Sample records for native polyacrylamide gel

  1. Blue Native Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) for Analysis of Multiprotein Complexes from Cellular Lysates

    PubMed Central

    Fiala, Gina J.

    2011-01-01

    Multiprotein complexes (MPCs) play a crucial role in cell signalling, since most proteins can be found in functional or regulatory complexes with other proteins (Sali, Glaeser et al. 2003). Thus, the study of protein-protein interaction networks requires the detailed characterization of MPCs to gain an integrative understanding of protein function and regulation. For identification and analysis, MPCs must be separated under native conditions. In this video, we describe the analysis of MPCs by blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE). BN-PAGE is a technique that allows separation of MPCs in a native conformation with a higher resolution than offered by gel filtration or sucrose density ultracentrifugation, and is therefore useful to determine MPC size, composition, and relative abundance (Schägger and von Jagow 1991); (Schägger, Cramer et al. 1994). By this method, proteins are separated according to their hydrodynamic size and shape in a polyacrylamide matrix. Here, we demonstrate the analysis of MPCs of total cellular lysates, pointing out that lysate dialysis is the crucial step to make BN-PAGE applicable to these biological samples. Using a combination of first dimension BN- and second dimension SDS-PAGE, we show that MPCs separated by BN-PAGE can be further subdivided into their individual constituents by SDS-PAGE. Visualization of the MPC components upon gel separation is performed by standard immunoblotting. As an example for MPC analysis by BN-PAGE, we chose the well-characterized eukaryotic 19S, 20S, and 26S proteasomes. PMID:21403626

  2. SDS Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis Gel Recipes

    E-print Network

    Pike, Linda J.

    SDS Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis Gel Recipes % Acrylamide 5% 7.5% 10.% 12.5% 15% 18% 4 for running gel; ~10 ml for stacking gel Electrophoresis Buffer: 5X Buffer: 1 X Buffer 60 g Tris base 9 g Tris% Stacking Gel 30% Acrylamide (ml) 5.0 7.5 10.0 12.5 15.0 18.0 1.3 1% Bisacrylamide (ml) 7.8 5.8 3.9 3.1 3

  3. Separation of Native Allophycocyanin and R-Phycocyanin from Marine Red Macroalga Polysiphonia urceolata by the Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis Performed in Novel Buffer Systems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Gong, Xueqin; Wang, Shumei; Chen, Lixue; Sun, Li

    2014-01-01

    Three buffer systems of Imidazole?Acetic acid, HEPES?Imidazole/Bis-tris and Bis-tris?HEPES?MES were designed based on the principle of discontinuous polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) for the native PAGE which could be performed in pH 7.0 and 6.5 in order to analyze and prepare the minor components of allophycocyanin (AP) and R-phycocyanin (R-PC) from marine red macroalga Polysiphonia urceolata. These AP and R-PC phycobiliproteins are easily denatured in alkaline environments. The obtained results demonstrated that the PAGE modes performed in the buffer systems of HEPES?Imidazole/Bis-tris and Bis-tris?HEPES?MES gave the satisfactory resolution and separation of AP and R-PC proteins. The absorption and fluorescence spectra of the AP and R-PC proteins which were prepared by the established PAGE modes proved that they maintained natural spectroscopic characteristics. The established PAGE modes may also provide useful references and selections for some other proteins that are sensitive to alkaline environments or are not effectively separated by the classical PAGE modes performed normally in alkaline buffer systems. PMID:25166028

  4. Development of a low-cost, high-throughput native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (N-PAGE) protocol for lipoprotein sub-fractionation using Quality by Design approach.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Mili; Chaudhary, Neha; Rathore, Anurag S

    2014-04-01

    Ratio of low density to high density lipoprotein concentration is critical for normal functioning of human body. Deviation in this ratio has been linked to various diseases, many of which are fatal if not diagnosed at early stages. For example, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have been linked to the level of low density lipoprotein (LDL). Henceforth, detection of the lipoprotein subtractions is crucial for health of an individual. To date, methods like ultracentrifugation, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gradient gel electrophoresis (GGE) have been used for separation and identification of lipoprotein types and subtypes. However, these methods are expensive, time consuming and require specialized equipments and expertise. This paper aims to propose a low-cost, high-throughput native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (N-PAGE) based protocol for analysis of lipoproteins. Quality by Design (QbD) based approach has been utilized. The initial screening of parameters was followed by a fractional factorial design to optimize the protocol. The lipoprotein subtractions obtained by the optimized protocol were compared with the commercially available and commonly used Lipoprint(®) Lipoprotein Subfractions Testing System from Quantimetrix. The proposed method gave comparable results to those obtained with the commercial system. The proposed method is capable of analysis of up to forty different samples in two hours at a cost of approximately 2$/sample. This is an order of magnitude better than the present cost of 265$/sample when using the commercial system. We think that the proposed method would be of particular interest to the developing and under-developed economies of the world, where this cost differential would be deemed quite significant and would make testing affordable to the majority of the population. PMID:24518131

  5. The development of simple and sensitive small-molecule fluorescent probes for the detection of serum proteins after native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fangfang; Huang, Lingyun; Na, Na; He, Dacheng; Sun, Dezhi; Ouyang, Jin

    2012-05-21

    In this paper, a simple and sensitive small-molecule fluorescent probe, 2,5-dihydroxy-4'-dimethylaminochalcone (DHDMAC), was designed and synthesized for the detection of human serum proteins via hydrophobic interactions after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). This probe produced lower fluorescence emission in the absence of proteins, and the emission intensity was significantly increased after the interaction with serum proteins. To demonstrate the imaging performance of this probe as a fluorescent dye, a series of experiments was conducted that included sensitivity comparison and 2D-PAGE. The results indicated that the sensitivity of DHDMAC staining is comparable to that of the most widely used fluorescent dye, SYPRO Ruby, and more protein spots (including thyroxine-binding globulin, angiotensinogen, afamin, zinc-?-2-glycoprotein and ?-1-antichymotrypsin) were detected after 2D-PAGE. Therefore, DHDMAC is a good protein reporter due to its fast staining procedure, low detection limits and high resolution. PMID:22475746

  6. Separation of radiolabelled glycosaminoglycan oligosaccharides by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hampson, I N; Gallagher, J T

    1984-08-01

    Glycosaminoglycan oligosaccharides generated by treatment of biosynthetically radiolabelled dermatan sulphate and hyaluronic acid with chondroitin AC lyase or testicular hyaluronidase may be resolved into a series of discrete bands by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Bands were identified by fixation in glacial acetic acid containing 20% (w/v) 2,5-diphenyloxazole followed by fluorography. The bands represented glycans which differed in size by one disaccharide unit. For the larger oligosaccharides (decasaccharides and above) of similar charge: mass ratio, there was a linear relationship between electrophoretic mobility and log Mr. However, the smaller species showed anomalous migration patterns. Consideration of the structures of the fragments produced by the different enzyme treatments suggests that copolymeric and homopolymeric oligosaccharides may be separated by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. There are many potential applications of this technique, foremost amongst them being studies on the molecular size heterogeneity and patterns of enzyme-mediated depolymerization of native glycosaminoglycan chains and investigations into rates of polymer chain elongation and post-polymerization modification reactions so essential to glycosaminoglycan function. PMID:6477495

  7. Quantification of Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis for Analysis of Whey Proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. F. Darling; D. W. Butcher

    1976-01-01

    Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of whey proteins has been quantified by standardization of the separation and staining procedure. During each electro- phoresis experiment, a standard solution of whey proteins was separated and stained under the same conditions as the test material. In this way, proteins in the standard solution were subjected to iden- tical processing conditions as the test samples. Densitometric

  8. Abstract--This work addresses the segmentation of two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis images

    E-print Network

    Athens, University of

    -PAGE Images, Overlapping Spots I. INTRODUCTION wo-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2- D PAGEAbstract--This work addresses the segmentation of two- dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis images containing overlapping protein spots. A novel segmentation approach is proposed, which

  9. The instantaneous monitoring of polyacrylamide gels during electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, A

    1976-01-01

    The advantages of being able to see protein zones in a gel during electrophoresis (and hence before staining) are pointed out, and a method is described which depends on local increments of refractive index in these zones. The use of local increments of refractive index in polyacrylamide gels for measuring protein concentrations in zones during electrophoresis is briefly considered; it is found that such increments are greater than would be expected from the amount of protein when sodium dodecyl sulphate is present. The enhancement depends on conditions and time of running. This makes quantitative estimates difficult, but the sensitivity of detection of protein zones by observations based on refractive-index changes is greatly increased by this property of sodium dodecyl sulphate. Methods are described for making optically uniform gels (both with uniform and with graded concentrations of polyacrylamide), necessary for observation of small changes in refractive index. A simple dark-field system of observation is described. Examples are given showing protein samples observed with the system during electrophoresis and compared with the same gel stained with Coomassie Blue after completion of the run. Under optimal conditions the optical method is comparable in sensitivity with staining. With the proteins of lower mol.wt. (approx. 15000), the optical method is not so sensitive, becoming less sensitive with longer running time. This loss of sensitivity is greatly decreased by using more concentrated polyacrylamide gels, and graded gels are therefore more suitable for optical observation than are uniform gels. The observation of protein zones during electrophoresis adds nothing to the time needed for making a stained gel and gives much information long before it can be obtained from the stained gel. Images PLATE 1 PLATE 2 PMID:1008832

  10. Basics and recent advances of two dimensional- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Gel- based proteomics is one of the most versatile methods for fractionating protein complexes. Among these methods, two dimensional- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE) represents a mainstay orthogonal approach, which is popularly used to simultaneously fractionate, identify, and quantify proteins when coupled with mass spectrometric identification or other immunological tests. Although 2-DE was first introduced more than three decades ago, several challenges and limitations to its utility still exist. This review discusses the principles of 2-DE as well as both recent methodological advances and new applications. PMID:24735559

  11. Partition and permeation of dextran in polyacrylamide gel.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, J C; Mark, L A; Eichholtz, S

    1998-01-01

    Partition of sized FITC-dextrans in polyacrylamide gel showed a relationship between Kav and solute radius as predicted by the theory of Ogston, which is based solely on geometry of the spaces. Permeability data for the same dextrans were fit to several theories, including those based on geometry and those based on hydrodynamic interactions, and the gel structure predicted by the partition and permeability data were compared. The Brinkman effective-medium model (based on hydrodynamic interactions and requiring a measure of the hydraulic conductivity of the matrix) gave the best fit of permeability data with the values for fiber radius (rf) and void volume of the gel (epsilon) that were obtained from the partition data. The models based on geometry and the hydrodynamic screening model of Cukier, using the rf and epsilon from partition data, all predicted higher rates of permeation than observed experimentally, while the effective-medium model with added term for steric interaction predicted lower permeation than that observed. The size of cylindrical pores appropriate for the partition data predicted higher rates of permeation than observed. These relative results were unaffected by the method of estimating void volume of the gel. In sum, it appears that one can use data on partition of solute, combined with measurement of hydraulic conductivity, to predict solute permeation in polyacrylamide gel. PMID:9649411

  12. Reproducibility study of normoxic polyacrylamide gel (nPAG) dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Giuliana; Vandecasteele, Jan; Vercauteren, Tom; DePasquale, Salvatore; DeDeene, Yves

    2009-05-01

    In this study, the overall accuracy of normoxic polyacrylamide gel (nPAG) dosimeters is considered. Different badges of nPAG are fabricated, poured in containers of glass and Barex" and irradiated with a 6MV square photon beam. The polymer gel dosimeters were read out using MRI. The overall reproducibility and accuracy of nPAG gel dosimeters was determined by comparison with depth-dose profiles acquired with a Pin Point ionization chamber. Additionally, the effect of the container wall on the depth-dose profile and the effect of temperature changes before and after irradiation on the R2-dose response have been investigated. The average standard deviation and maximum deviation between 8 gel-measured depth-dose profiles and a depth-dose profile measured with an ionization chamber amounted to 0.543 Gy (2.5%) and 2.579 Gy (11.7%) respectively.

  13. Deployment of Freestanding Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis Platform for Point-of-Care Diagnostic Applications

    E-print Network

    Sekhon, Jasjeet S.

    Deployment of Freestanding Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis Platform for Point-of-Care Diagnostic polyacrylamide gel (fsPAG) electrophoresis is proposed as a cheap and robust platform for the diagnosis of preserving reagents within the gels; and the conditions under which the gels are dehydrated and rehydrated

  14. Western Blot of Stained Proteins from Dried Polyacrylamide Gels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruber, Claudia; Stan-Lotter, Helga

    1996-01-01

    Western blotting of proteins is customarily performed following their separation on polyacrylamide gels, either prior to staining (1) or, as recently reported, following staining (2). We describe here Western blotting with stained gels, which had been dried and some of which had been stored for years. This procedure permits immunological analysis of proteins, to which antisera may have become available only later, or where the application of newly developed sensitive detection methods is desired. Once rehydration of the gels is achieved, proteins can be-transferred to blotting membranes by any appropriate protocol. Proteins stained with Coomassie Blue have to be detected with a non-chromogenic method, such as the film-based enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL)2) procedure (3). Silver stained proteins, which transfer in the colorless form, may be visualized by any detection method, although, because of the usually very low amounts of proteins, detection by ECL is preferable. Blotting of stained proteins from rehydrated gels is as rapid and as quantitative as from freshly prepared gels, in contrast to blotting from wet stained gels, which requires extensive washing and results in low transfer efficiency (2). Together with a photographic record of the gel pattern, unambiguous identification of immunoreactive proteins from complex mixtures is possible. Some further applications of this work are discussed.

  15. Congruence between starch gel and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in detecting allozyme variation in pulmonate land slugs.

