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Sample records for native polyacrylamide gel

  1. A method for in-gel fluorescent visualization of proteins after native and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Pristov, Jelena Bogdanovi?; Opa?i?, Miloš; Dimitrijevi?, Milena; Babi?, Nikolina; Spasojevi?, Ivan

    2015-07-01

    We have developed a simple one-step 30-min method for fluorescent visualization of proteins in native and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) gels. The method is based on formation of strong fluorophores via potassium ferricyanide-provoked oxidation of tryptophan (Trp). Following PAGE, gels are soaked in water solution of potassium ferricyanide (100 mM) and NaOH (1 M) and are kept in the dark for 30 min. Gels are then transferred to water and scanned. The sensitivity of the method was slightly lower compared with standard Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB) staining. The method can be useful when rapid acquisition of data is of the essence. After preview, gels can be post-stained using the CBB protocol for further analysis. The intensity of fluorescence is dependent on Trp number, so the protocol might find application in the quantification of Trp residues as illustrated here. Importantly, there is room for improvement of the method. Namely, according to excitation-emission matrix analysis of stained protein bands, maximal fluorescence intensity (at 345/460 nm) was 3.5-fold higher compared with the settings that were available on a commercial imager (395/525 nm). As a supplement, we present an upgrade of the previously described method for in-gel detection of non-heme iron-binding proteins that also employs potassium ferricyanide. PMID:25862081

  2. Electroblotting from Polyacrylamide Gels.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Aaron; Ursitti, Jeanine A; Mozdzanowski, Jacek; Speicher, David W

    2015-01-01

    Transferring proteins from polyacrylamide gels onto retentive membranes is now primarily used for immunoblotting. A second application that was quite common up to about a decade ago was electroblotting of proteins for N-terminal and internal sequencing using Edman chemistry. This unit contains procedures for electroblotting proteins from polyacrylamide gels onto a variety of membranes, including polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) and nitrocellulose. In addition to the commonly used tank or wet transfer system, protocols are provided for electroblotting using semidry and dry systems. This unit also describes procedures for eluting proteins from membranes using detergents or acidic extraction with organic solvents for specialized applications. © 2015 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:26521711

  3. Separation of Native Allophycocyanin and R-Phycocyanin from Marine Red Macroalga Polysiphonia urceolata by the Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis Performed in Novel Buffer Systems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Gong, Xueqin; Wang, Shumei; Chen, Lixue; Sun, Li

    2014-01-01

    Three buffer systems of Imidazole?Acetic acid, HEPES?Imidazole/Bis-tris and Bis-tris?HEPES?MES were designed based on the principle of discontinuous polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) for the native PAGE which could be performed in pH 7.0 and 6.5 in order to analyze and prepare the minor components of allophycocyanin (AP) and R-phycocyanin (R-PC) from marine red macroalga Polysiphonia urceolata. These AP and R-PC phycobiliproteins are easily denatured in alkaline environments. The obtained results demonstrated that the PAGE modes performed in the buffer systems of HEPES?Imidazole/Bis-tris and Bis-tris?HEPES?MES gave the satisfactory resolution and separation of AP and R-PC proteins. The absorption and fluorescence spectra of the AP and R-PC proteins which were prepared by the established PAGE modes proved that they maintained natural spectroscopic characteristics. The established PAGE modes may also provide useful references and selections for some other proteins that are sensitive to alkaline environments or are not effectively separated by the classical PAGE modes performed normally in alkaline buffer systems. PMID:25166028

  4. A blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic technology to probe the functional proteomics mediating nitrogen homeostasis in Pseudomonas fluorescens

    E-print Network

    Appanna, Vasu

    mediating nitrogen homeostasis in Pseudomonas fluorescens Sungwon Han a , Christopher Auger a , Varun P Keywords: Functional proteomics Nitrogen homeostasis Glutamate dehydrogenase Gel electrophoresis As glutamate and ammonia play a pivotal role in nitrogen homeostasis, their production is mediated by various

  5. Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis for Purification of Large Amounts of RNA.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Mélanie; Masquida, Benoît

    2016-01-01

    Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) constitutes a powerful technique for the efficient purification of RNA molecules dedicated to applications that require high purity levels. PAGE allows for the fractionation of RNA obtained from cell extracts, chemical or enzymatic synthesis, or modification experiments. Native or denaturing conditions can be chosen for analytical or preparative-scale separations and the nucleotide resolution can be tuned by changing the percentage and reticulation of the gel material. In this protocol, we focus on the preparation of milligram-scale amounts of ~200 nucleotides (nt) RNA molecules that were used in subsequent crystallization experiments. PMID:26227037

  6. Silver staining DNA in polyacrylamide gels.

    PubMed

    Bassam, Brant J; Gresshoff, Peter M

    2007-01-01

    This protocol describes a simple silver staining method used to visualize DNA fragments and other organic molecules with unsurpassed detail following traditional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Sensitivity rivals radioisotopic methods and DNA in the picogram range can be reliably detected. The described protocol is fast (approximately 1 h) and is implemented using readily available chemicals and materials. To achieve the sensitivity and visual clarity expected, quality reagents and clean handling are important. The updated protocol described here is based on the widely used method of Bassam et al. (1991), but provides improved image contrast and less risk of staining artefacts. PMID:18007600

  7. Polyacrylamide gel with switchable trypsin activity for analysis of proteins.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fangjie; Ye, Mingliang; Wang, Chunli; Hu, Zhengyan; Zhang, Yi; Qin, Hongqiang; Cheng, Kai; Zou, Hanfa

    2013-08-01

    Trypsin was immobilized on a variety of materials to improve digestion efficiency. However, because the immobilized trypsin will digest proteins during electrophoresis, direct immobilization of active trypsin in polyacrylamide gel will compromise the protein separation. To overcome this problem, here we report a novel polyacrylamide gel with switchable trypsin activity. It was prepared by copolymerization of the PEG-trypsin-aprotinin complex during the gel-casting step. Because the inhibitor aprotinin binds strongly with trypsin at alkaline pH, this novel gel does not display hydrolytic activity during electrophoresis. After electrophoresis, the activity of trypsin embedded in gel could be recovered by simply washing away the bound inhibitor at a low pH. It was demonstrated that this unique switchable activity design allowed high resolution of the complex protein mixture during electrophoresis and highly efficient digestion of the separated proteins in situ in the gel after electrophoresis. PMID:23855779

  8. One-step casting of Laemmli discontinued sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gel.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoqiang; Koiwa, Hisashi

    2012-02-01

    A modified Laemmli sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) protocol is described. The new method saves 30 min for gel casting without loss of the resolution power of Laemmli gel. In this method, both the upper and lower gels can be cast at the same time because the lower gel contains 10% glycerol, which generates higher density in the lower gel than in the upper gel. PMID:22037291

  9. Dna electrophoresis in photopolymerized polyacrylamide gels on a microfluidic device 

    E-print Network

    Lo, Chih-Cheng

    2009-05-15

    and daughter for their patience and love. vii NOMENCLATURE %T Monomer concentration %C Crosslinker concentration bp base pairs BRM Biased reptation model BRF Biased reptation with fluctuations DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid dsDNA Double..., such as DNA sequencing, detection of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP), and Southern blotting. Crosslinked polyacrylamide and agarose gels are generaly used as the sieving matrices in these sys- tems [47]. A slab gel is cast by loading liquid...

  10. Direct immunodetection of antigens within the precast polyacrylamide gel.

    PubMed

    Desai, S; Dworecki, B; Cichon, E

    2001-10-01

    Detection of specific proteins separated by SDS-PAGE is the basis for studying specific antigens. Immunodetection of antigens is commonly performed using Western blotting technique. In this paper we have shown that it is possible to eliminate Western blotting and to detect the antigens directly within the precast polyacrylamide gels by pretreating the gels with 50% isopropanol followed by distilled water treatment. This method would be valuable for large or difficult to transfer proteins. PMID:11567532

  11. Fluorography of polyacrylamide gels containing tritium.

    PubMed

    Waterborg, J H; Matthews, H R

    1984-01-01

    Fluorography is the term used for the process of determining radioactivity in gels and other media by a combination of fluorescence and photography. Since most of the radiation of a low energy emitter will largely be absorbed by the gel, in the technique of fluorography a fluor (e.g., PPO) is infiltrated into the gel where it can absorb the radiation and re-emit light that will pass through the gel to the film. The resulting photographic image is analogous to an autoradiograph, but for a low energy beta-emitting isotope like (3)H, the sensitivity of fluorography is many times the sensitivity of autoradiography. The fluorograph may be used directly, as a qualitative picture of the radioactivity on the gel. It may also be used to locate radioactive bands or spots that can then be cut from the original gel for further analysis, or be scanned to give quantitative information about the distribution of radioactivity. Figure 1 shows an example of a gel that was stained with Coomassie blue and then fluorographed. Notice that there is no loss of resolution in the fluorography of thin gels of normal size. Fig. 1. This shows two examples of fluorography of protein bands labeled with (3)H. Basic nuclear proteins were isolated from the slime mold, Physarum polycephalum, pulse-labeled with (3)H-acetate in either S phase or G(2) phase of the naturally synchronous cell cycle. The proteins were analyzed by acrylamide gel electrophoresis in acetic acid, urea, and Triton X-100. After electrophoresis, the gel was stained with Coomassie blue, photographed, and then fluorographed. Individual lanes of the gel image were cut from the photograph (negative) and the fluorograph and then printed side-by-side to give the figure shown. Notice that the stain patterns of the two lanes are practically identical, except for the loading, while the radioactivity patterns show major differences, for example, the absence of label in his-tones H2A and H2B in G2 phase (4). PMID:20512684

  12. Renaturation of enzymes after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Lacks, S.A.; Springhorn, S.S.

    1980-08-10

    A number of enzymes, including amylases, dehydrogenases, and proteases, were shown to be renaturable after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. Enzyme activity was detected in situ by action on substrates introduced into the gel and subsequent staining of either the product or unreacted substrate. Enzymes appeared to recover activity as soon as the detergent diffused out of the gel. Renatured enzymes were retained in gels after electrophoresis longer than native enzymes which had been subjected to electrophoresis in the absence of detergent. Re-electrophoresis of the renatured enzymes showed that part of the retained activity was physically anchored to the gel, possibly by the folding of polypeptides around the gel matrix as the enzymes were renatured.

  13. Reuse of denaturing polyacrylamide gels for short tandem repeat analysis.

    PubMed

    Tereba, A; Micka, K A; Schumm, J W

    1998-11-01

    Denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic analysis of amplified polymorphic short tandem repeat (STR) loci using fluorescent markers is a mainstay of forensic and paternity testing. To reduce the drawback of preparing gels or using expensive precast gels, we have developed a simple and rapid method to reuse gels between 2 and 8 times over a period of several days. Following the initial electrophoresis and scan, the original samples are removed from the gel by a 1-1.5-h reverse-electrophoresis step. This step heats the gel for the next set of samples and can be performed several days after the initial electrophoresis. Sample bands remain sharp on subsequent runs, but edge effects (frowning of the outside lanes) become progressively worse and ultimately limit gel reuse. Well distortions and separation of the gel from the plates become problems if the gel is used more than twice. However, degassing the gel solution and bonding the gel to both plates eliminate these problems. Precast gels also can be used multiple times. Using this technique, we have successfully analyzed samples amplified with a nine-locus multiplex system and characterized the separated products using a fluorescent scanner and software. PMID:9821592

  14. Reproducibility study of normoxic polyacrylamide gel (nPAG) dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Giuliana; Vandecasteele, Jan; Vercauteren, Tom; DePasquale, Salvatore; DeDeene, Yves

    2009-05-01

    In this study, the overall accuracy of normoxic polyacrylamide gel (nPAG) dosimeters is considered. Different badges of nPAG are fabricated, poured in containers of glass and Barex" and irradiated with a 6MV square photon beam. The polymer gel dosimeters were read out using MRI. The overall reproducibility and accuracy of nPAG gel dosimeters was determined by comparison with depth-dose profiles acquired with a Pin Point ionization chamber. Additionally, the effect of the container wall on the depth-dose profile and the effect of temperature changes before and after irradiation on the R2-dose response have been investigated. The average standard deviation and maximum deviation between 8 gel-measured depth-dose profiles and a depth-dose profile measured with an ionization chamber amounted to 0.543 Gy (2.5%) and 2.579 Gy (11.7%) respectively.

  15. Denaturing Urea PAGE -Small Gel 1. Prepare denaturing polyacrylamide gel solution. Use Gibco/BRL apparatus.

    E-print Network

    Aris, John P.

    31 Denaturing Urea PAGE - Small Gel 1. Prepare denaturing polyacrylamide gel solution. Use Gibco denatures nucleic acids. 4. Denature samples. To RNA, add an equal volume of sample buffer (100 µl formamide water in bath). Chill on ice. Spin briefly. Thaw frozen RNA samples just before denaturation and loading

  16. Silver and Cyanine Staining of Oligonucleotides in Polyacrylamide Gel

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei

    2015-01-01

    To explore why some oligonucleotides in denaturing polyacrylamide gel could not be silver-stained, 134 different oligonucleotides were analyzed using denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis stained with silver and asymmetric cyanine. As a result, we found that the sensitivity of oligos (dA), (dC), (dG) and (dT) to silver staining could be ranged as (dA) > (dG) > (dC) > (dT) from high to low. It was unexpected that oligo (dT) was hard to be silver-stained. Moreover, the silver staining of an oligonucleotide containing base T could be partially or completely inhibited by base T. The inhibition of silver staining by base T was a competitive inhibition which could be affected by the amounts of the argyrophil nucleobase and base T, the cis-distance between the argyrophil nucleobase and base T, and the gel concentration. The changes of the intensity of an oligonucleotide band caused by the changes of DNA base composition were diverse and interesting. The intensity of some oligonucleotide bands would significantly change when the changes of DNA base composition accumulated to a certain extent (usually ? 4 nt). The sensitivity of cyanine staining of ? 11-nt long oligonucleotides could be enhanced about 250-fold by fixing the gels with methanol fixing solution. PMID:26650843

  17. Western Blot of Stained Proteins from Dried Polyacrylamide Gels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruber, Claudia; Stan-Lotter, Helga

    1996-01-01

    Western blotting of proteins is customarily performed following their separation on polyacrylamide gels, either prior to staining (1) or, as recently reported, following staining (2). We describe here Western blotting with stained gels, which had been dried and some of which had been stored for years. This procedure permits immunological analysis of proteins, to which antisera may have become available only later, or where the application of newly developed sensitive detection methods is desired. Once rehydration of the gels is achieved, proteins can be-transferred to blotting membranes by any appropriate protocol. Proteins stained with Coomassie Blue have to be detected with a non-chromogenic method, such as the film-based enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL)2) procedure (3). Silver stained proteins, which transfer in the colorless form, may be visualized by any detection method, although, because of the usually very low amounts of proteins, detection by ECL is preferable. Blotting of stained proteins from rehydrated gels is as rapid and as quantitative as from freshly prepared gels, in contrast to blotting from wet stained gels, which requires extensive washing and results in low transfer efficiency (2). Together with a photographic record of the gel pattern, unambiguous identification of immunoreactive proteins from complex mixtures is possible. Some further applications of this work are discussed.

  18. [Immobilization of Citrobacter L-asparaginase in polyacrylamide gel].

    PubMed

    Galaev, Iu V; Chuplygina, E G; Klement'eva, T A

    1981-01-01

    Bacterial L-asparaginase, immobilized on polyacrylamide gel, exhibited higher stability to denaturation and to the effect of a proteolytic enzyme. The immobilized enzyme exhibited the pH optimum of activity displaced by one pH unit to the acid side as compared with the free enzyme. The apparent Km value was approximately 200-fold higher as compared with the free L-asparaginase. The immobilized asparaginase hydrolyzed both L- and D-asparagine isomers but the free enzyme was highly stereospecific. PMID:7293086

  19. Polyacrylamide gels synthesized in the presence of surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrapani, Mukundan

    The polymerization of acrylamide monomers in the presence of surfactant self-assemblies produces gels with variable pore architecture. Polyacrylamide gels were formed by polymerizing acrylamide plus a cross-linker in the presence of surfactants, which were then removed by soaking in distilled water. Gels formed in the presence of over 28% surfactant (by weight) formed clear, but became opaque upon removal of the surfactants. Other gels formed and remained clear. Several analytical techniques such as X-ray Scattering, Dynamic Rheology measurements, Optical Polarized Microscopy, and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) have been used to characterize the formation and the resulting gel structure. The surface morphology as imaged by AFM was studied by numerical scaling analysis. The surface morphology of the gels was studied by several one- and two-dimensional numerical scaling methods. The structure of the final gels were highly dependent on the amount of surfactant present during the formation of gels. At low surfactant concentrations (<25% by weight), the surfactant micelles are randomly distributed throughout the gel matrix. The average spacing between individual micelles is about 10 nm as indicated by X-ray scattering experiments. When the TTAB concentration is increased to moderate levels (25--28%), though the surfactant micelles are randomly distributed, a few surfactant-rich regions may form in the gel matrix. At high TTAB concentrations, phase separation of TTAB from the polymer leads to the formation of many surfactant-rich domains. A model for the gel structure based on symmetry and packing considerations for lattices of spheres of different concentrations was developed. This model was successfully used to interpret the physical observations, the experimental results, and the results from the scaling analysis. Highly porous gel networks with a high degree of mechanical strength have thus been synthesized. The controlled modification of gel structure provides new opportunities in the development of novel materials. A few areas of application include enzyme fixation for building biosensors, controlled release systems for drug delivery, support matrices for bio-molecule separation. The process of gel formation in the presence of unreactive surfactants can also be extended to alter the structure of other polymer materials.

  20. Investigations in x-ray computed tomography polyacrylamide gel dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Hilts, Michelle . E-mail: mhilts@bccancer.bc.ca

    2005-09-15

    Polyacrylamide gels (PAGs) are radiosensitive materials currently under development for use as three-dimensional (3D) dosimeters in radiation therapy. Dose information is recorded in the gels and extracted through imaging. X-ray computed tomography (CT) has emerged as a promising gel imaging method due to a change in gel density that occurs upon irradiation. The accessibility of CT technology to cancer hospitals makes CT read out clinically attractive; however, the technique remains of limited clinical use due in part to poor dose resolution. This thesis investigates the use of CT for extracting dose information from PAGs with an overall goal of improving achievable dose resolution. Thesis results are divided into three studies: a gel-compositional study, a study of noise and dose resolution, and a digital filtering study. The first study investigates the effects of gel composition on PAG CT dose response and the underlying density change. Results indicate dramatic variation in CT dose response sensitivity and range with gel composition. A model is developed to describe gel density change with dose, revealing two fundamental properties of the density to dose response: the density change per unit polymer yield is highest for gels with low and high concentrations of crosslinking molecules, and dose response sensitivity is linearly dependent on the total concentration of monomers in the gel. The second study investigates strategies for minimizing noise in CT polymer gel dosimetry and assesses system performance. Specifically, the effects of phantom design, scanning technique, and voxel size on image noise are investigated and the effect of scanning protocol on imaging time is established. The dose resolution achievable with an optimized system is then calculated, given voxel size and imaging time constraints, and compared with published values for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and optical CT gel dosimetry. The third study investigates the potential of image filtering for improved dose resolution in CT gel dosimetry. CT image noise is characterized and appropriate filters are tested on a CT image of a PAG irradiated with a clinically relevant dose distribution. Filter performance is found to vary dramatically, with the best filters more than halving the dose resolution without significantly distorting the spatial distribution of dose. In summary, this thesis provides insight into the fundamental nature of PAG density to dose response, develops strategies for minimizing image noise, quantifies system performance, and demonstrates that digital image filtering is an effective tool to provide additional improvements to dose resolution.

  1. Rheological properties of reactive extrusion modified waxy starch and waxy starch-polyacrylamide copolymer gels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rheological properties of modified waxy starch and waxy starch-polyacrylamide graft copolymers prepared by reactive extrusion were investigated. Both materials can absorb huge amount of water and form gels. The modified waxy starch and waxy starch-polyacrylamide graft copolymer gels all exhibite...

  2. Proton Diffusion and T1 Relaxation in Polyacrylamide Gels: A Unified Approach Using Volume Averaging

    E-print Network

    Kinsey, Stephen

    Proton Diffusion and T1 Relaxation in Polyacrylamide Gels: A Unified Approach Using Volume, Tallahassee, Florida Received January 13, 1998 The structure of polyacrylamide gels was studied using proton of the crosslinker concentration were accounted for by introducing the proton par- tition coefficient, Keq , between

  3. Characteristics of polyacrylamide gel with THPC and Turnbull Blue gel dosimeters evaluated using optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pila?ová (Vávr?), Kate?ina; Kozubíková, Petra; Šolc, Jaroslav; Sp?vá?ek, Václav

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare characteristics of radiochromic gel - Turnbull Blue gel (TB gel) with polymer gel - polyacrylamide gel and tetrakis hydroxymethyl phosphonium chloride (PAGAT) using optical tomography. Both types of gels were examined in terms of dose sensitivity, dose response linearity and background value of spectrophotometric absorbance. The calibration curve was obtained for 60Co irradiation performed on Gammacell 220 at predefined gamma dose levels between 0 and 140 Gy for TBG and 0-15 Gy for PAGAT. To measure relative dose distributions from stereotactic irradiation, dosimeters were irradiated on Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion. The cylindrical glass housings filled with gel were attached to the stereotactic frame. They were exposed with single shot and 16 mm collimator by 65 Gy to a 50% prescription isodose for TB gel and 4 Gy to a 50% prescription isodose for PAGAT. Evaluations of dosimeters were performed on an UV-vis Spectrophotometer Helios ? and an optical cone beam homemade tomography scanner with a 16-bit astronomy CCD camera with a set of color filters. The advantages and potential disadvantages for both types of gel dosimeters were summarized. Dose distribution in central slice and measured profiles of 16 mm shot shows excellent correspondence with treatment planning system Leksell GammaPlan® for both PAGAT and Turnbull Blue gels. Gel dosimeters are suitable for steep dose gradient verification. An optical tomography evaluation method is successful. Dose response characteristics of TB gel and PAGAT gel are presented.

  4. Scalable lithography from Natural DNA Patterns via polyacrylamide gel

    PubMed Central

    Qu, JieHao; Hou, XianLiang; Fan, WanChao; Xi, GuangHui; Diao, HongYan; Liu, XiangDon

    2015-01-01

    A facile strategy for fabricating scalable stamps has been developed using cross-linked polyacrylamide gel (PAMG) that controllably and precisely shrinks and swells with water content. Aligned patterns of natural DNA molecules were prepared by evaporative self-assembly on a PMMA substrate, and were transferred to unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) to form a negative replica. The negative was used to pattern the linear structures onto the surface of water-swollen PAMG, and the pattern sizes on the PAMG stamp were customized by adjusting the water content of the PAMG. As a result, consistent reproduction of DNA patterns could be achieved with feature sizes that can be controlled over the range of 40%–200% of the original pattern dimensions. This methodology is novel and may pave a new avenue for manufacturing stamp-based functional nanostructures in a simple and cost-effective manner on a large scale. PMID:26639572

  5. Direct Immunodetection of Antigens Within the Precast Polyacrylamide Gel.

    PubMed

    Desai, Surbhi; Dworecki, Boguslawa R; Nlend, Marie C

    2015-01-01

    Western blotting is one of the few basic techniques widely used in the study of proteins in life science research. Despite its prevalence, the procedure has remained practically unchanged for more than 20 years. Although the method is viewed as being error-prone and as requiring excessive hands-on time, it is still widely accepted because it provides sensitive and direct information about the protein characteristics. The process is attractive to researchers because it reduces the investment in instrumentation and setup. Here we describe a procedure that eliminates the transfer step of western blotting and allows for antigen detection directly within the polyacrylamide gel, thus minimizing the investment necessary for setting up western blotting. PMID:26139259

  6. X-ray CT dose in normoxic polyacrylamide gel dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, P.; Jirasek, A.; Hilts, M.

    2007-06-15

    This study reports on the effects of x-ray CT dose in CT imaged normoxic polyacrylamide (nPAG) gel dosimeters. The investigation is partitioned into three sections. First, the CT dose absorbed in nPAG is quantified under a range of typical gel CT imaging protocols. It is found that the maximum absorbed CT dose occurs for volumetric imaging and is in the range of 4.6{+-}0.2 cGy/image. This does scales linearly with image averaging. Second, using Raman spectroscopy, the response of nPAG to CT imaging photon energies (i.e., 120-140 kVp) is established and compared to the well known dose response of nPAG exposed to 6 MV photons. It is found that nPAG exhibits a weaker response (per unit dose) to 140-kVp incident photons as compared to 6 MV incident photons (slopes m{sub 6MV}=-0.0374{+-}0.0006 Gy{sup -1} and m{sub 140kVp}=-0.016{+-}0.001 Gy{sup -1}). Finally, using the above data, an induced change in CT number ({delta}N{sub CT}) is calculated for nPAG imaged using a range of gel imaging protocols. It is found that under typical imaging protocols (120-140 kVp, 200 mAs, {approx}16-32 image averages) a {delta}N{sub CT}<0.2 H is induced in active nPAG dosimeters. This {delta}N{sub CT} is below the current limit of detectability of CT nPAG polymer gel dosimetry. Under expanded imaging protocols (e.g., very high number of image averages) an induced {delta}N{sub CT} of {approx}0.5 H is possible. In these situations the additional polymerization occurring in nPAG due to the imaging process may need to be accounted for.

  7. Destaining of Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250-stained polyacrylamide gels with fungal laccase.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Yang, Xiaodan; Ye, Xiuyun; Lin, Juan

    2016-01-15

    An enzyme-based method for destaining polyacrylamide gels stained with Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250 is described. Distilled water supplemented with diluted fermentation broth of a laccase-producing white-rot fungus, Cerrena sp., was used for gel destaining, and a clear gel background was obtained in 2 h at 37 °C. Sensitivity of protein detection was 10 ng. The method did not require organic solvents or changing the destaining solution. Due to simultaneous gel destaining and dye decolorization, the colorless destaining solution can be disposed of directly. Laccase destaining of polyacrylamide gels was simple, efficient, and environmentally friendly. PMID:26475566

  8. Nonreducing two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic analysis of human colonic proteins.

    PubMed

    Reid, G E; Ji, H; Eddes, J S; Moritz, R L; Simpson, R J

    1995-07-01

    Immunochemical detection of proteins with antigenic determinants that are dependent on the native spatial conformation of the protein can often pose problems with conventional two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE). For example, many antigenic determinants are readily destroyed by reducing agents and/or urea, reagents which are critical components of many of the conventional isoelectric focusing and immobilized-pH-gradient (IPG) protocols used in the first electrophoretic dimension. Here we describe the use of commercially available precast 2-DE gels for performing nonreducing/non-urea 2-DE of proteins extracted from the human colon cancer cell line LIM 1215 with 0.3% Triton X-100 that permit the identification of antigens with conformational determinants by immunoblot analysis. Previous, related studies demonstrated the usefulness of peptide-mass fingerprinting for identifying 2-DE resolved proteins. Here we show how partial protein sequence data obtained by rapid peptide mapping, using capillary column liquid chromatography directly coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric methodologies, enhances the usefulness of this approach for identifying incompletely resolved proteins. The nonreducing 2-DE gel images reported in this study, along with our master 2-DE gel protein database for both normal human colonic crypts and several colon-cancer-derived cell lines, and information regarding microtechniques employed in this laboratory for obtaining structural data on 2-DE resolved proteins can be accessed over the Internet using World Wide Web (URL address: http:@www.ludwig.edu.au). PMID:7498156

  9. Photo-initiated cross-linked polyacrylamide gels for microdevice electrophoresis 

    E-print Network

    Agrawal, Shilpa

    2005-08-29

    Photo-polymerized cross-linked polyacrylamide gels are becoming increasingly important for use in micro-fabricated DNA electrophoresis systems because they allow a concentrated sieving matrix to be precisely positioned at any location within a...

  10. Ultrasonic Investigation of the Gelation Process of Poly(Acrylamide) Gels

    E-print Network

    Page, John

    Ultrasonic Investigation of the Gelation Process of Poly(Acrylamide) Gels Tomohisa Norisuye,*1 Anatoliy Strybulevych,2 Martin Scanlon,3 John Page2 Summary: The time evolution of ultrasonic velocity. Longitudinal ultrasonic pulses were transmitted through the gel samples and continuously recorded to obtain

  11. Effects of degree of hydrolysis and shear on gelation reaction kinetics and gel strength. [Polyacrylamides

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Hong W.

    1991-02-01

    Gelation tests were conducted to investigate the effect of the degree of hydrolysis on gelation reaction kinetics and gel strength using four low-molecular-weight polyacrylamides (MW = 400,000 daltons), which were 10% (HPAM1-10), 20% (HPAM1-20), 30% (HAPM1-30), and 40% (HPAM-40) hydrolyzed, and Cr-3 (pH = 4.8) and Al-3 (pH = 7.0) crosslinkers. Results showed that for polymer/Cr-3 gel systems, samples prepared with a low-molecular-weight polyacrylamide polymer, which was 20% hydrolyzed, gelled at a faster rate and retained higher gel strength than those prepared with a low-molecular-weight polyacrylamide polymer, which was 10% hydrolyzed. Under the screening condition, no viscosity enhancement was observed in samples prepared with polymers having a degree of hydrolysis equal to or greater than 30%. For polymer/Al-3 gel systems, samples prepared with a low-molecular-weight polyacrylamide polymer, which was 20% hydrolyzed, gelled at the fastest rate and retained the strongest gel strength among the polymer/Al-3 gel systems prepared with four low-molecular-weight polyacrylamide polymers, which were 10, 20, 30, and 40% hydrolyzed, respectively. Gelation tests of gel systems in glass bead packs showed that high shear favored the gelation of a gel system that had a fast rate of gelation, but had an adverse effect on the gelation of three gel systems that had a slow rate of gelation. Weak gels were found to be injectable through porous media. Weak gels were degradable under high shear condition and regained viscosity under low shear conditions. 17 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Resolution of glycogen phosphorylase isoenzymes in precast PhastSystem polyacrylamide gels.

    PubMed

    Mayer, D; Letsch, I

    1991-04-01

    Homogeneous (7.5%) and gradient (10-15%) ultrathin nondenaturating miniaturized polyacrylamide gels (Pharmacia PhastGel media) were used to separate glycogen phosphorylase isoforms from rabbit muscle, rat liver and brain, MH 3924A cells, a dedifferentiated hepatocellular carcinoma of the rat, and C1I cells, a nontumorigenic epithelial rat liver cell line. The enzymes were detected by in situ phosphorylase assay and by immunoblotting. Phosphorylase proteins from the brain, MH 3924A, and C1I exhibited similar electrophoretic mobility, which was different from that of the enzymes from the muscle and normal liver. Molecular weight determination from sodium dodecyl sulfate gels yielded similar data for the subunits of muscle and liver enzymes (98,000 and 96,000), respectively, on one hand, and brain, MH 3924A tumor, and nontumorigenic C1I cells (93,000, 93,000 and 92,000), respectively, on the other. In the native gels the enzymes migrated as dimers: for muscle phosphorylase a, a tetramer was also observed. The a and b forms of the enzymes could not be resolved. An antibody raised against rat liver phosphorylase reacted only with the liver enzyme, whereas an antibody raised against brain phosphorylase stained the brain enzyme and the enzymes from MH 3924A and C1I cells. This indicates that hepatoma cells and immortalized nontumorigenic epithelial liver cells express a phosphorylase isoenzyme that is different from the liver type but similar to the brain type. The PhastSystem provides a rapid, sensitive, and highly reproducible method to resolve the different isoenzymes of glycogen phosphorylase. PMID:2070785

  13. Dose overshoot reduction by tetrakis hydroxymethyl phosphonium chloride in polyacrylamide gel dosimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vávru, K.; Šemnická, J.; Sp?vá?ek, V.

    2010-11-01

    This work deals with an influence of the antioxidant tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride (THPC) on the edge enhancing effect of a polyacrylamid gel and THPC (PAGAT) dosimeter. Four batches of PAGAT gel were produced with different THPC concentrations: 0, 1, 2 and 4 mM. It was proved that antioxidant THPC reduce the edge enhancing effects on the cost of reduced sensitivity of the gel dosimeter.

  14. A method for the preparation of low-pH dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gradient gels.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, G D; Wilson, M T; Darley-Usmar, V M

    1981-01-01

    1. A low-pH lithium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gradient slab-gel system, suitable for electrophoresis, is described, and the migration properties of standard proteins are compared on this and conventional high-pH gels. 2. Cytochrome oxidase may be partially resolved into its component polypeptides. The order of migration of these is, however, dependent on the pH of the gel system. PMID:6272713

  15. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of extracellular soybean pathogenesis-related proteins using PhastSystem.

    PubMed

    Roggero, P; Pennazio, S

    1990-01-01

    Acidic and basic pathogenesis-related proteins (PR-Ps) were extracted from the intercellular fluid (IF) of soybean leaves, locally infected with tobacco necrosis virus and showing necrotic local lesions. Proteins were detected by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) using PhastSystem and precast commercially available gels. Extracts from healthy leaves were run as controls. PR-Ps were first run under native PAGE conditions or isoelectric focusing (IEF), the gels stained with Coomassie Blue, then run under sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-denaturing conditions and finally stained with silver. Ten major acidic PR-Ps were separated; their Mr's were close to those found by conventional PAGE. Their isoelectric points ranged from 3.5 to 5.0. Ten basic PR-Ps were separated and their Mr's estimated. None of these acidic or basic soybean PR-Ps was a glycoprotein. PAGE with PhastSystem and precast gels gives reliable results, comparable with those from conventional 2D-PAGE, with simpler experimental procedures. By electrophoresing Coomassie-stained gels with SDS in the second dimension, we were able to control the first-dimensional separation and to avoid laborious protocols generally adopted with unstained gels. PMID:2318193

  16. [Protein analysis of 6 crude drugs and their processed products by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis technique].

    PubMed

    Shi, J; Sun, L; Jing, X

    1995-09-01

    In this paper, the proteins in 6 crude drugs (Prunus persica; P. armeniaca; Dolichos lablab; Strychnos nux-vomica; Mylabris phalerata; Whitmania pigra) and their processed products were analysed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis technique, and the effect of different processing methods on the quantity and kind of protein was explored. Protein electrophorograms of 20 samples are drawn. PMID:8679088

  17. odium dodecyl sulfate polyacry-lamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    prior to entering the resolving gel. Second was the use of the detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS's partner brand, Calbiochem. Solutions must be carefully and safely pre- pared, dated, and chemical lot

  18. Method for the detection and differentiation of cellulase components in polyacrylamide gels

    SciTech Connect

    Bartley, T.D.; Murphy-Holland, K.; Eveleigh, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    Endoglucanase and exoglucanase components of cellulase can be detected and differentiated after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis by performing activity stains. Endoglucanase activity was visualized in carboxymethyl cellulose agar replicas of gels by staining with Congo red. General ..beta..-1,4-glucanase activity was located by soaking the gel in a solution of NaBH/sub 4/-reduced cellulo-oligosaccharides, and detecting the formation of reducing sugars by reaction with triphenyl tetrazolium chloride. Endoglucanases are active in both assays, while exoglucanases can be distinguished by their activity in the cellulo-oligosaccharide assay only. This methodology has facilitated the purification and characterization of cellulase components from Trichoderma reesei and Microbispora bispora.

  19. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic methods in the separation of structural muscle proteins.

    SciTech Connect

    Barany, K.; Barany, M.; Giometti, C. S.; Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago

    1995-04-28

    Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis plays a major role in analyzing the function of muscle structural proteins. This review describes one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoretic methods for qualitative and quantitative investigation of the muscle proteins, with special emphasis on determination of protein phosphorylation. The electrophoretic studies established the subunit structures of the muscle proteins, characterized their multiple forms, revealed changes in subunit composition or shifts in isoform distribution of specific proteins during development, upon stimulation or denervation of the muscle. Protein phosphorylation during muscle contraction is preferentially studied by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The same method demonstrated protein alterations in human neuromuscular diseases.

  20. Pressure-induced volume phase transition of polyacrylamide gels in acetone-water mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Eiji

    2000-07-01

    Equilibrium swelling curves of ionized polyacrylamide gels immersed in acetone-water mixtures were measured as a function of pressure up to pressures of 300 MPa. The gels, which shrank at atmospheric pressure, underwent an abrupt volume change (pressure-induced volume phase transition) from a shrunken state to a swollen state at the transition pressure. The transition pressure increased with an increase of acetone concentration. The pressure-induced volume phase transition can be interpreted by taking account of the free-energy change ?V?P between swollen (hydrated) and shrunken (dehydrated) states. The ?V represents the difference between the molar volume of water structured around hydrophilic groups of polyacrylamide chains and that of free water in the bulk mixtures. The estimated value of ?V is -3.3 mL/mol, which qualitatively agrees with that obtained from the experiments of denaturation of proteins. The pressure-induced volume phase transition is generally expected in many hydrogels.

  1. Sensitive silver-staining detection of bacterial lipopolysaccharides in polyacrylamide gels.

    PubMed

    Kittelberger, R; Hilbink, F

    1993-02-01

    For sensitive detection of bacterial lipopolysaccharides in the nanogram range, three almost identical silver-staining methods are often used, which are based on ammoniacal silver solutions and an acidic developer. We modified a method used for proteins, based on neutral silver nitrate solution and an alkaline developer, for the visualization of lipopolysaccharides in polyacrylamide gels, which yields better sensitivity and is much less prone to formation of non-specific background staining than the acidic developer-based silver stains. PMID:8387076

  2. Analysis of mucosal mucins separated by SDS-urea agarose polyacrylamide composite gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Issa, Samah M A; Schulz, Benjamin L; Packer, Nicolle H; Karlsson, Niclas G

    2011-12-01

    Efficient separation of mucins (200 kDa-2 MDa) was demonstrated using gradient SDS agarose/polyacrylamide composite gel electrophoresis (SDS-AgPAGE). Inclusion of urea (SDS-UAgPAGE) in the gels casting were shown to have no effect on the migration of mucins in the gel and allowed casting of gel at room temperature. This simplified the procedure for multiple casting of agarose polyacrylamide gradients and increased reproducibility of these gels. Hence, the implementation of urea makes the technique applicable for high throughput isolation and screening of mucin oligosaccharides by LC-MS after releasing the oligosaccharides from isolated, blotted mucin subpopulations. It was also shown that the urea addition had no effect on other supporting applications such as western and lectin blotting. In addition, identification of the mucin protein after tryptic digestion and LC-MS was possible and no protein carbamylation due to the presence of urea in the gel was detected. LC-MS software developed for metabolomic analysis was used for O-linked oligosaccharide detection and differential display of various mucin samples. Using this method, heterogeneous glycosylation of mucins and mucin-type molecules isolated by SDS-AgPAGE and SDS-UAgPAGE was shown to consist of more than 80 different components in a single band, and in the extreme cases, up to 300-500 components (MUC5B/AC from saliva and sputum and). Metabolomic software was also used to show that the migration of mucin isoforms within the gel is due to heterogeneous size distribution of the oligosaccharides, with the slower migrating bands enriched in high-molecular-weight oligosaccharides. PMID:22120911

  3. Correlation between the spermatozoal characteristics and sperm penetration distance in polyacrylamide gel and bovine cervical mucus.

    PubMed

    Anilkumar, R; Devanathan, T G; Pattabiraman, S R; Edwin, M J

    2001-01-15

    Correlation between the spermatozoal characteristics and the sperm penetration distance in polyacrylamide gel was assessed, utilizing frozen thawed semen samples obtained from 6 bulls, and it was compared with the correlation between sperm penetration in bovine cervical mucus and spermatozoal characteristics. In vitro sperm penetration tests were performed with mucus and gel. The sperm penetration in gel and mucus was significantly and positively correlated with post-thaw motility (r=0.81; r=0.89:P<0.01) and acrosome integrity (r=0.88; r=0.94:P<0.01). A significant negative correlation with abnormal spermatozoa (r=-0.84;r=0.83:P<0.01) was observed. Both sperm concentration and post-thaw live spermatozoa were not significantly correlated. A significant multiple regression between sperm penetration and the spermatozoal characteristics both in gel (R2=0.87; F=40.27; P<0.01) and mucus (R2=0.91; F=60.48; P<0.01) was observed. The major spermatozoal characteristics determining the capacity of spermatozoa to penetrate gel were post-thaw motility, percentage of abnormal spermatozoa and acrosome integrity. The acrosome integrity has a more significant contribution. The correlation established with sperm penetration in gel was very similar to that of sperm penetration in mucus. The utility of gel as a mucus substitute in in vitro sperm penetration tests was discussed. PMID:11233793

  4. Detection of calcium binding proteins on polyacrylamide gels using time-resolved lanthanide luminescence photography.

    PubMed

    Hill, I E; Hogue, C W; Clark, I D; MacManus, J P; Szabo, A G

    1994-02-01

    Methods were developed for using the luminescent lanthanides Tb3+ and Eu3+ for the specific staining of calcium-binding proteins, as well as the nonspecific staining of proteins, on polyacrylamide gels. These methods involve equilibration of the gel after electrophoresis in solutions containing the appropriate lanthanide and a weak competitive chelating agent, such as N-(2-hydroxyethyl)iminodiacetic acid or nitrilotriacetic acid. This staining has the potential for complete reversibility using stronger chelating agents such as EDTA or diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, to allow for recovery of the protein. Specific staining produces an intense luminescent signal from those metal-binding proteins which have been modified either chemically or via site-directed mutagenesis. Gels were photographed using a time-resolved fluorescence camera system. PMID:7513974

  5. Accommodating brightness and exposure levels in densitometry of stained polyacrylamide electrophoresis gels

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Han Yen; Ng, Tuck Wah; Liew, Oi Wah

    2010-03-20

    Flatbed scanner densitometers can be operated under various illumination and recording exposure levels. In this work, we show that optical density measurement accuracy, sensitivity, and stability of stained polyacrylamide electrophoresis gel densitometry are crucially dependent on these two factors (brightness and exposure level), notwithstanding that the source is monochromatic, spatially uniform, and the measurements are made using an accurately calibrated step wedge in tandem. We further outline a method to accommodate the intensity deviations over a range of illumination and exposure levels in order to maintain sensitivity and repeatability in the computed optical densities. Comparisons were also made with results from a commercial densitometer.

  6. Diffraction gratings and diffusion coefficient determination of acrylamide and polyacrylamide in sol-gel glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaya, S.; Murciano, A.; Acebal, P.; Carretero, L.; Ulibarrena, M.; Fimia, A.

    2004-06-01

    We describe the recording of holographic gratings in a photopolymerizable sol-gel glass based on acrylamide as monomer, triethanolamine as coinitiator, and yellowish eosin as photoinitiator. Although acrylic monomers have been introduced in silica glass by Cheben and Calvo [Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1490 (2001)], the well-known acrylamide based composition has not yet been produced by this method. Diffraction efficiencies close to 55% were obtained with an exposure of 8 mJ/cm2. The holographic gratings were not stable and we made use of this instability to determine the diffusion coefficients of acrylamide and polyacrylamide inside this glass.

  7. Improved staining of proteins in polyacrylamide gels including isoelectric focusing gels with clear background at nanogram sensitivity using Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 and R-250.

    PubMed

    Neuhoff, V; Arold, N; Taube, D; Ehrhardt, W

    1988-06-01

    An improved procedure for staining of proteins following separation in polyacrylamide gels is described which utilizes the colloidal properties of Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 and R-250. The new method is based on addition of 20% v/v methanol and higher concentrations of ammonium sulfate to the staining solution previously described. The method combines the advantage of much shorter staining time with high sensitivity, a clear background not requiring destaining, stepwise staining, and stable fixation after staining. The method has been applied to staining of polyacrylamide gels after sodium dodecyl sulfate-electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing in carrier ampholyte-generated pH gradients. PMID:2466658

  8. Phosphoprotein staining for sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis using fluorescent reagent morin hydrate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Hwang, Sun-Young; Cong, Wei-Tao; Jin, Li-Tai; Choi, Jung-Kap

    2013-04-01

    A fluorescence-based stain with 3,5,7,2',4'-pentahydroxyflavone (morin hydrate, MH) was designed to stain phosphoproteins in one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Al(3+) was applied as a "fixed bridge," providing an efficient energy transfer channel between phosphoprotein and MH, to produce a strong fluorescent complex for the determination of phosphoprotein. As little as 62.5ng of ?-casein (7 or 8 phosphates) and ?-casein (5 phosphates), 125ng of ovalbumin (2 phosphates), and ?-casein (1 phosphate) could be visualized with a wide linear dynamic range. In comparison with conventional methods, MH stain is a time-saving method that takes just 90min. It also has good compatibility with routine protein stainings such as Coomassie Brilliant Blue R (CBBR) and SYPRO Ruby for total protein analysis. PMID:23274386

  9. Agarose and Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis Methods for Molecular Mass Analysis of 5–500 kDa Hyaluronan

    PubMed Central

    Bhilocha, Shardul; Amin, Ripal; Pandya, Monika; Yuan, Han; Tank, Mihir; LoBello, Jaclyn; Shytuhina, Anastasia; Wang, Wenlan; Wisniewski, Hans-Georg; de la Motte, Carol; Cowman, Mary K.

    2011-01-01

    Agarose and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis systems for the molecular mass-dependent separation of hyaluronan (HA) in the size range of approximately 5–500 kDa have been investigated. For agarose-based systems, the suitability of different agarose types, agarose concentrations, and buffers systems were determined. Using chemoenzymatically synthesized HA standards of low polydispersity, the molecular mass range was determined for each gel composition, over which the relationship between HA mobility and logarithm of the molecular mass was linear. Excellent linear calibration was obtained for HA molecular mass as low as approximately 9 kDa in agarose gels. For higher resolution separation, and for extension to molecular masses as low as approximately 5 kDa, gradient polyacrylamide gels were superior. Densitometric scanning of stained gels allowed analysis of the range of molecular masses present in a sample, and calculation of weight-average and number-average values. The methods were validated for polydisperse HA samples with viscosity-average molecular masses of 112, 59, 37, and 22 kDa, at sample loads of 0.5 µg (for polyacrylamide) to 2.5 µg (for agarose). Use of the methods for electrophoretic mobility shift assays was demonstrated for binding of the HA-binding region of aggrecan (recombinant human aggrecan G1-IGD-G2 domains) to a 150 kDa HA standard. PMID:21684248

  10. Deoxyribonuclease zymography adapted to the precast PhastGel electrophoresis media.

    PubMed

    Straetkvern, K O; Raae, A J

    1990-04-01

    A set-up for casting fluorescent indicator agarose gels on ultrathin polyacrylamide microelectrophoresis gel media (Pharmacia PhastGel media) is described. The zymogram system allows a rapid and sensitive detection of deoxyribonuclease in various gel media, following isoelectric focusing, native and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. PMID:1692791

  11. Nonlinear elastic properties of polyacrylamide gels: Implications for quantification of cellular forces

    PubMed Central

    Boudou, Thomas; Ohayon, Jacques; Picart, Catherine; Pettigrew, Roderic I.; Tracqui, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Because of their tunable mechanical properties, polyacrylamide gels (PAG) are frequently used for studying cell adhesion and migratory responses to extracellular substrate stiffness. Since these responses are known to heavily depend on the tensional balance between cell contractility and substrate mechanical resistance, a precise knowledge of PAG’s mechanical properties becomes quite crucial. Using the micropipette aspiration technique, we first exhibited the nonlinear elastic behavior of PAG and then successfully modeled it by an original strain-energy function. This function depends on the Poisson’s ratio and on two material parameters, which have been explicitly related to acrylamide and bis-acrylamide concentrations. Implications of these results have been highlighted with regard to traction force microscopy experiments where cellular force quantification is derived from displacements of beads embedded in PAG. We found that considering PAG as a linear elastic medium tends to significantly underestimate traction forces for substrate displacements larger than 2 ?m. Interestingly, we also showed that in the range of cellular force amplitude and PAG stiffness currently used in cell traction force experiments, finite size effects become critical for PAG substrate thickness below 60 ?m. Thus, our improved characterization of PAG nonlinear mechanical properties through a new constitutive law could have significant impact onto biological experimentations where such extracellular substrates experience large strains. PMID:19581727

  12. A new method for HDL particle sizing by polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis using whole plasma.

    PubMed

    Pérusse, M; Pascot, A; Després, J P; Couillard, C; Lamarche, B

    2001-08-01

    Low plasma levels of HDL cholesterol have been associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease. HDL particles are heterogeneous with respect to size and apolipoprotein content. The objective of the present study was to develop a method to generate lipid-stainable calibrators that would allow the assessment of HDL particle size from whole plasma, using polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis (PAGGE). Lipid-stainable HDL calibrators were obtained by subjecting isolated red blood cells to hemolysis either by freezing at -20 or -80 degrees C overnight or by rapid exposure to liquid nitrogen and mixing of the hemolysis products with plasma aliquots. All three methods were highly reproducible in producing Sudan black lipid-stainable HDL calibrators ranging from 75 to 200 A. The assessment of HDL particle size with these lipid-stainable HDL calibrators was also highly reproducible, with a coefficient of variation below 5.5%. These lipid-stainable HDL calibrators simplify the assessment of HDL particle size by PAGGE using whole plasma, without the need for costly, time-consuming ultracentrifugation procedures. PMID:11483636

  13. Fiber based optical tweezers for simultaneous in situ force exertion and measurements in a 3D polyacrylamide gel compartment

    PubMed Central

    Ti, Chaoyang; Thomas, Gawain M; Ren, Yundong; Zhang, Rui; Wen, Qi; Liu, Yuxiang

    2015-01-01

    Optical tweezers play an important role in biological applications. However, it is difficult for traditional optical tweezers based on objective lenses to work in a three-dimensional (3D) solid far away from the substrate. In this work, we develop a fiber based optical trapping system, namely inclined dual fiber optical tweezers, that can simultaneously apply and measure forces both in water and in a 3D polyacrylamide gel matrix. In addition, we demonstrate in situ, non-invasive characterization of local mechanical properties of polyacrylamide gel by measurements on an embedded bead. The fiber optical tweezers measurements agree well with those of atomic force microscopy (AFM). The inclined dual fiber optical tweezers provide a promising and versatile tool for cell mechanics study in 3D environments. PMID:26203364

  14. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of urinary protein in acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Suhail, Sufi M; Woo, K T; Tan, H K; Wong, K S

    2011-07-01

    Recent experimental and clinical studies have shown the importance of urinary proteomics in acute kidney injury (AKI). We analyzed the protein in urine of patients with clinical AKI using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) for its diagnostic value, and followed them up for 40 months to evaluate prognosis. Urine from 31 consecutive cases of AKI was analyzed with SDS-PAGE to determine the low, middle and high molecular weight proteins. Fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) was estimated from serum and urine creatinine and sodium (Na). The cases were followed-up for 40 months from the end of the recruitment of study cases. Glomerular protein was higher in the hematuria group when compared with the non-hematuria group (P <0.04) and in the AKI group than in the acute on chronic renal failure (AKI-on-CRF) group (P <0.002). Tubular protein was higher in the AKI-on-CRF group (P <0.003) than in the AKI group. Tubular protein correlated with FENa in groups with diabetes mellitus (DM), AKI-on-CRF, and without hematuria (P <0.03, P <0.02 and P <0.004, respectively). Pattern of protein did not differ between groups with and without DM and clinical acute tubular necrosis (ATN). At the end of 40 months follow-up, category with predominantly glomerular protein progressed to chronic renal failure (CRF) or end-stage renal failure in higher proportion (P <0.05). In clinical AKI, we observed that glomerular protein dominated in cases with glomerular insult, as indicated by hematuria. Tubular protein was common in the study cases with CRF, DM and cases without hematuria. This indicates tubulo-interstitial injury for AKI in these cases. Patients with predominantly glomerular protein had an adverse outcome. PMID:21743220

  15. Precast commercial polyacrylamide gels for separation of DNA amplificates by temperature gradient gel electrophoresis: application to clonality analysis of lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Suttorp, M; von Neuhoff, N; Tiemann, M; Dreger, P; Schaub, J; Löffer, H; Parwaresch, R; Schmitz, N

    1996-04-01

    The third complementary determining region (CDR-III) of the rearranged immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) genes represents a unique marker for a lymphocyte and its clonal descendants and can be amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. This approach has markedly enhanced the sensitivity for detection of clonal lymphocyte populations in patients with malignant B-lymphoid neoplasias. To monitor minimal residual disease (MRD) in tissue specimens during or after antineoplastic treatment, the problem of detecting the presence of a few clonal (malignant) lymphocytes in coexistence with a majority of polyclonal lymphocytes has to be addressed. Semi-nested PCR amplification of CDR-III rearrangements from specimen infiltrated by tumor cells generates clonal signals in front of a polyclonal background, and therefore high resolution electrophoretic techniques for separation of DNA fragments are required. Temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) resolving DNA homo- and heteroduplexes according to their thermal stability has been successfully applied for this purpose using special electrophoretic equipment. We describe an adjustment to this technique by using a commercially available precast 0.5 mm thick polyacrylamide gel and by changing a standard horizontal electrophoretic device into a TGGE device. By this means we screened patients with B-cell lymphoma undergoing high-dosage radiochemotherapy followed by autologous transplantation for continuous presence of clonal (tumor-specific) CDR-III rearrangements. Specimens from blood and bone marrow were collected on diagnosis as well as before and after autologous transplantation. In addition, the autograft (bone marrow or peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cells) was analyzed. Tumor cells were easily detected in the transplants and in specimens collected during follow-up examinations. The clinical value of these findings remains unclear as yet because the number of cases investigated was small and the follow-up time is still too short. However, we conclude that the technique of combining the sensitivity of PCR with the specificity of high resolution TGGE is easy to use, making it possible to handle, in a clinical routine, a great number of samples within a short time in order to monitor MRD in patients with B-cell neoplasias. PMID:8738325

  16. Applicability of RAPD markers on silver-stained polyacrylamide gels to ascertain genetic diversity in Peripatus acacioi (Peripatidae; Onychophora).

