February 23--26, 1993 in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The Conference was sponsored by American Water Works Association Research Foundation, Electric Power Research Institute, Environment Canada - Fisheries and Oceans, Great Lakes Seal Grant Network, Ontario Hydro, the Ontario Ministry of the Environment, and Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources to bring together representatives of utilities, manufacturers, researchers, and consultants. There were 105 papers presented in 16 sessions over 4 days, typically with 2 sessions running concurrently. These sessions were devoted to the following general topics: General Information, Biological and Ecological Considerations, Chemical Treatments, and Non-Chemical Treatments. A panel discussion devoted to the same topics was conducted on the second day, two concurrent special meetings (Workshop on Application of Electric Power Technology for Biofouling and Research Protocol Panel Meeting) were held on the third day, and a poster session containing 56 poster papers was held on the fourth day. Approximately 700 people attended this conference. This report contains selected technical papers from the formal presentations and the poster session. Of these 49 selected papers, there are 9 papers related to general information, 8 papers related to biological and ecological considerations, 20 papers related to chemical treatments, and 12 papers related to nonchemical treatments. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  13. The effect of zebra mussel consumption on growth of freshwater drum in Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, John R. P., III; Bur, Michael T.

    1996-01-01

    We examined food habits and scale annuli of freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) from western Lake Erie to determine whether increasing predation on zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) had affected growth of freshwater drum. The volume of zebra mussels in drum guts was greater in older fish. Growth of age classes 3–4, which consumed few zebra mussels, was greater in the most productive year for zebra mussels, July 1990–August 1991, than in three prior years. The total lengths of 5-year-old drum changed little. The mean total length of 6-year-old females has declined since the zebra mussel invaded Lake Erie, even through mussels comprised more than two-thirds of gut samples in these fish. These studies suggest that zebra mussels may not benefit freshwater drum when serving as a staple in the diet. PDF

  14. Mutagenicity test using Vibrio harveyi in the assessment of water quality from mussel farms.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Yolanda; Suárez, Pilar; Alonso, Ana; Longo, Elisa; San Juan, Fuencisla

    2013-05-15

    This work analyses the mutagenicity of seawater from mussel farms using the Vibrio harveyi mutagenicity test and its relationship with the accumulated pollutants and the development of gonadal neoplasia in mussels. Histological disorders identified as germinoma were observed in the gonad of Mytilus galloprovincialis during the period of study. The prevalence of this pathology is significantly correlated with certain levels of pollutants accumulated in mussels, mainly of PAHs and PCBs, whose toxic equivalents were calculated as EROD induction equivalency. The mutagenicity and toxicity of the water surrounding mussel's farms is clearly correlated with the pollutants accumulated and with the neoplasia prevalence in mussels. Such correlations are corroborated by a multivariate analysis. Our results conclude with the utility of V. harveyi test as an optimal and rapid method in the monitoring of the quality of the water from mussel farms and as a tool to control the risks of pollution on mussel production and its safety for human food. PMID:23510693

  15. World mussel watch database. National status and trends program for marine environmental quality: Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Cantillo, A.Y.

    1997-04-01

    The Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) is an internationally cooordinated system for systematic operational data collection and analysis. This contribution to GOOS is an attempt to determine the levels of contaminants in mussels and oysters collected worldwide and to compare the results with the long-term Mussel Watch programs of the United States and France. A comprehensive literature search of studies using any species of mussels and/or oysters worldwide to monitor the levels of trace metals and organic contaminants was conducted and the data compiled into the World Mussel Watch database. Data sources and statistics of the database are included. Results of the World Mussel Watch and the US and France Mussel Watch programs were compared and typical levels of some trace metals in uncontaminated mussels and oysters were calculated.

  16. An integrated chemical-biological study using caged mussels (Mytilus trossulus) along a pollution gradient in the Archipelago Sea (SW Finland, Baltic Sea).

    PubMed

    Lehtonen, Kari K; Turja, Raisa; Budzinski, Hélène; Devier, Marie-Hélène

    2016-08-01

    Mussels (Mytilus trossulus) were caged along a known pollution gradient in the inner Archipelago Sea (northern Baltic Sea) and retrieved after 71 and 121 d for the measurement of selected chemical contaminants in tissues and biological endpoints including biochemical biomarkers and growth. Additional samples were collected during the growth season from a native mussel population at an alleged reference site. Elevated concentrations of numerous contaminants (e.g., PAH) were observed in spring, apparently due to the loss of tissue mass during the winter, while also the levels of many biomarkers (e.g., glutathione S-transferase activity) were elevated. Spatial and temporal changes in the accumulation of contaminants and biological parameters were observed with some of them (e.g., growth) linked to seasonal changes in environmental factors. The results underline the importance of understanding the effects of seasonal natural factors on the growth dynamics and general condition of mussels when assessing tissue concentrations of contaminants and biological effects. PMID:27337550

  17. pH-induced metal-ligand cross-links inspired by mussel yield self-healing polymer networks with near-covalent elastic moduli.

    PubMed

    Holten-Andersen, Niels; Harrington, Matthew J; Birkedal, Henrik; Lee, Bruce P; Messersmith, Phillip B; Lee, Ka Yee C; Waite, J Herbert

    2011-02-15

    Growing evidence supports a critical role of metal-ligand coordination in many attributes of biological materials including adhesion, self-assembly, toughness, and hardness without mineralization [Rubin DJ, Miserez A, Waite JH (2010) Advances in Insect Physiology: Insect Integument and Color, eds Jérôme C, Stephen JS (Academic Press, London), pp 75-133]. Coordination between Fe and catechol ligands has recently been correlated to the hardness and high extensibility of the cuticle of mussel byssal threads and proposed to endow self-healing properties [Harrington MJ, Masic A, Holten-Andersen N, Waite JH, Fratzl P (2010) Science 328:216-220]. Inspired by the pH jump experienced by proteins during maturation of a mussel byssus secretion, we have developed a simple method to control catechol-Fe(3+) interpolymer cross-linking via pH. The resonance Raman signature of catechol-Fe(3+) cross-linked polymer gels at high pH was similar to that from native mussel thread cuticle and the gels displayed elastic moduli (G') that approach covalently cross-linked gels as well as self-healing properties. PMID:21278337

  18. Native Mussels Alter Nutrient Availability and Reduce Blue-Green Algae Abundance

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nutrient cycling is a key process that ties all organisms together. This is especially apparent in stream environments in which nutrients are taken up readily and cycled through the system in a downstream trajectory. Ecological stoichiometry predicts that biogeochemical cycles of...

  19. Enemies with benefits: parasitic endoliths protect mussels against heat stress.

    PubMed

    Zardi, G I; Nicastro, K R; McQuaid, C D; Ng, T P T; Lathlean, J; Seuront, L

    2016-01-01

    Positive and negative aspects of species interactions can be context dependant and strongly affected by environmental conditions. We tested the hypothesis that, during periods of intense heat stress, parasitic phototrophic endoliths that fatally degrade mollusc shells can benefit their mussel hosts. Endolithic infestation significantly reduced body temperatures of sun-exposed mussels and, during unusually extreme heat stress, parasitised individuals suffered lower mortality rates than non-parasitised hosts. This beneficial effect was related to the white discolouration caused by the excavation activity of endoliths. Under climate warming, species relationships may be drastically realigned and conditional benefits of phototrophic endolithic parasites may become more important than the costs of infestation. PMID:27506855

  20. Seasonal variations of arsenic in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klarić, Sanja; Pavičić-Hamer, Dijana; Lucu, Čedomil

    2004-10-01

    Total arsenic concentration in the edible part of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis was evaluated seasonally in the coastal area of Rijeka Bay (North Adriatic Sea, Croatia). Sampling stations were located close to the City of Bakar with no industrial facilities (site 1), in the vicinity of the oil refinery and oil thermoelectric power plant (Urinj, site 2), and 4 miles away from the Plomin coal thermoelectric power plant (Brseč village, site 3). Additionally, the concentration of arsenic in the tail muscle of the lobster Nephrops norvegicus, collected in Rijeka Bay, was studied. During winter at sites 2 and 3, the total arsenic in the edible part of the mussels was 16.4 mg As/kg FW (FW=fresh weight) and 4.38 mg As/kg FW, respectively, and increased during springtime at site 2 (6.5 mg As/kg FW) compared to the rest of the year, when individual total arsenic concentration at all sites ranged from 1.7 to 3.7 mg As/kg FW. In the winter (sites 2 and 3) and springtime (site 2) there was no correlation between the length of the mussel shell and the arsenic concentration in the edible part of the mussels. In the other seasons, at sites 1, 2 and 3, there was a correlation between arsenic in the edible part of mussels and shell length in most cases (correlation coefficients r varied from 0.64 to 0.85; P <0.05 to P <0.01). Correlation between shell length (in the narrow range of shell lengths from 3.4 to 5.0 cm) and arsenic in the edible part of the mussels shows linearity with a high regression coefficient (r =0.914; P <0.001). The increase of arsenic in the mussels during winter and spring was suggested at least partially as a result of a low nutritional status, i.e. reduced weight of the mussels' edible part during winter. In addition, a linear relationship was found between body length and arsenic concentration in the tail muscle (mean 17.11±4.48 mg As/kg FW) of the Norway lobster.

  1. Enemies with benefits: parasitic endoliths protect mussels against heat stress

    PubMed Central

    Zardi, G. I.; Nicastro, K. R.; McQuaid, C. D.; Ng, T. P. T.; Lathlean, J.; Seuront, L.

    2016-01-01

    Positive and negative aspects of species interactions can be context dependant and strongly affected by environmental conditions. We tested the hypothesis that, during periods of intense heat stress, parasitic phototrophic endoliths that fatally degrade mollusc shells can benefit their mussel hosts. Endolithic infestation significantly reduced body temperatures of sun-exposed mussels and, during unusually extreme heat stress, parasitised individuals suffered lower mortality rates than non-parasitised hosts. This beneficial effect was related to the white discolouration caused by the excavation activity of endoliths. Under climate warming, species relationships may be drastically realigned and conditional benefits of phototrophic endolithic parasites may become more important than the costs of infestation. PMID:27506855

  2. The availability and quality of the mussel prey ( Mytilus edulis) of oystercatchers ( Haematopus ostralegus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goss-Custard, J. D.; West, A. D.; Dit Durell, S. E. A. LeV

    Spatial variations in the availability and quality of the mussel Mytilus edulis food supply of Oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus on the Exe estuary, England, are described. Oystercatchers open mussels by stabbing into gaping mussels (or prising open closed ones) or by hammering a hole in either the dorsal or ventral shells. Spatial variations in the food supply are considered at four scales. In decreasing order of size, these are (i) whole mussel beds, (ii) zones within a mussel bed, (iii) different places within one zone, and (iv) different places within one clump of mussels. The first two scales are clearly related to exposure time. Both between and within the 12 main mussel beds of the estuary, most upshore mussels are up to 10% less likely than downshore mussels to be hidden under mud. However, upshore mussels of a given length contain less flesh, have thicker ventral shells and, except on high-level beds subject to wave erosion, have thicker dorsal shells than downshore mussels. Mussels at the top of the shore also contain the highest infestations of the helminth parasite of Oystercatchers, Psilostomum brevicolle. At a particular shore level, mussels of a given length have less flesh and thicker shells, though only on the dorsal side, in areas of high mussel density. Within one clump, mussels of a given length with thick dorsal shells have more flesh than those with thin shells. In contrast, flesh content is slightly higher in mussels that are thin on the ventral side. Flesh content and shell thickness on both sides are unaffected by whether a mussel is visible at the edge of a clump or hidden inside. Simulations with a model of foraging Oystercatchers suggested that variations in mussel availability (visibility and shell thickness) and flesh content at all four scales could sometimes have an important influence on intake rate. Most published values of intake rates of Oystercatchers eating surface-dwelling mussels may be biassed (and often considerably over

  3. Development of a molecular diagnostic system to discriminate Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel) and Dreissena bugensis (quagga mussel).

    PubMed

    Hoy, Marshal S; Kelly, Kevin; Rodriguez, Rusty J

    2010-01-01

    A 3-primer PCR system was developed to discriminate invasive zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (Dreissena bugensis) mussel. The system is based on: 1) universal primers that amplifies a region of the nuclear 28s rDNA gene from both species and 2) a species-specific primer complementary to either zebra or quagga mussel. The species-specific primers bind to sequences between the binding sites for the universal primers resulting in the amplification of two products from the target species and one product from the nontarget species. Therefore, nontarget products are positive amplification controls. The 3-primer system accurately discriminated zebra and quagga mussels from seven geographically distinct populations. PMID:21565008

  4. The development and implementation of a method using blue mussels (Mytilus spp.) as biosentinels of Cryptosporidium spp. and Toxoplasma gondii contamination in marine aquatic environments.

    PubMed

    Staggs, Sarah E; Keely, Scott P; Ware, Michael W; Schable, Nancy; See, Mary Jean; Gregorio, Dominic; Zou, Xuan; Su, Chunlei; Dubey, J P; Villegas, Eric N

    2015-12-01

    Surveillance monitoring for microbial water quality typically involves collecting single discrete grab samples for analyzing only one contaminant. While informative, current approaches suffer from poor recoveries and only provide a limited snapshot of the microbial contaminants only at the time of collection. To overcome these limitations, bivalves have been proposed as effective biosentinels of water quality particularly for their ability to efficiently concentrate and retain microbial contaminants for long periods of time. In this study, we examined the use of indigenous blue mussels (Mytilus spp.) as biosentinels to monitor for the presence of Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium water. An efficient method to extract oocyst DNA from various mussel tissues followed by PCR-based detection of these pathogens was developed, which resulted in the detection down to 10 oocysts. This method was then used to conduct a small survey in Point Lobos and Morro Bay, California to determine prevalence T. gondii and Cryptosporidium. Results revealed that mussels from Morro Bay were contaminated with T. gondii (33 %), while mussels from Point Lobos were contaminated with T. gondii (54 %) and Cryptosporidium (26.9 %) oocysts. Phylogenetic analysis using the SSU rRNA gene identified two novel Cryptosporidium parvum-like genotypes. Overall, this study demonstrated the application of using native California Mytilus spp. as biosentinels for pathogen contamination along the central California shorelines. More importantly, T. gondii and Cryptosporidium were found at higher prevalence rates in Morro Bay and in Point Lobos, an area not previously reported to be contaminated with these pathogens. PMID:26358104

  5. Native American Tribal Websites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Eric L.

    1999-01-01

    Lists Web sites maintained by 38 different Native American nations that deal with topics ranging from tribal history, news, arts and crafts, tourism, entertainment, and commerce. Represented nations include Apache, Blackfeet, Creek, Iroquois, Mohegan, and Sioux. (CMK)

  6. Native American Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horse, Perry G.

    2005-01-01

    Many issues and elements--including ethnic nomenclature, racial attitudes, and the legal and political status of American Indian nations and Indian people--influence Native American identity. (Contains 3 notes.)

  7. Perturbation induced changes in substrate use by the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, in sedimentary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    wa Kangeri, Arno K.; Jansen, Jeroen M.; Barkman, Barbara R.; Donker, Jasper J. A.; Joppe, Daniel J.; Dankers, Norbert M. J. A.

    2014-01-01

    For sessile benthic marine organisms adhesion to a stable substrate is important for survival. Sedimentary systems, however, generally lack stable surfaces. How sessile species like the mussel, Mytilus edulis, are able to achieve stability in unstable sediments is not fully understood. An intertidal mussel bed in the tidal flats in the Western portion of the Dutch Wadden Sea was selected to investigate adhesion behavior of M. edulis. Sampling was conducted along a hydrodynamic gradient along the Front-edge, Center and Back-edge of a mussel bed. Mussels along the bed edges were characterized by adhesion to fine shell debris and high numbers of byssus threads. Mussels in the center of the bed were characterized by adhesion to shells of living conspecifics and relatively low numbers of byssus threads. An experimental investigation to isolate the role of perturbation on adhesion strategies was carried out under laboratory conditions. Experimental results show that under perturbed conditions mussels developed increased numbers of byssus threads relative to mussels left unperturbed. Additionally, mussels subjected to perturbation preferentially adhered more frequently to fine shell debris while unperturbed mussels adhered more frequently to conspecifics. Results show that differentiation in adhesion strategy is driven by physical perturbation and mediated by bed density. The results also suggest that adhesion by mussels in a sedimentary environment is a selective process in which larger shell fragments and shells of conspecifics are the preferred substrate.

  8. Influences of water and sediment quality and hydrologic processes on mussels in the Clinch River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Gregory C.; Krstolic, Jennifer L.; Ostby, Brett J.K.

    2014-01-01

    Segments of the Clinch River in Virginia have experienced declining freshwater mussel populations during the past 40 years, while other segments of the river continue to support some of the richest mussel communities in the country. The close proximity of these contrasting reaches provides a study area where differences in climate, hydrology, and historic mussel distribution are minimal. The USGS conducted a study between 2009 and 2011 to evaluate possible causes of the mussel declines. Evaluation of mussel habitat showed no differences in physical habitat quality, leaving water and sediment quality as possible causes for declines. Three years of continuous water-quality data showed higher turbidity and specific conductance in the reaches with low-quality mussel assemblages compared to reaches with high-quality mussel assemblages. Discrete water-quality samples showed higher major ions and metals concentrations in the low-quality reach. Base-flow samples contained high major ion and metal concentrations coincident to low-quality mussel populations. These results support a conceptual model of dilution and augmentation where increased concentrations of major ions and other dissolved constituents from mined tributaries result in reaches with declining mussel populations. Tributaries from unmined basins provide water with low concentrations of dissolved constituents, diluting reaches of the Clinch River where high-quality mussel populations occur.

  9. Effects of different biotic substrata on mussel attachment.

    PubMed

    Ank, Glaucia; Porto, Tiago F; Pereira, Renato C; da Gama, Bernardo A P

    2009-01-01

    Surface colonization by invertebrates can be stimulated or inhibited by cues produced by biofilms, conspecifics or other macroorganisms. To study the effects of living substrata on the attachment of the brown mussel, Perna perna, two different approaches were employed: (1) mussels were distributed in sets of Petri dishes consisting of one sterile set (controls), three sets in which marine biofilms were allowed to develop in aquaria for 1, 7 or 15 days and another set that had been immersed in a natural marine environment for 1-day. There was no significant effect of biofilms on attachment, suggesting that neither age nor the source of the biofilm influenced attachment. (2) Mussels were suspended over PVC panels (controls) and over panels on which Balanus trigonus (Crustacea), Schizoporella errata (Bryozoa), Symplegma rubra or Didemnum speciosum (Ascidiacea) were present. Attachment was significantly higher on the controls and on B. trigonus than on colonial taxa such as S. rubra, S. errata and D. speciosum, probably due to antifouling defenses of these species. The results show that the composition of the biological substratum is an important factor affecting mussel behavior. PMID:19048423

  10. Interfacial pH during mussel adhesive plaque formation.

    PubMed

    Martinez Rodriguez, Nadine R; Das, Saurabh; Kaufman, Yair; Israelachvili, Jacob N; Waite, J Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Mussel (Mytilus californianus) adhesion to marine surfaces involves an intricate and adaptive synergy of molecules and spatio-temporal processes. Although the molecules, such as mussel foot proteins (mfps), are well characterized, deposition details remain vague and speculative. Developing methods for the precise surveillance of conditions that apply during mfp deposition would aid both in understanding mussel adhesion and translating this adhesion into useful technologies. To probe the interfacial pH at which mussels buffer the local environment during mfp deposition, a lipid bilayer with tethered pH-sensitive fluorochromes was assembled on mica. The interfacial pH during foot contact with modified mica ranged from 2.2 to 3.3, which is well below the seawater pH of ~ 8. The acidic pH serves multiple functions: it limits mfp-Dopa oxidation, thereby enabling the catecholic functionalities to adsorb to surface oxides by H-bonding and metal ion coordination, and provides a solubility switch for mfps, most of which aggregate at pH ≥ 7-8. PMID:25875963

  11. Induction of chromosomal aberrations in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis watch

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Sabti, K.; Kurelec, B.

    1985-11-01

    In this paper the authors present an investigation into the occurrence of chromosomal aberration (CA) induction in mussels. The feasibility of using this as an indicator of genotoxins under actual field conditions has been evaluated. Benzo(a)pyrene was used in these experiments.

  12. Interfacial pH during mussel adhesive plaque formation

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Nadine R. Martinez; Das, Saurabh; Kaufman, Yair; Israelachvili, Jacob N.; Waite, J. Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Mussel (Mytilus californianus) adhesion to marine surfaces involves an intricate and adaptive synergy of molecules and spatio-temporal processes. Although the molecules, such as mussel foot proteins (mfps), are well characterized, deposition details remain vague and speculative. Developing methods for the precise surveillance of conditions that apply during mfp deposition would aid both in understanding mussel adhesion and translating this adhesion into useful technologies. To probe the interfacial pH at which mussels buffer the local environment during mfp deposition, a lipid bilayer with tethered pH-sensitive fluorochromes was assembled on mica. The interfacial pH during foot contact with modified mica ranged from 2.2−3.3, which is well below the seawater pH of ~8. The acidic pH serves multiple functions: it limits mfp-Dopa oxidation, thereby enabling the catecholic functionalities to adsorb to surface oxides by H-bonding and metal ion coordination, and provides a solubility switch for mfps, most of which aggregate at pH ≥ 7-8. PMID:25875963

  13. THREATENED AND ENDANGERED FRESHWATER FISH AND MUSSEL SPECIES RICHNESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    These data represent predicted current distributions of all US listed Threatened and Endangered freshwater fish and freshwater mussels in the Middle-Atlantic region. The data are available for both 8-digit HUCs and EMAP hexagons and represent total species counts for each spatia...

  14. Mussel fouling on the Celtic Sea Kinsale Field gas platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southgate, T.; Myers, A. A.

    1985-06-01

    Fouling was investigated on Marathon Kinsale Field Alpha and Bravo platforms in the Celtic Sea between June 1978 and June 1981. In shallow depths, algae dominated, chiefly Polysiphonia brodiaei and Ulva lactuca. Mussels formed the dominant fouling organism between 6 and 20 m depth, below which were zones of Metridium senile and Alcyonium digitatum, serpulids and the deep water barnacle Balanus hameri. In September 1979 mussels exceeded 2500 m -2 with a modal length of 42 mm. By June 1981, modal length had increased to 67 mm at -4 m and 73 mm at -18 m (maximum size 97 mm). Populations on Bravo were similar. Comparison is made with growth rates on North Sea platforms. On Alpha, percentage cover m -2 in March 1980 was much greater at -4 m than at -18 m, but mean thickness was similar. At -18 m mussels were a heavier fouler on Bravo than Alpha. On Alpha mussel weight did not show a linear relationship with percentage cover.

  15. Standardization of the juvenile mussel bioassay: Dietary requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, L.W.; Klaine, S.J.

    1995-12-31

    Optimizing a feeding regime is essential for establishing juvenile mussels (Utterbackia imbecillus) as a standard toxicity test organism. Although very little is known about their dietary requirements, these juveniles appear to derive adequate nourishment for survival and growth in batch culture from a diet of the green alga Chlorella vulgaris and Ankistrodesmus falcatus. However, results of previous studies have suggested that mussel diet in culture prior to exposure influences the sensitivity of these organisms to aqueous copper and cadmium exposure. Dietary components included three species of live algae (A. falcatus, C. vulgaris, and Scenedesmus quadricauda) and a suspension of rehydrated, dried Spirulina sp. Less than 24-hr laboratory cultured juveniles were fed all four components or combinations of three algal species daily to determine which mixtures promoted maximal growth. Preliminary data showed growth of control mussels receiving no food was comparable to those organisms fed all four algal species in combination. The greatest increase in shell length of juvenile mussels over 6 days was obtained with the tri-algal combination of A. falcatus, C. vulgaris, and S. quadricauda. The mixture resulting in the least growth included A. falcatus, S. quadricauda, and dried Spirulina sp.

  16. Byssal proteins of the freshwater zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Gantayet, Arpita; Ohana, Lily; Sone, Eli D

    2013-01-01

    The freshwater zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) is a notorious biofouling organism. It adheres to a variety of substrata underwater by means of a proteinaceous structure called the byssus, which consists of a number of threads with adhesive plaques at the tips. The byssal proteins are difficult to characterize due to extensive cross-linking of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), which renders the mature structure largely resistant to protein extraction and immunolocalization. By inducing secretion of fresh threads and plaques in which cross-linking is minimized, three novel zebra mussel byssal proteins were identified following extraction and separation by gel electrophoresis. Peptide fragment fingerprinting was used to match tryptic digests of several gel bands against a cDNA library of genes expressed uniquely in the mussel foot, the organ which secretes the byssus. This allowed identification of a more complete sequence of Dpfp2 (D. polymorpha foot protein 2), a known DOPA-containing byssal protein, and a partial sequence of Dpfp5, a novel protein with several typical characteristics of mussel adhesive proteins. PMID:23211030

  17. Mussel-inspired antifouling coatings bearing polymer loops.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Yan, Bin; Zhang, Ling; Tian, Yu; Zeng, Hongbo

    2015-11-11

    This work reports the preparation of antifouling coatings bearing polymer loops using a mussel-inspired ABA triblock copolymer using a simple drop coating method. With similar end graft density, the loop-bearing surfaces show a more enhanced protein-reduction performance than the brush-bearing surfaces. PMID:26364998

  18. Zebra Mussel Monitoring and Control Guide. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Zebra Mussel Monitoring and Control Guide is a comprehensive compilation of US and European practices as reported in the open literature as of the end of 1992. EPRI considers the guide to be a living` document and will update it periodically in order to provide results of current research on chemical and nonchemical control technologies and utility experiences. The zebra mussel has infested all of the Great Lakes and other major rivers and waterways and is positioned to spread even more to the adjoining river basins. The impact of the zebra mussel on industrial power plantsis as a biofouler that clogs water systems and heat exchangers. This EPRI guideline identifies the zebra mussel, discusses its distribution in the United States, presents the potential threats to power plants, and presents the methods to initiate monitoring and control programs. Both preventive and corrective measures are presented. Preventive measures include various monitoring methods to initiate control techniques. The control techniques include both chemical and nonchemical together with combining techniques. Corrective methods include operational considerations, chemical cleaning, and mechanical/physical cleaning. It also may be possible to incorporate design changes, such as open to closed-loop backfit, backflushing, or pretreatment for closed systems. Various appendices are included that contain specifications to aid utilities in implementing several of the monitoring and control technologies, results of chemical evaluations at Cleveland Electric Illuminating Company plants, and data on the fate of various commercial molluscicides.

  19. Optimizing efficiency of zebra mussel monitoring at TVA power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kerley, B.L.

    1995-06-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) began monitoring for zebra mussels in spring 1992 and first detected veligers entering plant intake at Shawnee, Allen and Cumberland Fossil Plans in summer 1993. Existing information indicated that densities of zebra mussel veligers at plant intakes did not always correspond to densities in critical pipe units; however, a more accurate predictive technique was unavailable. The two sites chosen for this project were Shawnee Fossil Plant on the Ohio River and Allen Fossil Plant on the Mississippi River. The project involved a coordinated series of experiments to determine how densities of zebra mussel veligers varied throughout the day, how veliger densities estimated outside the plants related to estimates at different internal locations, and how growth rate of adult zebra mussels compared using measurements taken inside and outside the plants and from the two different rivers. The data indicated no significant difference in veliger densities from samples collected at the intakes and samples collected inside the plants. There was also no significant difference in densities between samples collected inside the plants. There was also no significant difference in densities between samples taken at different times of the day. The data did indicate a significant difference in density estimates between samples collected on different days and between densities in the rivers compared to densities being drawn into the plant. The results will be used to assist plant staff in evaluating future data and in planning a more effective and cost efficient monitoring program.

  20. 75 FR 17758 - Approved Recovery Plan for the Scaleshell Mussel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Approved Recovery Plan for the Scaleshell Mussel AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of document availability. ] SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife... achieve removal of the species from the protections of the Endangered Species Act (Act). ADDRESSES:...

  1. The Quagga mussel invades the Lake Superior basin - journal article

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prior studies recognized the presence of a single dreissenid species in Lake Superior--the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha. However, taxonomic keys based on traditional shell morphology are not always able to differentiate dreissenid species with confidence. We thus employed ge...

  2. REGIONAL SUSCEPTIBILITY OF NORTHEAST LAKES TO ZEBRA MUSSEL INVASION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rapid spread of the exotic zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) concerns aquatic resource managers in the United States and Canada. ince 1990 it has been spreading from the Great Lakes into the Northeast. he primary goal of this study is to provide lake resource managers in th...

  3. A biomarker study using mussels deployed in San Diego Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Steinert, S.; Montee, R.S.; Chadwick, B.; Leather, J.; Sanders, B. Salazar, M.; Salazar, S.; Anderson, J.

    1995-12-31

    In the summer of 1995 a comprehensive assessment of the extent and consequences of marine environmental contamination in the area of Naval Station San diego was conducted. The study addressed contamination sources, distributions, concentrations, transport, sediment-water exchange, biological effects, and degradation. The biological effects portion of the study included contaminant bioaccumulation, growth, and biomarker measurements, in mussels deployed at six stations around the Naval Station. The mussels were deployed for {approximately} 30 days in plastic mesh bags, placed 1 meter above the bottom. To reduce variability the mussels for the study were initially sorted within an extremely narrow size range, 37.8 {+-} 0.6 mm. DNA damage as measured using the comet assay, and tissue levels of stress proteins hsp 60 and hsp 70, were the biomarkers measured. In addition, mussel tissue extracts were applied to the P450 (CYP1A1) reporter gene system. Stress related biological effects increased in relation to sediment contaminants at all but one station. Evidence from this study and an earlier 1993 study suggests that the non-sediment associated effects observed at one station may be the result of PAH photoactivation of accumulated PAHs.

  4. INVASIVE MUSSEL SPECIES AND THE INTEGRITY OF LARGE RIVERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation is a summary of patterns of invasion and ecological risk associated with invasive mussel species in Great Rivers. Data from EMAP-GRE are included. Findings of this study can inform expectations about where and what invasive species may colonize North American River...

  5. The zebra mussel: US utility implications. [Contains Glossary

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, R.F. )

    1990-11-01

    Dreissena polymorpha, the freshwater macrofouling zebra mussel, was introduced to Lake St. Clair, near Detroit, Michigan, in 1985. It has since spread throughout Lake Erie. Its planktonic veliger larval stage disperses on water currents and adults are transported by human and natural vectors, making it likely to spread throughout most of the United States and southern Canada except for the southwestern and southern United State, where summer water temperatures are above tolerated levels. Veligers enter raw water systems on intake currents to settle and grow to adults attached by secreted byssal threads to hard surfaces. Accumulations of adults impede flow, aggravate sedimentation and corrosion, and foul small-diameter components. Settlement occurs at flow velocities less than 1.5--2.0 m/sec. Mussels can reduce effective pipe diameters and foul intake structures, steam condensers, heat exchangers, fire protection systems, and cooling tower basins. Establishment of mussels in raw water systems should be prevented because subsequent removal is difficult and expensive. Mitigation procedures include manual removal, robotic cleaning, thermal backwashing, water jetting, application of molluscicides, and possibly line pigging and acidic chemical cleaning. Control technologies include oxidizing and non-oxidizing molluscicides, robotic cleaning, shell strainers, exposure of veligers to high voltage electrical fields, thermal backwashing and sand-filtration. The United States power industry can utilize extensive European experience with this species and domestic experience with the Asian clam in its development of effective controls for zebra mussel fouling.