    PubMed

    Geenen, Sofie; Jordaens, Kurt; Castilho, Rita; Backeljau, Thierry

    2003-02-01

    The predominantly selfing slug species Arion (Carinarion) fasciatus, A. (C.) silvaticus and A. (C.) circumscriptus are native in Europe and have been introduced into North America, where each species consists of a single, homozygous multilocus genotype (strain), as defined by starch gel electrophoresis (SGE) of allozymes. In Europe, the "one strain per species" hypothesis does not hold since polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) of allozymes uncovered 46 strains divided over the three species. However, electrophoretic techniques may differ in their ability to detect allozyme variation. Therefore, several Carinarion populations from both continents were screened by applying the two techniques simultaneously on the same individual slugs and enzyme loci. SGE and PAGE yielded exactly the same results, so that the different degree of variation in North American and European populations cannot be attributed to differences in resolving power between SGE and PAGE. We found four A. (C.) silvaticus strains in North America indicating that in this region the "one strain per species" hypothesis also cannot be maintained. Hence, the discrepancies between previous electrophoretic studies on Carinarion are most likely due to sampling artefacts and possible founder effects. PMID:12601729

  16. Physical properties of polyacrylamide gels probed by AFM and rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidine, Yara; Laurent, Valérie M.; Michel, Richard; Duperray, Alain; Iulian Palade, Liviu; Verdier, Claude

    2015-02-01

    Polymer gels have been shown to behave as viscoelastic materials but only a small amount of data is usually provided in the glass transition. In this paper, the dynamic moduli G\\prime and G\\prime\\prime of polyacrylamide hydrogels are investigated using both an AFM in contact force modulation mode and a classical rheometer. The validity is shown by the matching of the two techniques. Measurements are carried out on gels of increasing polymer concentration in a wide frequency range. A model based on fractional derivatives is successfully used, covering the whole frequency range. G\\text{N}0 , the plateau modulus, as well as several other parameters are obtained at low frequencies. The model also predicts the slope a of both moduli in the glass transition, and a transition frequency f\\text{T} is introduced to separate the gel-like behavior with the glassy state. Its variation with polymer content c gives a dependence f\\text{T}? c1.6 , in good agreement with previous theories. Therefore, the AFM data provides new information on the physics of polymer gels.

  17. Characteristics of polyacrylamide gel with THPC and Turnbull Blue gel dosimeters evaluated using optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pila?ová (Vávr?), Kate?ina; Kozubíková, Petra; Šolc, Jaroslav; Sp?vá?ek, Václav

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare characteristics of radiochromic gel - Turnbull Blue gel (TB gel) with polymer gel - polyacrylamide gel and tetrakis hydroxymethyl phosphonium chloride (PAGAT) using optical tomography. Both types of gels were examined in terms of dose sensitivity, dose response linearity and background value of spectrophotometric absorbance. The calibration curve was obtained for 60Co irradiation performed on Gammacell 220 at predefined gamma dose levels between 0 and 140 Gy for TBG and 0-15 Gy for PAGAT. To measure relative dose distributions from stereotactic irradiation, dosimeters were irradiated on Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion. The cylindrical glass housings filled with gel were attached to the stereotactic frame. They were exposed with single shot and 16 mm collimator by 65 Gy to a 50% prescription isodose for TB gel and 4 Gy to a 50% prescription isodose for PAGAT. Evaluations of dosimeters were performed on an UV-vis Spectrophotometer Helios ? and an optical cone beam homemade tomography scanner with a 16-bit astronomy CCD camera with a set of color filters. The advantages and potential disadvantages for both types of gel dosimeters were summarized. Dose distribution in central slice and measured profiles of 16 mm shot shows excellent correspondence with treatment planning system Leksell GammaPlan® for both PAGAT and Turnbull Blue gels. Gel dosimeters are suitable for steep dose gradient verification. An optical tomography evaluation method is successful. Dose response characteristics of TB gel and PAGAT gel are presented.

  18. Penis invalidating cicatricial outcomes in an enlargement phalloplasty case with polyacrylamide gel (Formacryl)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P C Parodi; M Dominici; U Moro

    2006-01-01

    The present article reports the case of a patient subjected to polyacrylamide polymers-composed gel cutaneous infiltration in the penis for cosmetic purposes, resulting in severe invalidating outcomes. A significant tissue reaction to the subcutaneous injection of polyacrylamide gel for the penis enlargement purpose resulted in permanent and invalidating scars both on the esthetic and functional levels. Such a result must

  19. Comparative study of polyacrylamid gels and thermoluminescent dosimeters used in external radiotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Guillerminet; R. Gschwind; L. Makovicka; V. Spevacek; M. Soukoup; J. Novotny

    2005-01-01

    Applications of polyacrylamid gels present a great interest in the development of 3D experimental dosimetry. The expansive application of this material will increase possibilities of dose control in external radiotherapy and contribute to increased precision of medical treatments. To develop this material, the dose response of the polyacrylamid gels was compared with that of other methods using detectors and simulations,

  20. Rheological properties of reactive extrusion modified waxy starch and waxy starch-polyacrylamide copolymer gels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rheological properties of modified waxy starch and waxy starch-polyacrylamide graft copolymers prepared by reactive extrusion were investigated. Both materials can absorb huge amount of water and form gels. The modified waxy starch and waxy starch-polyacrylamide graft copolymer gels all exhibite...

  1. Silver stain for proteins in polyacrylamide gels: A modified procedure with enhanced uniform sensitivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JAMES H. MORRISSEY

    1981-01-01

    The rapid, ultrasensitive silver stains that have been developed recently for detecting proteins in polyacrylamide gels show variation in staining from gel to gel and do not stain certain proteins at all. It was found that treatment of gels with dithiothreitol prior to impregnation with silver nitrate results in more reproducible staining patterns that are also qualitatively similar to those

  2. Using Ultra-Zoom Gels for High-Resolution Two-Dimensional Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sjouke Hoving; Hans Voshol; Jan van Oostrum

    \\u000a Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE) is one of the core Technologies—together with mass spectrometry—of\\u000a proteome research. It is the only method currently available that is able to simultaneously separate the thousands of proteins\\u000a found in biological samples. The method originates from the seminal work of O’Farrell and Klose in the 1970s (1,2). The main drawback of the original method

  3. Electrophoretic Transfer of Proteins from Polyacrylamide Gels to Nitrocellulose Sheets: Procedure and Some Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harry Towbin; Theophil Staehelin; Julian Gordon

    1979-01-01

    A method has been devised for the electrophoretic transfer of proteins from polyacrylamide gels to nitrocellulose sheets. The method results in quantitative transfer of ribosomal proteins from gels containing urea. For sodium dodecyl sulfate gels, the original band pattern was obtained with no loss of resolution, but the transfer was not quantitative. The method allows detection of proteins by autoradiography

  4. Photo-initiated cross-linked polyacrylamide gels for microdevice electrophoresis

    E-print Network

    Agrawal, Shilpa

    2005-08-29

    Photo-polymerized cross-linked polyacrylamide gels are becoming increasingly important for use in micro-fabricated DNA electrophoresis systems because they allow a concentrated sieving matrix to be precisely positioned at any location within a...

  5. A versatile polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis based sulfotransferase assay

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Sulfotransferases are a large group of enzymes that regulate the biological activity or availability of a wide spectrum of substrates through sulfation with the sulfur donor 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS). These enzymes are known to be difficult to assay. A convenient assay is needed in order to better understand these enzymes. Results A universal sulfotransferase assay method based on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) is described. This assay has been successfully applied to substrates as small as ?-naphthol and as big as proteoglycans. As examples, we present the assays for recombinant human CHST4, TPST1, CHST3 and HS6ST1. In order to assess whether a small molecule can be applicable to this type of assay, a method to estimate the relative mobility of a molecule to PAPS is also presented. The estimated relative mobilities of various sulfated small molecules generated by SULT1A1, SULT1E1, SULT2A1 and CHST4 are in the range of ± 0.2 of the actual relative mobilities. Conclusion The versatility of the current method comes from the ability that SDS-PAGE can separate proteins and small molecules according to different parameters. While mobilities of proteins during SDS-PAGE are inversely related to their sizes, mobilities of small molecules are positively related to their charge/mass ratios. The predicted relative mobility of a product to PAPS is a good indicator of whether a sulfotransferase can be assayed with SDS-PAGE. Because phosphorylation is most similar to sulfation in chemistry, the method is likely to be applicable to kinases as well. PMID:20146816

  6. Recovery of Native Proteins from Preparative Electrophoresis Gel Slices by Reverse Polarity ElutioN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaron S. Abramovitz; Verrell Randolph; Aruna Mehra; Sylvia Chnstakos

    1984-01-01

    A technique for high yield recovery of native, biologically active proteins from preparative polyacrylamide gel slices by reverse polarity elution is described. No apparatus other than the standard slab gel electrophoresis system is required. Several proteins have been recovered in biologically active form at a 90% yield, in quantities ranging from 0.4 mg to 4.2 mg. The method is effective

  7. Modelling of polyacrylamide gel dosimeters with spatially non-uniform radiation dose distributions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrian M. Fuxman; Kim B. McAuley; L. John Schreiner

    2005-01-01

    Over the past decade there has been much interest in the development of three-dimensional gel dosimeters to aid in the determination of the distribution and magnitude of absorbed dose in clinical radiation therapy. The most widely used dosimeter for verification of spatial dose distributions is the polyacrylamide gel (PAG) dosimeter. In this article, a detailed fundamental model is developed to

  8. Edinburgh Research Explorer Native gel electrophoresis of human telomerase distinguishes

    E-print Network

    Millar, Andrew J.

    Edinburgh Research Explorer Native gel electrophoresis of human telomerase distinguishes active Bihan, T & Harrington, L 2012, 'Native gel electrophoresis of human telomerase distinguishes active and investigate your claim. Download date: 16. Jun. 2014 #12;Native gel electrophoresis of human telomerase

  9. Dna electrophoresis in photopolymerized polyacrylamide gels on a microfluidic device

    E-print Network

    Lo, Chih-Cheng

    2009-05-15

    DNA gel electrophoresis is a critical analytical step in a wide spectrum of genomic analysis assays. Great efforts have been directed to the development of miniaturized microfluidic systems (“lab-on-a-chip” systems) to perform low-cost, high...

  10. Immobilization of DNA in polyacrylamide gel for the manufacture of DNA and DNA-oligonucleotide microchips.

    SciTech Connect

    Proudnikov, D.; Timofeev, E.; Mirzabekov, A.; Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology; Engelhardt Inst. of Molecular Biology

    1998-05-15

    Activated DNA was immobilized in aldehyde-containing polyacrylamide gel for use in manufacturing the MAGIChip (microarrays of gel-immobilized compounds on a chip). First, abasic sites were generated in DNA by partial acidic depurination. Amino groups were then introduced into the abasic sites by reaction with ethylenediamine and reduction of the aldimine bonds formed. It was found that DNA could be fragmented at the site of amino group incorporation or preserved mostly unfragmented. In similar reactions, both amino-DNA and amino-oligonucleotides were attached through their amines to polyacrylamide gel derivatized with aldehyde groups. Single- and double-stranded DNA of 40 to 972 nucleotides or base pairs were immobilized on the gel pads to manufacture a DNA microchip. The microchip was hybridized with fluorescently labeled DNA-specific oligonucleotide probes. This procedure for immobilization of amino compounds was used to manufacture MAGIChips containing both DNA and oligonucleotides.

  11. Femtomole sequencing of proteins from polyacrylamide gels by nano-electrospray mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias Wilm; Andrej Shevchenko; Tony Houthaeve; Stephen Breit; Lothar Schweigerer; Theodore Fotsis; Matthias Mann

    1996-01-01

    MOLECULAR analysis of complex biological structures and processes increasingly requires sensitive methods for protein sequencing. Electrospray mass spectrometry1 has been applied to the high-sensitivity sequencing of short peptides2, but technical difficulties have prevented similar success with gel-isolated proteins. Here we report a simple and robust technique for the sequencing of proteins isolated by polyacrylamide gel electro-phoresis, using nano-electrospray3,4 tandem mass

  12. Drying of Polyacrylamide Composite Gels Formed with Various Kappa Carrageenan Content

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gül?en A. Evingür; Önder Pekcan

    Drying of polyacrylamide (PAAm)-?-carrageenan (?C) composite gels were monitored by using steady-state fluorescence technique.\\u000a Disc shaped gels were formed from acrylamide (AAm) and N, N?- methylenebisacrylamide(Bis) with various ?- carrageenan (?C)\\u000a contents by free radical crosslinking copolymerization in water. Pyranine (P) was doped as a fluorescence probe, and scattered light, I\\u000a \\u000a sc\\u000a , and fluorescence intensities, I, were monitored during

  13. Identification of cultivars of Stylosanthes capitata Vog. by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of seed proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Hussain; H. Ramirez; W. Bushuk; W. M. Roca

    1988-01-01

    A method was developed for identification of cultivars of the pasture legume, Stylosanthes capitata Vog., using electrophoretic patterns of seed proteins in polyacrylamide gels as the genotypic markers. The method can be used for accurate identification of cultivars in germplasm banks, in selecting parents for development of new varieties, and in registering new cultivars for proprietary purposes.

  14. IDENTIFICATION OF FISH SPECIES BY THIN-LAYER POLYACRYLAMIDE GEL ISOELECTRIC FOCUSING

    E-print Network

    -layer polyacrylamide gel isoelectric focusing (IEFl, as a new means of identifying fish species. Sarcoplasmic protein techniques have been used for the identification of fish species. Protein extracts from several species means of identifying fish species. IEF is an equilibrium technique in which proteins are separated

  15. Rheology and morphology of pristine graphene/polyacrylamide gels.

    PubMed

    Das, Sriya; Irin, Fahmida; Ma, Lan; Bhattacharia, Sanjoy K; Hedden, Ronald C; Green, Micah J

    2013-09-11

    Enhancement of toughness in nanomaterial-based hydrogels is a critical metric for many of their engineering applications. Pristine graphene-polyacrylamide (PAM) hydrogels are synthesized via in situ polymerization of acrylamide monomer in PAM-stabilized graphene dispersion. In-situ polymerization leads to the uniform dispersion of the graphene sheets in the hydrogel. The graphene sheets interact with the elastic chains of the hydrogel through physisorption and permit gelation in the absence of any chemical cross-linker. This study represents the first report of pristine graphene as a physical cross-linker in a hydrogel. The properties of the graphene-polymer hydrogel are characterized by rheological measurements and compressive tests, revealing an increase in the storage modulus and toughness of the hydrogels compared to the chemically cross-linked PAM analogues. The physically cross-linked graphene hydrogels also exhibit self-healing properties. These hydrogels prove to be efficient precursors for graphene-PAM aerogels with enhanced electrical conductivity and thermal stability. PMID:23915342

  16. Polyacrylamide gels copolymerized with active esters. A new medium for affinity systems.

    PubMed

    Schnaar, R L; Lee, Y C

    1975-04-01

    A new and versatile method for linking biologically active ligands to a polyacrylamide matrix is reported. Active esters of acrylic acid (N-succinimicyl acrylate and N-phthalimidyl acrylate) were synthesized, then copolymerized with acrylamide and N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide. Displacement of the active ester in the gel thus formed by various ligands containing aliphatic amino groups resulted in the formation of stable amid bonds between the ligands and the polyacrylamide gel. The affinity gel thus prepared has the following advantages: (i) resistance to chemical and microbiological degradation, (ii) ease of control of ligand level and higher levels of ligand possible, (iii) ease of control of porosity, and (iv) total displacement of the active ester under suitable conditions. Efficacy of this system was tested by preparation of 6-aminohexyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranoside derivative polyacrylamide gel by the described method. It was found to be more effective for purification of wheat germ agglutinin than the previously published affinity chromatography systems and the wheat germ hemagglutinin was obtained in crystalline form. In addition, partial resolution of isolectins was obtained from the affinity gel witha pH gradient. PMID:235956

  17. Identification of Frankia Strains by Two-Dimensional Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Benson, David R.; Buchholz, S. E.; Hanna, D. G.