    PubMed

    DeLaat, Daiane Mariele; Carvalho, Maria Raquel Santos; Lovato, Maria Bernadete; Acedo, Maria Dolores Porto; da Fonseca, Cleusa Graça

    2005-01-01

    RAPD (random amplification of polymorphic DNA) molecular markers can be utilized for analyzing genetic variability in populations for which only a few or no molecular markers are available. They were used in a study of an endangered species, Peripatus acacioi, found in the Tripuí Ecological Station, in Ouro Preto, MG, Brazil. The ecological station was specifically created to protect this velvet worm species, the first of this group found in Brazil. For an initial evaluation of the genetic diversity of this species, DNA samples from the lobopods of four individuals, collected at random, were analyzed using RAPD. Each reaction was run with a different primer (Operon RAPD 10-mer Kits), totaling 13 primers (OPC2, OPC3, OPC4, OPC6, OPC8, OPC10, OPC11, OPL2, OPL7, OPL11, OPL13, OPL18, and OPL19). Due to the low amplification yield, RAPD fragments were separated in polyacrylamide gels and stained with silver nitrate. Numerous bands were observed. Fifty-five of the amplified bands proved to be reproducible, both in terms of presence and intensity. Among these, 27 were variable and 28 were constant. The average number of bands per gel was 4.2. Nine of the 13 primers tested allowed the identification of constant and variable bands among these four individuals. RAPD analysis of genetic variation using silver-stained polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis provided measures of band sharing among the individuals, and therefore could be used in population genetics studies of P. acacioi. PMID:16475117

  17. Nanopore density effect of polyacrylamide gel plug on electrokinetic ion enrichment in a micro-nanofluidic chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun-yao; Xu, Zheng; Li, Yong-kui; Liu, Chong; Liu, Jun-shan; Chen, Li; Du, Li-qun; Wang, Li-ding

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, the nanopore density effect on ion enrichment is quantitatively described with the ratio between electrophoresis flux and electroosmotic flow flux based on the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations. A polyacrylamide gel plug is integrated into a microchannel to form a micro-nanofluidic chip. With the chip, electrokinetic ion enrichment is relatively stable and enrichment ratio of fluorescein isothiocyanate can increase to 600-fold within 120 s at the electric voltage of 300 V. Both theoretical research and experiments show that enrichment ratio can be improved through increasing nanopore density. The result will be beneficial to the design of micro-nanofluidic chips.

  18. Activity Stain for Rapid Characterization of Pectic Enzymes in Isoelectric Focusing and Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gels

    PubMed Central

    Ried, J. L.; Collmer, A.

    1985-01-01

    A system was developed for the rapid characterization of microbial pectic enzyme complexes and then tested on Erwinia chrysanthemi and Sclerotium rolfsii. Pectic enzymes in minute samples of crude culture filtrates were resolved by ultrathin-layer polyacrylamide gel isoelectric focusing and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and then assayed with an ultrathin pectate-agarose overlay stained with ruthenium red. The simple procedure can be completed within 30 min after isoelectric focusing, can detect extremely low levels of pectate lyase (6.4 × 10?6 ?mol of product per min), and is sufficiently sensitive to determine the pectate lyase isozyme profile of a single bacterial colony with a diameter of 4 mm. Pectate lyases and polygalacturonases can be distinguished by altering buffer conditions in the overlays. The assay system revealed additional isozymes not resolved by classical techniques and generally corroborated the previously published isoelectric points and molecular weights of the pectate lyase isozymes and exo-poly-?-d-galacturonosidase produced by E. chrysanthemi and the endopolygalacturonase and exopolygalacturonase produced by S. rolfsii. Images PMID:16346881

  19. The Use of Polyacrylamide Gels for Mechanical Calibration of Cartilage – A Combined Nanoindentation and Unconfined Compression Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cheng; Allen, Jessica; Alliston, Tamara; Pruitt, Lisa A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates polyacrylamide (PA) gel as a calibration material to measure the nanomechanical compressive modulus of cartilage using nanoindentation. Both nanoindentation and unconfined compression testing were performed on PA gel and porcine rib cartilage. The equilibrium moduli measured by the two methods were discernable. Nanoindentation has the advantage of distinguishing between spatially dependent constituent properties that affect tissue mechanical function in heterogeneous and hierarchically structured tissues such as cartilage. Both sets of measurements exhibited similar positive correlation with increasing gel crosslinker concentration. The compressive modulus measurements from compression in the PA gels ranged from 300 kPa—1.4 MPa, whereas those from nanoindentation ranged from 100 kPa—1.1MPa. Using this data, a method for relating nanoindentation measurements to conventional mechanical property measurements is presented for porcine rib cartilage. It is shown that based on this relationship, the local tissue modulus as measured from nanoindentation (1.1—1.4 MPa) was able to predict the overall global modulus of the same sample of rib cartilage (2.2 MPa), as confirmed by experimental measurements from unconfined compression. This study supports the use of nanoindentation for the local characterization of cartilage tissues and may be applied to other soft tissues and constructs. PMID:21783163

  20. Electrophoresis of small proteins in highly concentrated and crosslinked polyacrylamide gradient gels.

    PubMed

    Campbell, W P; Wrigley, C W; Margolis, J

    1983-02-15

    A high concentration (40%) of acrylamide plus N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide combined with a high level of crosslinking (12.5%) yielded clear gels capable of restricting the passage of small proteins. This gel composition was chosen in preference to other combinations, in particular those producing opaque gels which have larger pore sizes and which provide a reduced sieving effect. Gradient gels were prepared in which the gel concentration rose from 3 to 40% and the degree of crosslinking increased from 4 to 12.5%. Such gels were suitable for fractionating crude, unreduced, and uncharacterized extracts containing proteins ranging in molecular size from 10,000 to several million daltons under conditions where all proteins are retained on the gel even after prolonged electrophoresis. The gels yielded zones which were of improved sharpness and resolution compared with gels of lower concentration and degree of crosslinking, and can be used to provide an estimate of molecular size. Examples of the use of HX gradient gels included both anodic and cathodic electrophoresis at pH 8.3 and 3.1, respectively, of serum and cereal-grain proteins and a partial enzymic hydrolysate of serum albumin. PMID:6859529

  1. Routine diagnosis with PhastSystem compared to conventional electrophoresis: automated sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, silver staining and western blotting of urinary proteins.

    PubMed

    Scherberich, J E; Fischer, P; Bigalke, A; Stangl, P; Wolf, G B; Haimerl, M; Schoeppe, W

    1989-01-01

    The recent introduction of the PhastSystem, an automatic electrophoresis and staining system with precast gradient-gels, allows rapid and reproducible analysis of proteinuria in patients suffering from renal injury. A routine method for sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and silver staining of unconcentrated urine specimens in the PhastSystem is described and compared to our conventional "macro"-method with self-cast SDS-polyacrylamide gradient gels. The method described for the PhastSystem using 0.3 microL sample volumes and an 8-25% polyacrylamide gradient gel leads to highly reproducible results within 1.5 h. Before electrophoresis urine specimens were neither concentrated nor dialyzed. Samples with a protein concentration exceeding 5 mg/mL had to be diluted 1:5 (v/v). Analysis and documentation of PhastGels appeared as easy as with our conventional SDS-PAGE. Protein bands could reliably be identified by Western blotting. Urine and serum proteins, separated in PhastGels, were electrophoretically transferred to nitrocellulose and detected with specific antibodies against human albumin, transferrin, alpha-1-antitrypsin and IgG. Comparison of several standard kits for molecular weight determination revealed considerable differences concerning the quality of protein separation patterns. Availability of precast gels and automatization of SDS-PAGE and staining allows easy standardization of urine SDS-PAGE among clinical routine laboratories. PMID:2469571

  2. A comparison of silver staining protocols for detecting DNA in polyester-backed polyacrylamide gel.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Shanlian; Chen, Jichen; Lin, Si; Lin, Xinjian

    2012-04-01

    Eight silver-staining protocols were applied to detect DNA in polyester-backed gels to select the optimal. Results showed important differences in staining quality and that four methods were well-suited for TGGE gels due to high sensitivity and low background, including the Bassam et al. methods, the manufacturer method and our improved method. PMID:24031876

  3. Fast reversible single-step method for enhanced band contrast of polyacrylamide gels for automated detection

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Wei-Li; Lua, Wai-Heng; Gan, Samuel Ken-En

    2015-01-01

    Staining SDS-PAGE is commonly used in protein analysis for many downstream characterization processes. Although staining and destaining protocols can be adjusted, they can be laborious, and faint bands often become false negatives. Similarly, these faint bands hinder automated software band detections that are necessary for quantitative analyses. To overcome these problems, we describe a single-step rapid and reversible method to increase (up to 500%) band contrast in stained gels. Through the use of alcohols, we improved band detection and facilitated gel storage by drying the gels into compact white sheets. This method is suitable for all stained SDS-PAGE gels, including gradient gels and is shown to improve automated band detection by enhanced band contrast. PMID:25782090

  4. The fractionation of high-molecular-weight ribonucleic acid by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Loening, U. E.

    1967-01-01

    1. Gels were prepared with recrystallized acrylamide and bisacrylamide. Electrophoresis was in tris–sodium acetate–EDTA buffer for 0·5 to 3hr. Gels were scanned at 280 or 265m?. Techniques are described for slicing and radioactive counting. 2. The mobility of RNA was inversely related to the sedimentation coefficient and varied with gel concentration. Electrophoresis in 2·2–2·6% gels gives a fractionation similar to density-gradient centrifugation. It shows the two ribosomal RNA components, the 45s precursor, transfer RNA and minor components. In 5% and 7·5% gels, 4s and 5s RNA separated and ribosomal RNA was excluded. 3. The resolution is greater and more detailed than by centrifugation, and many samples can be analysed simultaneously and rapidly. PMID:5339944

  5. Detection of IgE- and IgG-binding proteins after electrophoretic transfer from polyacrylamide gels.

    PubMed

    Sutton, R; Wrigley, C W; Baldo, B A

    1982-07-30

    An electrophoretic technique for transferring proteins to a nitrocellulose membrane has been applied to proteins separated in polyacrylamide gels by isoelectric focusing, and gradient, SDS and 2-dimensional electrophoresis. Allergenic proteins were then identified by successive incubation of the transfer membrane with serum from allergic individuals and with 125I-labelled anti-human IgE, followed by autoradiography. Alternatively, IgG binding proteins were detected using 125I-labelled protein A. The application of these methods was illustrated with cereal grain proteins and sera from individuals with bakers' asthma and coeliac disease. This approach allowed the easy comparison of allergens important for different patients in a single source, and of allergens present in different but cross-reacting sources. PMID:7119454

  6. Comparison of the influence of inorganic salts on the NMR dose sensitivity of polyacrylamide-based gel dosimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, S.-I.; Kawamura, H.; Usui, S.; Tominaga, T.

    2013-06-01

    On the NMR dose sensitivities of polyacrylamide-based gel dosimeters irradiated by X-ray, the additive effect of various inorganic salts (electrolytes) is investigated. Among the various combination of cations (Li+, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Zn2+ and Al3+) and anions (Cl-, NO-3 and SO2-4), MgCl2 is shown to be the most effective sensitizer. In the result, it is suggested that the extent of the increase of the dose sensitivity may correlate to the hydration power of cations rather than anions. Contrary to the dose sensitivity enhancement, the depression of melting point caused by the additives is also pointed out.

  7. Rheological and mechanical behavior of polyacrylamide hydrogels chemically crosslinked with allyl agarose for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Suriano, R; Griffini, G; Chiari, M; Levi, M; Turri, S

    2014-02-01

    Two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis currently represents one of the most standard techniques for protein separation. In addition to the most commonly employed polyacrylamide crosslinked hydrogels, acrylamide-agarose copolymers have been proposed as promising systems for separation matrices in 2-D electrophoresis, because of the good resolution of both high and low molecular mass proteins made possible by careful control and optimization of the hydrogel pore structure. As a matter of fact, a thorough understanding of the nature of the hydrogel pore structure as well as of the parameters by which it is influenced is crucial for the design of hydrogel systems with optimal sieving properties. In this work, a series of acrylamide-based hydrogels covalently crosslinked with different concentrations of allyl agarose (0.2-1%) is prepared and characterized by creep-recovery measurements, dynamic rheology and tensile tests, in the attempt to gain a clearer understanding of structure-property relationships in crosslinked polyacrylamide-based hydrogels. The rheological and mechanical properties of crosslinked acrylamide-agarose hydrogels are found to be greatly affected by crosslinker concentration. Dynamic rheological tests show that hydrogels with a percentage of allyl agarose between 0.2% and 0.6% have a low density of elastically effective crosslinks, explaining the good separation of high molecular mass proteins in 2-D gel electrophoresis. Over the same range of crosslinker concentration, creep-recovery measurements reveal the presence of non-permanent crosslinks in the hydrogel network that justifies the good resolution of low molecular mass proteins as well. In tensile tests, the hydrogel crosslinked with 0.4% of allyl agarose exhibits the best results in terms of mechanical strength and toughness. Our results show how the control of the viscoelastic and the mechanical properties of these materials allow the design of mechanically stable hydrogels with improved sieving ability in protein electrophoresis over a wide range of molecular masses. PMID:24368174

  8. Metachromatic staining patterns of basic proline-rich proteins from rat and human saliva in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys-Beher, M.G.; Wells, D.J.

    1984-10-01

    A series of basic proteins, rich in proline, were isolated from the salivary secretions of humans and rats. These proteins underwent metachromasia after staining with Coomassie brilliant blue R-250 in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. The technique of destaining gels in several changes of 10% acetic acid after a 30-min staining period is a rapid method of general utility for the identification of proline-rich proteins from total cell lysates from other sources besides saliva.

  9. Kinetic models for the dynamical behavior of polyacrylamide (PAAm)-?-carrageenan (?C) composite gels.

    PubMed

    Evingür, Gül?en Ak?n; Pekcan, Önder

    2015-01-01

    A fluorescence method was employed for studying the drying and swelling of PAAm-?C composite gels, which were formed from acrylamide (AAm) and N, N'- methylenebisacrylamide (BIS) with various ?-carrageenan (?C) contents by free radical crosslinking copolymerization in water. Composite gels were prepared at 80 °C with pyranine (Py) as a fluorescence probe. Scattered light, I sc, and fluorescence emission intensities, I em, were monitored during drying and swelling of these gels. The fluorescence intensity of pyranine increased and decreased as drying and swelling time are increased, respectively, for all gel samples. The Stern-Volmer equation combined with moving boundary and Li-Tanaka models were used to explain the behavior of I em during drying and swelling processes respectively. It is found that the desorption coefficient D d decreased as ?C contents were increased for a given temperature during drying. However, the cooperative diffusion coefficient, D s presented exactly the opposite case. Conventional gravimetrical and volumetric experiments were also carried out during drying and swelling of PAAm-?C composite gels. It was observed that D d and D s values measured with the fluorescence method were found to be much larger than they were measured with the conventional methods. PMID:25304224

  10. Production of multiple forms during purification of Streptomyces aureofaciens DNA polymerase: a study using nondenaturing polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Kosovský, J; Subr, Z; Popovnáková, K; Zelinka, J

    1992-02-11

    A modified method for the detection of DNA polymerases in cell extracts and purified enzyme preparations after electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gradient cylindrical gels is described. The technique, which is based on direct assay of activity in a reaction mixture during elution of DNA polymerases from gel slices, was applied to the pursuit of enzyme forms of Streptomyces aureofaciens DNA polymerase during purification procedure. In a crude extract of S. aureofaciens mycelium many catalytically active forms of DNA polymerase ranging from 35 to 860 kDa were detected. After purification, that included mycelium homogenization, precipitation of nucleic acids by polyethylene glycol, DEAE-Sephadex, QAE-Sephadex and DNA-Sepharose chromatography, higher molecular mass forms of more than 172 kDa have not been found. The lower molecular mass forms were separated into two groups by DNA-Sepharose chromatography. On the basis of their characterization, it is assumed that the lower molecular mass forms are produced by proteolysis and the major form found after purification of S. aureofaciens DNA polymerase in the presence of suitable proteinase inhibitors should be a protein of 172 kDa. PMID:1536880

  11. Quantification of AAV Particle Titers by Infrared Fluorescence Scanning of Coomassie-Stained Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate–Polyacrylamide Gels

    PubMed Central

    Kohlbrenner, Erik; Henckaerts, Els; Rapti, Kleopatra; Gordon, Ronald E.; Linden, R. Michael; Hajjar, Roger J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based vectors have gained increasing attention as gene delivery vehicles in basic and preclinical studies as well as in human gene therapy trials. Especially for the latter two—for both safety and therapeutic efficacy reasons—a detailed characterization of all relevant parameters of the vector preparation is essential. Two important parameters that are routinely used to analyze recombinant AAV vectors are (1) the titer of viral particles containing a (recombinant) viral genome and (2) the purity of the vector preparation, most commonly assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS–PAGE) followed by silver staining. An important, third parameter, the titer of total viral particles, that is, the combined titer of both genome-containing and empty viral capsids, is rarely determined. Here, we describe a simple and inexpensive method that allows the simultaneous assessment of both vector purity and the determination of the total viral particle titer. This method, which was validated by comparison with established methods to determine viral particle titers, is based on the fact that Coomassie Brilliant Blue, when bound to proteins, fluoresces in the infrared spectrum. Viral samples are separated by SDS–PAGE followed by Coomassie Brilliant Blue staining and gel analysis with an infrared laser-scanning device. In combination with a protein standard, our method allows the rapid and accurate determination of viral particle titers simultaneously with the assessment of vector purity. PMID:22816378

  12. Studies on lectins. XXXVI. Properties of some lectins prepared by affinity chromatography on O-glycosyl polyacrylamide gels.

    PubMed

    Horejsí, V; Kocourek, J

    1978-01-18

    A number of lectins has been purified by affinity chromatography on O-glycosyl polyacrylamide gels. The lectins isolated (and the particular sugar ligands used in the affinity carriers) are as follows: Anguilla anguilla, serum (alpha-L-fucosyl-), Vicia cracca, seeds; Phaseolus lunatus, seeds; Glycine soja, seeds; Dolichos biflorus, seeds; Maclura pomifera, seeds; Sarothamnus scoparius, seeds; Helix pomatia, ablumin glands; Clitocybe nebularis, fruiting bodies (all N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosaminyl-); Ricinus communis, seeds (beta-lactosyl-); Ononis spinosa, root; Fomes fomentarius, fruiting bodies; Marasmius oreades, fruiting bodies (all alpha-D-galactosyl-), Canavalia ensiformis, seeds, (i.e., concanavalin A) (alpha-D-glucosyl-). Physicochemical properties of Glycine soja, Dolichos biflorus, Phaseolus lunatus, Helix Pomatia and Ricinus communis lectins corresponded well to properties of the preparations studied earlier by other workers. For the other purified lectins the essential physiochemical data (sedimentation coefficient, molecular weight, subunit composition, electrophoretic patterns, amino acid composition, carbohydrate content, isoelectric point) were established and their precipitating, hemagglutinating and mitogenic activities determined. PMID:563738

  13. Genetic diversity analysis of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) germplasms using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hou, W W; Zhang, X J; Shi, J B; Liu, Y J

    2015-01-01

    To investigate genetic diversity and relationships of 101 faba bean (Vicia faba L.), landraces and varieties from different provinces of China and abroad were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). A total of 2625 unambiguous and stable bands from 101 germplasms were detected, and 36 different bands were classified according to the electrophoretic mobility patterns of the proteins as determined by the SDS-PAGE analysis, of which 16 were polymorphic. Besides the common bands, the protein bands of 92, 75, 62, 40, 34, 17, and 13 kDa presented the highest frequencies of 92.08, 90.10, 99.01, 95.05, 95.05, 98.02, and 95.05%, respectively. The other 29 polymorphic protein bands showed higher polymorphism with 16.09 polymorphic bands in average. The genetic similarity of the 101 genotypes tested varied from 0.6111 to 0.9722, with an average of 0.7122. Cluster analysis divided the 101 genotypes into six major clusters, which was consistent with the systematic classification of faba bean done in previous studies. The overall results indicated that SDS-PAGE was a useful tool for genetic diversity analysis and laid a solid foundation for future faba bean breeding. PMID:26535710

  14. Efficient analysis of egg yolk proteins and their thermal sensitivity using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing and nonreducing conditions.

    PubMed

    Guilmineau, Fabien; Krause, Ingolf; Kulozik, Ulrich

    2005-11-30

    The multiple functional properties of egg yolk are mostly influenced by its complex protein composition. The high lipid content of egg yolk as well as the low solubility of delipidated egg yolk lipoproteins make analysis by conventional chromatographic or electrophoretic techniques a difficult task. This work describes a method to profile egg yolk proteins after delipidation with acetone using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis on precast 8-18% T polyacrylamide gradient gels. Twenty bands were obtained for the whole egg yolk profile with molecular weights ranging between 5 and 221 kDa. The bands were identified based on their molecular weight and by comparison with isolated egg yolk subfractions. The dissociation behavior under reducing and nonreducing conditions provided additionally helpful information for identification and characterization of the yolk proteins. The method presented is very well suited for assaying the thermal sensitivity of whole yolk and its components and thus for the characterization of heat treatment processes. PMID:16302743

  15. Comparative two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the salivary proteome of children with autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ngounou Wetie, Armand G; Wormwood, Kelly L; Charette, Laci; Ryan, Jeanne P; Woods, Alisa G; Darie, Costel C

    2015-01-01

    In the last decades, prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been on the rise. However, clear aetiology is still elusive and improvements in early diagnosis are needed. To uncover possible biomarkers present in ASD, we used two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and nanoliquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS/MS), to compare salivary proteome profiling of children with ASD and controls. A total of 889 spots were compared and only those spots with a fold change ?1.7 and a P-value <0.05 or a fold change of ?3.0 between ASD cases and controls were analysed by nanoLC-MS/MS. Alpha-amylase, CREB-binding protein, p532, Transferrin, Zn alpha2 glycoprotein, Zymogen granule protein 16, cystatin D and plasminogen were down-regulated in ASD. Increased expression of proto-oncogene Frequently rearranged in advanced T-cell lymphomas 1 (FRAT1), Kinesin family member 14, Integrin alpha6 subunit, growth hormone regulated TBC protein 1, parotid secretory protein, Prolactin-inducible protein precursor, Mucin-16, Ca binding protein migration inhibitory factor-related protein 14 (MRP14) was observed in individuals with ASD. Many of the identified proteins have previously been linked to ASD or were proposed as risk factors of ASD at the genetic level. Some others are involved in pathological pathways implicated in ASD causality such as oxidative stress, lipid and cholesterol metabolism, immune system disturbances and inflammation. These data could contribute to protein signatures for ASD presence, risk and subtypes, and advance understanding of ASD cause as well as provide novel treatment targets for ASD. PMID:26290361

  16. Comparative two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the salivary proteome of children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Ngounou Wetie, Armand G; Wormwood, Kelly L; Charette, Laci; Ryan, Jeanne P; Woods, Alisa G; Darie, Costel C

    2015-11-01

    In the last decades, prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been on the rise. However, clear aetiology is still elusive and improvements in early diagnosis are needed. To uncover possible biomarkers present in ASD, we used two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and nanoliquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS/MS), to compare salivary proteome profiling of children with ASD and controls. A total of 889 spots were compared and only those spots with a fold change ?1.7 and a P-value <0.05 or a fold change of ?3.0 between ASD cases and controls were analysed by nanoLC-MS/MS. Alpha-amylase, CREB-binding protein, p532, Transferrin, Zn alpha2 glycoprotein, Zymogen granule protein 16, cystatin D and plasminogen were down-regulated in ASD. Increased expression of proto-oncogene Frequently rearranged in advanced T-cell lymphomas 1 (FRAT1), Kinesin family member 14, Integrin alpha6 subunit, growth hormone regulated TBC protein 1, parotid secretory protein, Prolactin-inducible protein precursor, Mucin-16, Ca binding protein migration inhibitory factor-related protein 14 (MRP14) was observed in individuals with ASD. Many of the identified proteins have previously been linked to ASD or were proposed as risk factors of ASD at the genetic level. Some others are involved in pathological pathways implicated in ASD causality such as oxidative stress, lipid and cholesterol metabolism, immune system disturbances and inflammation. These data could contribute to protein signatures for ASD presence, risk and subtypes, and advance understanding of ASD cause as well as provide novel treatment targets for ASD. PMID:26290361

  17. SU-E-T-105: Development of 3D Dose Verification System for Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy Using Improved Polyacrylamide-Based Gel Dosimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, K; Fujimoto, S; Akagi, Y; Hirokawa, Y; Hayashi, S; Miyazawa, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of this dosimetric study was to develop 3D dose verification system for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) using polyacrylamide-based gel (PAGAT) dosimeter improved the sensitivity by magnesium chloride (MgCl{sub 2}). Methods: PAGAT gel containing MgCl{sub 2} as a sensitizer was prepared in this study. Methacrylic-acid-based gel (MAGAT) was also prepared to compare the dosimetric characteristics with PAGAT gel. The cylindrical glass vials (4 cm diameter, 12 cm length) filled with each polymer gel were irradiated with 6 MV photon beam using Novalis Tx linear accelerator (Varian/BrainLAB). The irradiated polymer gel dosimeters were scanned with Signa 1.5 T MRI system (GE), and dose calibration curves were obtained using T{sub 2} relaxation rate (R{sub 2} = 1/T{sub 2}). Dose rate (100-600 MU min{sup ?1}) and fractionation (1-8 fractions) were varied. In addition, a cubic acrylic phantom (10 × 10 × 10 cm{sup 3}) filled with improved PAGAT gel inserted into the IMRT phantom (IBA) was irradiated with VMAT (RapidArc). C-shape structure was used for the VMAT planning by the Varian Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS). The dose comparison of TPS and measurements with the polymer gel dosimeter was accomplished by the gamma index analysis, overlaying the dose profiles for a set of data on selected planes using in-house developed software. Results: Dose rate and fractionation dependence of improved PAGAT gel were smaller than MAGAT gel. A high similarity was found by overlaying the dose profiles measured with improved PAGAT gel dosimeter and the TPS dose, and the mean pass rate of the gamma index analysis using 3%/3 mm criteria was achieved 90% on orthogonal planes for VMAT using improved PAGAT gel dosimeter. Conclusion: In-house developed 3D dose verification system using improved polyacrylamide-based gel dosimeter had a potential as an effective tool for VMAT QA.

  18. Blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the monitoring of malate-and

    E-print Network

    Appanna, Vasu

    of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and is involved in the reversible hydration of fumarate to malate. The malate of energy, in gluconeogensis, in lipogenesis, and in the metabolism of amino acids. PC [E.C. 6-CoA from acetyl-CoA, ATP and HCO3 À is a critical step in the formation of fatty acid in most organisms [3

  19. Urine Collected From Diapers Can Be Used for 2-Dimensional Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) in Infants and Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Mary Jayne; Griffin, Angela; Su, Ruifeng; Merchant, Michael; Klein, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Urinary proteomic profiling has potential to identify candidate biomarkers of renal injury in infants provided an adequate urine sample can be obtained. Although diapers are used to obtain urine for clinical evaluation, their use for proteomic analysis has not been investigated. We therefore performed feasibility studies on the use of diaper-extracted urine for 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE). Pediatric waste urine (2–20 mL) was applied to gel-containing, non-gel and cotton-gauze diapers and then mechanically expressed. Urine volume and total protein were measured pre- and post-extraction. Proteins were separated via 2D-PAGE following application of urine (20–40 mL) to each matrix. 2D-PAGE was also performed on clinical specimens collected using each diaper type. Differences in the adsorption and retention of urine volume and protein were noted between matrices. Non-gel and cotton-gauze diapers provided the best protein/volume recovery and the lowest interference with the Bradford assay. 2D-PAGE was also successfully completed using urine samples from both cotton fiber matrices. Conversely, samples from low-gel diapers demonstrated poor protein separation and reproducibility. Diapers containing cotton-fiber matrices appear adequate for 2D-PAGE. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of resolved proteins using replicate, high resolution gels will be required, however, before diaper-extracted urine can be applied in proteomic profiling. PMID:21137001

  20. Fluid diversion and sweep improvement with chemical gels in oil recovery processes. [Four types of gels: resorcinol-formaldehyde; colloidal silica; Cr sup 3+ (chloride)-xanthan; and Cr sup 3+ (acetate)-polyacrylamide

    SciTech Connect

    Seright, R.S.; Martin, F.D.

    1992-09-01

    The objectives of this project were to identify the mechanisms by which gel treatments divert fluids in reservoirs and to establish where and how gel treatments are best applied. Several different types of gelants were examined, including polymer-based gelants, a monomer-based gelant, and a colloidal-silica gelant. This research was directed at gel applications in water injection wells, in production wells, and in high-pressure gas floods. The work examined how the flow properties of gels and gelling agents are influenced by permeability, lithology, and wettability. Other goals included determining the proper placement of gelants, the stability of in-place gels, and the types of gels required for the various oil recovery processes and for different scales of reservoir heterogeneity. During this three-year project, a number of theoretical analyses were performed to determine where gel treatments are expected to work best and where they are not expected to be effective. The most important, predictions from these analyses are presented. Undoubtedly, some of these predictions will be controversial. However, they do provide a starting point in establishing guidelines for the selection of field candidates for gel treatments. A logical next step is to seek field data that either confirm or contradict these predictions. The experimental work focused on four types of gels: (1) resorcinol-formaldehyde, (2) colloidal silica, (3) Cr{sup 3+}(chloride)-xanthan, and (4) Cr{sup 3+}(acetate)-polyacrylamide. All experiments were performed at 41{degrees}C.

  1. Coloration of silver-stained protein bands in polyacrylamide gels is caused by light scattering from silver grains of characteristic sizes.

    PubMed Central

    Merril, C R; Bisher, M E; Harrington, M; Steven, A C

    1988-01-01

    This study investigates the physical basis of color effects in the detection of proteins in polyacrylamide gels by silver staining. Specifically, the hypothesis that different colors may correlate with the development of silver grains of characteristic sizes was investigated by electron microscopy. Protein bands that stained brown, yellow, and blue were excised from stained gels and prepared for electron microscopy by thin-sectioning. In each case, the size distributions of globular silver grains were determined directly from the electron micrographs. We found that blue bands have larger silver grains (with diameters of 40-100 nm) than yellow (21-39 nm) or brown bands (17-35 nm). On the basis of these and other observations, a general mechanism is proposed whereby chemical specificity of electrophoretically separated proteins is expressed in color-specific silver staining. Images PMID:2448776

  2. Analysis of the sodium dodecyl sulfate-stable peptidoglycan autolysins of select gram-negative pathogens by using renaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Bernadsky, G; Beveridge, T J; Clarke, A J

    1994-01-01

    For the first time, peptidoglycan autolysins from cellular fractions derived from sonicated cultures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, Escherichia coli W7, Klebsiella pneumoniae CWK2, and Proteus mirabilis 19 were detected and partially characterized by zymogram analysis. Purified murein sacculi from P. aeruginosa PAO1 were incorporated into a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel at a concentration of 0.05% (wt/vol) to serve as a substrate for the separated autolysins. At least 11 autolysin bands of various intensities with M(r)s ranging between 17,000 and 122,000 were detected in each of the homogenated cultures. Some of the autolysins of the four bacteria had similar M(r)s. The zymogram analysis was used to show that a number of the autolysins from E. coli were inhibited by the heavy metals Hg2+ and Cu2+, at 1 and 10 mM, respectively, high ionic strengths, and reagents known to affect the packing of lipopolysaccharides. The activity of an autolysin with an M(r) of 65,000 was also impaired by penicillin G, whereas it was enhanced by gentamicin. A preliminary screen to determine the relationship between penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) and autolysins was carried out by using a dual assay in which radiolabelled penicillin V bands were visualized on an autolysin zymogram. Radiolabelled bands corresponding to PBPs 3, 4, 5, and 6 from E. coli and P. aeruginosa; PBPs 3, 4, and 6 from Proteus mirabilis; and PBP 6 from K. pneumoniae degraded the murein sacculi in the gels and were presumed to have autolytic activity, although the possibility of two distinct enzymes, each with one of the activities, comigrating in the SDS-polyacrylamide gels could not be excluded. Some radiolabelled bands possessed an Mr of <34,000 and coincided with similar low-Mr autolysin bands. Images PMID:7915268

  3. Fluorographic detection of tritiated glycopeptides and oligosaccharides separated on polyacrylamide gels: analysis of glycans from Dictyostelium discoideum glycoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Prem Das, O.; Henderson, E.J.

    1986-11-01

    Previous workers have shown that oligosaccharides and glycopeptides can be separated by electrophoresis in buffers containing borate ions. However, normal fluorography of tritium-labeled structures cannot be performed because the glycans are soluble and can diffuse during equilibration with scintillants. This problem has been circumvented by equilibration of the gel with 2,5-diphenyloxazole (PPO) prior to electrophoresis. The presence of PPO in the gel during electrophoresis does not alter mobility of the glycopeptides and oligosaccharides. After electrophoresis, the gel is simply dried and fluorography performed. This allows sensitive and precise comparisons of labeled samples in parallel lanes of a slab gel and, since mobilities are highly reproducible, between different gels. The procedure is preparative in that after fluorography the gel bands can be quantitatively eluted for further study, without any apparent modification by the procedure. In this report, the procedure is illustrated by fractionation of both neutral and anionic glycopeptides produced by the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum.

  4. The effect of sodium tetradecyl sulfate on mobility and antigen detectability of microtubule proteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hodgkinson, J L; Steffen, W

    1997-10-01

    Several factors been reported to influence the mobility of polypeptide in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) including the brand of SDS. Using microtubule proteins from axonemes of Lytechinus pictus and Spisula solidissima sperm and meiotic spindles of Spisula solidissima we demonstrate that the change in mobility was caused by sodium tetradecyl sulfate (STS), a major contaminant of many commercial SDS brands. We also examined the use of sodium tetradecyl sulfate and different SDS brands as a tool in extracting more information from immunoblot studies. Commercial SDS containing contaminants other than sodium tetradecyl sulfate reduced or eliminated the immunosignal from certain polypeptides and the loss of antigenicity could not even be recovered by immunoblot under "renaturing" conditions. It can thus be concluded that STS can be useful in separating and identifying comigrating polypeptides and in detecting additional immunobands in immunoblots. PMID:9420152

  5. Polyacrylamide hydrogel micropatterning.

    PubMed

    Vignaud, Timothée; Ennomani, Hajer; Théry, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    This chapter describes the production of micropatterns of extracellular matrix proteins on a 2D flat polyacrylamide (PAA) gel. The technique is divided into two parts. First, micropatterns are produced on glass or directly on a photomask using deep UV. Then the micropatterns are transferred on acrylamide gel by polymerization of the gel directly on the template coverslip. This procedure is easy to perform and does not require any expensive equipment. It can be performed in no more than 2h once you get your hands on it. It combines the advantages of other existing techniques: good spatial resolution, suitable for very soft gel, no need for the use of chemical crosslinkers for attachment of the proteins to the acrylamide, no modification of the mechanical properties of the gel by the process, and suitable for multiple protein patterning. We also discuss the storage issues of such substrates and provide a brief review of other existing techniques for micropatterning on PAA. PMID:24484659

  6. Ten-Year Safety with Polyacrylamide Gel Used to Correct Facial Lipoatrophy in HIV-Infected Patients.

    PubMed

    Negredo, Eugenia; Puig, Jordi; Ornelas, Arelly; Echeverría, Patricia; Bonjoch, Anna; Estany, Carla; Higueras, Carmen; Gonzalez-Mestre, Vicente; Clotet, Bonaventura

    2015-08-01

    Long-term results (>5 years) for synthetic substances used to repair facial lipoatrophy have not been published. We performed a cross-sectional study to evaluate the 10-year safety of polyacrylamide hydrogel (Aquamid) among the 751 patients from our unit who received facial infiltrations at least 10 years ago. Epidemiological and clinical data such as complications and patient satisfaction were collected. We also identified those patients who presented a facial infection at any time after infiltration. A total of 104 patients had received Aquamid at least 10 years ago. Before infiltrations, 24.0%, 41.3%, and 34.7% presented very severe, severe, and moderate facial lipoatrophy, respectively. After a mean (SD) of 10.3 (0.5) years since the infiltrations, 19.2%, 47.7%, and 31.7% of patients reported moderate, mild, and no signs of facial lipoatrophy. The values reported by physicians for the same categories were 1.9%, 10.6%, and 87.5%. Indurations were detected in 6.7% of patients and nodules in 3.8%. Five patients (4.8%) had a local infection. A further 15 patients with a shorter follow-up (less than 10 years) presented local infections (overall incidence considering the 751 patients who received infiltrations of Aquamid, 2.7%); the product had to be withdrawn in three cases. The majority of patients were highly satisfied (74.8%) or satisfied (23.4%) with the cosmetic results; among patients with severe or very severe lipoatrophy at baseline, 31.4% were satisfied and 65.7% were highly satisfied. Infiltrations with polyacrylamide hydrogel (Aquamid) are a safe strategy for the treatment of facial lipoatrophy in the long term. The rate of severe complications was low, and patient satisfaction with the cosmetic results was high. However, facial infections may appear in the long term. Therefore, HIV-infected patients who received synthetic substances should be carefully monitored over time. PMID:25858612

  7. Preliminary studies on the role and reactions of tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium chloride in polyacrylamide gel dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedaghat, Mahbod; Bujold, Rachel; Lepage, Martin

    2012-10-01

    A major source of dosimetric inaccuracy in normoxic polymer gel dosimeters is local variations in the concentration of oxygen scavenger. Currently, a phosphorus compound, tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium chloride (THPC), is the oxygen scavenger of choice in most polymer gel dosimetry studies. Reactions of THPC in a gel dosimeter are not limited to oxygen. It can possibly be consumed in reacting with gelling agent, water free-radicals and polymer radicals before, during and after irradiation, hence affecting the dose response of the dosimeter in several ways. These reactions are not fully known or understood. It is our hypothesis that THPC not only scavenges radical species but also modifies the morphology of the gelatin network and of the polymer, possibly by intervening in the polymerization of monomers. These hypotheses are investigated in an anoxic acrylamide-based gel dosimeter. Scanning electron microscopy results indicate gelatin pores decreasing from 70 to 40 µm and a very different radiation-induced polymer structure in samples containing THPC; Fourier-transform Raman spectroscopy shows a two-fold reduction in the dose constants of monomer consumption; however, a significant change in the relative dose constants of monomer consumption as a function of dose could not be detected.

  8. Diffusion blotting for rapid production of multiple identical imprints from sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis on a solid support.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Ingrid; Wiker, Harald G

    2009-01-01

    A very simple and fast method for diffusion blotting of proteins from precast SDS-PAGE gels on a solid plastic support was developed. Diffusion blotting for 3 min gave a quantitative transfer of 10% compared with 1-h electroblotting. For each subsequent blot from the same gel a doubling of transfer time is necessary to obtain the same amount of protein onto each blot. The relative transfer of low and high molecular weight components was similar in diffusion and electroblotting. However, both methods do give a higher total transfer of the low molecular weight proteins compared with the large proteins. The greatest advantage of diffusion blotting is that several blots can be made from each lane, thus enabling testing of multiple antisera on virtually identical blots. The gel remains on the plastic support, which prevents it from stretching or shrinking. This ensures identical blots and facilitates more reliable molecular weight determination. Furthermore, the proteins remaining in the gel can be stained with Coomassie Brilliant Blue or other methods for exact and easy comparison with the developed blots. These advantages make diffusion blotting the method of choice when quantitative protein transfer is not required. PMID:19378042

  9. System and method of infrared matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry in polyacrylamide gels

    DOEpatents

    Haglund, Jr., Richard F.; Ermer, David R.; Baltz-Knorr, Michelle Lee

    2004-11-30

    A system and method for desorption and ionization of analytes in an ablation medium. In one embodiment, the method includes the steps of preparing a sample having analytes in a medium including at least one component, freezing the sample at a sufficiently low temperature so that at least part of the sample has a phase transition, and irradiating the frozen sample with short-pulse radiation to cause medium ablation and desorption and ionization of the analytes. The method further includes the steps of selecting a resonant vibrational mode of at least one component of the medium and selecting an energy source tuned to emit radiation substantially at the wavelength of the selected resonant vibrational mode. The medium is an electrophoresis medium having polyacrylamide. In one embodiment, the energy source is a laser, where the laser can be a free electron laser tunable to generate short-pulse radiation. Alternatively, the laser can be a solid state laser tunable to generate short-pulse radiation. The laser can emit light at various ranges of wavelength.

  10. On-Chip Native Gel Electrophoresis-Based Immunoassays for Tetanus Antibody and Toxin

    E-print Network

    Herr, Amy E.

    On-Chip Native Gel Electrophoresis-Based Immunoassays for Tetanus Antibody and Toxin Amy E. Herr was developed for detection of tetanus antibodies in buffer as well as diluted serum samples. After an off was 0.68 nM. A competitive immunoassay was also developed for tetanus toxin C-fragment by allowing un

  11. Diffusion blotting for rapid production of multiple identical imprints from sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis on a solid support.

    PubMed

    Olsen, I; Wiker, H G

    1998-11-01

    A simple and fast method for diffusion blotting of proteins from precast SDS-PAGE gels (0.5 mm) was developed. The efficiency of protein transfer was evaluated using 14C labelled proteins. Diffusion blotting for three minutes, gave a transfer of 10% compared to electroblotting. By doubling the transfer time for each subsequent imprint, four imprints were made from the same lane with similar amounts of protein transferred onto each imprint. With a transfer time of three minutes each, it was possible to obtain at least ten imprints with all the proteins visible in all the imprints. There was no detectable loss in resolution as compared to electroblotting. The method also works well with an immuno-detecting system. The number of imprints which can be obtained, is dependent on the sensitivity of the detection system and the amount of protein applied. The greatest advantage of diffusion blotting compared to electroblotting is that several imprints can be made from each lane, and different antisera can be tested on identical imprints. The gel remains on its plastic support which prevents it from stretching and compression; this ensures identical imprints and facilitates more reliable molecular mass determination. If only a few imprints are made, sufficient protein remains within the gel for general protein staining. These advantages make diffusion blotting the method of choice when quantitative protein transfer is not required. PMID:9839928

  12. Application of PhastSystem to the resolution of bovine milk proteins on urea-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Van Hekken, D L; Thompson, M P

    1992-05-01

    Optimal conditions were established for alkaline urea-PAGE using modified precast, ultrathin gradient gels on the automated PhastSystem. Profiles of milk proteins showed that the caseins and whey proteins resolved extremely well. Major bands were observed for alpha s1-casein and beta-casein, and alpha s2-casein appeared as a well-resolved doublet. In contrast, kappa-casein separated from other caseins as a faint doublet, and purified kappa-casein appeared as one major and one minor band. Whey proteins (serum albumin, alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin) separated into broad bands resolved from each other and from the caseins. Partially (40%) dephosphorylated whole casein showed multiple bands for alpha s1-casein and beta-casein at different levels of phosphorylation. Separation of genetic phenotypes was observed for beta-lactoglobulin A and B; alpha s1-casein A, B, and C; and beta-casein A, B, and C. Electrophoretic patterns of milk proteins extracted from cheese samples varied among the different types of cheeses. Our modified procedure provides researchers with a rapid technique to separate both caseins and whey proteins on the same urea gel according to their charge to mass ratios. PMID:1597574

  13. Pre-labeling of diverse protein samples with a fixed amount of Cy5 for sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis.

    PubMed

    Bjerneld, Erik J; Johansson, Johan D; Laurin, Ylva; Hagner-McWhirter, Åsa; Rönn, Ola; Karlsson, Robert

    2015-09-01

    A pre-labeling protocol based on Cy5 N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester labeling of proteins has been developed for one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis. We show that a fixed amount of sulfonated Cy5 can be used in the labeling reaction to label proteins over a broad concentration range-more than three orders of magnitude. The optimal amount of Cy5 was found to be 50 to 250pmol in 20?l using a Tris-HCl labeling buffer at pH 8.7. Labeling protein samples with a fixed amount of dye in this range balances the requirements of sub-nanogram detection sensitivity and low dye-to-protein (D/P) ratios for SDS-PAGE. Simulations of the labeling reaction reproduced experimental observations of both labeling kinetics and D/P ratios. Two-dimensional electrophoresis was used to examine the labeling of proteins in a cell lysate using both sulfonated and non-sulfonated Cy5. For both types of Cy5, we observed efficient labeling across a broad range of molecular weights and isoelectric points. PMID:25957128

  14. A rapid method of species identification of wild chironomids (Diptera: Chironomidae) via electrophoresis of hemoglobin proteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel (SDS-PAGE).

    PubMed

    Oh, J T; Epler, J H; Bentivegna, C S

    2014-10-01

    Studying aquatic benthic macroinvertebrates (BMIs) in the field requires accurate taxonomic identification, which can be difficult and time consuming. Conventionally, head capsule morphology has been used to identify wild larvae of Chironomidae. However, due to the number of species and possible damage and/or deformity of their head capsules, another supporting approach for identification is needed. Here, we provide hemoglobin (Hb) protein in hemolymph of chironomids as a new biomarker that may help resolve some of the ambiguities and difficulties encountered during taxonomic identification. Chironomids collected from two locations in Maine and New Jersey, USA were identified to the genus level and in some cases to the species-level using head capsule and body morphologies. The head capsule for a particular individual was then associated with a corresponding Hb protein profile generated from sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Distinct Hb profiles were observed from one group (Thienemannimyia) and four genera (Chironomus, Cricotopus, Dicrotendipes, and Glyptotendipes) of chironomids. Several species were polymorphic, having more than one Hb profile and/or having bands of the same size as those of other species. However, major bands and the combination of bands could distinguish individuals at the genus and sometimes species-level. Overall, this study showed that Hb profiles can be used in combination with head capsule morphology to identify wild chironomids. PMID:24923437

  15. Proteinases secreted by Fasciola hepatica: time course of the inhibitory effect of serum from experimentally infected rabbits demonstrated by gelatin-substrate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Piacenza, L; Acosta, D; Dowd, A; McGonicle, S; Dalton, J; Carmona, C

    1997-12-01

    Fasciola hepatica secretes proteolytic enzymes to aid it to penetrate and migrate through the host tissues. Two of these proteinases have been purified and shown to be cathepsin L-like, and are termed, CL1 (27.5 kD) and CL2 (29 kD). The immunogenicity of these proteinases was investigated over the course of an experimental infection and following drug treatment. Four groups of rabbits were studied: group 1: orally infected with 50 metacercariae; group 2: infected and treated 8 weeks after infection; group 3: infected, treated at week 8 and reinfected at week 13 and group 4: non-infected control group. Sera were collected weekly from each group until week 20 postinfection. CL1 and CL2 were incubated with the different sera and then analysed by gelatin substrate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (GS-PAGE). Analysis of groups 1, 2 and 3 showed that CL1 and CL2 neutralizing antibodies appear at week 5 post-infection. In group 1, these remained throughout the 20 weeks of infection. In group 2, neutralizing antibodies disappeared at week 13, that is, 5 weeks after anti-Fasciola treatment. In group 3, CL1 and CL2 neutralizing antibodies disappeared at week 13 but reappeared by week 15, that is 2 weeks after reinfection. Pooled sera from group 4, showed no inhibitory capacity. ELISA results using CL1 and CL2 as antigen, correlate very well with the inhibitiory time course observed by GS-PAGE. These results suggest that purified cathepsin Ls are antigenic molecules recognized early in the infective process and capable of inducing a specific humoral response, strong enough to neutralize, at least partially, their enzymatic activity. PMID:9443952

  16. Definition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture filtrate proteins by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, N-terminal amino acid sequencing, and electrospray mass spectrometry.

    PubMed Central

    Sonnenberg, M G; Belisle, J T

    1997-01-01

    A number of the culture filtrate proteins secreted by Mycobacterium tuberculosis are known to contribute to the immunology of tuberculosis and to possess enzymatic activities associated with pathogenicity. However, a complete analysis of the protein composition of this fraction has been lacking. By using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, detailed maps of the culture filtrate proteins of M. tuberculosis H37Rv were generated. In total, 205 protein spots were observed. The coupling of this electrophoretic technique with Western blot analysis allowed the identification and mapping of 32 proteins. Further molecular characterization of abundant proteins within this fraction was achieved by N-terminal amino acid sequencing and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Eighteen proteins were subjected to N-group analysis; of these, only 10 could be sequenced by Edman degradation. Among the most interesting were a novel 52-kDa protein demonstrating significant homology to an alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase of Eubacterium sp. strain VPI 12708, a 25-kDa protein corresponding to open reading frame 28 of the M. tuberculosis cosmid MTCY1A11, and a 31-kDa protein exhibiting an amino acid sequence identical to that of antigen 85A and 85B. This latter product migrated with an isoelectric point between those of antigen 85A and 85C but did not react with the antibody specific for this complex, suggesting that there is a fourth member of the antigen 85 complex. Novel N-terminal amino acid sequences were obtained for three additional culture filtrate proteins; however, these did not yield significant homology to known protein sequences. A protein cluster of 85 to 88 kDa, recognized by the monoclonal antibodies IT-57 and IT-42 and known to react with sera from a large proportion of tuberculosis patients, was refractory to N-group analysis. Nevertheless, mass spectrometry of peptides obtained from one member of this complex identified it as the M. tuberculosis KatG catalase/peroxidase. Thus, the detailed mapping of M. tuberculosis proteins, combined with state-of-the-art analytical techniques such as mass spectrometry, provides a basis for further analysis and rapid identification of biologically relevant molecules. PMID:9353028

  17. Lipopolysaccharide aggregates in native agarose gels detected by reversible negative staining with imidazole and zinc salts.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Caridad; Hardy, Eugenio

    2015-09-15

    We investigated the use of imidazole and zinc salts for the detection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) aggregates separated by native agarose gel electrophoresis (NAGE). As a result, a new staining procedure was established by which as little as 1.5 ?g of Escherichia coli O55:B5 LPS aggregates was detected by means of inducing a clear, transparent pattern, contrasted against an opaque background. E. coli O55:B5 LPS preparations treated with nucleases and proteinase K proved that the reverse-stained LPS pattern is not related to any potential artifacts caused by unrelated biomolecules (e.g., nucleic acids, proteins). After this, we showed that the procedure is applicable to two-dimensional LPS separation using NAGE/SDS-PAGE, while at the same time confirming that real polydisperse LPS aggregates are represented by the stained profile. Also, we demonstrated the general applicability of this stain to the detection of different NAGE-separated LPS aggregates (e.g., from E. coli 026:B6, E. coli 0111:B4, Salmonella minnesota Re595). Finally, using lysozyme as a model protein, we found that imidazole-zinc may be combined with Coomassie brilliant blue R-250 into a double-staining process to enable the use of NAGE for investigating the interaction of cationic proteins and LPS aggregates and protein or LPS concentration effects on protein-LPS binding. PMID:26095395

  18. Electrophoretic mobility shift in native gels indicates calcium-dependent structural changes of neuronal calcium sensor proteins.

    PubMed

    Viviano, Jeffrey; Krishnan, Anuradha; Wu, Hao; Venkataraman, Venkat

    2016-02-01

    In proteins of the neuronal calcium sensor (NCS) family, changes in structure as well as function are brought about by the binding of calcium. In this article, we demonstrate that these structural changes, solely due to calcium binding, can be assessed through electrophoresis in native gels. The results demonstrate that the NCS proteins undergo ligand-dependent conformational changes that are detectable in native gels as a gradual decrease in mobility with increasing calcium but not other tested divalent cations such as magnesium, strontium, and barium. Surprisingly, such a gradual change over the entire tested range is exhibited only by the NCS proteins but not by other tested calcium-binding proteins such as calmodulin and S100B, indicating that the change in mobility may be linked to a unique NCS family feature-the calcium-myristoyl switch. Even within the NCS family, the changes in mobility are characteristic of the protein, indicating that the technique is sensitive to the individual features of the protein. Thus, electrophoretic mobility on native gels provides a simple and elegant method to investigate calcium (small ligand)-induced structural changes at least in the superfamily of NCS proteins. PMID:26617128

  19. Purification of recombinant growth hormone by clear native gels for conformational analyses: preservation of conformation and receptor binding.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Qiang; Salmazo, Anita; Myllykoski, Matti; Sjöblom, Björn; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Pollak, Arnold; Baumgärtel, Peter; Djinovic-Carugo, Kristina; Kursula, Petri; Lubec, Gert

    2010-08-01

    Most protein preparations require purification steps prior to biophysical analysis assessing protein stability, secondary structure and degree of folding. It was, therefore, the aim of this study to develop a system to separate and purify a protein from a commercially available medicinal product, recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) and show preservation of conformation and function following the gel-based procedure. The rhGH was run on clear native (CN) gels and recovered from the gels by electroelution using D-Tube Dialyzer Midi under rigorous cooling. Melting point studies indicated preservation of the structural integrity. This finding was confirmed by synchrotron radiation circular dichroism spectroscopy (SRCD) revealing an identical folding pattern for the sample before and after electrophoretic separation and purification. Synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) indicated that the sample was folded and monomeric, both before and after separation and purification, and that its shape corresponded well to the known crystal structure of GH. Binding properties of rhGH to a receptor-model system before and after clear native electrophoresis were comparable. This analytical and preparative approach to purify and concentrate a protein preserving conformation and function may be helpful for many applications in analytical, protein and stereochemistry. PMID:20238132

  20. Comparison of serologic typing, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis protein analysis, and genetic restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for identification of rickettsiae: characterization of two new rickettsial strains.

    PubMed Central

    Beati, L; Finidori, J P; Gilot, B; Raoult, D

    1992-01-01

    In 1990, 17 adult Rhipicephalus turanicus ticks were collected in the south of France. Two spotted fever group rickettsiae, Mtu1 and Mtu5, were isolated from the hemolymphs of two of these ticks by the centrifugation shell-vial technique by using HEL cells. These isolates were compared with reference spotted fever group rickettsial serotypes by using three identification methods: microimmunofluorescence serologic typing, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction endonuclease fragment length polymorphism analysis. The results obtained by all these techniques showed that Mtu1 and Mtu5 are each previously undescribed rickettsial serotypes. A comparison of the three methods used to identify the isolates led us to the conclusion that, in large-scale epidemiological studies, the simplest way to identify isolates in ticks is to first use the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis directly on triturated ticks as a screening method to detect interesting rickettsiae, and then attempt to isolate rickettsiae from ticks for identification by microimmunofluorescence and SDS-PAGE, both of which are time-consuming and expensive to carry out. Images PMID:1354221

  1. Microchannel gel electrophoretic separation systems and methods for preparing and using

    DOEpatents

    Herr, Amy; Singh, Anup K; Throckmorton, Daniel J

    2013-09-03

    A micro-analytical platform for performing electrophoresis-based immunoassays was developed by integrating photopolymerized cross-linked polyacrylamide gels within a microfluidic device. The microfluidic immunoassays are performed by gel electrophoretic separation and quantifying analyte concentration based upon conventional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). To retain biological activity of proteins and maintain intact immune complexes, native PAGE conditions were employed. Both direct (non-competitive) and competitive immunoassay formats are demonstrated in microchips for detecting toxins and biomarkers (cytokines, c-reactive protein) in bodily fluids (serum, saliva, oral fluids). Further, a description of gradient gels fabrication is included, in an effort to describe methods we have developed for further optimization of on-chip PAGE immunoassays. The described chip-based PAGE immunoassay method enables immunoassays that are fast (minutes) and require very small amounts of sample (less than a few microliters). Use of microfabricated chips as a platform enables integration, parallel assays, automation and development of portable devices.