  6. Upper thermal tolerances of early life stages of freshwater mussels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pandolfo, Tamara J.; Cope, W. Gregory; Arellano, Consuelo; Bringolf, Robert B.; Barnhart, M. Christopher; Hammer, E

    2010-01-01

    Freshwater mussels (order Unioniformes) fulfill an essential role in benthic aquatic communities, but also are among the most sensitive and rapidly declining faunal groups in North America. Rising water temperatures, caused by global climate change, industrial discharges, drought, or land development, could further challenge imperiled unionid communities. The aim of our study was to determine the upper thermal tolerances of the larval (glochidia) and juvenile life stages of freshwater mussels. Glochidia of 8 species of mussels were tested: Lampsilis siliquoidea, Potamilus alatus, Ligumia recta, Ellipsaria lineolata,Lasmigona complanata, Megalonaias nervosa, Alasmidonta varicosa, and Villosa delumbis. Seven of these species also were tested as juveniles. Survival trends were monitored while mussels held at 3 acclimation temperatures (17, 22, and 27°C) were exposed to a range of common and extreme water temperatures (20–42°C) in standard acute laboratory tests. The average median lethal temperature (LT50) among species in 24-h tests with glochidia was 31.6°C and ranged from 21.4 to 42.7°C. The mean LT50 in 96-h juvenile tests was 34.7°C and ranged from 32.5 to 38.8°C. Based on comparisons of LT50s, thermal tolerances differed among species for glochidia, but not for juveniles. Acclimation temperature did not affect thermal tolerance for either life stage. Our results indicate that freshwater mussels already might be living close to their upper thermal tolerances in some systems and, thus, might be at risk from rising environmental temperatures.

  7. COMPARISON OF PCB AND TRACE METAL BIOACCUMULATION IN THE BLUE MUSSEL, MYTILUS EDULIS, AND THE RIBBED MUSSEL, MODIOLUS DEMISSUS, IN NEW BEDFORD HARBOR, MASSACHUSETTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The accumulation of PCBs and trace metals was compared at 14-d intervals between two filter-feeding bivalves, the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and the ribbed mussel, Modiolus demissus, after deployment in New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, for up to 56 d. Contaminant uptake in de...

  8. Native Knowledge in the Americas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidwell, Clara Sue

    1985-01-01

    Native American science is defined as activities of native peoples of the New World in observing physical phenomena and attempting to explain and control them. Problems in studying native science, ethnoscience and native science, archaeostronomy and ethnoastronomy, ethnobotany, agriculture, technology, and future directions are discussed. (JN)

  9. Accumulation, elimination, and speciation of cadmium and zinc in mussels, Mytilus edulis, in the natural environment

    SciTech Connect

    Luten, J.B.; Bouquet, W.; Burggraaf, M.M.; Rus, J.

    1986-10-01

    Accumulation of trace metals like cadmium and zinc by the common mussel (Mytilus edulis) has been often studied. Most of these studies have been carried out under laboratory conditions. It has been shown that the accumulation of cadmium by the common mussel is affected by abiotic factors like salinity, temperature and the presence of complexing agents and biotic factors like animal size, sex and maturity. Elimination studies of cadmium from the common mussel are scarce. Detoxification of cadmium by the common mussel takes place by binding to low (metallothionein) and high molecular weight proteins. The objective of this study was to investigate accumulation and elimination of cadmium and zinc by the common mussel in the natural environment in combination with a study about the speciation of cadmium and zinc in the common mussel.

  10. Predator-prey interactions between blue crabs and ribbed mussels living in clumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Junda

    1991-01-01

    Predator-prey interactions between blue crabs ( Callinectes sapidus) and ribbed mussels ( Geukensia demissa) were studied by manipulating different components of mussel clump structure in the laboratory to test their effects on the mussels' susceptibility to crab predation. Mussels with stronger attachment strength or those buried deeper in the sediment suffered lower mortality. Blue crabs showed no significant size selectivity when two size classes of mussles (30-40 and 50-60 mm in shell heights) were offered. When juvenile mussels were attached to adult conspecifics and completely buried in the centres of clumps as in the field, blue crabs did not actively search for them. The crabs, however, did consume juveniles as by-products when they preyed upon the adult mussels to which the juveniles were attached.

  11. Identification of larvae: The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha), quagga mussel (Dreissena rosteriformis bugensis), and Asian clam (Corbicula fluminea)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, S. Jerrine; Black, M.G.

    1994-01-01

    There are presently four freshwater bivalves in the United States that produce larvae or veligers commonly found in the water column: two forms of Asian clams and two species of dreissenids. Portions of the geographic range of three of these bivalves, one species of Asian clam (Corbicula fluminea), zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha), and quagga mussels (Dreissena rosteriformis bugensis), overlap, causing problems with larval identification. To determine which characteristics can be used to separate larval forms, adult Asian clams, quaggas, and zebra mussels were brought into the laboratory and induced to spawn, and the resulting larvae were reared. Hybrids between quaggas and zebra mussels were also produced, but not reared to maturity. Characteristics allowing for the most rapid and accurate separation of larvae were hinge length, shell length/height, shell shape, shell size, and the presence or absence of a foot and velum. These characteristics were observed in laboratory-reared larvae of known parentage and field-caught larvae of unknown parentage. In most cases, larvae of the Asian clam can be readily separated from those produced by either type of dreissenid on the basis of shell size and presence of a foot. Separating the gametes and embryos of the two types of dreissenids is not possible, but after shell formation, most of the larval stages can be distinguished. Hinge length, shell length/height, and the similarity in size of the shell valves can be used to separate straight-hinged, umbonal, pediveliger, and plantigrade larvae. Quagga × zebra mussel hybrids show characteristics of both parents and are difficult to identify.

  12. IMPACT OF SIPHONING ACTIVITY AND NATURALLY SUSPENDED PARTICLE LOAD ON MUSSEL KILL by PSEUDOMONAS FLUORESCENS

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Molloy

    2003-08-04

    Under this USDOE-NETL contract, the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens is being developed as a biocontrol agent for zebra mussels. The specific purpose of the contract is to identify biotic and abiotic factors that affect mussel kill. Ingestion of these bacteria by zebra mussels is required to achieve kill, and tests evaluating factors that relate to mussel feeding are contained in this report. Specifically the impact of the following two factors were investigated: (1) Mussel siphoning behavior--In nature, zebra mussels typically have their two shells spread apart and their inhalant siphon tube extended from between their shells for taking food particles into their mantle cavities (Fig. 1). Our tests indicated that there is a direct correlation between mussel siphoning activity and mussel mortality achieved by a bacterial treatment. Therefore, to encourage mussel feeding on bacteria, future pipe treatments within power plants should be carried out using procedures which minimize disturbance to mussel siphoning. 2. Naturally suspended particle loads--Since bacterial cells are lethal only if ingested by mussels, waters containing very high levels of naturally suspended particles might reduce the mortality that can be achieved by a bacterial treatment. If true, this inhibition might occur as a result of particle exclusion, i.e., there could be reduced ingestion of bacterial cells since they represent a reduced percentage of all particles ingested. Our tests indicated that a range of particle concentrations that might naturally exist in a turbid river did not inhibit mussel kill by the bacterial cells, but that an artificially high load of natural particles was capable of causing a reduction in kill. To be conservative, therefore, future pipe treatments should be timed to occur when intake waters have relatively low quantities of naturally suspended particulate matter.

  13. Estimation of Mussel Population Response to Hydrologic Alteration in a Southeastern U.S. Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, James T.; Wisniewski, Jason M.; Shea, Colin P.; Rhett Jackson, C.

    2011-07-01

    The southeastern United States has experienced severe, recurrent drought, rapid human population growth, and increasing agricultural irrigation during recent decades, resulting in greater demand for the water resources. During the same time period, freshwater mussels ( Unioniformes) in the region have experienced substantial population declines. Consequently, there is growing interest in determining how mussel population declines are related to activities associated with water resource development. Determining the causes of mussel population declines requires, in part, an understanding of the factors influencing mussel population dynamics. We developed Pradel reverse-time, tag-recapture models to estimate survival, recruitment, and population growth rates for three federally endangered mussel species in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin, Georgia. The models were parameterized using mussel tag-recapture data collected over five consecutive years from Sawhatchee Creek, located in southwestern Georgia. Model estimates indicated that mussel survival was strongly and negatively related to high flows during the summer, whereas recruitment was strongly and positively related to flows during the spring and summer. Using these models, we simulated mussel population dynamics under historic (1940-1969) and current (1980-2008) flow regimes and under increasing levels of water use to evaluate the relative effectiveness of alternative minimum flow regulations. The simulations indicated that the probability of simulated mussel population extinction was at least 8 times greater under current hydrologic regimes. In addition, simulations of mussel extinction under varying levels of water use indicated that the relative risk of extinction increased with increased water use across a range of minimum flow regulations. The simulation results also indicated that our estimates of the effects of water use on mussel extinction were influenced by the assumptions about the

  14. Lesser scaup forage on zebra mussels at Cook nuclear plant, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mitchell, C.A.; Carlson, J.

    1993-01-01

    Nineteen of 21 Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis) entrained while foraging at the water intake structures of Cook Nuclear Plant, Bridgman, Michigan had consumed zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha). The average number of zebra mussels in the upper gastrointestinal tract was 260; maximum number was 987. Migrating Lesser Scaup found this new food source during the first winter following settlement of zebra mussels on the water intake structures of the power plant.

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mussel and fish from the Finnish Archipelago Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    Marine organisms are known to adsorb and accumulate PAH's from water. Mussels due to their widespread distribution in coastal waters have been studied in many laboratory and field experiments for their responses to PAH exposures. The occurrence of PAH's has been studied also in fish. This report presents preliminary data for the PAH content in blue mussel and fish from the Finnish Archipelago Sea. Mussel and fish samples were collected from the Finnish Archipelago Sea during 1978-1979.

  16. Estimation of mussel population response to hydrologic alteration in a southeastern U.S. stream.

    PubMed

    Peterson, James T; Wisniewski, Jason M; Shea, Colin P; Jackson, C Rhett

    2011-07-01

    The southeastern United States has experienced severe, recurrent drought, rapid human population growth, and increasing agricultural irrigation during recent decades, resulting in greater demand for the water resources. During the same time period, freshwater mussels (Unioniformes) in the region have experienced substantial population declines. Consequently, there is growing interest in determining how mussel population declines are related to activities associated with water resource development. Determining the causes of mussel population declines requires, in part, an understanding of the factors influencing mussel population dynamics. We developed Pradel reverse-time, tag-recapture models to estimate survival, recruitment, and population growth rates for three federally endangered mussel species in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin, Georgia. The models were parameterized using mussel tag-recapture data collected over five consecutive years from Sawhatchee Creek, located in southwestern Georgia. Model estimates indicated that mussel survival was strongly and negatively related to high flows during the summer, whereas recruitment was strongly and positively related to flows during the spring and summer. Using these models, we simulated mussel population dynamics under historic (1940-1969) and current (1980-2008) flow regimes and under increasing levels of water use to evaluate the relative effectiveness of alternative minimum flow regulations. The simulations indicated that the probability of simulated mussel population extinction was at least 8 times greater under current hydrologic regimes. In addition, simulations of mussel extinction under varying levels of water use indicated that the relative risk of extinction increased with increased water use across a range of minimum flow regulations. The simulation results also indicated that our estimates of the effects of water use on mussel extinction were influenced by the assumptions about the

  17. Proceedings of the fifth international zebra mussel and other aquatic nuisance organisms conference 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, J.D.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains articles from the proceedings of the fifth international zebra mussel & other aquatic nuisance organisms conference. Topics include articles on: Zebra mussel life history; Strategies for application of non-oxidizing biocides; examination of the potential of chlorine dioxide for use in zebra mussel veliger control; and ballast water control; overview of the Canadian approach. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  18. Sea Otters Homogenize Mussel Beds and Reduce Habitat Provisioning in a Rocky Intertidal Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gerald G.; Markel, Russell W.; Martone, Rebecca G.; Salomon, Anne K.; Harley, Christopher D. G.; Chan, Kai M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) are keystone predators that consume a variety of benthic invertebrates, including the intertidal mussel, Mytilus californianus. By virtue of their competitive dominance, large size, and longevity, M. californianus are ecosystem engineers that form structurally complex beds that provide habitat for diverse invertebrate communities. We investigated whether otters affect mussel bed characteristics (i.e. mussel length distributions, mussel bed depth, and biomass) and associated community structure (i.e. biomass, alpha and beta diversity) by comparing four regions that varied in their histories of sea otter occupancy on the west coast of British Columbia and northern Washington. Mussel bed depth and average mussel lengths were 1.5 times lower in regions occupied by otters for >20 years than those occupied for <5 yrs. Diversity of mussel bed associated communities did not differ between regions; however, the total biomass of species associated with mussel beds was more than three-times higher where sea otters were absent. We examined alternative explanations for differences in mussel bed community structure, including among-region variation in oceanographic conditions and abundance of the predatory sea star Pisaster ochraceus. We cannot discount multiple drivers shaping mussel beds, but our findings indicate the sea otters are an important one. We conclude that, similar to their effects on subtidal benthic invertebrates, sea otters reduce the size distributions of intertidal mussels and, thereby, habitat available to support associated communities. Our study indicates that by reducing populations of habitat-providing intertidal mussels, sea otters may have substantial indirect effects on associated communities. PMID:23717697

  19. Assessment of freshwater mussels in the Allegheny River at Foxburg, Pennsylvania, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Robert M.

    2000-01-01

    The upper reaches of the Allegheny River are a high-quality resource that supports populations of a number of endangered species. Two endangered species of freshwater mussel, the northern riffleshell, Epioblasma torulosa rangiana, and clubshell, Pleurobema clava, are present in this river reach. Prior to a bridge-replacement project at the Allegheny River at Foxburg, Pa. (river mile 86.2), a mussel survey was conducted to determine if either of the protected endangered species are present and to assess the quality of the mussel bed at this site. Shore and near-shore searches followed by SCUBA diving transects determined that a mussel bed is present at this location. The freshwater-mussel community consists of at least 14 species and includes both endangered species. Substrate type, stream velocity, and channel morphology combined with results from the transect searches documented that the mussel bed is largely limited to the east side of the river. A two-stage sampling design was employed to estimate the overall mussel abundance within the bed. Twelve 4-m2 (square meter) cells were sampled with four 0.25-m2 quadrants per cell. The mean population density within the mussel bed is 8.4 mussel per square meter. The overall mussel population in the survey area is 225,567 individuals (95-percent confidence interval, 135,973 to 374,195). River-bed scour and acid mine drainage appear to limit mussel distribution in the center and left section of the channel. Overall, a healthy and diverse mussel bed exists at this site.

  20. Recruitment of shore crabs Carcinus maenas on tidal flats: Mussel clumps as an important refuge for juveniles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiel, M.; Dernedde, T.

    1994-06-01

    During the late summer and early fall, juvenile shore crabs ( Carcinus maenas L.) occurred in high abundances in mussel clumps scattered on tidal flats of the Wadden Sea. Abundances were much lower on bare tidal flats without mussel clumps and decreased substantially from July to November, whereas numbers in mussel clumps remained high. Large crabs left the tidal flats in early fall, whereas juveniles undertook tidal migrations only in the late fall. In March very few shore crabs were found in the intertidal area. The size of juvenile shore crabs living between mussels did not increase significantly during fall. On the bare tidal flats surrounding the mussels, a size increase was observed. Mussel beds and mussel clumps serve as a spatial refuge for the early benthic phases of juvenile shore crabs. Between mussels they can hide effectively from their epibenthic predators. Juvenile shore crabs do not leave the intertidal area and the mussel habitats before their major predators have left the area. Mussel clumps scattered over the tidal flats may be a critical refuge for juvenile shore crabs settling on tidal flats. Intensified efforts in mussel culturing in the European Wadden Sea during recent decades may have caused an increased abundance of mussel clumps on tidal flats, thus enhancing habitat availability for some mussel-clump inhabitants.

  1. Proteomics of hyposaline stress in blue mussel congeners (genus Mytilus): implications for biogeographic range limits in response to climate change.

    PubMed

    Tomanek, Lars; Zuzow, Marcus J; Hitt, Lauren; Serafini, Loredana; Valenzuela, Jacob J

    2012-11-15

    Climate change is affecting species' physiology, pushing environmental tolerance limits and shifting distribution ranges. In addition to temperature and ocean acidification, increasing levels of hyposaline stress due to extreme precipitation events and freshwater runoff may be driving some of the reported recent range shifts in marine organisms. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry, we characterized the proteomic responses of the cold-adapted blue mussel Mytilus trossulus, a native to the Pacific coast of North America, and the warm-adapted M. galloprovincialis, a Mediterranean invader that has replaced the native from the southern part of its range, but may be limited from expanding north due to hyposaline stress. After exposing laboratory-acclimated mussels for 4 h to two different experimental treatments of hyposaline conditions and one control treatment (24.5, 29.8 and 35.0 psu, respectively) followed by a 0 and 24 h recovery at ambient salinity (35 psu), we detected changes in the abundance of molecular chaperones of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), indicating protein unfolding, during stress exposure. Other common responses included changes in small GTPases of the Ras superfamily during recovery, which suggests a role for vesicle transport, and cytoskeletal adjustments associated with cell volume, as indicated by cytoskeletal elements such as actin, tubulin, intermediate filaments and several actin-binding regulatory proteins. Changes of proteins involved in energy metabolism and scavenging of reactive oxygen species suggest a reduction in overall energy metabolism during recovery. Principal component analyses of protein abundances suggest that M. trossulus is able to respond to a greater hyposaline challenge (24.5 psu) than M. galloprovincialis (29.8 psu), as shown by changing abundances of proteins involved in protein chaperoning, vesicle transport, cytoskeletal adjustments by actin-regulatory proteins, energy metabolism and

  2. Longitudinal patterns in abundance of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) in the upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cope, W.G.; Bartsch, M.R.; Hayden, R.R.

    1997-01-01

    We assessed the abundance of zebra mussels in the upper Mississippi River during 1995, four years after they were first found in the river. Samplers were deployed from May 30 to October 19, 1995, at 19 lock and dam facilities in the upper Mississippi River from Minneapolis, Minnesota, to Muscatine, Iowa. Zebra mussels were found at every lock and dam except the two sites farthest upstream (Minneapolis). Generally, densities of zebra mussels were greatest at sites 161 km and farther downstream of the Minneapolis area. The greatest mean mussel density was 11,432/m(2) at Fulton, Illinois.

  3. Mussels as ecosystem engineers: Their contribution to species richness in a rocky littoral community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borthagaray, Ana Inés; Carranza, Alvar

    Mussels are important ecosystem engineers in marine benthic systems because they aggregate into beds, thus modifying the nature and complexity of the substrate. In this study, we evaluated the contribution of mussels ( Brachidontes rodriguezii, Mytilus edulis platensis, and Perna perna) to the benthic species richness of intertidal and shallow subtidal communities at Cerro Verde (Uruguay). We compared the richness of macro-benthic species between mussel-engineered patches and patches without mussels but dominated by algae or barnacles at a landscape scale (all samples), between tidal levels, and between sites distributed along a wave exposition gradient. Overall, we found a net increase in species richness in samples with mussels (35 species), in contrast to samples where mussels were naturally absent or scarce (27 species). The positive trend of the effect did not depend upon tidal level or wave exposition, but its magnitude varied between sites. Within sites, a significant positive effect was detected only at the protected site. Within the mussel-engineered patches, the richness of all macro-faunal groups (total, sessile and mobile) was positively correlated with mussel abundance. This evidence indicates that the mussel beds studied here were important in maintaining species richness at the landscape-level, and highlights that beds of shelled bivalves should not be neglected as conservation targets in marine benthic environments.

  4. California mussels (Mytilus californianus) as sentinels for marine contamination with Sarcocystis neurona.

    PubMed

    Michaels, Lauren; Rejmanek, Daniel; Aguilar, Beatriz; Conrad, Patricia; Shapiro, Karen

    2016-05-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is a terrestrial parasite that can cause fatal encephalitis in the endangered Southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis). To date, neither risk factors associated with marine contamination nor the route of S. neurona infection to marine mammals has been described. This study evaluated coastal S. neurona contamination using California mussels (Mytilus californianus) as sentinels for pathogen pollution. A field investigation was designed to test the hypotheses that (1) mussels can serve as sentinels for S. neurona contamination, and (2) S. neurona contamination in mussels would be highest during the rainy season and in mussels collected near freshwater. Initial validation of molecular assays through sporocyst spiking experiments revealed the ITS-1500 assay to be most sensitive for detection of S. neurona, consistently yielding parasite amplification at concentrations ⩾5 sporocysts/1 mL mussel haemolymph. Assays were then applied on 959 wild-caught mussels, with detection of S. neurona confirmed using sequence analysis in three mussels. Validated molecular assays for S. neurona detection in mussels provide a novel toolset for investigating marine contamination with this parasite, while confirmation of S. neurona in wild mussels suggests that uptake by invertebrates may serve as a route of transmission to susceptible marine animals. PMID:27003262

  5. Effects of substrate and hydrodynamic conditions on the formation of mussel beds in a large river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morales, Y.; Weber, L.J.; Mynett, A.E.; Newton, T.J.

    2006-01-01

    A numerical model for simulation of freshwater mussel dynamics was used to investigate the effects of substrate and hydrodynamic conditions on the formation of mussel beds in a 10-km reach of the Upper Mississippi River (UMR). Suitable habitats for mussel survival were identified by creating a dimensionless parameter (shear stress ratio) combining shear force and substrate type. This parameter is a measure of substrate stability that could be used in many different applications. Dispersal of juvenile mussels with flow as they detach from their fish hosts was simulated by a particle-tracking mechanism that identified suitable areas for colonization with the potential to evolve into mussel beds. Simulated areas of mussel accumulation coincided with reported locations of mussel beds, and simulated densities were in the range of abundant mussel beds in other reaches of the UMR. These results, although more qualitative than quantitative, provide insight into factors influencing the formation of mussel beds in a large river. ?? 2006 by The North American Benthological Society.

  6. Effect of sediment settling on controlling golden mussel invasion in water transfer project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mengzhen; Wang, Zhaoyin; Bogen, Jim; Pan, Baozhu

    2013-04-01

    Inter-basin water transfer projects have been widely used to solve uneven distribution of water resources and water shortage in China. Along with the transferring of water resources, golden mussel (Limnoperna fortunei), the filter-collector macro-invertebrate species originating from southern China has also been inadvertently transferred to new aquatic environment, resulting in quick and uncontrolled spread of the species. The golden mussels are invasive by nature and endowed with a strong byssus for attaching onto their habitat, allowing them to easily invade natural and artificial aquatic systems, which was resulted in high-density golden mussel attachment that causes serious bio-fouling. Invasion and bio-fouling by golden mussels in water transfer systems has drawn attention widely because it has resulted in high resistance to water flow, corrosion of pipe walls and even clogging of tunnels, as well as causing water pollution and ecological imbalance in the regions that receive water infested with golden mussels. Field investigation was conducted along the East River, which is the main drinking water resource for Cantong province and Hongkong, China, to study the natural habitats of golden mussels. Surveys of water transfer tunnels which carry water from the East River to several big cities in Cantong province were done to study golden mussel invasion and attachment in tunnels. It is found that in the natural habitat, golden mussels mainly attach to bedrock and bank stones and solid surfaces facing upstream, while no golden mussels are attached on the surfaces facing downstream and suffering sediment deposition. In the water transfer tunnels, golden mussel attachment densities of 40,000 individuals/m2 mainly occurred on the portion of tunnel walls which face downwards and thus avoid sedimentation. An experiment was designed to study the effect of sediment settling on golden mussel attachment. The results showed that settling of fine sediment particles affects

  7. Bioaccumulation of PAHs in the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, at Times Beach, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Roper, J.M. |; Cherry, D.S.; Simmers, J.W.

    1994-12-31

    While zebra mussels have not been reported in confined disposal facilities (CDFs), recent reports of zebra mussels in soft sediments indicate a possible concern for dredging and the disposal of dredged material. In response to this concern, an insitu biomonitoring study utilizing the zebra mussel was performed at the Times Beach CDF, in Buffalo, NY. Mussels were placed at the facility for 30 days at sites of known PAH concentrations. The placement occurred at areas of comparably high, intermediate and low total PAH sediment concentrations. At each site the mussels were placed both in the water column and at the sediment surface. Mussels were collected on Day 34 of the study for tissue analysis. Tissues concentrations of total PAHs from mussels placed in water column and the sediment respectively were at the high site 8.4 and 5.6 mg/Kg, the intermediate site 4.3 and 3.3 mg/Kg and low site 3.2 and 2.7 mg/Kg. The following issues will be addressed; PAH concentration in the tissues compared to site sediment concentrations and the accumulation differences of mussels placed in the water column versus those in the sediment. The data indicate that zebra mussel PAH bioaccumulation potential is of environmental concern.

  8. Flexibility of Physiological Traits Underlying Inter-Individual Growth Differences in Intertidal and Subtidal Mussels Mytilusgalloprovincialis

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Reiriz, María José; Irisarri, Jade; Labarta, Uxio

    2016-01-01

    Mussel seed (Mytilusgalloprovincialis) gathered from the intertidal and subtidal environments of a Galician embayment (NW, Spain) were maintained in the laboratory during five months to select fast (F) and slow (S) growing mussels. The physiological basis underlying inter-individual growth variations were compared for F and S mussels from both origins. Fast growing seemed to be a consequence of greater energy intake (20% higher clearance and ingestion rate) and higher food absorption rate coupled with low metabolic costs. The enhanced energy absorption (around 65% higher) resulted in 3 times higher Scope for Growth in F mussels (20.5±4.9 J h−1) than S individuals (7.3±1.1 J h−1). The higher clearance rate of F mussels appears to be linked with larger gill filtration surface compared to S mussels. Intertidal mussels showed higher food acquisition and absorption per mg of organic weight (i.e. mass-specific standardization) than subtidal mussels under the optimal feeding conditions of the laboratory. However, the enhanced feeding and digestive rates were not enough to compensate for the initial differences in tissue weight between mussels of similar shell length collected from the intertidal and subtidal environments. At the end of the experiment, subtidal individuals had higher gill efficiency, which probably lead to higher total feeding and absorption rates relative to intertidal individuals. PMID:26849372

  9. Conditions for coexistence of freshwater mussel species via partitioning of fish host resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rashleigh, B.; DeAngelis, D.L.

    2007-01-01

    Riverine freshwater mussel species can be found in highly diverse communities where many similar species coexist. Mussel species potentially compete for food and space as adults, and for fish host resources during the larval (glochidial) stage. Resource partitioning at the larval stage may promote coexistence. A model of resource utilization was developed for two mussel species and analyzed to determine conditions for coexistence. Mussel species were predicted to coexist when they differed in terms of their success in contacting different fish host species; very similar strategies offered limited possibilities for coexistence. Differences in the mussel species' maximum infestation loads on the fish hosts that coincided with differences in their fish host contact success promoted coexistence. Mussel species with a given set of trade-offs in fish host use were predicted to coexist only for a subset of relative fish host abundances, so a shift in relative fish host abundances could result in the loss of a mussel species. An understanding of the conditions for freshwater mussel species coexistence can help explain high mussel diversity in rivers and guide ongoing conservation activities. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Suspended material availability and filtration-biodeposition processes performed by a native and invasive bivalve species in streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atkinson, C.L.; First, M.R.; Covich, A.P.; Opsahl, S.P.; Golladay, S.W.

    2011-01-01

    Unionid mussels are among the most threatened group of freshwater organisms globally. They are known for their ability to filter food particles from flowing and standing waters. However, invasive bivalve species, such as the Asian clam (Corbicula fluminea) in North America, have the potential to overlap in feeding and potentially out-compete the native species. Yet, the feeding preferences of unionid mussels and C. fluminea are incompletely understood. We hypothesized that Elliptio crassidens (native) and C. fluminea (invasive) would select for specific organic components present within seston. We examined changes in seston (dry mass and ash-free dry mass) resulting from bivalve feeding activity for three size classes of material that were isolated using gravimetric filtration. The treatments were also sub-sampled for flow cytometry (FC) which separated the suspended materials in the stream water into five categories: detritus, heterotrophic bacteria, picoautotrophs, nanoautotrophs, and heterotrophic nanoeukaryotes. Our results indicated that both species of bivalve showed preferences for organic and living materials. E. crassidens preferentially filtered nanoeukaryotes, whose decreases were associated with an increase in bacteria. In contrast, C. fluminea preferred smaller materials through selective filtration of picoautotrophs. In addition, both species increased the concentration of large materials toward the end of the experiment because of the suspension of their pseudofeces biodeposits. To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine grazing by bivalve species on natural stream particulate matter using FC. Our results suggest that native and non-native mussels have different functional roles, which has important implications for organic matter processing and food webs in streams. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  11. Effects of Endolithic Parasitism on Invasive and Indigenous Mussels in a Variable Physical Environment

    PubMed Central

    McQuaid, Christopher David; Gektidis, Marcos

    2009-01-01

    Biotic stress may operate in concert with physical environmental conditions to limit or facilitate invasion processes while altering competitive interactions between invaders and native species. Here, we examine how endolithic parasitism of an invasive and an indigenous mussel species acts in synergy with abiotic conditions of the habitat. Our results show that the invasive Mytilus galloprovincialis is more infested than the native Perna perna and this difference is probably due to the greater thickness of the protective outer-layer of the shell of the indigenous species. Higher abrasion due to waves on the open coast could account for dissimilarities in degree of infestation between bays and the more wave-exposed open coast. Also micro-scale variations of light affected the level of endolithic parasitism, which was more intense at non-shaded sites. The higher levels of endolithic parasitism in Mytilus mirrored greater mortality rates attributed to parasitism in this species. Condition index, attachment strength and shell strength of both species were negatively affected by the parasites suggesting an energy trade-off between the need to repair the damaged shell and the other physiological parameters. We suggest that, because it has a lower attachment strength and a thinner shell, the invasiveness of M. galloprovincialis will be limited at sun and wave exposed locations where endolithic activity, shell scouring and risk of dislodgement are high. These results underline the crucial role of physical environment in regulating biotic stress, and how these physical-biological interactions may explain site-to-site variability of competitive balances between invasive and indigenous species. PMID:19668334

  12. Removal of algae by the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) population in western Lake Erie: a bioenergetics approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.

    1995-01-01

    A bioenergetics model for growth of a zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) individual was verified with observations on zebra mussel growth in western Lake Erie. The bioenergetics model was then applied to the zebra mussel population in the western basin of Lake Erie to estimate the removal of phytoplankton by mussels. According to the modeling results, the zebra mussel population consumed 5.0 million tonnes of phytoplankton, while 1.4 million tonnes of phytoplankton was deposited in pseudofeces from the mussels. Thus, a total of 6.4 ± 2.4 million tonnes of phytoplankton was removed from the water column by zebra mussel in western Lake Erie during 1990. Primary production was estimated to be 24.8 million tonnes; therefore, zebra mussel removed the equivalent of 26 ± 10% of the primary production for western Lake Erie.