    1984-01-01

    Fifteen Frankia strains from five different plant species were analyzed by two-dimensional polyacryl-amide gel electrophoresis to determine their relatedness by comparing the polypeptide patterns obtained. Three major subgroups (A, C, and D) were found in the Alnus-Comptonia-Myrica cross-inoculation group. An isolate from Purshia tridentata had a unique protein pattern and represents a distinct group of frankiae. Members of group A were isolated from root nodules of Alnus incana subsp. rugosa and Alnus viridis subsp. crispa. Group C organisms were from A. incana subsp. rugosa and Comptonia peregrina nodules, and group D organisms were from A. incana subsp. rugosa, A. viridis subsp. cripsa, and Myrica pensylvanica root nodules. Isolates from each gel group were obtained at several widely separated geographical locations. The results indicate that two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is useful for identifying Frankia isolates. Images PMID:16346488

  18. Method for the detection and differentiation of cellulase components in polyacrylamide gels

    SciTech Connect

    Bartley, T.D.; Murphy-Holland, K.; Eveleigh, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    Endoglucanase and exoglucanase components of cellulase can be detected and differentiated after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis by performing activity stains. Endoglucanase activity was visualized in carboxymethyl cellulose agar replicas of gels by staining with Congo red. General ..beta..-1,4-glucanase activity was located by soaking the gel in a solution of NaBH/sub 4/-reduced cellulo-oligosaccharides, and detecting the formation of reducing sugars by reaction with triphenyl tetrazolium chloride. Endoglucanases are active in both assays, while exoglucanases can be distinguished by their activity in the cellulo-oligosaccharide assay only. This methodology has facilitated the purification and characterization of cellulase components from Trichoderma reesei and Microbispora bispora.

  19. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic methods in the separation of structural muscle proteins.

    SciTech Connect

    Barany, K.; Barany, M.; Giometti, C. S.; Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago

    1995-04-28

    Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis plays a major role in analyzing the function of muscle structural proteins. This review describes one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoretic methods for qualitative and quantitative investigation of the muscle proteins, with special emphasis on determination of protein phosphorylation. The electrophoretic studies established the subunit structures of the muscle proteins, characterized their multiple forms, revealed changes in subunit composition or shifts in isoform distribution of specific proteins during development, upon stimulation or denervation of the muscle. Protein phosphorylation during muscle contraction is preferentially studied by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The same method demonstrated protein alterations in human neuromuscular diseases.

  20. Rapid Separation and Quantification of Major Caseins and Whey Proteins of Bovine Milk by Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. F. Ng-Kwai-Hang; E. M. Kroeker

    1984-01-01

    A rapid polyacrylamide gel electro- phoretic method was developed for separating and quantifying major pro- teins in casein and whey protein fractions of bovine milk. For casein separation, best results were achieved by an 8% poly- acrylamide gel containing 4 M urea and a top layer of large pore sample gel; for whey protein the most_ satisfactory separation was with

  1. Effects of supercoiling in electrophoretic trapping of circular DNA in polyacrylamide gels.

    PubMed Central

    Akerman, B

    1998-01-01

    Electrophoretic velocity and orientation have been used to study the electric-field-induced trapping of supercoiled and relaxed circular DNA (2926 and 5386 bp) in polyacrylamide gels (5% T, 3.3% C) at 7.5-22.5 V/cm, using as controls linear molecules of either the same contour length or the same radius of gyration. The circle-specific trapping is reversible. From the duration of the reverse pulse needed to detrap the molecules, the average trap depth is estimated to be 90 A, which is consistent with the molecular charge and the field strengths needed to keep molecules trapped. Trapped circles exhibit a strong field alignment compared to the linear form, and there is a good correlation between the enhanced field alignment for the circles and the onset of trapping in both constant and pulsed fields. The circles do not exhibit the orientation overshoot response to a field pulse seen with linear DNA, and the rate of orientation growth scales as E(-2+/-0.1) with the field, as opposed to E(-1.1+/-0.1) for the linear form. These results show that the linear form migrates by cyclic reptation, whereas the circles most likely are trapped by impalement on gel fibers. This proposal is supported by very similar velocity and orientation behavior of circular DNA in agarose gels, where impalement has been deemed more likely because of stiffer gel fibers. The trapping efficiency is sensitive to DNA topology, as expected for impalement. In polyacrylamide the supercoiled form (superhelical density sigma = -0.05) has a two- to fourfold lower probability of trapping than the corresponding relaxed species, whereas in agarose gels the supercoiled form is not trapped at all. These results are consistent with existing data on the average holes in the plectonemic supercoiled structures and the fiber thicknesses in the two gel types. On the basis of the topology effect, it is argued that impalement during pulsed-field electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels may be useful for the separation of more intricate DNA structures such as knots. The results also indicate that linear dichroism on field-aligned molecules can be used to measure the supercoiling angle, if relaxed DNA circles are used as controls for the global degree of orientation. PMID:9635767

  2. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide denaturing gel electrophoresis and Western blotting techniques.

    PubMed

    Blancher, Christine; Cormick, Rob Mc

    2012-01-01

    The study of proteins, their expression and post-translational modification, is a key process in molecular biology. Immunoblotting is a well-established and powerful tool for the study of proteins, which continues to evolve as new reagents and apparatus are developed. This chapter describes in detail the process by which proteins are extracted from cells, quantified, fractionated using poly-acrylamide gel electrophoresis, transferred to a membrane, and assessed by immunoblotting. Variations in experimental technique, and new technologies available to the researcher, are also discussed. PMID:22674128

  3. Accommodating brightness and exposure levels in densitometry of stained polyacrylamide electrophoresis gels

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Han Yen; Ng, Tuck Wah; Liew, Oi Wah

    2010-03-20

    Flatbed scanner densitometers can be operated under various illumination and recording exposure levels. In this work, we show that optical density measurement accuracy, sensitivity, and stability of stained polyacrylamide electrophoresis gel densitometry are crucially dependent on these two factors (brightness and exposure level), notwithstanding that the source is monochromatic, spatially uniform, and the measurements are made using an accurately calibrated step wedge in tandem. We further outline a method to accommodate the intensity deviations over a range of illumination and exposure levels in order to maintain sensitivity and repeatability in the computed optical densities. Comparisons were also made with results from a commercial densitometer.

  4. MALDI analysis of proteins after extraction from dissolvable ethylene glycol diacrylate cross-linked polyacrylamide gels.

    PubMed

    Papasotiriou, Dimitrios G; Markoutsa, Stavroula; Gorka, Jan; Schleiff, Enrico; Karas, Michael; Meyer, Bjoern

    2013-09-01

    Although the extraction of intact proteins from polyacrylamide gels followed by mass spectrometric molecular mass determination has been shown to be efficient, there is room for alternative approaches. Our study evaluates ethylene glycol diacrylate, a cleavable cross-linking agent used for a new type of dissolvable gels. It attains an ester linkage that can be hydrolyzed in alkali conditions. The separation performance of the new gel system was tested by 1D and 2D SDS-PAGE using the outer chloroplast envelope of Pisum sativum as well as a soluble protein fraction of human lymphocytes, respectively. Gel spot staining (CBB), dissolving, and extracting were conducted using a custom-developed workflow. It includes protein extraction with an ammonia-SDS buffer followed by methanol treatment to remove acrylamide filaments. Necessary purification for MALDI-TOF analysis was implemented using methanol-chloroform precipitation and perfusion HPLC. Both cleaning procedures were applied to several standard proteins of different molecular weight as well as 'real' biological samples (8-75 kDa). The protein amounts, which had to be loaded on the gel to detect a peak in MALDI-TOF MS, were in the range of 0.1 to 5 ?g, and the required amount increased with increasing mass. PMID:23775326

  5. Enzymatic protein digestion using a dissolvable polyacrylamide gel and its application to mass spectrometry-based proteomics.

    PubMed

    Takemori, Nobuaki; Takemori, Ayako; Ishizaki, Jun; Hasegawa, Hitoshi

    2014-09-15

    Enzymatic protein digestion in polyacrylamide gel has been used for sample pretreatment in mass spectrometry-based proteomics due to its effectiveness in removing contaminants that interfere with sample ionization. However, the difficulty of recovering the digested peptides from the solid gel matrix has been a drawback of this method. Here we have developed a novel in-gel digestion method to enhance peptide recovery using a dissolvable, bis-acrylylcystamine (BAC)-crosslinked polyacrylamide gel. After enzymatic protein digestion in BAC gel, we completely dissolved the gel by reductive treatment with tris-(2-carboxyethyl) phosphine to release the digested peptides from the gel. Our analysis revealed that the reductive dissolution of the BAC gel enhances the peptide recovery, which has a significantly higher protein identification capability than the conventional method, using an insoluble polyacrylamide gel. In addition, protein samples trapped in dehydrated BAC gel were stable at room temperature and reproducible sample recovery was obtained after storage for one week. These results indicate that the proposed method could be an effective tool for conducting sample pretreatment for mass spectrometry-based protein analysis. PMID:25063926

  6. Two-dimensional SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of heat-modifiable outer-membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Russell, R R

    1976-01-01

    An examination has been made of the effect which temperature of solubilization has upon the subsequent migration in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of proteins from the cell envelopes of Escherichia coli K12 and Neisseria sicca ATCC 9913. Conventional electrophoresis in tubes revealed substantial differences in the staining patterns of gels, depending upon whether the envelope samples were solubilized at 37 degrees C or 100 degrees C; in the case of N. sicca at least 6 of 13 discernible bands displayed heat-modifiable behavior. The relationship of the bands produced by each of the two temperatures was investigated by a two-dimensional electrophoresis procedure, in which a sample was solubilized at 37 degrees C and run in a usual cylindrical gel; the entire gel was then resolubilized at 100 degrees C, and laid along an acrylamide slab for electrophoresis in the second dimension. It was found that "free endotoxin" of both organisms examined contained the same major proteins as the total envelope fraction, and that these free endotoxin proteins showed the same heat-modifiable properties as when present in total envelopes. PMID:1252992

  7. Detection of proteins in polyacrylamide gels using an ultrasensitive silver staining technique.

    PubMed

    Patel, K; Easty, D J; Dunn, M J

    1988-01-01

    Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is a versatile and powerful tool for the analysis of biological samples and is capable of good separation and high resolution of complex protein mixtures. Although Coomassie Brilliant Blue R250 has proved ideal as a general protein stain for the more traditional applications of this method, current trends toward thinner gels, decreased sample loading (to improve resolution), and the recent developments of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide mapping techniques have necessitated increasingly sensitive detection methods. Electrophoretic separation of radioactively labeled proteins followed by autoradiography permits the detection of trace proteins (10(-4) to 10(-5)% of total protein) in a sample (1). However, problems inherent in radioactive methods include: (a) in vitro labeling may alter physical properties of proteins, and (b) in vivo experiments require excessively large quantities of isotopes that are prohibitively expensive in animals and unethical in human clinical studies. Alternative methods such as fluorescent staining (2) and heavy metal stains (3) are of less than, or at best of equivalent sensitivity to, Coomassie Brilliant Blue R250. PMID:21400162

  8. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) of whole-cell proteins of cutaneous Propionibacterium species.

    PubMed

    Nordstrom, K M

    1985-02-01

    Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) was applied to the study of whole-cell proteins of cutaneous propionibacteria in an attempt to characterise possible protein patterns that may be typical for strains isolated from acne skin. Isolates were obtained from the faces of 33 individuals aged 7-16 years. Some of these subjects had apparently normal healthy skin, whereas others had acne vulgaris of varying severity. Twenty-five facial isolates of Propionibacterium acnes and eight of P. granulosum were studied. A further seven axillary strains of P. avidum were included for purely taxonomic interest. No particular protein pattern was characteristic of an isolate from acne skin; in fact the P. acnes strains from all sources appeared to be identical. PMID:3155801

  9. Electrophoresis of /sup 35/S-labeled proteoglycans of polyacrylamide-agarose composite gels and their visualization by fluorography

    SciTech Connect

    Carney, S.L.; Bayliss, M.T.; Collier, J.M.; Muir, H.

    1986-01-01

    Techniques for the electrophoresis of /sup 35/S-labeled proteoglycans on polyacrylamide-agarose gel slabs and subsequent fixation, impregnation, and fluorography of such electrophoretograms have been developed. The procedure permits the examination of newly synthesized proteoglycan subspecies using a rapid technique, previously unavailable for these labeled molecules.

  10. Immobilization of microbial cells in crosslinked, prepolymerized, linear polyacrylamide gels: antibiotic production by immobilized Streptomyces clavuligerus cells

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, A.; Aharonowitz, Y.