  2. Microchannel gel electrophoretic separation systems and methods for preparing and using

    DOEpatents

    Herr, Amy E; Singh, Anup K; Throckmorton, Daniel J

    2015-02-24

    A micro-analytical platform for performing electrophoresis-based immunoassays was developed by integrating photopolymerized cross-linked polyacrylamide gels within a microfluidic device. The microfluidic immunoassays are performed by gel electrophoretic separation and quantifying analyte concentration based upon conventional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). To retain biological activity of proteins and maintain intact immune complexes, native PAGE conditions were employed. Both direct (non-competitive) and competitive immunoassay formats are demonstrated in microchips for detecting toxins and biomarkers (cytokines, c-reactive protein) in bodily fluids (serum, saliva, oral fluids). Further, a description of gradient gels fabrication is included, in an effort to describe methods we have developed for further optimization of on-chip PAGE immunoassays. The described chip-based PAGE immunoassay method enables immunoassays that are fast (minutes) and require very small amounts of sample (less than a few microliters). Use of microfabricated chips as a platform enables integration, parallel assays, automation and development of portable devices.

  3. Polyacrylamide hydrogels as sustained release drug delivery dressing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosiak, J.; Burozak, K.; P?kala, W.

    The possibility of the polyacrylamide hydrogels application as sustained release drug delivery systems is discussed. This paper reports some work carried out in order to obtain a new type of dressings consisting of polyurethane foil coated on one-side with the drug and on opposite one with the polyacrylamide hydrogel layer. The doses of 60Co ?-irradiation necessary to prepare polyacrylamide solutions with desirable viscosities were determined. Release rate of drug from dressing materials through the gel layer versus quality and quantity of the add-on hydrogel were investigated. The release rate increases for high amount of the coating gel as well as with the increase of the polyacrylamide content. The tentative biological tests have shown full biocompatibility and usefulness of this type of dressings for the clinical purposes.

  4. Gel Mobility Shift Assays to Detect Protein–RNA Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Yakhnin, Alexander V.; Yakhnin, Helen; Babitzke, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The gel mobility shift assay is a powerful technique for detecting and quantifying protein–RNA interactions. While other techniques such as filter binding and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) are available for quantifying protein–RNA interactions, gel shift analysis provides the added advantage that you can visualize the protein–RNA complexes. In the gel shift assay, protein–RNA complexes are typically separated from the unbound RNA using native polyacrylamide gels in Tris/borate/EDTA buffer, although an alternative Tris-glycine buffering system is superior in many situations. Here, we describe both gel shift methods, along with strategies to improve separation of protein–RNA complexes from free RNA, which can be a particular challenge for small RNA binding proteins. PMID:22736005

  5. EFFECTS OF NATIVE LIPID CONTENT ON THE GEL PROPERTIES AND SPHERULITE FORMATION OF JET COOKED CORNSTARCH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Steam jet cooking is a process that has been used for many years to prepare aqueous starch dispersions for both food and industrial applications. In this process, gel properties of the final starch dispersion are dependent on several variables, including starch concentration, steam pressure, stirri...

  6. Protein imprinting in polyacrylamide-based gels.

    PubMed

    Zayats, Maya; Brenner, Andrew J; Searson, Peter C

    2014-10-01

    Protein imprinting in hydrogels is a method to produce materials capable of selective recognition and capture of a target protein. Here we report on the imprinting of fluorescently-labeled maltose binding protein (MBP) in acrylamide (AAm)/N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm) hydrogels. The targeting efficiency and selectivity of protein recognition is usually characterized by the imprinting factor, which in the simplest case is the ratio of protein uptake in an imprinted film divided by the uptake by the corresponding non-imprinted film. Our objective in this work is to study the dynamics of protein binding and elution in imprinted and non-imprinted films to elucidate the processes that control protein recognition. Protein elution from imprinted and non-imprinted films suggests that imprinting results in sites with a distribution of binding energies, and that only a relatively small fraction of these sites exhibit strong binding. PMID:25034963

  7. Protein imprinting in polyacrylamide-based gels

    PubMed Central

    Zayats, Maya; Brenner, Andrew J.; Searson, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    Protein imprinting in hydrogels is a method to produce materials capable of selective recognition and capture of a target protein. Here we report on the imprinting of fluorescently-labeled maltose binding protein (MBP) in acrylamide (AAm)/N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm) hydrogels. The targeting efficiency and selectivity of protein recognition is usually characterized by the imprinting factor, which in the simplest case is the ratio of protein uptake in an imprinted film divided by the uptake by the corresponding non-imprinted film. Our objective in this work is to study the dynamics of protein binding and elution in imprinted and non-imprinted films to elucidate the processes that control protein recognition. Protein elution from imprinted and non-imprinted films suggests that imprinting results in sites with a distribution of binding energies, and that only a relatively small fraction of these sites exhibit strong binding. PMID:25034963

  8. An Investigation of In Situ Gelation of a Polyacrylamide/Chromium(III) System in Porous Media

    E-print Network

    Montes, Antonio

    1992-04-01

    Crosslinked polymer systems are used in enhanced oil recovery treatments. To further understand the behavior of such systems in porous media, the flow of a chromium(H[)-polyacrylamide gel system has been studied in unconsolidated porous media...

  9. Effect of Shear on Gelation of Polyacrylamide-Chromium Acetate Gelant in a Circular Tube

    E-print Network

    Li, Xianping

    2010-11-26

    This research studies the gelation and flow properties of a partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM)-chromium acetate gel system under shear conditions. Gelation was observed in steady shear on a rheometer and during injection through a 1,031-ft...

  10. MP 33354 Pro-Q Sapphire 532 Oligohistidine Gel Stain

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    MP 33354 Pro-Q® Sapphire 532 Oligohistidine Gel Stain Product Information Storage upon receipt: · 6­ polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and Western blot analysis. With Molecular Probes Pro-Q® Sapphire 532­polyacrylamide gel, eliminating the need to blot the protein to a membrane (Figure 1, top). Pro-Q Sapphire 532

  11. Analytical QbD: development of a native gel electrophoresis method for measurement of monoclonal antibody aggregates.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Mili; Dutta, Debayon; Rathore, Anurag

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents a quality by design (QbD) based development of a novel native PAGE (N-PAGE) method as a low-cost analytical tool for analysis of aggregates of monoclonal antibodies. Comparability to the present gold standard of SEC has been established. The motivation is the fact that SEC requires relatively expensive equipment and consumables, thus making N-PAGE relevant to those academicians and other small companies involved in early-stage development of biotherapeutics that do not have access to SEC, especially in developing countries. Furthermore, SEC suffers from certain disadvantages including the possibility of secondary interactions between the stationary phase and analyte resulting in higher elution time and therefore underestimation of the analyte size. The proposed N-PAGE method can also serve as an orthogonal analytical method for aggregate analysis. A QbD-based approach has been used for development and optimization of the protocol. First, initial screening studies were carried out with parameters including the running buffer pH, running buffer molarity, gel buffer pH, loading dye, sample concentration, and running voltage. Next, optimization of operating parameters was performed using principles of design of experiments. The final optimized protocol was compared to the traditional SEC method and the results were found to be comparable. While N-PAGE has been in use for protein analysis for several decades, use of N-PAGE for analysis of mAb aggregates with data comparable to SEC such as the case presented here is novel. PMID:24643784

  12. 21 CFR 172.255 - Polyacrylamide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., Films and Related Substances § 172.255 Polyacrylamide. Polyacrylamide containing not more than 0.2 percent of acrylamide monomer may be safely used as a film former in the imprinting of soft-shell...

  13. 21 CFR 172.255 - Polyacrylamide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., Films and Related Substances § 172.255 Polyacrylamide. Polyacrylamide containing not more than 0.2 percent of acrylamide monomer may be safely used as a film former in the imprinting of soft-shell...

  14. 21 CFR 172.255 - Polyacrylamide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., Films and Related Substances § 172.255 Polyacrylamide. Polyacrylamide containing not more than 0.2 percent of acrylamide monomer may be safely used as a film former in the imprinting of soft-shell...

  15. 21 CFR 172.255 - Polyacrylamide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., Films and Related Substances § 172.255 Polyacrylamide. Polyacrylamide containing not more than 0.2 percent of acrylamide monomer may be safely used as a film former in the imprinting of soft-shell...

  16. Spring-loaded polymeric gel actuators

    DOEpatents

    Shahinpoor, M.

    1995-02-14

    Spring-loaded electrically controllable polymeric gel actuators are disclosed. The polymeric gels can be polyvinyl alcohol, polyacrylic acid, or polyacrylamide, and are contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as water plus acetone. The action of the gel is mechanically biased, allowing the expansive and contractile forces to be optimized for specific applications. 5 figs.

  17. Spring-loaded polymeric gel actuators

    DOEpatents

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01

    Spring-loaded electrically controllable polymeric gel actuators are disclosed. The polymeric gels can be polyvinyl alcohol, polyacrylic acid, or polyacrylamide, and are contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as water plus acetone. The action of the gel is mechanically biased, allowing the expansive and contractile forces to be optimized for specific applications.

  18. SDS agarose gels for analysis of proteins.

    PubMed

    Wu, M; Kusukawa, N

    1998-04-01

    A new agarose-based protein electrophoresis gel system is described. The system consists of a highly resolving agarose, MetaPhor XR (FMC BioProducts, Rockland, ME, USA) dissolved in urea and TBE buffer and a stacking gel composed of a high gel-strength agarose, SeaKem Gold (FMC BioProducts). TBE containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is used as electrophoresis buffer. The disadvantages of traditional agarose gels have been overcome, and several advantages over polyacrylamide gels have been demonstrated. The system is capable of high-resolution separation of small proteins and has a dynamic separation range equivalent to a 4%-20% gradient polyacrylamide gel. Furthermore, the staining of protein bands by Coomassie Brilliant Blue is very uniform in this gel, and depending on the protein, higher detection sensitivity can be obtained compared to SDS polyacrylamide gels. In Western blotting, proteins are more efficiently transferred to the membrane from the agarose gel than from polyacrylamide gels. Finally, the exceptional stability of agarose allows for gels to be precast and stored for a year. PMID:9564543

  19. Microrheology of cross-linked polyacrylamide networks.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Bivash R; Weitz, D A

    2005-02-01

    Experiments investigating the local viscoelastic properties of a chemically cross-linked polymer are performed on polyacrylamide solutions in the sol and the gel regimes using polystyrene beads of varying sizes and surface chemistry as probes. The thermal motions of the probes are measured to obtain the elastic and viscous moduli of the sample. Probe dynamics are measured using two different dynamic light scattering techniques, diffusing wave spectroscopy (DWS) and quasielastic light scattering (QELS) as well as video-based particle tracking. Diffusing wave spectroscopy probes the short-time dynamics of the scatterers while QELS measures the dynamics at larger times. Video-based particle tracking provides a way to investigate the local environment of the individual probe particles. A combination of all the techniques results in a larger range of frequencies that can be probed compared to conventional bulk measurements while providing local information at the level of individual probes. A modified algebraic form of the generalized Stokes-Einstein equation is used to calculate the frequency-dependent moduli. A comparison of microrheological measurements with bulk rheology exhibits striking similarity, confirming the applicability of microrheology for chemically cross-linked polymeric systems. PMID:15783330

  20. Microrheology of cross-linked polyacrylamide networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, Bivash R.; Weitz, D. A.

    2005-02-01

    Experiments investigating the local viscoelastic properties of a chemically cross-linked polymer are performed on polyacrylamide solutions in the sol and the gel regimes using polystyrene beads of varying sizes and surface chemistry as probes. The thermal motions of the probes are measured to obtain the elastic and viscous moduli of the sample. Probe dynamics are measured using two different dynamic light scattering techniques, diffusing wave spectroscopy (DWS) and quasielastic light scattering (QELS) as well as video-based particle tracking. Diffusing wave spectroscopy probes the short-time dynamics of the scatterers while QELS measures the dynamics at larger times. Video-based particle tracking provides a way to investigate the local environment of the individual probe particles. A combination of all the techniques results in a larger range of frequencies that can be probed compared to conventional bulk measurements while providing local information at the level of individual probes. A modified algebraic form of the generalized Stokes-Einstein equation is used to calculate the frequency-dependent moduli. A comparison of microrheological measurements with bulk rheology exhibits striking similarity, confirming the applicability of microrheology for chemically cross-linked polymeric systems.

  1. Prototype for integrated two-dimensional gel electrophoresis for protein separation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Aoshuang; Sluszny, Chanan; Yeung, Edward S

    2005-09-16

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis practitioners have long waited for a fully automated system. This article presents an integrated platform that is capable of complete automation from sample introduction to spots detection. The strip gel for the first dimensional separation is fixed on the edge of a discrete planar stage before separation. A pair of platinum pin electrodes for isoelectric focusing (IEF) makes contact from underneath the stage. IEF is performed directly after rehydration and protein loading. After the first dimensional separation, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) equilibration is done on the same stage without moving the gel. The IEF stage is then moved horizontally to couple with a precast second dimensional gel. The <0.5 mm gap between the two gels is filled with poly (ethylene oxide) solution. After SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrohporesis separation, a charge-coupled device camera is used to detect spots via protein native fluorescence excited by a Hg (Xe) lamp with the gel inside the running cell. Potential for full automation is demonstrated with 0.5 microg of Escherichia coli proteins on this miniaturized platform. More than 240 spots are detected in a total experiment time of <2.5 h. PMID:16130711

  2. Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators

    DOEpatents

    Adolf, D.B.; Shahinpoor, M.; Segalman, D.J.; Witkowski, W.R.

    1993-10-05

    Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators or synthetic muscles are described capable of undergoing substantial expansion and contraction when subjected to changing pH environments, temperature, or solvent. The actuators employ compliant containers for the gels and their solvents. The gels employed may be cylindrical electromechanical gel fibers such as polyacrylamide fibers or a mixture of poly vinyl alcohol-polyacrylic acid arranged in a parallel aggregate and contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as salt water. The invention includes smart, electrically activated devices exploiting this phenomenon. These devices are capable of being manipulated via active computer control as large displacement actuators for use in adaptive structure such as robots. 11 figures.

  3. Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators

    DOEpatents

    Adolf, Douglas B. (Albuquerque, NM); Shahinpoor, Mohsen (Albuquerque, NM); Segalman, Daniel J. (Albuquerque, NM); Witkowski, Walter R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1993-01-01

    Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators or synthetic muscles capable of undergoing substantial expansion and contraction when subjected to changing pH environments, temperature, or solvent. The actuators employ compliant containers for the gels and their solvents. The gels employed may be cylindrical electromechanical gel fibers such as polyacrylamide fibers or a mixture of poly vinyl alcohol-polyacrylic acid arranged in a parallel aggregate and contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as salt water. The invention includes smart, electrically activated devices exploiting this phenomenon. These devices are capable of being manipulated via active computer control as large displacement actuators for use in adaptive structure such as robots.

  4. A Simple Vertical Slab Gel Electrophoresis Apparatus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, J. B.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes an inexpensive, easily constructed, and safe vertical slab gel kit used routinely for sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis research and student experiments. Five kits are run from a single transformer. Because toxic solutions are used, students are given plastic gloves and closely supervised during laboratory…

  5. Templated Native Silk Smectic Gels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Hyoung-Joon (Inventor); Park, Jae-Hyung (Inventor); Valluzzi, Regina (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    One aspect of the present invention relates to a method of preparing a fibrous protein smectic hydrogel by way of a solvent templating process, comprising the steps of pouring an aqueous fibrous protein solution into a container comprising a solvent that is not miscible with water; sealing the container and allowing it to age at about room temperature; and collecting the resulting fibrous protein smectic hydrogel and allowing it to dry. Another aspect of the present invention relates to a method of obtaining predominantly one enantiomer from a racemic mixture, comprising the steps of pouring an aqueous fibrous protein solution into a container comprising a solvent that is not miscible with water; sealing the container and allowing it to age at about room temperature; allowing the enantiomers of racemic mixture to diffuse selectively into the smectic hydrogel in solution; removing the smectic hydrogel from the solution; rinsing predominantly one enantiomer from the surface of the smectic hydrogel; and extracting predominantly one enantiomer from the interior of the smectic hydrogel. The present invention also relates to a smectic hydrogel prepared according to an aforementioned method.

  6. Templated native silk smectic gels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Hyoung-Joon (Inventor); Park, Jae-Hyung (Inventor); Valluzzi, Regina (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    One aspect of the present invention relates to a method of preparing a fibrous protein smectic hydrogel by way of a solvent templating process, comprising the steps of pouring an aqueous fibrous protein solution into a container comprising a solvent that is not miscible with water; sealing the container and allowing it to age at about room temperature; and collecting the resulting fibrous protein smectic hydrogel and allowing it to dry. Another aspect of the present invention relates to a method of obtaining predominantly one enantiomer from a racemic mixture, comprising the steps of pouring an aqueous fibrous protein solution into a container comprising a solvent that is not miscible with water; sealing the container and allowing it to age at about room temperature; allowing the enantiomers of racemic mixture to diffuse selectively into the smectic hydrogel in solution; removing the smectic hydrogel from the solution; rinsing predominantly one enantiomer from the surface of the smectic hydrogel; and extracting predominantly one enantiomer from the interior of the smectic hydrogel. The present invention also relates to a smectic hydrogel prepared according to an aforementioned method.

  7. Surface Creasing Instability of Soft Polyacrylamide Cell Culture Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Krishanu; Kim, Jungwook; Irwin, Elizabeth; Yoon, Jinhwan; Momin, Farhana; Trujillo, Verónica; Schaffer, David V.; Healy, Kevin E.; Hayward, Ryan C.

    2010-01-01

    Efforts to understand and engineer cell behavior in mechanically soft environments frequently employ two-dimensional cell culture substrates consisting of thin hydrogel layers with low elastic modulus supported on rigid substrates to facilitate culturing, imaging, and analysis. Here we characterize how an elastic creasing instability of the gel surface may occur for the most widely used soft cell culture substrate, polyacrylamide hydrogels, and show that stem cells respond to and change their behavior due to these surface features. The regions of stability and corresponding achievable ranges of modulus are elucidated in terms of the monomer and cross-linker concentrations, providing guidance for the synthesis of both smooth and creased soft cell substrates for basic and applied cell engineering efforts. PMID:21156124

  8. Polyacrylamide Hydrogel Properties for Horticultural Applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogels are commonly employed to ensure hydration of the growth media and minimize crop losses during the crop production and postproduction phases in horticulture. However, studies of the effect of these materials have shown that they have a minimal effect on crop life and q...

  9. Performance of 18 polymers in aluminum citrate colloidal dispersion gels

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.E.

    1995-11-01

    Colloidal dispersion gels are made up of low concentrations of polymer and aluminum citrate in water. These gels, which are mixed as a homogeneous solution at the surface, provide a valuable tool for in-depth blockage of high permeability regions of rock in heterogeneous reservoirs. Performance of colloidal dispersion gels depends strongly on the type and quality of polymer used. This paper provides an overview of the performance of 18 different polymers in colloidal dispersion gels. 14 of the polymers were partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamides or AMPS polymers in dry crystalline form with varying degrees of hydrolysis and molecular weight. The group also includes one cationic polyacrylamide, one carboxymethyl cellulose, one partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide in emulsion form and one polysaccharide in dry form. Gels were mixed with the polymers at two polymer concentrations, three polymer:aluminum ratios and in different concentrations of potassium chloride. The gels were quantitatively tested at 1, 7, 14 and 28 days after crosslinking using the transition pressure test, which is a screen flow resistance test. Of the six polymer types tested, only the dry partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamides and AMPS polymers formed colloidal dispersion gels. Gel strength generally increased with increasing anionic charge and molecular weight; however, the manner in which the polymer is manufactured and the impurities present in the polymer also play roles which are more significant than originally expected.

  10. Pore-Level Examination of Gel Destruction During Oil Flow

    E-print Network

    New York at Stoney Brook, State University of

    Pore-Level Examination of Gel Destruction During Oil Flow R.S. Seright, SPE, New Mexico Petroleum-scale X-ray computed microtomography (XMT) images were obtained at a variety of oil (hexadecane(III)-acetate-hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) gel]. For each pore in our image volume, we followed oil and water saturations

  11. New gel phantoms simulating optical properties of biological tissue 

    E-print Network

    Lee, Mija

    1997-01-01

    Gel phantoms made of polyacrylamide gel, India ink, and TiO2 were prepared to simulate biological tissues in optical properties. India ink and TiO2were used to imitate the absorption and scattering properties, respectively, of biological tissues...

  12. Agarose gel shift assay reveals that calreticulin favors substrates with a quaternary structure in solution.

    PubMed

    Boelt, Sanne Grundvad; Houen, Gunnar; Højrup, Peter

    2015-07-15

    Here we present an agarose gel shift assay that, in contrast to other electrophoresis approaches, is loaded in the center of the gel. This allows proteins to migrate in either direction according to their isoelectric points. Therefore, the presented assay enables a direct visualization, separation, and prefractionation of protein interactions in solution independent of isoelectric point. We demonstrate that this assay is compatible with immunochemical methods and mass spectrometry. The assay was used to investigate interactions with several potential substrates for calreticulin, a chaperone that is involved in different biological aspects through interaction with other proteins. The current analytical assays used to investigate these interactions are mainly spectroscopic aggregation assays or solid phase assays that do not provide a direct visualization of the stable protein complex but rather provide an indirect measure of interactions. Therefore, no interaction studies between calreticulin and substrates in solution have been investigated previously. The results presented here indicate that calreticulin has a preference for substrates with a quaternary structure and primarily ?-sheets in their secondary structure. It is also demonstrated that the agarose gel shift assay is useful in the study of other protein interactions and can be used as an alternative method to native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. PMID:25908558

  13. EVALUATION OF NOVEL PRECAST SDS-PAGE GELS FOR SEPARATION OF SORGHUM PROTEINS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pre-cast polyacrylamide gels using novel buffer chemistry for enhanced resolution and shelf life stability were evaluated for separating sorghum proteins. Two gels with different acrylamide concentrations, 12 and 4-12%, were tested with two different buffer systems. Gels were evaluated for separat...

  14. Acetyl CoA Carboxylase: Isolation and Characterization of Native Biotin Carboxyl Carrier Protein

    PubMed Central

    Fall, R. Ray; Nervi, A. M.; Alberts, Alfred W.; Vagelos, P. Roy

    1971-01-01

    A large form of biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCPL) has been isolated from extracts of Escherichia coli. It has a minimal molecular weight of 20,000, according to its behavior on sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and contains approximately 1 mol of biotin per 22,000 g of protein. BCCPL exhibits Km values, in the biotin carboxylase and transcarboxylase half-reactions of acetyl CoA carboxylase, of 2 × 10-7 M and 4 × 10-7 M, respectively; these values are 50-100 times lower than those obtained with smaller forms of BCCP previously isolated. Electrophoresis of crude extracts of E. coli indicates that the major biotin-containing protein migrates at the same rate as BCCPL, which suggests that BCCPL is the native form of BCCP in E. coli. Images PMID:4934522

  15. Nano-hydroxyapatite/polyacrylamide composite hydrogels with high mechanical strengths and cell adhesion properties.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiyong; Mi, Wenying; Wang, Huiliang; Su, Yunlan; He, Changcheng

    2014-11-01

    Nano-hydroxyapatite/polyacrylamide composite hydrogels were successfully fabricated by physically mixing nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp) particles into a peroxidized micelles initiated and cross-linked (pMIC) polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogel. The nanocomposite hydrogels exhibited excellent mechanical properties. The fracture tensile stresses of the gels were in the range of 0.21-0.86 MPa and the fracture tensile strains were up to 30 mm/mm, and the compressive strengths were up to 35.8 MPa. Meanwhile the introduction of nHAp endowed the composite hydrogels with good cell adhesion properties. This nHAp/PAAm nanocomposite hydrogel is expected to find potential applications in tissue engineering. PMID:25465752

  16. Microfabricated Polyacrylamide Devices for the Controlled Culture of Growing Cells and Developing Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Gude, Sebastian; Recouvreux, Pierre; van Zon, Jeroen S.; Tans, Sander J.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to spatially confine living cells or small organisms while dynamically controlling their aqueous environment is important for a host of microscopy applications. Here, we show how polyacrylamide layers can be patterned to construct simple microfluidic devices for this purpose. We find that polyacrylamide gels can be molded like PDMS into micron-scale structures that can enclose organisms, while being permeable to liquids, and transparent to allow for microscopic observation. We present a range of chemostat-like devices to observe bacterial and yeast growth, and C. elegans nematode development. The devices can integrate PDMS layers and allow for temporal control of nutrient conditions and the presence of drugs on a minute timescale. We show how spatial confinement of motile C. elegans enables for time-lapse microscopy in a parallel fashion. PMID:24086559

  17. Two dimensional blue native/SDS-PAGE to identify mitochondrial complex I subunits modified by 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jinzi; Luo, Xiaoting; Yan, Liang-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) can form protein-linked HNE adducts, thereby impacting protein structure and function. Mitochondrial complex I (NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase), containing at least 45 subunits in mammalian cells, sits in a lipid-rich environment and is thus very susceptible to HNE modifications. In this paper, a procedure for the identification of HNE-modified complex I subunits is described. Complex I was isolated by first dimensional non-gradient blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE). The isolated complex I band, visualized by either Coomassie blue staining or silver staining, was further analyzed by second dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). HNE-modified proteins were visualized by Western blotting probed with anti-HNE antibodies. HNE-positive bands were then excised and the proteins contained in them were identified by mass spectrometric peptide sequencing. The method was successfully applied for the identification of two complex I subunits that showed enhanced HNE-modifications in diabetic kidney mitochondria. PMID:25859224

  18. Amperometric tyrosinase biosensor based on polyacrylamide microgels.

    PubMed

    Hervás Pérez, J P; Sánchez-Paniagua López, M; López-Cabarcos, E; López-Ruiz, B

    2006-09-15

    An amperometric enzyme sensor using tyrosinase (PPO) entrapped in polyacrylamide microgels has been developed for determination of phenolic compounds. Polyacrylamide microgels were obtained by the concentrated emulsion polymerization method. The crosslinking of the polymer matrix optimum to retain the enzyme and to allow the diffusion of the compounds involved in the enzyme reaction has been studied (4.0%) as well as the influence on the response of analytical parameters such as pH, temperature, enzyme load and working potential. The useful lifetime of the biosensor was 27 days and it was useful to determine monophenolics compounds (e.g. cresol, chlorophenol) and diphenolics compounds (e.g. catechol and dopamine) by amperometric measurements at -100mV (versus SCE) in a batch system. The results showed that the substrate structures have a great influence on the sensor response. PMID:16806888

  19. Adsorption characteristics of polyacrylamide and sulfonate-containing polyacrylamide copolymers on sodium kaolinite. [Gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hollander, A.F.; Somasundaran, P.; Gryte, C.C.

    1981-07-01

    Polyacrylamide and its copolymer containing 6.8 mole % 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid were prepared by an irradiation-initiated precipitation polymerization technique. The polymer was characterized by intrinsic viscosity under conditions similar to those used during adsorption measurements. Hydrolytic degradation of the polyacrylamide was found to be negligible under conditions used. The adsorption substrate, sodium kaolinite, was prepared by extensive ion exchange treatment. Equilibrium adsorption of the polymers on the sodium kaolinite was made as a function of polymer concentration, solution pH, ionic strength, and temperature.

  20. Performance and Biocompatibility of Extremely Tough Alginate/Polyacrylamide Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Darnell, Max; Sun, Jeong-Yun; Mehta, Manav; Johnson, Chris; Arany, Praveen; Suo, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Although hydrogels now see widespread use in a host of applications, low fracture toughness and brittleness have limited their more broad use. As a recently described interpenetrating network (IPN) of alginate and polyacrylamide demonstrated a fracture toughness of ?9000 J/m2, we sought to explore the biocompatibility and maintenance of mechanical properties of these hydrogels in cell culture and in vivo conditions. These hydrogels can sustain a compressive strain of over 90% with minimal loss of Young's Modulus as well as minimal swelling for up to 50 days of soaking in culture conditions. Mouse mesenchymal stem cells exposed to the IPN gel-conditioned media maintain high viability, and although cells exposed to conditioned media demonstrate slight reductions in proliferation and metabolic activity (WST assay), these effects are abrogated in a dose-dependent manner. Implantation of these IPN hydrogels into subcutaneous tissue of rats for 8 weeks led to mild fibrotic encapsulation and minimal inflammatory response. These results suggest the further exploration of extremely tough alginate/PAAM IPN hydrogels as biomaterials. PMID:23896005

  1. Quantification of viscoelastic effects of polyacrylamide solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Heemskerk, J.; Holtslag, R.J.; Janssen-van Rosmalen, R.; Teeuw, D.

    1984-04-01

    Beyond a critical rate of flow in cores the viscoelasticity of polyacrylamide solutions is reflected by shear thickening behaviour. Practical information is provided on the critical flow rate and magnitude of shear thickening and their dependency on core permeability, temperature, molecular weight and concentration of commercial polymers. To describe the onset of shear thickening, critical Deborah numbers were calculated using fluid relaxation times obtained by oscillation rheometry. Using three core-flow parameters, viz. the critical flow rate and two powerlaw exponents, the viscoelastic effects are quantified.

  2. Mammalian cell propagation on derivatized polyacrylamide microcarriers.

    PubMed

    Reuveny, S; Mizrahi, A; Kotler, M; Freeman, A

    1983-01-01

    A working system for studying the effects of factors involved in the chemical nature of microcarrier on cell attachment, spreading and growth, was established. The system is based on polyacrylamide beads, prepared by the emulsion polymerization technique. Sieved beads of desirable mean diameter were derivatized to generate controlled amounts of primary and tertiary amino groups. These microcarriers were used for propagation of vive different cell strains: BHK, MDCK, CEF, MRC-5 and FS. It was found that BHK cells attach and spread significantly faster on primary amino derivatized beads than those with tertiary amino groups, and at a lower degree of charging. As a result of introducing hydrophobicity to the side chain carrying the primary amino group, higher kinetic rates of BHK cell attachment were obtained. Optimal cell growth of all the tested cells was recorded for the butyl and the hexyl side chains. On the other hand the introduction of hydrophobicity into the polymeric backbone of the microcarrier led to lower cell yields. Primary amino derivatized MCs with an optimal degree of hydrophobicity city exhibit a higher cell yield of MDCK cells (with pronounced epithelial morphology), as compared to the tertiary amino derivatized MCs. CEF and FS cells (with pronounced fibroblast morphology) attained cell yields comparable to those obtained with the tertiary amino derivatized MCs. The diaminohexane derivatized polyacrylamide microcarriers seem to be a potential alternative for the commonly used tertiary amino derivatized micro-carriers. PMID:6677525

  3. Effect of ?-carrageenan on volume phase transition for polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogel using the fluorescence technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akta?, Demet Kaya

    2014-03-01

    Steady-state fluorescence (SSF) technique was employed for studying swelling of polyacrylamide (PAAm) gels with various content of ?-carrageenan ( ?C). Disc shaped composite hydrogels were prepared by free-radical crosslinking copolymerization of acrylamide (AAm) with various amounts ?C. N, N'-methylenebis (acrylamide) (BIS) and ammonium persulfate (APS) were used as crosslinker and initiator, respectively. Pyranine was introduced as a fluorescence probe. Fluorescence intensity of pyranine was monitored during in situ swelling processes of composite gels. It was observed that fluorescence intensity values decreased as swelling is proceeded. Li-Tanaka equation was used to determine the swelling time constants, ? and cooperative diffusion coefficients, D from intensity variations during the swelling processes. It was shown that swelling time constants, ? decreased and diffusion coefficients, D increased as the ?C content in the composites are increased.

  4. Improved polyacrylamide treatments for water control in producing wells

    SciTech Connect

    Zaltoun, A.; Kohler, N. ); Guerrini, Y. )

    1991-07-01

    This paper reports on two polyacrylamide processes for water control in producing wells which improve the efficiency of conventional polyacrylamide treatment without inducing any risk of well plugging by crosslinkers. Treatment of a gas-storage well strongly decreased water production without any adverse effect on gas injection or production for at least 3 years.

  5. Photoswitchable gel assembly based on molecular recognition

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Hiroyasu; Kobayashi, Yuichiro; Kobayashi, Ryosuke; Takashima, Yoshinori; Hashidzume, Akihito; Harada, Akira

    2012-01-01

    The formation of effective and precise linkages in bottom-up or top-down processes is important for the development of self-assembled materials. Self-assembly through molecular recognition events is a powerful tool for producing functionalized materials. Photoresponsive molecular recognition systems can permit the creation of photoregulated self-assembled macroscopic objects. Here we demonstrate that macroscopic gel assembly can be highly regulated through photoisomerization of an azobenzene moiety that interacts differently with two host molecules. A photoregulated gel assembly system is developed using polyacrylamide-based hydrogels functionalized with azobenzene (guest) or cyclodextrin (host) moieties. Reversible adhesion and dissociation of the host gel from the guest gel may be controlled by photoirradiation. The differential affinities of ?-cyclodextrin or ?-cyclodextrin for the trans-azobenzene and cis-azobenzene are employed in the construction of a photoswitchable gel assembly system. PMID:22215078

  6. Improving immobilized biocatalysts by gel phase polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Kuu, W.Y.; Polack, J.A.

    1983-08-01

    A new method is presented for the treatment of gel-type supports, used for immobilizing microbial cells and enzymes, to obtain high mechanical strength. It is particularly useful for ethanol fermentation over gel beads containing immobilized viable cells, where the beads can be ruptured by gas production and the growth of cells within the gels. This method consists of treating agar or carrageenan gel with polyacrylamide to form a rigid support which retains the high catalytic activity characteristic of the untreated biocatalysts. The size and shape of the biocatalyst is unaffected by this treatment. The method involves the diffusion of acrylamide, N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide and BETA-dimethylaminopropionitrile (or N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine) into the preformed biocatalyst beads followed by the addition of an initiator to cause polymerization within the beads. Treated gels have been used for the continuous fermentation of glucose to ethanol in a packed column for over two months.

  7. 21 CFR 872.3420 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive. 872.3420 Section 872.3420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION....3420 Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive is a...

  8. 21 CFR 872.3420 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive. 872.3420 Section 872.3420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION....3420 Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive is a...

  9. 21 CFR 872.3420 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive. 872.3420 Section 872.3420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION....3420 Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive is a...

  10. 21 CFR 872.3420 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive. 872.3420 Section 872.3420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION....3420 Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive is a...

  11. 21 CFR 872.3420 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive. 872.3420 Section 872.3420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION....3420 Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive is a...

  12. 21 CFR 872.3420 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture... § 872.3420 Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture...Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer...

  13. 21 CFR 872.3420 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture... § 872.3420 Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture...Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer...

  14. 21 CFR 872.3420 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture... § 872.3420 Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture...Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer...

  15. 21 CFR 872.3480 - Polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive...Devices § 872.3480 Polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture...

  16. 21 CFR 872.3480 - Polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive...Devices § 872.3480 Polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture...

  17. 21 CFR 872.3480 - Polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive...Devices § 872.3480 Polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture...

  18. Antioxidant effect of green tea on polymer gel dosimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuel, E. J. J.; Sathiyaraj, P.; Deena, T.; Kumar, D. S.

    2015-01-01

    Extract from Green Tea (GTE) acts as an antioxidant in acrylamide based polymer gel dosimeter. In this work, PAGAT gel was used for investigation of antioxidant effect of GTE.PAGAT was called PAGTEG (Polyacrylamide green tea extract gel dosimeter) after adding GTE. Free radicals in water cause pre polymerization of polymer gel before irradiation. Polyphenols from GTE are highly effective to absorb the free radicals in water. THPC is used as an antioxidant in polymer gel dosimeter but here we were replaced it by GTE and investigated its effect by spectrophotometer. GTE added PAGAT samples response was lower compared to THPC added sample. To increase the sensitivity of the PAGTEG, sugar was added. This study confirmed that THPC was a good antioxidant for polymer gel dosimeter. However, GTE also can be used as an antioxidant in polymer gel if use less quantity (GTE) and add sugar as sensitivity enhancer.

  19. Field demonstration of in situ grouting of radioactive solid waste burial trenches with polyacrylamide. [Polyacrylamide

    SciTech Connect

    Spalding, B.P.; Fontaine, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Demonstrations of in situ grouting with polyacrylamide were carried out on two undisturbed burial trenches and one dynamically compacted burial trench in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The injection of polyacrylamide was achieved quite facilely for the two undisturbed burial trenches which were filled with grout, at typical pumping rates of 95 L/min, in several batches injected over several days. The compacted burial trench, however, failed to accept grout at more than 1.9 L/min even when pressure was applied. Thus, it appears that burial trenches, stabilized by dynamic compaction, have a permeability too low to be considered groutable. The water table beneath the burial trenches did not respond to grout injections indicating a lack of hydrologic connection between fluid grout and the water table which would have been observed if the grout failed to set. Because grout set times were adjusted to less than 60 min, the lack of hydrologic connection was not surprising. Postgrouting penetration testing revealed that the stability of the burial trenches was increased from 26% to 79% that measured in the undisturbed soil surrounding the trenches. In situ permeation tests on the grouted trenches indicated a significant reduction in hydraulic conductivity of the trench contents from a mean of 2.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} to 1.85 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} cm/s. Preliminary observations indicated that grouting with polyacrylamide is an excellent method for both improved stability and hydrologic isolation of radioactive waste and its incidental hazardous constituents.

  20. In situ grouting of buried transuranic waste with polyacrylamide

    SciTech Connect

    Spalding, B.P.; Lee, S.Y.; Farmer, C.D.; Hyder, L.K.; Supaokit, P.

    1987-01-01

    This project is a demonstration and evaluation of the in situ hydrologic stabilization of buried transuranic waste at a humid site via grout injection. Two small trenches, containing buried transuranic waste, were filled with 34.000 L of polyacrylamide grout. Initial field results have indicated that voids within the trenches were totally filled by the grout and that the intratrench hydraulic conductivity was reduced to below field-measurable values. No evidence of grout constituents were observed in twelve perimeter groundwater monitoring wells indicating that grout was contained completely within the two trenches. Polyacrylamide grout was selected for field demonstration over the polyacrylate grout due to its superior performance in laboratory degradation studies. Also supporting the selection of polyacrylamide was the difficulty in controlling the set time of the acrylate polymerization. Based on preliminary degradation monitoring, the polyacrylamide was estimated to have a microbiological half-life of 362 years in the test soil. 15 refs., 9 figs., 12 tabs.

  1. The fundamental radiation properties of normoxic polymer gel dosimeters: a comparison between a methacrylic acid based gel and acrylamide based gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeDeene, Y.; Vergote, K.; Claeys, C.; DeWagter, C.

    2006-02-01

    Polymer gel dosimeters offer a wide range of applications in the three-dimensional verification of complex dose distributions such as in intensity-modulated radiotherapy. One of the major difficulties with polymer gel dosimeters is their sensitivity to oxygen, as oxygen inhibits the radiation-induced polymerization reaction. For several years, oxygen was removed from the gels by bubbling the sol with inert gases for several hours during the gel fabrication. Also, the gel had to be poured in containers with low oxygen permeability and solubility. Recently, it was found that these technical difficulties can easily be solved by adding an antioxidant to the gel. These gels are called 'normoxic' gels as they can be produced under normal atmospheric conditions. In this study several properties of polymer gel dosimeters have been investigated: the dose sensitivity, the temporal and spatial stability of the gel, the sensitivity of the dose response to temperature during irradiation and during MR imaging, the energy dependence and the dose-rate dependence. This study reveals that the normoxic polymer gel dosimeter based on methacrylic acid (nMAG) studied in this work has inferior radiation properties as compared to the polyacrylamide gelatine (PAG) gel dosimeters. It is shown that from the three different gel dosimeters investigated in this study, the nPAG gel dosimeter results in a less sensitive gel dosimeter but with superior radiation properties as compared to the nMAG gel dosimeter. The importance of investigating relevant radiation properties of gel dosimeters apart from the radiation sensitivity—prior to their use for dosimetric validation experiments—is illustrated and emphasized throughout this study. Other combinations of monomer and gelling agent may result in more reliable normoxic polymer gel dosimeters.

  2. Improving gel properties of hairtail surimi by electron irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xianping; Yang, Wenge; Xu, Dalun; Jie, Zhen; Liu, Wen

    2015-05-01

    Hairtail surimi was subjected to electron irradiation for doses up to 9 kGy. At 7 kGy highest gel strength was achieved. The irradiation also increased lightness and expressible water amount. Scanning electron micrographs showed that 7 kGy irradiation made the surimi protein gel network more compact. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) revealed the degradation of myosin heavy chain (MHC) as the irradiation dose increased, particularly at the 7 and 9 kGy doses. Radiation processing may become a new effective tool in surimi production.

  3. Assessing Kinase Activity in Plants with In-Gel Kinase Assays.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pengcheng; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2016-01-01

    The in-gel protein kinase assay is a powerful method to measure the protein phosphorylation activity of specific protein kinases. Any protein substrate can be embedded in polyacrylamide gels where they can be phosphorylated by protein kinases that are separated in the gel under denaturing conditions and then renatured. The kinase activity can be visualized in situ in the gels by autoradiography. This method has been used to compare the activities of protein kinases in parallel samples or to identify their potential substrates. Here, we describe in detail an in-gel kinase assay to measure the activity of some protein kinases in plants. PMID:26577790

  4. Effect of gel structure of matrix orientation in pulsed alternating electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Stellwagen, N.C.; Stellwagen, J.

    1993-12-31

    Four polymeric gels with different structures, LE agarose, HEEO agarose, beta-carrageenan, and polyacrylamide, were studied by transient electric birefringence to determine the importance of various structural features on the orientation of the gels in pulsed alternating electric fields. The birefrigence relaxation times observed for agarose gels in low voltage electric fields suggest that long fibers and/or domains, ranging up to tens of microns in size, are oriented by the electric field. The sign of the birefringence reverses when the direction of the electric field is reversed, suggesting that the oriented domains change their direction of orientation from parallel to perpendicular (or vice versa) when the polarity of the electric field is reversed. These anamalous orientation effects are observed with both types of agarose gels, but not with beta-carrageenan or polyacrylamide gels, suggesting that the alternating D,L galactose residues in the agarose backbone are responsible for the anomalies.

  5. Improving immobilized biocatalysts by gel phase polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Kuu, W.Y.; Polack, J.A.

    1983-08-01

    A new method is presented for the treatment of gel-type supports, used for immobilizing microbial cells and enzymes, to obtain high mechanical strength. It is particularly useful for ethanol fermentation over gel beads containing immobilized viable cells, where the beads can be ruptured by gas production and the growth of cells within the gels. This method consists of treating agar or carrageenan gel with polyacrylamide to form a rigid support which retains the high catalytic activity characteristic of the untreated biocatalysts. The size and shape of the biocatalyst is unaffected by this treatment. The method involves the diffusion of acrylamide, N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide and ..beta..-dimethylaminopropionitrile (or N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine) into the preformed biocatalyst beads followed by the addition of an initiator to cause polymerization within the beads. Treated gels have been used for the continuous fermentation of glucose to ethanol in a packed column for over two months. During this operation, the gel beads maintained their rigidity, and the maximum productivity was as high as 50 gh/sup -1/ L/sup -1/ gel. There was no appreciable decay of cell activity.

  6. Kinetics of water flow through polymer gel

    E-print Network

    Yasuo Y. Suzuki; Masayuki Tokita; Sata-atsu Mukai

    2008-11-13

    The water flow through the poly(acrylamide) gel under a constant water pressure is measured by newly designed apparatus. The time evolution of the water flow in the gel, is calculated based on the collective diffusion model of the polymer network coupled with the friction between the polymer network and the water. The friction coefficient are determined from the equilibrium velocity of water flow. The Young modulus and the Poisson's ratio of the rod shape gels are measured by the uni-axial elongation experiments, which determine the longitudinal modulus independently from the water flow experiments. With the values of the longitudinal modulus and of the friction determined by the experiments, the calculated results are compared with the time evolution of the flow experiments. We find that the time evolution of the water flow is well described by a single characteristic relaxation time predicted by the collective diffusion model coupled with the water friction.

  7. Polyelectrolyte gels

    SciTech Connect

    Segalman, D.J.; Witkowski, W.R.

    1995-06-01

    Polyelectrolyte (PE) gels are swollen polymer/solvent networks that undergo a reversible volume collapse/expansion through various types of stimulation. Applications that could exploit this large deformation and solvent expulsion/absorption characteristics include robotic {open_quotes}fingers{close_quotes} and drug delivery systems. The goals of the research were to first explore the feasibility of using the PE gels as {open_quotes}smart materials{close_quotes} - materials whose response can be controlled by an external stimulus through a feedback mechanism. Then develop a predictive capability to simulate the dynamic behavior of these gels. This involved experimentally characterizing the response of well-characterized gels to an applied electric field and other stimuli to develop an understanding of the underlying mechanisms which cause the volume collapse. Lastly, the numerical analysis tool was used to simulate various potential engineering devices based on PE gels. This report discusses the pursuit of those goals through experimental and computational means.

  8. Purification and characterization of particulate endothelium-derived relaxing factor synthase from cultured and native bovine aortic endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, J S; Förstermann, U; Mitchell, J A; Warner, T D; Schmidt, H H; Nakane, M; Murad, F

    1991-01-01

    The particulate enzyme responsible for the synthesis of endothelium-derived relaxing factor has been purified from cultured and native (noncultured) bovine aortic endothelial cells. Purification of the solubilized particulate enzyme preparation by affinity chromatography on adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate coupled to Sepharose followed by Superose 6 gel filtration chromatography resulted in a single protein band after denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis that corresponded to approximately 135 kDa. The enzyme activity in the various fractions was assayed by its stimulatory effect on soluble guanylyl cyclase of rat fetal lung fibroblasts (RFL-6 cells), by the formation of L-citrulline from L-arginine, by measuring nitrite/nitrate formation, and by bioassay on endothelium-denuded vascular strips. Endothelium-derived relaxing factor synthase was purified 3419-fold from the crude particulate fraction of cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells with a 12% recovery (RFL-6 assay). Purified endothelium-derived relaxing factor synthase required L-arginine, NADPH, Ca2+, calmodulin, and 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin for full activity. Images PMID:1720542

  9. HRP-Mediated Synthesis of Starch-Polyacrylamide Graft Copolymers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modified starch-based polymers can be engineered for specific properties by combining starch with synthetic polymers through graft copolymerization. Polyacrylamide grafted starches have received a great deal of applications in areas such as superabsorbent paper-making additives, drag reduction and ...

  10. HRP-Mediated Synthesis of Starch-Polyacrylamide Graft Copolymers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modified starch-based polymers can be engineered for specific properties by combining starch with synthetic polymers through graft copolymerization. Polyacrylamide grafted starch have received a great deal of applications in areas such as superabsorbent paper-making additives, drag reduction and te...

  11. Amperometric biosensor for the detection of hydrogen peroxide using catalase modified electrodes in polyacrylamide.

    PubMed

    Varma, Shailly; Mattiasson, Bo

    2005-09-23

    A simple biosensor for the detection of hydrogen peroxide in organic solvents has been developed and coupled to a flow injection analysis (FIA) system. Catalase was entrapped in polyacrylamide gel and placed on the surface of platinum (working electrode) fixed in a Teflon holder with Ag-wire (auxiliary electrode), followed by addition of filter paper soaked in KCl. The entrapped catalase gel was held on the electrode using membranes. The effects of cellulose and polytetrafluroethylene (PTFE) membranes on the electrode response towards hydrogen peroxide have been studied. The modified electrode has been used to study the detection of hydrogen peroxide in solvents like water, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and 1,4-dioxane using amperometric techniques like cyclic voltammetry (CV) and FIA. The CV of modified catalase electrode showed a broad oxidation peak at -150 mV and a clear reduction peak at -212 mV in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Comparison of CV with hydrogen peroxide in various solvents has been carried out. The electrode showed an irreversible kinetics with DMSO as the solvent. A flow cell has been designed in order to carry on FIA studies to obtain calibration plots for hydrogen peroxide with the modified electrode. The calibration plots in several solvents such as water, dimethyl sulfoxide, 1,4-dioxane have been obtained. The throughput of the enzyme electrode was 10 injections per hour. Due to the presence of membrane the response time of the electrode is concentration dependent. PMID:16099064

  12. An experimental study of the in-situ gelation of chromium(+3)-polyacrylamide polymer in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, C.G.; Green, D.W.; Wilhite, G.P.

    1984-04-01

    Gelled polymers are being used increasingly as reservoir flow control agents to improve the water-to-oil ratio in waterflooding. To date, little has been published in the open literature on the insitu gelation of polymers in porous media. This work was undertaken to study the process of in-situ gelation of a gel system consisting of a polyacrylamide polymer, sodium dichromate and thiourea. The experiments consisted of continously injecting gel solutions into one-foot unconsolidated sandpacks. Pressure distributions along the flow direction were used to interpret the nature of gelation in the porous media. It was found that gelation in porous media occured much earlier than anticipated from beaker tests where gel solutions were under conditions of no shear. For example, a gel solution with a nominal 10-day gel time in a beaker gelled in 85 hours in a porous medium run. Shear was thought to be one of the major factors affecting the in-situ gelation rate and it was determined that gelation times decreased with increasing insitu shear rates. Under the same in-situ shear rate, the in-situ gelation times were approximately equal in sandpacks prepared from different grain sizes. The order in which in-situ gelation occurred along the flow direction indicated that the shear history had an effect on gelation time. Effluents from displacements with gel solutions were analyzed to evaluate the change in the properties of a gel solution as it moved through the porous media. The chemical analysis indicated that the retention of polymer was marked after the in-situ gelation developed.

  13. An experimental study of the in-situ gelation of chromium(+3)/polyacrylamide polymer in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, C.G.; Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.

    1986-11-01

    Gelled polymers are being used increasingly as reservoir flow control agents to improve the water-to-oil ratio (WOR) in waterflooding. To date, little has been published in the literature on the in-situ gelation of polymers in porous media. This work was undertaken to study the process of in-situ gelation of a gel system consisting of a polyacrylamide polymer, sodium dichromate, and thiourea. The experiments consisted of continuous injection of gel solutions into 1-ft (0.3-m) unconsolidated sandpacks. Pressure distributions along the flow direction were used to interpret the nature of gelation in the porous media. The authors found the gelation occurred much earlier than anticipated from beaker tests where gel solutions were under conditions of no shear-e.g., a gel solution with a nominal 10-day gel time in a beaker gelled in 85 hours in a porous-medium run. Shear was considered one of the major factors affecting the in-situ shear rate, and we determined that gelation times decreased with increasing in-situ shear rates. Under the same in-situ shear rate, the in-situ gelation times were approximately equal in sandpacks prepared from different grain sizes. The order in which in-situ gelation occurred along the flow direction indicated that the shear history affected gelation time. Effluents from displacements with gel solutions were analyzed to evaluate the change in the properties of a gel solution as it moved through the porous media. The chemical analysis indicated that the retention of polymer was marked after the in-situ gelation developed.

  14. 21 CFR 872.3480 - Polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture... polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive is a device composed of polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) intended...

  15. 21 CFR 872.3480 - Polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture... polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive is a device composed of polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) intended...

  16. 21 CFR 872.3480 - Polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture... polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive is a device composed of polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) intended...

  17. 21 CFR 872.3480 - Polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture... polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive is a device composed of polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) intended...

  18. 21 CFR 872.3480 - Polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture... polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive is a device composed of polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) intended...

  19. Ultrastructural studies on paramyosin core filaments from native thick filaments in catch muscles.

    PubMed

    Matsuno, A; Kannda, M; Okuda, M

    1996-08-01

    Catch muscles of molluscs usually have thick filaments of about 100 nm in diameter. The filament is constructed of a paramyosin core filament and an outer layer of myosin molecules. Myosin molecules are situated on the paramyosin core filament towards both ends, and they consequently have polarity towards both ends. According to our observations on the paramyosin core filaments from the native thick filaments, they bear regular cross-striations on their surfaces of about 14.5 nm periodicity when incubated in a KCl solution for a short time. The periodic pattern is supposed to be representative of peculiar arrangements of paramyosin molecules in the core, but the periodic pattern disappeared during incubation in a solution of high concentration KCl for a prolonged time, and a 'Bear-Selby net' pattern appeared substitutionally. These 'Bear-Selby net' patterns were conveniently divided into 3 types among 4 paramyosin core filaments from 4 'catch' muscles; the adductors of a pecten, an oyster and a clam, and the byssus retractor of a mussel. The 'Bear-Selby net' of an oyster resembled that of a pecten. Purified paramyosin crystals from the 4 muscles showed a common periodicity of about 72.5 nm. Electrophoresis with SDS of the 4 paramyosins on 6% polyacrylamide gels revealed molecular weights at 104 kD from a pecten, 105 kD from an oyster, 103 kD from a clam and 105 kD from a mussel. PMID:8760863

  20. The unravelling of metabolic dysfunctions linked to metal-associated diseases by blue native

    E-print Network

    Appanna, Vasu

    perturbations invoked by metal toxicity. In this review, we elaborate on how BN-PAGE has led to the discovery dehydrogenase INT Iodonitrotetrazolium chloride NEIL Endonuclease VIII-like PK Pyruvate kinase PMS Phenazine methosulfate ROS Reactive oxygen species SDS-PAGE Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis TCA

  1. The Intracellular Domain of the Drosophila Cholinesterase-Like Neural Adhesion Protein, Gliotactin, is Natively

    E-print Network

    Sussman, Joel L.

    . The intracellular portion (Gli-cyt) was cloned and expressed in the cytosolic fraction of Escherichia coli BLR(DE3 dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), under denaturing conditions, was unusually sponsor: European Commission Fifth Framework "Quality of Life and Management of Living Resources" program

  2. Identification of peanut hybrids using microsatellite markers and horizontal polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In peanut hybridization, it is very important to be able to distinguish selfs from true hybrids to save time and resources. To help facilitate this effort and provide molecular distinction between selfs from hybrids, DNA was extracted from leaf tissue of F1 or F2 plants, and SSR markers were amplif...