  13. Selective settlement of the barnacle Semibalanus balanoides (L.) facilitates its growth and reproduction on mussel beds in the Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buschbaum, Christian

    2001-07-01

    On the unstable sedimentary tidal flats of the Wadden Sea, a suitable attachment substrate for sessile organisms is generally lacking. Epibenthic mussel beds (Mytilus edulis L.) provide the only and strongly limited settlement sites available for the barnacle, Semibalanus balanoides (L.). Field investigations showed that barnacles were non-randomly distributed within a mussel bed. They preferentially occurred near the siphonal apertures of living mussels but rarely grew on dead mussels or shell fragments. Field experiments revealed that this was due to selective settlement of barnacle cyprid larvae. Growth of barnacles was significantly higher upon living mussels than on empty mussel shells. Moreover, a higher reproductive output was obtained by individuals on living mussels which produced twice as many nauplii larvae than barnacles attached to empty shells. This study shows that selective settlement of S. balanoides cyprid larvae on living mussels is adaptive with respect to individual fitness.

  14. Habitat engineering by the invasive zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas) in a boreal coastal lagoon: impact on biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaiko, Anastasija; Daunys, Darius; Olenin, Sergej

    2009-03-01

    Habitat engineering role of the invasive zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas) was studied in the Curonian lagoon, a shallow water body in the SE Baltic. Impacts of live zebra mussel clumps and its shell deposits on benthic biodiversity were differentiated and referred to unmodified (bare) sediments. Zebra mussel bed was distinguished from other habitat types by higher benthic invertebrate biomass, abundance, and species richness. The impact of live mussels on biodiversity was more pronounced than the effect of shell deposits. The structure of macrofaunal community in the habitats with >103 g/m2 of shell deposits devoid of live mussels was similar to that found within the zebra mussel bed. There was a continuous shift in species composition and abundance along the gradient ‘bare sediments—shell deposits—zebra mussel bed’. The engineering impact of zebra mussel on the benthic community became apparent both in individual patches and landscape-level analyses.

  15. Native Indian Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jules, Felicity

    1988-01-01

    Identifies valued qualities and behaviors of Indian leaders through a literature review and unstructured interviews with three British Columbian tribal elders. Develops a model of Native leadership emphasizing connection to the people, wisdom, humility, personal integrity, service orientation, and the facilitator role. Contains 22 references. (SV)

  16. Native American Resource Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spears, Carl D., Comp.; And Others

    Focusing on the Southeastern American Indian cultures, this Native American resource guide is designed for use in the elementary and secondary schools of the East Baton Rouge Parish and is a product of a 1975 Indian Advisory Committee composed of Indian parents, teachers, and staff members. Objectives of these materials require the Indian student,…

  17. Native American Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, C. Fayne; And Others

    Designed to accommodate a semester course in Native American Literature for secondary students, this teacher's guide includes a general introduction, a statement of the philosophy and goals upon which it is predicated, a nine-week block on post-Columbian literature, a nine-week block on oral literature, separate appendices for each block, a…

  18. Exploring Native American Symbolism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufrene, Phoebe

    This paper described the events and results of a workshop on Native American symbolism presented to educators and held in Kansas City, Missouri. The presenter maintained that some of the most crucial problems facing U.S. educators and students are caused by racial misunderstandings, and that the universality of artistic expression can be a vehicle…

  19. The Native American Holocaust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Russell

    1989-01-01

    Describes the American Indian "Holocaust," decimation of Indian populations following European discovery of the Americas. European and African diseases, warfare with Europeans, and genocide reduced native populations from 75 million to only a few million. Discusses population statistics and demographic effects of epidemics, continuing infection,…

  20. Native American Cultural Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Loriene, Comp.

    Part of a larger report on the Four Directions Project, an American Indian technology innovation project, this section includes 13 "pathfinders" to locating information on Native American and other indigenous cultural groups. The pathfinders were designed by students in the Graduate School of Library and Information Science at the University of…

  1. Rebuilding Native American Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyhis, Don; Simonelli, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The Wellbriety Movement in Native American communities draws on the wisdom and participation of traditional elders. Beginning with a basic community teaching called the Four Laws of Change and the Healing Forest Model, the Wellbriety Movement blends Medicine Wheel knowledge with the 12 Steps of Alcoholics Anonymous to provide culture-specific…

  2. Native Americans: Subject Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonanni, Mimmo; Etter, Patricia A.

    This annotated subject guide lists reference material that deals with Native Americans and is available in the Arizona State University Libraries. Entries were published 1933-98, but mostly in the 1980s-90s. The guide is not comprehensive, but rather a selective list of resources useful for researching a topic in a variety of fields. The guide…

  3. Mussel foot protein-1 (mcfp-1) interaction with titania surfaces†

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Matthew J.; Lu, Qingye; Masic, Admir

    2012-01-01

    Marine mussels utilize a variety of DOPA-rich proteins for purposes of underwater adhesion, as well as for creating hard and flexible surface coatings for their tough and stretchy byssal fibers. In the present study, moderately strong, yet reversible wet adhesion between the protective mussel coating protein, mcfp-1, and amorphous titania was measured with a surface force apparatus (SFA). In parallel, resonance Raman spectroscopy was employed to identify the presence of bidentate DOPA–Ti coordination bonds at the TiO2–protein interface, suggesting that catechol–TiO2 complexation contributes to the observed reversible wet adhesion. These results have important implications for the design of protective coatings on TiO2. PMID:23100857

  4. Metals and PCB concentrations in mussels from Long Island Sound

    SciTech Connect

    Greig, R.A.; Sennefelder, G.

    1985-09-01

    Metals and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are contaminants of concern in Long Island Sound. To gain an understanding of contaminant inputs from the major rivers of Connecticut into the Sound, a continuous measurement over time should be made of the concentrations of contaminants in the river water. Analyses of water for contaminants are quite complex and often ambiguous because of the dynamic nature of river water. To alleviate this problem, the mussel, Mytilus edulis, has been proposed by various researchers to be a good subject for monitoring contaminants present in the water column. For this study, mussels were collected from the mouths of various rivers and inshore areas along the Connecticut shoreline and analyzed for cadmium, copper, and PCBs.

  5. Electric utility Zebra Mussel Control technology conference: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Tsou, J.L. ); Mussalli, Y.G. )

    1992-03-01

    This Conference on Zebra Mussel Control technology was held on October 22--23, 1991 in Itasca (Chicago), Illinois. The Conference was sponsored by EPRI Zebra Mussel Task Force and hosted by Commonwealth Edison Company to bring together representatives of utilities, manufacturers, researches, and consultants. Nineteen papers were presented in three sessions. These sessions were devoted to the following topics: Overview and Control Strategy, Monitoring and Non-Chemical Control Technology, and Chemical Control Technology. A half-day workshop/panel discussion devoted to the same topics was conducted at the second day of the formal presentations. More than 160 people attended this Conference. This report contains technical papers and summaries of the workshop/panel sessions. Of these 19 papers, there are 4 papers related to overview and control strategy, 7 papers related to monitoring and non-chemical control technology, and 8 papers related to chemical control technology.

  6. Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Amnesic Shellfish Poison in Mussels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duxbury, Mark

    2000-10-01

    A simple, rapid, high-performance liquid chromatographic experiment suitable for undergraduate students is described for determining amnesic shellfish poison in mussels. The poison itself is an unusual naturally occurring amino acid, domoic acid, that has been found in seafood, particularly shellfish, worldwide. The symptoms of poisoning include amnesia (memory loss), loss of balance, mental confusion, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, coma, and in extreme cases death. The domoic acid is extracted from homogenized mussel tissue by boiling in water for 5 minutes. The homogenate is cooled and centrifuged, and an aliquot of the supernatant is diluted and analyzed by isocratic HPLC using a C18 column and an acetonitrile-water mobile phase at pH 2.5 with UV detection at 242 nm.

  7. Determination of Polonium-210 in Mussels from the Adria Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bylyku, Elida; Bode, Kozeta; Fisnka, Kujtim; Cfarku, Florinda

    2010-01-01

    The important role played by alpha radioactive nuclides in the marine radiation environment is already evident. The dominant contribution made by natural fall-out nuclide Polonium-210 to the alpha radioactivity of most marine organisms is very important. The common mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is selected as unique bio monitor species to be analyzed. Samples are collected at the Adria Sea along the Albanian coast. A radiochemical procedure followed by alpha spectrometry measurement of 210Po is performed. The standard solution of 209Po is used as a yield tracer. Thin sources for alpha spectrometry measurements are prepared by spontaneous deposition of polonium on to silver disks from weakly acid solutions. The value of specific activity of 210Po vary between 200 to 400 Bq/kg dry and are in good agreement with the results found for 210Po in mussels from other countries in the Adria Sea.

  8. NATIVE HEALTH DATABASES: NATIVE HEALTH HISTORY DATABASE (NHHD)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Native Health Databases contain bibliographic information and abstracts of health-related articles, reports, surveys, and other resource documents pertaining to the health and health care of American Indians, Alaska Natives, and Canadian First Nations. The databases provide i...

  9. NATIVE HEALTH DATABASES: NATIVE HEALTH RESEARCH DATABASE (NHRD)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Native Health Databases contain bibliographic information and abstracts of health-related articles, reports, surveys, and other resource documents pertaining to the health and health care of American Indians, Alaska Natives, and Canadian First Nations. The databases provide i...

  10. Ammonia excretion in mytilid mussels is facilitated by ciliary beating.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, J; Himmerkus, N; Holland, N; Sartoris, F J; Bleich, M; Tresguerres, M

    2016-08-01

    The excretion of nitrogenous waste products in the form of ammonia (NH3) and ammonium (NH4 (+)) is a fundamental process in aquatic organisms. For mytilid bivalves, little is known about the mechanisms and sites of excretion. This study investigated the localization and the mechanisms of ammonia excretion in mytilid mussels. An Rh protein was found to be abundantly expressed in the apical cell membrane of the plicate organ, which was previously described as a solely respiratory organ. The Rh protein was also expressed in the gill, although at significantly lower concentrations, but was not detectable in mussel kidney. Furthermore, NH3/NH4 (+) was not enriched in the urine, suggesting that kidneys are not involved in active NH3/NH4 (+) excretion. Exposure to elevated seawater pH of 8.5 transiently reduced NH3/NH4 (+) excretion rates, but they returned to control values following 24 h acclimation. These mussels had increased abundance of V-type H(+)-ATPase in the apical membranes of plicate organ cells; however, NH3/NH4 (+) excretion rates were not affected by the V-type H(+)-ATPase specific inhibitor concanamycin A (100 nmol l(-1)). In contrast, inhibition of ciliary beating with dopamine and increased seawater viscosity significantly reduced NH3 excretion rates under control pH (8.0). These results suggest that NH3/NH4 (+) excretion in mytilid mussels takes place by passive NH3 diffusion across respiratory epithelia via the Rh protein, facilitated by the water current produced for filter feeding, which prevents accumulation of NH3 in the boundary layer. This mechanism would be energy efficient for sessile organisms, as they already generate water currents for filter feeding. PMID:27489216

  11. Effect of seeding density on biomass production in mussel bottom culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capelle, Jacob J.; Wijsman, Jeroen W. M.; van Stralen, Marnix R.; Herman, Peter M. J.; Smaal, Aad C.

    2016-04-01

    Effects of seeding density on biomass production in mussel bottom culture are investigated by detailed monitoring of culture practice in the western Wadden Sea, The Netherlands. The seeds originate from different sources. The seeds differ in size and farmers apply seeding techniques dependent on the seed size resulting in different seed densities on the culture plots. We hypothesise growth to be density dependent and that biomass production is primarily determined by survival and is therefore a function of seed density which is related to the activities of the farmers. Data was collected from 42 different culture plots over a three year period (June 2009-June 2012). During this period, 66 sub-populations were followed from seeding until harvest. Seeding at the start of the culture resulted in an instantaneous drop in biomass production, caused by large losses in mussel number. These losses were on average 42% of the mussels seeded. This seeding loss decreased with mussel size and increased with seeding density. A subsequent density dependent loss of 1.8 mussels per day was found for smaller mussels (< 30 mm), and a non-density dependent loss of 0.8 mussels per day for larger mussels (> 30 mm) during grow out. Overall loss from seeding to harvest was high, from 92% for the smallest seeds collected from spat collectors, to 54% for half-grown mussels fished from natural beds in the spring. No indication was found that growth or mussel condition was affected by culture plot scale density. Growth was dependent on mussel size and age, and this largely determined the differences in biomass production between seed sources. The density dependent seeding loss associated with seeding activities largely determined survival, and hence overall biomass production.

  12. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition in the threeridge mussel (Amblema plicata) by chlorpyrifos: implications for biomonitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doran, W.J.; Cope, W.G.; Rada, R.G.; Sandheinrich, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of chlorpyrifos, an organophosphorus insecticide, were examined on the activity of the nervous system enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the threeridge mussel Amblema plicata in a 24-day laboratory test. Thirty-six mussels in each of seven treatments (18 mussels per duplicate) were exposed to chlorpyrifos (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.6, and 1.2 mg/L), a solvent (acetone), and a solvent-free (well water) control for 12, 24, or 96 h. The activity of AChE was measured in the anterior adductor muscle of eight mussels from each treatment after exposure. To assess potential latent effects, six mussels from each treatment were removed after 24 h of exposure and transferred to untreated water for a 21-day holding period; AChE activity was measured on three mussels from each treatment at 7 and 21 days of the holding period. The activity of AChE in chlorpyrifos-exposed mussels did not differ from controls after 12 or 24 h of exposure (t- test, P>0.05), but was significantly less than controls after 96 h (t- test, P=0.01). AChE activity did not vary among mussels at 24 h of exposure (i.e., Day 0 of holding period) and those at Day 7 and Day 21 of the holding period. Overall changes in AChE activity of mussels during the test were unrelated to individual chlorpyrifos concentrations and exposure times (repeated measure ANOVA; (P=0.06). A power analysis revealed that the sample size must be increased from 2 to 5 replicates (8 to 20 mussels per time interval and test concentration) to increase the probability of detecting significant differences in AChE activity. This calculated increase in sample size has potential implications for future biomonitoring studies with chlorpyrifos and unionid mussels.

  13. The use of waste mussel shells for the adsorption of dyes and heavy metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadimitriou, Chrysi A.; Krey, Grigorios; Stamatis, Nikolaos; Kallaniotis, Argyris

    2016-04-01

    Mussel culture is very important sector of the Greek agricultural economy. The majority of mussel culture activities take place in the area of Central Macedonia, Greece, 60% of total mussel production in Greece producing almost 12 tons of waste mussels shells on a daily basis. Currently there is no legislation concerning the disposal of mussel shells. In the present study the waste shells were used for the removal of dyes and heavy metals from aqueous solutions while powdered mussel shells were added in activated sludge processes for the removal of hexavalent chromium. Mussel shells were cleaned, dried and then crushed in order to form a powder. Powdered mussels shells were used in standard adsorption experiments for the removal of methylene blue and methyl red as well as for the removal of Cr (VI), Cd and Cu. Moreover the powdered mussel shells were added in laboratory scale activated sludge reactors treating synthetic wastewater with hexavalent chromium, in order investigate the effects in activated sludge processes and their potential attribution to the removal of hexavalent chromium. Adsorption experiments indicated almost 100% color removal, while adsorption was directly proportional to the amount of powdered mussel shells added in each case. The isotherms calculated for the case of methylene blue indicated similar adsorption capacity and properties to those of the commercially available activated carbon SAE 2, Norit. High removal efficiencies were observed for the metals, especially in the case of chromium and copper. The addition of powdered mussel shells in the activated sludge processes enhanced the removal of chromium and phosphorus, while enabled the formation of heavier activated sludge flocs and thus enhanced the settling properties of the activated sludge.

  14. Modelling growth variability in longline mussel farms as a function of stocking density and farm design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosland, Rune; Bacher, Cédric; Strand, Øivind; Aure, Jan; Strohmeier, Tore

    2011-11-01

    Mussels ( Mytilus edulis) are commonly cultivated on artificial structures like rafts, poles or longlines to facilitate farming operations. Farm structures and dense mussel populations may result in water flow reduction and seston depletion and thus reduced individual mussel growth and spatial growth variability inside a farm. One of the challenges in mussel farming is thus to scale and configure farms in order to optimise total mussel production and individual mussel quality under different environmental regimes. Here we present a spatially resolved model for simulation of flow reduction, seston depletion and individual mussel growth inside a longline farm based on information about farm configuration (spacing between longlines, farm length and stocking density) and background environmental conditions (current speed, seston concentration and temperature). The model simulations are forced by environmental data from two fjords in south-western Norway and the farm configurations are defined within operational ranges. The simulations demonstrate spatial growth patterns at longlines under environmental settings and farm configurations where flow reduction and seston depletion have significant impacts on individual mussel growth. Longline spacing has a strong impact on the spatial distribution of individual growth, and the spacing is characterised by a threshold value. Below the threshold growth reduction and spatial growth variability increase rapidly as a consequence of reduced water flow and seston supply rate, but increased filtration due to higher mussel densities also contributes to the growth reduction. The spacing threshold is moderated by other farm configuration factors and environmental conditions. Comparisons with seston depletion reported from other farm sites show that the model simulations are within observed ranges. A demonstration is provided on how the model can guide farm configuration with the aim of optimising total farm biomass and individual

  15. Studying Native America: Problems and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Russell, Ed.

    Based on a conference, this volume examines the past, present, and future of Native American studies. Native American studies seeks to understand Native Americans, America, and the world from a Native American indigenous perspective, and thereby broaden the education of both Native and non-Native Americans. Part 1 asks who Native Americans are…

  16. Investigation of surface topography differences in native and exotic invertebrates in the St. Lawrence River.

    PubMed

    Brown, D R S; Brown, C A

    2010-01-01

    The texture, or topography, interior of shells from native and exotic mollusks are measured and compared to determine if they can be discriminated. Area-scale fractal analysis is used to calculate relative areas as a function of scale, and the relative areas are used to evaluate the measurements. Measurements from a scanning laser profiler and from confocal and interferometric microscopes are compared, as are measurements of an original and a replica. The relative areas indicate clear differences between the measurement instruments. The largest relative areas are calculated from the confocal measurements. The trueness of the measurements has not been determined. However, the relative areas calculated from the confocal measurements are capable of discriminating the native clam from the exotic mussels with a confidence of greater than 99% at scales below 10 µm². PMID:20949618

  17. Modelling mussel growth in ecosystems with low suspended matter loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, P.; Fernández-Reiriz, M. J.; Filgueira, R.; Labarta, U.

    2010-10-01

    Over the last decades a large number of bivalve growth models were described in the literature with most emphasis on cultivated species with important economic value. These models describe the rates of energy absorption and utilization as a function of environmental conditions. Some of the most important issues in bivalve modelling are water pumping, filtration, pre-ingestive rejection/pseudofaeces production and ingestion of living and non-living organic and inorganic matter. According to some authors, bivalve suspension-feeders may selectively ingest and/or digest different food items whilst making adjustments to maximize the utilization of chlorophyll rich particles. In clear water ecosystems such as the Galician Rias (total particulate matter ( TPM) < 3 mg l - 1 ), where most of the available seston is phytoplankton, selective processes may be less important than in turbid waters with high TPM loads. The main objectives of this work were to develop, implement and calibrate an Individual Based Model of mussel growth, configured and parameterized for the environmental conditions of ecosystems with low suspended matter loads such as the Galician Rias. Model runs were made for a large number of individual mussels, each with a random parameter set, selected among possible parameter ranges reported in the literature, allowing a quick model calibration and an evaluation of those parameters explaining most of the variance in predicted mussel growth. Obtained results provide a useful feedback for upcoming experimental work where efforts should be concentrated on accurate estimates of these more influential parameters to improve model results.

  18. Mercury-binding proteins from the marine mussel, Mytilus edulis

    SciTech Connect

    Roesijadi, G.

    1986-03-01

    The marine mussel, Mytilus edulis, possesses low molecular weight, metal-binding proteins which can be induced by and, in turn, bind mercury when individuals are exposed to low, but elevated concentrations of mercury as HgCl/sub 2/. Induction of the proteins by exposure of mussels to copper, cadmium, or mercury is associated with enhanced tolerance to mercury toxicity. Mercury-binding proteins isolated from gills of mussels occur as two molecular weight variants of about 20-25 and 10-12 kdaltons, respectively, on Sephadex G-75. These have been designated as HgBP/sub 20/ and HgBP/sub 10/ following the nomenclature used for cadmium-binding proteins. HgBP/sub 20/ represents the primary mercury-binding species. Separation of HgBP/sub 20/ by anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography resulted in the resolution of six peaks, indicating a more complex situation than was evident from DEAE-cellulose separations. Although not completely purified, these also contain cysteine- and glycine-rich proteins.

  19. Wresting the muscle from mussel beards: research and applications.

    PubMed

    Rzepecki, L M; Waite, J H

    1995-12-01

    Marine and zebra mussels secrete byssal beards to attach themselves opportunistically to hard surfaces in their environment. By doing this, they naturally earn a reputation as fouling pests. The protein precursors of byssus in mussels are being investigated in the hope not only of discovering specific measures against these marine foulers, but also to gain some insights into the technically challenging task of engineering adhesive bonds underwater. Although byssal proteins are all part of the bearded glue that bonds them to a surface, they can be subdivided into three types depending on the function that they serve in byssal threads: (1) fibrous proteins form the load-bearing cables in the core of the threads, (2) cuticular proteins form a protective coat around the cables, and (3) adhesive proteins connect the cables to a foreign surface. A flaw in any one of these will undermine a mussel's ability to attach. The fibrous proteins can be collagenous, silk-like, elastic, or any combination of these. Covering these are the cuticular proteins, which are distinguished by their surface coupling properties, tandemly repeated primary sequence, and their high content of lysine and the exotic amino acid 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-L-alanine (DOPA). The adhesive proteins are of low molecular weight, contain DOPA, and assemble to form microcellular solids (foams). Several of these proteins are already attracting biotechnological attention as cell and tissue attachment factors, anticorrosives, and metal-sequestering reagents. PMID:8541982

  20. Glycosylated Hydroxytryptophan in a Mussel Adhesive Protein from Perna viridis*

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hua; Sagert, Jason; Hwang, Dong Soo; Waite, J. Herbert

    2009-01-01

    The 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-l-alanine (Dopa)-containing proteins of mussel byssus play a critical role in wet adhesion and have inspired versatile new synthetic strategies for adhesives and coatings. Apparently, however, not all mussel adhesive proteins are beholden to Dopa chemistry. The cDNA-deduced sequence of Pvfp-1, a highly aromatic and redox active byssal coating protein in the green mussel Perna viridis, suggests that Dopa may be replaced by a post-translational modification of tryptophan. The N-terminal tryptophan-rich domain of Pvfp-1 contains 42 decapeptide repeats with the consensus sequences ATPKPW1TAW2K and APPPAW1TAW2K. A small collagen domain (18 Gly-X-Y repeats) is also present. Tandem mass spectrometry of isolated tryptic decapeptides has detected both C2-hexosylated tryptophan (W1) and C2-hexosylated hydroxytryptophan (W2), the latter of which is redox active. The UV absorbance spectrum of W2 is consistent with 7-hydroxytryptophan, which represents an intriguing new theme for bioinspired opportunistic wet adhesion. PMID:19584055

  1. Radionuclides in Peconic River fish, mussels, and sediments.

    PubMed

    Rapiejko, A; Rosson, R; Lahr, J; Garcia, R; Kahn, B

    2001-12-01

    For regulatory oversight and quality control of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) actions, fish, mussels, and sediments were analyzed from the Peconic River system on Long Island, NY, downstream of the Brookhaven National Laboratory, as well as from control locations. The analyses were for photon-emitting radionuclides (notably 60Co and 137Cs), uranium, plutonium, and americium. Sediments were cored in 4 sections to 0.37 m depth, whole fish were analyzed, and mussels were separated into flesh and shells. Radioisotopes of the cited elements were detected in sediment, some of the fish contained 137Cs, 241Am, and uranium, and mussel flesh contained 137Cs and uranium. All of the 60Co, 233U, and enriched uranium, and some of the 137Cs and 241Am, can most likely be attributed to Brookhaven National Laboratory. The other radionuclides (and some of the 137Cs and 241Am) are believed to have either fallout or nature as their origin. The New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) evaluated the radiological data in terms of adverse health implications due to consumption of fish with the levels of reported radioactivity. The NYSDOH determined that the added radiation doses likely to result from eating this fish are a small fraction of the radiation dose that normally results from radionuclides present in the body from natural sources. PMID:11725889

  2. Mussel-mimetic protein-based adhesive hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bum Jin; Oh, Dongyeop X; Kim, Sangsik; Seo, Jeong Hyun; Hwang, Dong Soo; Masic, Admir; Han, Dong Keun; Cha, Hyung Joon

    2014-05-12

    Hydrogel systems based on cross-linked polymeric materials which could provide both adhesion and cohesion in wet environment have been considered as a promising formulation of tissue adhesives. Inspired by marine mussel adhesion, many researchers have tried to exploit the 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) molecule as a cross-linking mediator of synthetic polymer-based hydrogels which is known to be able to achieve cohesive hardening as well as adhesive bonding with diverse surfaces. Beside DOPA residue, composition of other amino acid residues and structure of mussel adhesive proteins (MAPs) have also been considered important elements for mussel adhesion. Herein, we represent a novel protein-based hydrogel system using DOPA-containing recombinant MAP. Gelation can be achieved using both oxdiation-induced DOPA quinone-mediated covalent and Fe(3+)-mediated coordinative noncovalent cross-linking. Fe(3+)-mediated hydrogels show deformable and self-healing viscoelastic behavior in rheological analysis, which is also well-reflected in bulk adhesion strength measurement. Quinone-mediated hydrogel has higher cohesive strength and can provide sufficient gelation time for easier handling. Collectively, our newly developed MAP hydrogel can potentially be used as tissue adhesive and sealant for future applications. PMID:24650082

  3. A mussel-derived one component adhesive coacervate.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Tan, Yerpeng; Martinez Rodriguez, Nadine R; Yu, Jing; Israelachvili, Jacob N; Waite, J Herbert

    2014-04-01

    Marine organisms process and deliver many of their underwater coatings and adhesives as complex fluids. In marine mussels one such fluid, secreted during the formation of adhesive plaques, consists of a concentrated colloidal suspension of a mussel foot protein (mfp) known as Mfp-3S. The results of this study suggest that Mfp-3S becomes a complex fluid by a liquid-liquid phase separation from equilibrium solution at a pH and ionic strength reminiscent of the conditions created by the mussel foot during plaque formation. The pH dependence of phase separation and its sensitivity indicate that inter-/intra-molecular electrostatic interactions are partially responsible for driving the phase separation. Hydrophobic interactions between the non- polar Mfp-3S proteins provide another important driving force for coacervation. As complex coacervation typically results from charge-charge interactions between polyanions and polycations, Mfp-3S is thus unique in being the only known protein that coacervates with itself. The Mfp-3S coacervate was shown to have an effective interfacial energy of ⩽1mJm(-2), which explains its tendency to spread over or engulf most surfaces. Of particular interest to biomedical applications is the extremely high adsorption capacity of coacervated Mfp-3S on hydroxyapatite. PMID:24060881

  4. Methanotrophic marine molluscan (Bivalvia, Mytilidae) symbiosis: mussels fueled by gas

    SciTech Connect

    Childress, J.J.; Fisher, C.R.; Brooks, J.M.; Kennicutt, M.C. II; Bidigare, R.; Anderson, A.E.

    1986-09-19

    An undescribed mussel (family Mytilidae), which lives in the vicinity of hydrocarbon seeps in the Gulf of Mexico, consumes methane (the principal component of natural gas) at a high rate. The methane consumption is limited to the gills of these animals and is apparently due to the abundant intracellular bacteria found there. This demonstrates a methane-based symbiosis between an animal and intracellular bacteria. Methane consumption is dependent on the availability of oxygen and is inhibited by acetylene. The consumption of methane by these mussels is associated with a dramatic increase in oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production. As the methane consumption of the bivalve can exceed its carbide dioxide production, the symbiosis may be able to entirely satisfy its carbon needs from methane uptake. The very light (delta/sup 13/C = -51 to -57 per mil) stable carbon isotope ratios found in this animal support methane (delta/sup 13/C = -45 per mil at this site) as the primary carbon source for both the mussels and their symbionts. 19 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  5. Zebra mussel control using periodic chlorine dioxide treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Tsou, J.; Coyle, J.; Crone, D.

    1996-08-01

    This paper summarizes the EPRI report (TR-105202) on the same topic as well as presents changes in current thinking on the suitability (applicability) of chlorine dioxide for fouling control. Chlorine dioxide was tested as a zebra mussel biocide at two steam electric generating stations in Illinois and one in Indiana. The purpose of these studies was to determine the efficacy of chlorine dioxide in killing zebra mussels and to develop site specific treatment programs for the three utilities. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Zebra Mussel Consortium sponsored the testing of this recent use of chlorine dioxide. The raw water system at Central Illinois Public Service`s Meredosia Station, on the Illinois River, received applications of chlorine dioxide in April, July, and September 1994. The raw water system at Illinois Power Company`s Wood River Station, on the Mississippi River, received applications in July 1993, January, April, May, July, and September 1994. The Gallagher Station, on the Ohio River, was treated in July and October 1994. Chlorine dioxide was generated on-site and injected into the water intake structure. Both cooling and service water systems were treated at the facilities. 6 refs., 13 figs.

  6. Native Peoples-Native Homelands Climate Change Workshop: Lessons Learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynard, N. G.

    2003-12-01

    The Native Peoples-Native Homelands Climate Change Workshop was held on October 28 through November 01, 1998, as part of a series of workshops being held around the U.S. to improve the understanding of the potential consequences of climate variability and change for the Nation. This workshop was specifically designed by Native Peoples to examine the impacts of climate change and extreme weather variability on Native Peoples and Native Homelands from an indigenous cultural and spiritual perspective and to develop recommendations as well as identify potential response actions. The workshop brought together interested Native Peoples, representatives of Tribal governments, traditional elders, Tribal leaders, natural resource managers, Tribal College faculty and students, and climate scientists from government agencies and universities. It is clear that Tribal colleges and universities play a unique and critical role in the success of these emerging partnerships for decision-making in addition to the important education function for both Native and non-Native communities such as serving as a culturally- appropriate vehicle for access, analysis, control, and protection of indigenous cultural and intellectual property. During the discussions between scientists and policy-makers from both Native and non-Native communities, a number of important lessons emerged which are key to building more effective partnerships between Native and non-Native communities for collaboration and decision-making for a more sustainable future. This talk summarizes the key issues, recommendations, and lessons learned during this workshop.

  7. Native Peoples-Native Homelands Climate Change Workshop: Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2003-01-01

    The Native Peoples-Native Homelands Climate Change Workshop was held on October 28 through November 01,1998, as part of a series of workshops being held around the U.S. to improve the understanding of the potential consequences of climate variability and change for the Nation. This workshop was specifically designed by Native Peoples to examine the impacts of climate change and extreme weather variability on Native Peoples and Native Homelands from an indigenous cultural and spiritual perspective and to develop recommendations as well as identify potential response actions. The workshop brought together interested Native Peoples, representatives of Tribal governments, traditional elders, Tribal leaders, natural resource managers, Tribal College faculty and students, and climate scientists fiom government agencies and universities. It is clear that Tribal colleges and universities play a unique and critical role in the success of these emerging partnerships for decision-making in addition to the important education function for both Native and non-Native communities such as serving as a culturally-appropriate vehicle for access, analysis, control, and protection of indigenous cultural and intellectual property. During the discussions between scientists and policy-makers from both Native and non-Native communities, a number of important lessons emerged which are key to building more effective partnerships between Native and non-Native communities for collaboration and decision-making for a more sustainable future. This talk summarizes the key issues, recommendations, and lessons learned during this workshop.