    1981-12-01

    A mild method for the immobilization of whole microbial cells has been developed. Cells were suspended in a solution of preformed, linear, water-soluble polyacrylamide chains, partially substituted with acylhydrazide groups. The prepolymerized backbone polymer was crosslinked, in the presence of viable cells, by stoichiometric amounts of dialdehydes such as glyoxal, glutardialdehyde, and periodate-oxidized polyvinyl alcohol. The crosslinking reaction, carried out in cold, neutral physiological conditions resulted in cells entrapped in gels with physical properties similar to those of the common polyacrylamide gels. However, cell damage generally caused by the acrylamide monomer was avoided. Resting Streptomyces clavuligerus cells, possessing a high capacity for antibiotic production, were entrapped according to this procedure. These immobilized cells produced cephalosporins continuously for 96 hours with yields similar to those of free resting cells. The same cells, when immobilized by direct polymerization of acrylamide monomers, yielded significantly lower amounts of antibiotics. (Refs. 19).

  11. Assessment of protoxin composition of Bacillus thuringiensis strains by use of polyacrylamide gel block and mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zujiao Fu; Yunjun Sun; Liqiu Xia; Xuezhi Ding; Xiangtao Mo; Xiaohui Li; Kexue Huang; Youming Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of protoxin composition in Bacillus thuringiensis parasporal crystals is principally hampered by the fact that protoxins in a single strain usually possess high sequence homology.\\u000a Therefore, new strategies towards the identification of protoxins have been developed. Here, we established a powerful method\\u000a through embedding solubilized protoxins in a polyacrylamide gel block coupled to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry\\u000a (LC-MS\\/MS) analysis

  12. Detection of antimicrobial (poly)peptides with Acid urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by Western immunoblot.

    PubMed

    Porter, Edith; Valore, Erika V; Anouseyan, Rabin; Salzman, Nita H

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial (poly)peptides (AMPs) are ancient key effector molecules of innate host defense and have been identified in mammals, insects, plants, and even fungi (Nakatsuji and Gallo, J Invest Dermatol, 132: 887-895, 2012). They exhibit a cationic net charge at physiological pH and are rich in hydrophobic amino acids (Dufourc et al., Curr Protein Pept Sci, 13: 620-631, 2012). Their mode of action has been best investigated in bacteria. When assuming secondary structure the cationic and hydrophobic amino acids are sequestered creating a bipartitioned molecule in which the cationic amino acids mediate initial electrostatic interaction with the negatively charged bacterial surface and the hydrophobic amino acids mediate embedding into the bacterial membranes followed by a multitude of effects interfering with bacterial viability (Nicolas, FEBS J, 276: 6483-6496, 2009; Padovan et al., Curr Protein Pept Sci, 11: 210-219, 2010). However, immunomodulatory, antitumor, and other effects have been added to the ever increasing list of AMP functions (Pushpanathan et al., Int J Pept, 2013: 675391, 2013). Several classes of AMPs have been distinguished based on structure, namely anti-parallel beta-sheet, alpha-helical, circular, as well as disulfide bridge connectivity (Bond and Khalid, Protein Pept Lett, 17: 1313-1327, 2010). Many of the AMPs undergo posttranslational modification including further proteolysis. Biochemical analysis at the protein level is of great interest for a wide range of scientists and important when studying host-pathogen interaction, for example Salmonella invasion of the small intestine. Acid-urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (AU-PAGE) followed by Western immunoblotting is an important tool for the identification and quantification of cationic AMPs. The protocol for these procedures outlined here describes, in detail, the necessary steps; including pouring the AU-gels, preparing the test samples, performing the electrophoretic separation and protein transfer to the membrane, and conducting the immunodetection using an alkaline phosphatase/NBT/BCIP system. A standard SDS-PAGE in comparison with AU-PAGE and the corresponding Western immunoblot are depicted in Fig. 1. PMID:25253251

  13. Enhanced removal of detergent and recovery of enzymatic activity following sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis: UUse of casein in gel wash buffer

    SciTech Connect

    McGrew, B.R.; Green, D.M. (Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham (USA))

    1990-08-15

    The inclusion of 1% casein or bovine serum albumin in buffer used to reactivate enzymes subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide electrophoresis resulted in accelerated removal of SDS and restoration of nuclease and beta-galactosidase enzyme activities. Nuclease and beta-galactosidase activities which are absent from gels after longer wash procedures are detectable with this technique. Enzyme activity in gels prepared with SDS which contained inhibitory contaminants was partially restored by the casein wash procedure. The threshold of detection of two-dimensionally separated deoxyribonuclease I using the casein wash procedure was 1 picogram.

  14. A single-step simultaneous protein staining procedure for polyacrylamide gels and nitrocellulose membranes by Alta during western blot analysis.

    PubMed

    Pal, Jayanta K; Berwal, Sunil K; Soni, Rupali N

    2012-01-01

    A simple method for staining of proteins simultaneously on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gels and nitrocellulose membranes by Alta during western blot analysis is described. A 5% solution of Alta, a commercially available cosmetic preparation, is added in the upper tank buffer during electrophoresis. On completion of electrophoresis, the gel is washed in distilled water and viewed on a white light plate and a transilluminator to photograph the protein profiles. The gel is processed for western blot transfer of proteins onto a nitrocellulose membrane, and upon completion, the protein profiles on the membrane are viewed and photographed as stated above. The membrane can then be processed for immunostaining as per the standard procedure. Thus, the staining procedure using Alta is simple, rapid (without any need of destaining), and cost-effective. PMID:22585520

  15. Proteome mapping by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in combination with mass spectrometric protein sequence analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ettore Appella; David Arnott; Kazuyasu Sakaguchi; Peter J. Wirth

    \\u000a The high resolving power of two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis 2D-PAGE and its full analytical and preparative\\u000a potential have been described with special emphasis on reproducibility and standardization of protein spot patterns, enhanced\\u000a protein detection sensitivity, and computer analysis database development. New methodologies for peptide mass fingerprinting,\\u000a peptide, sequence, and fragmention tagging have been highlighted. Major challenges associated with 2D-PAGE\\/mass spectrometric

  16. Hepatitis B surface antigen polypeptides: artifactual bands in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis caused by aggregation.

    PubMed Central

    Koistinen, V U

    1980-01-01

    Hepatitis B surface antigen, subtype ad, was purified and studied by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing conditions. Two major bands with molecular weights of 23,500 and 27,500 and several weaker bands with higher molecular weights were observed. When the low-molecular-weight bands and the group of high-molecular-weight bands were excised from the gel, eluted, and reelectrophoresed, neither the low-molecular-weight bands nor the high-molecular-weight bands ever appeared alone, but both high- and low-molecular-weight bands always appeared. It was concluded that the apparently high-molecular-weight bands represented aggregates of the two small polypeptides whose monomers formed the major bands. The preparation thus contained only two polypeptides. Images PMID:7411691

  17. Sequential protein analysis from single identified neurons of Aplysia californica. A microelectrophoretic technique involving polyacrylamide gradient gels and isoelectric focusing.

    PubMed

    Rüchel, R

    1976-07-01

    Electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gradient gels and isoelectric focusing in polyacrylamide gels of capillary size are powerful tools for the analysis of molecular weight and charge properties of small protein samples. This is demonstrated using identified neurons from the abdominal ganglion of the sea hare Aplysia californica. Certain cell-specific peptides, which are considered to be neurosecretory, have been shown to be water soluble when ethylene glycol was employed as a mobilizing agent. Although the mode of action of ethylene glycol is not yet understood, this method may be of value for various extraction procedures. The application of a new staining method that is preferential for separations of sodium dodecyl sulfate-proteins yields information about the charge of water-insoluble proteins which has so far been inaccessible. Preliminary results gained by a small, two-dimensional mapping procedure as well as optical density separation patterns of two different nuclear protein fractionation from a single isolated nucleus outline further possibilties of the microgel techniques. PMID:956643

  18. Use of DNA Ladders for Reproducible Protein Fractionation by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    E-print Network

    Chait, Brian T.

    . Keywords: DNA · quantitation · fractionation · SILAC · mass spectrometry · proteomics Introduction In shotgun proteomics, protein digests are usually analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with mass spectrometry. To evaluate the reproducibility of DNA-ladder-assisted gel cutting for quantitative

  19. Competitive adsorption of bovine serum albumin and lysozyme on characterized calcium phosphates by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis method.

    PubMed

    Zhu, X D; Fan, H S; Zhao, C Y; Lu, J; Ikoma, T; Tanaka, J; Zhang, X D

    2007-11-01

    Characterizations of hydroxyapatite (HA), biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) and beta tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) ceramic particles were carried out using X-ray diffusion (XRD), Scanning electron micrograph (SEM), Particle Sizer and Zeta potential analyzer. Competitive adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme (LSZ) on the three calcium phosphates were investigated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) method. The results showed that HA, BCP and beta-TCP ceramic particles with irregular shapes and similar size distributions all had negative surface net charges in pH7.4 phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution and exhibited alike behaviors of BSA and LSZ adsorption. LSZ had higher affinity for calcium phosphate ceramics than BSA and its adsorption on them didn't be almost influenced by the increasing of BSA concentration in the solution. Electrostatic interaction played an important role on the competitive adsorption of BSA and LSZ on the surface of calcium phosphate ceramic particles. PMID:17619993

  20. Rapid, simple method of preparing rotaviral double-stranded ribonucleic acid for analysis by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Theil, K W; McCloskey, C M; Saif, L J; Redman, D R; Bohl, E H; Hancock, D D; Kohler, E M; Moorhead, P D

    1981-01-01

    A procedure for extracting rotaviral double-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) directly from fecal and intestinal specimens collected from calves and pigs is described. This procedure provides a rapid, simple, reproducible method of obtaining rotaviral double-stranded RNA preparations suitable for electrophoretic analysis in polyacrylamide-agarose composite gels. The rotaviral genome electrophoretic migration pattern produced by double-stranded RNA extracted directly from a specimen by this procedure was qualitatively identical to the electrophoretic migration pattern obtained with double-stranded RNA extracted from purified rotavirus derived from the same specimen. Direct extraction of specimens containing porcine rotavirus-like virus by this procedure gave preparations that had electrophoretic migration patterns similar, but not identical, to the characteristic electrophoretic migration pattern of the rotaviral genome. Sufficient rotaviral double-stranded RNA could be extracted from 6 ml of fecal or intestinal specimen by this procedure to permit 15 or more electrophoretic assays. Images PMID:6270190

  1. Kinetic models for the dynamical behavior of polyacrylamide (PAAm)-?-carrageenan (?C) composite gels.

    PubMed

    Evingür, Gül?en Ak?n; Pekcan, Önder

    2015-01-01

    A fluorescence method was employed for studying the drying and swelling of PAAm-?C composite gels, which were formed from acrylamide (AAm) and N, N'- methylenebisacrylamide (BIS) with various ?-carrageenan (?C) contents by free radical crosslinking copolymerization in water. Composite gels were prepared at 80 °C with pyranine (Py) as a fluorescence probe. Scattered light, I sc, and fluorescence emission intensities, I em, were monitored during drying and swelling of these gels. The fluorescence intensity of pyranine increased and decreased as drying and swelling time are increased, respectively, for all gel samples. The Stern-Volmer equation combined with moving boundary and Li-Tanaka models were used to explain the behavior of I em during drying and swelling processes respectively. It is found that the desorption coefficient D d decreased as ?C contents were increased for a given temperature during drying. However, the cooperative diffusion coefficient, D s presented exactly the opposite case. Conventional gravimetrical and volumetric experiments were also carried out during drying and swelling of PAAm-?C composite gels. It was observed that D d and D s values measured with the fluorescence method were found to be much larger than they were measured with the conventional methods. PMID:25304224

  2. Metachromatic staining patterns of basic proline-rich proteins from rat and human saliva in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys-Beher, M.G.; Wells, D.J.

    1984-10-01

    A series of basic proteins, rich in proline, were isolated from the salivary secretions of humans and rats. These proteins underwent metachromasia after staining with Coomassie brilliant blue R-250 in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. The technique of destaining gels in several changes of 10% acetic acid after a 30-min staining period is a rapid method of general utility for the identification of proline-rich proteins from total cell lysates from other sources besides saliva.

  3. Definition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Culture Filtrate Proteins by Two-Dimensional Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, N-Terminal Amino Acid Sequencing, and Electrospray Mass Spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHAEL G. SONNENBERG; JOHN T. BELISLE

    1997-01-01

    A number of the culture filtrate proteins secreted by Mycobacterium tuberculosis are known to contribute to the immunology of tuberculosis and to possess enzymatic activities associated with pathogenicity. However, a complete analysis of the protein composition of this fraction has been lacking. By using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, detailed maps of the culture filtrate proteins of M. tuberculosis H37Rv were

  4. Optimized method for rapid protein electroblotting Protein electroblotting is a common method for transferring proteins out of a polyacrylamide gel onto

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    for transferring proteins out of a polyacrylamide gel onto a membrane for subsequent western blotting. With a high­ionic strength transfer buffer, protein transfer from nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membranes can be achieved in 5­10 m, even with proteins as large as 300 kDa. Introduction Western blotting

  5. Assessment of Pleiotropic Effects of a Gene Substitution in Pea by Two-Dimensional Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Gottlieb, L. D.; de Vienne, D.