  3. A LOW-COST HIGH THROUGHPUT POLYACRYLAMIDE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS SYSTEM FOR GENOTYPING WITH MICROSATELLITE DNA MARKERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microsatellite DNA markers are widely used in genetic research but the genotyping cost with this marker system is high and the throughput is limited with conventional methods. The objective of this paper is to introduce a low-cost, high-throughput system developed in our laboratories for the detect...

  4. Application of multiple levels of fluid shear stress to endothelial cells plated on polyacrylamide gels

    PubMed Central

    Galie, P. A.; van Oosten, A.; Chen, C. S.

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of endothelial cell response to fluid shear stress have previously been performed on unphysiologically rigid substrates. We describe the design and implementation of a microfluidic device that applies discrete levels of shear stress to cells plated on hydrogel-based substrates of physiologicallyrelevant stiffness. The setup allows for measurements of cell morphology and inflammatory response to the combined stimuli, and identifies mechanisms by which vascular stiffening leads to pathological responses to blood flow. We found that the magnitude of shear stress required to affect endothelial cell morphology and inflammatory response depended on substrate stiffness. Endothelial cells on 100 Pa substrates demonstrate a greater increase in cell area and cortical stiffness and decrease in NF-?B nuclear translocation in response to TNF-? treatment compared to controls than cells plated on 10 kPa substrates. The response of endothelial cells on soft substrates to shear stress depends on the presence of hyaluronan (HA). These results emphasize the importance of substrate stiffness on endothelial function, and elucidate a means by which vascular stiffening in aging and disease can impact the endothelium. PMID:25573790

  5. Solids and nutrient removal from flushed swine manure using polyacrylamides.

    PubMed

    Paz Pérez-Sangrador, María; Cristina León-Cófreces, María; Acítores-Benavente, Milagros; Cruz García-González, María

    2012-01-01

    Most of the organic nutrient elements (nitrogen and phosphorus) and carbon compounds in liquid swine are contained in fine suspended particles. Flocculation treatment with polyacrylamide (PAM) followed by screening is one the best methods to separate the liquid fraction from the solid fraction in swine manure, and thus to eliminate nutrient elements associated with solids. In this study, the efficiency of a synthetic polyacrylamide to treat swine manure was evaluated. After polymer treatment samples were sieved and the filtrated liquid was analyzed. TSS, VSS and COD concentrations in the liquid fraction were 2.17, 1.93 and 16.42 g/L respectively, accounting for 94, 94 and 77% removal percentages for TSS, VSS and COD using 30 mg/L of PAM. PMID:22054572

  6. Detection of fluorescence dye-labeled proteins in 2-D gels using an Arthur 1442 Multiwavelength Fluoroimager.

    PubMed

    Herick, K; Jackson, P; Wersch, G; Burkovski, A

    2001-07-01

    Labeling of proteins with SYPRO Orange, SYPRO Red, and SYPRO Ruby after 2-D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) using plastic-backed immobilized pH gradient (IPG) strips and precast SDS polyacrylamide gels was tested. Protein spots were detected using an Arthur 1442 Multiwavelength Fluoroimager. The labeling methods described allow detection of proteins both after isoelectric focusing (IEF) and PAGE with a sensitivity higher than or comparable to standard silver staining methods. In addition to the post-labeling methods mentioned above, pre-labeling with the cysteine-specific fluorophore monobromobimane before 2-D PAGE is a sensitive, fast, and cost-effective alternative to existing staining protocols. PMID:11464508

  7. Dielectric properties of gel collected from shark electrosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Mary E.; Brown, Brandon R.; Hutchison, John C.; Murray, Royce W.

    2003-03-01

    To investigate the physical mechanism of the electric sense, we present an initial characterization of the dielectric properties of the glycoprotein gel that fills the electrosensitive organs of marine elasmobranches (sharks, skates, and rays). To ascertain the properties of the gel, low-frequency impedance spectroscopy is used. The impedance data collected from a dialyzed sample show large values of static permittivity and a loss peak corresponding to a long relaxation time (about 1 ms). Impedance measurements of the native (nondialyzed) gel reliable to 0.1 Hz will be presented and compared to the dialyzed gel. Ramifications of the gel's dielectric properties for the electric sense will be explored.

  8. Spot volume vs. amount of protein loaded onto a gel: a detailed, statistical comparison of two gel electrophoresis systems.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xianquan; Desiderio, Dominic M

    2003-06-01

    The long-term goal of this research program is to clarify the molecular mechanisms that participate in the formation of human pituitary macroadenomas. One approach to that goal is to characterize the differentially expressed proteins that are found by a comparison of the proteomes of control pituitary vs. macroadenoma tissues. In order to accurately perform a comparative proteomics study, based on the combination of two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE) and PDQuest 2-D analysis software, a reproducible 2-DE separation system with a wide linear dynamic measure range is needed. A typical horizontal system is the Multiphor II system that analyzes one gel at a time, using a precast gradient gel (180 x 245 x 0.5 mm); a typical vertical system is the Dodeca system that analyzes up to 12 gels at a time on a single-concentration gel (190 x 205 x 1.0 mm). We have evaluated (Zhan and Desiderio, Electrophoresis 2003, 24, 1834-1846) the spatial and quantitative reproducibility of the two second-dimensional gel systems to separate a human pituitary proteome; that study showed a higher reproducibility for the Dodeca gel system. This present study investigated the relationship between the spot volume and the amount of protein loaded onto the gel for those two 2-D systems. The results demonstrated that the Dodeca gel system provides a wider linear dynamic range to measure the changes in the protein abundance in pituitary proteome. PMID:12783459

  9. Identification of species of fish by gradient-gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Manusu, H P; Wrigley, C W

    1985-11-01

    An electrophoretic method is described for distinguishing between fish fillets according to their protein composition. Thaw fluid (4 microL) was applied to one of 14 sample positions of a precast gel, containing a gradient of polyacrylamide of either 2.5 to 27% or 3 to 40%. All reagents and gels are commercially available in ready-to-use form. Either gel provided a distinction between any of the 42 fish types, but the 3 to 40% gel gave better identification because of its superior molecular-sieving properties. Reproducible electrophoretic patterns were obtained for different samples of the same fish type, but small differences were shown for fish of widely different origin, for example Australian and New Zealand ling. PMID:3834902

  10. Native Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seven, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Amid concerns from tribal leaders that No Child Left Behind testing is squeezing out electives that have traditionally covered their history and cultures, an ambitious brace of programs is making Native America part of the core curriculum at David Wolfle Elementary School and other schools in the western Washington State. By tapping into…

  11. Aerosol gels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, Christopher M. (Inventor); Chakrabarti, Amitabha (Inventor); Dhaubhadel, Rajan (Inventor); Gerving, Corey (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An improved process for the production of ultralow density, high specific surface area gel products is provided which comprises providing, in an enclosed chamber, a mixture made up of small particles of material suspended in gas; the particles are then caused to aggregate in the chamber to form ramified fractal aggregate gels. The particles should have a radius (a) of up to about 50 nm and the aerosol should have a volume fraction (f.sub.v) of at least 10.sup.-4. In preferred practice, the mixture is created by a spark-induced explosion of a precursor material (e.g., a hydrocarbon) and oxygen within the chamber. New compositions of matter are disclosed having densities below 3.0 mg/cc.

  12. Recycling of superfine resolution agarose gel.

    PubMed

    Seng, T-Y; Singh, R; Faridah, Q Z; Tan, S-G; Alwee, S S R S

    2013-01-01

    Genetic markers are now routinely used in a wide range of applications, from forensic DNA analysis to marker-assisted plant and animal breeding. The usual practice in such work is to extract the DNA, prime the markers of interest, and sift them out by electrically driving them through an appropriate matrix, usually a gel. The gels, made from polyacrylamide or agarose, are of high cost, limiting their greater applications in molecular marker work, especially in developing countries where such technology has great potential. Trials using superfine resolution (SFR) agarose for SSR marker screening showed that it is capable of resolving SSR loci and can be reused up to 14 times, thus greatly reducing the cost of each gel run. Furthermore, for certain applications, low concentrations of agarose sufficed and switching to lithium borate buffer, instead of the conventional Tris-borate-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid buffer, will further save time and cost. The 2.5% gel was prepared following the Agarose SFR(TM) manual by adding 2.5 g agarose powder into 100 mL 1X lithium borate buffer in a 250-mL flask with rapid stirring. Two midigels (105 x 83 mm, 17 wells) or 4 minigels (50 x 83 mm, 8 wells), 4 mm thickness can be prepared from 100 mL gel solution. A total of 1680 PCR products amplified using 140 SSR markers from oil palm DNA samples were tested in this study using SFR recycled gel. As average, the gel can be recycled 8 times with good resolution, but can be recycled up to 14 times before the resolutions get blurred. PMID:23546970

  13. A convenient green preparation of layered double hydroxide/polyacrylamide nanocomposite hydrogels with ultrahigh deformability.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lianying; Hu, Ziqiao; Chen, Guangming; Li, Zhibo

    2015-12-14

    A convenient green preparation method has been developed to achieve layered double hydroxide (LDH)/polymer nanocomposite (NC) hydrogels. In contrast to previous publications using toxic organic solvent of formamide or methanol in LDH exfoliation or anion exchange, the interlayer anion exchange and exfoliation of LDH are completed in one step with the help of an amino acid (l-serine). The LDH/polyacrylamide (PAM) NC hydrogels are achieved by a convenient exfoliation-adsorption in situ polymerization method. The exfoliation of LDH is characterized by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. Interestingly, the developed NC hydrogels reveal ultrahigh deformability and extraordinary stretchability, confirmed by qualitative images and qualitative tensile and compression tests. The molecular mechanism for the ultrahigh deformability and extraordinary stretchability is discussed by crosslinking density, inter-crosslinking molecular weight and swelling tests. We believe that the findings reported herein will deepen our understanding towards the chemistry of network soft materials including gels, and further widen the applications of polymer hydrogels in mechanical devices such as artificial muscles, biomedical devices and drug delivery systems. PMID:26412191

  14. Isolation and Characterization of Polyacrylamide-Degrading Bacteria from Dewatered Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Feng; Fu, Ruimin; Xie, Yun; Chen, Wuling

    2015-01-01

    Polyacrylamide (PAM) is a water-soluble polymer that is widely used as a flocculant in sewage treatment. The accumulation of PAM affects the formation of dewatered sludge and potentially produces hazardous monomers. In the present study, the bacterial strain HI47 was isolated from dewatered sludge. This strain could metabolize PAM as its sole nutrient source and was subsequently identified as Pseudomonas putida. The efficiency of PAM degradation was 31.1% in 7 days and exceeded 45% under optimum culture condition (pH 7.2, 39 °C and 100 rpm). The addition of yeast extract and glucose improved the bacterial growth and PAM degradation. The degraded PAM samples were analyzed by gel-filtration chromatography, Fourier transform infrared and high-performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that high-molecular-weight PAM was partly cleaved to small molecular oligomer derivatives and part of the amide groups of PAM had been converted to carboxyl groups. The biodegradation did not accumulate acrylamide monomers. Based on the SDS-PAGE and N-terminal sequencing results, the PAM amide groups were converted into carboxyl groups by a PAM-induced extracellular enzyme from the aliphatic amidase family. PMID:25893998

  15. Electrophoretic extraction of proteins from two-dimensional electrophoresis gel spots

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Jian-Shi; Giometti, C.S.; Tollaksen, S.L.

    1987-09-04

    After two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins or the like, resulting in a polyacrylamide gel slab having a pattern of protein gel spots thereon, an individual protein gel spot is cored out from the slab, to form a gel spot core which is placed in an extraction tube, with a dialysis membrane across the lower end of the tube. Replicate gel spots can be cored out from replicate gel slabs and placed in the extraction tube. Molten agarose gel is poured into the extraction tube where the agarose gel hardens to form an immobilizing gel, covering the gel spot cores. The upper end portion of the extraction tube is filled with a volume of buffer solution, and the upper end is closed by another dialysis membrane. Upper and lower bodies of a buffer solution are brought into contact with the upper and lower membranes and are provided with electrodes connected to the positive and negative terminals of a dc power supply, thereby producing an electrical current which flows through the upper membrane, the volume of buffer solution, the agarose, the gel spot cores and the lower membrane. The current causes the proteins to be extracted electrophoretically from the gel spot cores, so that the extracted proteins accumulate and are contained in the space between the agarose gel and the upper membrane. 8 figs.

  16. In-gel technology for PCR genotyping and pathogen detection.

    PubMed

    Atrazhev, Alexey; Manage, Dammika P; Stickel, Alexander J; Crabtree, H John; Pilarski, Linda M; Acker, Jason P

    2010-10-01

    This work describes the use of polyacrylamide gel and PCR reagents photopolymerized in a mold to create an array of semisolid posts that serve as reaction vessels for parallel PCR amplification of an externally added template. DNA amplification occurred in a cylindrical, self-standing 9 × 9 array of gel posts each less than 1 ?L in volume. Photopolymerization of the gel with an intercalating dye added prior to polymerization permitted acquisition of real-time PCR data and melting curve analysis data without the need for any type of post-PCR staining procedures. PCR was equally efficient and reproducible when template DNA was polymerized within the gel or when exogenous template was added atop precast gel posts. PCR amplification occurred with template from purified DNA or from raw urine of patients with BK viruria. Multiple primer sets can be utilized per gel post array with no detectable cross contamination. As few as 34 BK virus templates were consistently detected by PCR in an individual gel post. Amplification of HPA1 and FGFR2 genes in human genomic DNA (gDNA) required as little as 2-5 ng of gDNA template/gel post. The device prototype includes a Peltier element for PCR thermal cycling and a CCD camera to capture fluorescence for product detection. Our technology is amenable to integration in point of care microdevices. PMID:20809605

  17. 21 CFR 872.3480 - Polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3480 Polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive. (a) Identification....

  18. 21 CFR 872.3480 - Polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3480 Polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive. (a) Identification....

  19. Investigation on Tissue Equivalent Normoxic Polymer Gel Dosimeter using In-house Laser CT scanning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil Kumar, D.; Jebaseelan Samuel, E. James

    2010-11-01

    Optical Computed Tomography has wide applications in the treatment of cancer. In continuation of this, an in-house Laser CT scanner has been built for "3D gel dosimetry". The Laser CT (LCT) scanner plays a major for Gel dosimeter or phantom readout and in clinical radiation therapy as a 3-Dimensional Radiation Dosimetry. A gel dosimeter which absorbs dose in a tissue-equivalent manner and allows the measurement of spatial distribution of the deposited dose is required. The normoxic PAGAT (Polyacrylamide Gelatin and Tetrakis) gel is used as a dosimeter for this analysis. When laser passes through this gel phantom, absorption and scattering takes place and combined to attenuation. The optical attenuation coefficient of the laser can be obtained by measuring its intensity after passing through the gel by means of a sensor. Reconstruction using Mat Lab algorithm provides 3D dose distribution.

  20. Calibration of laser tomography as a new optical diagnostic tool applied to dosimetric polymer gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alwan, R.; Guermeur, F.; Bailly, Y.; Simonin, L.; Svoboda, J.; Makovicka, L.; Martin, E.

    2008-03-01

    Numerous medical applications, as radiotherapy for example, require accurate and reproducible three-dimensional dose measurements with high spatial resolution. A solution of great interest and which has been exploited for many years is the use of dosimetric gels based on different physico-chemical principles, as Fricke's gels or polymer gels. Fricke's gels take advantage of the oxidation of ferrous ions in ferric while polymer gels are the result of the synthesis of polyacrylamide hydrogel from monomer and cross-linking agent. Fricke's gels have particular limitations not encountered with polymer gel dosimeters: the time delay between irradiation and measurement must be reduced in order to limit the diffusion of ferric ions which may remove the spatial dose information. That's why, during the past decade, many compositions of polymer gels have been studied (PAG, MAGIC, …), elaborated and even commercialized (BANG gels). However the gel composition remains of great interest regarding its physical properties. In this work, the authors propose a new optical diagnostic tool more flexible and less expensive in comparison with existing techniques like magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Optical-CT. This technique is based on light scattering behaviour occurring in an irradiated polymer gel (note that light scattering in Fricke's gels is very feeble, the latter being essentially absorbant).

  1. A molecular Fe-complex as a catalyst probe for in-gel visual detection of proteins via signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Sushma; Panda, Chakadola; Mazumdar, Shyamalava; Sen Gupta, Sayam

    2015-10-01

    We report the use of a molecular peroxidase mimic biuret-Fe-TAML for chemoselective labeling of proteins and the subsequent visual detection (<0.1 pmoles) of the conjugate in a polyacrylamide gel by catalytic signal amplification. Use of this probe in activity based protein profiling (ABPP) of serine proteases is also demonstrated. PMID:26176025

  2. Low-velocity super-lubrication of sodium-alginate/polyacrylamide ionic-covalent hybrid double-network hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuefeng; Wu, Chu; Yang, Qian; Long, Shijun; Wu, Chonggang

    2015-04-21

    Structural and frictional behaviours of sodium alginate (SA)/polyacrylamide (PAAm) ionic-covalent hybrid, sequential double-network (DN) hydrogels against glass have been investigated in water, NaCl and CaCl2 aqueous solutions using a rotational rheometer. Dilution of adsorptive elastohydrodynamic friction for the PAAm covalent network with repulsive hydrodynamic lubrication for the minor SA ionic network was found to control the frictional stresses of the SA/PAAm gels within between those of the SA and PAAm single-network gels. A tentative qualitative model was proposed to describe the impact of ionic environmental solution on the frictional behaviour of the hybrid gel by selectively affecting the SA-network structure and friction. It was revealed that strong Debye shielding in the NaCl solution significantly reduced the thickness of the electric double layer for hydrodynamic lubrication of the SA network, which made the SA/PAAm gel's friction the highest among the three solutions. Dramatically increased ionic cross-linking of the SA network in the CaCl2 solution, although effectively mediated by the PAAm-network flexible skeleton, still functioned partially to conserve a portion of the SA fractional boundary-friction at the interface, making the friction of the hybrid gel intermediate among the three solutions. In contrast, extreme hydration of the SA network in water sharply increased the volume fraction of its unshielded hydrodynamic lubrication at the interface, which greatly reduced the SA/PAAm's friction to the lowest among the three solutions. We have thus incorporated for the first time both super-lubrication (frictional coefficients of below 10(-2) over low sliding-velocities of 3 × 10(-5) to 2 × 10(-3) m s(-1)) and previously reported high fracture energy (over 9000 J m(-2)) into a single ionic-covalent hybrid DN hydrogel, which is the SA/PAAm (?1/8.5 w/w) gel in water. Effects of inversion of DN-formation sequence further indicated that frictional behaviours (i.e. frictional stress-sliding velocity profiles) of the hybrid sequential DN hydrogels (SA/PAAm and PAAm/SA), respectively, were primarily determined by those of the second networks (PAAm and SA), presumably due to the formation of first-second network "core-shell" structures at the blob scale. Frictional stress of the SA/PAAm gel was increased monotonically with external normal pressure at all of the sliding velocities investigated in the three solutions, which was in agreement with the predictions from the repulsion-adsorption model proposed by Gong et al. PMID:25735912

  3. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis: vertical isoelectric focusing.

    PubMed

    Dorri, Yaser

    2012-01-01

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) is one of the most powerful tools for separating proteins based on their size and charge. 2-DE is very useful to separate two proteins with identical molecular weights but different charges, which cannot be achieved with just sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Here, a simpler and easier version of 2-DE is presented which is also faster than all the currently available techniques. In this modified version of 2-DE, isoelectric focusing is carried out in the first dimension using a vertical SDS-PAGE apparatus. Following the first-dimensional IEF, each individual lane is excised from the IEF gel and, after a 90° rotation, is inserted into a second-dimensional SDS-PAGE, which can be stained with Coomassie Brilliant Blue for protein analysis or immunoblotted for further analysis. This version of IEF can be run in less than 2 h compared to the overnight run required by O'Farrell's method. Difficult tube gel casting and gel extrusion as well as tube gel distortion are eliminated in our method. This method is simpler, faster, and inexpensive. Both dimensions can be done on the same SDS-PAGE apparatus, and up to ten samples can be run simultaneously using one gel. PMID:22585490

  4. Chemical gel barriers as low-cost alternative to containment and in situ cleanup of hazardous wastes to protect groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    Chemical gel barriers are being considered as a low-cost alternative for containment and in situ cleanup of hazardous wastes to protect groundwater. Most of the available gels in petroleum application are non-reactive and relative impermeable, providing a physical barriers for all fluids and contaminants. However, other potential systems can be envisioned. These systems could include gels that are chemically reactive and impermeable such that most phase are captured by the barriers but the contaminants could diffuse through the barriers. Another system that is chemically reactive and permeable could have potential applications in selectivity capturing contaminants while allowing water to pass through the barriers. This study focused on chemically reactive and permeable gel barriers. The gels used in experiment are DuPont LUDOX SM colloidal silica gel and Pfizer FLOPAAM 1330S hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) gel.

  5. 21 CFR 872.3480 - Polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... adhesive. 872.3480 Section 872.3480 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive is a device composed of polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) intended...

  6. 21 CFR 872.3480 - Polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... adhesive. 872.3480 Section 872.3480 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive is a device composed of polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) intended...

  7. 21 CFR 872.3480 - Polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... adhesive. 872.3480 Section 872.3480 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive is a device composed of polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) intended...

  8. 21 CFR 872.3480 - Polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... adhesive. 872.3480 Section 872.3480 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive is a device composed of polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) intended...

  9. 21 CFR 872.3480 - Polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... adhesive. 872.3480 Section 872.3480 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive is a device composed of polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) intended...

  10. Polyacrylamide-treated kaolin: A fabric study Sungho Kim, Angelica M. Palomino

    E-print Network

    Palomino, Angelica M.

    Polyacrylamide-treated kaolin: A fabric study Sungho Kim, Angelica M. Palomino Department of Civil May 2009 Accepted 8 June 2009 Available online 12 June 2009 Keywords: Kaolin Polyacrylamide Fabric Sedimentation Rheology Liquid limit Particle interactions, and in turn fabric, determine the behavior of clay

  11. Polyacrylamide based ICG nanocarriers for enhanced fluorescence and photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Aniruddha; Yoon, Hyung Ki; Ryu, HeeJu; Koo Lee, Yong-Eun; Kim, Gwangseong; Wang, Xueding; Kopelman, Raoul

    2013-02-01

    Indocyanine green (ICG) is an FDA approved tricarbocyanine dye. This dye, with a strong absorbance in the near infrared (NIR) region, has been extensively used for fluorescence and photoacoustic imaging in vivo. ICG in its free form, however, has a few drawbacks that limit its in vivo applications, such as non-targetability, tendency to form aggregates which changes its optical properties, fast degradation, short plasma lifetime and reduced fluorescence at body temperature. In order to bypass these inherent drawbacks, we demonstrate a polyacrylamide based nanocarrier that was particularly designed to carry the negatively charged ICG molecules. These nanocarriers are biodegradable, biocompatible and can be specifically targeted to any cell or tissue. Using these nanocarriers we avoid all the problems associated with free ICG, such as degradation, aggregation and short plasma lifetime, and also enhance demonstrate its ability towards photoacoustics and fluorescence imaging.

  12. How deeply cells feel: methods for thin gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxboim, Amnon; Rajagopal, Karthikan; Brown, Andre'E. X.; Discher, Dennis E.

    2010-05-01

    Tissue cells lack the ability to see or hear but have evolved mechanisms to feel into their surroundings and sense a collective stiffness. A cell can even sense the effective stiffness of rigid objects that are not in direct cellular contact—like the proverbial princess who feels a pea placed beneath soft mattresses. How deeply a cell feels into a matrix can be measured by assessing cell responses on a controlled series of thin and elastic gels that are affixed to a rigid substrate. Gel elasticity E is readily varied with polymer concentrations of now-standard polyacrylamide hydrogels, but to eliminate wrinkling and detachment of thin gels from an underlying glass coverslip, vinyl groups are bonded to the glass before polymerization. Gel thickness is nominally specified using micron-scale beads that act as spacers, but gels swell after polymerization as measured by z-section, confocal microscopy of fluorescent gels. Atomic force microscopy is used to measure E at gel surfaces, employing stresses and strains that are typically generated by cells and yielding values for E that span a broad range of tissue microenvironments. To illustrate cell sensitivities to a series of thin-to-thick gels, the adhesive spreading of mesenchymal stem cells was measured on gel mimics of a very soft tissue (e.g. brain, E ~ 1 kPa). Initial results show that cells increasingly respond to the rigidity of an underlying 'hidden' surface starting at about 10-20 µm gel thickness with a characteristic tactile length of less than about 5 µm.

  13. Quantitation and characterization of rat tissue metallothioneins by gel electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, L.Y.; McCormick, C.C.

    1986-03-05

    A discontinuous gradient gel electrophoretic system was developed to quantitate and characterize metallothionein (MT) in rat tissue. Vertical slab separating gels (1.5 mm x 14 cm x 12 cm) consisted of a linear polyacrylamide gradient 7.5 to 30% T and 5% Bis. The stacking gels (3% T and 20% Bis) were photopolymerized using riboflavin as the catalyst. Liver cytosols were prepared from rats which received (i.p.) various amounts of Zn (5 mg/kg BW) or Cd (2.5 mg/kg BW). Purified MT was prepared by gel filtration and DEAE ion-exchange chromatography. Cytosols were heated (80/sup 0/C, 2 min) and centrifuged to obtain a supernatant. An appropriate amount of supernatant and various amounts of MT standard were electrophoresed (constant current, 20 mA per slab) for 9 hours. Gels were stained with Commassie Blue (R-250, 0.25%) for 12 hours and destained. Gels were scanned by densitometer and peaks heights were determined. Significantly linear standard curves (..mu..g MT vs. peak height) were established for both MTI and MTII. (Cd, Zn)-MTI migrated slower than Zn-MTI while mobilities for both (Cd, Zn)- and Zn-MTII were the same. The accumulation of MTI was consistently less than MTII in liver from both Zn- and Cd-injected rats. Their results suggest that electrophoretic analysis is an excellent system not only for quantitation but also for characterization of MT in rat tissue.

  14. Polymer gel dosimeters with reduced toxicity: a preliminary investigation of the NMR and optical dose response using different monomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senden, R. J.; DeJean, P.; McAuley, K. B.; Schreiner, L. J.

    2006-07-01

    In this work, three new polymer gel dosimeter recipes were investigated that may be more suitable for widespread applications than polyacrylamide gel dosimeters, since the extremely toxic acrylamide has been replaced with the less harmful monomers N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM), diacetone acrylamide and N-vinylformamide. The new gel dosimeters studied contained gelatin (5 wt%), monomer (3 wt%), N,N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide crosslinker (3 wt%) and tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride antioxidant (10 mM). The NMR response (R2) of the dosimeters was analysed for conditions of varying dose, dose rate, time post-irradiation, and temperature during irradiation and scanning. It was shown that the dose-response behaviour of the NIPAM/Bis gel dosimeter is comparable to that of normoxic polyacrylamide gel (PAGAT) in terms of high dose-sensitivity and low dependence on dose rate and irradiation temperature, within the ranges considered. The dose-response (R2) of NIPAM/Bis appears to be linear over a greater dose range than the PAGAT gel dosimeter. The effects of time post-irradiation (temporal instability) and temperature during NMR scanning on the R2 response were more significant for NIPAM/Bis dosimeters. Diacetone acrylamide and N-vinylformamide gel dosimeters possessed considerably lower dose-sensitivities. The optical dose-response, measured in terms of the attenuation coefficient for each polymer gel dosimeter, showed potential for the use of optical imaging techniques in future studies.

  15. Polymer gel dosimeters with reduced toxicity: a preliminary investigation of the NMR and optical dose-response using different monomers.

    PubMed

    Senden, R J; De Jean, P; McAuley, K B; Schreiner, L J

    2006-07-21

    In this work, three new polymer gel dosimeter recipes were investigated that may be more suitable for widespread applications than polyacrylamide gel dosimeters, since the extremely toxic acrylamide has been replaced with the less harmful monomers N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM), diacetone acrylamide and N-vinylformamide. The new gel dosimeters studied contained gelatin (5 wt%), monomer (3 wt%), N,N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide crosslinker (3 wt%) and tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride antioxidant (10 mM). The NMR response (R2) of the dosimeters was analysed for conditions of varying dose, dose rate, time post-irradiation, and temperature during irradiation and scanning. It was shown that the dose-response behaviour of the NIPAM/Bis gel dosimeter is comparable to that of normoxic polyacrylamide gel (PAGAT) in terms of high dose-sensitivity and low dependence on dose rate and irradiation temperature, within the ranges considered. The dose-response (R2) of NIPAM/Bis appears to be linear over a greater dose range than the PAGAT gel dosimeter. The effects of time post-irradiation (temporal instability) and temperature during NMR scanning on the R2 response were more significant for NIPAM/Bis dosimeters. Diacetone acrylamide and N-vinylformamide gel dosimeters possessed considerably lower dose-sensitivities. The optical dose-response, measured in terms of the attenuation coefficient for each polymer gel dosimeter, showed potential for the use of optical imaging techniques in future studies. PMID:16825731

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF POLYMER GEL SYSTEMS TO IMPROVE VOLUMETRIC SWEEP AND REDUCE PRODUCING WATER/OIL RATIOS

    SciTech Connect

    G. Paul Willhite; Stan McCool; Don W. Green; Min Cheng; Rajeev Jain; Tuan Nguyen

    2003-11-01

    Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of the first year of a three-year research program that is aimed at the understanding of the chemistry of gelation and the fundamental mechanisms that alter the flows of oil and water in reservoir rocks after a gel treatment. Work has focused on a widely-applied system in field applications, the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide-chromium acetate gel. Gelation occurs by network formation through the crosslinking of polyacrylamide molecules as a result of reaction with chromium acetate. The initial reaction between chromium acetate and one polymer is referred to as the uptake reaction. The uptake reaction was studied as functions of chromium and polymer concentrations and pH values. Experimental data were regressed to determine a rate equation that describes the uptake reaction of chromium by polyacrylamide. Pre-gel aggregates form and grow as the reactions between chromium acetate and polyacrylamide proceed. A statistical model that describes the growth of pre-gel aggregates was developed using the theory of branching processes. The model gives molecular weight averages that are expressed as functions of the conversion of the reactive sites on chromium acetate or on the polymer molecule. Results of the application of the model correlate well with experimental data of viscosity and weight-average molecular weight and gives insights into the gelation process. A third study addresses the flow of water and oil in rock material after a gel treatment. Previous works have shown that gel treatments usually reduce the permeability to water to a greater extent than the permeability to oil is reduced. This phenomenon is referred to as disproportionate permeability reduction (DPR). Flow experiments were conducted to determine the effect of polymer and chromium concentrations on DPR. All gels studied reduced the permeability to water by a greater factor than the factor by which the oil permeability was reduced. Greater DPR was observed as the concentrations of polymer and chromium were increased. Increased pressure gradients during oil flow decreased the oil permeability and the water permeability that was measured afterward. Lower pressure gradients that were applied subsequently moderately affected water permeabilities but did not affect oil permeabilities. A conceptual model of the mechanisms responsible for DPR is presented. Primary features of the model are (1) the development of flow channels through the gel by dehydration of the gel and by re-connection of pre-treatment, residual oil volume and (2) high flow resistance in the channels during water flow is caused by significant saturations of oil remaining in the channels.

  17. Rapid (ten-minute) pore-gradient electrophoresis of proteins and peptides in Micrograd gels.

    PubMed

    Wrigley, C W; Margolis, J

    1992-01-01

    Precast gradient gels of short migration length (25 mm) have been developed to provide rapid electrophoretic separation without loss of resolution. These Micrograd gels have been prepared in gel ranges (conventional and unique) to match pore-gradient electrophoresis conditions to proteins/peptides ranging in size from several hundreds to millions. The Hylinx Micrograd gel combines an extreme gel range (6 to 48% polyacrylamide) with a novel crosslinker to provide sieving of polypeptides, and pore-limit electrophoresis of the smallest proteins (e.g. insulin monomer). All gel ranges (such as 3 to 30%) provide zone sharpening in routine analysis of conventional protein mixtures (e.g. serum) within 10 min electrophoresis at 200 to 300 volts. The gels are thin (1 mm) and thus stain quickly, but the gel cassette is of conventional overall width (83 mm), thus fitting many apparatus designs and accommodating 12 samples. The gels are finding valuable use in screening applications, requiring the electrophoretic analysis of many samples, and in cases where a rapid answer is needed, such as monitoring protein purification. The gels have proved particularly useful, in-house, for the latter application in developing Gradipore's new large-scale preparative electrophoresis system, the Gradiflow. PMID:1599958

  18. Electrophoretic extraction of proteins from two-dimensional electrophoresis gel spots

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Jian-Shi (Shanghai, CN); Giometti, Carol S. (Glenview, IL); Tollaksen, Sandra L. (Montgomery, IL)

    1989-01-01

    After two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins or the like, resulting in a polyacrylamide gel slab having a pattern of protein gel spots thereon, an individual protein gel spot is cored out from the slab, to form a gel spot core which is placed in an extraction tube, with a dialysis membrane across the lower end of the tube. Replicate gel spots can be cored out from replicate gel slabs and placed in the extraction tube. Molten agarose gel is poured into the extraction tube where the agarose gel hardens to form an immobilizing gel, covering the gel spot cores. The upper end portion of the extraction tube is filled with a volume of buffer solution, and the upper end is closed by another dialysis membrane. Upper and lower bodies of a buffer solution are brought into contact with the upper and lower membranes and are provided with electrodes connected to the positive and negative terminals of a DC power supply, thereby producing an electrical current which flows through the upper membrane, the volume of buffer solution, the agarose, the gel spot cores and the lower membrane. The current causes the proteins to be extracted electrophoretically from the gel spot cores, so that the extracted proteins accumulate and are contained in the space between the agarose gel and the upper membrane. A high percentage extraction of proteins is achieved. The extracted proteins can be removed and subjected to partial digestion by trypsin or the like, followed by two-dimensional electrophoresis, resulting in a gel slab having a pattern of peptide gel spots which can be cored out and subjected to electrophoretic extraction to extract individual peptides.

  19. Cloning and Characterization of an Endoglucanase Gene from Actinomyces sp. Korean Native Goat 40.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Chan; Kang, Seung Ha; Choi, Eun Young; Hong, Yeon Hee; Bok, Jin Duck; Kim, Jae Yeong; Lee, Sang Suk; Choi, Yun Jaie; Choi, In Soon; Cho, Kwang Keun

    2016-01-01

    A gene from Actinomyces sp. Korean native goat (KNG) 40 that encodes an endo-?-1,4-glucanase, EG1, was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) DH5?. Recombinant plasmid DNA from a positive clone with a 3.2 kb insert hydrolyzing carboxyl methyl-cellulose (CMC) was designated as pDS3. The entire nucleotide sequence was determined, and an open-reading frame (ORF) was deduced. The ORF encodes a polypeptide of 684 amino acids. The recombinant EG1 produced in E. coli DH5? harboring pDS3 was purified in one step using affinity chromatography on crystalline cellulose and characterized. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis/zymogram analysis of the purified enzyme revealed two protein bands of 57.1 and 54.1 kDa. The amino terminal sequences of these two bands matched those of the deduced ones, starting from residue 166 and 208, respectively. Putative signal sequences, a Shine-Dalgarno-type ribosomal binding site, and promoter sequences related to the consensus sequences were deduced. EG1 has a typical tripartite structure of cellulase, a catalytic domain, a serine-rich linker region, and a cellulose-binding domain. The optimal temperature for the activity of the purified enzyme was 55°C, but it retained over 90% of maximum activity in a broad temperature range (40°C to 60°C). The optimal pH for the enzyme activity was 6.0. Kinetic parameters, Km and Vmax of rEG1 were 0.39% CMC and 143 U/mg, respectively. PMID:26732336

  20. Microfluidic device having an immobilized pH gradient and PAGE gels for protein separation and analysis

    DOEpatents

    Sommer, Gregory J.; Hatch, Anson V.; Singh, Anup K.; Wang, Ying-Chih

    2012-12-11

    Disclosed is a novel microfluidic device enabling on-chip implementation of a two-dimensional separation methodology. Previously disclosed microscale immobilized pH gradients (IPG) are combined with perpendicular polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) microchannels to achieve orthogonal separations of biological samples. Device modifications enable inclusion of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in the second dimension. The device can be fabricated to use either continuous IPG gels, or the microscale isoelectric fractionation membranes we have also previously disclosed, for the first dimension. The invention represents the first all-gel two-dimensional separation microdevice, with significantly higher resolution power over existing devices.

  1. Microfluidic device having an immobilized pH gradient and page gels for protein separation and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sommer, Gregory J; Hatch, Anson V; Singh, Anup K; Wang, Ying-Chih

    2014-05-20

    Disclosed is a novel microfluidic device enabling on-chip implementation of a two-dimensional separation methodology. Previously disclosed microscale immobilized pH gradients (IPG) are combined with perpendicular polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) microchannels to achieve orthogonal separations of biological samples. Device modifications enable inclusion of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in the second dimension. The device can be fabricated to use either continuous IPG gels, or the microscale isoelectric fractionation membranes we have also previously disclosed, for the first dimension. The invention represents the first all-gel two-dimensional separation microdevice, with significantly higher resolution power over existing devices.

  2. Polyacrylamide medium for the electrophoretic separation of biomolecules

    DOEpatents

    Madabhushi, Ramakrishna S.; Gammon, Stuart A.

    2003-11-11

    A polyacryalmide medium for the electrophoretic separation of biomolecules. The polyacryalmide medium comprises high molecular weight polyacrylamides (PAAm) having a viscosity average molecular weight (M.sub.v) of about 675-725 kDa were synthesized by conventional red-ox polymerization technique. Using this separation medium, capillary electrophoresis of BigDye DNA sequencing standard was performed. A single base resolution of .about.725 bases was achieved in .about.60 minute in a non-covalently coated capillary of 50 .mu.m i.d., 40 cm effective length, and a filed of 160 V/cm at 40.degree. C. The resolution achieved with this formulation to separate DNA under identical conditions is much superior (725 bases vs. 625 bases) and faster (60 min. vs. 75 min.) to the commercially available PAAm, such as supplied by Amersham. The formulation method employed here to synthesize PAAm is straight-forward, simple and does not require cumbersome methods such as emulsion polymerizaiton in order to achieve very high molecular weights. Also, the formulation here does not require separation of PAAm from the reaction mixture prior to reconstituting the polymer to a final concentration. Furthermore, the formulation here is prepared from a single average mol. wt. PAAm as opposed to the mixture of two different average mo. wt. PAAm previously required to achieve high resolution.

  3. Polyacrylamide hydrogel injection for breast augmentation: Another injectable failure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhenxiang; Li, Shirong; Wang, Lingli; Zhang, Shu; Jiang, Yan; Chen, Jinping; Luo, Donglin

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Increasing complications of polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAAG) augmentation mammoplasty, such as chronic persistent infection, have recently caught the attention of both the medical field and the general public. Material/Methods A total of 96 patients with severe chronic infection following PAAG augmentation mammoplasty were treated in the present study including 63 cases with infection confined to the breast and 33 with systemic infection. Endoscopy and surgery were performed to completely remove the materials and clear the infected tissues followed by drug-irrigation and vacuum-assisted closure for several days. Results In patients with severe infection there were large amounts of PAAG, fibers and infiltration of numerous neutrophils and macrophages. The infection-inducing materials were extensively dispersed in the mammary and subcutaneous tissues, pectoral fascia and intermuscular space. In addition, there was scattered distribution of PAAG materials in the armpit, chest wall and abdominal wall, which were mixed with necrotic tissues and surrounded by lymphocytes, giant cells, macrophages and other inflammatory cells, forming chronic granulomatous and fibrous lesions. Infection was controlled following surgical intervention. No residual infectious foci or recurrent infections were noted among these patients. Although the severe infection did not result in mastectomy, patients had breast atrophy and various degrees of deformation. Conclusions Chronic infection following PAAG augmentation mammaplasty usually causes systemic infection and other devastating adverse reactions. This study confirms PAAG augmentation mammaplasty is another failed attempt. More attention should be paid to the injection of large doses of liquid filler. PMID:22648256

  4. 21 CFR 872.3420 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3420 Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive. (a)...

  5. 21 CFR 872.3420 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    Any other carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive shall have an approved PMA or a declared completed PDP in effect before being placed in commercial distribution. [52 FR 30097, Aug. 12, 1987, as amended at 61 FR 50707,...

  6. Differences in the spatial and quantitative reproducibility between two second-dimensional gel electrophoresis systems.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xianquan; Desiderio, Dominic M

    2003-06-01

    Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), together with 2-D gel electrophoresis (GE) analysis software, is a common technique to analyze a complex proteome. In order to accurately locate the differentially expressed proteins in human pituitary macroadenoma tissues in our long-term research program to clarify the molecular mechanisms of macroadenoma formation, a reproducible separation system is needed. An immobilized pH-gradient dry gel-strip (IPG strip) has been extensively used for first-dimensional isoelectric focusing (IEF), and has achieved a high degree of reproducibility in the IEF direction. For the second dimension (SDS-PAGE), different types of gel systems are available, including horizontal vs. vertical gel systems, and gradient vs. constant-percentage gels. A typical horizontal system is the Multiphor II system that analyzes one gel at a time, using a precast gradient gel (180 x 245 x 0.5 mm), and a typical vertical system is the Dodeca system, which analyzes up to 12 gels at a time, using usually a single-concentration gel (190 x 205 x 1 mm). The present study evaluated the spatial and quantitative reproducibility of the two systems for the separation of the complex human pituitary proteome. PDQuest software was used to analyze the digitized gel-image data, and SPSS statistical software was used to analyze the data. The results demonstrated a high percentage (>99%) of protein-spot matches within each electrophoretic system. The Dodeca gel system demonstrated better between-gel reproducibility for spot position, higher resolution in the Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-PAGE direction, lower gel background, better spot quality, and higher reproducibility of the spot volume. PMID:12783460

  7. Thermal denaturation profiles and gel mobility shift analysis of oligodeoxynucleotide triplexes.

    PubMed Central

    Shea, R G; Ng, P; Bischofberger, N

    1990-01-01

    Oligodeoxypurine- and oligodeoxypyrimidine-containing strands were mixed under conditions conducive to the formation of triple stranded assemblies. The mixtures were characterized both by their UV absorbance change with increasing temperature and by their mobility in non-denaturing polyacrylamide gels. Duplexes 34 bp long containing 15 central purines on one strand and 15 complementary pyrimidines on the other strand yielded new melting transitions and showed different gel mobilities upon combination with oligopyrimidine 15-mers. The dependence of the thermal denaturation profiles on pH, salt concentration, GC content, strand orientation, base mismatches, and strand length was investigated. Images PMID:2395647

  8. Waste-Activated Sludge Fermentation for Polyacrylamide Biodegradation Improved by Anaerobic Hydrolysis and Key Microorganisms Involved in Biological Polyacrylamide Removal

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xiaohu; Luo, Fan; Zhang, Dong; Dai, Lingling; Chen, Yinguang; Dong, Bin

    2015-01-01

    During the anaerobic digestion of dewatered sludge, polyacrylamide (PAM), a chemical conditioner, can usually be consumed as a carbon and nitrogen source along with other organic matter (e.g., proteins and carbohydrates in the sludge). However, a significant accumulation of acrylamide monomers (AMs) was observed during the PAM biodegradation process. To improve the anaerobic hydrolysis of PAM, especially the amide hydrolysis process, and to avoid the generation of the intermediate product AM, a new strategy is reported herein that uses an initial pH of 9, 200?mg COD/L of PAM and a fermentation time of 17 d. First, response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize PAM removal in the anaerobic digestion of the sludge. The biological hydrolysis of PAM reached 86.64% under the optimal conditions obtained from the RSM. Then, the mechanisms for the optimized parameters that significantly improved the biological hydrolysis of PAM were investigated by the synergistic effect of the main organic compounds in the sludge, the floc size distribution, and the enzymatic activities. Finally, semi-continuous-flow experiments for a microbial community study were investigated based on the determination of key microorganisms involved in the biological hydrolysis of PAM. PMID:26144551

  9. Purification of native myosin filaments from muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo, C; Padrón, R; Horowitz, R; Zhao, F Q; Craig, R

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of the structure and function of native thick (myosin-containing) filaments of muscle has been hampered in the past by the difficulty of obtaining a pure preparation. We have developed a simple method for purifying native myosin filaments from muscle filament suspensions. The method involves severing thin (actin-containing) filaments into short segments using a Ca(2+)-insensitive fragment of gelsolin, followed by differential centrifugation to purify the thick filaments. By gel electrophoresis, the purified thick filaments show myosin heavy and light chains together with nonmyosin thick filament components. Contamination with actin is below 3.5%. Electron microscopy demonstrates intact thick filaments, with helical cross-bridge order preserved, and essentially complete removal of thin filaments. The method has been developed for striated muscles but can also be used in a modified form to remove contaminating thin filaments from native smooth muscle myofibrils. Such preparations should be useful for thick filament structural and biochemical studies. PMID:11606293

  10. Seed of Native Perennial Wildflowers and Native Grasses Allium cernuum

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Seed of Native Perennial Wildflowers and Native Grasses Allium cernuum Nodding Wild Onion Aquilegia hastata Blue Vervain Vernonia altissima Ironweed Seed of Native Grasses Bouteloua curtipendula Sideoats

  11. Fluid diversion and sweep improvement with chemical gels in oil recovery processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Seright, R.S.; Martin, F.D.

    1992-09-01

    The objectives of this project were to identify the mechanisms by which gel treatments divert fluids in reservoirs and to establish where and how gel treatments are best applied. Several different types of gelants were examined, including polymer-based gelants, a monomer-based gelant, and a colloidal-silica gelant. This research was directed at gel applications in water injection wells, in production wells, and in high-pressure gas floods. The work examined how the flow properties of gels and gelling agents are influenced by permeability, lithology, and wettability. Other goals included determining the proper placement of gelants, the stability of in-place gels, and the types of gels required for the various oil recovery processes and for different scales of reservoir heterogeneity. During this three-year project, a number of theoretical analyses were performed to determine where gel treatments are expected to work best and where they are not expected to be effective. The most important, predictions from these analyses are presented. Undoubtedly, some of these predictions will be controversial. However, they do provide a starting point in establishing guidelines for the selection of field candidates for gel treatments. A logical next step is to seek field data that either confirm or contradict these predictions. The experimental work focused on four types of gels: (1) resorcinol-formaldehyde, (2) colloidal silica, (3) Cr{sup 3+}(chloride)-xanthan, and (4) Cr{sup 3+}(acetate)-polyacrylamide. All experiments were performed at 41{degrees}C.

  12. Check dam and polyacrylamide performance under simulated stormwater runoff.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jihoon; McCaleb, Melanie M; McLaughlin, Richard A

    2013-11-15

    High levels of turbidity and fine suspended sediments are often found in stormwater discharges from construction sites even when best management practices (BMPs) for sediment control are in place. This study evaluated turbidity reduction by three check dam types: 1) rock check dam representing a standard BMP, 2) excelsior wattle representing a fiber check dam (FCD), and 3) rock check dam wrapped with excelsior erosion control blanket (rock + excelsior ECB) representing an alternative FCD. Three check dams (all same type) were installed in a lined, 24-m ditch on a 5-7% slope and three consecutive simulated stormwater flows were run in the ditch. Additional tests were performed by adding granular polyacrylamide (PAM) on the check dams in the same manner using two sediment sources differing in clay content. Without PAM treatment, significantly higher effluent turbidity (>900 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU)) exited the ditch with rock check dams than with excelsior wattles or rock + excelsior ECBs (<440 NTU). The extent of sediment deposition between the check dam types was in the order of excelsior wattle > rock + excelsior ECB > rock check dam, indicating better water pooling behind the wattle. The PAM treatment reduced turbidity substantially (>75% relative to no PAM treatment) for all check dam types and it was very effective in excelsior wattles (<57 NTU) and rock + excelsior ECBs (<90 NTU) even during the third storm event. This study demonstrates that the passive treatment of runoff with PAM on FCDs (or rock + excelsior ECB) in construction site ditches can be very effective for sediment retention and turbidity reduction. PMID:24036092

  13. Horizontal two-dimensional electrophoresis of complex DNA samples using precast gel systems.

    PubMed

    Schickle, H; Lamb, B J; Hanash, S M

    1999-06-01

    We have developed a simplified procedure for the separation of enzyme-digested genomic DNA, or of complex mixtures of cloned DNA, into two dimensions. The procedure relies on the use of precast gels for horizontal electrophoretic separations. Precast agarose-type gels are used for the first-dimensional separation of fragments based on size. Precast polyacrylamide gels are used for the second-dimensional separation of fragments. The separated fragments are subjected to enzymatic digestion in situ prior to their transfer to the second-dimensional gel. Applications of this procedure include the analysis of DNA libraries, analysis of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) as well as other similar preparations, and the screening of genomic DNA for the occurrence of multi-copy DNA fragments as in the case of genomic amplifications in cancer. PMID:10380763

  14. Development of Polymer Gel Systems to Improve Volumetric Sweep and Reduce Producing Water/Oil Ratios

    SciTech Connect

    G. Paul Willhite; Stan McCool; Don W. Green; Min Cheng; Feiyan Chen

    2005-04-03

    Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of the third year of a 42 month research program that is aimed at an understanding of gelation chemistry and the fundamental mechanisms that alter the flows of oil and water in reservoir rocks after a gel treatment. Work focused on a widely applied system in the field, the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide-chromium acetate gel. Gelation occurs by network formation through the crosslinking of polyacrylamide molecules as a result of reaction with chromium acetate. Pre-gel aggregates form and grow as reactions between chromium acetate and polyacrylamide proceed. A mathematical model that describes uptake and crosslinking reactions as a function of time was derived. The model was probability based and provides molecular-weight averages and molecular-weight distributions of the pre-gel aggregates as a function of time and initial system conditions. A liquid chromatography apparatus to experimentally measure the size and molecular weight distributions of polymer samples was developed. The method worked well for polymer samples without the chromium crosslinker. Sample retention observed during measurements of gelant samples during the gelation process compromised the results. Other methods will be tested to measure size distributions of the pre-gel aggregates. Dissolution of carbonate minerals during the injection of gelants causes the pH of the gelant to increase. Chromium precipitates from solution at the higher pH values robbing the gelant of crosslinker. Experimental data on the transport of chromium acetate solutions through dolomite cores were obtained. A mathematical model that describes the transport of brine and chromium acetate solutions through rocks containing carbonate minerals was used to simulate the experimental results.

  15. Toward sol-gel-based sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, J.D.; Ingersoll, C.M.; Dunbar, R.A.

    1995-12-31

    Advances in biotechnology have produced a variety of antibodies and other biomolecules that possess selective recognition capabilities. Current techniques for the immobilization of these biomolecules typically involve multistep derivatization of a primary substrate, which is labor intensive and often requires large volumes of costly reagents. Further, these immobilization chemistries often adversely affect the characteristic properties of the protein (e.g., the binding affinity). As a result, the need for fast, accurate, inexpensive, and simple to operate diagnostic assays escalates. Because of their room temperature processing, transparency, inertness, and tunable pore structure, sol-gel-derived composites represent promising chemical and biosensing platforms. To date, many researchers have entrapped proteins and enzymes in sol-gel monoliths, and found that they retain some of their native properties. Our group first reported on the affinity of a sol-gel entrapped antibody. However, although these biogel monoliths were promising, analyte diffusion through the monolith matrix is slow, resulting in long response times. Thus, it is clear that the next level of sol-gel-derived biosensor must depend on thin film technology. In the current work, the affinity of fluorescein entrapped within a sol-gel derived thin film for the anti fluorescent hapten, 5- (and 6-)-carboxy 4{prime}, 5{prime}-dimethylfluorescein, is investigated. A novel film preparation technique will be introduced, and the response and response times of these films as a function of processing and storage conditions will be discussed.

  16. Native American Healing Traditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portman, Tarrell A. A.; Garrett, Michael T.

    2006-01-01

    Indigenous healing practices among Native Americans have been documented in the United States since colonisation. Cultural encapsulation has deterred the acknowledgement of Native American medicinal practices as a precursor to folk medicine and many herbal remedies, which have greatly influenced modern medicine. Understanding Native American…

  17. Alaska Natives & the Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Robert D.; And Others

    Pursuant to the Native land claims within Alaska, this compilation of background data and interpretive materials relevant to a fair resolution of the Alaska Native problem seeks to record data and information on the Native peoples; the land and resources of Alaska and their uses by the people in the past and present; land ownership; and future…

  18. Solids and nutrient removal from flushed swine manure using polyacrylamides

    SciTech Connect

    Vanotti, M.B.; Hunt, P.G.

    1999-12-01

    Most of the organic nutrients and reduced carbon (C) materials in liquid swine manure are contained in fine suspended particles that are not separated by available mechanical separators. Treatment with polyacrylamide (PAM) polymers prior to mechanical removal or gravity settling has the potential for enhancing solids-liquid separation, thus concentrating nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and organic C. In this work, the authors determined PAM charge and density characteristics most desirable for swine wastewater applications and established the optimum chemical requirement. Treatments were applied to flushed manure from two swine operations in North Carolina. Cationic PAMs significantly increased solids separation while performance of neutral and anionic types was not different from a control. Cationic PAMs with moderate-charge density (20%) were more effective than polymers with higher charge density. Flocs were large and effectively retained with a 1-mm screen. Optimum PAM rate varied with the amount of total suspended solids (TSS) in the liquid manure; 26 and 79 mg PAM/L for samples containing 1.5 and 4.1 g TSS/L, respectively. Corresponding TSS removal efficiencies were 90 to 94%. In contrast, screening without PAM treatment captured only 5 to 14% of the suspended solids. Polymer usage rate was consistent and averaged 2.0{degree} based on weight of dry solids produced. Volatile suspended solids (VSS) were highly correlated with TSS and comprised 79.5% of TSS. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and organic nutrient concentrations in the effluent were also significantly decreased by PAM treatment. The decrease of COD concentration, an important consideration for odor control, was linearly related with removal of suspended solids, at a rate of 2.0 g COD/g TSS and 2.6 g COD/g VSS. Removal efficiency of organic N and P followed approximately a 1:1 relationship with removal efficiency of TSS. Chemical cost to capture 90% of the suspended solids was estimated to be $0.026 per hog per day ($2.79 per finished hog). Results obtained indicate that PAM treatment is very effective for removal of manure solids, COD, and organic nutrients from flushed swine effluents. The technology provides an attractive alternative to existing liquid manure handling methods for conserving nutrients and avoiding excessive nutrient application in areas where swine production is concentrated.