  8. Native Americans' Interest in Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Mary Hockenberry

    1999-01-01

    Focus groups arranged by local Native American Master Gardeners on two Minnesota reservations determined community interest in extension-horticulture programs. Topics of interest included food preservation and historical Native-American uses of plants. (SK)

  9. 76 FR 22413 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ...) to Afognak Native Corporation, Successor in Interest to Port Lions Native Corporation. The decision... surface estate is conveyed to Afognak Native Corporation, Successor in Interest to Port Lions...

  10. Cutaneous diseases in Native Americans.

    PubMed

    Cornelison, Raymond L

    2003-10-01

    Native Americans have a rich and complex heritage and culture. Although the genetic pool has changed with increasing integration with other Americans with different ancestry, there are important conditions that are unique to Native Americans, the most prominent example being actinic prurigo. The scientific literature dealing with Native American skin conditions is sparse and more studies are needed to understand more fully cutaneous disease in Native Americans. PMID:14717410

  11. An analysis of mussel bed habitats in the Dutch Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinkman, A. G.; Dankers, N.; van Stralen, M.

    2002-04-01

    A habitat suitability analysis for littoral mussel beds in the Dutch Wadden Sea was carried out. The analysis was based on the presence of mussel beds in the years 1960-1970, and a number of environmental characteristics: wave action, flow velocity, median grain size, emersion times and distance to a gully border. The habitat model describes mussel bed appearance quantitatively. It predicts the distribution of mussel beds quite well, as well as the distribution of spatfall in the years 1994 and 1996. From the analysis we found that wave action (maximum orbital velocity) was the main structuring factor. A low orbital velocity was preferred. Neither very low, nor maximum flow velocities were favourable for mussel beds. Very coarse sands or silty environments were not preferred. Sites close to the low water line showed lower mussel bed appearance; when emersion time was above 50% , hardly any mussel beds could be found. The habitat suitability analysis and the construction of a habitat suitability map was performed in the framework of the discussions on a further or reduced exploitation of the tidal flats in the Dutch Wadden Sea by cockle and mussel fishery activities.

  12. Bioactive compounds from marine mussels and their effects on human health.

    PubMed

    Grienke, Ulrike; Silke, Joe; Tasdemir, Deniz

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of marine mussels as popular seafood has increased steadily over the past decades. Awareness of mussel derived molecules, that promote health, has contributed to extensive research efforts in that field. This review highlights the bioactive potential of mussel components from species of the genus Mytilus (e.g. M. edulis) and Perna (e.g. P. canaliculus). In particular, the bioactivity related to three major chemical classes of mussel primary metabolites, i.e. proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates, is evaluated. Within the group of proteins the focus is mainly on mussel peptides e.g. those obtained by bio-transformation processes, such as fermentation. In addition, mussel lipids, comprising polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), are discussed as compounds that are well known for prevention and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Within the third group of carbohydrates, mussel polysaccharides are investigated. Furthermore, the importance of monitoring the mussel as food material in respect to contaminations with natural toxins produced by microalgae is discussed. PMID:24001811

  13. ANALYSIS OF MATERIALS IN AN EXPERIMENTAL TESTING PIPE SYSTEM FOR AN INHIBITOR OF MUSSEL KILL

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2003-06-04

    A comprehensive series of 16 laboratory experiments demonstrated that the presence of vinyl tubing within a recirculating pipe system was responsible for lowering zebra mussel kill following treatment with the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. All vinyl tubing was replaced in all testing units with silicone tubing, and high mussel kill (>95%) was then obtained.

  14. SPATIAL VARIABILITY IN MUSSELS USED TO ASSESS BASE LEVEL NITROGEN ISOTOPE RATIO IN FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Freshwater mussels have been used to establish base level nitrogen isotope ratio values ( 15N) used in trophic position and food web studies in freshwater ecosystems. In this study, we assess the variability introduced when using unionid mussels in this manner by investigating th...

  15. ZEBRA MUSSEL COLONIZATION OF RUSTY CRAYFISH IN GREEN BAY, LAKE MICHIGAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    In August, 1995 six rusty crayfish colonized with zebra mussels were captured in small-meshed fyke-nets sets set apart as of a fish sampling effort at Peter's Marsh and Long-Tail Point Wetland in lower Green Bay. Mussels colonized virtually all areas of the crayfish bodies, but ...

  16. Effects of handling and aerial exposure on the survival of unionid mussels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waller, D.L.; Rach, J.J.; Cope, W.G.; Miller, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    We conducted a relocation study of unionid mussels in Navigation Pool 7 of the upper Mississippi River (river mile 713.2) to evaluate survival after handling and aerial exposure. Two separate studies were conducted to compare seasonal differences in mussel survival; the first was initiated in June and the second in October. Amblema plicata plicata (subfamily Ambleminae) and Obliquaria reflexa (subfamily Lampsilinae) were studied. Mussels were marked, held out of water for either 0, 1, 4, or 8 h, and then placed into a 3 x 3 m grid (divided into nine 1-m super(2) units). The mussels were re-examined after four-five months to measure mortality in the control and treatment groups. Mussels of both species had >90% survival after aerial exposure up to 4 h in both studies. However, survival (number recaptured live / number recaptured live and dead) of mussels showed a decreasing trend with duration of exposure in the first study, but not in the second study. The overall recovery of marked mussels (number recaptured/number marked) was 91% in the first study and 87% in the second study. However, only 37% of O. reflexa mussels in the 8-h treatment were recovered in the first study; the adjusted survival (number live recaptured/number marked) of this treatment group was significantly (p < 0.05) lower (35%) than all other treatments.

  17. The Edible Blue Mussel: A Learning Experience for Marine Education. Northern New England Marine Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Univ., Orono. Coll. of Education.

    The major unifying concept for each of the disciplinary sections in this curriculum infusion unit is that the blue mussel is an easily obtainable, high quality, very palatable seafood. A section is provided for teacher familiarity with the anatomy and ecological background of the mussel. The guide is arranged by discipline areas. Sections provide…

  18. Effects of a municipal effluent on the freshwater mussel Elliptio complanata following challenge with Vibrio anguillarum.

    PubMed

    François, Gagné; Mélanie, Douville; Marlène, Fortier; Michel, Fournier

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cumulative effects of exposure to a pathogenic bacteria and municipal effluent in the freshwater mussel Elliptio complanata. Mussels were exposed to increasing concentrations of an ozone-treated effluent at 15°C for 7days. A sub-group of mussels was inoculated with Vibrio anguillarum and exposed to the same conditions as above. After the exposure period, mussels were collected to assess hemocyte count and viability, immunocompetence (phagocytosis and nitrite production), oxidative stress/inflammation (cyclooxygenase and lipid peroxidation) and oxygen radical/xenobiotic scavenging activity (metallothioniens, glutathione S-transferase). The results showed that mussels exposed to municipal effluent had increased hemocyte counts, phagocytosis, nitrites, lipid peroxidation and metallothioneins. In the inoculated mussels, the same responses were observed, in addition to cyclooxygenase and glutathione S-transferase activities. Multivariate analyses revealed that (1) the response pattern changed with effluent concentration, where increased responses observed at low effluent concentrations (>10%, V/V) were attenuated at higher effluent concentrations, (2) the effluent produced more pronounced changes in lipid peroxidation, metallothionein and hemocyte viability, and (3) the simultaneous presence of V. anguillarum led to more important changes in hemocyte count and viability and nitrite levels. In conclusion, the presence of V. anguillarum could alter the response of mussels to municipal effluent, which could lead to increased inflammation in mussels. PMID:26574092

  19. Comparison of freshwater mussel communities from 1988 to 2015 in the Cedar Creek Watershed, Indiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Out of the 300 genera of freshwater mussels (Unionidae) represented in North America, most species have shown declines in abundance and distribution largely due to human-mediated factors. This study compares current community composition, abundance and richness of mussels in Cedar Creek, Indiana wit...

  20. CONDITIONS FOR COEXISTENCE OF FRESHWATER MUSSEL SPECIES VIA PARTITIONING OF FISH HOST RESOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Riverine freshwater mussel species can be found in highly diverse communities where many similar species coexist. Mussel species potentially compete for food and space as adults, and for fish host resources during the larval (glochidial) stage. Resource partitioning at the larv...

  1. Polonium-210 in marine mussels (bivalve molluscs) inhabiting the southern coast of India.

    PubMed

    Khan, M Feroz; Wesley, S Godwin; Rajan, M P

    2014-12-01

    The present study focused on the determination of the alpha-emitter, (210)Po, in two species of marine mussels (bivalve molluscs) commonly available in the southern coastal region of India. The brown mussel, Perna indica was collected from the west coast and the green mussel, Perna viridis from the east coast. The concentration of (210)Po was related to the allometry (length of shell, wet/dry weight of shell/soft tissue) of the mussels and significant results were found. The study period focused on three seasons namely, pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon for a 1-year period (2010-2011). The results revealed higher activity levels in smaller-sized mussels compared to larger ones. Marked variation in (210)Po activity concentration was noted in the whole-body soft tissues between seasons and sampling site (p < 0.05). The dose rate assessment for mussels was performed using the ERICA Assessment tool. The chronic exposure to mussels due to (210)Po was found to be lesser than the global benchmark dose rate of 10 μGy h(-1). The effective ingestion dose to adults who intake mussels was estimated to be in the range 5.1-34.9 μSv y(-1). The measurement contributes to the furthering of knowledge of (210)Po, since no data exist in this region. PMID:25042075

  2. Digital Natives or Digital Tribes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Ian Robert

    2013-01-01

    This research builds upon the discourse surrounding digital natives. A literature review into the digital native phenomena was undertaken and found that researchers are beginning to identify the digital native as not one cohesive group but of individuals influenced by other factors. Primary research by means of questionnaire survey of technologies…

  3. Who Stole Native American Studies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook-Lynn, Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    Native American Studies has failed to develop into an academic discipline because of the continued influence of postcolonial theories, attempts to discredit Native American scholars, politically determined research agendas, and the ideology of the "New Historicism." Native American Studies must seek autonomy from other opportunistic epistemologies…

  4. Accumulation and depuration of cyanobacterial paralytic shellfish toxins by the freshwater mussel Anodonta cygnea.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Paulo; Dias, Elsa; Franca, Susana; Pereira, Elisa; Carolino, Manuela; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2004-07-14

    The increasing frequency by which the production of paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) by freshwater bloom-forming cyanobacteria is being noticed world-wide raises the possibility of PST bioaccumulation by freshwater mussels. This study evaluates PST accumulation and depuration by the freshwater mussel Anodonta cygnea exposed over a 14-day period to high densities (mean = 1.4 x 10(9) cells1(-1), S.D. = 0.29 x 10(9) cellsl(-1)) of the toxic cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon issatschenkoi (corresponding to a mean toxin concentration of 25.5 nmol PSTl(-1), S.D. = 9.9 nmol PSTl(-1)). Mussels were subsequently detoxified either by starvation or by feeding on the non-toxic green-algae Ankistodesmus falcatus. Filter feeding activity and toxin uptake by the mussels were followed by cell counting and toxin analysis in water samples taken before and after each daily water renewal. The accumulation and depuration of PST as well as the anatomical distribution of toxins were monitored throughout the experiment by HPLC analysis of mussel extracts. Mussels fed the toxic cyanobacterium removed on average 65.3% of cells and 40.36% of total PST daily provided. Daily rates of cell clearance (% of initial) were negatively correlated with the amounts of PST daily provided (but not with the amount of cells). This suggests a negative effect of toxins on the feeding behaviour of mussels. Small amounts of toxins could be detected in the mussels after the second day of exposure, reaching a maximum of 26 microg PST100 g(-1) by day 7. The viscera contained the greatest proportion of toxins (78%) at the start of the toxification. However, increasing amounts of PST were found in the remaining tissues (gills, mantle and foot) over time. Toxins detected in the mussel extracts were the same provided in the dietary A. issatschenkoi. Nevertheless, mussels showed a higher proportion of saxitoxin and decarbomoylsaxitoxin and a lower proportion of gonyautoxin-5 than the fed cyanobacterium. Similar depuration

  5. Characterizing the effect of heavy metal contamination on marine mussels using metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yong-Kook; Jung, Young-Sang; Park, Jong-Chul; Seo, Jungju; Choi, Man-Sik; Hwang, Geum-Sook

    2012-09-01

    Marine mussels (Mytilus) are widely used as bioindicators to measure pollution in marine environments. In this study, (1)H NMR spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analyses were used to differentiate mussel groups from a heavy metal-polluted area (Onsan Bay) and a clean area (Dokdo area). Principal component analysis and orthogonal projection to latent structure-discriminant analysis revealed significant separation between extracts of mussels from Onsan Bay and from the Dokdo area. Organic osmolytes (betaine and taurine) and free amino acids (alanine, arginine, glutamine, phenylalanine, and threonine) were more highly accumulated in Onsan Bay mussels compared with Dokdo mussels. These results demonstrate that NMR-based metabolomics can be used as an efficient method for characterizing heavy metal contamination derived from polluted area compared to clean area and to identify metabolites related to environments that are contaminated with heavy metals. PMID:22770532

  6. Preference of redear sunfish on zebra mussels and rams-horn snails

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, John R. P., III; Morgan, Michael N.

    1995-01-01

    We tested prey preferences of adult (200- to 222-mm long) redear sunfish (Lepomis microlophus) on two size classes of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and two-ridge rams-horns (Helisoma anceps) in experimental aquaria. We also tested physical limitations on consuming these mollusks and determined prey bioenergetic profitability. Redear sunfish strongly preferred rams-horns over zebra mussels, but they displayed no size preference for either prey. Ingestion was not physically limited since both prey species up to 15-mm long fit within the pharyngeal gapes of redear sunfish. Rams-horns were more bioenergetically profitable than zebra mussels and ingestion of rams-horn shell fragments was about three times less than zebra mussels. Rams-horns were somewhat more resistant to shell-crushing, but all size ranges of both prey species tested were crushable by redear sunfish. These studies suggested that the redear sunfish should not be considered a panacea for biological control of zebra mussels.

  7. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Asian green mussel Perna viridis (Bivalvia, Mytilidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoling; Wu, Xiangyun; Yu, Ziniu

    2012-10-01

    The complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of the Asian green mussel Perna viridis (16,627 bp), an economically important bivalve, was newly sequenced and annotated. P. viridis is the shortest and has a comparatively highest overall A+T content (68%) among six available genomes of marine mussels to date. The atp8 gene's length (49 a.a.) of the green mussel is unexpectedly greatly shorter than that of other marine mussels (87 a.a.). Comparison of the gene order demonstrated that the six marine mussels share no identical gene blocks although they belong to the same family, which indicates that this group should be a good model to study mtDNA evolution and mitochondria inheritance. PMID:22708864

  8. Fluvial processes and local lithology controlling abundance, structure, and composition of mussel beds.

    PubMed

    Vannote, R L; Minshall, G W

    1982-07-01

    In the Salmon River Canyon, Idaho, the fresh-water pearl mussel, Margaritifera falcata, attains maximum density and age in river reaches where large block-boulders structurally stabilize cobbles and interstitial gravels. We hypothesize that block-boulders prevent significant bed scour during major floods, and these boulder-sheltered mussel beds, although rare, may be critical for population recruitment elsewhere within the river, especially after periodic flood scour of less protected mussel habitat. Mussel shells in Indian middens adjacent to these boulder-stabilized areas suggest that prehistoric tribes selectively exploited the high-density old-aged mussel beds. Locally, canyon reaches are aggrading with sand and gravel, and M. falcata is being replaced by Gonidea angulata. PMID:16593208

  9. Assessment of metal element concentrations in mussel (M. Galloprovincialis) in Eastern Black Sea, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cevik, U; Damla, N; Kobya, A I; Bulut, V N; Duran, C; Dalgic, G; Bozaci, R

    2008-12-30

    The main goal of this work is to determine the effects of pollution of copper, lead and zinc mines on the Eastern Black Sea. Metal and heavy metal concentrations in the Eastern Black Sea mussels were measured using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (FAAS). The analytical results showed that the tissue of mussel in Eastern Black Sea contains K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Sr elements, and the shell of mussel contains Ca, Cu, Sr, and Ba elements. Due to the detection limit of EDXRF, the mussels were analyzed with FAAS for Cr, Mn, Ni, Cd and Pb elements. An ANOVA and Pearson correlation analyses were performed. The results showed although that the mean concentrations of Cu and Zn for the tissue of the mussels were markedly above the permissible levels of the Turkish regulations, Zn concentration is in the limits of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). PMID:18417277

  10. The complete F-type mitochondrial genome of Chinese freshwater mussel Anodonta euscaphys.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ting; Chen, Meiling; Wang, Guiling; Han, Zhenyong; Li, Jiale

    2016-07-01

    Anodonta euscaphys is the endemic species of freshwater mussel in China. The complete F-type mitochondrial genome of the A. euscaphys is amplified and analyzed in this study. It is 15,741 bp in length. The base composition of the genome with A + T bias is 64.78%. There are 24 noncoding regions found throughout the mitogenome of A. euscaphys, ranging in size from 3 to 302 bp, the largest of which was between ND2 and tRNA(Glu). The phylogenetic tree based on 22 mitogenome, including 16 F-type freshwater mussels, 2 M-type freshwater mussels and 4 marine mussels were analyzed in our study, the results showed that the F-type and the M-type of the freshwater mussels were clustered respectively, the A. euscaphys was clustered with Anodonta family species firstly, and it was the closest to the Anodonta arcaeformis in our analysis. PMID:26000937

  11. Impact of European zebra mussel infestation to the electric power industry

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, R.F. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on Dreissena polymorpha, the European freshwater zebra mussel, introduced to the Great Lakes in 1985. It is now found throughout Lakes St. Clair and Erie, in Green Bay, Lake Michigan and invaded western Lake Ontario by Fall 1989. As its planktonic veliger larva is dispersed on water currents and adults are transported by human and natural vectors, it is likely to spread throughout U.S. and southern Canadian freshwaters. Mussel accumulations impede flow, and aggravate sedimentation and corrosion. Settlement occurs at flow velocities less than 1.5-2.0 m/sec. Mussels foul intake structures, low-flow piping, steam condensors, heat exchangers, fire protection systems, and cooling tower basins. Monitoring of source waters for mussels and veligers allows initiation of control measures before macrofouling occurs. Mussel fouling should be prevented as removal is difficult and expensive.

  12. Histopathological and apoptotic changes on marine mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamark, 1819) following exposure to environmental pollutants.

    PubMed

    Yavaşoğlu, Altuğ; Özkan, Dilara; Güner, Adem; Katalay, Selma; Oltulu, Fatih; Yavaşoğlu, N Ülkü Karabay

    2016-08-15

    Marine bivalve mussels, especially Mytilus species are an earlywarning system used for determining of damage caused by the various aquatic pollutions. In the present study, Mytilus galloprovincialis L. (black mussel) have been utilised as a biomonitoring organism to reveal environmental pollution in the Aliaga, Foca and Urla where located along the Izmir Coast of Turkey. Mussels were collected at these areas and gill and hepatopancreas (digestive gland) tissues were excised. mRNA expressions of initiator (caspase-2 and -8) and executioner (caspase -3/7-1, -3/7-2, -3/7-3 and -3/7-4) caspases of mussels tissues in areas exposed to pollution agent have been observed. TUNEL immunoreactivity in paralel to histopathological changes in both Aliaga and Foca areas were compared with Urla. This study is the first report to reveal the pollution with apoptotic expression on mussels in the coast of Turkey. PMID:27301687

  13. Native Education 101: Basic Facts about American Indian, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Indian Education Association, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document contains information about education of indigenous American peoples, including: (1) Demographics; (2) Reservations and Native Lands Map; (3) Important Community Issues and Concepts; (4) Educational Issues for Native Students; (5) Type of Schools for Native Students; (6) Indian Education Legislation and Executive Orders; (7)…

  14. Effects of shell morphology on mechanics of zebra and quagga mussel locomotion.

    PubMed

    Peyer, Suzanne M; Hermanson, John C; Lee, Carol Eunmi

    2011-07-01

    Although zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) initially colonized shallow habitats within the North American Great Lakes, quagga mussels (Dreissena bugensis) are becoming dominant in both shallow- and deep-water habitats. Shell morphology differs among zebra, shallow quagga and deep quagga mussels but functional consequences of such differences are unknown. We examined effects of shell morphology on locomotion for the three morphotypes on hard (typical of shallow habitats) and soft (characteristic of deep habitats) sedimentary substrates. We quantified morphology using the polar moment of inertia, a parameter used in calculating kinetic energy that describes shell area distribution and resistance to rotation. We quantified mussel locomotion by determining the ratio of rotational (K(rot)) to translational kinetic energy (K(trans)). On hard substrate, K(rot):K(trans) of deep quagga mussels was fourfold greater than for the other morphotypes, indicating greater energy expenditure in rotation relative to translation. On soft substrate, K(rot):K(trans) of deep quagga mussels was approximately one-third of that on hard substrate, indicating lower energy expenditure in rotation on soft substrate. Overall, our study demonstrates that shell morphology correlates with differences in locomotion (i.e. K(rot):K(trans)) among morphotypes. Although deep quagga mussels were similar to zebra and shallow quagga mussels in terms of energy expenditure on sedimentary substrate, their morphology was energetically maladaptive for linear movement on hard substrate. As quagga mussels can possess two distinct morphotypes (i.e. shallow and deep morphs), they might more effectively utilize a broader range of substrates than zebra mussels, potentially enhancing their ability to colonize a wider range of habitats. PMID:21653816

  15. Effects of flow restoration on mussel growth in a Wild and Scenic North American River

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Freshwater mussels remain among the most imperiled species in North America due primarily to habitat loss or degradation. Understanding how mussels respond to habitat changes can improve conservation efforts. Mussels deposit rings in their shell in which age and growth information can be read, and thus used to evaluate how mussels respond to changes in habitat. However, discrepancies between methodological approaches to obtain life history information from growth rings has led to considerable uncertainty regarding the life history characteristics of many mussel species. In this study we compared two processing methods, internal and external ring examination, to obtain age and growth information of two populations of mussels in the St. Croix River, MN, and evaluated how mussel growth responded to changes in the operation of a hydroelectric dam. Results External ring counts consistently underestimated internal ring counts by 4 years. Despite this difference, internal and external growth patterns were consistent. In 2000, the hydroelectric dam switched from operating on a peaking schedule to run-of-the-river/partial peaking. Growth patterns between an upstream and downstream site of the dam were similar both before and after the change in operation. At the downstream site, however, older mussels had higher growth rates after the change in operation than the same sized mussels collected before the change. Conclusions Because growth patterns between internal and external processing methods were consistent, we suggest that external processing is an effective method to obtain growth information despite providing inaccurate age information. External processing is advantageous over internal processing due to its non-destructive nature. Applying this information to analyze the influence of the operation change in the hydroelectric dam, we suggest that changing to run-of-the-river/partial peaking operation has benefited the growth of older mussels below the dam

  16. Tolerance of five species of tropical marine mussels to continuous chlorination.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, S; Venugopalan, V P; Van der Velde, G; Jenner, H A

    2003-05-01

    The paper examines the relative lethal and sublethal response of five important tropical marine mussels (Perna viridis, Perna perna, Brachidontes striatulus, Brachidontes variabilis and Modiolus philippinarum) to different chlorine concentrations varying from 0.25 to 15 mg l(-1). The mussels were observed to co-exist in the cooling water circuits of a coastal power station that adopted intermittent chlorination as a fouling control technique. The five mussel species showed, in response to chlorination, 100% mortality at significantly different exposure times, indicating significant species-specific variability in chlorine tolerance. For example, at 1 mg l(-1) residual chlorine, B. variabilis and P. viridis took 288 and 816 h, respectively, to achieve 100% mortality. The time taken for 100% mortality decreased with increasing chlorine residual concentration. The effect of mussel size (= mussel age) of P. viridis, P. perna, B. striatulus and M. philippinarum on mortality was significant between 1 and 5 mg l(-1) residual chlorine, with larger mussels showing greater resistance than smaller ones. All mussel species showed progressive reduction in physiological activities when chlorine residuals were increased from 0 to 1 mg l(-1). However, species-specific differences in the relative rate of physiological activities were observed. Accordingly, relative reduction in physiological activities in response to chlorination was the lowest in P. viridis and the highest in B. variabilis. The data clearly indicate significant differences in the lethal and sublethal responses of the five mussel species to chlorination. The results, therefore, suggest that for effective fouling control, chlorine treatment against mussels has to be employed judiciously, depending on the mussel species involved. PMID:12517421

  17. Exposure of unionid mussels to electric current: Assessing risks associated with electrofishing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holliman, F.M.; Kwak, T.J.; Cope, W.G.; Levine, J.F.

    2007-01-01

    Electric current is routinely applied in freshwater for scientific sampling of fish populations (i.e., electrofishing). Freshwater mussels (families Margaritiferidae and Unionidae) are distributed worldwide, but their recent declines in diversity and abundance constitute an imperilment of global significance. Freshwater mussels are not targeted for capture by electrofishing, and any exposure to electric current is unintentional. The effects of electric shock are not fully understood for mussels but could disrupt vital physiological processes and represent an additional threat to their survival. In a controlled laboratory environment, we examined the consequences of exposure to two typical electrofishing currents, 60-Hz pulsed DC and 60-Hz AC, for the survival of adult and early life stages of three unionid species; we included fish as a quality control measure. The outcomes suggest that electrical exposure associated with typical electrofishing poses little direct risk to freshwater mussels. That is, adult mussel survival and righting behaviors (indicators of sublethal stress) were not adversely affected by electrical exposure. Glochidia (larvae that attach to and become parasites on fish gills or fins) showed minimal immediate reduction in viability after exposure. Metamorphosis from glochidia to free-living juvenile mussels was not impaired after electric current simulated capture-prone behaviors (stunning) in infested host fish. In addition, the short-term survival of juvenile mussels was not adversely influenced by exposure to electric current. Any minimal risk to imperiled mussels must be weighed at the population level against the benefits gained by using the gear for scientific sampling of fish in the same waters. However, scientists sampling fish by electrofishing should be aware of mussel reproductive periods and processes in order to minimize the harmful effects to host fish, especially in areas where mussel conservation is a concern. ?? Copyright by the

  18. Economic impacts of zebra mussels on drinking water treatment and electric power generation facilities.

    PubMed

    Connelly, Nancy A; O'Neill, Charles R; Knuth, Barbara A; Brown, Tommy L

    2007-07-01

    Invasions of nonnative species such as zebra mussels can have both ecological and economic consequences. The economic impacts of zebra mussels have not been examined in detail since the mid-1990s. The purpose of this study was to quantify the annual and cumulative economic impact of zebra mussels on surface water-dependent drinking water treatment and electric power generation facilities (where previous research indicated the greatest impacts). The study time frame was from the first full year after discovery in North America (Lake St. Clair, 1989) to the present (2004); the study area was throughout the mussels' North American range. A mail survey resulted in a response rate of 31% for electric power companies and 41% for drinking water treatment plants. Telephone interviews with a sample of nonrespondents assessed nonresponse bias; only one difference was found and adjusted for. Over one-third (37%) of surveyed facilities reported finding zebra mussels in the facility and almost half (45%) have initiated preventive measures to prevent zebra mussels from entering the facility operations. Almost all surveyed facilities (91%) with zebra mussels have used control or mitigation alternatives to remove or control zebra mussels. We estimated that 36% of surveyed facilities experienced an economic impact. Expanding the sample to the population of the study area, we estimated 267 million dollars (BCa 95% CI = 161 million dollars - 467 million dollars) in total economic costs for electric generation and water treatment facilities through late 2004, since 1989. Annual costs were greater (44,000 dollars/facility) during the early years of zebra mussel infestation than in recent years (30,000 dollars). As a result of this and other factors, early predictions of the ultimate costs of the zebra mussel invasion may have been excessive. PMID:17530329

  19. Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Minority Population Profiles > American Indian/Alaska Native > Asthma Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives In 2014, 218, ... Native American adults reported that they currently have asthma. American Indian/Alaska Native children are 30% more ...

  20. Effect of salinity on filtration rates of mussels Mytilus edulis with special emphasis on dwarfed mussels from the low-saline Central Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riisgård, H. U.; Lüskow, F.; Pleissner, D.; Lundgreen, K.; López, M. Á. P.

    2013-09-01

    The effect of salinity on the filtration rate of blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, from the brackish Great Belt (Denmark) and the low-saline Central Baltic Sea, respectively, was studied. First, we measured the effect of long-term (weeks) constant ambient salinities between 5 and 30 psu on the filtration rate of M. edulis collected in the Great Belt where the mean salinity is 17 psu. At salinities between 10 and 30 psu, the filtration rates did not vary much, but at 5 psu the filtration rates were significantly lower. Next, we studied dwarfed M. edulis (<25 mm shell length) from Central Baltic Sea (Askö, Sweden) where the mean salinity is 6.5 psu. The maximum filtration rate ( F, ml min-1 ind.-1) as a function of shell length ( L, mm) and dry weight of soft parts ( W, mg) were found to be: F = 0.003 L 2.71 and F = 0.478 W 0.92, respectively, and these results indicate that the filtration rates of dwarfed Baltic Sea mussels are comparable to filtration rates of Great Belt mussels of similar size exposed to salinities >10 psu. When Baltic Sea mussels acclimatized to 20 psu in the laboratory were exposed to 6.5 psu this caused a drastic reduction in the filtration rate, but after about 2 days the previous high filtration rate was regained at 6.5 psu, and further, a similar pattern was observed when the 6.5 psu exposed mussels were finally re-exposed to 20 psu. The observed lack of Great Belt mussels to completely adjust to 5 psu, in contrast to the ease of Baltic Sea mussels to adjust back and forth between 6.5 and 20 psu, is remarkable and may perhaps be explained by different genotypes of Great Belt and Baltic Sea mussels.

  1. Direct and indirect effects of seastars Asterias rubens on mussel beds ( Mytilus edulis) in the Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saier, Bettina

    2001-08-01

    Near the island of Sylt in the Wadden Sea (German Bight, North Sea), seastars Asterias rubens (L.) co-occur with their preferred prey, mussels Mytilus edulis (L.), which form extensive beds from the intertidal down to the subtidal zone. Mussel density within these beds is significantly lower in the subtidal than the intertidal zone. Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to check if this was due to seastar predation. Feeding experiments did not indicate size refuge of M. edulis from predation by A. rubens, but showed that seastars preferred clean subtidal mussels above barnacle-overgrown intertidal ones. This preference coincided with higher abundances of both large ( arm length >5.5 cm) and smaller seastars in the shallow subtidal, but their abundance was too low to account for the decreased subtidal mussel density in the area studied. However, seastars may indirectly reduce mussel recruitment in the subtidal zone. This is caused by juvenile seastar predation upon the barnacles that grow on mussels, because such epigrowth strongly enhances recruitment in mussels. Such an indirect effect on mussel recruitment may affect mussel density more than adult seastar predation. An exception may be mass invasions of A. rubens on subtidal mussel beds. One such event happened during this study, clearing a large patch of mussels.