    1988-01-01

    We examined, by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE), near-isogenic lines of the r-gene in pea (Pisum sativum) which determines round (RR) vs. wrinkled (rr) seed. The study was undertaken to assess the number of protein changes resulting from a single gene substitution as a means of quantifying pleiotropic effects. A total of 636 to 770 resolvable polypeptides were identical in all respects between RR and rr for roots, shoots, leaflets, stipules, young ovaries, and young embryos. A single difference between the lines became evident about 21-23 days after anthesis in the embryos. Mature seeds of the two lines showed 62 spot differences in addition to differences in four clusters of spots, representing about 10% of the total number of spots visible on the gels. The protein differences are presumably involved in the many known physiological differences of the two seed types. 2-D PAGE analyses of near-isogenic lines are likely to be valuable in a number of quantitative and developmental genetic contexts. PMID:17246438

  6. Fluorescent monitoring of proteins during sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting.

    PubMed

    Falk, B W; Elliott, C

    1985-02-01

    Fluorescent labeling of proteins was found to be a very sensitive and reliable alternative to conventional methods for monitoring proteins on Western blots. Proteins were labeled with 2-methoxy-2,4-diphenyl-3(2H)-furanone (MDPF) before SDS-PAGE. After electrophoresis and subsequent electro-blotting the fluorescent-labeled proteins were visible upon ultraviolet illumination of the nitrocellulose membranes, and could be photographed to yield an accurate record of the blots before subsequent serological analysis. The sensitivity for detecting MDPF-labeled proteins on nitrocellulose was 100-200 ng, 50 to 100 fold less sensitive than on gels. Fluorescent-labeled TMV and MStpV capsid proteins that were blotted onto nitrocellulose still reacted in serological tests and were detected when present in quantities as low as 100 pg. Fluorescent labeling allows accurate photographic records of the SDS-gel, blot and probed blot using only one sample, and no subsequent staining steps are required. PMID:3887982

  7. Assessing the stability of cystatin/cysteine proteinase complexes using mildly-denaturing gelatin-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Michaud, D; Cantin, L; Raworth, D A; Vrain, T C

    1996-01-01

    A method for assessing the stability of cystatin/cysteine proteinase complexes using mildly-denaturing gelatin-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (gelatin-PAGE) is described. As suggested by the use of well-known cystatins (human stefins A and B, and oryzacystatins I and II) and the plant cysteine proteinase papain, the ability of cystatin/cysteine proteinase complexes to remain stable during electrophoresis is associated with the degree of affinity between the enzyme and the inhibitor (and inversely associated with the Ki values), at least with the disulfide bond-lacking cystatins. Complexes with Ki values > or = 10(-8) M (weak interactions) are partly or completely dissociated under the conditions used, while those with lower Ki values (strong interactions) remain stable. As shown by the differential effects of two plant cystatins, oryzacystatins I and II, against a cysteine proteinase present in crude (complex) extracts from a plant pest -- the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch), the gelatin-PAGE procedure is suitable for studying the ability of cystatins to form highly stable complexes with cysteine proteinases, without the need for prior purification steps. Considering the well-recognized potential of proteinase inhibitors for pest and pathogen control, this analytical approach will be useful for rapidly assessing the respective potential of various cystatins for protection of plants, animals, and humans. PMID:8907521

  8. Copper(II)-Alizarin Red S complex as an efficient chemiluminescent probe for the detection of human serum proteins after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenzhen; Liu, Xia; Baeyens, Willy R G; Delanghe, Joris R; Ouyang, Jin

    2008-12-01

    A novel chemiluminescent probe, copper(II)-Alizarin Red S (ARS) complex, for the detection of human serum proteins after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) is described. The detection is based on the binding of the copper(II)-ARS complex to proteins and the catalytic activity of copper(II) in the luminol-hydrogen peroxide chemiluminescence (CL) system. Various proteins are directly detected in polyacrylamide gels, avoiding tedious transferring procedures. In the present study, the possible reaction mechanism and sensitivity evaluation are analyzed. The experimental conditions such as solution concentration, complex ratio, and washing reagents are likewise optimized. The proposed method offers simple, fast, and sensitive detection of serum proteins. As a novel chemiluminescent detection method, it shows significant analytical potential in biochemistry. PMID:19367697

  9. Lithium Dodecyl Sulfate\\/Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis of Thylakoid Membranes at 4 degrees C: Characterizations of Two Additional Chlorophyll A-Protein Complexes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe Delepelaire; Nam-Hai Chua

    1979-01-01

    Lithium dodecyl sulfate\\/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii thylakoid membranes at room temperature gave two chlorophyll-protein complexes, CP I and CP II, as had been reported previously. However, when the electrophoresis was performed at 4 degrees C, there was an increase in the amount of chlorophyll associated with CP I and CP II, and in addition, three other chlorophyll-protein complexes

  10. A Single-Sample Method for Determination of Carbohydrate and Protein Contents Glycoprotein Bands Separated by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate– Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ewa Zdebska; Jerzy Ko?cielak

    1999-01-01

    A method is described for determination of carbohydrate and protein contents of glycoproteins separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and then electroblotted onto polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membranes. Blots were stained, and appropriate pieces of PVDF membranes were excised, destained, and subjected to sequential hydrolysis with 0.2 M trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) for 1 h at 80°C, then with 2 M

  11. Blue-native PAGE in plants: a tool in analysis of protein-protein interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Holger Eubel; Hans-Peter Braun; A Harvey Millar

    2005-01-01

    Intact protein complexes can be separated by apparent molecular mass using a standard polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system combining mild detergents and the dye Coomassie Blue. Referring to the blue coloured gel and the gentle method of solubilization yielding native and enzymatically active protein complexes, this technique has been named Blue-Native Polyacrylamide Gel-Electrophoresis (BN-PAGE). BN-PAGE has become the method of choice

  12. Conservation of infectivity in purified fibrillary extracts of scrapie-infected hamster brain after sequential enzymatic digestion or polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, P; Liberski, P P; Wolff, A; Gajdusek, D C

    1990-01-01

    Infectious extracts of scrapie-infected hamster brain enriched for scrapie-associated fibrils and scrapie amyloid protein (PrP) were partially denatured and subjected to either polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with subsequent isolation of the PrP band or sequential enzymatic digestion with deglycosidase, phospholipase, proteinase, and several different nucleases. Infectivity measurements of these various specimens revealed a convincing association between infectivity and scrapie amyloid protein, with or without its sugar chains and disulfide bonds, and did not support the hypothesis that nucleic acid is involved in replication. Images PMID:2119503

  13. On-Chip Native Gel Electrophoresis-Based Immunoassays for Tetanus Antibody and Toxin

    E-print Network

    Herr, Amy E.

    On-Chip Native Gel Electrophoresis-Based Immunoassays for Tetanus Antibody and Toxin Amy E. Herr device, we have developed a microanalytical platform for performing electrophoresis- based immunoassays. The microfluidic immunoassays are performed by gel electrophoretic separation and quanti- tation of bound

  14. Detection of metals in proteins by means of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry: application to selenium.

    PubMed

    Chéry, Cyrille C; Günther, Detlef; Cornelis, Rita; Vanhaecke, Frank; Moens, Luc

    2003-10-01

    The capabilities of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for the detection of trace elements in a gel after gel electrophoresis were systematically studied. Figures of merit, such as limit of detection, linearity, and repeatability, were evaluated for various elements (Li, V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Pd, Ag, Cd, Pt, Tl, Pb). Two ablation strategies were followed: single hole drilling, relevant for ablation of spots after two-dimensional (2-D) separations, and ablation with translation, i.e., on a line, relevant for one-dimensional (1-D) separations. This technique was applied to the detection of selenoproteins in red blood cells extracts after a 1-D separation (sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) and the detection of selenium-containing proteins in yeast after 2-D electrophoresis (2-DE). The detection procedure was further improved by using the dynamic reaction cell technology, which allowed the removal of the Ar_2(+) interference and hence the use of the most abundant Se isotope, (80)Se. Reaction gases were compared (methane, carbon monoxide, ammonia, oxygen and the combination of argon (collision gas) and hydrogen (reaction gas)). In each instance, the reaction cell parameters were optimized in order to obtain the lowest detection limit for Se (as (80)Se(+), (82)Se(+) or (77)Se(+); and as (80)Se(16)O(+), (82)Se(16)O(+) or (77)Se(16)O(+) with O(2) as the reaction gas). Carbon monoxide was found to offer the best performance. The detection limit with the use of DRC and He as transport gas was 0.07 microg Se g(-1) gel with single hole drilling and 0.15 microg Se g(-1) gel for ablation with translation. PMID:14595676

  15. Study of yeast mitochondrial tRNAs by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis: characterization of isoaccepting species and search for imported cytoplasmic tRNAs.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, R P; Schneller, J M; Stahl, A J; Dirheimer, G

    1977-01-01

    By two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, yeast mitochondrial tRNA is fractionated into 27 major species. All but 6 of them migrate distinctly from cytoplasmic tRNAs. Migration of mitochondrial DNA-coded mitochondrial tRNAs shows the occurence of only one cytoplasmic tRNA in mitochondria. Several mitochondrial tRNA spots are identified on the electrophoregrams, some of them show isoaccepting species (Val, Ser, Met, Leu). It is suggested that there are sufficient mitochondrial tRNA genes on yeast mitochondrial DNA to allow mitochondrial protein biosynthesis by the mitochondrial tRNAs alone. Guanosine + Cytidine content and rate base composition are reported for some individual species. Mitochondrial tRNAPhe lacks Ribothymidine. Images PMID:337238

  16. Electrochemiluminescence from hydrophilic thin film Ru(bpy)3(2+)-modified electrode prepared using natural halloysite nanotubes and polyacrylamide gel.

    PubMed

    Xing, Bo; Yin, Xue-Bo

    2009-05-15

    Because Ru(bpy)(3)(2+)-modified electrodes are often used in aqueous condition, the development of a hydrophilic modified electrode is of critical importance. Herein a hydrophilic, thin film Ru(bpy)(3)(2+)-modified electrode is successfully developed using polyacrylamide gel to embed halloysite nanotubes on the electrode surface which is used to adsorb Ru(bpy)(3)(2+) by cation-exchange. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrates the formation of the film on an electrode and the high adsorbing capacity of the halloysite nanotubes toward Ru(bpy)(3)(2+). The different electrochemiluminescence (ECL) behaviors of the electrode using nitrilotriacetic acid and tripropylamine, as co-reactants, illustrate the hydrophilic character of the modified electrode. Contrary to the previous works, the addition of carbon nanotubes into the modified electrode film leads to a decreased ECL emission, due to the reduction in the porosity of the film, which hinders the diffusion of the analyte. PMID:19285852

  17. Antibody response to epitopes of chlamydial major outer membrane proteins on infectious elementary bodies and of the reduced polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis-separated form.

    PubMed Central

    Baghian, A; Shaffer, L; Storz, J

    1990-01-01

    Approximately 60% of the outer membrane of chlamydial elementary bodies (EBs) consists of the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) that has structural and metabolic functions. The antigenic properties of MOMPs from mammalian strains of serovars 1 and 2 and an avian strain of Chlamydia psittaci were analyzed. Polyclonal-monospecific antisera (PMAs), one monoclonal antibody (MAb), and polyclonal antisera (PAs) were produced against reduced polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis-separated MOMPs and against infectious EBs. Three PMAs and the MAb, which were induced by reduced polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis-separated MOMPs, reacted strongly in Western blot (immunoblot) assays with MOMPs of serovar 1 and 2 strains as well as with that of the avian strain 6BC, and two of these PMAs reacted weakly (dilution, 1:20) with the MOMP of strain LGV-2. The third PMA and the MAb against the MOMP of the serovar 2 strain did not react with the MOMP of LGV-2. Four PAs were produced against infectious EBs of the serovar 1 strain. One of these PAs reacted with the homologous MOMP and that of the avian strain 6BC but did not recognize MOMPs of other chlamydial strains. Three of the PAs reacted with MOMPs of homologous strains only and failed to recognize MOMPs of avian, serovar 2, and LGV-2 strains. Five PAs induced against infectious EBs of the serovar strain 2 reacted only with the MOMPs of the homologous strains and failed to recognize MOMPs of other strains of chlamydiae. Consequently, MOMPs of C. psittaci strains possess genus-, species-, and serovar-specific epitopes whereby the immune response to serovar-specific epitopes of MOMP predominate when infectious EBs are used for immunization. Images PMID:1691145

  18. System and method of infrared matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry in polyacrylamide gels

    DOEpatents

    Haglund Jr., Richard F.; Ermer, David R.; Baltz-Knorr, Michelle Lee

    2004-11-30

    A system and method for desorption and ionization of analytes in an ablation medium. In one embodiment, the method includes the steps of preparing a sample having analytes in a medium including at least one component, freezing the sample at a sufficiently low temperature so that at least part of the sample has a phase transition, and irradiating the frozen sample with short-pulse radiation to cause medium ablation and desorption and ionization of the analytes. The method further includes the steps of selecting a resonant vibrational mode of at least one component of the medium and selecting an energy source tuned to emit radiation substantially at the wavelength of the selected resonant vibrational mode. The medium is an electrophoresis medium having polyacrylamide. In one embodiment, the energy source is a laser, where the laser can be a free electron laser tunable to generate short-pulse radiation. Alternatively, the laser can be a solid state laser tunable to generate short-pulse radiation. The laser can emit light at various ranges of wavelength.

  19. Direct detection of an antimicrobial peptide of Pediococcus acidilactici in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arun K. Bhunia; M. C. Johnson; Bibek Ray

    1987-01-01

    Summary An SDS-PAGE technique is described that allows identification of the antimicrobial activity of a peptide secreted by a strain ofPediococcus acidilactici. This peptide has an antimicrobial property against several baeteria associated with food. This technique enables detection of the specific peptide (or protein) band(s) associated with the inhibitory effect which can then be eluted from the gel for further

  20. Fabrication of a novel light emission material AlFeO3 by a modified polyacrylamide gel route and characterization of the material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shi-Fa; Zhang, Chuanfei; Sun, Guangai; Chen, Bo; Xiang, Xia; Wang, Hong; Fang, Leiming; Tian, Qiang; Ding, Qingping; Zu, XiaoTao

    2013-12-01

    AlFeO3 powders have been prepared by a modified polyacrylamide gel method and their thermal expansion and photoluminescence properties have been studied for the first time. The phase, morphology and thermal expansion behavior of as-prepared samples were analyzed via X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), and thermal dilatometer. XRD analysis indicates that the as-synthesized AlFeO3 has the same structure as ?-Fe2O3 without the presence of any other impurities. SEM observation shows that the morphology of AlFeO3 powder is significantly dependent on the sintering temperature. The thermal expansion and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curves of AlFeO3 sample analysis indicates that a phase transition near 700 °C. The crystal growth mechanisms, coordination mechanisms, phase transformation process and luminescence mechanisms of AlFeO3 have been discussed on the basis of the experimental results. The blue light emission at 2.76 eV is due to intracenter 4T1 ? 6A1 transitions in Fe3+ ions.