  19. Content in Native Literature Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Agnes

    Including Native literature in school curricula is an important way of enhancing the Native student's self-concept and providing accurate Native cultural knowledge to Native and non-Native students alike. Nevertheless, Canadian school literature programs generally contain neither contemporary nor traditional Native literature. Some programs…

  20. Sol-Gel Glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukherjee, S. P.

    1985-01-01

    Multicomponent homogeneous, ultrapure noncrystalline gels/gel derived glasses are promising batch materials for the containerless glass melting experiments in microgravity. Hence, ultrapure, homogeneous gel precursors could be used to: (1) investigate the effect of the container induced nucleation on the glass forming ability of marginally glass forming compositions; and (2) investigate the influence of gravity on the phase separation and coarsening behavior of gel derived glasses in the liquid-liquid immiscibility zone of the nonsilicate systems having a high density phase. The structure and crystallization behavior of gels in the SiO2-GeO2 as a function of gel chemistry and thermal treatment were investigated. As are the chemical principles involved in the distribution of a second network former in silica gel matrix being investigated. The procedures for synthesizing noncrystalline gels/gel-monoliths in the SiO2-GeO2, GeO2-PbO systems were developed. Preliminary investigations on the levitation and thermal treatment of germania silicate gel-monoliths in the Pressure Facility Acoustic Levitator were done.

  1. Edinburgh Research Explorer Native gel electrophoresis of human telomerase distinguishes

    E-print Network

    Millar, Andrew J.

    Ontario Cancer Institute, University Health Network, 3 Campbell Family Institute for Cancer Research Telomeres, the ends of linear chromosomes, safe- guard against genome instability. The enzyme re- sponsible for extension of the telomere 30 terminus is the ribonucleoprotein telomerase. Whereas tel- omerase activity can

  2. Hydrolyzed Polyacrylamide- Polyethylenimine- Dextran Sulfate Polymer Gel System as a Water Shut-Off Agent in Unconventional Gas Reservoirs 

    E-print Network

    Jayakumar, Swathika 1986-

    2012-07-09

    Technologies such as horizontal wells and multi-stage hydraulic fracturing have made ultra-low permeability shale and tight gas reservoirs productive but the industry is still on the learning curve when it comes to addressing various production...

  3. Conjugation of a peptide to mannan and its confirmation by tricine sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Tapeinou, Anthi; Androutsou, Maria-Eleni; Kyrtata, Konstantina; Vlamis-Gardikas, Alexios; Apostolopoulos, Vasso; Matsoukas, John; Tselios, Theodore

    2015-09-15

    The conjugation of polysaccharides to peptides is essential for antigen delivery and vaccine development. Herein, we show that tricine SDS-PAGE in combination with Coomassie Blue staining was adequate to determine the conjugation efficacy of a peptide (epitope 35-55 of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein) to mannan. In addition, tricine SDS-PAGE and periodic acid-Schiff stains were able to monitor the redox state of mannan. Using the described protocol, more than 99.9% of a peptide containing five lysines at its N-terminus was confirmed conjugated to mannan. PMID:26079707

  4. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of Bali bull (Bos javanicus) seminal plasma proteins and their relationship with semen quality.

    PubMed

    Sarsaifi, Kazhal; Haron, Abd Wahid; Vejayan, Jaya; Yusoff, Rosnina; Hani, Homayoun; Omar, Mohamed Ariff; Hong, Lai Wei; Yimer, Nurhusien; Ju, Tan Ying; Othman, Abas-Mazni

    2015-10-01

    The present study evaluated the relationship between Bali bull (Bos javanicus) seminal plasma proteins and different semen quality parameters. Semen samples from 10 mature Bali bulls were evaluated for conventional semen parameters (general motility, viability, and normal morphology), sperm functionality (acrosome reaction, sperm penetration rate, sperm penetration index), sperm kinetics (computer-assisted semen analysis parameters such as sperm velocity), and sperm morphology (acrosome and membrane integrity). Frozen-thawed semen with higher sperm motility, viability, acrosome integrity, and membrane integrity (P < 0.05) are consistently higher in acrosome reaction and sperm penetration assay. Three bulls showed the highest, four bulls displayed the medium, and the remaining three bulls showed the lowest for all sperm parameters and SPA. The proteome maps of seminal plasma from high-quality and low-quality Bali bulls were also established. Seminal plasma of both high-quality and low-quality Bali bulls was subjected to two-dimensional SDS-PAGE with isoelectric point ranged from 3 to 10 and molecular weight from 10 to 250 kDa. Approximately 116 spots were detected with Blue Silver stain, and of these spots, 29 were selected and identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS/MS. A majority of the proteins visualized in the seminal plasma two-dimensional maps was successfully identified. An essential group of the identified spots represented binder of sperm 1 (BSP1), clusterin, spermadhesin, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 2 (TIMP-2), and phospholipase A2 (PLA2). Other proteins found in high abundance included seminal ribonuclease, serum albumin, cationic trypsin, and peptide similar to ?2 microglobulin. Thus, a reference map of Bali bull seminal plasma proteins has been generated for the very first time and can be used to relate protein pattern changes to physiopathologic events that may influence Bali bull reproductive performance. PMID:26119476

  5. A gel probe equilibrium sampler for measuring arsenic porewater profiles and sorption gradients in sediments: I. Laboratory development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, K.M.; Root, R.; O'Day, P. A.; Hering, J.G.

    2008-01-01

    A gel probe equilibrium sampler has been developed to study arsenic (As) geochemistry and sorption behavior in sediment porewater. The gels consist of a hydrated polyacrylamide polymer, which has a 92% water content. Two types of gels were used in this study. Undoped (clear) gels were used to measure concentrations of As and other elements in sediment porewater. The polyacrylamide gel was also doped with hydrous ferric oxide (HFO), an amorphous iron (Fe) oxyhydroxide. When deployed in the field, HFO-doped gels introduce a fresh sorbent into the subsurface thus allowing assessment of in situ sorption. In this study, clear and HFO-doped gels were tested under laboratory conditions to constrain the gel behavior prior to field deployment. Both types of gels were allowed to equilibrate with solutions of varying composition and re-equilibrated in acid for analysis. Clear gels accurately measured solution concentrations (??1%), and As was completely recovered from HFO-doped gels (??4%). Arsenic speciation was determined in clear gels through chromatographic separation of the re-equilibrated solution. For comparison to speciation in solution, mixtures of As(III) and As(V) adsorbed on HFO embedded in gel were measured in situ using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Sorption densities for As(III) and As(V) on HFO embedded in gel were obtained from sorption isotherms at pH 7.1. When As and phosphate were simultaneously equilibrated (in up to 50-fold excess of As) with HFO-doped gels, phosphate inhibited As sorption by up to 85% and had a stronger inhibitory effect on As(V) than As(III). Natural organic matter (>200 ppm) decreased As adsorption by up to 50%, and had similar effects on As(V) and As(III). The laboratory results provide a basis for interpreting results obtained by deploying the gel probe in the field and elucidating the mechanisms controlling As partitioning between solid and dissolved phases in the environment. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  6. Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Sharma-Kuinkel, Batu K; Rude, Thomas H; Fowler, Vance G

    2016-01-01

    Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) is a powerful genotyping technique used for the separation of large DNA molecules (entire genomic DNA) after digesting it with unique restriction enzymes and applying to a gel matrix under the electric field that periodically changes direction. PFGE is a variation of agarose gel electrophoresis that permits analysis of bacterial DNA fragments over an order of magnitude larger than that with conventional restriction enzyme analysis. It provides a good representation of the entire bacterial chromosome in a single gel with a highly reproducible restriction profile, providing clearly distinct and well-resolved DNA fragments. PMID:25682374

  7. CONFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT USING GELS

    SciTech Connect

    Randall S. Seright

    2003-09-01

    This report describes work performed during the second year of the project, ''Conformance Improvement Using Gels.'' The project has two objectives. The first objective is to identify gel compositions and conditions that substantially reduce flow through fractures that allow direct channeling between wells, while leaving secondary fractures open so that high fluid injection and production rates can be maintained. The second objective is to optimize treatments in fractured production wells, where the gel must reduce permeability to water much more than that to oil. Pore-level images from X-ray computed microtomography were re-examined for Berea sandstone and porous polyethylene. This analysis suggests that oil penetration through gel-filled pores occurs by a gel-dehydration mechanism, rather than a gel-ripping mechanism. This finding helps to explain why aqueous gels can reduce permeability to water more than to oil. We analyzed a Cr(III)-acetate-HPAM gel treatment in a production well in the Arbuckle formation. The availability of accurate pressure data before, during, and after the treatment was critical for the analysis. After the gel treatment, water productivity was fairly constant at about 20% of the pre-treatment value. However, oil productivity was stimulated by a factor of 18 immediately after the treatment. During the six months after the treatment, oil productivity gradually decreased to approach the pre-treatment value. To explain this behavior, we proposed that the fracture area open to oil flow was increased substantially by the gel treatment, followed by a gradual closing of the fractures during subsequent production. For a conventional Cr(III)-acetate-HPAM gel, the delay between gelant preparation and injection into a fracture impacts the placement, leakoff, and permeability reduction behavior. Formulations placed as partially formed gels showed relatively low pressure gradients during placement, and yet substantially reduced the flow capacity of fractures (with widths from 1 to 4 mm) during brine and oil flow after placement. Regardless of gel age before placement, very little gel washed out from the fractures during brine or oil flow. However, increased brine or oil flow rate and cyclic injection of oil and water significantly decreased the level of permeability reduction. A particular need exists for gels that can plug large apertures (e.g., wide fractures and vugs). Improved mechanical strength and stability were demonstrated (in 1- to 4-mm-wide fractures) for a gel that contained a combination of high- and low-molecular weight polymers. This gel reduced the flow capacity of 2- and 4-mm-wide fractures by 260,000. In a 1-mm-wide fracture, it withstood 26 psi/ft without allowing any brine flow through the fracture. Cr(III)-acetate-HPAM gels exhibited disproportionate permeability reduction in fractures. The effect was most pronounced when the gel was placed as gelant or partially formed gels. The effect occurred to a modest extent with concentrated gels and with gels that were ''fully formed'' when placed. The effect was not evident in tubes. We explored swelling polymers for plugging fractures. Polymer suspensions were quickly prepared and injected. In concept, the partially dissolved polymer would lodge and swell to plug the fracture. For three types of swelling polymers, behavior was promising. However, additional development is needed before their performance will be superior to that of conventional gels.

  8. CONFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT USING GELS

    SciTech Connect

    Randall S. Seright

    2004-09-30

    This report describes work performed during the third and final year of the project, ''Conformance Improvement Using Gels.'' Corefloods revealed throughput dependencies of permeability reduction by polymers and gels that were much more prolonged during oil flow than water flow. This behavior was explained using simple mobility ratio arguments. A model was developed that quantitatively fits the results and predicts ''clean up'' times for oil productivity when production wells are returned to service after application of a polymer or gel treatment. X-ray computed microtomography studies of gels in strongly water-wet Berea sandstone and strongly oil-wet porous polyethylene suggested that oil penetration through gel-filled pores occurs by a gel-dehydration mechanism, rather than gel-ripping or gel-displacement mechanisms. In contrast, analysis of data from the University of Kansas suggests that the gel-ripping or displacement mechanisms are more important in more permeable, strongly water-wet sandpacks. These findings help to explain why aqueous gels can reduce permeability to water more than to oil under different conditions. Since cement is the most commonly used material for water shutoff, we considered when gels are preferred over cements. Our analysis and experimental results indicated that cement cannot be expected to completely fill (top to bottom) a vertical fracture of any width, except near the wellbore. For vertical fractures with apertures less than 4 mm, the cement slurry will simply not penetrate very far into the fracture. For vertical fractures with apertures greater than 4 mm, the slurry may penetrate a substantial distance into the bottom part of the fracture. However, except near the wellbore, the upper part of the fracture will remain open due to gravity segregation. We compared various approaches to plugging fractures using gels, including (1) varying polymer content, (2) varying placement (extrusion) rate, (3) using partially formed gels, (4) using combinations of high and low molecular weight (Mw) polymers, (5) using secondary crosslinking reactions, (6) injecting un-hydrated polymer particles, and (7) incorporating particulates. All of these methods showed promise in some aspects, but required performance improvements in other aspects. All materials investigated to date showed significant performance variations with fracture width. High pressure gradients and limited distance of penetration are common problems in tight fractures. Gravity segregation and low resistance to breaching are common problems in wide fractures. These will be key issues to address in future work. Although gels can exhibit disproportionate permeability reduction in fractures, the levels of permeability reduction for oil flow are too high to allow practical exploitation in most circumstances. In contrast, disproportionate permeability reduction provided by gels that form in porous rock (adjacent to the fractures) has considerable potential in fractured systems.

  9. Nonlinear strain stiffening is not sufficient to explain how far cells can feel on fibrous protein gels.

    PubMed

    Rudnicki, Mathilda S; Cirka, Heather A; Aghvami, Maziar; Sander, Edward A; Wen, Qi; Billiar, Kristen L

    2013-07-01

    Recent observations suggest that cells on fibrous extracellular matrix materials sense mechanical signals over much larger distances than they do on linearly elastic synthetic materials. In this work, we systematically investigate the distance fibroblasts can sense a rigid boundary through fibrous gels by quantifying the spread areas of human lung fibroblasts and 3T3 fibroblasts cultured on sloped collagen and fibrin gels. The cell areas gradually decrease as gel thickness increases from 0 to 150 ?m, with characteristic sensing distances of >65 ?m below fibrin and collagen gels, and spreading affected on gels as thick as 150 ?m. These results demonstrate that fibroblasts sense deeper into collagen and fibrin gels than they do into polyacrylamide gels, with the latter exhibiting characteristic sensing distances of <5 ?m. We apply finite-element analysis to explore the role of strain stiffening, a characteristic mechanical property of collagen and fibrin that is not observed in polyacrylamide, in facilitating mechanosensing over long distances. Our analysis shows that the effective stiffness of both linear and nonlinear materials sharply increases once the thickness is reduced below 5 ?m, with only a slight enhancement in sensitivity to depth for the nonlinear material at very low thickness and high applied traction. Multiscale simulations with a simplified geometry predict changes in fiber alignment deep into the gel and a large increase in effective stiffness with a decrease in substrate thickness that is not predicted by nonlinear elasticity. These results suggest that the observed cell-spreading response to gel thickness is not explained by the nonlinear strain-stiffening behavior of the material alone and is likely due to the fibrous nature of the proteins. PMID:23823219

  10. Gel for Simultaneous Chemical Imaging of Anionic and Cationic Solutes Using Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We report on a novel gel based on diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) for the simultaneous measurement of cations and anions and its suitability for high resolution chemical imaging by using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS). The new high resolution mixed binding gel (HR-MBG) is based on zirconium-hydroxide and suspended particulate reagent-iminodiacetate (SPR-IDA) as resin materials which are embedded in an ether-based urethane polymer hydrogel. The use of this polymer hydrogel material allows the production of ultrathin, highly stable and tear-proof resin gel layers with superior handling properties compared to existing ultrathin polyacrylamide gels. The gel was characterized regarding its uptake kinetics, the anion and cation capacities, and the effects of pH, ionic strength, and aging on the performance of the HR-MBG. Our results demonstrate the capability of this novel gel for concomitant sampling of anions and cations. The suitability of this new gel type for DGT chemical imaging at submm spatial resolution in soils using LA-ICPMS is shown. 2D images of P, As, Co, Cu, Mn, and Zn distributions around roots of Zea mays L. demonstrate the new opportunities offered by the HR-MBG for high-resolution mapping of solute dynamics in soil and sediment hotspots, such as the rhizosphere, by simultaneous observation of anionic and cationic solute species. PMID:24256092

  11. Gel for simultaneous chemical imaging of anionic and cationic solutes using diffusive gradients in thin films.

    PubMed

    Kreuzeder, Andreas; Santner, Jakob; Prohaska, Thomas; Wenzel, Walter W

    2013-12-17

    We report on a novel gel based on diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) for the simultaneous measurement of cations and anions and its suitability for high resolution chemical imaging by using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS). The new high resolution mixed binding gel (HR-MBG) is based on zirconium-hydroxide and suspended particulate reagent-iminodiacetate (SPR-IDA) as resin materials which are embedded in an ether-based urethane polymer hydrogel. The use of this polymer hydrogel material allows the production of ultrathin, highly stable and tear-proof resin gel layers with superior handling properties compared to existing ultrathin polyacrylamide gels. The gel was characterized regarding its uptake kinetics, the anion and cation capacities, and the effects of pH, ionic strength, and aging on the performance of the HR-MBG. Our results demonstrate the capability of this novel gel for concomitant sampling of anions and cations. The suitability of this new gel type for DGT chemical imaging at submm spatial resolution in soils using LA-ICPMS is shown. 2D images of P, As, Co, Cu, Mn, and Zn distributions around roots of Zea mays L. demonstrate the new opportunities offered by the HR-MBG for high-resolution mapping of solute dynamics in soil and sediment hotspots, such as the rhizosphere, by simultaneous observation of anionic and cationic solute species. PMID:24256092

  12. Responsive Gel-Gel Phase Transitions in Artificially Engineered Protein Hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, B. D.

    2012-02-01

    Artificially engineered protein hydrogels provide an attractive platform for biomedical materials due to their similarity to components of the native extracellular matrix. Engineering responsive transitions between shear-thinning and tough gel phases in these materials could potentially enable gels that are both shear-thinning and tough to be produced as novel injectable biomaterials. To engineer a gel with such transitions, a triblock copolymer with thermoresponsive polymer endblocks and an artificially engineered protein gel midblock is designed. Temperature is used to trigger a transition from a single network protein hydrogel phase to a double network phase with both protein and block copolymer networks present at different length scales. The thermodynamics of network formation and resulting structural changes are established using small-angle scattering, birefringence, and dynamic scanning calorimetry. The formation of the second network is shown to produce a large, nonlinear increase in the elastic modulus as well as enhancements in creep compliance and toughness. Although the gels show yielding behavior in both the single and double network regimes, a qualitative change in the deformation mechanism is observed due to the structural changes.

  13. Top-down, bottom-up, and side-to-side proteomics with virtual 2-D gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogorzalek Loo, Rachel R.; Hayes, Richard; Yang, Yanan; Hung, Frank; Ramachandran, Prasanna; Kim, Nuri; Gunsalus, Robert; Loo, Joseph A.

    2005-02-01

    Intact protein masses can be measured directly from immobilized pH gradient (IPG) isoelectric focusing (IEF) gels loaded with mammalian and prokaryotic samples, as demonstrated here with murine macrophage and Methanosarcina acetivorans cell lysates. Mass accuracy and resolution is improved by employing instruments which decouple the desorption event from mass measurement; e.g., quadrupole time-of-flight instruments. MALDI in-source dissociation (ISD) is discussed as a means to pursue top-down sequencing for protein identification. Methods have been developed to enzymatically digest all proteins in an IEF gel simultaneously, leaving the polyacrylamide gel attached to its polyester support. By retaining all gel pieces and their placement relative to one another, sample handling and tracking are minimized, and comparison to 2-D gel images is facilitated. MALDI-MS and MS/MS can then be performed directly from dried, matrix-treated IPG strips following whole-gel trypsin digestion, bottom-up methodology. Side-to-side proteomics, highlighting the link between virtual and classical 2-D gel electrophoresis, is introduced to describe a method whereby intact masses are measured from one side (the IEF gel), while proteins are identified based on analyses performed from the other side (the SDS-PAGE gel).

  14. Reduction of Interrill Erosion by different application methods of Polyacrylamide and Gypsum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil erosion has been studied from different perspectives. This paper presents results on interrill erosion for three different application methods of Polyacrylamide (PAM) and Gypsum. Small interrill plots (0.74 m2) were packed with a highly erodible sieved soil and surface was prepared for it to ha...

  15. Production of a polyacrylamide solution used in an oil recovery process

    SciTech Connect

    Luetzelschwab, W.E.

    1987-01-06

    A process is described for recovering oil from a subterranean oil-bearing formation having performance demands comprising the steps of: determining the performance demands of the formation; determining correlations between an initial polymerization reaction parameter of initiator level and partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide solution properties of screen factor and viscosity, each correlation having a discontinuity; selecting a value of the initiator level below each discontinuity such that the selected value of the initiator level is capable of producing a partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide solution having values of the properties of viscosity and screen factor relatively sensitive to varying the initiator level and capable of meeting the performance demands of the formation; producing the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide solution having the values of the properties relatively sensitive to varying the initiator level and capable of meeting the performance demands by polymerizing an acrylamide monomer using a polymerization initiator at the selected value; and injecting the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide solution into the formation to improve oil recovery therefrom.

  16. Soil aggregate stability as affected by clay mineralogy and polyacrylamide addition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The addition of polyacrylamide (PAM) to soil leads to stabilization of existing aggregates and improved bonding between, and aggregation of adjacent soil particles However, the dependence of PAM efficacy as an aggregate stabilizing agent on soil-clay mineralogy has not been studied. Sixteen soil sam...

  17. Polyacrylamide effects on aggregate and structure stability of soils with different clay mineralogy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adding anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) to soils stabilizes existing aggregates and improves bonding between and aggregation of soil particles. However, the dependence of PAM efficacy as an aggregate stabilizing agent with soils having different clay mineralogy has not been studied. Sixteen soil samples...

  18. USE OF POLYACRYLAMIDE IN SIMULATED LAND APPLICATION OF LAGOON EFFLUENT: PART II. NUTRIENT LOSS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land application of agricultural wastewater can contribute to eutrophication of water bodies by increasing the quantities of dissolved and particulate nutrients that are transported in runoff during rain storm events. Anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) is a soil amendment that has been shown to reduce so...

  19. Polyacrylamide and biopolymer effects on flocculation, aggregate stability, and water seepage in a silt loam

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Researcher’s seek a more renewable and natural alternative for water soluble anionic polyacrylamide (PAM), a highly-effective, petroleum-derived polymer used in agriculture to control erosion and reduce water seepage from unlined irrigation structures. This study evaluated two anionic polymers: a ba...

  20. Synthesis of polyacrylamide modified magnetic nanoparticles and radiolabeling with 188Re for magnetically targeted radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chunfu; Sun, Hanwen; Xia, Jiaoyun; Yu, Junfeng; Yao, Side; Yin, Duanzhi; Wang, Yongxian

    2005-05-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized, modified with polyacrylamide, and then characterized by TEM, FTIR, VSM and PCS. Rhenium-188 ( 188Re) was bound to the nanoparticles by imidazolyl groups of histidine immobilized on the surface. The labeling yield was about 90% with good in vitro stability. Such nanoparticles might be useful for magnetically targeted radiotherapy.

  1. PECTIN AND POLYACRYLAMIDE COMPOSITE HYDROGELS: EFFECT OF PECTIN ON STRUCTURAL AND DYNAMIC MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Composite hydrogels of pectin and polyacrylamide were synthesized and evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, light microscopy, and by dynamic mechanical analysis. The cross-linking polymerization of acrylamide in pectin solution resulted in a composite having a macropo...

  2. Comparison of Cationic and Unmodified Starches in Reactive Extrusion of Starch-Polyacrylamide Graft Copolymers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Graft copolymers of starch and polyacrylamide (PAAm) were prepared using reactive extrusion in a corotating twin screw extruder. The effect of cationic starch modification was examined using unmodified and cationic dent starch (approximately 23% amylose) and waxy maize starch (approximately 2% amyl...

  3. Polyacrylamide Molecular Weight and Phosphogypsum Effects on Infiltration and Erosion in Semi-Arid Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seal formation at the surface of semi-arid soils during rainstorms reduces soil infiltration rate (IR) and causes runoff and erosion. Surface application of dry anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) with high molecular weight (MW) has been found to be effective in stabilizing soil aggregates, and decreasing ...

  4. Effects of Polyacrylamide Molecular Weight, Soil Texture and Electrolyte Concentration on Drainable Porosity and Aggregate Stability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The literature reports on the intricate relations between soil type and molecular weight (MW) of polyacrylamide (PAM) with respect to PAM efficacy as a soil conditioner. This relation may depend on the ability of PAM to penetrate into aggregates and thus stabilize both outer and inner aggregate surf...

  5. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios can estimate anionic polyacrylamide degradation in soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water soluble anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) is a highly effective erosion-preventing and infiltration-enhancing polymer, when applied at rates of 1 to 10 g/m-3 in furrow irrigation water. PAM degradation has not directly been measured in soil or water. Natural abundance of the carbon (13C/12C) isoto...

  6. Effects of Polyacrylamide and Organic Matter on Microbes associated to Soil Aggregation of Norfolk Loamy Sand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyacrylamide (PAM, anionic formulation of molecular size 12 MDa and 35% charge density) has been reported to increase aggregation and improve soil physical properties in United States southeastern Coastal Plain loamy sand soils, but nothing is known about the effects of PAM on microbes associated ...

  7. Native Speaker Insight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broughton, Geoffrey

    1978-01-01

    Defines the concept of native speaker insight and suggests that, for the purpose of teaching English as a second language, the goal should not be native speaker insight (NSI) but NS Type 1, a reduced, adequate and attainable goal for foreign learners. (CFM)

  8. Traditional Native Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Agnes

    1985-01-01

    While Native myths and legends were educational tools to transmit tribal beliefs and history, traditional American Indian poetry served a ritualistic function in everyday life. Few traditional Native songs, which all poems were, survive; only Mayan and Aztec poems were written, and most of these were burned by a Spanish bishop. In addition, many…

  9. Listen to the Natives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prensky, Marc

    2006-01-01

    "Digital natives" refer to today's students because they are native speakers of technology, fluent in the digital language of computers, video games, and the Internet. Those who were not born into the digital world are referred to as digital immigrants. Educators, considered digital immigrants, have slid into the 21st century--and into the digital…

  10. AIDS and Native Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, G. Cajetan

    Native Americans throughout North America suffer from a greater prevalence of health problems than the population as a whole. One might believe that the problem of AIDS is insignificant for Native youth, but such a belief is inaccurate and shortsighted. As of March 1989, the Centers for Disease Control reported 1,792 cases of childhood and…

  11. Native SAD is maturing

    PubMed Central

    Rose, John P.; Wang, Bi-Cheng; Weiss, Manfred S.

    2015-01-01

    Native SAD phasing uses the anomalous scattering signal of light atoms in the crystalline, native samples of macromolecules collected from single-wavelength X-ray diffraction experiments. These atoms include sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, sulfur, chlorine, potassium and calcium. Native SAD phasing is challenging and is critically dependent on the collection of accurate data. Over the past five years, advances in diffraction hardware, crystallographic software, data-collection methods and strategies, and the use of data statistics have been witnessed which allow ‘highly accurate data’ to be routinely collected. Today, native SAD sits on the verge of becoming a ‘first-choice’ method for both de novo and molecular-replacement structure determination. This article will focus on advances that have caught the attention of the community over the past five years. It will also highlight both de novo native SAD structures and recent structures that were key to methods development. PMID:26175902

  12. Native Woodlands Results from the Native

    E-print Network

    upland oakwoods lowland mixed deciduous upland mixed ashwoods upland birchwoods wet woodland blackthorn scrub hawthorn scrub native pinewoods upland oakwoods lowland mixed deciduous upland mixed ashwoods #12 the project including; · the field surveyors and survey team managers from Forest Research, RPS Group Plc

  13. Laser Light-scattering Study of polyacrylamides With and Without Hydrolyzation in O.35M KH2PO4 Aqueous Solution

    E-print Network

    Wu, Chi

    1.:.~~4 Laser Light-scattering Study of polyacrylamides With and Without Hydrolyzation in O.35M KH2:Both the hydrolyzed and unhydrolyzed polyacrylamides with different mo- lar masses were characterized in 0.35M KH:/PO4 After the hydrolyzation, polyacrylamide be- molar mass M,uas 17 comes polyelectrolytes in aqueous

  14. Linear Dichroism of Chlorosomes from Chloroflexus Aurantiacus in Compressed Gels and Electric Fields

    PubMed Central

    van Amerongen, H.; Vasmel, H.; van Grondelle, R.

    1988-01-01

    The linear dichroism of chlorosomes from Chloroflexus aurantiacus was measured between 250 and 800 nm. To orient the chlorosomes we used a new way of compressing polyacrylamide gels, where the dimension of the gel along the measuring light-beam is kept constant. The press required for such a way of compressing is relatively easy to construct. A theoretical description is given to interpret the measured linear dichroism in terms of the orientation of the transition moments. The results obtained with the polyacrylamide gels are compared with the linear dichroism measurements for chlorosomes oriented in electric fields. Both the spectral features as well as the absolute size of the linear dichroism signals are in reasonable agreement. We find that the transition moment corresponding to the 741 nm bacteriochlorophyll c (Bchl c) absorption band makes an angle of 20° with the long axis of the chlorosome. For the 461 nm Bchl c band an angle of 30° is found. Both angles are significantly lower than the values reported so far in literature and they imply that Bchl c is highly organized in the chlorosomes. PMID:19431726

  15. Native American postneonatal mortality.

    PubMed

    Honigfeld, L S; Kaplan, D W

    1987-10-01

    Although dramatic gains have been realized in lowering the incidence of neonatal deaths among native American infants to a level lower than the white race, postneonatal death rates for this population remain twice as high as in the white race. The limited data available reveal that excessive postneonatal deaths among native American infants largely result from preventable accidents and treatable acute medical conditions, such as pneumonia and gastroenteritis. This suggests that native American infants leave the hospital healthy but go to unsafe environments, which decrease their chances of survival past 1 year. In particular, the poorer socioeconomic conditions that native American families experience and the related problems of alcoholism, unemployment, and family disorganization contribute to the high rate of postneonatal mortality. Intervention programs to lower native American postneonatal mortality should focus on promoting prompt recognition of and health seeking for treatable medical conditions and prevention of accidents and other postneonatal health problems. The roots of the problem of native American postneonatal mortality lie in the socioeconomic conditions of many Indian communities and cannot be addressed without recognition of how these factors combine with the health care delivery system to diminish life expectancy for native American infants. PMID:3658577

  16. Periodic mesoporous silica gels

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.T.; Martin, J.E.; Odinek, J.G.

    1996-06-01

    We have synthesized monolithic particulate gels of periodic mesoporous silica by adding tetramethoxysilane to a homogeneous alkaline micellar precursor solution. The gels exhibit 5 characteristic length scales over 4 orders of magnitude: fractal domains larger than the particle size (>500 nm), particles that are {approximately}150 to 500 nm in diameter, interparticle pores that are on the order of the particle size, a feature in the gas adsorption measurements that indicates pores {approximately}10-50 nm, and periodic hexagonal arrays of {approximately}3 nm channels within each particle. The wet gel monoliths exhibit calculated densities as low as {approximately}0.02 g/cc; the dried and calcined gels have bulk densities that range from {approximately}0.3-0.5 g/cc. The materials possess large interparticle ({approximately}1.0-2.3 cc/g) and intraparticle ({approximately}0.6 cc/g) porosities.

  17. Microfluidics with Gel Emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priest, Craig; Surenjav, Enkhtuul; Herminghaus, Stephan; Seemann, Ralf

    2006-03-01

    Microfluidic processing is usually achieved using single phase liquids. Instead, we use monodisperse emulsions to compartment liquids within microchannel geometries. At low continuous phase volume fractions, droplets self-organize to form well-defined arrangements, analogous to foam. While it is well-known that confined geometries can induce rearrangement of foam compartments at the millimeter-scale, similar dynamics are also expected for gel emulsions. We have studied online generation, organization and manipulation of gel emulsions using a variety of microchannel geometries. ``Passive'' reorganization, based on fixed channel geometries, can be supplemented by ``active'' manipulation by incorporating a ferrofluid phase. A ferromagnetic phase facilitates reorganization of liquid compartments on demand using an electromagnetic trigger. Moreover, coalescence between adjacent compartments within a gel emulsion can be induced using electrical potential. Microfluidics using gel emulsions will be well-suited for combinatorial chemistry, DNA sequencing, drug screening and protein crystallizations.

  18. Crystallization from Gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayana Kalkura, S.; Natarajan, Subramanian

    Among the various crystallization techniques, crystallization in gels has found wide applications in the fields of biomineralization and macromolecular crystallization in addition to crystallizing materials having nonlinear optical, ferroelectric, ferromagnetic, and other properties. Furthermore, by using this method it is possible to grow single crystals with very high perfection that are difficult to grow by other techniques. The gel method of crystallization provides an ideal technique to study crystal deposition diseases, which could lead to better understanding of their etiology. This chapter focuses on crystallization in gels of compounds that are responsible for crystal deposition diseases. The introduction is followed by a description of the various gels used, the mechanism of gelling, and the fascinating phenomenon of Liesegang ring formation, along with various gel growth techniques. The importance and scope of study on crystal deposition diseases and the need for crystal growth experiments using gel media are stressed. The various crystal deposition diseases, viz. (1) urolithiasis, (2) gout or arthritis, (3) cholelithiasis and atherosclerosis, and (4) pancreatitis and details regarding the constituents of the crystal deposits responsible for the pathological mineralization are discussed. Brief accounts of the theories of the formation of urinary stones and gallstones and the role of trace elements in urinary stone formation are also given. The crystallization in gels of (1) the urinary stone constituents, viz. calcium oxalate, calcium phosphates, uric acid, cystine, etc., (2) the constituents of the gallstones, viz. cholesterol, calcium carbonate, etc., (3) the major constituent of the pancreatic calculi, viz., calcium carbonate, and (4) cholic acid, a steroidal hormone are presented. The effect of various organic and inorganic ions, trace elements, and extracts from cereals, herbs, and fruits on the crystallization of major urinary stone and gallstone constituents are described. In addition, tables of gel-grown organic and inorganic crystals are provided.

  19. Conformance Improvement Using Gels

    SciTech Connect

    Seright, Randall S.; Schrader, Richard; II Hagstrom, John; Wang, Ying; Al-Dahfeeri, Abdullah; Gary, Raven; Marin; Amaury; Lindquist, Brent

    2002-09-26

    This research project had two objectives. The first objective was to identify gel compositions and conditions that substantially reduce flow through fractures that allow direct channeling between wells, while leaving secondary fractures open so that high fluid injection and production rates can be maintained. The second objective was to optimize treatments in fractured production wells, where the gel must reduce permeability to water much more than that to oil.

  20. Natively probabilistic computation

    E-print Network

    Mansinghka, Vikash Kumar

    2009-01-01

    I introduce a new set of natively probabilistic computing abstractions, including probabilistic generalizations of Boolean circuits, backtracking search and pure Lisp. I show how these tools let one compactly specify ...

  1. Croton capitatus (Native

    E-print Network

    Hugh D. Wilson

    2011-08-10

    The cotton fleahopper, Pseudatomoscelis seriatus (Reuter) is a widely distributed insect across the United States. Although, it feeds on several native wild hosts, its agricultural importance lies as an economic pest of cotton in several states...

  2. Native American Tribal Websites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Eric L.

    1999-01-01

    Lists Web sites maintained by 38 different Native American nations that deal with topics ranging from tribal history, news, arts and crafts, tourism, entertainment, and commerce. Represented nations include Apache, Blackfeet, Creek, Iroquois, Mohegan, and Sioux. (CMK)

  3. Rudbeckia laciniata? (Native) 2 

    E-print Network

    James R. Manhart

    2011-08-10

    Honey bees, Apis mellifera, play an important role in many ecosystems, pollinating a wide variety of native, agricultural, and exotic plants. The recent decline in the number of feral and managed honey bee colonies in North America, as well...

  4. The Effect of Polymer Substrate Surface Basicity on the Adsorption of a Cationic Polyacrylamide.

    PubMed

    Angelopoulos; Matienzo; Benziger

    1999-04-15

    The adsorption of a cationic polyacrylamide onto polytetrafluoroethylene, bisphenol-A based epoxy resins, and acrylate substrates was characterized with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and dynamic contact angle measurement in water. Surface acidity-basicity was quantified via dynamic contact angle measurement in water, ethylene glycol, and diiodomethane. The epoxy resins exhibited intermediate surface basicity and adsorbed the most polyelectrolyte, suggesting that specific substrate-adsorbate acid-base interactions govern adsorption of the cationic polyacrylamide onto surfaces of low to intermediate basicity. In general polar interactions appear to dominate the adsorption process. Advancing contact angle measurements have yielded quantitative fractional surface coverage information for polymer-on-polymer adsorption comparable to that obtained via XPS. Copyright 1999 Academic Press. PMID:10092372

  5. Characterization of Network Structure of Polyacrylamide Based Hydrogels Prepared By Radiation Induced Polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmudi, Naim; Sen, Murat; Gueven, Olgun; Rendevski, Stojan

    2007-04-23

    In this study network structure of polyacrylamide based hydrogels prepared by radiation induced polymerization has been investigated. Polyacrylamide based hydrogels in the rod form were prepared by copolymerization of acrylamide(AAm) with hydroxyl ethyl methacrylate(HEMA) and methyl acrylamide(MAAm) in the presence of cross-linking agent and water by gamma rays at ambient temperature. Molecular weight between cross-links and effective cross-link density of hydrogels were calculated from swelling as well as shear modulus data obtained from compression tests. The results have shown that simple compression analyses can be used for the determination of effective cross-link density of hydrogels without any need to some polymer-solvent based parameters as in the case of swelling based determinations. Diffusion of water into hydrogels was examined by analyzing water absorption kinetics and the effect of network, structure on the diffusion type and coefficient was discussed.

  6. Characterization of Network Structure of Polyacrylamide Based Hydrogels Prepared By Radiation Induced Polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmudi, Naim; ?en, Murat; Güven, Olgun; Rendevski, Stojan

    2007-04-01

    In this study network structure of polyacrylamide based hydrogels prepared by radiation induced polymerization has been investigated. Polyacrylamide based hydrogels in the rod form were prepared by copolymerization of acrylamide(AAm) with hydroxyl ethyl methacrylate(HEMA) and methyl acrylamide(MAAm) in the presence of cross-linking agent and water by gamma rays at ambient temperature. Molecular weight between cross-links and effective cross-link density of hydrogels were calculated from swelling as well as shear modulus data obtained from compression tests. The results have shown that simple compression analyses can be used for the determination of effective cross-link density of hydrogels without any need to some polymer-solvent based parameters as in the case of swelling based determinations. Diffusion of water into hydrogels was examined by analyzing water absorption kinetics and the effect of network, structure on the diffusion type and coefficient was discussed.

  7. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of APOA1 gene and their relationship with serum apolipoprotein A-I concentrations in the native population of Assam

    PubMed Central

    Bora, Kaustubh; Pathak, Mauchumi Saikia; Borah, Probodh; Hussain, Md. Iftikar; Das, Dulmoni

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a growing interest in the role of allelic variants of the APOA1 gene in relation to a number of disorders. We described two common polymorphisms of the APOA1 gene, G-75A and C+83T and investigated their potential influence on the serum apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) levels in the native population of Assam — a region that is ethnically distinct and from where no information is hitherto available. Methods Blood samples were collected from 150 healthy volunteers. Apo A-I levels were estimated by immunoturbidometry. Genotyping was done by a PCR-RFLP method that involved DNA extraction from whole blood, followed by polymerase chain reaction and digestion of the PCR product by MspI restriction enzyme, and analysis of fragment sizes in 12% polyacrylamide gel. Results The GG variant at G-75A locus and CC variant at C+83T locus were the most prevalent. GG/CC was the most common combination. Homozygous TT genotype was not detected in any of the subjects. The rare allele frequencies for the G-75A and C+83T sites were found to be 0.22 and 0.06 respectively, which significantly differed from those reported in some other populations in neighbouring regions. Serum apo A-I concentrations did not vary significantly across the detected genotypes. These findings were consistent in both sexes. Conclusion We described the distribution of the G-75A and C+83T polymorphisms of the APOA1 gene in the population of Assam for the first time. These polymorphisms were not found to directly influence apo A-I concentrations in this population either individually or synergistically. PMID:26702398

  8. CONFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT USING GELS

    SciTech Connect

    Randall S. Seright

    2002-02-28

    This technical progress report describes work performed from June 20 through December 19, 2001, for the project, ''Conformance Improvement Using Gels''. Interest has increased in some new polymeric products that purport to substantially reduce permeability to water while causing minimum permeability reduction to oil. In view of this interest, we are currently studying BJ's Aqua Con. Results from six corefloods revealed that the Aqua Con gelant consistently reduced permeability to water more than that to oil. However, the magnitude of the disproportionate permeability reduction varied significantly for the various experiments. Thus, as with most materials tested to date, the issue of reproducibility and control of the disproportionate permeability remains to be resolved. Concern exists about the ability of gels to resist washout after placement in fractures. We examined whether a width constriction in the middle of a fracture would cause different gel washout behavior upstream versus downstream of the constriction. Tests were performed using a formed Cr(III)-acetate-HPAM gel in a 48-in.-long fracture with three sections of equal length, but with widths of 0.08-, 0.02-, and 0.08-in., respectively. The pressure gradients during gel extrusion (i.e., placement) were similar in the two 0.08-in.-wide fracture sections, even though they were separated by a 0.02-in.-wide fracture section. The constriction associated with the middle fracture section may have inhibited gel washout during the first pulse of brine injection after gel placement. However, during subsequent phases of brine injection, the constriction did not inhibit washout in the upstream fracture section any more than in the downstream section.

  9. Laboratory and Field Evaluations of Polyacrylamide Hydrogel Baits Against Argentine Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Rust, Michael K; Soeprono, Andrew; Wright, Sarajean; Greenberg, Les; Choe, Dong-Hwan; Boser, Christina L; Cory, Coleen; Hanna, Cause

    2015-06-01

    The development of effective baits to control the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), has been problematic because foragers prefer sweet liquids, while many toxicants are insoluble in water and liquid baits are generally difficult to deliver. The incorporation of thiamethoxam and sucrose solutions into a water-absorbing polyacrylamide hydrogel provides a unique and novel carrier and method of application for liquid baits. Formulations of thiamethoxam affected the size of the hydrogels, and sucrose solutions containing 0.0003% technical thiamethoxam provided hydrogels as large as those made with 25% sucrose solution or deionized water. Concentrations of thiamethoxam as low as 0.000075% in the hydrogels provided 50% kill of workers within 3 d in a laboratory setting. In small colony studies, baiting with 0.00015 and 0.000075% thiamethoxam hydrogels provided 100% mortality of workers and queens within 8 d. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay indicated that thiamethoxam was absorbed into the interior of the polyacrylamide matrix. The water loss rates of the hydrogels were dependent upon the relative humidity. Polyacrylamide hydrogels with >50% water loss were less attractive to ants. Field studies in highly infested areas indicated that concentrations of 0.0006 or 0.0018% thiamethoxam were more effective than 0.00015%. Hydrogels may provide a cost-effective alternative to providing aqueous baits to control Argentine ants. PMID:26470250

  10. A model of ideal elastomeric gels for polyelectrolyte gels

    E-print Network

    Suo, Zhigang

    a polyacrylamide-co-acrylic acid hydrogel as a model material system. A comparison between mixing and ion osmosis shows that the mixing osmosis is larger than the ion osmosis for small swelling ratios, while the ion osmosis dominates for large swelling ratios. We show further that the non-Gaussian chain effect becomes

  11. Polymer gel dosimetry technique

    SciTech Connect

    Maryanski, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    Recent advances in radiation therapy techniques, including non-coplanar beams, dynamic wedge, multi-leaf collimator, sterotactic radiosurgery, high-dose-rate brachytherapy using remote afterloading and shielded applicators, and heavy-particle beams such as protons, have created a need for three-dimensional, tissue-equivalent dosimeters, capable of recording time-integrated dose distributions with high spatial resolution and accuracy, and independent of energy and dose rate. All these requirements are met by the recently developed polymer gel dosimetry technique, based on radiation induced formation of polymer microparticles in a tissue-equivalent gel. A permanent image of the dose distribution is encoded in the gel as the distribution of its optical turbidity and of the NMR relaxation rates of the water protons in the gel. Three dimensional dose distributions can be measured using magnetic resonance imaging or optical transmission tomography. The prototype gel, called BANG{trademark}, is now being tested at several hospital sites throughout the U.S. and Europe.

  12. Spatially resolved multicomponent gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, Emily R.; Eden, Edward G. B.; McDonald, Tom O.; Adams, Dave J.

    2015-10-01

    Multicomponent supramolecular systems could be used to prepare exciting new functional materials, but it is often challenging to control the assembly across multiple length scales. Here we report a simple approach to forming patterned, spatially resolved multicomponent supramolecular hydrogels. A multicomponent gel is first formed from two low-molecular-weight gelators and consists of two types of fibre, each formed by only one gelator. One type of fibre in this ‘self-sorted network’ is then removed selectively by a light-triggered gel-to-sol transition. We show that the remaining network has the same mechanical properties as it would have done if it initially formed alone. The selective irradiation of sections of the gel through a mask leads to the formation of patterned multicomponent networks, in which either one or two networks can be present at a particular position with a high degree of spatial control.

  13. Spatially resolved multicomponent gels.

    PubMed

    Draper, Emily R; Eden, Edward G B; McDonald, Tom O; Adams, Dave J

    2015-10-01

    Multicomponent supramolecular systems could be used to prepare exciting new functional materials, but it is often challenging to control the assembly across multiple length scales. Here we report a simple approach to forming patterned, spatially resolved multicomponent supramolecular hydrogels. A multicomponent gel is first formed from two low-molecular-weight gelators and consists of two types of fibre, each formed by only one gelator. One type of fibre in this 'self-sorted network' is then removed selectively by a light-triggered gel-to-sol transition. We show that the remaining network has the same mechanical properties as it would have done if it initially formed alone. The selective irradiation of sections of the gel through a mask leads to the formation of patterned multicomponent networks, in which either one or two networks can be present at a particular position with a high degree of spatial control. PMID:26391086

  14. Modeling mechanochromatic lamellar gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Wei; Wang, Xiao

    2012-03-01

    Consisting of alternating swelling and nonswelling polymeric layers (SLs and NLs), lamellar gels are one-dimensional photonic crystals with mechanically tunable optical properties. The lamellar structure induces a constraint between the SLs and the NLs, resulting in a highly anisotropic swelling behavior that is coupled with deformation. The coupling gives rise to the mechanochromatic effect, i.e., the color change in the material in response to mechanical deformations. A quantitative understanding of the coupling behavior is the key to many applications. This paper formulates a nonlinear continuum model for lamellar gels by considering the constrained swelling and anisotropic deformation in both layers. A finite-element method is further developed to simulate the mechanochromatic response of a lamellar gel undergoing a nonuniform field.

  15. Polymer gel dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiner, L. J.; Olding, T.; McAuley, K. B.

    2010-11-01

    Polymer gels are chemical dosimeters based on dose dependent radiation-induced polymerization and cross-linking of monomers in an irradiated volume. The changes are spatially localized in the volume by incorporating the initial monomers in an aqueous gel matrix in the dosimeter and can be probed by various imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), x-ray computed tomography (CT), and optical CT. As they are chemical dosimeters, polymer gels are sensitive to preparation conditions. The three dimensional dose readout is sensitive to the imaging modality and also to the technical conditions in use during specific scans. This brief article is intended to present an introduction to these points which need to be taken into account as one attempts to establish this dosimetry in the clinic.

  16. Elimination of sample diffusion and lateral band spreading in isoelectric focusing employing ready-made immobilized pH gradient gels.

    PubMed

    Loessner, M J; Scherer, S

    1992-07-01

    A simple procedure for the elimination of lateral sample as well as band spreading in precast, ready-made immobilized pH gradient gels is described. Round or rectangular holes are punched in the dry polyacrylamide gels prior to rehydration. The generated wells proved suitable for application of samples containing surfactants such as Nonidet P-40 or 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl) dimethylammonio]-1- propane-sulfonate (CHAPS). Lateral band spreading and precipitation of samples containing up to 9.5 M urea could be completely eliminated by this method. PMID:1425562

  17. Studying Native America: Problems and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Russell, Ed.

    Based on a conference, this volume examines the past, present, and future of Native American studies. Native American studies seeks to understand Native Americans, America, and the world from a Native American indigenous perspective, and thereby broaden the education of both Native and non-Native Americans. Part 1 asks who Native Americans are…

  18. Fluorescent detection of differentially expressed cDNA using SYBR gold nucleic acid gel stain.

    PubMed

    Danielson, Keith G; Kanthala, Shirisha; Tuli, Richard; Tuan, Rocky S

    2004-09-01

    We describe herein a modified differential gene display (DGD) technique that can be rapidly and simply performed and that eliminates the need for radioactivity by fluorescent visualization of complementary deoxyribonucleic acid (cDNA) bands with SYBR gold nucleic acid gel stain. To streamline the DGD procedure, a number of modifications were employed. Ribonucleic acid isolated from differentially treated populations of human trabecular bone-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells was reverse-transcribed into cDNA using oligo-dT primer, and subsequent amplification of differentially expressed cDNAs was done using arbitrary 25-mer primers and oligo-dT9 30-mer primers. Moderate-sized nondenaturing 6% polyacrylamide gels (30 x 20 cm) of 1.5-mm thickness were used for easier handling and increased sample loading capacity. Gels were subjected to electrophoresis overnight, stained with SYBR gold, and visualized and photographed using a commercially available gel imager. DNA bands ranging in size from 100 to 400 bp were visualized directly on an ultraviolet transilluminator, excised from the gel, and reamplified. The cDNA amplicons were subcloned, sequenced, and gene sequences were identified by a Basic Local Alignment Search Tool of genomic databases. Overall, this rapid and functional method proved quite effective for identification of novel genes that may be of interest in studies of cartilage and bone differentiation. PMID:15456962

  19. Rheology of Active Gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    Active networks drive a diverse range of critical processes ranging from motility to division in living cells, yet a full picture of their rheological capabilities in non-cellular contexts is still emerging, e.g., How does the rheological response of a network capable of remodeling under internally-generated stresses differ from that of a passive biopolymer network? In order to address this and other basic questions, we have engineered an active gel composed of microtubules, bidirectional kinesin motors, and molecular depletant that self-organizes into a highly dynamic network of active bundles. The network continually remodels itself under ATP-tunable cycles of extension, buckling, fracturing, and self-healing. Using confocal rheometry we have simultaneously characterized the network's linear and non-linear rheological responses to shear deformation along with its dynamic morphology. We find several surprising and unique material properties for these active gels; most notably, rheological cloaking, the ability of the active gel to drive large-scale fluid mixing over several orders of flow magnitude while maintaining an invariant, solid-like rheological profile and spontaneous flow under confinement, the ability to exert micro-Newton forces to drive persistent directed motion of the rheometer tool. Taken together, these results and others to be discussed highlight the rich stress-structure-dynamics relationships in this class of biologically-derived active gels.

  20. NATIVE HEALTH DATABASES: NATIVE HEALTH HISTORY DATABASE (NHHD)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Native Health Databases contain bibliographic information and abstracts of health-related articles, reports, surveys, and other resource documents pertaining to the health and health care of American Indians, Alaska Natives, and Canadian First Nations. The databases provide i...

  1. NATIVE HEALTH DATABASES: NATIVE HEALTH RESEARCH DATABASE (NHRD)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Native Health Databases contain bibliographic information and abstracts of health-related articles, reports, surveys, and other resource documents pertaining to the health and health care of American Indians, Alaska Natives, and Canadian First Nations. The databases provide i...

  2. Rebuilding Native American Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyhis, Don; Simonelli, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The Wellbriety Movement in Native American communities draws on the wisdom and participation of traditional elders. Beginning with a basic community teaching called the Four Laws of Change and the Healing Forest Model, the Wellbriety Movement blends Medicine Wheel knowledge with the 12 Steps of Alcoholics Anonymous to provide culture-specific…

  3. Exploring Native American Symbolism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufrene, Phoebe

    This paper described the events and results of a workshop on Native American symbolism presented to educators and held in Kansas City, Missouri. The presenter maintained that some of the most crucial problems facing U.S. educators and students are caused by racial misunderstandings, and that the universality of artistic expression can be a vehicle…

  4. Native American Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, C. Fayne; And Others

    Designed to accommodate a semester course in Native American Literature for secondary students, this teacher's guide includes a general introduction, a statement of the philosophy and goals upon which it is predicated, a nine-week block on post-Columbian literature, a nine-week block on oral literature, separate appendices for each block, a…

  5. Native Westslope Cutthroat Trout

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Native westslope cutthroat trout swim in the north fork of the Flathead River in northwestern Montana. This region is recognized as a range-wide stronghold for genetically pure westslope cutthroat trout. However, rainbow trout invasion and hybridization threatens these ...

  6. Native Westslope Cutthroat Trout

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Native westslope cutthroat trout swim in the north fork of the Flathead River in northwestern Montana. The region is recognized as a range-wide stronghold for genetically pure westslope cutthroat trout. However, rainbow trout invasion and hybridization threatens these p...