  2. Neuropsychological performance of native versus non-native English speakers.

    PubMed

    Kisser, Jason E; Wendell, Carrington R; Spencer, Robert J; Waldstein, Shari R

    2012-11-01

    Relatively little is known about differences in English-administered, clinical neuropsychological test performance between native versus non-native English speakers, with prior literature yielding mixed findings. The purpose of this study was to examine the performance of native and non-native English speakers with similar age and educational backgrounds on a variety of cognitive tests. Participants were 153 university students (115 native and 38 non-native English speakers) who completed a neuropsychological battery during two testing sessions. Multiple regression analyses examined relations of native language to cognitive performance after adjustment for age, education, sex, and depressive symptomatology. Results showed that native English speakers outperformed non-native English speakers on several language-mediated tasks-Letter and Category Fluency and the Cognitive Estimation Test-as well as Trails A (p's < .05). The two groups performed similarly on tests of executive functions, perceptuo-motor speed, verbal memory, and visuospatial abilities. These results suggest that non-native English language may have a negative influence predominantly on language-dependent tasks. PMID:22985952

  3. Effect of the industrial canning on the toxicity of mussels contaminated with diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Juan; Arévalo, Fabiola; Correa, Jorge; Porro, M Corina; Cabado, Ana G; Vieites, Juan M; Moroño, Angeles

    2016-03-15

    The effect of canning in pickled sauce and autoclaving on weight, toxin content, toxin concentration and toxicity of steamed mussels was studied. Weight decreased by 25.5%. Okadaic acid (OA) and DTX2 content of mussel meat decreased by 24.1 and 42.5%, respectively. The estimated toxicity of the mussel remained nearly unchanged (increased by 2.9%). A part of the toxins lost by the mussels was leached to the sauce but the remaining part should have been thermally degraded. DTX2 underwent more degradation than OA and, in both toxins, free forms more than conjugated ones. This process, therefore, cannot be responsible for the large increments of toxicity of processed mussels -relative to the raw ones-sometimes detected by food processing companies. The final product could be monitored in several ways, but analysing the whole can content or the mussel meat once rehydrated seems to be the most equivalents to the raw mussel controls. PMID:26806209

  4. Assimilation and depuration of microcystin-LR by the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Pires, L M Dionisio; Karlsson, K M; Meriluoto, J A O; Kardinaal, E; Visser, P M; Siewertsen, K; Donk, E Van; Ibelings, B W

    2004-09-20

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) are an important component of the foodweb of shallow lakes in the Netherlands, amongst others in Lake IJsselmeer, an international important wetland. Large numbers of ducks feed on these mussels in autumn and winter. The mussels are filter feeders and are exposed to high densities of cyanobacteria in summer and autumn. Mussels and cyanobacteria both thrive in Lake IJsselmeer. Apparently the mussels are somehow protected against accumulation of harmful quantities of cyanobacterial toxins. In this study, we investigated the assimilation of the cyanobacterial toxin microcystin-LR (MC-LR) in zebra mussels when fed the toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa as sole food or in a mixture with the eustigmatophyte Nannochloropsis limnetica. After 3 weeks of assimilation we studied the depuration of MC-LR during 3 weeks when the food of the mussels was free of cyanobacteria. These assimilation/depuration experiments were combined with grazing experiments, using the same food treatments. Microcystins were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS); in addition, covalently bound MC were analyzed using the MMPB method. The mussels showed higher clearance rates on Microcystis than on Nannochloropsis. No selective rejection of either phytoplankton species was observed in the excretion products of the mussels. Zebra mussels fed Microcystis as single food, assimilated microcystin-LR relatively fast, and after 1 week the maximum value of free unbound microcystin assimilation (ca. 11 microg g DW(-1)) was attained. For mussels, fed with the mixed food, a maximum of only 3.9 microg g DW(-1) was recorded after 3 weeks. Covalently bound MC never reached high values, with a maximum of approximately 62% of free MC in the 2nd week of the experiment. In the depuration period microcystin decreased rapidly to low values and after 3 weeks only very low amounts of microcystin were detectable. The amount of toxin that accumulated in

  5. Assessing accumulation and sublethal effects of lead in a unionid mussel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosher, Shad; Cope, W. Gregory; Weber, Frank X.; Kwak, Thomas J.; Shea, Damian

    2012-01-01

    Lead (Pb) contamination of the environment remains a global problem. Previous studies have demonstrated that Pb deposited onto roadside sediments from the past use of leaded gasoline in vehicles may be mobilized into rivers and streams, thereby resulting in exposure to aquatic biota. The aims of this study were to conduct a 28-day laboratory toxicity test with Pb and adult Eastern Elliptio (Elliptio complanata; family Unionidae) mussels to determine uptake kinetics and to assess several potential non-lethal biomarkers of Pb exposure. Mussels were collected from a relatively uncontaminated reference site and exposed to a control and eight concentrations of Pb (as lead nitrate) ranging from 1 to 251 µg/L, as a static renewal test. There were five replicates per treatment with one mussel per replicate. The hemolymph of mussels from four of the replicates was repeatedly sampled (days 7, 14, 21, and 28) for analysis of Pb and ion (Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+) concentrations. The mussels in the fifth replicate per treatment were only sampled on day 28 and served as a comparison to the repeatedly sampled mussels. The accumulation of Pb in mussel tissue was also evaluated during the study. No mussels died during the test. We found that measured concentrations of Pb in mussel hemolymph suggested regulation of the heavy metal up to 66 μg/L by day 14, whereas concentrations in tissue proved to be strongly correlated (R2 = 0.98; p < 0.0001) throughout the 28-day exposure, displaying concentration dependent uptake. The concentration of Pb in mussel hemolymph, which can be sampled and measured non-lethally, is a suitable marker of recent Pb exposure in mussels. In contrast, none of the ion concentrations measured in the hemolymph from the repeatedly sampled mussels was significantly changed with increasing concentrations of Pb, whereas the mussels from the fifth replicate sampled only on day 28 showed altered calcium concentrations. The activity of δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase

  6. Mussel-inspired surface chemistry for multifunctional coatings.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haeshin; Dellatore, Shara M; Miller, William M; Messersmith, Phillip B

    2007-10-19

    We report a method to form multifunctional polymer coatings through simple dip-coating of objects in an aqueous solution of dopamine. Inspired by the composition of adhesive proteins in mussels, we used dopamine self-polymerization to form thin, surface-adherent polydopamine films onto a wide range of inorganic and organic materials, including noble metals, oxides, polymers, semiconductors, and ceramics. Secondary reactions can be used to create a variety of ad-layers, including self-assembled monolayers through deposition of long-chain molecular building blocks, metal films by electroless metallization, and bioinert and bioactive surfaces via grafting of macromolecules. PMID:17947576

  7. Evaluation of freshwater mussels in the lower Ohio River in relation to the Olmstead locks and dam project: 1995, 1996, and 1997 studies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, B.S.; Miller, A.C.

    1998-09-01

    Surveys were conducted in 1995, 1996, and 1997 to assess community characteristics, population demography of dominant species, status of endangered species, and characteristics of nonindigenous populations of freshwater bivalves in the lower Ohio River. Data will be used to analyze impacts of construction and operation of a new lock and dam at River Mile (RM) 964.4. The greatest focus has been on a mussel bed just downstream of the project. Density categories of <20, 20 to 50, and >50 individuals per square meter are reasonable for delineating low-, moderate-, and high-density assemblages within this bed. Density >200 individuals per square meter is occasionally measured, but always describes a location heavily dominated by recent recruits. The native mussel community of the lower Ohio River is dominated by Fusconaia ebena. Dominance of this species was high at RM 967 (near Olmsted, IL), typically exceeding 80 percent of the community. At RM 957 (near Post Creek, IL), F. ebena is much less dominant (33 percent). Species richness is similar at both locations. The F. ebena population in the lower Ohio River is heavily dominated by a single-year class (probably 1990) of recent recruits. Prior to the exceptional recruitment in 1990, this population was dominated by a very abundant 1981 cohort.

  8. Occurrence of zebra mussels in near-shore areas of western Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, T.W.

    1997-01-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) invaded the Great Lakes in the mid-1980s and quickly reached high densities. The objective of this study was to determine current consumption of zebra mussels by waterfowl in the Great Lakes region. Feeding Lesser Scaups (Aythya affinis), Greater Scaups (A. marila), Canvasbacks (A. valisineria), Redheads (A. americana), Buffleheads (Bucephala albeola) and Common Goldeneyes (B. clangula) were collected in western Lake Erie and in Lake St. Clair between fall and spring, 1992-1993 to determine food habits. All 10 Redheads, 97% of Lesser Scaups, 83% of Goldeneyes, 60% of Buffleheads and 9% of Canvasbacks contained one or more zebra mussels in their upper gastrointestinal tracts. The aggregate percent of zebra mussels in the diet of Lesser Scaups was higher in Lake Erie (98.6%) than in Lake St. Clair (54.4%). Zebra mussels, (aggregate percent) dominated the diet of Common Goldeneyes (79.2%) but not in Buffleheads (23.5%), Redheads (21%) or Canvasbacks (9%). Lesser Scaups from Lake Erie fed on larger zebra mussels ( = 10.7 i?? 0.66 mm SE) than did Lesser Scaups from Lake St. Clair ( = 4.4 i?? 0.22 mm). Lesser Scaups, Buffleheads and Common Goldeneyes from Lake Erie consumed zebra mussels of similar size.

  9. Food habits of diving ducks in the Great Lakes after the zebra mussel invasion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, T.W.

    1996-01-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) invaded the Great Lakes in the mid-1980s and quickly reached high densities. The objective of this study was to determine current consumption of zebra mussels by waterfowl in the Great Lakes region. Feeding Lesser Scaups (Aythya affinis), Greater Scaups (A. marila), Canvasbacks (A. valisineria), Redheads (A. americana), Buffleheads (Bucephala albeola) and Common Goldeneyes (B. clangula) were collected in western Lake Erie and in Lake St. Clair between fall and spring, 1992-1993 to determine food habits. All 10 Redheads, 97% of Lesser Scaups, 83% of Goldeneyes, 60% of Buffleheads and 9% of Canvasbacks contained one or more zebra mussels in their upper gastrointestinal tracts. The aggregate percent of zebra mussels in the diet of Lesser Scaups was higher in Lake Erie (98.6%) than in Lake St. Clair (54.4%). Zebra mussels (aggregate percent) dominated the diet of Common Goldeneyes (79.2%) but not in Buffleheads (23.5%), Redheads (21%) or Canvasbacks (9%). Lesser Scaups from Lake Erie fed on larger zebra mussels ( = 10.7 i?? 0.66 mm SE) than did Lesser Scaups from Lake St. Clair ( = 4.4 i?? 0.22 mm). Lesser Scaups, Buffleheads and Common Goldeneyes from Lake Erie consumed zebra mussels of similar size.

  10. Short-term effects of small dam removal on freshwater mussel assemblage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heise, Ryan J.; Cope, W. Gregory; Kwak, Thomas J.; Eads, Chris B.

    2013-01-01

    Dam removal is increasingly used to restore lotic habitat and biota, but its effects on freshwater mussels (family Unionidae) are not well known. We conducted a four-year study to assess short-term effects on mussels after removal of a small hydropower dam on the Deep River (Cape Fear River drainage), North Carolina, USA, in 2006. We conducted annual pre- and post-removal monitoring of mussel density, richness, and survival (post removal only) with transect surveys and quadrat excavation, and assessed changes in substrate composition at two impact sites (tailrace and impoundment) and two reference sites. Before-after-control-impact (BACI) analyses of variance did not detect a significant change in mussel density (total or individually for the three most abundant species), species richness, Eastern Elliptio (Elliptio complanata) mean length, or substrate composition in the tailrace or drained impoundment following dam removal. Apparent annual survival estimates of Eastern Elliptio at the tailrace site did not differ among sampling periods and were similar to control sites. We observed minimal mussel mortality from stranding in the dewatered reservoir. These results demonstrate that adverse short-term impacts of dam removal on downstream mussel assemblages can be minimized with appropriate planning, timing, and removal techniques, but additional monitoring is warranted to determine long-term effects on mussels within the restored river reach.

  11. Acute toxicity of copper, ammonia, and chlorine to glochidia and juveniles of freshwater mussels (Unionidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, N.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Hardesty, D.K.; Ivey, C.D.; Kunz, J.L.; May, T.W.; Dwyer, F.J.; Roberts, A.D.; Augspurger, T.; Kane, C.M.; Neves, R.J.; Barnhart, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine acute toxicity of copper, ammonia, or chlorine to larval (glochidia) and juvenile mussels using the recently published American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard guide for conducting laboratory toxicity tests with freshwater mussels. Toxicity tests were conducted with glochidia (24- to 48-h exposures) and juveniles (96-h exposures) of up to 11 mussel species in reconstituted ASTM hard water using copper, ammonia, or chlorine as a toxicant. Copper and ammonia tests also were conducted with five commonly tested species, including cladocerans (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia; 48-h exposures), amphipod (Hyalella azteca; 48-h exposures), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss; 96-h exposures), and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas; 96-h exposures). Median effective concentrations (EC50s) for commonly tested species were >58 ??g Cu/L (except 15 ??g Cu/L for C. dubia) and >13 mg total ammonia N/L, whereas the EC50s for mussels in most cases were 40 ??g/L and above the FAV in the WQC for chlorine. The results indicate that the early life stages of mussels generally were more sensitive to copper and ammonia than other organisms and that, including mussel toxicity data in a revision to the WQC, would lower the WQC for copper or ammonia. Furthermore, including additional mussel data in 2007 WQC for copper based on biotic ligand model would further lower the WQC. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  12. Mussels: the forgotten fauna of regulated rivers: a case study of the Caney Fork River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Layzer, James B.; Gordon, Mark E.; Anderson, Robert M.

    1993-01-01

    During the past century freshwater mussel populations have declined precipitously throughout North America. Much of this loss has resulted from the construction of dams. In the Cumberland River system, 23% (22 species) of the historic mussel fauna is extinct or listed as endangered. Several additional species have either been extirpated from the Cumberland River or exist only in small, non-reproducing populations. Mussels of headwater streams have been severely affected by coal mining and poor land use practices. An intensive survey was conducted in the Caney Fork River, a major tributary to the Cumberland River, to determine the historic and extant mussel fauna. The results indicate that at least 37 species of mussels have been extirpated from the Caney Fork River, mainly as a result of the construction and operation of the Center Hill Dam. Among the species extirpated, two are now extinct, five are endangered and five are candidates for listing as threatened or endangered. Effects associated with this dam include the inundation of 102 km of riverine habitat, the discharge of hypolimnetic water (which limits mussel reproduction) and an alternating pattern of stream bed scouring and dewatering. The recognition of mussel life history requirements during preconstruction could have reduced many of these effects.

  13. Putative identification of expressed genes associated with attachment of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha).

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Faisal, Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    Because of its aggressive growth and firm attachment to substrata, the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) has caused severe economic and ecological problems since its invasion into North America. The nature and details of attachment of this nuisance mollusc remains largely unexplored. Byssus, a special glandular apparatus located at the root of the foot of the mussel produces threads and plates through which firm attachment of the mollusc to underwater objects takes place. In an attempt to better understand the adhesion mechanism of the zebra mussel, the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) assay was employed to produce a cDNA library with genes unique to the foot of the mussel. Analysis of the SSH cDNA library revealed the presence of 750 new expressed sequence tags (ESTs) including 304 contigs and 446 singlets. Using BLAST search, 365 zebra mussel ESTs showed homology to other gene sequences with putative functions. The putative functions of the homologues included proteins involved in byssal thread formation in zebra and blue mussels, exocrine gland secretion, host defence, and house keeping. The generated data provide, for the first time, some useful insights into the foot structure of the zebra mussel and its underwater adhesion. PMID:18330781

  14. Results of an in-situ mussel bioassay in the Puget Sound

    SciTech Connect

    Houkal, D.; Rummel, B.; Shephard, B.

    1995-12-31

    As part of an ecological evaluation in the Puget Sound, Washington, an in situ bioassay using the blue mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) was conducted to determine the effect of sediment-borne chemicals on bioaccumulation and growth of shellfish. The assay included four sample stations from a contaminated embayment (Sinclair Inlet) and one station from a reference site (Holmes Harbor). At each station, 300 mussels were deployed 1 meter above the sediment surface and maintained for a period of 3 months. The length and total weight of each mussel was measured at the beginning of the exposure period and the length, total weight, tissue weight, and shell weight of each mussel was measured at the end of the exposure period. Composite tissue samples from 100 mussels were collected at the beginning and end of the exposure period and analyzed for semivolatile organic chemicals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, inorganic chemicals, organotin, and lipids. Water quality measurements (including temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and chlorophyll a) were made at each station every two weeks during the assay to characterize environmental factors influencing mussel bioaccumulation and growth. Weight growth was similar among stations in Sinclair Inlet, but was significantly greater in all Sinclair Inlet stations compared to the Holmes Harbor reference station. Length growth was statistically indistinguishable among stations in Sinclair Inlet. Only one Sinclair Inlet station had a significantly greater length growth compared to the Holmes Harbor reference station. The influence of water quality on mussel growth is presented. The correlation between sediment chemistry and bioaccumulation is discussed.

  15. Biomedical and Clinical Importance of Mussel-Inspired Polymers and Materials.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Nagendra Kumar; Kaushik, Neha; Pardeshi, Sunil; Sharma, Jai Gopal; Lee, Seung Hyun; Choi, Eun Ha

    2015-11-01

    The substance secreted by mussels, also known as nature's glue, is a type of liquid protein that hardens rapidly into a solid water-resistant adhesive material. While in seawater or saline conditions, mussels can adhere to all types of surfaces, sustaining its bonds via mussel adhesive proteins (MAPs), a group of proteins containing 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) and catecholic amino acid. Several aspects of this adhesion process have inspired the development of various types of synthetic materials for biomedical applications. Further, there is an urgent need to utilize biologically inspired strategies to develop new biocompatible materials for medical applications. Consequently, many researchers have recently reported bio-inspired techniques and materials that show results similar to or better than those shown by MAPs for a range of medical applications. However, the susceptibility to oxidation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine poses major challenges with regard to the practical translation of mussel adhesion. In this review, various strategies are discussed to provide an option for DOPA/metal ion chelation and to compensate for the limitations imposed by facile 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine autoxidation. We discuss the anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial activity, and adhesive behaviors of mussel bio-products and mussel-inspired materials (MIMs) that make them attractive for synthetic adaptation. The development of biologically inspired adhesive interfaces, bioactive mussel products, MIMs, and arising areas of research leading to biomedical applications are considered in this review. PMID:26569266

  16. Biomedical and Clinical Importance of Mussel-Inspired Polymers and Materials

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Nagendra Kumar; Kaushik, Neha; Pardeshi, Sunil; Sharma, Jai Gopal; Lee, Seung Hyun; Choi, Eun Ha

    2015-01-01

    The substance secreted by mussels, also known as nature’s glue, is a type of liquid protein that hardens rapidly into a solid water-resistant adhesive material. While in seawater or saline conditions, mussels can adhere to all types of surfaces, sustaining its bonds via mussel adhesive proteins (MAPs), a group of proteins containing 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) and catecholic amino acid. Several aspects of this adhesion process have inspired the development of various types of synthetic materials for biomedical applications. Further, there is an urgent need to utilize biologically inspired strategies to develop new biocompatible materials for medical applications. Consequently, many researchers have recently reported bio-inspired techniques and materials that show results similar to or better than those shown by MAPs for a range of medical applications. However, the susceptibility to oxidation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine poses major challenges with regard to the practical translation of mussel adhesion. In this review, various strategies are discussed to provide an option for DOPA/metal ion chelation and to compensate for the limitations imposed by facile 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine autoxidation. We discuss the anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial activity, and adhesive behaviors of mussel bio-products and mussel-inspired materials (MIMs) that make them attractive for synthetic adaptation. The development of biologically inspired adhesive interfaces, bioactive mussel products, MIMs, and arising areas of research leading to biomedical applications are considered in this review. PMID:26569266

  17. Molecular characteristics and expression of calmodulin cDNA from the freshwater pearl mussel, Hyriopsis schlegelii.

    PubMed

    Zeng, L-G; Wang, J-H; Li, Y-J; Sheng, J-Q; Gu, Q; Hong, Y-J

    2012-01-01

    Calmodulin (CaM) is a multifunctional intracellular calcium ion receptor protein that participates in a range of cellular processes, including calcium metabolism in mussels. To investigate the role of CaM in freshwater mollusk shell calcium metabolism, the full-length CaM cDNA was isolated from the freshwater pearl mussel, Hyriopsis schlegelii (referred to as hsCaM) using SMART RACE technology. The full-length hsCaM was 855 bp in size, containing a 70-bp 5'-untranslated sequence, a 447-bp open reading frame, a 309-bp 3'-untranslated sequence, and a 26-nucleotide long poly(A) tail. The hsCaM mRNA expression in different mussel tissues was examined using real-time PCR. The hsCaM mRNA was found to be ubiquitously expressed, but far more abundant in the gill, foot, and mantle than in the posterior adductor muscle. Real-time PCR was also used to determine hsCaM mRNA expression levels in mantle tissues of H. schlegelii at different ages. No significant differences between one-, two-, and three-year-old mussels were detected, but expression increased in four-year-old mussels and then decreased in five-year-old mussels. CaM appears to be involved in calcium regulation of the mantle in four-year-old mussels, which may secrete more mother of pearl during pearl culture. PMID:22290464

  18. Characterization of metallothionein-like proteins from zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha)

    SciTech Connect

    High, K.A.; Barthet, V.J.; Blais, J.S.; McLaren, J.W.

    1997-06-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) are freshwater mollusks that have recently infested the Great Lakes ecosystem. Possessing a large capacity for filtration, these mussel populations act as bioconcentrators for contaminants, such as heavy metals, found in the Great Lakes ecosystem. Metallothionein is a low-molecular-weight, heavy metal-binding protein found in most living organisms. Characterization and partial purification of metallothionein-like Cd-binding proteins from zebra mussels were performed. Zebra mussels were exposed to 500 {micro}g/L Cd for 14 d. During the exposure period, two mussels were removed on alternate days for analysis of Cd-binding proteins. Gel-filtration high-performance liquid chromatography-microatomization-atomic absorption spectrophotometry results showed a single Cd-binding molecular weight protein fraction after 2 d of Cd exposure. After 10 d of Cd exposure, however, mussels exhibited an additional higher molecular weight, Cd-binding protein fraction. The lower molecular weight metallothionein-like Cd-binding protein was further isolated and purified by acetone fractionation, Sephadex G75, and diethylaminoethyl anion-exchange chromatography. The quantities of Zn, Cu, and Cd in the anion-exchange metallothionein-like protein isoforms were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The ability to bioconcentrate heavy metals in a metallothionein-like form coupled with their large population in the Great Lakes make zebra mussels suitable for use in a freshwater biomonitoring program for aquatic metal contamination.

  19. Studies of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors in mussels: comparison between a polluted and a nonpolluted site.

    PubMed

    Betti, Laura; Giannaccini, Gino; Nigro, Marco; Dianda, Sabina; Gremigni, Vittorio; Lucacchini, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the peripheral benzodiazepine receptors in soft tissue membranes of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis from both polluted and nonpolluted seawater populations, using a radioligand specific for this receptor, [3H]PK11195. Mussels were dissected into four body parts--mantle, gills, digestive gland, and muscles-to determine the distribution of tissue-specific peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (PBRs). The specific binding was saturable and reversible. A statistically significant increase (muscle, 537% and mantle, 201%, as absolute percentages) in the maximal number of binding sites (B(max)) was found in mussels from the polluted site, compared with mussels from the nonpolluted site. By contrast, the value of the dissociation constant (K(d)) at equilibrium does not show a statistically significant variation between the two groups. In competitive experiments of the compounds clonazepam, flumazenil, flunitrazepam, Ro5-4864, PK11195, and protoporphyrin IX, only PK11195 and protoporphyrin IX displaced [3H]PK11195 specifically bound to soft tissue membranes, revealing that the binding sites of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors of mussels have pharmacological properties comparable to those of low vertebrates such as trout. M. galloprovincialis was also tested as an indicator of heavy metal exposure, and metal accumulation in the digestive gland was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The contents of Pb, Mn, and Zn in mussels collected off the polluted site were higher than those in mussels from the nonpolluted site. These data suggest that PBRs are present in the soft tissues of the mussel M. galloprovincialis. Here we report preliminary evidence of biochemical alterations in mussels from the polluted site. PMID:12547633

  20. Growth of juvenile blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) on suspended collectors in the Dutch Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, P.; Beauchemin, C.; Riegman, R.

    2014-01-01

    In The Netherlands, fishing for juvenile blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) on wild beds is gradually replaced by harvesting of seeds from suspended collectors. Both the relaxation of fishing as well as the up-scaling of the number of seed collectors are expected to result in an increase in the number of mussels in the Wadden Sea. Consequently, an enhanced mussel population will cause an additional filtration impact on the system. The question is raised to what extent collectors can be used without negatively affecting the carrying capacity of an ecosystem. Therefore, a monitoring programme was initiated to study the growth of juvenile mussels on suspended collectors. This growth was related to food availability, measured as chlorophyll-a, and temperature both before and after settlement. Findings will serve as input for mathematical models predicting the carrying capacity for mussel seed collectors in this area. The results for 2010 and 2011 are presented. In 2011 settled mussels achieved a higher growth rate, while phytoplankton concentrations after settlement were lower. This contradicts the general agreement that higher phytoplankton concentrations result in higher growth rates. A positive relation between chlorophyll-a concentrations during the larval period and the growth rate of settled mussels was found. The number of settled larvae was higher in 2011. Results from existing studies on settlement and recruitment on tidal flats combined with estimated settlement date in the current study led to the hypothesis that the number of settled mussels on rope collectors is inversely related to the duration of the larval period (determined by water temperature). Our results indicated that in the Wadden Sea, the intra-annual differences in chlorophyll-a and temperature did not have an impact on the juvenile growth rate, while the interannual differences did. This is an indication that the larval stage is strongly discriminative in terms of juvenile growth rates. Modelling

  1. Health risk assessments of heavy metal exposure via consumption of marine mussels collected from anthropogenic sites.

    PubMed

    Yap, Chee Kong; Cheng, Wan Hee; Karami, Ali; Ismail, Ahmad

    2016-05-15

    A total of 40 marine mussel Perna viridis populations collected (2002-2009) from 20 geographical sites located in two busy shipping lanes namely the Straits of Malacca (10 sites; 16 populations) and the Straits of Johore (8 sites; 21 populations) and three populations (2 sites) on the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia, was determined for Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations. In comparison with the maximum permissible limits (MPLs) set by existing food safety guidelines, all metal concentrations found in all the mussel populations were lower than the prescribed MPLs. In terms of the provisional tolerable weekly intake prescribed by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and oral reference doses (ORDs) by the USEPA, all the studied metals (except for Pb) were unlikely to become the limiting factors or unlikely to pose a risk for the consumption of the mussel populations. The estimated daily intake (EDI) for average level mussel (ALM) and high level mussel (HLM) consumers of mussels was found to be lower than the ORD guidelines for Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni and Zn. Furthermore, the target hazard quotient (THQ) was found to be less than 1 for ALM consumers but higher than 1 for HLM consumers in some sites. Therefore, there were no potential human health risks to the ALM consumers of the mussels. However, for Pb THQ values, the Pb levels in some mussel populations could create a health risk problem. Present results indicate that the consumption amounts of mussels should be limited for minimizing potential health risks of heavy metals to the HLM consumers. PMID:26925739

  2. Intrinsic variability in shell and soft tissue growth of the freshwater mussel Lampsilis siliquoidea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, James H.; Eckert, Nathan L.; Bartsch, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Freshwater mussels are ecologically and economically important members of many aquatic ecosystems, but are globally among the most imperiled taxa. Propagation techniques for mussels have been developed and used to boost declining and restore extirpated populations. Here we use a cohort of propagated mussels to estimate the intrinsic variability in size and growth rate of Lampsilis siliquoidea (a commonly propagated species). Understanding the magnitude and pattern of variation in data is critical to determining whether effects observed in nature or experimental treatments are likely to be important. The coefficient of variation (CV) of L. siliquoidea soft tissues (6.0%) was less than the CV of linear shell dimensions (25.1-66.9%). Size-weight relationships were best when mussel width (the maximum left-right dimension with both valves appressed) was used as a predictor, but 95% credible intervals on these predictions for soft tissues were ~145 mg wide (about 50% of the mean soft tissue mass). Mussels in this study were treated identically, raised from a single cohort and yet variation in soft tissue mass at a particular size class (as determined by shell dimensions) was still high. High variability in mussel size is often acknowledged, but seldom discussed in the context of mussel conservation. High variability will influence the survival of stocked juvenile cohorts, may affect the ability to experimentally detect sublethal stressors and may lead to incongruities between the effects that mussels have on structure (via hard shells) and biogeochemical cycles (via soft tissue metabolism). Given their imperiled status and longevity, there is often reluctance to destructively sample unionid mussel soft tissues even in metabolic studies (e.g., studies of nutrient cycling). High intrinsic variability suggests that using shell dimensions (particularly shell length) as a response variable in studies of sublethal stressors or metabolic processes will make confident

  3. Heavy metals in blue mussels (mytilus edulis) in the Bergen Harbor area, Western Norway

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, V.; Johannessen, P.J.; Maage, A.

    1996-12-31

    Heavy metal discharges to the marine environment are of great concern all over the world. Both essential (e.g., Fe, Zn, Cu) and non essential (e.g., Hg, Cd, Pb) metals are toxic to living organism when subjected to high concentration. Many heavy metals accumulate in organisms and some also accumulate in the food chain. The anthropogenic heavy metal outlets can in this way both reduce marine species diversity and ecosystem. Further, by consuming seafood, humans will be exposed to the metals with a potential danger to human health. Goldberg proposed to use marine mussels to monitor contamination levels of coastal waters. Since then marine mussels, especially the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), has been used widely as a surveillance organism. The blue mussel is regarded a suitable species for this purpose because it accumulates metals, it sessile, has a relatively long life span, is large enough for individual analysis, can tolerate a relatively wide range of temperature and salinity regimes, and can also synthesize the metal-binding protein, metallothionein, for metal detoxification. Furthermore, the blue mussel is a popular and tasteful food source and is suitable for culturing. The world-wide annual yield of mussels during the period 1988 to 1992 was about 1.3 million tons, of which about 0.5 million tons was Mytilus edulis. In Norway, the annual production was 77 tons in 1990. The interest of culturing mussels has increased in recent years, but the consumption of mussels has been hampered both by toxic algae and high levels of heavy metals. The latter is of special concern to those close to urban or industrial areas. This study investigated whether blue mussels in the Bergen Harbor area were contaminated with the heavy metals zinc, copper, lead, cadmium, and mercury, evaluating whether humans could eat them. 21 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Gender-specific metabolic responses in hepatopancreas of mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis challenged by Vibrio harveyi.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoli; Sun, Hushan; Wang, Yiyan; Ma, Mengwen; Zhang, Yuemei

    2014-10-01

    Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is a marine aquaculture shellfish and frequently studied in shellfish immunology. In this work, the gender-specific metabolic responses induced by Vibrio harveyi in hepatopancreas from M. galloprovincialis were characterized using NMR-based metabolomics. In details, V. harveyi challenge increased the levels of amino acids including (valine, leucine, isoleucine, threonine, alanine, arginine and tyrosine) and ATP, and decreased the level of glucose in male mussel hepatopancreas. In V. harveyi-challenged female mussel hepatopancreas, both threonine and AMP were significantly elevated, and choline, phoshphocholine, sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, taurine, betaine and ATP were depleted. Obviously, only threonine was similarly altered to that in V. harveyi-challenged male mussel hepatopancreas. These findings confirmed the gender-specific metabolic responses in mussels challenged by V. harveyi. Overall, V. harveyi induced an enhanced energy demand through activated glycolysis and immune response indicated by increased BCAAs in male mussel hepatopancreas. In female mussel hepatopancreas, V. harveyi basically caused disturbances in both osmotic regulation and energy metabolism through the metabolic pathways of conversions of phosphocholine and ADP to choline and ATP, and sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and H2O into choline and sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. The altered mRNA expression levels of related genes (Cu/Zn-SOD, HSP90, lysozyme and defensin) suggested that V. harveyi induced obvious oxidative and immune stresses in both male and female mussel hepatopancreas. This work demonstrated that V. harveyi could induce gender-specific metabolic responses in mussel M. galloprovincialis hepatopancreas using NMR-based metabolomics. PMID:25123832

  5. Intrinsic Variability in Shell and Soft Tissue Growth of the Freshwater Mussel Lampsilis siliquoidea

    PubMed Central

    Larson, James H.; Eckert, Nathan L.; Bartsch, Michelle R.