  1. Automated Genotyping of a Highly Informative Panel of 40 Short Insertion-Deletion Polymorphisms Resolved in Polyacrylamide Gels for Forensic Identification and Kinship Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pena, Heloisa B.; Pena, Sérgio D. J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Short insertion-deletion polymorphisms (indels) are the second most abundant form of genetic variations in humans after SNPs. Since indel alleles differ in size, they can be typed using the same methodological approaches and equipment currently utilized for microsatellite genotyping, which is already operational in forensic laboratories. We have previously shown that a panel of 40 carefully chosen indels has excellent potential for forensic identification, with combined probability of identity (match probability) of 7.09 × 10–17 for Europeans. Methods We describe the successful development of a multiplex system for genotyping the 40-indel panel in long thin denaturing polyacrylamide gels with silver staining. We also demonstrate that the system can be easily fully automated with a simple large scanner and commercial software. Results and Conclusion The great advantage of the new system of typing is its very low cost. The total price for laboratory equipment is less than EUR 10,000.-, and genotyping of an individual patient will cost less than EUR 10.- in supplies. Thus, the 40-indel panel described here and the newly developed ‘low-tech’ analysis platform represent useful new tools for forensic identification and kinship analysis in laboratories with limited budgets, especially in developing countries. PMID:22851937

  2. Variation and Genomic Localization of Genes Encoding DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER Male Accessory Gland Proteins Separated by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Whalen, Michael; Wilson, Thomas G.

    1986-01-01

    Accessory gland proteins from Drosophila melanogaster males have been separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis into nine major bands. When individual males from 175 strains were examined, considerable polymorphism for nearly one-half of the major protein bands was seen, including null alleles for three bands. Variation was observed not only among long-established laboratory strains but also among stocks recently derived from natural populations. There was little difference in the amount of variation between P and M strains, indicating that P element mutagenesis is not a factor producing the variation. Codominant expression of variants for each of five bands was found in heterozygotes, suggesting structural gene variation and not posttranslational modification variation. Stocks carrying electrophoretic variants of four of the major proteins were used to map the presumed structural genes for these proteins; the loci were found to be dispersed on the second chromosome. Since males homozygous for variant proteins were fertile, the polymorphism seems to have little immediate effect on successful sperm transfer. We propose that a high degree of polymorphism can be tolerated because these proteins play a nutritive rather than enzymatic role in Drosophila reproduction. PMID:3095182

  3. Evaluation of ram semen quality using polyacrylamide gel instead of cervical mucus in the sperm penetration test.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Rodríguez, C; Alvarez, M; Ordás, L; Chamorro, C A; Martinez-Pastor, F; Anel, L; de Paz, P

    2012-05-01

    Fertility is a very complex biological function that depends on several properties of the spermatozoa, including sperm motility. Two objectives are analyzed in this study: (1) Replace the cervical mucus by a synthetic medium in a sperm penetration test, and (2) evaluating the results of this test objectively analyzing the sperm number that migrates. In experiment 1, we have tested eight concentrations of acrylamide (1%-2%). Rheological properties of media were analyzed. The plastic straws, loaded with acrylamide, were placed vertically on the semen sample tube for 15 min at 39 °C. After, the acrylamides were placed, by segments of 5 mm, into wells of a 24-well plate, dyed with Hoechst 33342 and the number of spermatozoa were calculated by automated microscopy analysis. The 1.55% and 1.6% acrylamide gel showed a number of spermatozoa emigrating closer to that seen with natural mucus. In experiment 2, we applied the sperm penetration in acrylamide 1.6% and 1.55% using fresh semen and cooled semen at 15 °C and 5 °C. The spermatozoa counts were performed for each segment of 10 mm. Semen chilled at 15 °C presented intermediate values of sperm counts in comparison with fresh semen (higher) and 5 °C chilled semen. The sperm counts do not differ between acrylamides but the rheological properties of acrylamide 1.6% were more similar to those of the natural cervical mucus. In experiment 3, we have observed significant correlations between the number of spermatozoa and several sperm quality parameters (positive: progressive motility and velocity according to the straight path; negative: damaged acrosomes and apoptotic cells) in 1.6% acrylamide media. We conclude that the size of the cell subpopulation, objectively calculated, that migrate beyond 20 mm in 0.5-mL straws filled with acrylamide is a useful parameter in ram sperm quality assessment and further studies are needed to evaluate its relationship with field fertility. PMID:22289220

  4. A blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic technology to probe the functional proteomics mediating nitrogen homeostasis in Pseudomonas fluorescens

    E-print Network

    Appanna, Vasu

    mediating nitrogen homeostasis in Pseudomonas fluorescens Sungwon Han a , Christopher Auger a , Varun P a powerful tool to screen these enzymes that contribute to nitrogen homeostasis in Pseudomonas fluorescens

  5. Native gel electrophoresis of human telomerase distinguishes active complexes with or without dyskerin

    PubMed Central

    Gardano, Laura; Holland, Linda; Oulton, Rena; Le Bihan, Thierry; Harrington, Lea

    2012-01-01

    Telomeres, the ends of linear chromosomes, safeguard against genome instability. The enzyme responsible for extension of the telomere 3? terminus is the ribonucleoprotein telomerase. Whereas telomerase activity can be reconstituted in vitro with only the telomerase RNA (hTR) and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), additional components are required in vivo for enzyme assembly, stability and telomere extension activity. One such associated protein, dyskerin, promotes hTR stability in vivo and is the only component to co-purify with active, endogenous human telomerase. We used oligonucleotide-based affinity purification of hTR followed by native gel electrophoresis and in-gel telomerase activity detection to query the composition of telomerase at different purification stringencies. At low salt concentrations (0.1?M NaCl), affinity-purified telomerase was ‘supershifted’ with an anti-dyskerin antibody, however the association with dyskerin was lost after purification at 0.6?M NaCl, despite the retention of telomerase activity and a comparable yield of hTR. The interaction of purified hTR and dyskerin in vitro displayed a similar salt-sensitive interaction. These results demonstrate that endogenous human telomerase, once assembled and active, does not require dyskerin for catalytic activity. Native gel electrophoresis may prove useful in the characterization of telomerase complexes under various physiological conditions. PMID:22187156

  6. Viscoelastic studies of extracellular matrix interactions in a model native collagen gel system.

    PubMed

    Hsu, S; Jamieson, A M; Blackwell, J

    1994-01-01

    We describe an in vitro test of the hypothesis that viscoelastic properties of the collagen fiber network of skin are influenced by interactions between the macromolecular components in the extracellular matrix. Native type I collagen gels were investigated as a mechanical analog for connective tissue. A series of gels were formed under physiological conditions via fibril precipitation in the presence of selected matrix macromolecules, including dermatan sulfate (DS), hyaluronic acid (HA), dermatan sulfate proteoglycan (DSPG), fibronectin (FN) and elastin. Viscoelastic measurements and transmission electron microscopy were performed to explore the relationship between mechanical strength and fibril morphology. The results demonstrate that associative interactions of DSPG and HA with collagen fibrils, as well as variations in collagen fibril size distribution and the amount of elastin, can modify the viscoelastic behavior of the model collagen gels. Addition of DSPG, DS and HA increases both storage and loss moduli, G' and G"; morphological examination shows adhesive binding of these species to the collagen fibrils. At 37 degrees C, elastin increases G' by forming elastic coacervate particles. FN has no effect on the gel viscoelasticity. The observed effects are discussed in terms of current clinical observations on age-related changes in the mechanical properties of skin. PMID:8173042

  7. Characterization of Native and Modified Extensin Monomers and Oligomers by Electron Microscopy and Gel Filtration 1

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, J. W.; Terhune, Brian T.; Lamport, Derek T. A.

    1988-01-01

    We isolated hydroxyproline-rich extensin precursors from suspension-cultured tomato, cucumber, and sycamore-maple by salt-elution of intact cells and cell wall preparations. Cation exchange chromatography and HPLC gel filtration resolved these precursors into monomeric and oligomeric fractions, confirmed by amino acid analysis, immunological cross-reactivity, and TEM visualization. After rotary shadowing monomers appeared as flexuous rods with a contour length of 70 to 100 nanometers and a `persistence length' (maximum linear displacement) of 44 to 51 nanometers. Oligomers were larger branched assemblies with occasional pores. Native extensin monomers gave uniform gel filtration retention times (Rts), but the Rts of HF-deglycosylated monomers varied depending on concentration, implying ionic interaction between the highly basic deglycosylated monomers and a weakly cationic gel matrix. Succinylation of the deglycosylated monomers reversed the net charge, and restored the retention time to that of glycosylated monomers, confirming the ionic interaction. Succinylation enhanced visualization of the deglycosylated monomers, which previously were barely discernible flexuous rods. The persistence length:contour length ratios of succinylated deglycosylated monomers (tomato sdP2) and glycosylated monomers (sP2) were the same, implying a similar molecular flexibility for both glycosylated and deglycosylated monomers at room temperature. These molecular properties are consistent with suggestions that extensin monomers reptate into the wall as a transmural protein `weft' which becomes progressively cross-linked forming a network penetrated by the cellulose `warp.' Images Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:16665999

  8. Comparison of the capabilities of liquid isoelectric focusing–one-dimensional nonporous silica reversed-phase liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and liquid isoelectric focusing–one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis mass mapping for the analysis of intact protein molecular masses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel B Wall; Stephen J Parus; David M Lubman

    2001-01-01

    Nonporous silica reversed-phase HPLC coupled to electrospray ionization with on-line time-of-flight mass spectrometric detection (NPS-RP-HPLC–ESI-TOF-MS) is shown to be an effective liquid phase method for obtaining the molecular masses of proteins from pH fractionated cellular lysates where the method is capable of generating the same banding patterns typically observed using gel phase one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The liquid-phase

  9. Speciation analysis of inorganic arsenic in river water by Amberlite IRA 910 resin immobilized in a polyacrylamide gel as a selective binding agent for As(V) in diffusive gradient thin film technique.

    PubMed

    Rolisola, Ana M C M; Suárez, Carlos A; Menegário, Amauri A; Gastmans, Didier; Kiang, Chang H; Colaço, Camila D; Garcez, Daniel L; Santelli, Ricardo E

    2014-09-01

    In this study, a method is proposed for the selective retention of As(V) using diffusive gradient in thin film (DGT) samplers containing a strongly basic anion exchange resin (Amberlite IRA 910) supported on a polyacrylamide gel. In addition, the total arsenic content is determined by ferrihydrite gel discs. Subsequently, the concentration of As(III) was obtained by determining the difference between the total As and As(V). DGT experiments showed linear accumulation of As(V) (up to 280 ng) until a deployment time of 8 h deployment (R(2) > 0.99). The retention of As(V) was appropriate (97.9-112.3%) between pH 5 and 9. For a solution with an ionic strength ranging from 0.001 to 0.05 mol L(-1), the As(V) uptake ranged from 90-120%. The proposed method was applied for the speciation of arsenic in river water. For the analysis of spiked samples collected at the Furnas stream, the recoveries of total arsenic content ranged between 103.9% and 118.8%. However, the recoveries of As(III) and As(V) were 43.3-75.2% and 147.3-153.4%, respectively. These differences were probably because of the oxidation of As(III) to As(V) during deployments. For spiked samples collected at the Ribeirão Claro, the recoveries of dissolved As(III), As(V) and As(T) were 103.1%, 108.0% and 106.3%, respectively. Thus, the DGT technique with Amberlite IRA 910 resin as the binding phase can be employed for the in situ redox speciation of inorganic arsenic. PMID:25010156

  10. Preparation of DNA-crosslinked polyacrylamide hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Previtera, Michelle L; Langrana, Noshir A

    2014-01-01

    Mechanobiology is an emerging scientific area that addresses the critical role of physical cues in directing cell morphology and function. For example, the effect of tissue elasticity on cell function is a major area of mechanobiology research because tissue stiffness modulates with disease, development, and injury. Static tissue-mimicking materials, or materials that cannot alter stiffness once cells are plated, are predominately used to investigate the effects of tissue stiffness on cell functions. While information gathered from static studies is valuable, these studies are not indicative of the dynamic nature of the cellular microenvironment in vivo. To better address the effects of dynamic stiffness on cell function, we developed a DNA-crosslinked polyacrylamide hydrogel system (DNA gels). Unlike other dynamic substrates, DNA gels have the ability to decrease or increase in stiffness after fabrication without stimuli. DNA gels consist of DNA crosslinks that are polymerized into a polyacrylamide backbone. Adding and removing crosslinks via delivery of single-stranded DNA allows temporal, spatial, and reversible control of gel elasticity. We have shown in previous reports that dynamic modulation of DNA gel elasticity influences fibroblast and neuron behavior. In this report and video, we provide a schematic that describes the DNA gel crosslinking mechanisms and step-by-step instructions on the preparation DNA gels. PMID:25226067

  11. Native phytochrome: immunoblot analysis of relative molecular mass and in-vitro proteolytic degradation for several plant species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard D. Vierstra; Marie-Michèle Cordonnier; Lee H. Pratt; Peter H. Quail

    1984-01-01

    The relative molecular mass (Mr) of the native phytochrome monomer from etiolated Cucurbita pepo L., Pisum sativum L., Secale cereale L. and Zea mays L. seedlings has been determined using immunoblotting to visualize the chromoprotein in crude extracts subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. A single phytochrome band is observed for each plant species when the molecule is extracted

  12. Isolation and characterization by immunofluorescence, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, western blot, restriction fragment length polymorphism-PCR, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of Rochalimaea quintana from a patient with bacillary angiomatosis.

    PubMed Central

    Maurin, M; Roux, V; Stein, A; Ferrier, F; Viraben, R; Raoult, D

    1994-01-01

    Rochalimaea quintana was isolated from the blood of a French human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient with bacillary angiomatosis. The isolate showed the typical growth characteristics of Rochalimaea species and was inert when typical biochemical testing was used. The purpose of the present work was to characterize and compare this new isolate with reference strains of R. quintana, Rochalimaea vinsonii, and Rochalimaea henselae by using immunofluorescence, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), Western blot (immunoblot), restriction fragment length polymorphism-PCR of the citrate synthase gene, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. SDS-PAGE, Western blot, restriction fragment length polymorphism-PCR with TaqI enzyme, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing could differentiate the three Rochalimaea species and allowed characterization of the French isolate as R. quintana. However, identification of the Rochalimaea isolate to the species level was more easily obtained by immunofluorescence with specific murine antisera. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis allowed differentiation of the French R. quintana isolate from R. quintana Fuller and may serve as an epidemiological tool. Images PMID:7519628

  13. The nanoporous morphology of photopolymerized crosslinked polyacrylamide hydrogels

    E-print Network

    Wang, Jian

    2009-05-15

    polyacrylamide hydrogel............ 49 3.4 ! G' and ! G" of 9 % T-5 % C polyacrylamide hydrogels polymerized at 520 mW/cm 2 as a function of angular frequency ! " at diferent polymerization time........................................ 50 x... intensity........................................... 55 3.7 Gel strength ! S as a function of the relaxation exponent ! n for diferent hydrogels................................................ 57 3.8 The evolution of ! n as a function...