  7. Wetting mechanisms of gel-based controlled-release fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Shavit, U; Reiss, M; Shaviv, A

    2003-02-14

    The release mechanism of gel-based controlled release fertilizers (CRFs) involves water penetration into dry mixtures of fertilizers and gel forming polymers. Water penetration provides an upper limit to the whole release process. Where wetting prediction is often based on models that describe the flow of the liquid phase, vapor motion may become significant when a sharp wetting front exists. In this study we examine the role of vapor and fluid flows in the wetting process of CRFs consisting of urea or KNO(3) mixed with polyacrylamide (PAM). Vapor adsorption isotherms were obtained for typical fertilizer-PAM mixtures. Wetting and release experiments were conducted by dividing the CRFs into regions alternately filled with a pure fertilizer and mixtures of PAM and fertilizer. The experiments were designed in such a way that when the wetting front reaches a mixtures interface, its motion depends on the gradient imposed by the difference in osmotic potential (OP). The coupled equations of vapor and liquid flow in initially dry conditions were solved numerically to demonstrate the conceptual understanding gained by the experiments. The results show that wetting front motion is affected by transport and adsorption of vapor. It was also shown that the release rate is different when wetting is governed by vapor flow or by liquid flow. The release pattern from a multi-regions device was consistent with the wetting pattern, demonstrating the possibility to tailor the release according to periods of peak demand. PMID:12586505

  8. Accounting for Native/Non-Native Differences in IQ Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beiser, Morton; Gotowiec, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    Presents study results of Verbal and Performance Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised subscales collected from Native (n=691) and non-Native (n=234) children in grades 2 and 4 at four sites. Native children had substantially lower IQ scores, especially pronounced for the verbal subscales. Discusses implications for understanding IQ…

  9. TSK-GEL SEC Columns TOSOH BIOSCIENCE

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    TSK-GEL SEC Columns TOSOH BIOSCIENCE Separations Business Unit Get the most from Size Exclusion. Column Selection Guide SEC II. TSK-GEL SEC Columns Overview III. TSK-GEL SW Columns IV. TSK-GEL PW V. TSK-GEL Alpha/SuperAW VI. Optimizing SEC TSK-GEL SEC Columns TSK-GEL SEC Brochure #12;TSK-GEL Column Selection

  10. Polyacrylamide-hydroxyapatite composite: Preparation, characterization and adsorptive features for uranium and thorium

    SciTech Connect

    Baybas, Demet; Ulusoy, Ulvi

    2012-10-15

    The composite of synthetically produced hydroxyapatite (HAP) and polyacrylamide was prepared (PAAm-HAP) and characterized by BET, FT-IR, TGA, XRD, SEM and PZC analysis. The adsorptive features of HAP and PAAm-HAP were compared for UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} and Th{sup 4+}. The entrapment of HAP into PAAm-HAP did not change the structure of HAP. Both structures had high affinity to the studied ions. The adsorption capacity of PAAm-HAP was than that of HAP. The adsorption dependence on pH and ionic intensity provided supportive evidences for the effect of complex formation on adsorption process. The adsorption kinetics was well compatible to pseudo second order model. The values of enthalpy and entropy changes were positive. Th{sup 4+} adsorption from the leachate obtained from a regional fluorite rock confirmed the selectivity of PAAm-HAP for this ion. In consequence, PAAm-HAP should be considered amongst favorite adsorbents for especially deposition of nuclear waste containing U and Th, and radionuclide at secular equilibrium with these elements. - Graphical abstract: SEM images of hydroxyapatite (HAP) and polyacrylamide-hydroxyapatite (PAAm-HAP), and the adsorption isotherms for Uranium and Thorium. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Composite of PAAm-HAP was synthesized from hydroxyapatite and polyacrylamide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The materials were characterized by BET, FT-IR, XRD, SEM, TGA and PZC analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HAP and PAAm-HAP had high sorption capacity and very rapid uptake for UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} and Th{sup 4+}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Super porous PAAm was obtained from PAAm-HAP after its removal of HAP content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composite is potential for deposition of U, Th and its associate radionuclides.

  11. Controlling tailwater sediment and phosphorus concentrations with polyacrylamide in the Imperial Valley, California.

    PubMed

    Goodson, Christopher C; Schwartz, Gregory; Amrhein, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    External loading of phosphorus (P) from agricultural surface discharge (tailwater) is the main cause of excessive algae growth and the eutrophication of the Salton Sea, California. Continuous polyacrylamide (PAM) applications to agricultural irrigation water inflows were evaluated as a means of reducing sediment and P in tailwater. Zero (control) and 1 mg L(-1) PAM (PAM1) treatments were compared at 17 Imperial Valley field sites. Five and 10 mg L(-1) PAM treatments (PAM5, PAM10) were conducted at one site. The particulate phosphorus (Pp) fraction was determined as the difference between total phosphorus (Pt) and the soluble phosphorus (Ps) fraction. We observed 73, 82, and 98% turbidity reduction with PAM1, PAM5, and PAM10 treatments. Although eight field sites had control tailwater sediment concentrations above the New River total maximum daily loads (TMDL), all but one were made compliant during their paired PAM1 treatments. While PAM1 and PAM10 reduced tail water Pp by 31 and 78%, none of the treatments tested reduced Ps. This may have been caused by high irrigation water Na concentrations which would reduce Ca adsorption and Ca-phosphate bridging on the PAM. The PAM1 treatments resulted in <0.5 mg L(-1) drain water polyacrylamide concentrations 1.6 km downstream of PAM addition, while PAM5 and PAM10 treatments produced > 2 mg L(-1) drain water polyacrylamide concentrations. We concluded that, although PAM practically eliminates Imperial Valley tailwater sediment loads, it does not effectively reduce tailwater Ps, the P fraction most responsible for the eutrophication of the Salton Sea. PMID:16738392

  12. Native Americans' Interest in Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Mary Hockenberry

    1999-01-01

    Focus groups arranged by local Native American Master Gardeners on two Minnesota reservations determined community interest in extension-horticulture programs. Topics of interest included food preservation and historical Native-American uses of plants. (SK)

  13. Preparation of macroporous poly(acrylamide) hydrogels by radiation induced polymerization technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çaykara, Tuncer; Bulut, Melek; Demirci, Serkan

    2007-12-01

    Macroporous poly(acrylamide) [poly(AAm)] hydrogels were prepared by using poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) with three different molecular weight as the pore-forming agent during the radiation induced polymerization reaction. Scanning electron microscope graphs reveal that the macroporous network structure of the hydrogels can be adjusted by applying different molecular weights of PEG during the polymerization reaction. The swelling ratios of the PEG-modified hydrogels were much higher than those for the same type of hydrogel prepared via traditional method. However, the pulsatile swelling behavior of the PEG-modified hydrogels in water and in acetone was affected slightly by the change in the amount of the PEG.

  14. A novel polymeric flocculant based on polyacrylamide grafted inulin: aqueous microwave assisted synthesis.

    PubMed

    Rahul, Rahul; Jha, Usha; Sen, Gautam; Mishra, Sumit

    2014-01-01

    Polyacrylamide grafted inulin (In-g-PAM) was synthesized via aqueous microwave assisted method (using ceric ammonium nitrate in synergism with microwave in aqueous medium). The intended grafting of the PAM chains on polysaccharide backbone was confirmed through standard physicochemical characterization techniques, namely intrinsic viscosity measurement, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, elemental analysis (C, H, N and O), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies. Flocculation efficacy of various grades of synthesized grafted product was studied in coal fines suspension, in relation to inulin (parent polysaccharide). This was done utilizing jar test and settling test procedure, towards possible application as a flocculant for coal washery effluents. PMID:24274474

  15. Development of Polymer Gel Systems to Improve Volumetric Sweep and Reduce Producing Water/Oil Ratios

    SciTech Connect

    G. Paul Willhite; Stan McCool; Don W. Green; Min Cheng; Feiyan Chen

    2005-12-31

    Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of a 42-month research program that focused on the understanding of gelation chemistry and the fundamental mechanisms that alter the flows of oil and water in reservoir rocks after a gel treatment. Work was conducted on a widely applied system in the field, the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide-chromium acetate gel. Gelation occurs by network formation through the crosslinking of polyacrylamide molecules as a result of reaction with chromium acetate. Pre-gel aggregates form and grow as reactions between chromium acetate and polyacrylamide proceed. A rate equation that describes the reaction between chromium acetate and polymer molecules was regressed from experimental data. A mathematical model that describes the crosslinking reaction between two polymer molecules as a function of time was derived. The model was based on probability concepts and provides molecular-weight averages and molecular-weight distributions of the pre-gel aggregates as a function of time and initial system conditions. Average molecular weights of pre-gel aggregates were measured as a function of time and were comparable to model simulations. Experimental methods to determine molecular weight distributions of pre-gel aggregates were unsuccessful. Dissolution of carbonate minerals during the injection of gelants causes the pH of the gelant to increase. Chromium precipitates from solution at the higher pH values robbing the gelant of crosslinker. Experimental data on the transport of chromium acetate solutions through dolomite cores were obtained. A mathematical model that describes the transport of brine and chromium acetate solutions through rocks containing carbonate minerals was used to simulate the experimental results and data from literature. Gel treatments usually reduce the permeability to water to a greater extent than the permeability to oil is reduced. This phenomenon is referred to as disproportionate permeability reduction (DPR). Flow experiments were conducted in sandpacks to determine the effect of polymer and chromium concentrations on DPR. All gels studied reduced the permeability to water by a greater factor than the factor by which the oil permeability was reduced. Greater DPR was observed as the concentrations of polymer and chromium were increased. A conceptual model of the mechanisms responsible for DPR is presented. Primary features of the model are (1) the development of flow channels through the gel by dehydration and displacement of the gel and by re-connection of pre-treatment, residual oil volume and (2) high flow resistance in the channels during water flow is caused by significant saturations of oil remaining in the channels. A similar study of DPR was conducted in Berea sandstone cores. Both oil and water permeabilities were reduced by much smaller factors in Berea sandstone cores than in similar treatments in sandpacks. Poor maturation of the gelant in the Berea rock was thought to be caused by fluid-rock interactions that interfered with the gelation process.

  16. Digital Natives or Digital Tribes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Ian Robert

    2013-01-01

    This research builds upon the discourse surrounding digital natives. A literature review into the digital native phenomena was undertaken and found that researchers are beginning to identify the digital native as not one cohesive group but of individuals influenced by other factors. Primary research by means of questionnaire survey of technologies…

  17. Effects of counter ions of clay platelets on the swelling behavior of nanocomposite gels.

    PubMed

    Ren, Huai-Yin; Zhu, Meifang; Haraguchi, Kazutoshi

    2012-06-01

    The effects of replacing the native Na(+) counter ions associated with the clay platelets by various other cations on the swelling behavior of nanocomposite (NC) gels consisting of an organic (polymer)/inorganic (clay) network were investigated. The negative surface charge of the clay platelet conferred an ionic nature on the NC gels making them a type of polyelectrolyte gel; consequently, the swelling behavior of the NC gels was strongly influenced by the valence of the co-existing counter ions. NC gels containing monovalent cations such as Na(+), K(+) and Li(+) exhibited large swellings and subsequent deswelling in water after attaining maximum degrees of swelling. In contrast, introduction of multivalent cations such as Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Al(3+) into NC gels depressed markedly both the swelling and subsequent deswelling. The decreased swelling and suppressed deswelling with multivalent ions were strongly influenced by the initial gel state and result from the formation of additional cross-links through ionic interactions between the clay platelets and the multivalent cations. Also, the similar swelling behaviors were observed for all NC gels with different clay concentration. Further, reversible absorption/desorption and selective absorption of multivalent cations were observed for the NC gels examined. PMID:22425253

  18. Native American Spirituality: Its Appropriation and Incorporation Amongst Native and non-Native Peoples 

    E-print Network

    Owen, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    This thesis focuses primarily on Lakota concerns about the appropriation of their spirituality. The religious authority of the Lakota has been recognised by Native Americans and non- Natives alike through the books of ...

  19. The structure of high-methoxyl sugar acid gels of citrus pectin as determined by AFM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Images of native high methoxyl sugar acid gels (HMSAG) were obtained by atomic force microscopy (AFM) in the Tapping ModeTM. Electronic thinning of the pectin strands to one pixel wide allowed the pectin network to be viewed in the absence of variable strand widths related to preferentially solvate...

  20. Probing mechanical properties of fully hydrated gels and biological tissues.

    PubMed

    Constantinides, Georgios; Kalcioglu, Z Ilke; McFarland, Meredith; Smith, James F; Van Vliet, Krystyn J

    2008-11-14

    A longstanding challenge in accurate mechanical characterization of engineered and biological tissues is maintenance of both stable sample hydration and high instrument signal resolution. Here, we describe the modification of an instrumented indenter to accommodate nanomechanical characterization of biological and synthetic tissues in liquid media, and demonstrate accurate acquisition of force-displacement data that can be used to extract viscoelastoplastic properties of hydrated gels and tissues. We demonstrate the validity of this approach via elastoplastic analysis of relatively stiff, water-insensitive materials of elastic moduli E>1000 kPa (borosilicate glass and polypropylene), and then consider the viscoelastic response and representative mechanical properties of compliant, synthetic polymer hydrogels (polyacrylamide-based hydrogels of varying mol%-bis crosslinker) and biological tissues (porcine skin and liver) of E<500 kPa. Indentation responses obtained via loading/unloading hystereses and contact creep loading were highly repeatable, and the inferred E were in good agreement with available macroscopic data for all samples. As expected, increased chemical crosslinking of polyacrylamide increased stiffness (E40 kPa) and decreased creep compliance. E of porcine liver (760 kPa) and skin (222 kPa) were also within the range of macroscopic measurements reported for a limited subset of species and disease states. These data show that instrumented indentation of fully immersed samples can be reliably applied for materials spanning several orders of magnitude in stiffness (E=kPa-GPa). These capabilities are particularly important to materials design and characterization of macromolecules, cells, explanted tissues, and synthetic extracellular matrices as a function of spatial position, degree of hydration, or hydrolytic/enzymatic/corrosion reaction times. PMID:18922534

  1. Silk sericin/polyacrylamide in situ forming hydrogels for dermal reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Banani; Kundu, Subhas C

    2012-10-01

    In situ forming tissue sealants are advantageous due to ease in application, complete coverage of defect site and assured comfort levels to patients. The interconnected three-dimensional hydrophilic networks perfectly manage typical dermal wounds by suitably scaffolding skin fibroblast, diffusing the nutrients, therapeutics and exudates while still maintaining an adequately moist environment. We evaluate the cell homing ability of semi-interpenetrating non-mulberry tropical tasar silk sericin/polyacrylamide hydrophilic network with a keen understanding of its network characteristics and correlation of protein concentration with the performance as cell scaffold. Interconnectivity of porous networks observed through scanning electron micrograph revealed pore sizes ranging from 23 to 52 ?m. The enhanced ?-sheet content with the increasing sericin concentration in far red spectroscopy study supported their corresponding improved compressive strength. These semi-interpenetrating networks were found to possess a maximum fluid uptake of 112% of its weight, hence preventing the accumulation of exudates at the wound area. The present systems appear to possess characteristics like rapid gelation (~5min) at 37 °C, 98% porosity enabling the migration of fibroblasts during healing (observed through confocal and scanning electron micrographs), cell adhesion together with the absence of any cyto-toxic effect suggesting its potential as in situ tissue sealants. The compressive strength up to 61 kPa ensured ease in handling even when wet. The results prove the suitability to use non-mulberry tasar cocoon silk sericin/polyacrylamide semi-interpenetrating network as a reconstructive dermal sealant. PMID:22819495

  2. Tunable stress relaxation behavior of an alginate-polyacrylamide hydrogel: comparison with muscle tissue.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Martha M; Bootsma, Katherine; Berberich, Jason A; Sparks, Jessica L

    2015-05-11

    Factors controlling the time-dependent mechanical properties of interpenetrating network (IPN) hydrogel materials are not well understood. In this study, alginate-polyacrylamide IPN were synthesized to mimic the stress relaxation behavior and elastic modulus of porcine muscle tissue. Hydrogel samples were created with single-parameter chemical concentration variations from a baseline formula to establish trends. The concentration of total monomer material had the largest effect on the elastic modulus, while concentration of the acrylamide cross-linker, N,N-methylenebis(acrylamide) (MBAA), changed the stress relaxation behavior most effectively. The IPN material was then tuned to mimic the mechanical response of muscle tissue using these trends. Swelling the hydrogel samples to equilibrium resulted in a dramatic decrease in both elastic modulus and stress relaxation behavior. Collectively, the results demonstrate that alginate-polyacrylamide IPN hydrogels can be tuned to closely mimic both the elastic and the viscoelastic behaviors of muscle tissue, although swelling detrimentally affects these desired properties. PMID:25812913

  3. Iontophoresis of Salicylic Acid From Salicylic Acid Doped Poly(p-phynylene vinylene)/ Polyacrylamide Hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niamlang, Sumonman

    2009-03-01

    The apparent diffusion coefficients, Dapp, and the release mechanisms of salicylic acid from salicylic acid-loaded polyacrylamide hydrogels, SA-loaded PAAM, and salicylic acid-doped poly(phenylene vinylene)/polyacrylamide hydrogels, SA-doped PPV/PAAM, were investigated. In the absence of an electric field, the diffusion of SA from the SA-doped PPV/PAAM hydrogel is delayed in the first 3 hr due to the ionic interaction between the anionic drug and PPV. Beyond this period, SA can diffuse continuously into the buffer solution through the PAAM matrix. Dapp of SA-doped PPV/PAAM is higher than that of the SA-loaded PAAM, and the former increases with increasing electric field strength due to the combined mechanisms: the expansion of PPV chains inside the hydrogel; iontophoresis; and the electroporation of the matrix pore. Thus, the presence of the conductive polymer and the applied electric field can be combined to control the drug release rate at an optimal desired level.

  4. Investigation on efficient adsorption of cationic dyes on porous magnetic polyacrylamide microspheres.

    PubMed

    Yao, Tong; Guo, Song; Zeng, Changfeng; Wang, Chongqing; Zhang, Lixiong

    2015-07-15

    We report here the preparation of porous magnetic polyacrylamide microspheres for efficient removal of cationic dyes by a simple polymerization-induced phase separation method. Characterizations by various techniques indicate that the microspheres show porous structures and magnetic properties. They can adsorb methylene blue with high efficiency, with adsorption capacity increasing from 263 to 1977 mg/g as the initial concentration increases from 5 to 300 mg/L. Complete removal of methylene blue can be obtained even at very low concentrations. The equilibrium data is well described by the Langmuir isotherm models, exhibiting a maximum adsorption capacity of 1990 mg/g. The adsorption capacity increases with increasing initial pH and reaches a maximum at pH 8, revealing an electrostatic interaction between the microspheres and the methylene blue molecules. The microspheres also show high adsorption capacities for neutral red and gentian violet of 1937 and 1850 mg/g, respectively, as well as high efficiency in adsorption of mixed-dye solutions. The dye-adsorbed magnetic polyacrylamide microspheres can be easily desorbed, and can be repeatedly used for at least 6 cycles without losing the adsorption capacity. The adsorption capacity and efficiency of the microspheres are much higher than those of reported adsorbents, which exhibits potential practical application in removing cationic dyes. PMID:25797927

  5. Native Americans Today: An Outer View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Thomas D.

    1993-01-01

    Considers two primary aspects of the Native American situation in contemporary society: the rediscovery of the Native American and how the Native American is viewed by non-Native Americans. Notes positive attitude change among non-Native Americans concerning Native Americans, but stresses that political and social change also are needed. (NB)

  6. Transfer of SDS-proteins from gel electrophoretic zones into mass spectrometry, using electroelution of the band into buffer without sectioning of the gel.

    PubMed

    Yefimov, S; Yergey, A L; Chrambac, A

    2000-01-01

    Five SDS-proteins, ranging in molecular weight from 14 to 66 kDa, were detected without covalent fluorescent labeling by the automated gel electrophoresis apparatus with intermittent fluorescence scanning (HPGE apparatus, LabIntelligence) during electrophoresis in barbiturate buffer in the presence of Cascade Blue. The SDS-proteins were electroeluted from the gel into 220 microl of buffer by a modification of the procedure of Gombocz and Cortez. The electroeluate was freed of SDS, ultrafiltered and subjected to MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The masses of the five native proteins were found to be maintained after electrophoresis and electroelution in the presence of the potential contaminants SDS, barbituric acid and Cascade Blue. The procedure of protein transfer from SDS-PAGE into mass spectrometry, without excision of bands, gel maceration and protein recovery by diffusion, therefore is shown to be suitable for the identification by mass of intact proteins derived from gel electrophoretic bands. PMID:10647815

  7. Characterization of nanocellulose reinforced semi-interpenetrating polymer network of poly(vinyl alcohol) & polyacrylamide composite films.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Arup; Chakrabarty, Debabrata

    2015-12-10

    Semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) of poly(vinyl alcohol)/polyacrylamide was reinforced with various doses of nanocellulose. The different composite films thus prepared were characterized with respect to their mechanical, thermal, morphological and barrier properties. The composite film containing 5 wt.% of nanocellulose showed the highest tensile strength. The semi-interpenetrating polymer network of poly(vinyl alcohol)/polyacrylamide; and its various composites with nanocellulose were almost identical in their thermal stability. Each of the composites however exhibited much superior stability with respect to the linear poly(vinyl alcohol) and crosslinked polyacrylamide. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies exhibited phase separated morphology where agglomerates of nanocellulose were found to be dispersed in the matrix of the semi-IPN. The moisture vapor transmission rate (MVTR) was the lowest for the film containing 5 wt.% of nanocellulose. PMID:26428121

  8. The reverse in-gel kinase assay to profile physiological kinase substrates.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Guan, Bin; Srivastava, Minu K; Padmanabhan, Achuth; Hampton, Brian S; Bieberich, Charles J

    2007-11-01

    Elucidating kinase-substrate relationships is critical for understanding how phosphorylation affects signal transduction and regulatory cascades. Using the alpha catalytic subunit of protein kinase CK2 (CK2alpha) as a paradigm, we developed an in-gel method to facilitate identification of physiologic kinase substrates. In this approach, the roles of kinase and substrate in a classic in-gel kinase assay are reversed. In the reverse in-gel kinase assay (RIKA), a kinase is copolymerized in a denaturing polyacrylamide gel used to resolve a tissue or cell protein extract. Restoration of kinase activity and substrate structure followed by an in situ kinase reaction and mass spectrometric analyses results in identification of potential kinase substrates. We demonstrate that this method can be used to profile both known and novel human and mouse substrates of CK2alpha and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Using widely available straightforward technology, the RIKA has the potential to facilitate discovery of physiologic kinase substrates in any biological system. PMID:17952089

  9. Gel polymer electrolytes for batteries

    DOEpatents

    Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gur, Ilan; Singh, Mohit; Hudson, William

    2014-11-18

    Nanostructured gel polymer electrolytes that have both high ionic conductivity and high mechanical strength are disclosed. The electrolytes have at least two domains--one domain contains an ionically-conductive gel polymer and the other domain contains a rigid polymer that provides structure for the electrolyte. The domains are formed by block copolymers. The first block provides a polymer matrix that may or may not be conductive on by itself, but that can soak up a liquid electrolyte, thereby making a gel. An exemplary nanostructured gel polymer electrolyte has an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-4 S cm.sup.-1 at 25.degree. C.

  10. Non-Brownian particle gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Chia-Nan; Sheng, Yu-Jane; Tsao, Heng-Kwong

    2009-12-01

    Particle gels are usually formed by density matching or Brownian motion against gravity. However, the suspended state of non-Brownian particles is essential in applications, such as Si-wafer wire sawing. By the addition of alkyl amine, micron-sized SiC suspensions are shown to form particle gel in ethylene glycol. The ratio of storage to loss modulus is about 3, indicating a weak gel. The structure by particle-particle attraction is demonstrated through existing yield stress. With increasing surfactant concentration, the gel forms easier, the sediment layer swells more significantly, and the yield stress is greater accordingly. A gelling mechanism has been proposed and examined.

  11. Colloidal thermoresponsive gel forming hybrids.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruixue; Tirelli, Nicola; Cellesi, Francesco; Saunders, Brian R

    2010-09-15

    Colloidal hybrids comprise organic and inorganic components and are attracting considerable attention in the literature. Recently, we reported hybrid anisotropic microsheets that formed thermoresponsive gels in polymer solutions [Liu et al., Langmuir, 25, 490, 2009]. Here, we investigate the composition and properties of these hybrid colloids themselves in detail for the first time. Three different cationic PNIPAm (N-isopropylacrylamide) graft copolymers and two inorganic nanoparticle types (laponite and Ludox silica) were used to prepare a range of hybrids. Anisotropic microsheets only formed when laponite particles were added to the copolymer implying directed self-assembly. Aqueous dispersions of the microsheets spontaneously formed gels at room temperature and these gels were thermoresponsive. They represent a new class of gel forming colloid and are termed thermoresponsive gel forming hybrids. The compositions of the hybrids were determined from thermogravimetric analysis and those that gave gel forming behaviour identified. Variable-temperature rheology experiments showed that the elasticity of the gels increased linearly with temperature. The reversibility of the thermally-triggered changes in gel elasticity was investigated. The concentration dependence of the rheology data was well described by elastic percolation scaling theory and the data could be collapsed onto a master curve. The concentration exponent for the elastic modulus was 2.5. The strong attractive interactions that exist between the dispersed gel forming hybrids was demonstrated by the formation of stable thermoresponsive hybrid hydrogels through casting of hybrid dispersions. PMID:20561633

  12. The concentration dependence of the solution viscosity and the relaxation time of the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamides

    SciTech Connect

    Kanatharana, J.; Sukpisan, J.; Wang, S.Q.

    1995-12-01

    The dependences on the polyion concentration through the scaling relations in {eta} {alpha} c{sup {alpha}} and {Tau}{sub q} {alpha} c{sup {beta}}, where {eta} and {Tau}{sub q} are the solution viscosity and the relaxation time obtained from the dynamic light scattering respectively, are investigated for the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamides at different degrees of hydrolysis. The scaling exponents a and {beta}, as determined in the semidilute regime, depend critically on the amount of salt added or the ionic strength. Both exponents, however, are independent of the amount of glycerol added which suggests that the excluded volume effect is relatively small in comparison with the effect of electrostatic repulsion. The salt-concentration dependence of the solution is also investigated: the corresponding scaling exponents for the 70% HPAM are insensitive to the solvent quality. The present experiment results are compared with recent scaling theories.

  13. Direct capture of lactoferrin from cheese whey on supermacroporous column of polyacrylamide cryogel with copper ions.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, B M A; Carvalho, L M; Silva, W F; Minim, L A; Soares, A M; Carvalho, G G P; da Silva, S L

    2014-07-01

    Lactoferrin is a protein that is present in cheese whey (a waste product from the dairy industry) and has several biological activities. However, its production from whey must have a high yield and low cost for industrial applications. As such, this study reports the use of polyacrylamide cryogel, loaded with Cu(2+) (through the bond with iminodiacetic acid (IDA)), as an adsorbent for the chromatographic process to capture lactoferrin whey. Ultrafiltered cheese whey was passed through the cryogel-IDA-Cu(2+) system. The eluates were subjected to analysis of total protein, SDS-PAGE and size exclusion chromatography. The results showed an axial dispersion coefficients, at different superficial velocities of liquid, in a range of 10(-6)-10(-5)m(2)/s. The cryogel demonstrated good hydraulic permeability (4.7086×10(-13)m(2)) and a porosity of approximately 78.2%. The IDA-Cu(2+) cryogel system was also able to capture lactoferrin in high purity. PMID:24518347

  14. Mercapto functionalized silica entrapped polyacrylamide hydrogel: Arsenic adsorption behaviour from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajesh; Jain, S K; Verma, S; Malodia, P

    2015-10-15

    In this article, 3-mercaptopropyl functionalized silica entrapped polyacrylamide hydrogel (MPFS-PAA) was prepared and characterized by FT-IR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Synthesized hydrogel was evaluated for removal of arsenic(III) from aqueous solution. Adsorption studies were carried out by batch method as function of contact time, initial concentration of arsenic and pH. As(III) adsorption data fitted well with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Adsorption capacity of arsenic 92.5 ?g/g was obtained at initial concentration of 100 ?g/L by Langmuir isotherm. Adsorption kinetics was tested for pseudo-second order reaction at different contact time. The rate constants of pseudo second order reaction were calculated and good correlation coefficient R(2) 99.67 obtained. The results indicates that MPFS-PAA is an effective adsorbent for removal of As(III) from aqueous solution. PMID:26151463

  15. Rheological behavior of aqueous polyacrylamide solutions determined by dissipative particle dynamics and comparison to experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yiannourakou, M.; Rousseau, B.; Pannacci, N.; Herzhaft, B.

    2012-02-01

    Based on molecular-dynamics simulations and experimental data, a new coarse-grained forcefield is proposed for the polyacrylamide (PAM)-water system that allows to study dynamical properties of chains at several concentrations with molecular weight up to 17000 g/mol. Non-equilibrium simulations were used to compute relative viscosities, enabling a direct comparison with experimental values. High-shear-rate measurements for low-molecular-weight PAM (10000 g/mol) were done using a microfluidic rheometer Rheosense to decrease the gap between experimental and simulated shear rates. DPD simulations reproduced qualitatively and quantitatively structural properties as well as rheological properties in the dilute regime and qualitatively in the semi-dilute regime.

  16. Homogeneity of gels and gel-derived glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukherjee, S. P.

    1984-01-01

    The significance and implications of gel preparation procedures in controlling the homogeneity of multicomponent oxide gels are discussed. The role of physicochemical factors such as the structure and chemical reactivities of alkoxides, the formation of double-metal alkoxides, and the nature of solvent(s) are critically analyzed in the context of homogeneity of gels during gelation. Three procedures for preparing gels in the SiO2-B2O3-Na2O system are examined in the context of cation distribution. Light scattering results for glasses in the SiO2-B2O3-Na2O system prepared by both the gel technique and the conventional technique are examined.

  17. Automatic DNA Diagnosis for 1D Gel Electrophoresis Images using Bio-image Processing Technique

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background DNA gel electrophoresis is a molecular biology technique for separating different sizes of DNA fragments. Applications of DNA gel electrophoresis include DNA fingerprinting (genetic diagnosis), size estimation of DNA, and DNA separation for Southern blotting. Accurate interpretation of DNA banding patterns from electrophoretic images can be laborious and error prone when a large number of bands are interrogated manually. Although many bio-imaging techniques have been proposed, none of them can fully automate the typing of DNA owing to the complexities of migration patterns typically obtained. Results We developed an image-processing tool that automatically calls genotypes from DNA gel electrophoresis images. The image processing workflow comprises three main steps: 1) lane segmentation, 2) extraction of DNA bands and 3) band genotyping classification. The tool was originally intended to facilitate large-scale genotyping analysis of sugarcane cultivars. We tested the proposed tool on 10 gel images (433 cultivars) obtained from polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) of PCR amplicons for detecting intron length polymorphisms (ILP) on one locus of the sugarcanes. These gel images demonstrated many challenges in automated lane/band segmentation in image processing including lane distortion, band deformity, high degree of noise in the background, and bands that are very close together (doublets). Using the proposed bio-imaging workflow, lanes and DNA bands contained within are properly segmented, even for adjacent bands with aberrant migration that cannot be separated by conventional techniques. The software, called GELect, automatically performs genotype calling on each lane by comparing with an all-banding reference, which was created by clustering the existing bands into the non-redundant set of reference bands. The automated genotype calling results were verified by independent manual typing by molecular biologists. Conclusions This work presents an automated genotyping tool from DNA gel electrophoresis images, called GELect, which was written in Java and made available through the imageJ framework. With a novel automated image processing workflow, the tool can accurately segment lanes from a gel matrix, intelligently extract distorted and even doublet bands that are difficult to identify by existing image processing tools. Consequently, genotyping from DNA gel electrophoresis can be performed automatically allowing users to efficiently conduct large scale DNA fingerprinting via DNA gel electrophoresis. The software is freely available from http://www.biotec.or.th/gi/tools/gelect. PMID:26681167

  18. Semiconducting polypyrrole-polyacrylamide microparticles with entrapped Glucose Oxidase for application in biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Cabarcos, Enrique; Rubio-Retama, Jorge; Mecerreyes, David; Fernandez-Barbero, Antonio; Lopez-Ruiz, Beatriz

    2004-03-01

    We have immobilized water dispersed polypyrrole (PPy) and Glucose Oxidase (GOx) into polyacrylamide microparticles with the aim to use them as biological component in a glucose sensor. To produce the microparticles, PPy together with GOx and acrylamide were incorporated in the aqueous phase of a W/O concentrated emulsion which was polymerised. The content of PPy in the emulsion was varied and micropaticles with 10/90, 15/85, 25/75, 30/70, 40/60 and 50/50 polypyrrole/acrylamide (w/w in the aqueous phase) were obtained. The physical properties of the system were investigated and it was found that the electrical conductivity increases with the amount of PPy entrapped in the microparticles from 10-12 S/cm, for polyacrylamide microparticles, up to 10-5 S/cm for the 50/50 PPy/PA particles. The microparticles with immobilized GOx were used as biological component of an amperometric glucose sensor. To prepare the electrode, the 50/50 PPy/PA microparticles with GOx were selected because they show the best conductivity properties.The resulting electrode was subsequently placed in a three-electrode cell and acted as the working electrode. When working in aerobic conditions, an increase in current was observed upon addition of glucose. The average response time for glucose of this biosensor was 150nA/mM with a response time of 20 s. To work in anaerobic conditions, oxygen was removed from the cell by purging with nitrogen during 20 min. The response of the biosensor is similar in aerobic and anaerobic conditions indicating that polypyrrole acts as electron transfer material between the enzyme and the electrode.

  19. Alcohol abuse among Native Americans.

    PubMed

    Lamarine, R J

    1988-01-01

    Native Americans have experienced substantial problems with alcohol since its introduction to their culture by early European settlers. Epidemiological data indicate that elevated morbidity and mortality attributable to alcohol abuse among this population remain at epidemic levels. Adolescent drinking patterns and family and peer influences on alcohol use are examined. A multifactorial etiology is indicated in the origin of Native American alcohol abuse. Some scholars have ascribed this problem to historical factors such as the introduction of alcohol to Native Americans by aberrant role models, while other researchers subscribe to various physiological theories which support the "firewater myth" suggesting that Native Americans may be genetically predisposed to crave ever increasing doses of alcohol during a rapid loss of control of their senses. The physiological theories generally suggest significant differences in alcohol absorption and metabolism rates between Native Americans and caucasians. A wide variety of social factors appear to be implicated in Native American drinking problems. Cultural and social orientations, socioeconomic conditions, "stake theory," failure to develop social sanctions regulating drunken deportment, passive-aggressive syndromes, and emotional repression contribute to Native American alcohol abuse. Treatment regimes for Native American alcoholics are examined briefly. Nativistic movements, conversion to evangelistic regions, therapies grounded in the medical model, and Native American group-oriented efforts have demonstrated varying degrees of success. Clearly, prevention would be preferable to the frustration of attempting to change the highly addictive behavior patterns characteristic of alcoholism. Suggestions for health education interventions are presented including an example of one effort currently being implemented. PMID:3068262

  20. Traditional West Coast Native Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Deagle, George

    1988-01-01

    An important part of the complex culture of the Native people of Canada's Pacific coast is the traditional system of medicine each culture has developed. Population loss from epidemics and the influence of dominant European cultures has resulted in loss of many aspects of traditional medicine. Although some Native practices are potentially hazardous, continuation of traditional approaches to illness remains an important part of health care for many Native people. The use of “devil's club” plant by the Haida people illustrates that Native medicine has both spiritual and physical properties. Modern family practice shares many important foundations with traditional healing systems. PMID:21253031

  1. Long-term polyacrylamide formulation effects on soil erosion, water infiltration, and yields of furrow-irrigated crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water soluble anionic polyacrylamide (WSPAM) is an important tool employed by producers to reduce erosion associated with furrow irrigation. Two formulations of WSPAM are used in agriculture, although few if any reports comparing their effectiveness are published. A long-term field study was condu...

  2. Use of Autologous Platelet Gel in Bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Chad; Vang, See; Christensen, Kevin; Isler, Jack; Vollstedt, Keith; Holt, David

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: Gastric bypass surgery is a common corrective procedure for obesity that is associated with many risks. Recent studies describing the use of autologous platelet gel (APG) have shown promise in preventing certain operative complications and improved healing processes. These improvements have been credited to the concentrated platelets and growth factors present in APG, as well as the native concentrations of fibrinogen. There are numerous applications for the use of APG in surgery, and the list continues to expand. However, little research exists to support the efficacy of APG in bariatric surgery. This case series describes using APG with patients undergoing laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. PMID:16921691

  3. Crystallization of steroids in gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkura, S. Narayana; Devanarayanan, S.

    1991-03-01

    The crystal growth and characterization of certain steriods, viz., cholesterol, cholesteryl acetate, ?-sitosterol, progesterone and testosterone, in a silica gel medium is discussed. The present study shows that the single test tube diffusion method can be used to grow crystals of steroids in a silica gel medium by the reduction of steroid solubility.

  4. Nanocrystal/sol-gel nanocomposites

    DOEpatents

    Petruska, Melissa A. (Los Alamos, NM); Klimov, Victor L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2012-06-12

    The present invention is directed to solid composites including colloidal nanocrystals within a sol-gel host or matrix and to processes of forming such solid composites. The present invention is further directed to alcohol soluble colloidal nanocrystals useful in formation of sol-gel based solid composites

  5. Nanocrystal/sol-gel nanocomposites

    DOEpatents

    Petruska, Melissa A. (Los Alamos, NM); Klimov, Victor L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2007-06-05

    The present invention is directed to solid composites including colloidal nanocrystals within a sol-gel host or matrix and to processes of forming such solid composites. The present invention is further directed to alcohol soluble colloidal nanocrystals useful in formation of sol-gel based solid composites.

  6. Polyethylene glycol derivatives of base and sequence specific DNA ligands: DNA interaction and application for base specific separation of DNA fragments by gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Müller, W; Hattesohl, I; Schuetz, H J; Meyer, G

    1981-01-01

    Various base pair specific DNA ligands comprising a phenyl phenazinium dye, a triphenylmethan dye and Hoechst 33258 were covalently bound to polyethylene glycol (PEG) via ester or ether bonds. The DNA interactions of the PEG derivatives formed were shown to exhibit the same base pair specificity as the parent compounds. Since the PEG chains thus bound to the DNA could be expected to increase drastically the frictional coefficient of the DNA, the PEG derivatives were used for base specific DNA separations in agarose and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The procedures, which do not require any special techniques, are described in detail. The resolution observed in agarose gels allows one to separate equally sized DNA fragments differing as little as 1% in base composition at mean travel distances of about 10 cm. Examples of gels showing the base compositional heterogeneity of restriction fragments obtained from lambda DNA, E. coli DNA and calf thymus DNA are given. Images PMID:6259622

  7. Methylthymol blue in Fricke gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penev, K. I.; Mequanint, K.

    2015-01-01

    The initial trial of methylthymol blue (MTB) as a chelator for ferric iron in Fricke gel dosimeters, used for three-dimensional (3D) dosimetry in cancer radiotherapy, is reported. MTB is a structural analogue of the conventionally used xylenol orange (XO); however, the absorbance spectrum of the ferric-MTB complex is shifted to higher wavelengths, which should allow for lower amount of light scattering during gel scanning. In this study, two gelatin substrates, two sources of XO and one source of MTB have been compared. The MTB- containing gels exhibited similar dose response and diffusion coefficient to the XO-containing gels at their wavelengths of maximum absorption (620 and 585 nm, respectively). In addition, the MTB gels gave an excellent dose response at 633 nm, which is an important wavelength that is already used with other 3D dosimeters.

  8. Loss of heterozygosity at the ACTBP2 locus in lung cancer detected on Elchrom precast Spreadex gels.

    PubMed

    Kozulic, M; Chen, X Q; Bonilla, F; Silva, J

    2000-04-01

    One of the most important goals in the continuous struggle against cancer is early detection of the disease by a simple method that can be used in routine laboratory practice. According to several recent reports, early detection may be achieved by monitoring alterations at several microsatellite loci containing tri- and tetranucleotide repeats. The method relies on comparison of the intensity of allele bands in cancer tissue, plasma, and lymphocytes of a patient. Microsatellite instability is typically detected by labeling the DNA with a radioactive probe or a fluorescent dye followed by electrophoresis on 20-40-cm-long denaturing polyacrylamide gels. In this study, we show that loss of heterozygosity at the ACTBP2 locus in lung cancer patients can be detected using the Elchrom electrophoresis system and just 4-cm-long precast Spreadex gels. PMID:10818601

  9. A new injectable biphasic hydrogel based on partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide and nano hydroxyapatite, crosslinked with chromium acetate, as scaffold for cartilage regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koushki, N.; Tavassoli, H.; Katbab, A. A.; Katbab, P.; Bonakdar, S.

    2015-05-01

    Polymer scaffolds are applied in the field of tissue engineering as three dimensional structures to organize cells and present stimuli to direct generation of a desired damaged tissue. In situ gelling scaffolds have attracted great attentions, as they are structurally similar to the extra cellular matrix (ECM). In the present work, attempts have been made to design and fabricate a new injectable and crosslinkable biphasic hydrogel based on partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM), chromium acetate as crosslink agent and nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (nHAp) as reinforcing and bioactive agent for repair and regeneration of damaged cartilage. The distinct characteristic of HPAM is the presence of carboxylate anion groups on its backbone which allows to engineer the structure of the hydrogel for the desired bioactivity with appropriate cells differentiation towards both soft and hard (bone) tissues. The synthesized hydrogel exhibited bifunctional behavior which was derived by its biphasic structure in which one phase was loaded with nano hydroxyapatite to provide integration capability by subchondral bones and fix the hydrogel at cartilage defect without a need for suturing. The other phase differentiates the rabbit adipogenic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) towards soft tissue. Rheomechanical spectrometry (RMS) was employed to study the kinetic of the gelation including induction time and rate, as well as to measure the ultimate elastic modulus of the optimum crosslinked hydrogel. Surface tension measurement was also performed to tailor the surface characteristics of the gels. In vitro culturing of the cells inside the crosslinked hydrogel revealed high viability and high differentiation of the encapsulated rabbit stem cells, providing that the chromium acetate level was kept below 0.2 wt%. Based on the obtained results, the designed and fabricated biphasic hydrogel exhibited high potential as carrier for the stem cells for cartilage tissue engineering application with excellent injectability.

  10. Native Americans: traditional healing.

    PubMed

    Broome, Barbara; Broome, Rochelle

    2007-04-01

    There are an estimated 4.1 million people who are classified as American Indian and Alaska Native alone or in combination with one or more other races. This racial group composes 1.5% of the total U.S. population. The leading causes of illness and death among American Indians are heart disease, cancer, unintentional injuries (accidents), diabetes, and stroke. American Indians also have a high prevalence of obesity, chronic renal failure, alcoholism, and are at increased risk for mental health issues and suicide. In an effort to build a trusted relationship with these patients and become an active participant in their care, the health care provider must demonstrate respect for the traditions of the American Indian. PMID:17494460

  11. Marriage and Commitment. Native Viewpoints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhauer, Noella

    1994-01-01

    Describes a wedding ceremony combining Canadian Native and Roman Catholic traditions that could be a model for Indian education. Asserts that Canadian natives must continue to gain control and autonomy over their own schools. Discusses responsibilities and interrelationships between the school and parents, students, and teachers. (CFR)

  12. Ohiyesa's Path: Reclaiming Native Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Adrienne Brant; Renville, Tammy

    2012-01-01

    As Natives have assumed increasing authority and responsibility for tribal and federally funded and administered schools, a more balanced and enlightened view is emerging. Notable among these events is the recognition of the critical need to shift emphasis to the untapped heritage of more recently recognized and acknowledged Native American…

  13. Native Americans in Physical Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westberg, Jane

    2003-01-01

    Three Native American physical therapists share stories of their careers, including educational background; motivation to enter the field; and experiences as a volunteer in Vietnam and working with the Indian Health Service and various rehabilitation programs. Advice on appropriate preparation in the sciences is offered to Native students…

  14. Coyote's Eyes: Native Cognition Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tafoya, Terry

    The document compares and contrasts the Standard Average European (SAE) and the Standard Native American (SNA) viewpoints with regard to fostering cognitive development in children. One basic difference is demonstrated by relating a story and noting that, in terms of Native American cognitive development, no further teaching would be done. In…

  15. Coyote's Eyes: Native Cognition Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tafoya, Terry

    1982-01-01

    Using a Native American parable, compares the Standard Average European (SAE) world view with the Standard Native American (SNA) world view and the effects they have on education. Points out possible areas of interethnic confusion as a result of these two world views in communication dealing with cognitive schemes. (LC)

  16. Alaska Natives In Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohout, Karen; Kleinfeld, Judith

    This study examines changes in the entrance and success rates of Native students in Alaska colleges from 1963 to 1972, a time when special college recruitment and assistance programs were being developed. Information is based on the college records of those Natives who entered college for the first time at the University of Alaska at Fairbanks…

  17. Genetic conservation of native trees

    E-print Network

    Genetic conservation of native trees Scott McG. Wilson1 and C. J. A. Samuel Over recent years, the genetic conservation of British native tree populations has become an increasingly important part of the work of Tree Improvement Branch (TIB). This has been in response to a greater interest from forestry

  18. Native American Foods and Cookery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Tom; Potter, Eloise F.

    Native Americans had a well-developed agriculture long before the arrival of the Europeans. Three staples--corn, beans, and squash--were supplemented with other gathered plants or cultivated crops such as white potatoes, sweet potatoes, pumpkins, and peanuts. Native Americans had no cows, pigs, or domesticated chickens; they depended almost…

  19. 77 FR 72832 - Applications for New Awards; Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... Applications for New Awards; Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program AGENCY: Office of..., secondary, or postsecondary schools primarily for Native American children (including Alaska Native children... section are eligible to apply for a grant under the Native American and Alaska Native Children in...

  20. 34 CFR 300.29 - Native language.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Native language. 300.29 Section 300.29 Education ...Definitions Used in This Part § 300.29 Native language. (a) Native language , when used with respect to an individual...

  1. 34 CFR 303.25 - Native language.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Native language. 303.25 Section 303.25 Education ...Definitions Used in This Part § 303.25 Native language. (a) Native language, when used with respect to an individual...

  2. 34 CFR 303.25 - Native language.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Native language. 303.25 Section 303.25 Education ...Definitions Used in This Part § 303.25 Native language. (a) Native language, when used with respect to an individual...

  3. 34 CFR 300.29 - Native language.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Native language. 300.29 Section 300.29 Education ...Definitions Used in This Part § 300.29 Native language. (a) Native language , when used with respect to an individual...

  4. 34 CFR 300.29 - Native language.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Native language. 300.29 Section 300.29 Education ...Definitions Used in This Part § 300.29 Native language. (a) Native language , when used with respect to an individual...

  5. 34 CFR 300.29 - Native language.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Native language. 300.29 Section 300.29 Education ...Definitions Used in This Part § 300.29 Native language. (a) Native language , when used with respect to an individual...

  6. 34 CFR 303.25 - Native language.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Native language. 303.25 Section 303.25 Education ...Definitions Used in This Part § 303.25 Native language. (a) Native language, when used with respect to an individual...

  7. Mechanical Failure in Colloidal Gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodger, Thomas Edward

    When colloidal particles in a dispersion are made attractive, they aggregate into fractal clusters which grow to form a space-spanning network, or gel, even at low volume fractions. These gels are crucial to the rheological behavior of many personal care, food products and dispersion-based paints. The mechanical stability of these products relies on the stability of the colloidal gel network which acts as a scaffold to provide these products with desired mechanical properties and to prevent gravitational sedimentation of the dispersed components. Understanding the mechanical stability of such colloidal gels is thus of crucial importance to predict and control the properties of many soft solids. Once a colloidal gel forms, the heterogeneous structure bonded through weak physical interactions, is immediately subject to body forces, such as gravity, surface forces, such as adhesion to a container walls and shear forces; the interplay of these forces acting on the gel determines its stability. Even in the absence of external stresses, colloidal gels undergo internal rearrangements within the network that may cause the network structure to evolve gradually, in processes known as aging or coarsening or fail catastrophically, in a mechanical instability known as syneresis. Studying gel stability in the laboratory requires model colloidal system which may be tuned to eliminate these body or endogenous forces systematically. Using existing chemistry, I developed several systems to study delayed yielding by eliminating gravitational stresses through density matching and cyclic heating to induce attraction; and to study syneresis by eliminating adhesion to the container walls, altering the contact forces between colloids, and again, inducing gelation through heating. These results elucidate the varied yet concomitant mechanisms by which colloidal gels may locally or globally yield, but then reform due to the nature of the physical, or non-covalent, interactions which form them.

  8. Synthesis, properties, and biomedical applications of gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Yue, Kan; Trujillo-de Santiago, Grissel; Alvarez, Mario Moisés; Tamayol, Ali; Annabi, Nasim; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2015-12-01

    Gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) hydrogels have been widely used for various biomedical applications due to their suitable biological properties and tunable physical characteristics. GelMA hydrogels closely resemble some essential properties of native extracellular matrix (ECM) due to the presence of cell-attaching and matrix metalloproteinase responsive peptide motifs, which allow cells to proliferate and spread in GelMA-based scaffolds. GelMA is also versatile from a processing perspective. It crosslinks when exposed to light irradiation to form hydrogels with tunable mechanical properties. It can also be microfabricated using different methodologies including micromolding, photomasking, bioprinting, self-assembly, and microfluidic techniques to generate constructs with controlled architectures. Hybrid hydrogel systems can also be formed by mixing GelMA with nanoparticles such as carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide, and other polymers to form networks with desired combined properties and characteristics for specific biological applications. Recent research has demonstrated the proficiency of GelMA-based hydrogels in a wide range of tissue engineering applications including engineering of bone, cartilage, cardiac, and vascular tissues, among others. Other applications of GelMA hydrogels, besides tissue engineering, include fundamental cell research, cell signaling, drug and gene delivery, and bio-sensing. PMID:26414409

  9. Lignin Gels: SOL-GEL NANOPOROUS CARBONS & COMPOSITES

    E-print Network

    Cao, Guozhong

    synthesis of phenolic resins (a renewable source) followed by freeze drying and subsequent pyrolysis matter) + amine catalyst in an organic Processing: · gel + aging time: 7days at 80ºC · Freeze drying

  10. Adhesive, elastomeric gel impregnating composition

    DOEpatents

    Shaw, David Glenn (Tucson, AZ); Pollard, John Randolph (Tucson, AZ); Brooks, Robert Aubrey (Tijeras, NM)

    2002-01-01

    An improved capacitor roll with alternating film and foil layers is impregnated with an adhesive, elastomeric gel composition. The gel composition is a blend of a plasticizer, a polyol, a maleic anhydride that reacts with the polyol to form a polyester, and a catalyst for the reaction. The impregnant composition is introduced to the film and foil layers while still in a liquid form and then pressure is applied to aid with impregnation. The impregnant composition is cured to form the adhesive, elastomeric gel. Pressure is maintained during curing.

  11. 3D geometric gel dosimetry verification of intraprostatic fiducial guided hypofractionated radiotherapy of prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordström, Fredrik; Ceberg, Sofie; Wetterstedt, Sacha af; Nilsson, Per; Ceberg, Crister; Bäck, Sven ÅJ

    2010-11-01

    This pre-study is aimed to investigate the feasibility of a normoxic polyacrylamide gel (nPAG) dosimeter with implanted gold fiducials to evaluate the geometric precision, including setup correction strategies, in the delivery of hypofractionated treatments. For this purpose a phantom consisting of three parts was constructed: (1) the patient simulating volume, providing realistic scatter conditions and weight, (2) a bottle containing the active dosimetric volume and (3) the gold fiducials and the fiducial support structure. A 6.1 Gy prostate IMRT treatment was delivered to the phantom using the sliding-window technique. The phantom was positioned prior to the treatment using the implanted fiducials and kV on-board imaging. An overlay of the 95% isosurface of the TPS calculated dose distribution and the measured dose distribution using gel showed good agreement. The clinical target volume (CTV) was well centred inside the 95% isodose surface of the measured volume. It was shown for the evaluated case that the use of on-board imaging and integrated setup correction tools could be used to compensate for a deliberately introduced offset in CTV position. The study showed that MRI based nPAG gel dosimetry can be used to verify setup correction procedures using implanted gold fiducials.

  12. Diffusive transfer to membranes as an effective interface between gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogorzalek Loo, Rachel R.; Mitchell, Charles; Stevenson, Tracy I.; Loo, Joseph A.; Andrews, Philip C.

    1997-12-01

    Diffusive transfer was examined as a blotting method to transfer proteins from polyacrylamide gels to membranes for ultraviolet matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. The method is well-suited for transfers from isoelectric focusing (IEF) gels. Spectra have been obtained for 11 pmol of 66 kDa albumin loaded onto an IEF gel and subsequently blotted to polyethylene. Similarly, masses of intact carbonic anhydrase and hemoglobin were obtained from 14 and 20 pmol loadings. This methodology is also compatible with blotting high molecular weight proteins, as seen for 6 pmol of the 150 kDa monoclonal antibody anti-[beta]-galactosidase transferred to Goretex. Polypropylene, Teflon, Nafion and polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) also produced good spectra following diffusive transfer. Only analysis from PVDF required that the membrane be kept wet prior to application of matrix. Considerations in mass accuracy for analysis from large-area membranes with continuous extraction and delayed extraction were explored, as were remedies for surface charging. Vapor phase CNBr cleavage was applied to membrane-bound samples for peptide mapping.

  13. On the validity of 3D polymer gel dosimetry: I. Reproducibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandecasteele, Jan; De Deene, Yves

    2013-01-01

    The intra- and inter-batch accuracy and precision of MRI (polyacrylamide gelatin gel fabricated at atmospheric conditions) polymer gel dosimeters are assessed in full 3D. In the intra-batch study, eight spherical flasks were filled with the same polymer gel along with a set of test tubes that served as calibration phantoms. In the inter-batch study, the eight spherical flasks were filled with different batches of gel. For each spherical phantom, a separate set of calibration phantoms was used. The spherical phantoms were irradiated using a three-field coplanar beam configuration in a very reproducible manner. The calibration phantoms were irradiated to known doses to obtain a dose-R2 calibration plot which was applied on the corresponding R2 maps of all spherical phantoms on an individual basis. The intra-batch study showed high dosimetric precision (3.1%) notwithstanding poor accuracy (mean dose discrepancies up to 13.0%). In the inter-batch study, a similar dosimetric precision (4.3%) and accuracy (mean dose discrepancies up to 13.7%) were found. The poor dosimetric accuracy was attributed to a systematic fault that was related to the calibration method. Therefore, the dose maps were renormalized using an independent ion chamber dose measurement. It is illustrated that with this renormalization, excellent agreement between the gel measured and TPS calculated 3D dose maps is achievable: 97% and 99% of the pixels meet the 3%/3 mm criteria for the intra- and inter-batch experiments, respectively. However renormalization will result in significant dose deviations inside a realistically sized anthropomorphic phantom as will be shown in a concurrent paper. Both authors contributed equally to this study.

  14. A conjugated polymer plastic gel

    E-print Network

    Alcazar Jorba, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    We present a gel route to process highly oriented conjugated polymer films and fibers. The incorporation of hexafluoroisopropanol, a strong and stable dipolar group, to the polythiophene backbone enhances the solubility ...

  15. Alternative imaging modalities for polymer gel dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jirasek, Andrew

    2010-11-01

    This review summarizes recent work in the area of imaging polymer gel dosimeters using x-ray CT imaging, ultrasound, and radiation-induced changes in gel mechanical properties. In addition, recent work in the area of Raman tomographic imaging of canine bone, in conjunction with past efforts in Raman imaging of polymer gel dosimeters, raises new possibilities for new polymer gel imaging techniques.