    2014-01-01

    Freshwater mussels are ecologically and economically important members of many aquatic ecosystems, but are globally among the most imperiled taxa. Propagation techniques for mussels have been developed and used to boost declining and restore extirpated populations. Here we use a cohort of propagated mussels to estimate the intrinsic variability in size and growth rate of Lampsilis siliquoidea (a commonly propagated species). Understanding the magnitude and pattern of variation in data is critical to determining whether effects observed in nature or experimental treatments are likely to be important. The coefficient of variation (CV) of L. siliquoidea soft tissues (6.0%) was less than the CV of linear shell dimensions (25.1–66.9%). Size-weight relationships were best when mussel width (the maximum left-right dimension with both valves appressed) was used as a predictor, but 95% credible intervals on these predictions for soft tissues were ∼145 mg wide (about 50% of the mean soft tissue mass). Mussels in this study were treated identically, raised from a single cohort and yet variation in soft tissue mass at a particular size class (as determined by shell dimensions) was still high. High variability in mussel size is often acknowledged, but seldom discussed in the context of mussel conservation. High variability will influence the survival of stocked juvenile cohorts, may affect the ability to experimentally detect sublethal stressors and may lead to incongruities between the effects that mussels have on structure (via hard shells) and biogeochemical cycles (via soft tissue metabolism). Given their imperiled status and longevity, there is often reluctance to destructively sample unionid mussel soft tissues even in metabolic studies (e.g., studies of nutrient cycling). High intrinsic variability suggests that using shell dimensions (particularly shell length) as a response variable in studies of sublethal stressors or metabolic processes will make confident

  6. Introduced brown trout alter native acanthocephalan infections in native fish.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Rachel A; Townsend, Colin R; Poulin, Robert; Tompkins, Daniel M

    2011-09-01

    1. Native parasite acquisition provides introduced species with the potential to modify native host-parasite dynamics by acting as parasite reservoirs (with the 'spillback' of infection increasing the parasite burdens of native hosts) or sinks (with the 'dilution' of infection decreasing the parasite burdens of native hosts) of infection. 2. In New Zealand, negative correlations between the presence of introduced brown trout (Salmo trutta) and native parasite burdens of the native roundhead galaxias (Galaxias anomalus) have been observed, suggesting that parasite dilution is occurring. 3. We used a multiple-scale approach combining field observations, experimental infections and dynamic population modelling to investigate whether native Acanthocephalus galaxii acquisition by brown trout alters host-parasite dynamics in native roundhead galaxias. 4. Field observations demonstrated higher infection intensity in introduced trout than in native galaxias, but only small, immature A. galaxii were present in trout. Experimental infections also demonstrated that A. galaxii does not mature in trout, although parasite establishment and initial growth were similar in the two hosts. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that trout may serve as an infection sink for the native parasite. 5. However, dynamic population modelling predicts that A. galaxii infections in native galaxias should at most only be slightly reduced by dilution in the presence of trout. Rather, model exploration indicates parasite densities in galaxias are highly sensitive to galaxias predation on infected amphipods, and to relative abundances of galaxias and trout. Hence, trout presence may instead reduce parasite burdens in galaxias by either reducing galaxias density or by altering galaxias foraging behaviour. PMID:21426342

  7. Gene Discovery through Transcriptome Sequencing for the Invasive Mussel Limnoperna fortunei

    PubMed Central

    Uliano-Silva, Marcela; Americo, Juliana Alves; Brindeiro, Rodrigo; Dondero, Francesco; Prosdocimi, Francisco; de Freitas Rebelo, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    The success of the Asian bivalve Limnoperna fortunei as an invader in South America is related to its high acclimation capability. It can inhabit waters with a wide range of temperatures and salinity and handle long-term periods of air exposure. We describe the transcriptome of L. fortunei aiming to give a first insight into the phenotypic plasticity that allows non-native taxa to become established and widespread. We sequenced 95,219 reads from five main tissues of the mussel L. fortunei using Roche’s 454 and assembled them to form a set of 84,063 unigenes (contigs and singletons) representing partial or complete gene sequences. We annotated 24,816 unigenes using a BLAST sequence similarity search against a NCBI nr database. Unigenes were divided into 20 eggNOG functional categories and 292 KEGG metabolic pathways. From the total unigenes, 1,351 represented putative full-length genes of which 73.2% were functionally annotated. We described the first partial and complete gene sequences in order to start understanding bivalve invasiveness. An expansion of the hsp70 gene family, seen also in other bivalves, is present in L. fortunei and could be involved in its adaptation to extreme environments, e.g. during intertidal periods. The presence of toll-like receptors gives a first insight into an immune system that could be more complex than previously assumed and may be involved in the prevention of disease and extinction when population densities are high. Finally, the apparent lack of special adaptations to extremely low O2 levels is a target worth pursuing for the development of a molecular control approach. PMID:25047650

  8. Bioaccumulation of metals by blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) deployed in New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    McGovern, D.G.; Bergen, B.J.; Nelson, W.G.

    1995-12-31

    As part of a marine Superfund site remedial monitoring program, blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, were deployed for 28 day intervals to monitor the levels of bioavailable copper, cadmium, lead, nickel and zinc in New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts. Dissolved and particulate seawater samples were collected periodically during twelve separate deployments and analyzed for these metals also. Bioconcentration factors, the concentration in mussel tissue normalized to dissolved, particulate and total seawater concentrations, were calculated. Previous studies conducted at this site demonstrated that these six metals bioconcentrate in blue mussels and that bioaccumulation patterns vary for each metal. The sources of this variability are discussed with respect to the partitioning of each metal in seawater.

  9. Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha): evidence from the St Lawrence River.

    PubMed

    Graczyk, T K; Marcogliese, D J; de Lafontaine, Y; Da Silva, A J; Mhangami-Ruwende, B; Pieniazek, N J

    2001-03-01

    Molluscan shellfish can recover and concentrate environmentally derived waterborne pathogens and can be used for the sanitary assessment of water quality. Oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum (genotype 1) were identified in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) from the St. Lawrence River, Quebec. Approximately 67 oocysts/ml of hemolymph and 129 oocysts/g of soft tissue were recovered. The adjusted concentration of oocysts per gram of tissue was 2.2 x 10(2), and approximately 4.4 x 10(2) oocysts were recovered from a single mussel. Zebra mussels can serve as biological indicators of waterborne contamination with Cryptosporidium. PMID:11293571

  10. Cloning and expression of recombinant adhesive protein MEFP-2 of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis

    DOEpatents

    Silverman, Heather G.; Roberto, Francisco F.

    2006-02-07

    The present invention includes a Mytilus edulis cDNA having a nucleotide sequence that encodes for the Mytilus edulis foot protein-2 (Mefp-2), an example of a mollusk foot protein. Mefp-2 is an integral component of the blue mussels' adhesive protein complex, which allows the mussel to attach to objects underwater. The isolation, purification and sequencing of the Mefp-2 gene will allow researchers to produce Mefp-2 protein using genetic engineering techniques. The discovery of Mefp-2 gene sequences will also allow scientists to better understand how the blue mussel creates its waterproof adhesive protein complex.

  11. Divergent induced responses to an invasive predator in marine mussel populations.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Aaren S; Byers, James E

    2006-08-11

    Invasive species may precipitate evolutionary change in invaded communities. In southern New England (USA) the invasive Asian shore crab, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, preys on mussels (Mytlius edulis), but the crab has not yet invaded northern New England. We show that southern New England mussels express inducible shell thickening when exposed to waterborne cues from Hemigrapsus, whereas naïve northern mussel populations do not respond. Yet, both populations thicken their shells in response to a long-established crab, Carcinus maenas. Our findings are consistent with the rapid evolution of an inducible morphological response to Hemigrapsus within 15 years of its introduction. PMID:16902136

  12. Edward D. Goldberg's proposal of "the Mussel Watch": Reflections after 40years.

    PubMed

    Farrington, John W; Tripp, Bruce W; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Subramanian, Annamalai; Sericano, José L; Wade, Terry L; Knap, Anthony H

    2016-09-15

    We chronicle the extensive influence over the past forty years of Professor Edward D. Goldberg and his call in 1975 for a "Mussel Watch" or bivalve sentinel organism approach to assess geographic status and temporal trends of several chemicals of environmental concern in the coastal ocean. Examples of local, regional, national and international programs are discussed briefly as are examples of interesting useful findings and limitations to the Mussel Watch concept. Mussel Watch continues to provide useful data about status and trends of chemical contamination in coastal ecosystems. PMID:27339743

  13. Predation of the ribbed mussel geukensia demissa by the blue crab callinectes sapidus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seed, R.

    Callinectes sapidus fed extensively on Geukensia demissa in laboratory aquaria. Several predation techniques used by Callinectes to open its prey are reported. Prey value decreases monotonically with increasing mussel size. Crabs consumed mussels over a wide size range but were generally reluctant to feed on larger mussels whilst smaller, more profitably prey was available. The relative importance of 'energy maximization' and 'time minimization' could not be distinguished. The distribution and population structure of Geukensia at Beaufort, N. Carolina are briefly considered in terms of the foraging strategy of Callinectes.

  14. Cloning and expression of recombinant adhesive protein Mefp-1 of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis

    DOEpatents

    Silverman, Heather G.; Roberto, Francisco F.

    2006-01-17

    The present invention comprises a Mytilus edulis cDNA sequenc having a nucleotide sequence that encodes for the Mytilus edulis foot protein-1 (Mefp-1), an example of a mollusk foot protein. Mefp-1 is an integral component of the blue mussels' adhesive protein complex, which allows the mussel to attach to objects underwater. The isolation, purification and sequencing of the Mefp-1 gene will allow researchers to produce Mefp-1 protein using genetic engineering techniques. The discovery of Mefp-1 gene sequence will also allow scientists to better understand how the blue mussel creates its waterproof adhesive protein complex.

  15. Developmental plasticity of shell morphology of quagga mussels from shallow and deep-water habitats of the Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Peyer, Suzanne M; Hermanson, John C; Lee, Carol Eunmi

    2010-08-01

    The invasive zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) has quickly colonized shallow-water habitats in the North American Great Lakes since the 1980s but the quagga mussel (Dreissena bugensis) is becoming dominant in both shallow and deep-water habitats. While quagga mussel shell morphology differs between shallow and deep habitats, functional causes and consequences of such difference are unknown. We examined whether quagga mussel shell morphology could be induced by three environmental variables through developmental plasticity. We predicted that shallow-water conditions (high temperature, food quantity, water motion) would yield a morphotype typical of wild quagga mussels from shallow habitats, while deep-water conditions (low temperature, food quantity, water motion) would yield a morphotype present in deep habitats. We tested this prediction by examining shell morphology and growth rate of quagga mussels collected from shallow and deep habitats and reared under common-garden treatments that manipulated the three variables. Shell morphology was quantified using the polar moment of inertia. Of the variables tested, temperature had the greatest effect on shell morphology. Higher temperature (approximately 18-20 degrees C) yielded a morphotype typical of wild shallow mussels regardless of the levels of food quantity or water motion. In contrast, lower temperature (approximately 6-8 degrees C) yielded a morphotype approaching that of wild deep mussels. If shell morphology has functional consequences in particular habitats, a plastic response might confer quagga mussels with a greater ability than zebra mussels to colonize a wider range of habitats within the Great Lakes. PMID:20639421

  16. Native Speakers' Perception of Non-Native English Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaber, Maysa; Hussein, Riyad F.

    2011-01-01

    This study is aimed at investigating the rating and intelligibility of different non-native varieties of English, namely French English, Japanese English and Jordanian English by native English speakers and their attitudes towards these foreign accents. To achieve the goals of this study, the researchers used a web-based questionnaire which…

  17. Native Plants, Native Knowledge: Insights from Judy Bluehorse Skelton.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Bracken

    2003-01-01

    Judy Bluehorse Skelton is an herbalist of Native American descent who conducts field trips to identify plants and classroom activities to demonstrate their uses. She also works with Portland (Oregon) schools developing culturally appropriate strategies for presenting Native American content. She encourages students to look at events such as the…

  18. Atherosclerosis in Alaska Natives and non-natives.

    PubMed

    Newman, W P; Middaugh, J P; Propst, M T; Rogers, D R

    1993-04-24

    Low mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD) among Eskimos has been attributed to less atherosclerosis in the coronary arteries because of a high dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids. Other investigators attribute this low mortality to the fact that Eskimos have a high mortality from other causes before middle age, when CHD is common. However, most studies have been epidemiological, either by death-certificate review or risk-factor evaluation. We evaluated the extent of atherosclerotic lesions in the coronary arteries and aortas from Alaska Natives. Standardised comparisons between samples from 103 Native and 101 non-native residents show that the extent of raised lesions increases with age in both groups, but the prevalence of raised lesions in native specimens was consistently lower than in those from non-natives. This difference was statistically significant. The data suggest that the differences in CHD mortality between Alaska Natives and non-natives are, at least in part, the result of less atherosclerosis in natives. PMID:8096960

  19. Toxic effects of cisplatin cytostatic drug in mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Trombini, Chiara; Garcia da Fonseca, Taina; Morais, Matilde; Rocha, Thiago Lopes; Blasco, Julián; Bebianno, Maria João

    2016-08-01

    Antineoplastic drugs used in chemotherapy were detected in aquatic environment: despite the very low concentrations (ng L(-1) to ug L(-1)), due to their potent mechanism of action they could have adverse effects on non-target aquatic organisms particularly under chronic exposure. Cisplatin (CDDP) is one of the most effective anticancer drug currently in use but information on its ecotoxicological effects is very limited. In this study, Mytilus galloprovincialis was used to investigate the toxic effects related to CDDP exposure. Mussels were exposed to cisplatin (100 ng L(-1)) for 14 days: antioxidant (superoxide dismutase, catalase, total and selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase) and phase II (glutathione-S-transferase) enzymes activities, oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation), genotoxicity (DNA damage) and neurotoxicity (acetylcholinesterase) was evaluated. Results indicate that CDDP at tested concentration induce changes in the antioxidant capacity, oxidative stress in target organs (digestive gland and gills) as well as DNA damage in mussel hemocytes and neurotoxicity representing a risk for non-target organisms. PMID:27183200

  20. Complete male mitochondrial genomes of European Mytilus edulis mussels.

    PubMed

    Śmietanka, Beata; Wenne, Roman; Burzyński, Artur

    2016-05-01

    Doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI) results in the existence of two gender-specific, divergent mtDNA lineages within a single species. Under DUI, the female genome (F) is transmitted from mothers to the whole offspring, and the male genome (M) is transmitted exclusively from fathers to sons. This system was first described in a marine mussels Mytilus edulis inhabiting European coastal waters, over a decade ago. Despite that, the complete sequence of the M genome from the European M. edulis mussels remained unknown. Here we announce it for the first time. The announcement is based on the two haplotypes isolated from heteroplasmic males of European M. edulis sampled at two moderately distant locations: southern North Sea and western Baltic. The two M genomes are quite similar both in length (16,631 and 16,632 bp) and in sequence (98.3%). Furthermore, both newly sequenced genomes are closely related to the genomes described from Baltic M. trossulus. PMID:25208162

  1. Acute toxicity of cypermethrin on the freshwater mussel Unio gibbus.

    PubMed

    Khazri, Abdelhafidh; Sellami, Badreddine; Dellali, Mohamed; Corcellas, Cayo; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià; Mahmoudi, Ezzeddine

    2015-05-01

    Cypermethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide used worldwide in agriculture, home pest control, food stuff protection and disease vector control. We investigate the potential of cypermethrin to induce oxidative stress and enzyme activities within the gills of freshwater mussel Unio gibbus. This study was carried out under laboratory conditions using two nominal cypermethrin concentrations C1 (100µg/L) and C2 (150µg/L) during 96h. The measured concentrations of cypermethrin using GC-MS-MS in the treatment aquariums were respectively 59.7 µg/L and 97.5µg/L. Antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)) as well as H2O2, malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PCO) levels were assessed. An exposure during 96h induced the SOD activity at the highest concentration. The CAT activity and H2O2 level were increased significantly (P<0.05) in gills following a dose-dependent profile. Cypermethrin also generated an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels reaching the highest value at the high concentration. The considered parameters can be used as biomarkers of exposure to cypermethrin. Freshwater mussel U. gibbus can be potentially employed in biomonitoring surveys of such threatened ecosystems. PMID:25681606

  2. Hepatitis E virus genotype 3 in mussels (Mytilus galloprovinciallis), Spain.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, João R; Oliveira, Danielle; Rivadulla, Enrique; Abreu-Silva, Joana; Varela, Miguel F; Romalde, Jesús L; Nascimento, Maria S J

    2016-09-01

    Coastal waters can become contaminated with both human waste from sewage treatment plants and runoff following manure application. Thus, shellfish produced close to land can bioaccumulate enteric viruses of human and animal origin, including zoonotic hepatitis E virus that infect both human and swine. The goal of this study was to evaluate the presence of HEV in shellfish from Galicia (NW Spain), a densely populated region with a strong tradition of swine farming, and one of the most important regions in the world for mussel production. We tested 81 mussel batches by RT-qPCR followed by conventional broad-spectrum nested RT-PCR and phylogenetic analysis. We have obtained 12 positive samples by RT-qPCR (14.81%) with HEV contamination levels ranging from 6.7 × 10(1) to 8.6 × 10(4) RNA copies/g digestive tissue. Phylogenetic analysis based on a 330 nt region of the ORF 1 showed that all sequenced isolates belonged to the zoonotic genotype 3 subgenotype e, being closely related to strains of human and swine origin. Results show that shellfish may be a potential route for HEV transmission to humans. PMID:27217353

  3. Phylogeography and systematics of zebra mussels and related species.

    PubMed

    Gelembiuk, Gregory W; May, Gemma E; Lee, Carol Eunmi

    2006-04-01

    The genus Dreissena includes two widespread and aggressive aquatic invaders, the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, and the quagga mussel, Dreissena bugensis. This genus evolved in the Ponto-Caspian Sea basin, characterized by dynamic instability over multiple timescales and a unique evolutionary environment that may predispose to invasiveness. The objectives of this study were to gain insights into the demographic history of Dreissena species in their endemic range, to reconstruct intraspecific phylogeographic relationships among populations, and to clarify systematics of the genus, using DNA sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene. We found four deeply diverged clades within this genus, with a basal split that approximately coincided with the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Divergence events within the four base clades were much more recent, corresponding to geographically disjunct sets of populations, which might represent species complexes. Across all taxa, populations of Dreissena shared a common pattern of genetic signatures indicating historical population bottlenecks and expansions. Haplotype diversity was relatively low in Ponto-Caspian drainages relative to more stable tectonic lakes in Greece, Macedonia, and Turkey. The phylogeographic and demographic patterns in the endemic range of Dreissena might have resulted from vicariance events, habitat instability, and the high fecundity and passive dispersal of these organisms. PMID:16599965

  4. Behavioral responses of freshwater mussels to experimental dewatering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galbraith, Heather S.; Blakeslee, Carrie J.; Lellis, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the effects of flow alteration on freshwater ecosystems is critical for predicting species responses and restoring appropriate flow regimes. We experimentally evaluated the effects of 3 dewatering rates on behavior of 6 freshwater mussel species in the context of water-removal rates observed in 21 Atlantic Coast rivers. Horizontal movement differed significantly among species and dewatering rates, but a significant species × dewatering interaction suggested that these factors influence movement in complex ways. Species differences in movement were evident only in controls and under slow dewatering rates, but these differences disappeared at moderate and fast dewatering rates. Burrowing behavior did not differ with respect to species identity or dewatering rate. The proportion of individuals that became stranded did not differ among species, but most individuals became stranded under low and moderate dewatering, and all individuals became stranded under fast dewatering. Mortality after stranding differed strongly among species along a gradient from 25% inPyganodon cataracta to 92% in Alasmidonta marginata. Together, these results suggest that species behavior may differ under gradual dewatering, but all species in our study are poorly adapted for rapid dewatering. Most of the 21 rivers we assessed experienced dewatering events comparable to our moderate rate, and several experienced events comparable to our fast rate. Dewatering events that exceed the movement or survival capability of most mussel species can be expected to result in assemblage-wide impacts. Consequently, the rate of water level change may be important in refining target flow conditions for restoration.

  5. Conservation genetics of North American freshwater mussels Amblema and Megalonaias

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulvey, M.; Lydeard, C.; Pyer, D.L.; Hicks, K.M.; Brim-Box, J.; Williams, J.D.; Butler, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    Freshwater bivalves are among the most endangered groups of organisms in North America. Efforts to protect the declining mussel fauna are confounded by ambiguities associated with recognition of distinct evolutionary entities or species. This, in part, is due to the paucity of reliable morphological characters for differentiating taxa. We have employed allozymes and DNA sequence data to search for diagnosably distinct evolutionary entities within two problematic genera of unionid mussels, Amblema and Megalonaias. Within the genus Amblema three species are recognized based on our DNA sequence data for the mitochondrial 16S rRNA and allozyme data (Amblema neislerii, A. plicata, and A. elliotti). Only one taxonomically distinct entity is recognized within the genus Megalonaias—M. nervosa. Megalonaias boykiniana of the Apalachicolan Region is not diagnosable and does not warrant specific taxonomic status. Interestingly, Megalonaias from west of the Mississippi River, including the Mississippi, exhibited an allozyme and mtDNA haplotype frequency shift suggestive of an east-west dichotomy. The results of this study eliminate one subspecies of Amblema and increase the range of A. plicata. This should not affect the conservation status of “currently stable” assigned to A. plicata by Williams et al. (1993). The conservation status of A. elliotti needs to be reexamined because its distribution appears to be limited to the Coosa River System in Alabama and Georgia.

  6. Co-existence of zebra mussels and freshwater unionids: Population dynamics of Leptodea fragilis in a coastal wetland infested with zebra mussels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, S. Jerrine; Amberg, Jon

    1999-01-01

    In 1996, thousands of live Leptodea fragilis were collected from a marsh located in the western basin of Lake Erie that was infested with zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha). Despite the presence of zebra mussels at this site for a number of years, this L. fragilis population showed no signs of competition-induced changes in population dynamics. Biofouling was limited: fewer than 1% of the L. fragilis showed evidence of recent or past zebra mussel colonization. Successful recruitment occurred yearly, with multiple year classes collected that ranged in age from 1 to 12 years. However, age and shell length were not well correlated. Seventy-one percent of the individuals collected were 51-80 mm long, but ranged in age from 2 to 4.5 years. Three different patterns of growth or shell deposition were found. Some individuals grew rapidly, reaching 105 mm in 3.5 years, while others grew only 4.5 mm over the same time period. A few grew poorly during some years but very rapidly in others. Individuals with a shell length of 41 mm or more were sexually mature and females were more common than males. The strong recruitment and steady growth of this population showed no change between the years before and after the zebra mussel invasion, indicating that this marsh is functioning as a natural refugium from potential problems caused by zebra mussels.

  7. Native American Foods and Cookery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Tom; Potter, Eloise F.

    Native Americans had a well-developed agriculture long before the arrival of the Europeans. Three staples--corn, beans, and squash--were supplemented with other gathered plants or cultivated crops such as white potatoes, sweet potatoes, pumpkins, and peanuts. Native Americans had no cows, pigs, or domesticated chickens; they depended almost…

  8. Native Americans as Sports Mascots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Sharon Pray

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the controversy over whether sport teams should use Native American logos, mascots, or native symbols. Suggests that by implementing role-reversal techniques (putting the nonnative people in the same place) uncaring sports fans may recognize the disrespect involved; offers a hypothetical newspaper article that illustrates the…

  9. Ohiyesa's Path: Reclaiming Native Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Adrienne Brant; Renville, Tammy

    2012-01-01

    As Natives have assumed increasing authority and responsibility for tribal and federally funded and administered schools, a more balanced and enlightened view is emerging. Notable among these events is the recognition of the critical need to shift emphasis to the untapped heritage of more recently recognized and acknowledged Native American…

  10. Characteristics of Alaska Native Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinfeld, J. S.

    Discussing the "characteristics" of Alaskan Native students presents a serious danger-the problem of overgeneralization and stereotyping. Covering educational programs designed for Native children, the ANNA Project Appendix discusses: (1) cognitive and social strengths of the students; (2) educational problems such as academic achievement and…

  11. Native American Adult Reader III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Lovern Root, Ed.

    This reader, one of three designed to provide adults in basic education/GED programs with meaningful material based on Native American cultures, includes selections appropriate for advanced reading ability (grade 7 and above). The twelve readings focus on culture, history, and contemporary concerns of Native Americans. Each selection includes a…

  12. Native American Adult Reader II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Lovern Root, Ed.

    This reader, one of three designed to provide adults in basic education/GED programs with meaningful materials based on Native American cultures, includes selections appropriate for intermediate reading ability (grades 4-6). The twelve readings focus on culture, history, and contemporary concerns of Native Americans. Each selection includes a…

  13. Earth's Caretakers: Native American Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyberg, Lisa M., Ed.

    Written by Native American teachers and by teachers of Native Americans, this book presents examples of ways to learn respect for the Earth and its people. The hope is that students will learn to walk softly upon the Earth and to respect all living things. Lessons and activities engage elementary and middle school students in a four-step…

  14. Native Americans: The First Campers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Bonnie; Frebertshauser, Denise

    2002-01-01

    Questions are presented to help camps determine if their usage of American Indian culture truly honors Native Americans. Camps that plan to use Indian lore should research the tribe's name, location, symbols, legends, and living habits. A 5-day program is presented for enhancing campers' understanding of Native peoples and their relationship to…

  15. Listening Natively across Perceptual Domains?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langus, Alan; Seyed-Allaei, Shima; Uysal, Ertugrul; Pirmoradian, Sahar; Marino, Caterina; Asaadi, Sina; Eren, Ömer; Toro, Juan M.; Peña, Marcela; Bion, Ricardo A. H.; Nespor, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Our native tongue influences the way we perceive other languages. But does it also determine the way we perceive nonlinguistic sounds? The authors investigated how speakers of Italian, Turkish, and Persian group sequences of syllables, tones, or visual shapes alternating in either frequency or duration. We found strong native listening effects…

  16. Native Language Literacy Screening Device.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson River Center for Program Development, Glenmont, NY.

    The purpose the Native Language Literacy Screening Device (NLLSD) is to give English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) practitioners a sense of the native language literacy levels of learners coming into their programs. This is worth knowing because when learners have had limited schooling in their first language instructional strategies used…

  17. Native Tradition, Evolution and Creation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierotti, Raymond; Wildcat, Daniel R.

    1997-01-01

    Presents evidence that Native peoples' profound understanding of ecology, the nature of individuality, and resulting differences in survival and reproduction led them to develop ideas of evolution through natural selection long before Europeans. Suggests that in order to survive, Native Americans must not allow Western ways of thought, which are…

  18. Education and the Native American.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iannucilli, Mary V.

    Traditionally, Native Americans educated their children through the oral transmission of beliefs and values. Christian missions dominated Indian education from the 16th to the 19th century and began the process of erasing Native American identity and culture. After the Civil War, control of 73 Indian agencies was assigned to 13 religious…

  19. Native Americans in Physical Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westberg, Jane

    2003-01-01

    Three Native American physical therapists share stories of their careers, including educational background; motivation to enter the field; and experiences as a volunteer in Vietnam and working with the Indian Health Service and various rehabilitation programs. Advice on appropriate preparation in the sciences is offered to Native students…

  20. Coyote's Eyes: Native Cognition Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tafoya, Terry

    The document compares and contrasts the Standard Average European (SAE) and the Standard Native American (SNA) viewpoints with regard to fostering cognitive development in children. One basic difference is demonstrated by relating a story and noting that, in terms of Native American cognitive development, no further teaching would be done. In…

  1. Coyote's Eyes: Native Cognition Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tafoya, Terry

    1982-01-01

    Using a Native American parable, compares the Standard Average European (SAE) world view with the Standard Native American (SNA) world view and the effects they have on education. Points out possible areas of interethnic confusion as a result of these two world views in communication dealing with cognitive schemes. (LC)

  2. [BIOCHEMICAL RESPONSE OF BLUE MUSSELS MYTILUS EDULIS L. FROM THE WHITE SEA TO RAPID TEMPERATURE CHANGES].