  14. Protein imprinting in polyacrylamide-based gels

    PubMed Central

    Zayats, Maya; Brenner, Andrew J.; Searson, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    Protein imprinting in hydrogels is a method to produce materials capable of selective recognition and capture of a target protein. Here we report on the imprinting of fluorescently-labeled maltose binding protein (MBP) in acrylamide (AAm)/N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm) hydrogels. The targeting efficiency and selectivity of protein recognition is usually characterized by the imprinting factor, which in the simplest case is the ratio of protein uptake in an imprinted film divided by the uptake by the corresponding non-imprinted film. Our objective in this work is to study the dynamics of protein binding and elution in imprinted and non-imprinted films to elucidate the processes that control protein recognition. Protein elution from imprinted and non-imprinted films suggests that imprinting results in sites with a distribution of binding energies, and that only a relatively small fraction of these sites exhibit strong binding. PMID:25034963

  15. Microchannel gel electrophoretic separation systems and methods for preparing and using

    DOEpatents

    Herr, Amy; Singh, Anup K; Throckmorton, Daniel J

    2013-09-03

    A micro-analytical platform for performing electrophoresis-based immunoassays was developed by integrating photopolymerized cross-linked polyacrylamide gels within a microfluidic device. The microfluidic immunoassays are performed by gel electrophoretic separation and quantifying analyte concentration based upon conventional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). To retain biological activity of proteins and maintain intact immune complexes, native PAGE conditions were employed. Both direct (non-competitive) and competitive immunoassay formats are demonstrated in microchips for detecting toxins and biomarkers (cytokines, c-reactive protein) in bodily fluids (serum, saliva, oral fluids). Further, a description of gradient gels fabrication is included, in an effort to describe methods we have developed for further optimization of on-chip PAGE immunoassays. The described chip-based PAGE immunoassay method enables immunoassays that are fast (minutes) and require very small amounts of sample (less than a few microliters). Use of microfabricated chips as a platform enables integration, parallel assays, automation and development of portable devices.

  16. Analysis of Mutant SOD1 Electrophoretic Mobility by Blue Native Gel Electrophoresis; Evidence for Soluble Multimeric Assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Hilda H.; Borchelt, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) cause familial forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS). Disease causing mutations have diverse consequences on the activity and half-life of the protein, ranging from complete inactivity and short half-life to full activity and long-half-life. Uniformly, disease causing mutations induce the protein to misfold and aggregate and such aggregation tendencies are readily visualized by over-expression of the proteins in cultured cells. In the present study we have investigated the potential of using immunoblotting of proteins separated by Blue-Native gel electrophoresis (BNGE) as a means to identify soluble multimeric forms of mutant protein. We find that over-expressed wild-type human SOD1 (hSOD1) is generally not prone to form soluble high molecular weight entities that can be separated by BNGE. For ALS mutant SOD1, we observe that for all mutants examined (A4V, G37R, G85R, G93A, and L126Z), immunoblots of BN-gels separating protein solubilized by digitonin demonstrated varied amounts of high molecular weight immunoreactive entities. These entities lacked reactivity to ubiquitin and were partially dissociated by reducing agents. With the exception of the G93A mutant, these entities were not reactive to the C4F6 conformational antibody. Collectively, these data demonstrate that BNGE can be used to assess the formation of soluble multimeric assemblies of mutant SOD1. PMID:25121776

  17. Microrheology of cross-linked polyacrylamide networks Bivash R. Dasgupta and D. A. Weitz

    E-print Network

    the frequency- independent plateau shear modulus of cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol and polyacrylamide gelsMicrorheology of cross-linked polyacrylamide networks Bivash R. Dasgupta and D. A. Weitz Department; published 24 February 2005 Experiments investigating the local viscoelastic properties of a chemically cross-linked

  18. Shear-Induced Degradation of Linear Polyacrylamide Solutions during

    E-print Network

    to determine the LPA molecular weight before and after gel-loading. The results indicate molecular degradation in molecular weight experi- enced by the polymer solutions. Entangled solutions of linear polyacrylamide (LPA to identify its molecular weight.16 For dilute * To whom correspond

  19. Effect of Shear on Gelation of Polyacrylamide-Chromium Acetate Gelant in a Circular Tube

    E-print Network

    Li, Xianping

    2010-11-26

    This research studies the gelation and flow properties of a partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM)-chromium acetate gel system under shear conditions. Gelation was observed in steady shear on a rheometer and during injection through a 1,031-ft...

  20. Silver Staining of 2D Electrophoresis Gels Thierry Rabilloud

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Silver Staining of 2D Electrophoresis Gels Thierry Rabilloud CEA-DSV-iRTSV/LCBM and UMR CNRS separation on polyacrylamide gels. It combines excellent sensitivity (in the low nanogram range) with the use spectrometry, quantification, polyacrylamide gels, protein visualisation, silver staining #12;1. Introduction

  1. Microproteomic Analysis of 10,000 Laser Captured Microdissected Breast Tumor Cells Using Short-Range Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Porous Layer Open Tubular (PLOT) LC-MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Dipak; Rejtar, Tomas; Wang, Dongdong; Bones, Jonathan; Cha, Sangwon; Clodfelder-Miller, Buffie; Richardson, Elizabeth; Binns, Shemeica; Dahiya, Sonika; Sgroi, Dennis; Karger, Barry L.

    2011-01-01

    Precise proteomic profiling of limited levels of disease tissue represents an extremely challenging task. Here, we present an effective and reproducible microproteomic workflow for sample sizes of only 10,000 cells that integrates selective sample procurement via laser capture microdissection (LCM), sample clean up and protein level fractionation using short-range SDS-PAGE, followed by ultrasensitive LC-MS/MS analysis using a 10 ?m i.d. porous layer open tubular (PLOT) column. With 10,000 LCM captured mouse hepatocytes for method development and performance assessment, only 10% of the in-gel digest, equivalent to ~1000 cells, was needed per LC-MS/MS analysis. The optimized workflow was applied to the differential proteomic analysis of 10,000 LCM collected primary and metastatic breast cancer cells from the same patient. More than 1100 proteins were identified from each injection with >1700 proteins identified from three LCM samples of 10,000 cells from the same patient (1123 with at least two unique peptides). Label free quantitation (spectral counting) was performed to identify differential protein expression between the primary and metastatic cell populations. Informatics analysis of the resulting data indicated that vesicular transport and extracellular remodeling processes were significantly altered between the two cell types. The ability to extract meaningful biological information from limited, but highly informative cell populations demonstrates the significant benefits of the described microproteomic workflow. PMID:21982995

  2. Spring-loaded polymeric gel actuators

    DOEpatents

    Shahinpoor, M.

    1995-02-14

    Spring-loaded electrically controllable polymeric gel actuators are disclosed. The polymeric gels can be polyvinyl alcohol, polyacrylic acid, or polyacrylamide, and are contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as water plus acetone. The action of the gel is mechanically biased, allowing the expansive and contractile forces to be optimized for specific applications. 5 figs.

  3. Spring-loaded polymeric gel actuators

    DOEpatents

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01

    Spring-loaded electrically controllable polymeric gel actuators are disclosed. The polymeric gels can be polyvinyl alcohol, polyacrylic acid, or polyacrylamide, and are contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as water plus acetone. The action of the gel is mechanically biased, allowing the expansive and contractile forces to be optimized for specific applications.

  4. Silver Staining of 2D Electrophoresis Gels Ccile Lelong, Mireille Chevallet, Sylvie Luche, Thierry Rabilloud

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Silver Staining of 2D Electrophoresis Gels Cécile Lelong, Mireille Chevallet, Sylvie Luche Cedex 9, France 1. Introduction Silver staining of polyacrylamide gels was introduced in 1979 by Switzer staining protocols for proteins in polyacrylamide gels can be found in the literature. However, all of them

  5. [Native electrophoresis in cell proteomics: BN-PAGE and CN-PAGE].

    PubMed

    Shykoliukov, S A

    2011-01-01

    The presented mini-review aims to attract the attention of domestic researchers for rapid, cheap and easily reproducible method of native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), which for some reason has not yet found application in our country. The review collected the most interesting examples of the use of three types of native electrophoresis (BN-PAGE, CN-PAGE and hrCN-PAGE) to study the peculiarities of proteomes of various animal, plant and bacterial cells. The references to fundamental reviews, basic protocols, modifications of the initial methods and the examples of the combination of native electrophoresis with other chemical or physical methods are presented. Particular attention to the principles of BN-, CN- and hrCN-PAGE as well as to their advantages and disadvantages is paid. PMID:21516823

  6. Original article Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of membrane

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of membrane proteins from ectomycorrhizal-dimensional polyacrylamide gels. Gels with limited back- ground staining and streaking and with clearly efficacité et leur compatibilité avec l'obtention de gels d'électro- phorèse bidimensionnelle. Une fraction

  7. Biochemical characterization of halorhodopsin in native membranes.

    PubMed

    Spudich, E N; Spudich, J L

    1985-01-25

    Procedures are described for selectively radiolabeling the protein moiety (haloopsin) or the chromophoric prosthestic group (retinal) of the light-driven chloride pump halorhodopsin in intact cells of Halobacterium halobium. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autofluorography, two retinal-binding polypeptides are observed to band near the known molecular weight of the halorhodopsin chromophoric polypeptide (25,000). Synthesis of one of these polypeptides is controlled by retinal and is sufficient for generation of complete halorhodopsin function. The other is constitutively produced by the cells and differs chemically from the haloopsin protein as indicated by differences in their V8 protease digestion patterns. V8 protease cleavage of haloopsin in its native membrane is compared with that of the protein in denaturing and nondenaturing detergents. Protease cleavage sites available in the denatured haloopsin molecule are hidden in its native membrane-integrated conformation and in nondenaturing detergent micelles. Treatment with a variety of proteases indicates susceptibility of a short terminal region of the haloopsin chain in its native conformation. PMID:3881422

  8. Wide frequency rheological modeling of crosslinked polyacrylamide gels

    E-print Network

    . G0 N , the plateau modulus, is measured at low frequencies, but interestingly another one, G1, in particular packed collo¨idal suspensions, the cell cytoskeleton [9] as well as foams or slurries. Polymeric

  9. odium dodecyl sulfate polyacry-lamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    of the first two discoveries employing a simple Tris-glycine buffer system (9). More recently, buffer combina's partner brand, Calbiochem. Solutions must be carefully and safely pre- pared, dated, and chemical lot

  10. Evaluation du potentiel radiosensibilisateur ou radioprotecteur/antioxydant de quelques composes selectionnes par dosimetrie par gel de polyacrylamide et dosimetre de Fricke, et utilisation de la filamentation par impulsion laser infrarouge fenitoseconde comme un nouveau et puissant faisceau pour la radiotherapie du cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meesat, Ridthee

    In radiation treatment, a sufficiently high radiation dose must be delivered to the tissue volumes containing the tumor cells while the lowest possible dose should be deposited in surrounding healthy tissue. We developed an original approach that is fast and easy to implement for the early assessment of the efficiency of radiation sensitizers and protectors. In addition, we characterized a new femtosecond laser pulse irradiation technique. We are able to deposit a considerable dose with a very high dose rate inside a well-controlled macroscopic volume without deposition of energy in front or behind the target volume. The radioprotective efficiency was measured by irradiation of the Fricke solution incorporating a compound under study and measuring the corresponding production of ferric ions G(Fe3+). The production of ferric ions is most sensitive to the radical species produced in the radiolysis of water. We studied experimentally and simulated with a full Monte-Carlo computer code the radiation-induced chemistry of Fricke/cystamine solutions. Results clearly indicate that the protective effect of cystamine originates from its radical-capturing ability, which allows this compound to compete with the ferrous ions for the various free radicals - especially ·OH radicals and H· atoms - formed during irradiation of the surrounding water. The sensitizing capacity of radiation sensitizers was measured by irradiation of a polyacrylamide gel (PAG) dosimeter incorporating a compound under study and measuring the corresponding increase in the gradient between spin-spin relaxation rate (R2) and absorbed dose. We measured an irradiation energy-dependent increase in R 2-dose sensitivity for halogenated compounds or a decrease for radioprotectors. Finally, we studied a novel laser irradiation method called "filamentation". We showed that this phenomenon results in an unprecedented deposition of energy and the dose rate thus achieved exceeds by orders of magnitude values previously reported for the most intense clinical radiotherapy systems. Moreover, the length of the dose-free entrance region was adjusted by selecting the duration of femtosecond laser pulses. In addition, we provided evidence that the biological damage caused by this irradiation was similar to other ionizing radiation sources. Keywords: Radiotherapy, radiosensitization, radioprotection, laser, filamentation, dosimetry.

  11. Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators

    DOEpatents

    Adolf, D.B.; Shahinpoor, M.; Segalman, D.J.; Witkowski, W.R.

    1993-10-05

    Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators or synthetic muscles are described capable of undergoing substantial expansion and contraction when subjected to changing pH environments, temperature, or solvent. The actuators employ compliant containers for the gels and their solvents. The gels employed may be cylindrical electromechanical gel fibers such as polyacrylamide fibers or a mixture of poly vinyl alcohol-polyacrylic acid arranged in a parallel aggregate and contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as salt water. The invention includes smart, electrically activated devices exploiting this phenomenon. These devices are capable of being manipulated via active computer control as large displacement actuators for use in adaptive structure such as robots. 11 figures.