  16. Bioelectricity-assisted partial degradation of linear polyacrylamide in a bioelectrochemical system.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yu-Zhi; Zhang, Jian; Sun, Min; Zhai, Lin-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The wide application of water-soluble linear polyacrylamides (PAMs) can cause serious environmental pollution. Biological treatment of PAMs receives very limited efficiency due to their recalcitrance to the microbial degradation. Here, we show the bioelectrochemical system (BES) can be used as an effective strategy to improve the biodegradation efficiency of PAMs. A linear PAM with viscosity-average molecular weight of 5?×?10(6) was treated in the anodic chamber of BES reactor, and the change of PAM structure during the degradation process was investigated. The anodic bacteria in the BES demonstrated abilities to utilize the PAM as the sole carbon and nitrogen source to generate electricity. Both the anode-attached and planktonic bacteria contributed to the electricity generation, while the anode-attached community exhibited stronger electron transfer ability than the planktonic one. The closed-circuit and open-circuit operations of the BES reactor obtained chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies of 32.5 and 7.4 %, respectively, implying the generation of bioelectricity could enhance the biodegradation of PAM. Structure analysis suggested the carbon chain of PAM was partially degraded in the BES, producing polymeric products with lower molecular weight. The microbial cleavage of the carbon chain was proposed to start from the "head-to-head" linkages and end with the formation of ether bonds. PMID:25193420

  17. Reproducible protein analysis by CE using linear polyacrylamide-coated capillaries and hydrochloric acid rinsing.

    PubMed

    Suratman, Adhitasari; Wätzig, Hermann

    2007-07-01

    Hydrochloric acid was investigated as a rinsing reagent to remove adsorbed proteins from linear polyacrylamide-coated capillaries for electrophoresis. Three model proteins were used, namely cytochrome c as a basic protein, beta-lactoglobulin as an acidic protein, and beta-casein as a more easily denaturing protein. In order to regenerate capillary surfaces, they have been rinsed for 5 min with 2 M hydrochloric acid, 5 min with water, and then 30 min with buffer after every tenth run. It was found important to perform this regeneration procedure on time. The obtained results show good repeatability of the apparent EOF mobility with percentage RSDs below 3% (n = 60) in various cases. These good results were mainly confirmed in long-term series with more than 200 runs each. Only very high concentrations (175 microM) of beta-lactoglobulin and beta-casein at pH 3.5 gave RSD% values above 5%. For these conditions, the further test of 85% m/m phosphoric acid as rinsing reagent showed a good repeatability of the apparent EOF mobilities as well. PMID:17539040

  18. Polyacrylamide application versus forest residue mulching for reducing post-fire runoff and soil erosion.

    PubMed

    Prats, Sergio Alegre; Martins, Martinho António Dos Santos; Malvar, Maruxa Cortizo; Ben-Hur, Meni; Keizer, Jan Jacob

    2014-01-15

    For several years now, forest fires have been known to increase overland flow and soil erosion. However, mitigation of these effects has been little studied, especially outside the USA. This study aimed to quantify the effectiveness of two so-called emergency treatments to reduce post-fire runoff and soil losses at the microplot scale in a eucalyptus plantation in north-central Portugal. The treatments involved the application of chopped eucalyptus bark mulch at a rate of 10-12 Mg ha(-1), and surface application of a dry, granular, anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) at a rate of 50 kg ha(-1). During the first year after a wildfire in 2010, 1419 mm of rainfall produced, on average, 785 mm of overland flow in the untreated plots and 8.4 Mg ha(-1) of soil losses. Mulching reduced these two figures significantly, by an average 52 and 93%, respectively. In contrast, the PAM-treated plots did not differ from the control plots, despite slightly lower runoff but higher soil erosion figures. When compared to the control plots, mean key factors for runoff and soil erosion were different in the case of the mulched but not the PAM plots. Notably, the plots on the lower half of the slope registered bigger runoff and erosion figures than those on the upper half of the slope. This could be explained by differences in fire intensity and, ultimately, in pre-fire standing biomass. PMID:24055663

  19. Flexible polyacrylamide substrata for the analysis of mechanical interactions at cell-substratum adhesions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beningo, Karen A.; Lo, Chun-Min; Wang, Yu-Li

    2002-01-01

    We have described a powerful tool for the study of mechanical interactions between cells and their physical environment. Although the approach has already been used in a variety of ways to measure traction forces and to characterize active and passive responses of cultured cells to mechanical stimulation, it can be extended easily and combined with other microscopic approaches, including fluorescent analog imaging (Beningo et al., 2001), photobleaching, calcium imaging, micromanipulation, and electrophysiology. This method will be particularly useful for studying the functions of various components at focal adhesions, and the effects of mechanical forces on focal adhesion-mediated signal transduction. In addition, the method can be extended to a 3D setting, e.g., by sandwiching cultured cells between two layers of polyacrylamide to create an environment mimicking that in the tissue of a multicellular organism. Whereas chemical interactions between cells and the environment have been investigated extensively, many important questions remain as to the role of physical forces in cellular functions and the interplay between chemical and physical mechanisms of communication. The present approach, as well as other approaches capable of probing physical interactions, should fill in this important gap in the near future.

  20. Competition between kaolinite flocculation and stabilization in divalent cation solutions dosed with anionic polyacrylamides.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung Joon; Schlautman, Mark A; Toorman, Erik; Fettweis, Michael

    2012-11-01

    Divalent cations have been reported to develop bridges between anionic polyelectrolytes and negatively-charged colloidal particles, thereby enhancing particle flocculation. However, results from this study of kaolinite suspensions dosed with various anionic polyacrylamides (PAMs) reveal that Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) can lead to colloid stabilization under some conditions. To explain the opposite but coexisting processes of flocculation and stabilization with divalent cations, a conceptual flocculation model with (1) particle-binding divalent cationic bridges between PAM molecules and kaolinite particles and (2) polymer-binding divalent cationic bridges between PAM molecules is proposed. The particle-binding bridges enhanced flocculation and aggregated kaolinite particles in large, easily-settleable flocs whereas the polymer-binding bridges increased steric stabilization by developing polymer layers covering the kaolinite surface. Both the particle-binding and polymer-binding divalent cationic bridges coexist in anionic PAM- and kaolinite-containing suspensions and thus induce the counteracting processes of particle flocculation and stabilization. Therefore, anionic polyelectrolytes in divalent cation-enriched aqueous solutions can sometimes lead to the stabilization of colloidal particles due to the polymer-binding divalent cationic bridges. PMID:22921393

  1. A new inorganic-organic composite coagulant, consisting of polyferric sulphate (PFS) and polyacrylamide (PAA).

    PubMed

    Moussas, P A; Zouboulis, A I

    2009-08-01

    Currently, research is focused on the synthesis of new composite coagulants, which are constituted of both inorganic and organic materials. In this paper, the development of relevant reagents was investigated, by combining the inorganic pre-polymerised iron-based coagulant Polyferric Sulphate (PFS) with an organic, non-ionic polymer (Polyacrylamide, PAA) under different PAA/Fe (mg/l) and OH/Fe molar ratios. Moreover, the new reagents were characterised in terms of typical properties, stability and morphological analysis (XRD, FTIR, SEM). Their coagulation performance, when treating low or high turbid kaolin-humic acid suspensions, was also investigated, whereas the applied coagulation mechanisms were discussed by using the Photometric Dispersion Analysis (PDA) analysis. The results show that the new coagulation reagents present improved properties, including increased effective polymer species concentration, and they exhibit very good stability. The respective tests using PDA confirmed that the predominant coagulation mechanism of PFS-PAA is the bridge formation mechanism. Coagulation experiments in low or high turbid kaolin-humic acid suspensions reveal that the novel composite reagent PFS-PAA exhibits better coagulation performance, when compared with simple PFS, in terms of zeta-potential reduction, turbidity and organic matter removal and residual iron concentration. PMID:19560180

  2. Self-healable, tough, and ultrastretchable nanocomposite hydrogels based on reversible polyacrylamide/montmorillonite adsorption.

    PubMed

    Gao, Guorong; Du, Gaolai; Sun, Yuanna; Fu, Jun

    2015-03-01

    Nanocomposite hydrogels with unprecedented stretchability, toughness, and self-healing have been developed by in situ polymerization of acrylamide with the presence of exfoliated montmorillonite (MMT) layers as noncovalent cross-linkers. The exfoliated MMT clay nanoplatelets with high aspect ratios, as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results, are well dispersed in the polyacrylamide matrix. Strong polymer/MMT interaction was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The effective cross-link densities of these hydrogels are estimated in the range of 2.2-5.7 mol m(-3). Uniaxial tensile tests showed a very high fracture elongation up to 11?800% and a fracture toughness up to 10.1 MJ m(-3). Cyclic loading-unloading tests showed remarkable hysteresis, which indicates energy dissipation upon deformation. Residual strain after cyclic loadings could be recovered under mild conditions, with the recovery extent depending on clay content. A mechanism based on reversible desorption/adsorption of polymer chains on clay platelets surface is discussed. Finally, these nanocomposite hydrogels are demonstrated to fully heal by dry-reswell treatments. PMID:25668063

  3. Shear thickening compositions containing polyacrylic acid and polyacrylamide, their preparation and use

    SciTech Connect

    Eustace, D.J.; Siano, D.B.; Drake, E.N.; Calcavecchio, P.

    1987-08-04

    A process is described for plugging a portion of a well bore using a shear-thickening composition and a emulsion spacer where a conduit, which contains a fluid, extends down into a well bore from the surface to at least that portion to be plugged and where the shear-thickening composition comprises a water-in-oil emulsion having particles of hydratable, water-expandable clay dispersed in the continuous oily phase. The oily phase comprises a hydrocarbon liquid having a surfactant dissolved in which surfactant comprises a polyamine attached to an oil solubilizing hydrocarbon with or without an intervening bridging group and where the dispersed aqueous phase of the emulsion comprises an aqueous polymer solution, having a pH below 7, of both a polyacrylic acid and polyacrylamine. The spacer comprises a water-in-oil emulsion having a composition similar to the water-in-oil emulsion of the shear-thickening composition and each droplet of dispersed aqueous phase of the shear-thickening composition is encapsulated in a film which forms as a result of the interaction of the polyacrylic acid, surfactant and polyacrylamide.

  4. Water Soluble Usnic Acid-Polyacrylamide Complexes with Enhanced Antimicrobial Activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis

    PubMed Central

    Francolini, Iolanda; Taresco, Vincenzo; Crisante, Fernanda; Martinelli, Andrea; D’Ilario, Lucio; Piozzi, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Usnic acid, a potent antimicrobial and anticancer agent, poorly soluble in water, was complexed to novel antimicrobial polyacrylamides by establishment of strong acidic-base interactions. Thermal and spectroscopic analysis evidenced a molecular dispersion of the drug in the polymers and a complete drug/polymer miscibility for all the tested compositions. The polymer/drug complexes promptly dissolved in water and possessed a greater antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis than both the free drug and the polymer alone. The best results were obtained with the complex based on the lowest molecular weight polymer and containing a low drug content. Such a complex showed a larger inhibition zone of bacterial growth and a lower minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) with respect to usnic acid alone. This improved killing effect is presumably due to the reduced size of the complexes that allows an efficient cellular uptake of the antimicrobial complexes. The killing effect extent seems to be not significantly dependent on usnic acid content in the samples. PMID:23549269

  5. Plasma-induced grafting of polyacrylamide on graphene oxide nanosheets for simultaneous removal of radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Song, Wencheng; Wang, Xiangxue; Wang, Qi; Shao, Dadong; Wang, Xiangke

    2015-01-01

    Polyacrylamide (PAM) grafted graphene oxide (denoted as PAM/GO) was synthesized by the plasma-induced polymerization technique and applied as an adsorbent for the simultaneous removal of radionuclides from radioactive wastewater. The interactions of PAM/GO with the radionuclides U(vi), Eu(III) and Co(II) were studied, along with their sorption kinetics. The results indicated that radionuclide sorption on PAM/GO was affected by the solution pH and ionic strength. The maximum sorption capacities of U(VI), Eu(III) and Co(II) on PAM/GO (0.698, 1.245 and 1.621 mmol g(-1), respectively) at pH = 5.0 ± 0.1 and T = 295 K were much higher than those of radionuclides on GO and other adsorbents. The thermodynamic data (?H(0), ?S(0) and ?G(0)) calculated from the temperature-dependent sorption isotherms suggested that the sorption of radionuclides on PAM/GO was a spontaneous and endothermic process. These results indicate that PAM/GO is a promising material for the control of radionuclide pollution. PMID:25407696

  6. Hydrolyzed polyacrylamide grafted maize starch based microbeads: application in pH responsive drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Setty, C Mallikarjuna; Deshmukh, Anand S; Badiger, Aravind M

    2014-09-01

    The present study details the synthesis, characterization and pharmaceutical application of hydrolysed polyacrylamide grafted maize starch (HPam-g-MS) as promising polymeric material for the development of pH responsive microbeads. Different grades of graft copolymer were synthesized by changing the net microwave irradiation time, while keeping all other factors constant. Acute oral toxicity study performed in rodents ensured the bio-safety of graft copolymer for clinical application. Various batches of aceclofenac loaded microbeads were prepared by ionic gelation method using synthesized graft copolymers and evaluated for formulation parameters. FTIR spectroscopy confirmed the chemical compatibility between drug and graft copolymer. Results of in vitro release study (USP type-II) carried out in two different pH media (pH 1.2 acid buffer and pH 7.4 phosphate buffer) showed that release rate of drug from developed microbeads was a function of both: (a) surrounding pH and (b) the matrix composition. The drug release was relatively higher at alkaline pH as compared to acidic pH and this feature is desirable from viewpoint of site specific drug delivery. A direct correlation was observed between percentage grafting and microbeads performance and it presents a scope for further research on application and optimization of HPam-g-MS based microbeads as drug delivery carriers. PMID:24971555

  7. Cationic polyacrylamide as coagulant aid with titanium tetrachloride for low molecule organic matter removal.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y X; Gao, B Y; Qi, Q B; Wang, Y; Phuntsho, S; Kim, J-H; Yue, Q Y; Li, Q; Shon, H K

    2013-08-15

    This is the first attempt to use cationic polyacrylamide (PAM) as coagulant aid with titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) to improve the coagulation performance and floc properties. Coagulation-flocculation treatment was applied to simulated water (with fulvic acid (FA) as model organic matter) for both coagulation behavior investigation and floc characterization. The effect of PAM on floc reformation properties after cyclic breakage/regrowth was also investigated. Ultrafiltration experiments were performed to investigate the influence of PAM aided TiCl4 coagulation on the membrane fouling. The results showed that organic removal was enhanced by PAM addition at low TiCl4 doses. Floc growth rate and floc size were significantly affected by dosing sequence. TiCl4-PAM significantly improved the floc strength factors (Sf) and recovery factors (Rf). The dosing sequence of TiCl4 and PAM significantly influenced the floc structure. Characterization of the flocculated sludge indicated that TiO2 with anatase structure and high photocatalytic activity could be obtained from the TiCl4-PAM flocculated sludge. PMID:23708450

  8. Effect of residual monomer from polyacrylamide on head lettuce grown in peat substrate.

    PubMed

    Mroczek, Ewelina; Kleiber, Tomasz; Konieczny, Piotr; Wa?kiewicz, Agnieszka

    2015-12-01

    The paper investigates the migration of the acrylamide monomer (AMD) to lettuce chosen as a test plant growing in an organic medium (peat substrate). Polyacrylamide (PAM)-based flocculant added to the growing medium contained no more than 1000 mg kg(-1) of AMD. Plants were grown with varied doses of PAM preparation (0.5-3.0 mg dm(-)(3) of peat substrate) to compare the results with the control sample. The determination of AMD content, chlorophyll content, weight of the lettuce head, and also analysis of macro- and micro-elements in lyophilised test material was made under the same analytical conditions. The results showed that lettuce plants absorb AMD to the leaves from the peat substrate. The AMD uptake has a negative impact on the growth of lettuce. It reduces the average fresh weight of heads and destabilises the mineral composition of the plant. Therefore, concern related to the transfer risk of the residual AMD from sludge used for organic fertilisation of edible plants still remains a crucial question from a food and consumer safety point of view. To ensure consumer safety, the fate of the AMD following the application of PAM to cropland should be carefully monitored in the whole food chain. PMID:26414298

  9. One step synthesis of polyacrylamide functionalized graphene and its application in Pb(II) removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhiwei; Zhang, Yaoyao; Qian, Xiaoming; Shi, Jie; Chen, Lei; Li, Baodong; Niu, Jiarong; Liu, Liangsen

    2014-10-01

    Polyacrylamide grafted graphene (PAM-g-graphene) from graphite oxide (GO) was successfully prepared by ?-ray irradiation with acrylamide monomers in aqueous at room temperature in this paper. Our strategy involves the PAM chains graft on the surface and between the layers of GO by in situ radical polymerization which led to the exfoliation of GO into individual sheets. Results show that the degree of grafting of PAM-g-graphene samples is 24.2%, and the thickness is measured to be 2.59 nm. Moreover, the as-prepared PAM-g-graphene with some amino from PAM and little oxygen functional groups exhibit superior adsorption of Pb(II) ions. The adsorption processes reach equilibrium in just 30 min and the adsorption isotherms are described well by Langmuir and Freundlich classical isotherms models. The determined adsorption capacity of PAM-g-graphene is 819.67 mg g-1 (pH 6) for Pb(II), which is 20 times and 8 times capacities of that for graphene nanosheets and carbon nanotubes according to reports, respectively. This chemically modified graphene synthesized by this fast one-step approach, featuring a good versatility and adaptability, excellent adsorption capacity and rapid extraction, may provide a new idea for the global problem of heavy metal pollutants' removal in water.

  10. Reducing sediment and phosphorus in tributary waters with alum and polyacrylamide.

    PubMed

    Mason, L B; Amrhein, C; Goodson, C C; Matsumoto, M R; Anderson, M A

    2005-01-01

    The Salton Sea is the largest inland water body in California, covering an area of 980 km(2). Inflow to the Salton Sea (1.6 km(3) yr(-1)) is predominately nutrient-rich agricultural wastewater, which has led to eutrophication. Because internal phosphorus release from the bottom sediments is comparatively low and external phosphorus loading to the Salton Sea is high, reduction of tributary phosphorus is expected to reduce algal blooms, increase dissolved oxygen, and reduce odors. Removing both dissolved phosphorus and phosphorus-laden sediment from agricultural drainage water (ADW) should decrease eutrophication. Both alum and polyacrylamide (PAM) are commonly used in wastewater treatment to remove phosphorus and sediment and were tested for use in tributary waters. Laboratory jar tests determined PAM effectiveness (2 mg L(-1)) for turbidity reduction as cationic > anionic = nonionic. Although cationic PAM was the most effective at reducing turbidity at higher speeds, there was no observed difference between the neutral and anionic PAMs at velocity gradients of 18 to 45 s(-1). Alum (4 mg L(-1) Al) reduced turbidity in low energy systems (velocity gradients < 10 s(-1)) by 95% and was necessary to reduce soluble phosphorus, which comprises 47 to 100% of the total P concentration in the tributaries. When PAM was added with alum, the anionic PAM became ineffective in aiding flocculation. The nonionic PAM (2 mg L(-1)) + alum (4 mg L(-1) Al) is recommended to reduce suspended solids in higher energy systems and reduce soluble P by 93%. PMID:16221819

  11. TOPICAL REVIEW: Polymer gel dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldock, C.; De Deene, Y.; Doran, S.; Ibbott, G.; Jirasek, A.; Lepage, M.; McAuley, K. B.; Oldham, M.; Schreiner, L. J.

    2010-03-01

    Polymer gel dosimeters are fabricated from radiation sensitive chemicals which, upon irradiation, polymerize as a function of the absorbed radiation dose. These gel dosimeters, with the capacity to uniquely record the radiation dose distribution in three-dimensions (3D), have specific advantages when compared to one-dimensional dosimeters, such as ion chambers, and two-dimensional dosimeters, such as film. These advantages are particularly significant in dosimetry situations where steep dose gradients exist such as in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery. Polymer gel dosimeters also have specific advantages for brachytherapy dosimetry. Potential dosimetry applications include those for low-energy x-rays, high-linear energy transfer (LET) and proton therapy, radionuclide and boron capture neutron therapy dosimetries. These 3D dosimeters are radiologically soft-tissue equivalent with properties that may be modified depending on the application. The 3D radiation dose distribution in polymer gel dosimeters may be imaged using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical-computerized tomography (optical-CT), x-ray CT or ultrasound. The fundamental science underpinning polymer gel dosimetry is reviewed along with the various evaluation techniques. Clinical dosimetry applications of polymer gel dosimetry are also presented.

  12. Topical Review: Polymer gel dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Baldock, C; De Deene, Y; Doran, S; Ibbott, G; Jirasek, A; Lepage, M; McAuley, K B; Oldham, M; Schreiner, L J

    2010-01-01

    Polymer gel dosimeters are fabricated from radiation sensitive chemicals which, upon irradiation, polymerize as a function of the absorbed radiation dose. These gel dosimeters, with the capacity to uniquely record the radiation dose distribution in three-dimensions (3D), have specific advantages when compared to one-dimensional dosimeters, such as ion chambers, and two-dimensional dosimeters, such as film. These advantages are particularly significant in dosimetry situations where steep dose gradients exist such as in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery. Polymer gel dosimeters also have specific advantages for brachytherapy dosimetry. Potential dosimetry applications include those for low-energy x-rays, high-linear energy transfer (LET) and proton therapy, radionuclide and boron capture neutron therapy dosimetries. These 3D dosimeters are radiologically soft-tissue equivalent with properties that may be modified depending on the application. The 3D radiation dose distribution in polymer gel dosimeters may be imaged using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical-computerized tomography (optical-CT), x-ray CT or ultrasound. The fundamental science underpinning polymer gel dosimetry is reviewed along with the various evaluation techniques. Clinical dosimetry applications of polymer gel dosimetry are also presented. PMID:20150687

  13. for Non-Native Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Sharon Vegh

    2013-01-01

    work for, are often disconnected from the language, culture, and approaches to learning that facilitate Native students' achievement in school (Deyhle & Swisher, 1997; Klug & Hall, 2002; Lomawaima, 2001; Pewewardy, 2002; Reyhner & Jacobs, 2002; Tharp,…

  14. Thixotropic gel for vadose zone remediation

    DOEpatents

    Riha, Brian D.

    2012-07-03

    A thixotropic gel suitable for use in subsurface bioremediation is provided along with a process of using the gel. The thixotropic gel provides a non-migrating injectable substrate that can provide below ground barrier properties. In addition, the gel components provide for a favorable environment in which certain contaminants are preferentially sequestered in the gel and subsequently remediated by either indigenous or introduced microorganisms.

  15. Thixotropic gel for vadose zone remediation

    DOEpatents

    Rhia, Brian D. (Augusta, GA)

    2011-03-01

    A thixotropic gel suitable for use in subsurface bioremediation is provided along with a process of using the gel. The thixotropic gel provides a non-migrating injectable substrate that can provide below ground barrier properties. In addition, the gel components provide for a favorable environment in which certain contaminants are preferentially sequestered in the gel and subsequently remediated by either indigenous or introduced microorganisms.

  16. Thixotropic gel for vadose zone remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Riha, Brian D.; Looney, Brian B.

    2015-10-27

    A thixotropic gel suitable for use in subsurface bioremediation is provided along with a process of using the gel. The thixotropic gel provides a non-migrating injectable substrate that can provide below ground barrier properties. In addition, the gel components provide for a favorable environment in which certain contaminants are preferentially sequestered in the gel and subsequently remediated by either indigenous or introduced microorganisms.

  17. Micelle-Induced Curvature in a Water-Insoluble HIV-1 Env Peptide Revealed by NMR Dipolar Coupling Measurement in Stretched Polyacrylamide Gel

    E-print Network

    Chou, James

    -assembling mixed micelles that consist of a mixture of short-chain and long-chain phospholipids, usually DHPC and dimyristoyl PC (DMPC), are presumed to be superior in this respect.5 However, no structural comparison.8 Comparison of the 1H-15N HSQC correlation spectra at DMPC:DHPC molar ratios, q, of 0, 0.1, and 0

  18. Development of a Low-cost and High-throughput Polyacrylamide Gel System for Peanut Genotyping with Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) Markers.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditionally, peanut cultivar development has been dominated by conventional breeding methods, which have greatly increased yield and will continue to play an important role in peanut genetic improvement. Applications of MAS (marker-assisted selection) in plant breeding have been shown to increase ...

  19. Full Publications. Undergraduates in Bold: 1. Florini, J. R., Brivio, R. P., and Battelle, B-A.: Isoelectric focusing of myosin in dilute polyacrylamid gels.

    E-print Network

    Liao, James C.

    -A., and Florini, J. R.: Protein synthesis in chicken muscular dystrophy. Biochemistry. 12:637-654, 1973. 3. Florini, J. R., Brivio, R. P., and Battelle, B-A.: Isoelectric focusing of muscle proteins. Ann. NY Acad

  20. NMR mechanisms in gel dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiner, L. J.

    2009-05-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance was critical to the development of gel dosimetry, as it established the potential for three dimensional dosimetry with chemical dosimeter systems through magnetic resonance imaging [1]. In the last two decades MRI has served as the gold standard for imaging, while NMR relaxometry has played an important role in the development and understanding of the behaviour of new gel dosimetry systems. Therefore, an appreciation of the relaxation mechanisms determining the NMR behaviour of irradiated gel dosimeters is important for a full comprehension of a considerable component of the literature on gel dosimetry. A number of excellent papers have presented this important theory, this brief review will highlight some of the salient points made previously [1-5]. The spin relaxation of gel dosimeters (which determines the dose dependence in most conventional MR imaging) is determined principally by the protons on water molecules in the system. These water protons exist in different environments, or groups (see Figure 1): on bulk water, on water hydrating the chemical species that are being modified under irradiation, and on water hydrating the gel matrix used to spatially stabilize the dosimeter (e.g., gelatin, agarose, etc). The spin relaxation depends on the inherent relaxation rate of each spin group, that is, on the relaxation rate which would be observed for the specific group if it were isolated. Also, the different water environments are not isolated from each other, and the observed relaxation rate also depends on the rate of exchange of magnetization between the groups, and on the fraction of protons in each group. In fact, the water exchanges quickly between the environments, so that relaxation is in what is usually termed the fast exchange regime. In the limit of fast exchange, the relaxation of the water protons is well characterized by a single exponential and hence by a single apparent relaxation rate. In irradiated gel dosimeters this observed rate is a function of the absorbed dose. In this review I will first develop the fast exchange model for the spin lattice relaxation Fricke gel dosimeter system, as this is conceptually the simpler system. Fundamental concepts such as relaxivity (which specifies the ability of some species to enhance the relaxation of water protons) and chemical yield will be presented. The linear dose relationship for Fricke gel dosimeters, and the reduced dose sensitivity of Fricke dosimeters containing chelators, will be explained. The model will then be extended to the spin-spin relaxation of polymer gel systems and the main differences discussed. The reasons for the enhanced dose sensitivy and dynamic range for spin-spin (R2) rather than spin-lattice (R1) relaxation will be presented.

  1. Comparative investigations to evaluate the use of organotypic cultures of transformed and native dermal and epidermal cells for permeation studies.

    PubMed

    Specht, C; Stoye, I; Müller-Goymann, C C

    1998-11-01

    In a comparative study organotypic cultures of both transformed and native dermal and epidermal cells were used for permeation studies. In these organotypic cultures the dermal cells are incorporated into a contracted collagen gel, the epidermal cells are seeded on top of this gel and form a multilayered stratified epidermis when cultivated at the air-liquid interface. For permeation studies two different donor systems containing ibuprofen acid were used, Ibutop-Creme and Dolgit-Mikrogel. Studies using excised human stratum corneum showed differences in drug permeability for these two formulations which were also observed when the native organotypic cultures were used. In general, organotypic cultures show a higher permeability for topically applied drugs than excised human stratum corneum, the cultures consisting of transformed cells showed an increase in drug permeability for the Dolgit-Mikrogel compared with the native cultures which might be due to a higher sensitivity for the enhancer isopropanol in this formulation. PMID:9885298

  2. Native Plants and PollinatorsNative Plants and PollinatorsNative Plants and PollinatorsNative Plants and Pollinators of Loney Meadowof Loney Meadowof Loney Meadowof Loney Meadow

    E-print Network

    Ishida, Yuko

    Native Plants and PollinatorsNative Plants and PollinatorsNative Plants and PollinatorsNative Plants and Pollinators of Loney Meadowof Loney Meadowof Loney Meadowof Loney Meadow A walk with Dr.footwear. No dogs please.footwear. No dogs please. For more information please call: Kathy Van Zuuk, PlantFor more

  3. Nativization Processes in L1 Esperanto.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergen, Benjamin K.

    2001-01-01

    Describes characteristics of the Native Esperanto of eight speakers, ranging from age 6 to 14 years. Found bilingualism and nativization effects, differentiating native from non-native Esperanto speech. Among these effects are loss or modification of the accusative case, phonological reduction, attrition of tense/aspect system, and pronominal…

  4. ACCENT RATING BY NATIVE AND NON-NATIVE LISTENERS Mirjam Wester and Cassie Mayo

    E-print Network

    Edinburgh, University of

    . Results indicate that non-native listeners, like native listeners, are able to classify non-native talk-- Perceptual evaluation, native vs non-native lis- teners 1. INTRODUCTION Accent rating--the degree of foreign here was conducted in the con- text of an EU project which aimed for personalized speech

  5. Literacy Skill Differences between Adult Native English and Native Spanish Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Julia; Cote, Nicole Gilbert; Reilly, Lenore; Binder, Katherine S.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the literacy skills of adult native English and native Spanish ABE speakers. Participants were 169 native English speakers and 124 native Spanish speakers recruited from five prior research projects. The results showed that the native Spanish speakers were less skilled on morphology and passage comprehension…

  6. Capillary fracture of soft gels

    E-print Network

    Bostwick, Joshua B

    2013-01-01

    A liquid droplet resting on a soft gel substrate can deform that substrate to the point of material failure, whereby fractures develop on the gel surface that propagate outwards from the contact-line in a starburst pattern. In this paper, we characterize i) the initiation process in which the number of arms in the starburst is controlled by the ratio of surface tension contrast to the gel's elastic modulus and ii) the propagation dynamics showing that once fractures are initiated they propagate with a universal power law $L\\propto t^{3/4}$. We develop a model for crack initiation by treating the gel as a linear elastic solid and computing the deformations within the substrate from the liquid/solid wetting forces. The elastic solution shows that both the location and magnitude of the wetting forces are critical in providing a quantitative prediction for the number of fractures and, hence, an interpretation of the initiation of capillary fractures. This solution also reveals that the depth of the gel is an impo...

  7. Capillary fracture of soft gels

    E-print Network

    Joshua B. Bostwick; Karen E. Daniels

    2013-10-16

    A liquid droplet resting on a soft gel substrate can deform that substrate to the point of material failure, whereby fractures develop on the gel surface that propagate outwards from the contact-line in a starburst pattern. In this paper, we characterize i) the initiation process in which the number of arms in the starburst is controlled by the ratio of surface tension contrast to the gel's elastic modulus and ii) the propagation dynamics showing that once fractures are initiated they propagate with a universal power law $L\\propto t^{3/4}$. We develop a model for crack initiation by treating the gel as a linear elastic solid and computing the deformations within the substrate from the liquid/solid wetting forces. The elastic solution shows that both the location and magnitude of the wetting forces are critical in providing a quantitative prediction for the number of fractures and, hence, an interpretation of the initiation of capillary fractures. This solution also reveals that the depth of the gel is an important factor in the fracture process, as it can help mitigate large surface tractions; this finding is confirmed with experiments. We then develop a model for crack propagation by considering the transport of an inviscid fluid into the fracture tip of an incompressible material, and find that a simple energy-conservation argument can explain the observed material-independent power law. We compare predictions for both linear elastic and neo-Hookean solids finding that the latter better explains the observed exponent.

  8. Polycaprolactone diacrylate crosslinked biodegradable semi-interpenetrating networks of polyacrylamide and gelatin for controlled drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Maneesh; Dinda, Amit K; Gupta, Asheesh; Koul, Veena

    2010-12-01

    A biodegradable semi-interpenetrating hydrogel network (semi-IPN) of polyacrylamide and gelatin was prepared using polycaprolactone diacrylate (mol. wt ? 640) as a crosslinker. The drug-polymer interaction and IPN formation were investigated by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Scanning electron micrographs of lyophilized matrices revealed porous internal structure with varying pore sizes under equilibrium hydrated conditions, depending upon formulation composition. pH-dependent swelling and degradation was enhanced with increasing gelatin content and decreasing crosslinker concentration (Cs). Compression modulus (CM) (at 20% strain) increased significantly from 23 ± 1.4 to 75 ± 2.7 kPa (p < 0.02) with increasing Cs (from 0.5 to 2.0 mol%), while it decreased from 162 ± 6.4 to 23 ± 1.4 kPa (p < 0.05) with decreasing PAm/G ratio. Cell viability studies by MTT assay showed excellent cytocompatibility of matrices with fibroblast L929 cells. Curcumin, a hydrophobic phytochemical, was loaded by a diffusion method and its release profile was investigated in 4% w/v aqueous BSA solution at 75 rpm (at 37 ± 0.2 °C). Fitting of drug release data in the Korsmeyer-Peppas model suggested sustained release behavior up to 10 days with a combination of diffusion and erosion mechanism (0.5 < n < 1.0; M(t)/M(?) ? 0.6). The newly developed porous, biodegradable and elastic semi-IPNs may serve as an ideal matrix for controlled drug release and wound healing applications. The possibilities can be explored for pharmaceutical and tissue engineering applications. PMID:21079283

  9. Effects of Cationic Polyacrylamide Characteristics on Sewage Sludge Dewatering and Moisture Evaporation

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Chengyi

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the molecular weight (MW) and charge density (CD) of cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) on sludge dewatering and moisture evaporation were investigated in this study. Results indicated that in sludge conditioning, the optimum dosages were 10, 6, 6, 4, and 4 mg g?1 CPAM with 5 million MW and 20% CD, 5 million MW and 40% CD, 3 million MW and 40% CD, 8 million MW and 40% CD, and 5 million MW and 60% CD, respectively. The optimum dosage of CPAM was negatively correlated with its CD or MW if the CD or MW of CPAM was above 20% or 5 million. In the centrifugal dewatering of sludge, the moisture content in the conditioned sludge gradually decreased with the extension of centrifugation time, and the economical centrifugal force was 400×g. The moisture evaporation rates of the conditioned sludge were closely related to sludge dewaterability, which was in turn significantly correlated either positively with the solid content of sludge particles that were >2 mm in size or negatively with that of particles measuring 1 mm to 2 mm in diameter. During treatment, sludge moisture content was reduced from 80% to 20% by evaporation, and the moisture evaporation rates were 1.35, 1.49, 1.62, and 2.24 times faster in the sludge conditioned using 4 mg g?1 CPAM with 5 million MW and 60% CD than in the sludge conditioned using 4 mg g?1 CPAM with 8 million MW and 40% CD, 6 mg g?1 CPAM with 5 million MW and 40% CD, 6 mg g?1 CPAM with 3 million MW and 40% CD, and 10 mg g?1 CPAM with 5 million MW and 20% CD, respectively. Hence, the CPAM with 5 million MW and 60% CD was ideal for sludge dewatering. PMID:24878582

  10. Tissue Distribution and Pharmacokinetics of Stable Polyacrylamide Nanoparticles Following Intravenous Injection in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    WENGER, Yvan; SCHNEIDER, Randal J.; REDDY, G. Ramachandra; KOPELMAN, Raoul; JOLLIET, Olivier; PHILBERT, Martin A.

    2011-01-01

    A variety of polymer nanoparticles (NP) are under development for imaging and therapeutic use. However, little is known about their behavior. This study examined pharmacokinetics, distribution and elimination of stable polyacrylamide (PAA) nanoparticles (~31 nm average diameter). PAA-NPs and polyethylene glycol-coated PAA-NPs were injected into the tail veins of healthy male rats. Blood, tissues and excreta were collected at times ranging from 5 minutes to 120 hours and their radioactive content was quantified. A mathematical model was then applied to analyze the distribution dynamics of both NPs. Elimination from the blood could be accounted for by a quick but finite relocation to the major organs (about 20%, 0.6 to 1.3h half-lives), and a slower distribution to the carcass (about 70%, 35 to 43h half-lives). Excreted urinary levels correlated with blood concentrations. Combined cumulative urinary and fecal output accounted for less than 6% of the dose at 120h. Compared to five other polymeric nanoparticles, the studied particles are at the highest half-lives and Area Under the Curve (4000 to 5000 %-h). These two parameters decrease by three orders of magnitude when nanoparticle size increases from the 30 nm range up to 250 nm. For similar sizes, pegylated nanoparticles are more persistent in the blood than non pegylated ones, but this difference is much smaller in the 30 nm and relatively high dose range than above 100 nm. Persistence of PAA NPs is not associated with acute toxicity signs as measured by typical serum markers of inflammation and cellular damage. PMID:21134391

  11. Tissue distribution and pharmacokinetics of stable polyacrylamide nanoparticles following intravenous injection in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Wenger, Yvan; Schneider, Randal J.; Reddy, G. Ramachandra; Kopelman, Raoul; Jolliet, Olivier; Philbert, Martin A.

    2011-03-15

    A variety of polymer nanoparticles (NP) are under development for imaging and therapeutic use. However, little is known about their behavior. This study examined pharmacokinetics, distribution and elimination of stable polyacrylamide (PAA) nanoparticles ({approx} 31 nm average diameter). PAA NPs and polyethylene glycol-coated PAA NPs were injected into the tail veins of healthy male rats. Blood, tissues and excreta were collected at times ranging from 5 min to 120 h and their radioactive content was quantified. A mathematical model was then applied to analyze the distribution dynamics of both NPs. Elimination from the blood could be accounted for by a quick but finite relocation to the major organs (about 20%, 0.6 to 1.3 h half-lives), and a slower distribution to the carcass (about 70%, 35 to 43 h half-lives). Excreted urinary levels correlated with blood concentrations. Combined cumulative urinary and fecal output accounted for less than 6% of the dose at 120 h. Compared to five other polymeric nanoparticles, the studied particles are at the highest half-lives and Area Under the Curve (4000 to 5000%-h). These two parameters decrease by three orders of magnitude when nanoparticle size increases from the 30 nm range up to 250 nm. For similar sizes, pegylated nanoparticles are more persistent in the blood than non-pegylated ones, but this difference is much smaller in the 30 nm and relatively high dose range than above 100 nm. Persistence of PAA NPs is not associated with acute toxicity signs as measured by typical serum markers of inflammation and cellular damage.

  12. Carbonic anhydrase-facilitated CO2 absorption with polyacrylamide buffering bead capture

    SciTech Connect

    Dilmore, Robert; Griffith, Craid; Liu, Zhu; Soong, Yee; Hedges, Sheila W.; Koepsel, Richard; Ataai, M

    2009-07-01

    A novel CO2 separation concept is described wherein the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA) is used to increase the overall rate Of CO2 absorption after which hydrated CO2 reacts with regenerable amine-bearing polyacrylamide buffering beads (PABB). Following saturation of the material's immobilized tertiary amines, CA-bearing carrier water is separated and recycled to the absorption stage while CO2-loaded material is thermally regenerated. Process application of this concept would involve operation of two or more columns in parallel with thermal regeneration with low-pressure steam taking place after the capacity of a column of amine-bearing polymeric material was exceeded. PABB CO2- bearing capacity was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for beads of three acrylamido buffering monomer ingredient concentrations: 0 mol/kg bead, 0.857 mol/kg bead, and 2 mol/kg bead. TGA results demonstrate that CO2- bearing capacity increases with increasing PABB buffering concentration and that up to 78% of the theoretical CO2- bearing capacity was realized in prepared PABB samples (0.857 mol/kg recipe). The highest observed CO2-bearing capacity of PABB was 1.37 mol of CO2 per kg dry bead. TGA was also used to assess the regenerability Of CO2-loaded PABB. Preliminary results suggest that CO2 is partially driven from PABB samples at temperatures as low as 55 degrees C, with complete regeneration occurring at 100 degrees C. Other physical characteristics of PABB are discussed. In addition, the effectiveness of bovine carbonic anhydrase for the catalysis Of CO2 dissolution is evaluated. Potential benefits and drawbacks of the proposed process are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Influence of polyacrylamide application to soil on movement of microorganisms in runoff water.

    PubMed

    Sojka, R E; Entry, J A

    2000-06-01

    Polyacrylamide (PAM) use in irrigation for erosion control has increased water infiltration and reduced soil erosion. This has improved runoff water quality via lower concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorous, and pesticides, and decreased biological oxygen demand. Since non-toxic high molecular weight anionic PAMs removed clay size sediment particles in flowing water, we hypothesized that PAM would effectively remove or immobilize microorganisms in flowing water. In an agricultural field, we determined the efficacy of PAM-treatment of furrow irrigation water to remove several categories of microorganisms in the inflow and runoff. Treatments were: (1) PAM application and a control; (2) three flow rates; (3) two distances from the inflow point; and (4) three times during each irrigation. After water traveled 1 m at 7.5 and 15.5 l min(-1), PAM-treatment reduced total bacterial and microbial biomass and total fungal biomass relative to the control treatment. After water traveled 40 m at 7.5, 15.5, and 22.5 l min(-1), PAM-treatment reduced algae, the numbers active and total bacteria, active and total fungal length, and total bacterial biomass, total fungal and microbial biomass relative to the control treatment. Although specific organisms were not identified or monitored in this study, the results clearly have implications for controlling the spread of soil-borne plant pathogens and other classes of harmful organisms within and among fields via irrigation water and in re-utilized return flows. Beyond furrow-irrigated agriculture, new methods to manage overland transmission of harmful microorganisms could potentially help control transport of pathogens from animal waste in runoff and groundwater. PMID:15092936

  14. Polyacrylamide preparations for protection of water quality threatened by agricultural runoff contaminants.

    PubMed

    Entry, James A; Sojka, R E; Watwood, Maribeth; Ross, Craig

    2002-01-01

    Waste streams associated with a variety of agricultural runoff sources are major contributors of nutrients, pesticides and enteric microorganisms to surface and ground waters. Water soluble anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) was found to be a highly effective erosion-preventing and infiltration-enhancing polymer, when applied at rates of 1-10 g m(-3) in furrow irrigation water. Water flowing from PAM treated irrigation furrows show large reductions in sediment, nutrients and pesticides. Recently PAM and PAM + CaO and PAM + Al(SO4)3 mixtures have been shown to filter bacteria, fungi and nutrients from animal wastewater. Low concentrations of PAM [175-350 g PAM ha(-1) as PAM or as PAM + CaO and PAM + Al(SO4) mixture] applied to the soil surface, resulted in dramatic decreases (10 fold) of total, coliform and fecal streptococci bacteria in cattle, fish and swine wastewater leachate and surface runoff. PAM treatment also filtered significant amounts of NH4, PO4 and total P in cattle and swine wastewater. This points to the potential of developing PAM as a water quality protection measure in combination with large-scale animal feeding operations. Potential benefits of PAM treatment of animal facility waste streams include: (1) low cost, (2) easy and quick application. (3) suitability for use with other pollution reduction techniques. Research on the efficacy of PAM for removal of protozoan parasites and viruses and more thorough assessment of PAM degradation in different soils is still needed to completely evaluate PAM treatment as an effective waste water treatment. We will present analysis and feasibility of using PAM, PAM + Al(SO4)3, and PAM + CaO application for specific applications. Our results demonstrate their potential efficacy in reducing sediment, nutrients and microorganisms from animal production facility effluents. PMID:12395830

  15. Effects of anionic polyacrylamide products on gill histopathology in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Kerr, Jennifer L; Lumsden, John S; Russell, Spencer K; Jasinska, Edyta J; Goss, Greg G

    2014-07-01

    Anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) products are commonly used to remove suspended materials from turbid waters and to help mitigate soil erosion. In the present study, juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to 3?mg/L to 300?mg/L of 10 commercially available PAM products (Clearflow Water Lynx Polymer Log and Clearflow Soil Lynx Granular Polymer; Clearflow Enviro Systems Group), and gill histological parameters were measured following either 7 d or 30 d of polymer exposure. A cationic polymer product (?0.38?mg/L MagnaFloc 368; Ciba Specialty Chemical) was also tested for comparison. Mild gill lesions were observed in fish exposed to polymer products. Lamellar fusion, interlamellar hyperplasia, epithelial lifting, mucous cell metaplasia, and cell counts of epithelial swelling and necrosis/apoptosis were minimal in fish exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of anionic polymer (?30?mg/L). Gill morphology was largely unaffected by exposure to concentrations up to 300?mg/L of many PAM products. Several anionic polymer products noticeably affected gill tissue by increasing epithelial hypertrophy, interlamellar hyperplasia, mucous cell metaplasia, and the frequency of necrotic cells. The severity of the lesions lessened with time, suggesting that fish may have experienced a short-term irritant effect. Similar levels of gill pathology were frequently observed in fish exposed to cationic polymer MagnaFloc 368 despite the concentration being 1000-fold lower than that of the PAM products. These observations highlight the increased toxicity of cationic polymers to aquatic life compared with anionic PAMs. PMID:24648306

  16. Scanning protein analysis of electrofocusing gels using X-ray fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Satoshi; Matsunaga, Akihiro; Sakamoto, Shinichi; Iida, Yutaka; Suzuki, Yoshinari; Ishizaka, Yukihito; Yamauchi, Kazuto; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Shimura, Mari

    2013-05-01

    Recently, "metallomics," in addition to genomics and proteomics, has become a focus as a novel approach to identify sensitive fluctuations in homeostasis that accompany metabolic processes, such as stress responses, differentiation, and proliferation. Cellular elements and associated protein behavior provide important clues for understanding cellular and disease mechanism(s). It is important to develop a system for measuring the native status of the protein. In this study, we developed an original freeze-dried electrofocusing native gel over polyimide film (native-gel film) for scanning protein analysis using synchrotron radiation excited X-ray fluorescence (SPAX). To our knowledge, this is the first report detailing the successful mapping of metal-associated proteins of electrofocusing gels using X-ray fluorescence. SPAX can provide detection sensitivity equivalent to that of LA-ICP-MS. In addition to this increased sensitivity, SPAX has the potential to be combined with other X-ray spectroscopies. Our system is useful for further applications in proteomics investigating cellular element-associated protein behaviors and disease mechanisms. PMID:23576194

  17. Copolymers For Capillary Gel Electrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Changsheng (State College, PA); Li, Qingbo (State College, PA)

    2005-08-09

    This invention relates to an electrophoresis separation medium having a gel matrix of at least one random, linear copolymer comprising a primary comonomer and at least one secondary comonomer, wherein the comonomers are randomly distributed along the copolymer chain. The primary comonomer is an acrylamide or an acrylamide derivative that provides the primary physical, chemical, and sieving properties of the gel matrix. The at least one secondary comonomer imparts an inherent physical, chemical, or sieving property to the copolymer chain. The primary and secondary comonomers are present in a ratio sufficient to induce desired properties that optimize electrophoresis performance. The invention also relates to a method of separating a mixture of biological molecules using this gel matrix, a method of preparing the novel electrophoresis separation medium, and a capillary tube filled with the electrophoresis separation medium.

  18. Deformation of Unentangled Swollen Gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sariyer, Ozan; Panyukov, Sergey; Rubinstein, Michael

    2014-03-01

    We study the deformation characteristics (Poisson's ratios and stress-strain relations) of unentangled gels swollen and uniaxially or biaxially deformed in excess solvent by considering the balance of osmotic pressure and elastic stress in unconstrained dimensions. Our scaling theory predicts a crossover from theta solvent behavior to marginal solvent behavior upon stretching gels that are in concentrated regime at swelling equilibrium - a phenomenon that was experimentally observed long ago, but not understood theoretically. For gels that are in the semidilute good solvent regime at swelling equilibrium, we predict a crossover to theta solvent behavior upon compression and a crossover to marginal solvent behavior upon stretching. Our theory reproduces the previously known results for equilibrium swelling degree as well as known deformation characteristics in theta and athermal solvents.

  19. Sol-gel derived sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Sigman, Michael E.; Dindal, Amy B.

    2003-11-11

    Described is a method for producing copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent particles for the production of copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent material. The method for producing copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent particles comprises adding a basic solution to an aqueous metal alkoxide mixture for a pH.ltoreq.8 to hydrolyze the metal alkoxides. Then, allowing the mixture to react at room temperature for a precalculated period of time for the mixture to undergo an increased in viscosity to obtain a desired pore size and surface area. The copolymerized mixture is then added to an immiscible, nonpolar solvent that has been heated to a sufficient temperature wherein the copolymerized mixture forms a solid upon the addition. The solid is recovered from the mixture, and is ready for use in an active sampling trap or activated for use in a passive sampling trap.

  20. Cellulase immobilized by sol-gel entrapment for efficient hydrolysis of cellulose.

    PubMed

    Ungurean, Mihaela; Paul, Cristina; Peter, Francisc

    2013-10-01

    Cellulase from Trichoderma reesei (Celluclast 1.5 L, Novozyme) was immobilized by sol-gel encapsulation, using binary or ternary mixtures of tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) with alkyl- or aryl-substituted trimethoxysilanes as precursors. Optimization of immobilization conditions resulted in 92 % recovery of total enzymatic activity in the best immobilized preparate. The immobilized cellulase exhibiting the highest activity, obtained from tetramethoxysilane and methyltrimethoxysilane precursors at 3:1 molar ratio, was investigated in the hydrolysis reaction of microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH101). Although the optimal values did not change significantly, both temperature and pH stabilities of the sol-gel entrapped cellulase improved compared to the native enzyme. Immobilization also conferred superior resistance against the inactivation effect of glucose. Reuse of the sol-gel entrapped cellulase showed 40 % retention of the initial activity after five batch hydrolysis cycles, demonstrating the potential of this biocatalyst for large-scale application. PMID:23065015

  1. A Sol-Gel-Modified Poly(methyl methacrylate) Electrophoresis Microchip with a Hydrophilic Channel Wall

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Gang; Xu, Xuejiao; Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Joseph

    2007-07-27

    A sol-gel method was employed to fabricate a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) electrophoresis microchip that contains a hydrophilic channel wall. To fabricate such a device, tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) was injected into the PMMA channel and was allowed to diffuse into the surface layer for 24 h. After removing the excess TEOS, the channel was filled with an acidic solution for 3 h. Subsequently, the channel was flushed with water and was pretreated in an oven to obtain a sol-gel-modified PMMA microchip. The water contact angle for the sol-gel-modified PMMA was 27.4° compared with 66.3° for the pure PMMA. In addition, the electro-osmotic flow increased from 2.13×10-4 cm2 V-1 s-1 for the native-PMMA channel to 4.86×10-4 cm2 V-1 s-1 for the modified one. The analytical performance of the sol-gel-modified PMMA microchip was demonstrated for the electrophoretic separation of several purines, coupled with amperometric detection. The separation efficiency of uric acid increased to 74 882.3 m-1 compared with 14 730.5 m-1 for native-PMMA microchips. The result of this simple modification is a significant improvement in the performance of PMMA for microchip electrophoresis and microfluidic applications.

  2. Tracer diffusion in colloidal gels

    E-print Network

    Sujin Babu; Jean Christophe Gimel; Taco Nicolai

    2007-05-09

    Computer simulations were done of the mean square displacement (MSD) of tracer particles in colloidal gels formed by diffusion or reaction limited aggregation of hard spheres. The diffusion coefficient was found to be determined by the volume fraction accessible to the spherical tracers ($\\phi_a$) independent of the gel structure or the tracer size. In all cases, critical slowing down was observed at $\\phi_a\\approx 0.03$ and was characterized by the same scaling laws reported earlier for tracer diffusion in a Lorentz gas. Strong heterogeneity of the MSD was observed at small $\\phi_a$ and was related to the size distribution of pores.

  3. Making the Grade? Idiom processing by native and non-native speakers 

    E-print Network

    Young, Elizabeth

    2012-11-28

    This paper is investigating the processing of idioms by native and non-native speakers. In particular, it seeks to discover whether there is a processing bias, either literally or figuratively, and whether native speakers ...

  4. The Native American healing experience.

    PubMed

    Coyhis, Don; Simonelli, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Recovery from addiction to alcohol and other drugs is taking place with the assistance of culture-specific methods in American Indian and Alaska Native communities in North America. These communities utilize many of the recovery approaches that make up today's best practices, but they also use their own cultural and ethnic strengths as an important part of their addictions recovery. The Wellbriety Movement among Native people is one such expression of culture-specific healing for North Americans having the heritage of indigenous peoples. The rallying call, "Our culture is prevention," expresses an approach unique in addictions recovery processes anywhere. PMID:19016172

  5. Gel Injections May Help Heart Failure Patients

    MedlinePLUS

    ... news/fullstory_155818.html Gel Injections May Help Heart Failure Patients But larger study needed to assess ... 19, 2015 THURSDAY, Nov. 19, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Heart failure patients who had beads of gel injected ...

  6. Regenerative medicine: Noodle gels for cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deming, Timothy J.

    2010-07-01

    Heating and cooling of peptide amphiphile suspensions converts disorganized nanofibres into liquid-crystalline nanofibre bundles that gel on addition of salts. The noodle-shaped strings of gel can entrap and align cells.

  7. Commercial applications of block copolymer photonic gels

    E-print Network

    Lou, Sally S

    2008-01-01

    Block copolymer photonic gels are a simple and easily processed material which responds rapidly to environmental stimuli through a color change. The diblock copolymer that forms the gel self-assembles into a lamellar ...

  8. Flexible peptides and cytoplasmic gels

    PubMed Central

    Bray, Dennis

    2005-01-01

    Recent progress in predicting protein structures has revealed a surprising abundance of proteins that are significantly unfolded under physiological conditions. Unstructured, flexible polypeptides are likely to be functionally important and may cause local cytoplasmic regions to become gel-like. PMID:15774032

  9. Formaldehyde RNA Gel Wear gloves.

    E-print Network

    Aris, John P.