    PubMed

    Fokina, N N; Lysenko, L A; Sukhovskaya, I V; Vdovichenko, E A; Borvinskaya, E V; Kantserova, N P; Krupnova, M Yu; Ruokolainen, T R; Smirnov, L P; Vysotskaya, R U; Bakhmet, I N; Nemova, N N

    2015-01-01

    The effect of a rapid temperature change on the biochemical status of blue mussels Mytilus edulis L. from the White Sea was studied under conditions of aquarium experiment. It is shown that modifications of the composition of reserve and structural lipids and their fatty acids, of the activity of lysosomal enzymes (β-glucosidases, cathepsins B and D), of calcium-dependent proteases of cytocol (calpains) and of the enzyme of the second phase of biotransformation of xenobiotics - glutathione-S-transferase, reflect an unspecific compensatory reaction of bivalves to stress action of environmental factors and indicate reconstruction of blue mussel metabolism as early as within first hours of temperature change. The initial high level of glutathione-S-transferase activity in control blue mussels as well as an increase of glutathione concentration in the course of experiment may facilitate successful exit of mussels from the state of reduced metabolism. PMID:26856072

  3. The Effect of UV-C Exposure on Larval Survival of the Dreissenid Quagga Mussel.

    PubMed

    Stewart-Malone, Alecia; Misamore, Michael; Wilmoth, Siri; Reyes, Alejandro; Wong, Wai Hing; Gross, Jackson

    2015-01-01

    The rapid spread of quagga mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) has lead to their invasion of Lake Mead, Nevada, the largest reservoir in North America and partially responsible for providing water to millions of people in the southwest. Current strategies for mitigating the growth and spread of quagga mussels primarily include physical and chemical means of removing adults within water treatment, delivery, and hydropower facilities. In the present study, germicidal ultraviolet light (UV-C) was used to target the larval stage of wild-caught quagga mussel. The lethal effect of UV-C was evaluated at four different doses, 0.0, 13.1, 26.2, and 79.6 mJ/cm2. Tested doses were determined based on results from preliminary trials. The results demonstrate that germicidal UV-C is effective in controlling the free-swimming life history stages of larval quagga mussels. PMID:26186734

  4. Warm season chloride concentrations in stream habitats of freshwater mussel species at risk.

    PubMed

    Todd, Aaron K; Kaltenecker, M Georgina

    2012-12-01

    Warm season (May-October) chloride concentrations were assessed in stream habitats of freshwater mussel species at risk in southern Ontario, Canada. Significant increases in concentrations were observed at 96% of 24 long-term (1975-2009) monitoring sites. Concentrations were described as a function of road density indicating an anthropogenic source of chloride. Linear regression showed that 36% of the variation of concentrations was explained by road salt use by the provincial transportation ministry. Results suggest that long-term road salt use and retention is contributing to a gradual increase in baseline chloride concentrations in at risk mussel habitats. Exposure of sensitive mussel larvae (glochidia) to increasing chloride concentrations may affect recruitment to at risk mussel populations. PMID:22940273

  5. Data on the changes of the mussels׳ metabolic profile under different cold storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Aru, Violetta; Pisano, Maria Barbara; Savorani, Francesco; Engelsen, Søren Balling; Cosentino, Sofia; Cesare Marincola, Flaminia

    2016-06-01

    One of the main problems of seafood marketing is the ease with which fish and shellfish undergo deterioration after death. (1)H NMR spectroscopy and microbiological analysis were applied to get in depth insight into the effects of cold storage (4 °C and 0 °C) on the spoilage of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. This data article provides information on the average distribution of the microbial loads in mussels׳ specimens and on the acquisition, processing, and multivariate analysis of the (1)H NMR spectra from the hydrosoluble phase of stored mussels. This data article is referred to the research article entitled "Metabolomics analysis of shucked mussels' freshness" (Aru et al., 2016) [1]. PMID:27081673

  6. BIOACCUMULATION OF PCB CONGENERS BY BLUE MUSSELS DEPLOYED IN NEW BEDFORD HARBOR, MA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) were deployed to monitor the levels of bioavailable contaminants during a pilot dredging project in New Bedford Harbor (NBH), Massachusetts. issolved and particulate seawater samples also were collected periodically during these deployments. olychlor...

  7. Statistical models for estimating seawater metal concentrations from metal concentrations in mussels (Mytilus edulis)

    SciTech Connect

    Popham, J.D.; D'Auria, J.M.

    1981-12-01

    The report presents the regression coefficients of models for estimating the copper, zinc and lead concentrations in seawater based upon the metal concentrations in mussels along with their accuracy and reliability.

  8. UPTAKE AND DEPURATION OF ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS BY BLUE MUSSELS (MYTILUS EDULIS) EXPOSED TO ENVIRONMENTALLY CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments were designed to expose blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) to contaminated sediment collected from Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, USA in 1982. Measurements were taken to allow comparisons of the uptake and depuration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlo...

  9. Water chemistry influences the toxicity of silver to the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis.

    PubMed

    Vijayavel, Kannappan

    2010-08-01

    The study determined the influence and relative importance of water chemistry parameters (pH, alkalinity, hardness) on the acute toxicity of silver to the green mussel Perna viridis. A preliminary bioassay revealed that 4 mg L(-1) of silver caused 50% mortality (LC50) in 96 h for mussels placed in seawater with pH 8.5, hardness 1,872 mg L(-1), and alkalinity 172 mg L(-1). Mortality of mussels increased with decreasing pH and increasing hardness and alkalinity variables. In contrast the mortality decreased with increasing pH and decreasing hardness and alkalinity values. The water chemistry also affected the concentration of silver in experimental seawater and bioaccumulation of silver in mussels. The results revealed that the chemical properties of seawater must be considered while conducting toxicity tests with metals like silver. The possible explanations for the influence of water chemistry on silver toxicity to P. viridis are discussed. PMID:19565346

  10. Detection of DNA damage in haemocytes of zebra mussel using comet assay.

    PubMed

    Pavlica, M; Klobucar, G I; Mojas, N; Erben, R; Papes, D

    2001-02-20

    The aim of the study was to use the comet assay on haemocytes of freshwater mussel, Dreissena polymorpha Pallas, for detection of possible DNA damage after exposure to pentachlorophenol (PCP) and to evaluate the potential application of the comet assay on mussel haemocytes for genotoxicity monitoring of freshwater environment. Zebra mussels were exposed for seven days to different concentrations (10, 80, 100, 150 microg/l) of PCP and in the river Sava downstream from Zagreb municipal wastewater outlet. Significant increase in DNA damage was observed after exposure to PCP at doses of 80 microg/l and higher and after in situ exposure in the river Sava as well. This study confirmed that the comet assay applied on zebra mussel haemocytes may be a useful tool in determining the potential genotoxicity of water pollutants. PMID:11342246

  11. Mussel-inspired block copolymer lithography for low surface energy materials of teflon, graphene, and gold.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bong Hoon; Lee, Duck Hyun; Kim, Ju Young; Shin, Dong Ok; Jeong, Hu Young; Hong, Seonki; Yun, Je Moon; Koo, Chong Min; Lee, Haeshin; Kim, Sang Ouk

    2011-12-15

    Mussel-inspired interfacial engineering is synergistically integrated with block copolymer (BCP) lithography for the surface nanopatterning of low surface energy substrate materials, including, Teflon, graphene, and gold. The image shows the Teflon nanowires and their excellent superhydrophobicity. PMID:22021119

  12. The Effect of UV-C Exposure on Larval Survival of the Dreissenid Quagga Mussel

    PubMed Central

    Stewart-Malone, Alecia; Misamore, Michael; Wilmoth, Siri; Reyes, Alejandro; Wong, Wai Hing; Gross, Jackson

    2015-01-01

    The rapid spread of quagga mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) has lead to their invasion of Lake Mead, Nevada, the largest reservoir in North America and partially responsible for providing water to millions of people in the southwest. Current strategies for mitigating the growth and spread of quagga mussels primarily include physical and chemical means of removing adults within water treatment, delivery, and hydropower facilities. In the present study, germicidal ultraviolet light (UV-C) was used to target the larval stage of wild-caught quagga mussel. The lethal effect of UV-C was evaluated at four different doses, 0.0, 13.1, 26.2, and 79.6 mJ/cm2. Tested doses were determined based on results from preliminary trials. The results demonstrate that germicidal UV-C is effective in controlling the free-swimming life history stages of larval quagga mussels. PMID:26186734

  13. Water and sediment quality factors affecting unionid mussel populations in the Clinch River, Virginia, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Hassel, J.H Van; Cherry, D.S.; Yeager, M.M.; Farris, J.L.

    1995-12-31

    The Clinch River contains a very diverse unionid mussel fauna of 45 species, including 21 endemics and 11 federally listed endangered species. Recent surveys indicate that the mussel fauna is in decline in several areas of the river. To study this problem, differences in unionid mussel species-distribution, density, size demography, physiological condition, and contaminant body burden were quantified at sixteen sites encompassing 200 miles of the Clinch River in Virginia. These differences were associated with corresponding site differences in physical habitat and water and sediment contamination attributable to point (STPS, small industries) and nonpoint (abandoned mine lands, agriculture) discharge sources. Some of the documented impacts have been severe enough to prevent successful recruitment into local populations of several unionid species for several years. Validation of these sources of impact will allow evaluation of specific watershed management options for the protection and enhancement of unionid mussel resources of the Clinch River.

  14. Persistence of oiling in mussel beds after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carls, M.G.; Babcock, M.M.; Harris, P.M.; Irvine, G.V.; Cusick, J.A.; Rice, S.D.

    2001-01-01

    Persistence and weathering of Exxon Valdez oil in intertidal mussel (Mytilus trossulus) beds in Prince William Sound (PWS) and along the Gulf of Alaska was monitored from 1992 to 1995. Beds with significant contamination included most previously oiled areas in PWS, particularly within the Knight Island group and the Kenai Peninsula. In sediments, yearly mean concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons ranged from <60 mg/g in reference beds to 62,258 mg/g wet wt., or approximately 0 to 253 mg/g dry wt. total polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (TPAHs). In mussels, mean TPAH concentrations ranged up to 8.1 mg/g dry wt. Hydrocarbon concentrations declined significantly with time in some, but not all mussels and sediments, and should reach background levels within three decades of the spill in most beds. In 1995, mean hydrocarbon concentration was greater than twice background concentration in sediments from 27 of 34 sites, and in mussels from 18 of 31 sites.

  15. Quality assessment of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis): comparison between commercial and wild types.

    PubMed

    De Witte, B; Devriese, L; Bekaert, K; Hoffman, S; Vandermeersch, G; Cooreman, K; Robbens, J

    2014-08-15

    This study compared species identity, microplastics, chemical and microbial contamination between consumption mussels and wild type mussels, collected at Belgian department stores and Belgian groynes and quaysides, respectively. Species identification based on genetic analysis showed a high number of Mytilus (M.) edulis compared to M. galloprovincialis and M. edulis/galloprovincialis hybrid mussels. The number of total microplastics varied from 2.6 to 5.1 fibres/10 g of mussel. A higher prevalence of orange fibres at quaysides is related to fisheries activities. Chemical contamination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorobiphenyls could be related to industrial activities and water turbidity, with maximum concentrations at the quayside of port Zeebrugge. The inverse was noted for Escherichia coli contamination, which was relatively low at Zeebrugge quayside with a total count of 3.9 × 10(2)CFU/100 g tissue, due to limited agricultural effluents. Results of this complementary analysis stress the importance of integrated monitoring and quality assessment. PMID:24969855

  16. Mussels realize Weierstrassian Lévy walks as composite correlated random walks

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Andy M.

    2014-01-01

    Composite correlated random walks (CCRW) have been posited as a potential replacement for Lévy walks and it has also been suggested that CCRWs have been mistaken for Lévy walks. Here I test an alternative, emerging hypothesis: namely that some organisms approximate Lévy walks as an innate CCRW. It is shown that the tri-modal CCRW found to describe accurately the movement patterns of mussels (Mytilus edulis) during spatial pattern formation in mussel beds can be regarded as being the first three levels in a hierarchy of nested movement patterns which if extended indefinitely would correspond to a Lévy walk whose characteristic (power-law) exponent is tuned to nearly minimize the time required to form patterned beds. The mussels realise this Lévy walk to good approximation across a biologically meaningful range of scales. This demonstrates that the CCRW not only describes mussel movement patterns, it explains them. PMID:24637423

  17. Lessons learned in over 100 zebra mussel control applications at industrial facilities

    SciTech Connect

    McGough, C.M.; Gilland, P.H.; Muia, R.A.

    1998-12-31

    Since their introduction into US waterways, Zebra Mussels (Dreissena polymorphae) have spread rapidly throughout the Great Lakes and Mississippi regions. These mussels have continued to colonize the intake pipes of industrial water supplies and water distribution systems throughout the affected areas. Their colonization has compromised plant safety and production efficiency, and steadily increased costs to water users. The design of each industrial plant water distribution system is unique. A comprehensive zebra mussel control strategy using the best available options must be considered in each specific situation. This paper discusses the successful use of one strategy (a quaternary ammonia-based molluscicide) in the battle against zebra mussels. The commercial life cycle of an industrial molluscicide began with initial toxicity screening in the laboratory. The evaluation continued at plant sites through field trials and applications. Lessons learned from these experiences helped direct the efforts toward the development of a second generation program.

  18. Development and evaluation of methods to assess sublethal impacts of contaminants on freshwater mussels

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, A.

    1995-12-31

    While a number of test methods have been used to evaluate the acute lethality of contaminants to freshwater mussels, far fewer techniques are available to measure chronic sublethal impacts. The authors selected respiration rate, ammonia excretion, glycogen stores and cholinesterase activity for evaluation as sublethal indicators of toxicity. Adults of three species, Utterbackia imbeciles, Elliptio icterina and Lampsilis teres, were sampled monthly to determine a baseline response for each of these measures as mussels experienced the changing seasons and reproductive cycle. Adaptations of assays developed for other mussel or animal species were made to maximize the response of some indicators.Differences based on mussel species and sex, and assayed tissue were measured. The potential use of these assays as indicators of contaminant stress was determined, as were personnel and material costs.

  19. Vanishing native American dog lineages

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Dogs were an important element in many native American cultures at the time Europeans arrived. Although previous ancient DNA studies revealed the existence of unique native American mitochondrial sequences, these have not been found in modern dogs, mainly purebred, studied so far. Results We identified many previously undescribed mitochondrial control region sequences in 400 dogs from rural and isolated areas as well as street dogs from across the Americas. However, sequences of native American origin proved to be exceedingly rare, and we estimate that the native population contributed only a minor fraction of the gene pool that constitutes the modern population. Conclusions The high number of previously unidentified haplotypes in our sample suggests that a lot of unsampled genetic variation exists in non-breed dogs. Our results also suggest that the arrival of European colonists to the Americas may have led to an extensive replacement of the native American dog population by the dogs of the invaders. PMID:21418639

  20. Assessment of the non-protein amino acid BMAA in Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis after feeding with estuarine cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Mafalda S; Vasconcelos, Rita G W; Ferreira, Paula C; Almeida, C Marisa R; Vasconcelos, Vitor M

    2015-08-01

    To determine whether 2-amino-3-methylaminopropanoic acid (BMAA) could be taken up by marine organisms from seawater or their diet mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis, collected from the North Atlantic Portuguese shore, were exposed to seawater doped with BMAA standard (for up to 48 h) or fed with cyanobacteria (for up to 15 days). Mussels were able to uptake BMAA when exposed to seawater. Mussels fed with cyanobacteria Synechocystis salina showed a rise in BMAA concentration during feeding and a decline in concentration during the subsequent depuration period. Cells from the gills and hepatopancreas of mussels fed with S. salina showed lessened metabolic activity in mussels fed for longer periods of time. A hot acidic digestion (considered to account for total BMAA) was compared with a proteolytic digestion, using pepsin, trypsin and chymotrypsin. The latter was able to extract from mussels approximately 30% of total BMAA. Implications for BMAA trophic transfers in marine ecosystems are discussed. PMID:25903181

  1. Biodeposition and uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls and cadmium by zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha (RAC project number 594g): Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, E.; Mackie, G.L.

    1996-12-31

    This report describes investigations of the biodeposition and accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and cadmium by zebra mussels in western Lake Erie and Hamilton Harbour. A general introduction reviews the characteristics of PCBs and cadmium, contaminant cycling and bioavailability, and the uptake and deposition of contaminants by zebra mussels. Section two describes the investigation of the effects on PCB and cadmium sedimentation of zebra mussel biodeposition. Methodology involved using sediment traps, each containing 300-500 mussels, deployed at selected sites at two depths (near the top and the bottom of the water column). Biodeposition models are proposed and field results are compared to predictions of correlations with the factors thought to affect deposition. The third section describes the investigation of PCB and cadmium accumulation by mussels in which mussel tissue samples were collected and analyzed. Bioaccumulation models are also proposed and field results are compared with predictions. Finally, potential ecological implications of the results are discussed.

  2. Acute toxicity of copper, ammonia, and chlorine to glochidia and juveniles of freshwater mussels (Unionidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Hardesty, Douglas K; Ivey, Christopher D; Kunz, James L; May, Thomas W; Dwyer, F James; Roberts, Andy D; Augspurger, Tom; Kane, Cynthia M; Neves, Richard J; Barnhart, M Chris

    2007-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine acute toxicity of copper, ammonia, or chlorine to larval (glochidia) and juvenile mussels using the recently published American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard guide for conducting laboratory toxicity tests with freshwater mussels. Toxicity tests were conducted with glochidia (24- to 48-h exposures) and juveniles (96-h exposures) of up to 11 mussel species in reconstituted ASTM hard water using copper, ammonia, or chlorine as a toxicant. Copper and ammonia tests also were conducted with five commonly tested species, including cladocerans (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia; 48-h exposures), amphipod (Hyalella azteca; 48-h exposures), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss; 96-h exposures), and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas; 96-h exposures). Median effective concentrations (EC50s) for commonly tested species were >58 microg Cu/L (except 15 microg Cu/L for C. dubia) and >13 mg total ammonia N/L, whereas the EC50s for mussels in most cases were <45 microg Cu/L or <12 mg N/L and were often at or below the final acute values (FAVs) used to derive the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1996 acute water quality criterion (WQC) for copper and 1999 acute WQC for ammonia. However, the chlorine EC50s for mussels generally were >40 microg/L and above the FAV in the WQC for chlorine. The results indicate that the early life stages of mussels generally were more sensitive to copper and ammonia than other organisms and that, including mussel toxicity data in a revision to the WQC, would lower the WQC for copper or ammonia. Furthermore, including additional mussel data in 2007 WQC for copper based on biotic ligand model would further lower the WQC. PMID:17867873

  3. Emersion and thermal tolerances of three species of unionid mussels: Survival and behavioral effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartsch, Michelle; Waller, D.L.; Cope, W.G.; Gutreuter, Steve

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated the behavior and survival of unionid mussels after emersion in air temperatures across a range that is likely to be encountered during status surveys or relocations. Five laboratory tests were performed with pocketbook Lampsilis cardium Rafinesque (2 tests), pimpleback Quadrula pustulosa Lea (1 test), and spike Elliptio dilatata Rafinesque (2 tests) mussels, each conducted in a completely randomized, nested experimental design. For each mussel species (except Q. Pustulosa), treatments tested included two water temperatures (25 and 10 degrees C), five air temperatures (ranging within +/-20 degrees C of the water temperature), three aerial exposure durations (15, 30, and 60 min), and a no emersion control. All treatments were duplicated, with 10 organisms per emersion time and aerial exposure temperature (n = 320 mussels per test). Behavioral response (ability to upright) and mortality were measured daily for 14 d postemersion. Both water and aerial exposure temperature (air shock) were important predictors of times to first uprighting. The intensity function of first uprighting differed among species (P < 0.01), and there was a significant interaction between E. Dilatata versus the other species and water temperature (P +/- 0.01). Over-all mussel survival after emersion was high (93%); however, E. Dilatata experienced significant treatment related mortality at the 25 degrees C test water, 45 degrees C aerial exposure temperature. Because of the high incidence of uprighting and survival of mussels in our study, emersion at moderate temperatures (15 to 35 degrees C) and durations (15 to 60 min) does not seem harmful to mussels, and, therefore, conducting relocations and status surveys under these conditions should not impair mussel survival and over-all success.

  4. Variability in biochemical components of the mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) cultured after Prestige oil spill.

    PubMed

    Peteiro, Laura G; Labarta, Uxío; Fernández-Reiriz, María José

    2007-05-01

    The biochemical composition (proteins, carbohydrates, glycogen, total lipids and lipid classes) of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis was investigated during an experimental culture using mussel seed from areas with different degree of exposure to the Prestige oil spill. The aim of the study was to identify alterations in the biochemical composition of mussel seed from natural populations commonly used in Galicia for mussel raft culture that might be linked to previous oil exposure. We have selected three mussel seed populations from Pindo, Miranda and Redes, that were characterised in a previous study according to the oil exposure three months after the spill. These populations were transplanted to a raft culture system in the Ría de Ares-Betanzos where our experimental culture followed standard commercial techniques from March 2003 to February 2004. Mussels from Pindo (characterised as the most affected area by the oil spill) showed marked differences in lipid composition with regard to other populations in the content of triacylglycerols, (P<0.001), free fatty acids (P<0.001) and phospholipids (P<0.05) at the onset of the culture. Although these differences in lipid composition might reflect their previous exposition to hydrocarbons, this pattern did not last longer most likely due to depuration of hydrocarbons stored in the tissues or by the development of certain tolerance to PAHs. These significant differences were not detected between Miranda (designed as hardly affected area) and Redes (designed as reference area) which may reflect that Miranda mussels were not affected or only hardly affected by the spill. With the exception of the onset of the culture, biochemical composition showed similar patterns in all mussel populations. Then, the fact of being cultured in a common environment seemed to be more responsible for the long-term variability in the energetic reserve than the origin of the populations or their previous biochemical status. PMID:17360242

  5. Comparison of metal accumulation in mussels at different local and global scales.

    PubMed

    Blackmore, Graham; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2003-02-01

    Cadmium and zinc uptake from the dissolved phase, assimilation efficiency (AE) from the dietary phase, and body burden as well as clearance rate were measured in green mussels, Perna viridis, and blue mussels Mytilus edulis, M. galloprovincialis and Mytilus trossulus. Perna viridis was collected from four sites differentially enriched with trace metals in Hong Kong and blue mussels were collected from different climatic zones, i.e., subarctic and temperate, to allow comparisons with the more tropical green mussels. Despite similar shell length, the dry weight of mussels varied significantly between sites and species and this had a large effect on Cd and Zn accumulation, clearance rate, and metal body burden. All data were, therefore, weight adjusted to allow comparison without this confounding factor. Trace-metal body concentrations were significantly different between sites, and P. viridis collected from Tsing Yi, Hong Kong, had the highest levels of all measured metals when compared with other Hong Kong sites. There was, however, no relationship between the degree of metal enrichment and the Cd and Zn uptake (both from dissolved and particulate sources) and clearance rates. Furthermore, Cd and Zn uptake (dissolved and particulate) and clearance rate varied little between species or climatic zones of collection. Thus, over the range of body trace-metal concentrations measured and between mussel species over large geographical distances and climatic zones, the uptake rates, AEs, and clearance rates are similar when measured under the same laboratory conditions after body-size correction. When other factors such as salinity are also corrected, biomonitoring data from different areas and even utilizing different mussel species may be directly comparable. This study therefore provides important evidence in support of Mussel Watch Programs. PMID:12558172

  6. Genetic variation underlying protein expression in eggs of the marine mussel Mytilus edulis.

    PubMed

    Diz, Angel P; Dudley, Edward; MacDonald, Barry W; Piña, Benjamin; Kenchington, Ellen L R; Zouros, Eleftherios; Skibinski, David O F

    2009-01-01

    Study of the genetic basis of gene expression variation is central to attempts to understand the causes of evolutionary change. Although there are many transcriptomics studies estimating genetic variance and heritability in model organisms such as humans there is a lack of equivalent proteomics studies. In the present study, the heritability underlying egg protein expression was estimated in the marine mussel Mytilus. We believe this to be the first such measurement of genetic variation for gene expression in eggs of any organism. The study of eggs is important in evolutionary theory and life history analysis because maternal effects might have profound effects on the rate of evolution of offspring traits. Evidence is presented that the egg proteome varies significantly between individual females and that heritability of protein expression in mussel eggs is moderate to high suggesting abundant genetic variation on which natural selection might act. The study of the mussel egg proteome is also important because of the unusual system of mitochondrial DNA inheritance in mussels whereby different mitochondrial genomes are transmitted independently through female and male lineages (doubly uniparental inheritance). It is likely that the mechanism underlying this system involves the interaction of specific egg factors with sperm mitochondria following fertilization, and its elucidation might be advanced by study of the proteome in females having different progeny sex ratios. Putative identifications are presented here for egg proteins using MS/MS in Mytilus lines differing in sex ratio. Ontology terms relating to stress response and protein folding occur more frequently for proteins showing large expression differences between the lines. The distribution of ontology terms in mussel eggs was compared with those for previous mussel proteomics studies (using other tissues) and with mammal eggs. Significant differences were observed between mussel eggs and mussel tissues but

  7. Design and operation of a system to monitor sediment deposition for protection of an endangered mussel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffin, Michael S.; Mueller, David S.

    1994-01-01

    The USGS, in cooperation with the COE, has designed and installed a system to continuously monitor changes in elevation of the river bed over the mussel bed located downstream of the Olmsted Locks and Dam project. The installed system utilizes a multi-transducer acoustic ranging system to provide river bed elevation measurements accurate to plus or minus 1 cm. The system is currently collecting data to assess the baseline sediment deposition and erosion characteristics of the mussel bed.

  8. Does cannibalism of larvae by adults affect settlement and connectivity of mussel populations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porri, Francesca; Jordaan, Tembisa; McQuaid, Christopher D.

    2008-09-01

    Intertidal population dynamics are driven by a complex series of processes, including larval supply and the possibility of larval predation by benthic animals such as filter-feeders. We hypothesised that cannibalism by adults could play a major role in the population connectivity of mussel populations by removing larvae as they attempt to settle in the adult habitat. Specifically, we tested hypotheses that consumption of mussel larvae by adults removes a significant proportion of potential settlers and is influenced by both settlement intensity and tidal state (flooding or ebbing). Predation of mussel larvae by adult mussels was investigated on incoming and ebbing tides during four spring tides by analysing the gut contents of adult Perna perna and Mytilus galloprovincialis collected from the low intertidal mussel zone between October 2005 and January 2006. Consumption rates were then compared with estimates of successful settler densities on natural beds. The results showed that mortality of competent mussel larvae through adult ingestion removes up to 77% a of potential settlers. Rates of larval consumption were highest during months of intense settlement, suggesting that mussels feed opportunistically, filtering a relatively fixed volume of water and removing particles, including larvae, in proportion to their densities in the water. Rates of larviphagy were also higher during receding than incoming tides. We suggest that this is due to changes in larval density or, more probably, in adult filtration efficiency that are related to the state of the tide. Despite significant effects of both tidal state and settlement intensity on rates of larval ingestion, neither had a significant effect on the proportion of potential settlers removed. During settlement more than half of all potential settlers are lost through cannibalism, with potentially serious consequences for population maintenance. The results highlight the paradoxical nature of the evolution of settlement

  9. Experimental study on copper uptake capacity in the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis).

    PubMed

    Baltas, H; Dalgic, G; Bayrak, E Y; Sirin, M; Cevik, U; Apaydin, G

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the effect of different sizes, sex, and exposure time on Cu uptake capacity, mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis of different shell sizes were exposed to different Cu concentrations in different aquariums. In another experiment, mussels were exposed to stable dissolved Cu for 6 days in the laboratory. All mussels tissue concentrations were analyzed using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry. At the end of uptake, the rate of increase of Cu level in the soft tissues of mussels in different aquariums was 3.84-7.92 times higher than before exposure. While the results of Cu concentrations were negatively correlated with the shell sizes in the control and second groups (r control = -0.862, r second = -0.851 p < 0.05), this relation was not observed in the other groups (p > 0.05). Also, results showed no significant difference between male and female (p > 0.05). On the other hand, Cu concentration values in soft tissue were monitored daily and observed to be increasing up to the third day but afterwards to be descending, thus indicating a significant effect of the exposure time-related Cu uptake by mussels. Therefore, the exposure time to Cu metal of the mussel should be taken into account in the marine pollution investigations. In addition, by using the obtained Cu heavy metal concentration results, the heavy metal intake by the human population was calculated by taking into account daily mussel consumption. The results were examined for potential human health risks and discussed. These results would be helpful to understand factors controlling Cu accumulation in mussels. PMID:26898936

  10. Mathematical modeling of the growth and development of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis on artificial substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasechkina, E. F.; Kazankova, I. I.

    2014-11-01

    A mathematical model simulating the growth and development of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis Lam. on artificial substrates has been constructed. The model is based on experimental data and contains mathematical descriptions of the filtration, respiration, excretion, spawning, and growth of an individual during its ontogenesis from the moment it attaches to a solid substrate to the attainment of a marketable size. The test computations have been compared to the available observation data for mussel farms.

  11. The use of chlorine dioxide for zebra mussel control - A perspective of treatment histories

    SciTech Connect

    Smolik, N.; Rusznak, L.; Anderson, J.; Hale, L.

    1995-06-01

    It is of utmost importance to provide updated performance results of various chemical treatments presently being utilized for zebra mussel control. Zebra mussels have a distinctive ability to endure environmental changes by reproducing effectively and attaching to various hard surfaces. These traits are cause for concern and have resulted in some operating difficulties for industries bordering infested waterways. Various methods are being employed by industries to deal with the problems associated with these species. One of the options is control via chemical treatment. Prior field test studies showed that chlorine dioxide was determined to be an effective molluscicidal agent for adult zebra mussel eradication. Continuous feed of chlorine dioxide at treatment levels ranging from 0.25 - 5.0 ppm above the oxidant demand provided 100% adult zebra mussel mortality which required between 2.9 - 8.8 days of treatment. Previous studies also showed that water temperature was an essential parameter in determining the time required to achieve 100% mortality of adult zebra mussels. Further field applications were undertaken at three electric utility sites located in the midwest. These facilities were concerned with the potential for zebra mussels to reduce efficiency and availability by blocking water flow or plugging equipment. Treatment applications at these facilities consisted of a continuous feed of chlorine dioxide ranging from 0.15 - 0.5 ppm above the oxidant demand. Significant mortality was achieved in monitored mussels tested at each utility in a period ranging from two to four days. This time period was directly related to a number of parameters, with the predominant one being water temperature. Data from these field applications is presented in this paper and confirms that chlorine dioxide is an effective molluscicide for adult zebra mussel control.

  12. Speaking rate consistency in native and non-native speakers of English.

    PubMed

    Baese-Berk, Melissa M; Morrill, Tuuli H

    2015-09-01

    Non-native speech differs from native speech in multiple ways. Previous research has described segmental and suprasegmental differences between native and non-native speech in terms of group averages. For example, average speaking rate for non-natives is slower than for natives. However, it is unknown whether non-native speech is also more variable than native speech. This study introduces a method of comparing rate change across utterances, demonstrating that non-native speaking rate is more variable than native speech. These results suggest that future work examining non-native speech perception and production should investigate both mean differences and variability in the signal. PMID:26428817

  13. Toxicity of sediments from lead-zinc mining areas to juvenile freshwater mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea) compared to standard test organisms.