    H20. Dilute 30% H202 to 3%. Fill apparatus with 3% H202. Submerge comb and dams. Treat for 10 minutes buffer. Do not add ethidium bromide to gel or running buffer. 2. Have up to 5 µg RNA in 2 µl DEPC-dH2O

  10. Application of chitosan/polyacrylamide nanofibres for removal of chromate and phosphate in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nthumbi, Richard M.; Catherine Ngila, J.; Moodley, Brenda; Kindness, Andrew; Petrik, Leslie

    Water pollution is an intractable environmental problem in South Africa. Management of the water resource is vital in order to address the water scarcity issues. Research on remediation of contaminated water has focused mainly on the removal of heavy metals such as Pb, Cd, Zn, Hg and Cu and neglected other inorganic pollutants. In this work we focus on the removal of anions, namely chromate and phosphate. Chromium is extensively used in the textile, leather and metallurgy industries and contaminates surface water and groundwater when inadequately treated industrial effluents are discharged. Chromium has been associated with irregular sugar metabolism, nosebleeds and ulcers, and it is also carcinogenic. The phosphate ion is an essential micronutrient responsible for healthy plant growth. However, excess phosphate intake stimulates rapid growth of photosynthetic algae and cyanobacteria, resulting in eutrophication. This phenomenon (algal bloom) causes other organisms to die due to reduced oxygen in the water. In order to offer remediation measures, this study reports the use of electrospun nanofibres for the removal of chromate and phosphate anions. Adsorption experiments were carried out using nanofibres electrospun from chitosan and polyacrylamide polymer blends, cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. Quantification of chromium was done using ICP-OES while UV-Vis spectrophotometry was used for the determination of phosphates. Batch adsorption experiments were done to determine optimum adsorption parameters such as pH, contact time, temperature and initial analyte concentration. Removal of the ions using a flow-adsorption technique through a micro-column was performed. The experimental data obtained were analysed using Langmuir and Freundlich models to study the adsorption mechanisms. The nanofibres had an adsorption capacity for Cr(VI) and PO43- of 0.26 mg g-1 and 392 mg g-1, respectively, and removal efficiencies of 93% and 97.4%, in the same order, in synthetic water samples and environmental water samples. It was observed that both chromium(VI) and phosphate adsorption followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. During the regeneration process, it was established that Cr(VI) was reduced to Cr(III) at the surface of the sorbent. This reaction offers the advantage of reducing the toxicity of chromium(VI) in water. The results of this work have potential applications in the removal of these anions in contaminated drinking water thus improving its quality for human consumption.

  11. Polyacrylamide hydrogels: an effective tool for delivering liquid baits to pest ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Buczkowski, Grzegorz; Roper, Elray; Chin, Darren

    2014-04-01

    Ant management in urban and natural areas often relies on toxic baits. Liquid baits are highly attractive to pest ants because they mimic natural food sources such as honeydew and nectar, the principal dietary components of many ants. However, liquid bait use has been limited owing to the lack of bait dispensers that are effective, inexpensive, and easy to service. The current study evaluated the potential of water-storing crystals (polyacrylamide spheres) to effectively deliver liquid thiamethoxam baits to laboratory colonies of Argentine ants, Linepithema humile Mayr. Results of laboratory trials show that bait crystals saturated in 25% sucrose solution containing 0.007% thiamethoxam are highly attractive to Argentine ants and highly effective against all castes and life stages, including workers, queens, and brood. Fresh bait crystals were highly effective and required approximately 2 d to kill all workers and approximately 6 d to achieve complete mortality in queens and brood. Results of bait aging tests show that the crystals lose approximately 70% of moisture in 8 h and the duration of outdoor exposure has a significant effect on moisture loss and subsequently bait acceptance and bait efficacy. A gradual decrease in mortality was observed for all castes and life stages as bait age increased. In general, fresh baits and those aged for < 8 h retained their efficacy and caused substantial mortality. Baits aged longer than 8 h were substantially less attractive and less effective. Horizontal transfer tests examined the transfer of thiamethoxam from live treated donors to live untreated recipients. The results show that donor ants that obtain thiamethoxam by feeding on bait crystals effectively transfer it to untreated recipient ants. The level of secondary mortality depended on the donor:recipient ratio, with approximately 40% recipient worker mortality with the 1:5 ratio and 15% recipient worker mortality with 1:10 or 1:20 ratios. However, no queens died in any transfer tests, suggesting that multiple feedings from multiple donors may be necessary to produce queen mortality. The results of the transfer tests demonstrate the role of trophallaxis in the distribution of thiamethoxam and confirm that thiamethoxam is effectively transferred in Argentine ant colonies. The distribution of thiamethoxam within Argentine ant colonies was further examined using protein marking coupled with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect the marker. The distribution of thiamethoxam was highly efficient, with 79 +/- 13% of workers testing positive at 15 min and 100 +/- 0% of workers testing positive at 6 h. In summary, the results of this study demonstrate that water-storing crystals effectively deliver thiamethoxam to all castes and life stages of Argentine ants and may offer an effective tool for Argentine ant management. PMID:24772557

  12. Polyelectrolyte intelligent gels. Design and applications

    E-print Network

    Piero Chiarelli; Danilo De Rossi

    2012-06-21

    In this chapter polyelectrolyte intelligent gels are examined along three broad lines. The effects of different physical, chemical and biological stimuli on gels response are analysed and mechanisms of response are outlined. The broad range of biomedical applications of smart gels is reviewed and limits and perspectives of the proposed techniques and devices are crititically discussed. Finally, continuous modelling of gel electromechanochemistry is described, providing quantitative tools to assess swelling equilibrium conditions and coupled kinetics.

  13. Characteristics of platelet gels combined with silk

    PubMed Central

    Pallotta, Isabella; Kluge, Jonathan A.; Moreau, Jodie; Calabrese, Rossella

    2014-01-01

    Platelet gel, a fibrin network containing activated platelets, is widely used in regenerative medicine due the capacity of platelet-derived growth factors to accelerate and direct healing processes. However, limitations to this approach include poor mechanical properties, relatively rapid degradation, and the lack of control of release of growth factors at the site of injection. These issues compromise the ability of platelet gels for sustained function in regenerative medicine. In the present study, a combination of platelet gels with silk fibroin gel was studied to address the above limitations. Mixing sonicated silk gels with platelet gels extended the release of growth factors without inhibiting gel forming ability. The released growth factors were biologically active and their delivery was modified further by manipulation of the charge of the silk protein. Moreover, the silk gel augmented both the rheological properties and compressive stiffness of the platelet gel, tuned by the silk concentration and/or silk/platelet gel ratio. Silk-platelet gel injections in nude rats supported enhanced cell infiltration and blood vessel formation representing a step towards new platelet gel formulations with enhanced therapeutic impact. PMID:24480538

  14. Pro-Q Diamond Phosphoprotein Gel Stain

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    Pro-Q Diamond Phosphoprotein Gel Stain In-gel Detection Technology for Protein Phosphorylation and phosphoproteomics, the Pro-Q Diamond phos- phoprotein gel stain is a breakthrough technology that provides a simple phosphoproteins, the Pro-Q Diamond signal is linear over three orders of magnitude and the strength of the signal

  15. Amphoteric native defects in semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Walukiewicz, W.

    1989-05-22

    We show that a new concept of amphoteric native defects with strongly Fermi level dependent defect formation energy provides the basis for a unified explanation of a large variety of phenomena in semiconductors. Formation of Schottky barriers, particle irradiation induced compensation, doping-induced superlattice intermixing, and limits of free-carrier concentration find for the first time a common simple explanation.

  16. Native Art of the Southwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langham, Barbara A.

    1997-01-01

    Provides historical information on native Southwest peoples and their arts to encourage appreciation and understanding of this cultural heritage. Provides instructions and supply lists for age-appropriate craft projects including woven baskets and rugs, clay pots, clay and paper beads, silver bracelets, kachina dolls, sand paintings, dream…

  17. CORRESPONDENCE Non-natives: 141

    E-print Network

    García-Berthou, Emili

    to prioritize according to the impact of troublesome species, as in the Australian Weed Risk Assessment. Second foundation. The non-native status of a species is highly relevant to assessing its potential environmental and economic impact. Unrestrained growth and environmental damage follow when there are no natural enemies

  18. Native American Adult Reader I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Lovern Root, Ed.

    Aspects of Native American history and culture as well as issues and concerns of American Indians are presented in the twelve short articles in this reader for adults. Intended for use in an adult basic education/GED program, the reader features simply written stories (for grades 0-3), illustrations, vocabulary lists and student study questions.…

  19. Resiliency and Native American Teenagers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinstein, Sheryl; Driving-Hawk, Christopher; Baartman, Jyl

    2009-01-01

    The term resiliency is used to describe the "human capacity and ability to face, overcome, be strengthened by, and even be transformed by experiences of adversity." Native American culture provides a framework for fostering resiliency. The Lakota Sioux society identifies four core needs that foster resiliency and motivate individuals to reach…

  20. Native Birthrights and Indigenous Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Adrienne Brant; Lunday, Tammy

    2014-01-01

    In traditional tribal cultures, children are treated with great respect and eagerly learn from their elders. But in contemporary Western society, Native students have the highest dropout rates and are subjected to disproportionate school disciplinary exclusion, which becomes a pipeline into the justice system (Sprague, Vincent, Tobin, & Pavel,…

  1. A Mandate for Native History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pember, Mary Annette

    2007-01-01

    The Montana Indian Education For All Act may be setting an audacious national precedent for America's primary and secondary schools. The law requires all Montana schools to include curricula about the history, culture and contemporary status of the state's American Indian population. The new constitutional mandate has eyes throughout Native

  2. Rapid in vitro labeling procedures for two-dimensional gel fingerprinting

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.F.; Fowlks, E.R.

    1982-01-15

    Improvements of existing in vitro procedures for labeling RNA radioactively, and modifications of the two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system for making RNA fingerprints are described. These improvements are (a) inactivation of phosphatase with nitric acid at pH 2.0 eliminated the phenol-cholorform extraction step during 5'-end labeling with polynucleotide kinase and (..gamma..-/sup 32/P)ATP; (b) ZnSO/sub 4/ inactivation of R Nase T/sub 1/ results in a highly efficient procedure for 3'-end labeling with T4 ligase and (5'-/sup 32/P)pCp; and (c) a rapid 4-min procedure for variable quantity range of /sup 125/I and RNA results in a qualitative and quantitative sample for high-molecular weight RNA fingerprinting. Thus, these in vitro procedures become rapid and reproducible when combined with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis which eliminates simultaneously labeled impurities. Each labeling procedure is compared, using tobacco mosaic virus, Brome mosaic virus, and polio RNA. A series of Ap-rich oligonucleotides was discovered in the inner genome of Brome mosaic Virus RNA-3.

  3. Mathematical modelling of response of polymer gel dosimeters to brachytherapy radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasr, A. T.; Chain, J. N. M.; Schreiner, L. J.; McAuley, K. B.

    2010-11-01

    A dynamic partial differential equation (PDE) model is used to simulate effects of a single Ir192 brachytherapy seed on the amount and composition of polymer formed during polyacrylamide gel (PAG) dosimetry. Simulations are conducted for a point-source brachytherapy seed placed at the center of a 6%T 50% C anoxic PAG phantom. The seed is removed after one minute, but polymerization is simulated up to a final time of 24 hours. Simulation results indicate that changes occur in both the mass of polymer formed per unit dose and in the crosslink density as a function of the radial distance from the brachytherapy seed. For example, at a distance of 5 mm from the seed, 41 mg of polymer form per Gy of radiation absorbed (after 24 hours), whereas at a larger distance of 5 cm from the seed 75 mg of polymer form per Gy. The polymer that forms near the seed is predicted to have a higher level of crosslinking than the polymer that forms further away. These results suggest potential calibration problems that may occur during brachytherapy dosimetry using polymer gels.

  4. Quantitative proteomics: assessing the spectrum of in-gel protein detection methods

    PubMed Central

    Gauci, Victoria J.; Wright, Elise P.

    2010-01-01

    Proteomics research relies heavily on visualization methods for detection of proteins separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Commonly used staining approaches involve colorimetric dyes such as Coomassie Brilliant Blue, fluorescent dyes including Sypro Ruby, newly developed reactive fluorophores, as well as a plethora of others. The most desired characteristic in selecting one stain over another is sensitivity, but this is far from the only important parameter. This review evaluates protein detection methods in terms of their quantitative attributes, including limit of detection (i.e., sensitivity), linear dynamic range, inter-protein variability, capacity for spot detection after 2D gel electrophoresis, and compatibility with subsequent mass spectrometric analyses. Unfortunately, many of these quantitative criteria are not routinely or consistently addressed by most of the studies published to date. We would urge more rigorous routine characterization of stains and detection methodologies as a critical approach to systematically improving these critically important tools for quantitative proteomics. In addition, substantial improvements in detection technology, particularly over the last decade or so, emphasize the need to consider renewed characterization of existing stains; the quantitative stains we need, or at least the chemistries required for their future development, may well already exist. PMID:21686332

  5. Radiation-induced refraction artifacts in the optical CT readout of polymer gel dosimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Warren G.; Jirasek, Andrew; Wells, Derek M.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: The objective of this work is to demonstrate imaging artifacts that can occur during the optical computed tomography (CT) scanning of polymer gel dosimeters due to radiation-induced refractive index (RI) changes in polyacrylamide gels. Methods: A 1 L cylindrical polyacrylamide gel dosimeter was irradiated with 3 × 3 cm{sup 2} square beams of 6 MV photons. A prototype fan-beam optical CT scanner was used to image the dosimeter. Investigative optical CT scans were performed to examine two types of rayline bending: (i) bending within the plane of the fan-beam and (ii) bending out the plane of the fan-beam. To address structured errors, an iterative Savitzky–Golay (ISG) filtering routine was designed to filter 2D projections in sinogram space. For comparison, 2D projections were alternatively filtered using an adaptive-mean (AM) filter. Results: In-plane rayline bending was most notably observed in optical CT projections where rays of the fan-beam confronted a sustained dose gradient that was perpendicular to their trajectory but within the fan-beam plane. These errors caused distinct streaking artifacts in image reconstructions due to the refraction of higher intensity rays toward more opaque regions of the dosimeter. Out-of-plane rayline bending was observed in slices of the dosimeter that featured dose gradients perpendicular to the plane of the fan-beam. These errors caused widespread, severe overestimations of dose in image reconstructions due to the higher-than-actual opacity that is perceived by the scanner when light is bent off of the detector array. The ISG filtering routine outperformed AM filtering for both in-plane and out-of-plane rayline errors caused by radiation-induced RI changes. For in-plane rayline errors, streaks in an irradiated region (>7 Gy) were as high as 49% for unfiltered data, 14% for AM, and 6% for ISG. For out-of-plane rayline errors, overestimations of dose in a low-dose region (?50 cGy) were as high as 13 Gy for unfiltered data, 10 Gy for AM, and 3.1 Gy for ISG. The ISG routine also addressed unrelated artifacts that previously needed to be manually removed in sinogram space. However, the ISG routine blurred reconstructions, causing losses in spatial resolution of ?5 mm in the plane of the fan-beam and ?8 mm perpendicular to the fan-beam. Conclusions: This paper reveals a new category of imaging artifacts that can affect the optical CT readout of polyacrylamide gel dosimeters. Investigative scans show that radiation-induced RI changes can cause significant rayline errors when rays confront a prolonged dose gradient that runs perpendicular to their trajectory. In fan-beam optical CT, these errors manifested in two ways: (1) distinct streaking artifacts caused by in-plane rayline bending and (2) severe overestimations of opacity caused by rays bending out of the fan-beam plane and missing the detector array. Although the ISG filtering routine mitigated these errors better than an adaptive-mean filtering routine, it caused unacceptable losses in spatial resolution.

  6. 76 FR 75899 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ...issue an appealable decision to Chignik Lagoon Native Corporation. The decision approves...surface estate is conveyed to Chignik Lagoon Native Corporation. The lands are in the vicinity of Chignik Lagoon, Alaska, and are located in:...

  7. NABS Program: (Native Americans in Biological Science).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettys, Nancy, Comp.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the four-week summer program of the Native Americans in Biological Sciences Program that engages Native American eighth- and ninth-grade students in studying the problems related to the waste water treatment plant in Cushing, Oklahoma. (MDH)

  8. 76 FR 75899 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... Chignik Lagoon Native Corporation. The decision approves the surface estate in the lands described below... is conveyed to Chignik Lagoon Native Corporation. The lands are in the vicinity of Chignik...

  9. Encountering Complexity: Native Musics in the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyea, Andrea

    1999-01-01

    Describes Native American musics, focusing on issues such as music and the experience of time, metaphor and metaphorical aspects, and spirituality and sounds from nature. Discusses Native American metaphysics and its reflection in the musics. States that an effective curriculum would provide a new receptivity to Native American musics. (CMK)

  10. The Effects of Testing on Native Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavers, Dean; Locke, Patricia

    The effects of testing on Native Americans and the outcomes of test use are discussed. Native Americans are exposed to a wide variety of tests during their lifetimes, in Bureau of Indian Affairs Schools, in high schools, in employment, and for college entrance and placement. Too much reliance can be placed on tests taken by Native American youth…

  11. 34 CFR 300.29 - Native language.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Native language. 300.29 Section 300.29 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.29 Native language. (a) Native language, when used with respect to an individual who is limited English proficient, means the following: (1) The...

  12. 34 CFR 300.29 - Native language.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Native language. 300.29 Section 300.29 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.29 Native language. (a) Native language, when used with respect to an individual who is limited English proficient, means the following: (1) The...

  13. 34 CFR 303.25 - Native language.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Native language. 303.25 Section 303.25 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.25 Native language. (a) Native language, when used... section 602(18) of the Act), means— (1) The language normally used by that individual, or, in the case...

  14. 34 CFR 300.29 - Native language.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Native language. 300.29 Section 300.29 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.29 Native language. (a) Native language, when used with respect to an individual who is limited English proficient, means the following: (1) The...

  15. 34 CFR 303.25 - Native language.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Native language. 303.25 Section 303.25 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.25 Native language. (a) Native language, when used... section 602(18) of the Act), means— (1) The language normally used by that individual, or, in the case...

  16. 34 CFR 303.25 - Native language.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Native language. 303.25 Section 303.25 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.25 Native language. (a) Native language, when used... section 602(18) of the Act), means— (1) The language normally used by that individual, or, in the case...

  17. 34 CFR 300.29 - Native language.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Native language. 300.29 Section 300.29 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.29 Native language. (a) Native language, when used with respect to an individual who is limited English proficient, means the following: (1) The...

  18. 34 CFR 300.29 - Native language.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... written language, the mode of communication is that normally used by the individual (such as sign language... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Native language. 300.29 Section 300.29 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.29 Native language. (a) Native language, when...

  19. The State of Native American Youth Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Div. of General Pediatrics and Adolescent Health.

    This survey on the health status of Native American adolescents living on or near reservations was completed by 14,000 American Indian and Alaska Native youths from 50 tribes attending 200 schools in 12 states. Results indicate that most Native teenagers felt their family cared about them a great deal, and many would go to a family member first…

  20. Surrounded by Beauty: Arts of Native America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    Native American languages have no equivalent for the word "art." Yet the objects Native Americans have used and still use suggest that they are a highly spiritual people who create objects of extraordinary beauty. In Native American thought, there is no distinction between what is beautiful or functional, and what is sacred or secular. Design goes…

  1. The Native American Fish & Wildlife Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    The Native American Fish & Wildlife Society helps over 200 tribes and Alaska Native villages implement best management practices, informs them about wildlife issues, provides hazardous materials training, trains game wardens, and conducts a summer practicum for Native youth on environmental issues and careers in natural resource fields.…

  2. Stereotyping of Native People in Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Agnes

    Canadian Indians have long been represented by stereotypes presented by non-native writers. Only recently have Indians begun to create their own literature and re-examine historic sources of native speech and tales. This paper traces early European views of the bloodthirsty native and the noble savage, but contrasts them with recorded comments of…

  3. Native Americans and Wage Labor: Ethnohistorical Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlefield, Alice, Ed.; Knack, Martha C., Ed.

    This book reconsiders a largely ignored fact of North American Indian economic life--the place of wage labor in the culture and history of Native Americans. Case studies examine social networks of Native agricultural laborers, the decline of Native communities from self-sufficient producers to lower-class wage laborers, vocational education in…

  4. Native American Children in Michigan. [Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    W. K. Kellogg Foundation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Native American Children in Michigan," provides a historical context for the tenuous relationship between Michigan's 12 federally recognized tribes and the state government, paying particular attention to the erosion of Native American education programs and the disproportionate number of Native children who find themselves in both the child…

  5. Native Seed Storage and Germination Nicholas Peterson

    E-print Network

    Gosselin, Louis A.

    Native Seed Storage and Germination Nicholas Peterson Supervisors: Lauchlan Fraser, Wendy Gardner-disturbed condition, there is a great need for a more abundant, consistent, and higher quality supply of native seed. This practice is not necessarily consistent with the goal of restoration. More native seed nurseries are needed

  6. Healthy Native Babies Project Workbook and Toolkit

    E-print Network

    Rau, Don C.

    of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) NatioNal iNstitutes of HealtH U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Healthy Native Babies Project Workgroup Developed with the Native American created for the Healthy Native Babies Project were crafted with care and revised with the feedback

  7. Significant Literature by and about Native Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Cecilia A., Comp.; Travis, M. Eunice, Comp.

    Significant literature about Native Americans, some written by Native Americans, comprises this bibliography. Materials relevant to Native Americans found at Kansas State University are listed. Over 850 books, articles on microfiche, studies, documents, and publications arranged by subject categories are contained in this bibliography. The subject…

  8. Polyacrylamide hydrogel pulmonary embolism--A fatal consequence of an illegal cosmetic vaginal tightening procedure: A case report.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yijie; Zhang, Lin; Li, Shangxun; Yang, Yi; Xing, Jingjun; Li, Wenhe; Wang, Xinmei; Zhou, Yiwu

    2014-05-01

    Vaginal tightening is a kind of esthetic surgery aimed at enhancing sexual satisfaction during intercourse. Although the injective vaginal tightening procedure is informal, there are already some reports of its application. But pulmonary embolism is a really rare therapeutic complication of this procedure. We report a case of death due to the non-thrombotic pulmonary embolism as a consequence of illegal cosmetic vaginal-tightening procedure using polyacrylamide hydrogel. A 34-year-old woman was hospitalized with paroxysmal abdominal cramps and diarrhea as initial symptoms, while she concealed the genital cosmetic surgery history. Respiratory distress presented only 1.5h before she died. The result of autopsy revealed the cause of death as pulmonary embolism due to the hydrogel which was injected into her vaginal wall. The emboli were confirmed as polyacrylamide hydrogel by Alcian-blue stain and the Fourier transform infrared scanning. It is suggested that pulmonary embolism should not be discarded in the expertise of deaths following cosmetic implant surgeries. It broadens our understanding about death associated with esthetic genital procedures and informs clinicians and medical examiners of the potential death of this type. And detailed investigations of previous medical and surgical history will always play a critical role in the certification of cause of death. PMID:24656776

  9. Effect of the presence of cationic polyacrylamide on the surface properties of aqueous alumina suspension-stability mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wi?niewska, Ma?gorzata; Chibowski, Stanis?aw; Urban, Teresa

    2014-11-01

    The effects of solution pH and the content of cationic groups in polyacrylamide (PAM) macromolecules on the stability mechanism of aqueous alumina suspension were investigated. The following experimental techniques were applied: spectrophotometry, potentiometric titration, microelectrophoresis, viscosimetry and turbidimetry. They enable determination of polymer adsorbed amount, surface charge density and zeta potential of solid particles in the presence and absence of PAM, as well as thickness of polymer adsorption layer, size of macromolecules in the solution and stability of the Al2O3-polymer systems, respectively. The obtained results indicate that adsorption of PAM increases with the increasing pH, whereas the thickness of polymeric adsorption layer decreases. Additionally, the greater the number of cationic groups in the PAM chains is, the higher adsorption was found. The polymer presence influences on the alumina suspension stability. At pH 3 and 6 the slight deterioration of stability conditions of solid particle covered with polyacrylamide was observed. At pH 9 the systems containing polymer are unstable, similarly to the suspension without PAM, but the mechanism of their destabilization is different.

  10. Impact of polyacrylamide with different contents of carboxyl groups on the chromium (III) oxide adsorption properties in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Wi?niewska, Ma?gorzata; Chibowski, Stanis?aw; Urban, Teresa

    2015-02-11

    The main goal of experiments was determination of solution pH and contents of anionic groups in polyacrylamide (PAM) macromolecules on the stability mechanism of chromium (III) oxide suspension. The spectrophotometry, potentiometric titration, microelectrophoresis, viscosimetry and turbidimetry were applied. They enabled determination of polymer adsorbed amount, surface and diffusion charges of solid particles with and without PAM, thickness of polymer adsorption layer, macromolecule dimensions in the solution and stability of the Cr2O3 - polymer systems, respectively. It was found that adsorption of anionic PAM decreases and thickness of polymeric adsorption layer increases with the increasing pH. Slightly higher adsorption was obtained for the PAM samples containing a greater number of carboxyl groups. At pH 3 and 9 insignificant deterioration of stability conditions of Cr2O3 particle covered with polyacrylamide was observed (neutralization of solid positive charge by the adsorbed polymeric chains (pH 3) and single polymeric bridges formation (pH 9)). The electrosteric repulsion between the solid particles covered with PAM layers at pH 6, is the main reason for significant improvement of Cr2O3 suspension stability in the polymer presence. PMID:25464324

  11. History of NASA/Native People Native Homelands Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy

    2000-01-01

    This workshop is one of the follow-on local assessment activities from the US National Assessment on the Impact of Climate Change on the US. N. Maynard (for NASA) helped create and get under way an initiative which brought together climate change scientists from around the US with Native Americans to bring together classic Western European scientists with knowledge from native peoples - from such sources as oral histories of drought, major fires, etc. The purpose of this was to encourage not only joint science but also bring NASA resources and education materials to Tribal schools and encourage joint preparation of educational and training materials. N. Maynard's talk will provide history of that process and discuss possible ways to collaborate in the future, building on this effort.

  12. Predicting Native English-Like Performance by Native Japanese Speakers

    PubMed Central

    Ingvalson, Erin M.; McClelland, James L.; Holt, Lori L.

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the predictions of the Speech Learning Model (SLM, Flege, 1988) on the case of native Japanese (NJ) speakers’ perception and production of English /? / and /l/. NJ speakers’ degree of foreign accent, intelligibility of /? –l/ productions, and ability to perceive natural speech /? –l/ were assessed as a function of length of residency in North America, age of arrival in North America, years of student status in an English environment, and percentage of Japanese usage. Additionally, the extent to which NJ speakers’ utilized the F3 onset cue when differentiating /? –l/ in perception and production was assessed, this cue having previously been shown to be the most reliable indicator of category membership. As predicted, longer residencies predicted more native English-like accents, more intelligible productions, and more accurate natural speech identifications; however, no changes were observed in F3 reliance, indicating that though performance improves it does so through reliance on other cues. PMID:22021941

  13. The Sound of German: Descriptions of Accent by Native and Non-Native Listeners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkerson, Miranda E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a study of factors affecting judgments of native and non-native accent in German. The data suggest that listener status (native or non-native speakers) and degree of experience with German play a role in the aspects of speech which raters cite as salient. Interestingly, the same descriptive terms used by raters were shown to…

  14. Closing Kiswahili Conversations: The Performance of Native and Non-native Speakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omar, Alwiya S.

    A study investigated the ways in which native and non-native speakers of Kiswahili close conversations. Native speaker data were obtained from observation and field notes, recorded face-to-face interactions, recorded telephone conversations, reconstructed dialogues, and televised plays. Non-native speaker (American) data were drawn from role-play…

  15. 77 FR 72832 - Applications for New Awards; Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Applications for New Awards; Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program AGENCY: Office of English Language Acquisition, Department of Education. Overview Information Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program...

  16. Error Gravity: Perceptions of Native-Speaking and Non-Native Speaking Faculty in EFL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kresovich, Brant M.

    1988-01-01

    A survey of teachers of composition in English as a Second Language in Japan addressed the perceptions of native-English-speaking and non-native-English-speaking teachers of the acceptability of specific error types within sentences. The native speakers of English were one British and 16 Americans. The non-native group was comprised of 26 Japanese…

  17. Nanocrystal/sol-gel nanocomposites

    DOEpatents

    Klimov, Victor L.; Petruska, Melissa A.

    2010-05-25

    The present invention is directed to a process for preparing a solid composite having colloidal nanocrystals dispersed within a sol-gel matrix, the process including admixing colloidal nanocrystals with an amphiphilic polymer including hydrophilic groups selected from the group consisting of --COOH, --OH, --SO.sub.3H, --NH.sub.2, and --PO.sub.3H.sub.2 within a solvent to form an alcohol-soluble colloidal nanocrystal-polymer complex, admixing the alcohol-soluble colloidal nanocrystal-polymer complex and a sol-gel precursor material, and, forming the solid composite from the admixture. The present invention is also directed to the resultant solid composites and to the alcohol-soluble colloidal nanocrystal-polymer complexes.

  18. The Swelling of Olympic Gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Michael; Fischer, Jakob; Werner, Marco; Sommer, Jens-Uwe

    2014-03-01

    The swelling equilibrium of Olympic gels is studied by Monte Carlo Simulations. We observe that gels consisting of flexible cyclic molecules of a higher degree of polymerization N show a smaller equilibrium swelling degree Q ~N - 0 . 28?0- 0 . 72 for the same monomer volume fraction ?0 at network preparation. This observation is explained by a disinterpenetration process of overlapping non-concatenated polymers upon swelling. In the limit of a sufficiently large number of concatenations per cyclic molecule we expect that the equilibrium degree of swelling becomes proportional to ?0- 1 / 2 independent of N. Our results challenge current textbook models for the equilibrium degree of swelling of entangled polymer networks. Now at: Bio Systems Analysis Group, Jena Centre for Bioinformatics (JCB) and Department for Mathematics and Computer Sciences, Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, 07743 Jena, Germany.

  19. The use of gel chromatography for the determination of sizes and relative molecular masses of proteins. Interpretation of calibration curves in terms of gel-pore-size distribution.

    PubMed

    le Maire, M; Ghazi, A; Møller, J V; Aggerbeck, L P

    1987-04-15

    The separation of proteins by gel-exclusion chromatography has been explained in terms of partitioning of the macromolecules within the gel by a distribution of pores of various radii. The assumption that the distribution of pore sizes is Gaussian has led to the prediction of a linear relationship between the molecular Stokes radius (RS) of the protein and the function erf-1 (1-KD), where KD is the partition coefficient [Ackers (1967) J. Biol. Chem. 242, 3237-3238]. Since careful calibrations of classical (agarose and dextran) gels and h.p.l.c. gels have shown that such a linear relationship is not verified experimentally over a wide range of native protein sizes, we have reinvestigated the model of Ackers (above reference). We show that Ackers' (above reference) derivation is not valid except for a particular Gaussian distribution of pore sizes centred at the origin. Relaxation of this restriction to allow for other types of Gaussian distributions cannot account for the non-linear calibration curves that we have obtained. Instead we show that the pore-size distribution can be calculated from the experimentally determined function KD = f(RS) and that this distribution is bimodal (non-Gaussian). One distribution is centred below 2 nm, whereas the mean value of the second one is around 6-8 nm. The minimum in this bimodal distribution corresponds, for some gels, to a region of poor resolution, which needs to be appreciated for the proper use of gel chromatography in the determination of molecular size. PMID:3632628

  20. Free classification of American English dialects by native and non-native listeners

    PubMed Central

    Clopper, Cynthia G.; Bradlow, Ann R.

    2009-01-01

    Most second language acquisition research focuses on linguistic structures, and less research has examined the acquisition of sociolinguistic patterns. The current study explored the perceptual classification of regional dialects of American English by native and non-native listeners using a free classification task. Results revealed similar classification strategies for the native and non-native listeners. However, the native listeners were more accurate overall than the non-native listeners. In addition, the non-native listeners were less able to make use of constellations of cues to accurately classify the talkers by dialect. However, the non-native listeners were able to attend to cues that were either phonologically or sociolinguistically relevant in their native language. These results suggest that non-native listeners can use information in the speech signal to classify talkers by regional dialect, but that their lack of signal-independent cultural knowledge about variation in the second language leads to less accurate classification performance. PMID:20161400

  1. SODIUM DODECYL SULPHATE POLYACRILAMIDE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS (SDS-PAGE) FOR DIFFERENTIATION OF DIFFERENT SCHISTOSOME AND FASCIOLID SPECIES.

    PubMed

    Elsagheir, Asmaa M A; Abd Ellah, Osama H; Sayed, Fatma G; Monib, Mohammed E M; Abdel-Kader, Mohammad S

    2015-08-01

    Fasciola and Schistosoma spp. are digenetic trematodes that have a major detrimental impact on human health worldwide. It is not unusual to find common molecules among parasites of different species, genera, or phyla. In this study Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was used to identify the common proteins of adult Fasciola and Schistosoma spp. Adult Fasciola spp, were collected from the bile ducts of naturally infected cattle and sheep. Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium adults surface antigens were prepared in Theodor Bilharz Research Institute were used. Results showed sharing bands between all worms, which have the same molecular weight of 36 kDa. On the other hand, band with molecular weight 41 kDa was sharing between them except F. hepatica. Bands at 48 and 170 kDa were sharing between all species of Fasciola spp and Schistosoma mansoni. PMID:26485851

  2. PCR amplfication on a microarray of gel-immobilized oligonucleotides : detection of bacterial toxin- and drug-resistent genes and their mutations.

    SciTech Connect

    Strizhkov, B. N.; Drobyshev, A. L.; Mikhailovich, V. M.; Mirzabekov, A. D.; Biochip Technology Center; Engelhardt Inst. of Molecular Biology

    2000-10-01

    PCR amplification on a microarray of gel-immobilized primers (microchip) has been developed. One of a pair of PCR primers was immobilized inside a separate microchip polyacrylamide porous gel pad of 0.1 x 0.1 x 0.02 (or 0.04) micron in size and 0.2 (or 0.4) nL in volume. The amplification was carried out simultaneously both in solution covering the microchip array and inside gel pads. Each gel pad contained the immobilized forward primers, while the fluorescently labeled reverse primers, as well as all components of the amplification reaction, diffused into the gel pads from the solution. To increase the amplification efficiency, the forward primers were also added into the solution. The kinetics of amplification was measured in real time in parallel for all gel pads with a fluorescent microscope equipped with a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. The accuracy of the amplification was assessed by using the melting curves obtained for the duplexes formed by the labeled amplification product and the gel-immobilized primers during the amplification process; alternatively, the duplexes were produced by hybridization of the extended immobilized primers with labeled oligonucleotide probes. The on-chip amplification was applied to detect the anthrax toxin genes and the plasmid-borne beta-lactamase gene responsible for bacterial ampicillin resistance. The allele-specific type of PCR amplification was used to identify the Shiga toxin gene and discriminate it from the Shiga-like one. The genomic mutations responsible for rifampicin resistance of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains were detected by the same type of PCR amplification of the rpoB gene fragment isolated from sputum of tuberculosis patients. The on-chip PCR amplification has been shown to be a rapid, inexpensive and powerful tool to test genes responsible for bacterial toxin production and drug resistance, as well as to reveal point nucleotide mutations.

  3. Optimal control of native predators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Julien; O'Connell, Allan F.; Kendall, William L.; Runge, Michael C.; Simons, Theodore R.; Waldstein, Arielle H.; Schulte, Shiloh A.; Converse, Sarah J.; Smith, Graham W.; Pinion, Timothy; Rikard, Michael; Zipkin, Elise F.

    2010-01-01

    We apply decision theory in a structured decision-making framework to evaluate how control of raccoons (Procyon lotor), a native predator, can promote the conservation of a declining population of American Oystercatchers (Haematopus palliatus) on the Outer Banks of North Carolina. Our management objective was to maintain Oystercatcher productivity above a level deemed necessary for population recovery while minimizing raccoon removal. We evaluated several scenarios including no raccoon removal, and applied an adaptive optimization algorithm to account for parameter uncertainty. We show how adaptive optimization can be used to account for uncertainties about how raccoon control may affect Oystercatcher productivity. Adaptive management can reduce this type of uncertainty and is particularly well suited for addressing controversial management issues such as native predator control. The case study also offers several insights that may be relevant to the optimal control of other native predators. First, we found that stage-specific removal policies (e.g., yearling versus adult raccoon removals) were most efficient if the reproductive values among stage classes were very different. Second, we found that the optimal control of raccoons would result in higher Oystercatcher productivity than the minimum levels recommended for this species. Third, we found that removing more raccoons initially minimized the total number of removals necessary to meet long term management objectives. Finally, if for logistical reasons managers cannot sustain a removal program by removing a minimum number of raccoons annually, managers may run the risk of creating an ecological trap for Oystercatchers.

  4. Improved Mobility Control for Carbon Dioxide (CO{sub 2}) Enhanced Oil Recovery Using Silica-Polymer-Initiator (SPI) Gels

    SciTech Connect

    Oglesby, Kenneth

    2014-01-31

    SPI gels are multi-component silicate based gels for improving (areal and vertical) conformance in oilfield enhanced recovery operations, including water-floods and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) floods, as well as other applications. SPI mixtures are like-water when pumped, but form light up to very thick, paste-like gels in contact with CO{sub 2}. When formed they are 3 to 10 times stronger than any gelled polyacrylamide gel now available, however, they are not as strong as cement or epoxy, allowing them to be washed / jetted out of the wellbore without drilling. This DOE funded project allowed 8 SPI field treatments to be performed in 6 wells (5 injection wells and 1 production well) in 2 different fields with different operators, in 2 different basins (Gulf Coast and Permian) and in 2 different rock types (sandstone and dolomite). Field A was in a central Mississippi sandstone that injected CO{sub 2} as an immiscible process. Field B was in the west Texas San Andres dolomite formation with a mature water-alternating-gas miscible CO{sub 2} flood. Field A treatments are now over 1 year old while Field B treatments have only 4 months data available under variable WAG conditions. Both fields had other operational events and well work occurring before/ during / after the treatments making definitive evaluation difficult. Laboratory static beaker and dynamic sand pack tests were performed with Ottawa sand and both fields’ core material, brines and crude oils to improve SPI chemistry, optimize SPI formulations, ensure SPI mix compatibility with field rocks and fluids, optimize SPI treatment field treatment volumes and methods, and ensure that strong gels set in the reservoir. Field quality control procedures were designed and utilized. Pre-treatment well (surface) injectivities ranged from 0.39 to 7.9 MMCF/psi. The SPI treatment volumes ranged from 20.7 cubic meters (m{sup 3}, 5460 gallons/ 130 bbls) to 691 m{sup 3} (182,658 gallons/ 4349 bbls). Various size and types of chemical/ water buffers before and after the SPI mix ensured that pre-gelled SPI mix got out into the formation before setting into a gel. SPI gels were found to be 3 to 10 times stronger than any commercially available cross-linked polyacrylamide gels based on Penetrometer and Bulk Gel Shear Testing. Because of SPI’s unique chemistry with CO{sub 2}, both laboratory and later field tests demonstrated that multiple, smaller volume SPI treatments maybe more effective than one single large SPI treatment. CO{sub 2} injectivities in injection well in both fields were reduced by 33 to 70% indicating that injected CO{sub 2} is now going into new zones. This reduction has lasted 1+ year in Field A. Oil production increased and CO{sub 2} production decreased in 5 Field A production wells, offsets to Well #1 injector, for a total of about 2,250 m{sup 3} (600,000 gallons/ 14,250 bbls) of incremental oil production- a $140 / SPI bbl return. Treated marginal production well, Field A Well #2, immediately began showing increased oil production totaling 238 m{sup 3} (63,000 gallons/ 1500 BBLs) over 1 year and an immediate 81% reduced gas-oil ratio.

  5. Metal-silica sol-gel materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiegman, Albert E. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to a single phase metal-silica sol-gel glass formed by the co-condensation of a transition metal with silicon atoms where the metal atoms are uniformly distributed within the sol-gel glass as individual metal centers. Any transition metal may be used in the sol-gel glasses. The present invention also relates to sensor materials where the sensor material is formed using the single phase metal-silica sol-gel glasses. The sensor materials may be in the form of a thin film or may be attached to an optical fiber. The present invention also relates to a method of sensing chemicals using the chemical sensors by monitoring the chromatic change of the metal-silica sol-gel glass when the chemical binds to the sensor. The present invention also relates to oxidation catalysts where a metal-silica sol-gel glass catalyzes the reaction. The present invention also relates to a method of performing oxidation reactions using the metal-silica sol-gel glasses. The present invention also relates to organopolymer metal-silica sol-gel composites where the pores of the metal-silica sol-gel glasses are filled with an organic polymer polymerized by the sol-gel glass.

  6. Generative force of self-oscillating gel.

    PubMed

    Hara, Yusuke; Mayama, Hiroyuki; Morishima, Keisuke

    2014-03-01

    We succeeded in measuring the generative force of a self-oscillating polymer gel in an aqueous solution comprising the three substrates of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction (malonic acid, sodium bromate, and nitric acid) under constant temperature. In this study, we developed an apparatus with a microforce sensor for measuring the generative force of small-sized gels (1 mm(3)). The self-oscillating polymer gel directly converts the chemical energy of the BZ reaction into mechanical work. It was determined that the generative force of the self-oscillating gel was 972 Pa, and the period of self-oscillation was 480 s at 18 °C. We demonstrated that the generative force of the gel was about a hundredth the generative force of a muscle in the body. We analyzed the time dependence of the color change in the self-oscillating polymer gel. The color of the gel changed periodically owing to the cyclic change in the redox state of the Ru moiety, induced by the BZ reaction. The peaks of the waveforms of the generative force and color change were almost identical. This result showed that the generative force was synchronized with the periodical change in the oxidation number of the Ru catalytic moiety in the gel. To understand a theoretical basis for the generative force of a self-oscillating gel, we considered a general theory that is based on the volume phase transition of gel and the two-parameter Oregonator model of the BZ reaction. PMID:24524539

  7. Tailoring the properties of supramolecular gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buerkle, Lauren

    Supramolecular gels created from low molecular weight species (gelators) have gathered wide attention over the past few decades on account of their highly ordered assembly and ability to respond to external stimuli. These properties make such gels highly promising candidates for a diverse range of applications including biomaterials, viscosity modifiers, sensors, and liquid crystalline materials. We have focused on the design and tailoring of guanosine (the ribonucleoside of the nucleobase guanine) hydrogels. It is well known that in an aqueous environment, guanosine forms circular hydrogen-bonded quartets around a monovalent metal ion, most commonly potassium. These quartets then stack to form high-aspect ratio fibers that entangle and branch to form gels. Despite facile gel formation, crystallization of the guanosine molecules out of the gel is a common occurrence that leads to gel collapse within hours of fabrication. In addition, guanosine and related gelators often require a high potassium concentration or acidic pH to gel, which presents limited practical use in our target application of tissue engineering. We have focused on the modification and analysis of guanosine gels via an additive and/or a change in chemical structure to inhibit crystallization and promote gelation at physiological salt concentrations. Additionally, initial cell culture experiments suggest that these gel materials show great potential as an easily accessible and inexpensive tissue engineering scaffold. We also examined the potential for supramolecular gels for use in personal care formulations as electrolyte-resistant rheology modifiers for aqueous systems. Sugar-based gels fit the necessary criteria; however, many of these molecules also crystallize from the gel over time. We achieved lifetime stabilization again via a mixing approach and examined the resulting properties of the stabilized gels.

  8. Gel barrier formation in unsaturated porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Meejeong; Corapcioglu, M. Yavuz

    2002-05-01

    The gel barrier formation by a gelling liquid (Colloidal Silica) injection in an unsaturated porous medium is investigated by developing a mathematical model and conducting numerical simulations. Gelation process is initiated by adding electrolytes such as NaCl, and the gel phase consisting of cross-linked colloidal silica particles grows as the gelation process proceeds. The mathematical model describing the transport and gelation of Colloidal Silica (CS) is based on coupled mass balance equations for the gel mixture (the sol phase plus the gel phase), gel phase (cross-linked colloidal silica particles plus water captured between cross-linked particles), and colloidal silica particles (discrete and cross-linked) and NaCl in the sol (suspension of discrete colloidal silica particles in water) and gel phases. The solutions in terms of volumetric fraction of the gel phase yield the gel mixture viscosity via the dependency on the volumetric fraction of gel phase. This dependency is determined from a kinetic gelation model with time-normalized viscosity curves. The proposed model is verified by comparing experimentally and numerically determined hydraulic conductivities of gel-treated soil columns at different CS injection volumes. The numerical experiments indicate that an impermeable gel layer is formed within the time period twice the gel-point in a one-dimensional flow system. At the same normalized time corresponding to twice the gel-point, the CS solutions with lower NaCl concentrations result in further migration and poor performance in plugging the pore space. The viscosity computation proposed in this study is compared with another method available in the literature. It is observed that the other method estimates the viscosity at the mixing zone higher than the one proposed by the authors. The proposed model can simulate realistic injection scenarios with various combinations of operating parameters such as NaCl concentration and NaCl mixing time, and thus providing guidelines in performing this technology on site.

  9. Gel barrier formation in unsaturated porous media.

    PubMed

    Kim, Meejeong; Corapcioglu, M Yavuz

    2002-05-01

    The gel barrier formation by a gelling liquid (Colloidal Silica) injection in an unsaturated porous medium is investigated by developing a mathematical model and conducting numerical simulations. Gelation process is initiated by adding electrolytes such as NaCl, and the gel phase consisting of cross-linked colloidal silica particles grows as the gelation process proceeds. The mathematical model describing the transport and gelation of Colloidal Silica (CS) is based on coupled mass balance equations for the gel mixture (the sol phase plus the gel phase), gel phase (cross-linked colloidal silica particles plus water captured between cross-linked particles), and colloidal silica particles (discrete and cross-linked) and NaCl in the sol (suspension of discrete colloidal silica particles in water) and gel phases. The solutions in terms of volumetric fraction of the gel phase yield the gel mixture viscosity via the dependency on the volumetric fraction of gel phase. This dependency is determined from a kinetic gelation model with time-normalized viscosity curves. The proposed model is verified by comparing experimentally and numerically determined hydraulic conductivities of gel-treated soil columns at different CS injection volumes. The numerical experiments indicate that an impermeable gel layer is formed within the time period twice the gel-point in a one-dimensional flow system. At the same normalized time corresponding to twice the gel-point, the CS solutions with lower NaCl concentrations result in further migration and poor performance in plugging the pore space. The viscosity computation proposed in this study is compared with another method available in the literature. It is observed that the other method estimates the viscosity at the mixing zone higher than the one proposed by the authors. The proposed model can simulate realistic injection scenarios with various combinations of operating parameters such as NaCl concentration and NaCl mixing time, and thus providing guidelines in performing this technology on site. PMID:12076024

  10. GEM printer: 3D gel printer for free shaping of functional gel engineering materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, Hidemitsu; Muroi, Hisato; Yamamoto, Kouki; Serizawa, Ryo; Gong, Jin

    2013-04-01

    In the past decade, several high-strength gels have been developed. These gels are expected to use as a kind of new engineering materials in the fields of industry and medical as substitutes to polyester fibers, which are materials of artificial blood vessels. The gels have both low surface friction and well permeability due to a large amount of water absorbed in the gels, which are superiority of the gels compering to the polyester fibers. It is, however, difficult for gels to be forked structure or cavity structure by using cutting or mold. Consequently, it is necessary to develop the additive manufacturing device to synthesize and mode freely gels at the same time. Here we try to develop an optical 3D gel printer that enables gels to be shaped precisely and freely. For the free forming of high-strength gels, the 1st gels are ground to particles and mixed with 2nd pregel solution, and the mixed solution is gelled by the irradiation of UV laser beam through an optical fiber. The use of the optical fiber makes one-point UV irradiation possible. Since the optical fiber is controlled by 3D-CAD, the precise and free molding in XYZ directions is easily realized. We successfully synthesized tough gels using the gel printer.

  11. Active Gel Model of Amoeboid Cell Motility

    E-print Network

    A. C. Callan-Jones; R. Voituriez

    2013-02-01

    We develop a model of amoeboid cell motility based on active gel theory. Modeling the motile apparatus of a eukaryotic cell as a confined layer of finite length of poroelastic active gel permeated by a solvent, we first show that, due to active stress and gel turnover, an initially static and homogeneous layer can undergo a contractile-type instability to a polarized moving state in which the rear is enriched in gel polymer. This agrees qualitatively with motile cells containing an actomyosin-rich uropod at their rear. We find that the gel layer settles into a steadily moving, inhomogeneous state at long times, sustained by a balance between contractility and filament turnover. In addition, our model predicts an optimal value of the gel-susbstrate adhesion leading to maximum layer speed, in agreement with cell motility assays. The model may be relevant to motility of cells translocating in complex, confining environments that can be mimicked experimentally by cell migration through microchannels.

  12. Kinetics of phase separation of thermoreversible gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solis, Francisco J.; Leon, Christine; Vernon, Brent

    2009-03-01

    We study the kinetics of phase separation and thermoreversible gel formation of LCST-type polymers. A large number of NIPAM-based polymers exhibit transitions near room temperature from a liquid phase to a two-phase state. In the two phase-region of the phase diagram, a polymer dilute phase coexists with a gel. The corresponding shrinking transition for chemically-linked gels has been extensively studied in both its thermodynamic and kinetic aspects. We show that, in the thermoreversible case, the formation of the gel phase proceeds in a similar way. Upon entrance to the two-phase region, the gel volume follows a double exponential decay. The gel undergoes a fast shrinking associated with water ejection, followed by a slower reorganization regime.

  13. Active Gel Model of Amoeboid Cell Motility

    E-print Network

    Callan-Jones, A C

    2013-01-01

    We develop a model of amoeboid cell motility based on active gel theory. Modeling the motile apparatus of a eukaryotic cell as a confined layer of finite length of poroelastic active gel permeated by a solvent, we first show that, due to active stress and gel turnover, an initially static and homogeneous layer can undergo a contractile-type instability to a polarized moving state in which the rear is enriched in gel polymer. This agrees qualitatively with motile cells containing an actomyosin-rich uropod at their rear. We find that the gel layer settles into a steadily moving, inhomogeneous state at long times, sustained by a balance between contractility and filament turnover. In addition, our model predicts an optimal value of the gel-susbstrate adhesion leading to maximum layer speed, in agreement with cell motility assays. The model may be relevant to motility of cells translocating in complex, confining environments that can be mimicked experimentally by cell migration through microchannels.

  14. Active gel model of amoeboid cell motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callan-Jones, A. C.; Voituriez, R.

    2013-02-01

    We develop a model of amoeboid cell motility based on active gel theory. Modeling the motile apparatus of a eukaryotic cell as a confined layer of finite length of poroelastic active gel permeated by a solvent, we first show that, due to active stress and gel turnover, an initially static and homogeneous layer can undergo a contractile-type instability to a polarized moving state in which the rear is enriched in gel polymer. This agrees qualitatively with motile cells containing an actomyosin-rich uropod at their rear. We find that the gel layer settles into a steadily moving, inhomogeneous state at long times, sustained by a balance between contractility and filament turnover. In addition, our model predicts an optimal value of the gel-substrate adhesion leading to maximum layer speed, in agreement with cell motility assays. The model may be relevant to motility of cells translocating in complex, confining environments that can be mimicked experimentally by cell migration through microchannels.

  15. Bone Tissue Engineering Using Colloidal Gels and Native Extracellular Matrix Biomaterials

    E-print Network

    Dennis, Stephen Connor

    2015-05-31

    Self-assembling and shear-responsive biomaterials possess favorable rheological and viscoelastic properties to be injectable and facilitate minimally invasive surgery. The current thesis work describes the evaluation of ...

  16. Motility initiation in active gels

    E-print Network

    Recho, Pierre; Truskinovsky, Lev

    2015-01-01

    Motility initiation in crawling cells requires a symmetry breaking mechanism which transforms a symmetric state into a polarized state. Experiments on keratocytes suggest that polarization is triggered by increased contractility of motor proteins. In this paper we argue that contraction can be responsible not only for the symmetry breaking transition but also for the incipient translocation of the segment of an active gel mimicking the crawling cell. Our model suggests that when the contractility increases sufficiently far beyond the motility initiation threshold, the cell can stop and re-symmetrizes. The proposed theory reproduces the motility initiation pattern in fish keratocytes and the behavior of keratocytes prior to cell division.

  17. Gadolinium ferromagnetic mesoparticles from gels

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco, E.; Esquivias, L.; Dominguez, M.

    1995-12-31

    Gadolinium/silica composites have been obtained by the sol-gel method. Ultrasound energy was employed for hydrolysis and polycondensation silica alkoxyde activation. Composites magnetic behavior has been studied by a Faraday magnetometer. Low temperature magnetization has been followed by a SQUID magnetometer working at 2K. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have been used for samples characterization. Results show that there are ferromagnetic gadolinium mesoparticles (<50 nm) embedded in a diamagnetic silica matrix. The magnetization of this composite upon external magnetic field after zero field cooling (ZFC) down to the liquid He temperature shows the characteristic behavior of a dispersed meso-scale ferromagnet.

  18. Experimental Investigation of Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Silica Nanoparticle-Reinforced Poly(acrylamide) Nanocomposite Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Victor; Chang, Andrew; Blanco, Matthew; Zabalegui, Aitor; Lee, Hohyun; Asuri, Prashanth

    2015-01-01

    Current studies investigating properties of nanoparticle-reinforced polymers have shown that nanocomposites often exhibit improved properties compared to neat polymers. However, over two decades of research, using both experimental studies and modeling analyses, has not fully elucidated the mechanistic underpinnings behind these enhancements. Moreover, few studies have focused on developing an understanding among two or more polymer properties affected by incorporation of nanomaterials. In our study, we investigated the elastic and thermal properties of poly(acrylamide) hydrogels containing silica nanoparticles. Both nanoparticle concentration and size affected hydrogel properties, with similar trends in enhancements observed for elastic modulus and thermal diffusivity. We also observed significantly lower swellability for hydrogel nanocomposites relative to neat hydrogels, consistent with previous work suggesting that nanoparticles can mediate pseudo crosslinking within polymer networks. Collectively, these results indicate the ability to develop next-generation composite materials with enhanced mechanical and thermal properties by increasing the average crosslinking density using nanoparticles. PMID:26301505

  19. A Case of Special Complication following a Large Amount of Polyacrylamide Hydrogel Injected into the Epicranial Aponeurosis: Leukocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Rong, Li; Lan, Shi-Jie; Shao, Ying; Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Duo

    2015-01-01

    Polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAAG) has been used as an injectable filler for soft tissue augmentation of different body parts, such as the face, breasts, and penis. However, this is the first report of leukocytopenia after injection of a large amount of PAAG in the epicranial aponeurosis. After receiving PAAG injection for craniofacial contouring, the female patient described herein experienced recurrent swelling, temporal pain (particularly with changes in ambient temperature and facial expression), and ultimately leukocytopenia due to widespread migration of the injected PAAG. We removed most of the PAAG from the affected tissues and the leukocytopenia disappeared 1 year after the operation. Based on this case, we hypothesize that injection of a large amount of PAAG into tissues that have ample blood supply, such as the epicranial aponeurosis, may induce leukocytopenia. PMID:26576158

  20. 21 CFR 866.4900 - Support gel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4900 Support gel. (a)...