    PubMed

    Besser, John M; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Brumbaugh, William G; Kemble, Nile E; May, Thomas W; Wang, Ning; MacDonald, Donald D; Roberts, Andrew D

    2015-03-01

    Sediment toxicity tests compared chronic effects on survival, growth, and biomass of juvenile freshwater mussels (28-d exposures with Lampsilis siliquoidea) to the responses of standard test organisms-amphipods (28-d exposures with Hyalella azteca) and midges (10-d exposures with Chironomus dilutus)-in sediments from 2 lead-zinc mining areas: the Tri-State Mining District and Southeast Missouri Mining District. Mussel tests were conducted in sediments sieved to <0.25 mm to facilitate recovery of juvenile mussels (2-4 mo old). Sediments were contaminated primarily with lead, zinc, and cadmium, with greater zinc and cadmium concentrations in Tri-State sediments and greater lead concentrations in southeast Missouri sediments. The frequency of highly toxic responses (reduced 10% or more relative to reference sites) in Tri-State sediments was greatest for amphipod survival (25% of samples), midge biomass (20%), and mussel survival (14%). In southeast Missouri sediments, the frequency of highly toxic samples was greatest for mussel biomass (25%) and amphipod biomass (13%). Thresholds for metal toxicity to mussels, expressed as hazard quotients based on probable effect concentrations, were lower for southeast Missouri sediments than for Tri-State sediments. Southeast Missouri sites with toxic sediments had 2 or fewer live mussel taxa in a concurrent mussel population survey, compared with 7 to 26 taxa at reference sites. These results demonstrate that sediment toxicity tests with juvenile mussels can be conducted reliably by modifying existing standard methods; that the sensitivity of mussels to metals can be similar to or greater than standard test organisms; and that responses of mussels in laboratory toxicity tests are consistent with effects on wild mussel populations. PMID:25545632

  14. Toxicity of sediments from lead-zinc mining areas to juvenile freshwater mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea) compared to standard test organisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besser, John M.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Kemble, Nile E.; May, Thomas W.; Wang, Ning; MacDonald, Donald D.; Roberts, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    Sediment toxicity tests compared chronic effects on survival, growth, and biomass of juvenile freshwater mussels (28-d exposures with Lampsilis siliquoidea) to the responses of standard test organisms—amphipods (28-d exposures with Hyalella azteca) and midges (10-d exposures with Chironomus dilutus)—in sediments from 2 lead–zinc mining areas: the Tri-State Mining District and Southeast Missouri Mining District. Mussel tests were conducted in sediments sieved to <0.25 mm to facilitate recovery of juvenile mussels (2–4 mo old). Sediments were contaminated primarily with lead, zinc, and cadmium, with greater zinc and cadmium concentrations in Tri-State sediments and greater lead concentrations in southeast Missouri sediments. The frequency of highly toxic responses (reduced 10% or more relative to reference sites) in Tri-State sediments was greatest for amphipod survival (25% of samples), midge biomass (20%), and mussel survival (14%). In southeast Missouri sediments, the frequency of highly toxic samples was greatest for mussel biomass (25%) and amphipod biomass (13%). Thresholds for metal toxicity to mussels, expressed as hazard quotients based on probable effect concentrations, were lower for southeast Missouri sediments than for Tri-State sediments. Southeast Missouri sites with toxic sediments had 2 or fewer live mussel taxa in a concurrent mussel population survey, compared with 7 to 26 taxa at reference sites. These results demonstrate that sediment toxicity tests with juvenile mussels can be conducted reliably by modifying existing standard methods; that the sensitivity of mussels to metals can be similar to or greater than standard test organisms; and that responses of mussels in laboratory toxicity tests are consistent with effects on wild mussel populations.

  15. Increased algal fouling on mussels with barnacle epibionts: a fouling cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, Jorge L.; Palomo, M. Gabriela

    2016-06-01

    If the external surfaces of epibionts are more suitable to other fouling species than those of their basibionts, a 'fouling cascade' might occur where epibionts facilitate secondary colonization by other epibionts. Here we evaluate whether the presence of epibiotic barnalces (Balanus glandula) influences the probability of mussel (Brachidontes rodriguezii) fouling by ephemeral red algae (Porphyra sp.) in a Southwestern Atlantic rocky shore. Mussels with barnacle epibionts showed a higher prevalence of Porphyra sp. fouling (32-40% depending on sampling date) than mussels without them (3-7%). Two lines of evidence indicate that barnacles facilitate Porphyra sp. fouling. First, most Porphyra sp. thalli in mussels with barnacle epibionts were attached to barnacle shells (75-92% of cases). Secondly, Porphyra sp. associated with mussels with barnacle epibionts in a proportion that significantly exceeded that expected under random co-occurrence. These results suggest the occurrence of a fouling cascade where barnacle epibiosis on mussels facilitates subsequent algal fouling. Recognizing the occurrence of such fouling cascades is important because they might explain the non-random aggregation of multiple epibiotic species onto a proportionally few individuals of the host species.

  16. EVALUATION OF BIOTIC AND TREATMENT FACTORS RELATING TO BACTERIAL CONTROL OF ZEBRA MUSSELS

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2002-04-30

    Testing over the last quarter has indicated the following regarding control of zebra mussels with bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL0145A: (1) the concentration of bacteria suspended in water is directly correlated with mussel kill; (2) the ratio of bacterial mass per mussel, if too low, could limit mussel kill; a treatment must be done at a high enough ratio so that mussels do not deplete all the suspended bacteria before the end of the desired exposure period; (3) bacteria appear to lose almost all their toxicity after suspension for 24 hr in highly oxygenated water; (4) in a recirculating pipe system, the same percentage mussel kill will be achieved irrespective of whether all the bacteria are applied at once or divided up and applied intermittently in smaller quantities over a 10-hr period. Since this is the fourth quarterly report, a summation of all test results over the last twelve months is provided as a table in this report. The table includes the above-mentioned fourth-quarter results.

  17. Efficacy of candidate chemicals for preventing attachment of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cope, W.G.; Bartsch, M.R.; Marking, L.L.

    1997-01-01

    Forty-seven chemicals having potential for preventing the attachment of zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha were identified and tested. For each chemical, 15 zebra mussels (5-8-mm shell length) in each of two replicates and six treatments were exposed for 48 h followed by a 48-h postexposure period in untreated water. Eleven of the chemicals inhibited the reattachment of zebra mussels after the 48-h exposure; eight had EC50 values ranging from 0.4 to 5.4 mg /L, and three had EC50 values ranging from 19.4 to 29.0 mg/L. Based on an analysis of chemical cost, solubility in water, anticipated treatment concentrations, and potential hazards to humans or the environment, three of the most promising chemicals, all antioxidants (butylated hydroxyanisole [BHA], tert-butylhydroquinone, and tannic acid) were tested on nontarget fish (bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus; channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus; and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss). These chemicals were not selectively toxic to zebra mussels; only the tests with bluegill and BHA and with channel catfish and tannic acid had 48-h LC50 values greater than the concentrations effective for preventing the reattachment of zebra mussels. Although the attachment of zebra mussels can be prevented with selected antioxidants, an alternative formulation should be investigated to minimize effects on nontarget organisms, such as fish.

  18. Chronological history of zebra and quagga mussels (Dreissenidae) in North America, 1988-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, Amy J.

    2013-01-01

    An unprecedented invasion began in North America in the mid-/late-1980s when two Eurasian mussel species, Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel) and Dreissena rostriformis bugensis (quagga mussel), became established in Laurentian Great Lakes. It is believed that Lake Erie was the initial location of establishment for both species, and within 3 years, zebra mussels had been found in all the Great Lakes. Since 1986, the combined distribution of two dreissenids has expanded throughout the Great Lakes region and the St. Lawrence River in Canada and also in the United States from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi Basin including Arkansas, Cumberland, Illinois, Missouri, Ohio, and Tennessee river basins. The distribution of dreissenid mussels in the Atlantic drainage has been limited to the Hudson and Susquehanna rivers. In the western United States, the quagga mussel established a large population in the lower Colorado River and spread to reservoirs in Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, and Utah. Overall, dreissenid species have been documented in 131 river systems and 772 inland lakes, reservoirs, and impoundments in the United States.

  19. Evidence of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in chemosynthetic mussels from the Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Willett, K.; Thomsen, J.; Wilson, C.; McDonald, S.; Safe, S.

    1995-12-31

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that controls expression of various genes including cytochrome P450. Polynuclear aromatic and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons are agonists for the AhR in fish and mammalian species. Previously, a homologous AhR has not been identified in marine invertebrate species. Chemosynthetic mussels were collected from gas and petroleum seeps in the Gulf of Mexico to investigate the presence of the AhR and the induction of the cytochrome P450 system. Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase and glutathione S-transferase activities in the gill and hepatopancreas were elevated in the petroleum seep mussels relative to those from the gas seep. A nuclear AhR in the hepatopancreas was detected in both mussel populations after treatment with [{sup 3}H]-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (tcdd) followed by sucrose density gradient analysis. Gel mobility shift assays using a labeled dioxin responsive element (DRE) oligonucleotide and tcdd-transformed mussel cytosol showed a retarded band which could be competed with excess unlabeled DRE. Results from gel shifts indicated specific binding of the tcdd-mussel AhR complex to its responsible element. Finally, PCR primers designed to amplify a 700 base pair region of the human AhR detected AhR mRNA in both mussel populations. The sequence of this PCR product is being determined. The presence of the AhR in marine invertebrates has important implications in the evolutionary age of the AhR.

  20. Effects of Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids on Zebra Mussels (Dreissena polymorpha)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costello, D. M.; Bernot, R. J.; Lamberti, G. A.

    2005-05-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) are exotic bivalves that are widely distributed in eastern North America. We propose that this nuisance organism could serve as a model species for studies of aquatic toxicology. We tested zebra mussels response to room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs), which are being synthesized as environmentally friendly alternatives to volatile organic solvents. Volatile organic solvents contribute to atmospheric pollution and ozone depletion, whereas ILs are non-volatile and less harmful to the atmosphere. Although ILs would contribute significantly less to air pollution, little is known about their potential effects on aquatic ecosystems. In 72-hour toxicity tests, we determined the acute effects of three imidazolium-based ILs (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (bmimBr), 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (hmimBr), and 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (omimBr)) on the survival of zebra mussels. As alkyl chain length decreased, median lethal concentration (LC50) decreased from 1291 mg L-1 for bmimBr, to 105 mg L-1 for hmimBr, and 21.2 mg L-1 for omimBr. For bivalve mussels, the toxicities of these ILs are comparable to the toxicities of commonly used industrial solvents (e.g., toluene, benzene). This study presents a foundation for using zebra mussels in toxicity studies as well as possible models for less common Unionid mussels.

  1. Improving marine water quality by mussel farming: a profitable solution for Swedish society.

    PubMed

    Lindahl, Odd; Hart, Rob; Hernroth, Bodil; Kollberg, Sven; Loo, Lars-Ove; Olrog, Lars; Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi; Svensson, Jonny; Svensson, Susanne; Syversen, Ulf

    2005-03-01

    Eutrophication of coastal waters is a serious environmental problem with high costs for society globally. In eastern Skagerrak, reductions in eutrophication are planned through reduction of nitrogen inputs, but it is unclear how this can be achieved. One possible method is the cultivation of filter-feeding organisms, such as blue mussels, which remove nitrogen while generating seafood, fodder and agricultural fertilizer, thus recycling nutrients from sea to land. The expected effect of mussel farming on nitrogen cycling was modeled for the Gullmar Fjord on the Swedish west coast and it is shown that the net transport of nitrogen (sum of dissolved and particulate) at the fjord mouth was reduced by 20%. Existing commercial mussel farms already perform this service for free, but the benefits to society could be far greater. We suggest that rather than paying mussel farmers for their work that nutrient trading systems are introduced to improve coastal waters. In this context an alternative to nitrogen reduction in the sewage treatment plant in Lysekil community through mussel farming is presented. Accumulation of bio-toxins has been identified as the largest impediment to further expansion of commercial mussel farming in Sweden, but the problem seems to be manageable through new techniques and management strategies. On the basis of existing and potential regulations and payments, possible win-win solutions are suggested. PMID:15865310

  2. Multi-biomarker responses in the freshwater mussel Dreissena polymorpha exposed to polychlorobiphenyls and metals.

    PubMed

    Faria, Melissa; Carrasco, Luis; Diez, Sergi; Riva, Maria Carmen; Bayona, Josep Maria; Barata, Carlos

    2009-04-01

    Contaminant related changes in behavioral, phase I and II metabolizing enzymes and pro-oxidant/antioxidant processes in the freshwater mussels Dreissena polymorpha exposed to metals and PCBs were assessed. Behavioral and biochemical responses including filtering rates, key phase I, II and antioxidant enzymes and levels of metallothioneins, glutathione, lipid peroxidation and DNA strand breaks were determined in digestive glands of mussels after being exposed to sublethal levels of mercury chloride, methyl mercury, cadmium and Aroclor 1260 during 5 days. In 7 out of 12 responses analyzed, mussels showed significant differences across treatments. Unusual properties of measured ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activities indicated that mussels lack an inducible CYP1A enzymatic activity. Despite of using similar exposure levels, inorganic and organic mercury showed different biomarker patterns of response with methyl mercury being more bio-available and unable to induce metallothionein proteins. Mussels exposed to Cd presented higher levels of metallothioneins and an enhanced metabolism of glutathione, whereas those exposed to Aroclor showed their antioxidant glutathione peroxidase related enzyme activities inhibited. Although there was evidence for increased lipid peroxidation under exposure to inorganic and organic mercury, only mussels exposed to Aroclor had significant greater levels than those in controls. PMID:18723121

  3. Heavy metals monitoring in the southernmost mussel farm of the world (Beagle Channel, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Giarratano, Erica; Amin, Oscar A

    2010-09-01

    Water quality surrounding the mussel farm of Mytilus edulis chilensis at Brown Bay (Beagle Channel) was evaluated. The levels of five heavy metals in sediment and in gill and digestive gland of mussels were examined to consider potential risks to human health. Cd showed the highest enrichment factor in relation to its level in Earth crust (3.85-21.58), which could be related to an upwelling phenomenon. A seasonal trend was found regarding metal bioaccumulation, being higher in winter than in summer. The bioaccumulation pattern in gill was Zn>Fe>Cu>Cd, meanwhile in digestive gland was Fe>Zn>Cu>Cd. Despite Pb was measured in sediment (15.59-23.91 microg/g dw), it was not available for being incorporated by mussels. In all cases it was below the detection limit (2.37 microg/g dw). With regard to human consumption of mussels from Brown Bay, none of the elements analyzed should cause concern for consumers. Values measured in tissue mussels were below the limit of 10 microg/g dw for Cd and Pb established by SENASA for molluscs. Considering that studied mussels are for human consumption and the relatively high levels of metals in sediment may vary their availability if physical parameters changes, periodical monitoring must be carried out to avoid human risks and to produce food in a responsible manner that complies with the food safety standards. PMID:20638724

  4. Oxidative effects of inorganic and organic contaminants on haemolymph of mussels.

    PubMed

    Kaloyianni, M; Dailianis, S; Chrisikopoulou, E; Zannou, A; Koutsogiannaki, S; Alamdari, D H; Koliakos, G; Dimitriadis, V K

    2009-05-01

    We applied a newly-established method in haemolymph of mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, exposed to different concentrations of heavy metals, such as zinc and cadmium and organic pollutants, such as PAHs and lindane, for the detection of total antioxidant capacity (TAC). The susceptibility of exposed mussels was increased in relation to oxidative stress induced by contaminants tested. Oxidative modifications of proteins were estimated by measuring protein carbonyl content (PCC) and malondialdehyde levels (MDA). For PCC measurement, a highly sensitive and accurate ELISA method, which requires only 5 microg of protein, was used. The significant increase of PCC and MDA in haemolymph of exposed mussels reinforces its role as biomarkers of oxidative stress. Significant correlation of TAC assay, PCC and MDA was conducted in order to evaluate the utility of PCC and TAC assay, used in the present study, as tools for determining oxidative effects of pollutants in mussels. The results reinforce the application of PCC method as useful tool for the determination of PCC alterations in haemolymph of mussels exposed to different levels of contaminants. In addition, the TAC method gives encouraging results, concerning its ability to predict antioxidant efficiency in haemolymph of mussels exposed to inorganic and organic contaminants. PMID:19358338

  5. Habitat shift in invading species: Zebra and quagga mussel population characteristics on shallow soft substrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berkman, P.A.; Garton, D.W.; Haltuch, M.A.; Kennedy, G.W.; Febo, L.R.

    2000-01-01

    Unexpected habitat innovations among invading species are illustrated by the expansion of dreissenid mussels across sedimentary environments in shallow water unlike the hard substrates where they are conventionally known. In this note, records of population characteristics of invading zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (Dreissena bugensis) mussels from 1994 through 1998 are reported from shallow (less than 20 m) sedimentary habitats in western Lake Erie. Haphazard SCUBA collections of these invading species indicated that combined densities of zebra and quagga mussels ranged from 0 to 32,500 individuals per square meter between 1994 and 1998, with D. polymorpha comprising 75-100% of the assemblages. These mixed mussel populations, which were attached by byssal threads to each other and underlying sand-grain sediments, had size-frequency distributions that were typical of colonizing populations on hard substrates. Moreover, the presence of two mussel cohorts within the 1994 samples indicated that these species began expanding onto soft substrates not later than 1992, within 4 years of their initial invasion in western Lake Erie. Such historical data provide baselines for interpreting adaptive innovations, ecological interactions and habitat shifts among the two invading dreissenid mussel species in North America.

  6. Interaction between stocking density and settlement on population dynamics in suspended mussel culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cubillo, Alhambra M.; Fuentes-Santos, Isabel; Labarta, Uxío

    2015-01-01

    Population dynamics on mussels growing on suspended culture depend mainly on the balance of several processes: mortality and/or dislodgements from the ropes, recruitment and growth. The negative effect of overcrowding on mussel growth and survival has been widely studied. Other works have addressed the effect of population size on recruitment on bottom beds. This study aims to provide insight into the processes underlying population dynamics. To this purpose, we analyzed the effect of stocking density on mussel growth, survival and seed settlement, and the post-settlement interaction between adults and recruits in suspended culture. The temporal pattern of the variables involved in population dynamics was fitted by GAM models, which in contrast with parametric models does not assume any prior relationships between variables. Our results show that mussel growth and survival depend on a trade-off between competition for resources at high densities and the risk of great settlements in less crowded adult mussel populations. Intracohort competition increased with stocking density, while seed settlement, which increases the risk of mussel dislodgements and leads to intercohort competition, was higher at moderate stocking densities. Post-settlement competitive pressures were driven by total population density and size composition. Both intracohort competition in adults and asymmetric competition between adults and recruits increase with higher adult-recruit ratios. All these density-dependent processes should be considered in future management strategies and research experimental designs.

  7. Use of carbonyl iron to induce iron loading in the mussel Mytilus edulis

    SciTech Connect

    Bootsma, N.; Macey, D.J.; Webb, J.; Talbot, V. )

    1990-02-01

    It is now recognized that in organisms such as marine mussels, the prior presence of one metal can be important in determining the ultimate toxicological response to a second challenge by a different metal species. Thus, for example, the presence of iron in the mussel Mytilus edulis profoundly affects the subsequent accumulation of zinc. To determine these synergistic (or indeed antagonistic) effects in an organism such as the mussel, it is important to be able to both load the animal rapidly, and ensure that the metal ends up in a form which is ultimately the same as that found in the animal in the natural environment. Unfortunately, considerable problems have arisen with the form in which iron has been loaded into mussels. Recently, carbonyl iron has been used to induce iron loading in rats. This form of iron is prepared by reacting elemental iron at high temperatures with carbon monoxide to form iron pentacarbonyl. This study was thus undertaken to determine whether carbonyl iron could be used for the rapid non-toxic iron loading of the mussel Mytilus edulis. Such loading could subsequently be used for the investigation of synergistic metal accumulation in mussels, a topic of considerable interest due to their use as marine pollution indicator organisms. Biochemical aspects of this tissue iron loading, including the isolation and characterization of the major metal-binding protein ferritin, have been reported previously.

  8. Matching spatial scales of variation in mussel recruitment and adult densities across southwestern Atlantic rocky shores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arribas, Lorena P.; Bagur, María; Gutiérrez, Jorge L.; Palomo, M. Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    The recruitment of aquatic invertebrate larvae often differs in space and time thus contributing to variation in the abundance of adults. In the present study, we examined spatial scales of variation in mussel (Brachidontes spp.) recruitment and adult abundance across rocky intertidal areas in the Southwestern Atlantic. Recruitment and adult densities were compared between two regions separated ca. 700 km from each other, two locations (10-20 km from each other) within each region, and two sites (100-500 m from each other) within each location. Variance components analysis indicates that most variation in mussel recruitment and adult densities occurs at the scale of locations, irrespective of if mussel recruitment is quantified on mussel bed samples or artificial substrates (plastic mesh collectors). Increased mussel recruitment and adult densities at this scale are associated with higher time-averaged chlorophyll a concentration and wave exposure, which can potentially affect the supply of larvae to rocky shores by increasing their survival and delivery rates. There was close correspondence between the spatial patterns of variation in cumulative recruitment on natural substrates during the study period and the density of adults at its end. This suggests that differences in mussel abundance along Southwestern Atlantic rocky shores could be primarily determined by larval recruitment.

  9. Heavy metals in the threeridge mussel Amblema plicata plicata (Say, 1817) in the upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naimo, T.J.; Waller, D.L.; Holland Bartels, L. E.

    1992-01-01

    Concentrations of mercury and zinc in the threeridge mussel Amblema plicata plicata, sampled in 1987 from Pools 3 and 10 in the upper Mississippi River, were comparable to concentrations in mussels from moderately contaminated systems, while copper concentrations were similar to concentrations in mussels from more polluted waters. Cadmium concentrations in mussels were significantly less at a lightly contaminated site (Pool 10, range 0.53 to 0.92 mu g/g dry weight) than at a site where metal abundances were strongly influenced by industrial and domestic inputs (Pool 3, range 0.80 to 1.25 mu g/g dry weight). Yet, cadmium concentrations in Pool 3 were an order of magnitude less than values reported for mussels from more metal-polluted systems. In contrast, concentrations of copper, mercury, and zinc did not differ between sites. Cadmium and zinc concentrations generally increased with size of the mussel, copper concentrations decreased with size, and mercury concentrations were unrelated to size.a

  10. Evidence of neuroendocrine disruption in freshwater mussels exposed to municipal wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Gagné, F; André, C; Cejka, P; Hausler, R; Fournier, M

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that exposure to municipal effluents can disrupt the neuroendocrine system in Elliptio complanata freshwater mussels. The capacity of ozonation to mitigate these effects was also examined. Mussels were exposed for 14 days to a continuous flow of increasing concentrations of the effluent before and after ozonation. Neuroendocrinal effects were examined by tracking changes in acetylcholinesterase, glutamate, gamma-aminobutyrate, serotonin, dopamine and their respective adenylcyclase activities in synapse membranes, monoamine oxidase and vitellogenin-like proteins. Oxidative stress and damage were examined by superoxide dismutase and lipid peroxidation, respectively, in the visceral tissues. The results revealed that the exposure of freshwater mussels increased the levels of vitellogenin-like proteins in both the primary-treated and ozonated effluents, dopamine and glutamate, and decreased the turnover of the neurostimulant acetylcholine. Moreover, these endpoints were significantly correlated with oxidative stress and damage. A canonical analysis of the responses revealed that dopamine and the neuroexcitatory neuromediators--acetylcholesterase and glutamate--were the endpoints more strongly related with oxidative stress and damage. Mussel morphology and estrogenic biomarkers (vitellogenin-like proteins, gonad lipid stores) were also significantly related, albeit to a lesser extent, to oxidative stress and damage. In general, ozone treatment was not sufficient to mitigate the observed neuroendocrinal effects in freshwater mussels. We conclude that the continuous exposure of freshwater mussels to municipal wastewater effluents leads to neuroendrocinal alterations and to oxidative stress. PMID:21704357

  11. Application of adaptive cluster sampling to low-density populations of freshwater mussels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.R.; Villella, R.F.; Lemarie, D.P.

    2003-01-01

    Freshwater mussels appear to be promising candidates for adaptive cluster sampling because they are benthic macroinvertebrates that cluster spatially and are frequently found at low densities. We applied adaptive cluster sampling to estimate density of freshwater mussels at 24 sites along the Cacapon River, WV, where a preliminary timed search indicated that mussels were present at low density. Adaptive cluster sampling increased yield of individual mussels and detection of uncommon species; however, it did not improve precision of density estimates. Because finding uncommon species, collecting individuals of those species, and estimating their densities are important conservation activities, additional research is warranted on application of adaptive cluster sampling to freshwater mussels. However, at this time we do not recommend routine application of adaptive cluster sampling to freshwater mussel populations. The ultimate, and currently unanswered, question is how to tell when adaptive cluster sampling should be used, i.e., when is a population sufficiently rare and clustered for adaptive cluster sampling to be efficient and practical? A cost-effective procedure needs to be developed to identify biological populations for which adaptive cluster sampling is appropriate.

  12. Bioaccumulation of human waterborne protozoa by zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha): interest for water biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Palos Ladeiro, M; Aubert, D; Villena, I; Geffard, A; Bigot, A

    2014-01-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia duodenalis and Toxoplasma gondii are ubiquitous pathogens, which waterborne transmission has been largely demonstrated. Since they can be found in various watercourses, interactions with aquatic organisms are possible. Protozoan detection for watercourses biomonitoring is currently based on large water filtration. The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, is a choice biological model in ecotoxicological studies which are already in use to detect chemical contaminations in watercourses. In the present study, the zebra mussel was tested as a new tool for detecting water contamination by protozoa. In vivo exposures were conducted in laboratory experiments. Zebra mussel was exposed to various protozoan concentrations for one week. Detection of protozoa was realized by Taqman real time qPCR. Our experiments evidenced C. parvum, G. duodenalis and T. gondii oocyst bioaccumulation by mussels proportionally to ambient contamination, and significant T. gondii prevalence was observed in muscle tissue. To our knowledge, this is the first study that demonstrates T. gondii oocyst accumulation by zebra mussel. The results from this study highlight the capacity of zebra mussels to reveal ambient biological contamination, and thus to be used as a new effective tool in sanitary biomonitoring of water bodies. PMID:24112626

  13. Control of predacious flatworms Macrostomum sp. in culturing juvenile freshwater mussels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, L.L.; Neves, R.J.; Smith, D.G.

    2003-01-01

    Flatworms of the genus Macrostomum are voracious predators on newly metamorphosed juvenile freshwater mussels (Unionidae), which require a fish host to transform mussel larvae into free-living juveniles. Toxicity tests were performed with formalin (paracide-F, 37% formaldehyde) to determine the appropriate levels of treatment for eradicating these flatworms from host fish tanks without adversely affecting the culture of juvenile mussels. Results indicate that a 1-h shock treatment of 250 mg/L formalin or a 3-d continuous exposure to 20 mg/L of formalin kills adult Macrostomum but not fish. Observations indicate that a single treatment is insufficient to kill Macrostomum eggs, so a second treatment after 3 d is necessary to kill newly hatched flatworms. Newly metamorphosed freshwater mussels exposed to similar shock and continuous treatments of formalin were also killed. Thus, all host fish introduced for the purpose of mussel production should be quarantined and treated prophylactically to avoid the infestation of mussel culture systems with predacious flatworms.

  14. Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Obesity Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... youthonline . [Accessed 05/25/2016] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  15. Diabetes and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other Pacific Islander > Diabetes Diabetes and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Asian Americans, in general, have the same ... However, there are differences within the Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander population. From a national survey, Native Hawaiians/ ...

  16. Counseling Native Americans: Guidelines for Group Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufrene, Phoebe M.; Coleman, Victoria D.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses how group counseling professionals can best serve Native Americans using traditional Native American healing and spirituality. Highlights implications for counseling and development professionals. Discusses Native Americans' background, relationship with the federal government, regional considerations, psychological and sociological…

  17. Use and Acquisition of Idiomatic Expressions in Referring by Native and Non-Native Speakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bortfeld, Heather; Brennan, Susan E.

    1997-01-01

    Examines how native and nonnative undergraduate-student speakers adjust their referring expressions to each other in conversation. Finds that lexical entrainment was just as common in native/nonnative pairs as in native/native pairs; natives uttered more words than nonnatives in the same roles; and native expressions were judged less…

  18. A study of radium bioaccumulation in freshwater mussels, Velesunio angasi, in the Magela Creek catchment, Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Bollhöfer, Andreas; Brazier, Jenny; Humphrey, Chris; Ryan, Bruce; Esparon, Andrew

    2011-10-01

    Freshwater mussels, Velesunio angasi, along Magela Creek in Australia's Northern Territory were examined to study radionuclide activities in mussel flesh and to investigate whether the Ranger Uranium mine is contributing to the radium loads in mussels downstream of the mine. Radium loads in mussels of the same age were highest in Bowerbird Billabong, located 20 km upstream of the mine site. Variations in the ratio of [Ra]:[Ca] in filtered water at the sampling sites accounted for the variations found in mussel radium loads with natural increases in calcium (Ca) in surface waters in a downstream gradient along the Magela Creek catchment gradually reducing radium uptake in mussels. At Mudginberri Billabong, 12 km downstream of the mine, concentration factors for radium have not significantly changed over the past 25 years since the mine commenced operations and this, coupled with a gradual decrease of the (228)Ra/(226)Ra activity ratios observed along the catchment, indicates that the (226)Ra accumulated in mussels is of natural rather than mine origin. The (228)Th/(228)Ra ratio has been used to model radium uptake and a radium biological half-life in mussels of approximately 13 years has been determined. The long biological half-life and the low Ca concentrations in the water account for the high radium concentration factor of 30,000-60,000 measured in mussels from the Magela Creek catchment. PMID:20430491

  19. Evaluating the use of side-scan sonar for detecting freshwater mussel beds in turbid river environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powers, Jarrod; Brewer, Shannon K.; Long, James M.; Campbell, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Side-scan sonar is a valuable tool for mapping habitat features in many aquatic systems suggesting it may also be useful for locating sedentary biota. The objective of this study was to determine if side-scan sonar could be used to identify freshwater mussel (unionid) beds and the required environmental conditions. We used side-scan sonar to develop a series of mussel-bed reference images by placing mussel shells within homogenous areas of fine and coarse substrates. We then used side-scan sonar to map a 32-km river reach during spring and summer. Using our mussel-bed reference images, several river locations were identified where mussel beds appeared to exist in the scanned images and we chose a subset of sites (n = 17) for field validation. The validation confirmed that ~60% of the sites had mussel beds and ~80% had some mussels or shells present. Water depth was significantly related to our ability to predict mussel-bed locations: predictive ability was greatest at depths of 1–2 m, but decreased in water >2-m deep. We determined side-scan sonar is an effective tool for preliminary assessments of mussel presence during times when they are located at or above the substrate surface and in relatively fine substrates excluding fine silt.

  20. The impact of municipal wastewater effluent on field-deployed freshwater mussels in the Grand River (Ontario, Canada).

    PubMed

    Gillis, Patricia L; Gagné, François; McInnis, Rodney; Hooey, Tina M; Choy, Emily S; André, Chantale; Hoque, Md Ehsanul; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2014-01-01

    To examine effects of municipal wastewater effluent (MWWE) on sentinel organisms, the authors deployed caged freshwater mussels (Lasmigona costata) in the Grand River (ON, Canada) upstream and downstream of an MWWE outfall. Passive sampling devices were deployed alongside caged mussels to confirm exposure. Biomarkers of xenobiotic biotransformation, oxidative stress, estrogenicity, and immunomodulation were investigated. Elevated concentrations of selected pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) and a natural estrogen (estrone) were found at the downstream sites. Mussels caged downstream of the effluent for 2 wk showed minimal evidence of exposure, while those deployed for 4 wk exhibited significantly higher levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity, demonstrating that MWWE-exposed mussels exhibit increased activity in xenobiotic conjugation and oxidative stress. With respect to immune responses, a significant increase in plasma lysozyme activity and hemocyte viability was observed in MWWE-exposed mussels. Vitellogenin (vtg)-like protein in male mussels showed a trend toward induction after 4 wk of deployment at the first downstream site, but mean levels were not significantly different. Discriminant function analysis indicated that mussels deployed for 4 wk upstream and downstream of the MWWE discharge could be discriminated on the basis of LPO, GST, plasma lysozyme, and vtg responses. The physiological stress observed in caged mussels indicates that wild mussels chronically exposed to MWWE in this ecosystem would also be negatively impacted. PMID:24115239