  12. Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators

    DOEpatents

    Adolf, Douglas B. (Albuquerque, NM); Shahinpoor, Mohsen (Albuquerque, NM); Segalman, Daniel J. (Albuquerque, NM); Witkowski, Walter R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1993-01-01

    Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators or synthetic muscles capable of undergoing substantial expansion and contraction when subjected to changing pH environments, temperature, or solvent. The actuators employ compliant containers for the gels and their solvents. The gels employed may be cylindrical electromechanical gel fibers such as polyacrylamide fibers or a mixture of poly vinyl alcohol-polyacrylic acid arranged in a parallel aggregate and contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as salt water. The invention includes smart, electrically activated devices exploiting this phenomenon. These devices are capable of being manipulated via active computer control as large displacement actuators for use in adaptive structure such as robots.

  13. A Simple Vertical Slab Gel Electrophoresis Apparatus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, J. B.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes an inexpensive, easily constructed, and safe vertical slab gel kit used routinely for sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis research and student experiments. Five kits are run from a single transformer. Because toxic solutions are used, students are given plastic gloves and closely supervised during laboratory…

  14. Detection of Polymorphisms of Human DNA by Gel Electrophoresis as Single-Strand Conformation Polymorphisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masato Orita; Hiroyuki Iwahana; Hiroshi Kanazawa; Kenshi Hayashi; Takao Sekiya

    1989-01-01

    We developed mobility shift analysis of single-stranded DNAs on neutral polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to detect DNA polymorphisms. This method follows digestion of genomic DNA with restriction endonucleases, denaturation in alkaline solution, and electrophoresis on a neutral polyacrylamide gel. After transfer to a nylon membrane, the mobility shift due to a nucleotide substitution of a single-stranded DNA fragment could be detected

  15. Templated Native Silk Smectic Gels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Hyoung-Joon (Inventor); Park, Jae-Hyung (Inventor); Valluzzi, Regina (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    One aspect of the present invention relates to a method of preparing a fibrous protein smectic hydrogel by way of a solvent templating process, comprising the steps of pouring an aqueous fibrous protein solution into a container comprising a solvent that is not miscible with water; sealing the container and allowing it to age at about room temperature; and collecting the resulting fibrous protein smectic hydrogel and allowing it to dry. Another aspect of the present invention relates to a method of obtaining predominantly one enantiomer from a racemic mixture, comprising the steps of pouring an aqueous fibrous protein solution into a container comprising a solvent that is not miscible with water; sealing the container and allowing it to age at about room temperature; allowing the enantiomers of racemic mixture to diffuse selectively into the smectic hydrogel in solution; removing the smectic hydrogel from the solution; rinsing predominantly one enantiomer from the surface of the smectic hydrogel; and extracting predominantly one enantiomer from the interior of the smectic hydrogel. The present invention also relates to a smectic hydrogel prepared according to an aforementioned method.

  16. Blotting from PhastGel to membranes by ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Kost, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasound-based approach for enhanced protein blotting is proposed. Three minutes of ultrasound exposure (1 MHz, 2.5 W/cm(2)) was sufficient for a clear transfer of proteins from a polyacrylamide gel (PhastGel) to nitrocellulose or Nylon 66 Biotrans membrane. The proteins evaluated were prestained sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide standards (18,500-106,000 Da) and (14)C-labeled Rainbow protein molecular weight markers (14,300-200,000 Da). PMID:19378056

  17. Polyacrylamide Hydrogel Properties for Horticultural Applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogels are commonly employed to ensure hydration of the growth media and minimize crop losses during the crop production and postproduction phases in horticulture. However, studies of the effect of these materials have shown that they have a minimal effect on crop life and q...

  18. 21 CFR 172.255 - Polyacrylamide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.255 Polyacrylamide. ...than 0.2 percent of acrylamide monomer may be safely used as a film former in the imprinting of soft-shell gelatin capsules...

  19. 21 CFR 172.255 - Polyacrylamide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.255 Polyacrylamide. ...than 0.2 percent of acrylamide monomer may be safely used as a film former in the imprinting of soft-shell gelatin capsules...

  20. 21 CFR 172.255 - Polyacrylamide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.255 Polyacrylamide. ...than 0.2 percent of acrylamide monomer may be safely used as a film former in the imprinting of soft-shell gelatin capsules...

  1. 21 CFR 172.255 - Polyacrylamide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.255 Polyacrylamide. ...than 0.2 percent of acrylamide monomer may be safely used as a film former in the imprinting of soft-shell gelatin capsules...

  2. 21 CFR 172.255 - Polyacrylamide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.255 Polyacrylamide. ...than 0.2 percent of acrylamide monomer may be safely used as a film former in the imprinting of soft-shell gelatin capsules...

  3. Biochemical characterization of Aspergillus oryzae native tannase and the recombinant enzyme expressed in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Toshiyuki; Shiono, Yoshihito; Koseki, Takuya

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the biochemical properties of the recombinant tannase from Aspegillus oryzae were compared with those of the native enzyme. Extracellular native tannase was purified from a commercial enzyme source. Recombinant tannase highly expressed in Pichia pastoris was prepared as an active extracellular protein. Purified native and recombinant tannases produced smeared bands with apparent molecular masses of 45-80 kDa and 45-75 kDa, respectively, by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. After N-deglycosylation, the native enzyme yielded molecular masses of 33 kDa and 30 kDa, whereas the recombinant enzyme yielded molecular masses of 34 kDa and 30 kDa. Purified native and recombinant tannases had an optimum pH of 4.0-5.0 and 5.0, respectively, and were stable up to 40°C. After N-deglycosylation, both enzymes exhibited reduced thermostability. Catalytic efficiencies of both purified enzymes were greater with natural substrates, such as (-)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, and (-)-epigallocatechin gallates, than those with synthetic substrates, such as methyl, ethyl, and propyl gallates. However, there were no activities against the methyl esters of ferulic, p-coumaric, caffeic, and sinapic acids, which indicate feruloyl esterase activity, or the ethyl, propyl, and butyl esters of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, which indicate paraben hydrolase activity. PMID:24856589

  4. Formation of composite polyacrylamide and silicone substrates for independent control of stiffness and strain

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Chelsey S.; Ribeiro, Alexandre J. S.; Pruitt, Beth L.

    2013-01-01

    Cells that line major tissues in the body such as blood vessels, lungs and gastrointestinal tract experience deformation from mechanical strain with our heartbeat, breathing, and other daily activities. Tissues also remodel in both development and disease, changing their mechanical properties. Taken together, cells can experience vastly different mechanical cues resulting from the combination of these interdependent stimuli. To date, most studies of cellular mechanotransduction have been limited to assays in which variations in substrate stiffness and strain were not combined. Here, we address this technological gap by implementing a method that can simultaneously tune both substrate stiffness and mechanical strain. Substrate stiffness is controlled with different monomer and crosslinker ratios during polyacrylamide gel polymerization, and strain is transferred from the underlying silicone platform when stretched. We demonstrate this platform with polyacrylamide gels with elastic moduli at 6 kPa and 20 kPa in combination with two different silicone formulations. The gels remain attached with up to 50% applied strains. To validate strain transfer through the gels into cells, we employ particle-tracking methods and observe strain transmission via cell morphological changes. PMID:23287818

  5. Microfabricated Polyacrylamide Devices for the Controlled Culture of Growing Cells and Developing Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Gude, Sebastian; Recouvreux, Pierre; van Zon, Jeroen S.; Tans, Sander J.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to spatially confine living cells or small organisms while dynamically controlling their aqueous environment is important for a host of microscopy applications. Here, we show how polyacrylamide layers can be patterned to construct simple microfluidic devices for this purpose. We find that polyacrylamide gels can be molded like PDMS into micron-scale structures that can enclose organisms, while being permeable to liquids, and transparent to allow for microscopic observation. We present a range of chemostat-like devices to observe bacterial and yeast growth, and C. elegans nematode development. The devices can integrate PDMS layers and allow for temporal control of nutrient conditions and the presence of drugs on a minute timescale. We show how spatial confinement of motile C. elegans enables for time-lapse microscopy in a parallel fashion. PMID:24086559

  6. Conducting polymer electrodes for gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Katarina; Nilsson, Sara; Robinson, Nathaniel D

    2014-01-01

    In nearly all cases, electrophoresis in gels is driven via the electrolysis of water at the electrodes, where the process consumes water and produces electrochemical by-products. We have previously demonstrated that ?-conjugated polymers such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) can be placed between traditional metal electrodes and an electrolyte to mitigate electrolysis in liquid (capillary electroosmosis/electrophoresis) systems. In this report, we extend our previous result to gel electrophoresis, and show that electrodes containing PEDOT can be used with a commercial polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system with minimal impact to the resulting gel image or the ionic transport measured during a separation. PMID:24586761

  7. New gel phantoms simulating optical properties of biological tissue

    E-print Network

    Lee, Mija

    1997-01-01

    Gel phantoms made of polyacrylamide gel, India ink, and TiO2 were prepared to simulate biological tissues in optical properties. India ink and TiO2were used to imitate the absorption and scattering properties, respectively, of biological tissues...

  8. Accounting for Spot Matching Uncertainty in the Analysis of Proteomics Data from Two-dimensional Gel Electrophoresis

    E-print Network

    Maitra, Ranjan

    -dimensional Gel Electrophoresis Volodymyr Melnykov , Ranjan Maitra and Dan Nettleton Abstract Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis is a biochemical technique that combines isoelectric focusing and SDS- polyacrylamide gel model 1 Introduction Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DGE) is one of the oldest and most commonly

  9. Performance and biocompatibility of extremely tough alginate/polyacrylamide hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Darnell, Max C; Sun, Jeong-Yun; Mehta, Manav; Johnson, Christopher; Arany, Praveen R; Suo, Zhigang; Mooney, David J

    2013-11-01

    Although hydrogels now see widespread use in a host of applications, low fracture toughness and brittleness have limited their more broad use. As a recently described interpenetrating network (IPN) of alginate and polyacrylamide demonstrated a fracture toughness of ? 9000 J/m(2), we sought to explore the biocompatibility and maintenance of mechanical properties of these hydrogels in cell culture and in vivo conditions. These hydrogels can sustain a compressive strain of over 90% with minimal loss of Young's Modulus as well as minimal swelling for up to 50 days of soaking in culture conditions. Mouse mesenchymal stem cells exposed to the IPN gel-conditioned media maintain high viability, and although cells exposed to conditioned media demonstrate slight reductions in proliferation and metabolic activity (WST assay), these effects are abrogated in a dose-dependent manner. Implantation of these IPN hydrogels into subcutaneous tissue of rats for 8 weeks led to mild fibrotic encapsulation and minimal inflammatory response. These results suggest the further exploration of extremely tough alginate/PAAM IPN hydrogels as biomaterials. PMID:23896005

  10. A simple and cost-effective solid-phase protein nano-assay using polyacrylamide-coated glass plates.

    PubMed

    Krajewski, Wladyslaw A

    2015-02-01

    A new solid-phase protein nano-assay is suggested for simple and sensitive estimation of protein content in sample buffers (a 1-?l sample is sufficient for analysis). The assay is different from conventional "on-filter" assays in that it uses inexpensive fully transparent polyacrylamide gel (PAAG)-coated glass plates as solid support and, thus, combines the convenience of "on-membrane" staining with the sensitivity and ease of documentation of "in-gel" staining (and, therefore, is especially suited for standard lab gel documentation systems). The PAAG plates assay is compatible with all dyes for in-gel protein staining. Depending on the sensitivity of the staining protocol, the assay can be used in macro-, micro-, and nano-assay formats. We also describe a low-cost two-component colloidal Coomassie brilliant blue G-250 (CBB G-250) staining protocol for fast quantitative visualization of proteins spotted on a PAAG plate (the detection limit is up to 2 ng of proteins even when using a Nikon CoolPix digital camera and white light transilluminator instead of a gel scanner). The suggested colloidal CBB G-250 protocol could also be used for visualizing nano-amounts of proteins in polyacrylamide gels. The PAAG plate assay could be useful for proteomic applications and, in general, for all cases where a fast, sensitive, and easily documentable cost-effective solid-phase protein assay is required. PMID:25449300

  11. Gel absorption-based sample preparation for the analysis of membrane proteome by mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Zhou; Jixian Xiong; Jianglin Li; Sha Huang; Hai Zhang; Quanze He; Yong Lin; Ping Chen; Xianchun Wang; Songping Liang

    2010-01-01

    A gel absorption-based sample preparation method for shotgun analysis of membrane proteome has been developed. In this new method, membrane proteins solubilized in a starting buffer containing a high concentration of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were directly entrapped and immobilized into gel matrix when the membrane protein solution was absorbed by the vacuum-dried polyacrylamide gel. After the detergent and other

  12. Two dimensional blue native/SDS-PAGE to identify mitochondrial complex I subunits modified by 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jinzi; Luo, Xiaoting; Yan, Liang-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) can form protein-linked HNE adducts, thereby impacting protein structure and function. Mitochondrial complex I (NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase), containing at least 45 subunits in mammalian cells, sits in a lipid-rich environment and is thus very susceptible to HNE modifications. In this paper, a procedure for the identification of HNE-modified complex I subunits is described. Complex I was isolated by first dimensional non-gradient blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE). The isolated complex I band, visualized by either Coomassie blue staining or silver staining, was further analyzed by second dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). HNE-modified proteins were visualized by Western blotting probed with anti-HNE antibodies. HNE-positive bands were then excised and the proteins contained in them were identified by mass spectrometric peptide sequencing. The method was successfully applied for the identification of two complex I subunits that showed enhanced HNE-modifications in diabetic kidney mitochondria.

  13. Impacts of Timing of Crosslinker Addition on Water Shut Off Polymer Gel Properties

    E-print Network

    Shriwal, Prashant

    2012-07-16

    In preparation of gelant solution for making crosslinked polymer gels for water shutoff applications unpublished experiments plus chemical intuition suggest that, unless hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) polymer is fully hydrated before addition...

  14. technical manual protein electrophoresis

    E-print Network

    Kirschner, Marc W.

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Chapter 2 Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis.2 Separating proteins on the basis of molecular weight: SDS gel electrophoresis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 2.5 Native gel electrophoresis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 2

  15. Heavy metal biosorption by gellan gum gel beads

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Núria Lázaro; Asunción López Sevilla; Susana Morales; Ana M. Marqués

    2003-01-01

    The Ni2+ accumulation in batch mode from diluted solutions by gel beads of gellan gum (GG), alginate, ?-carrageenan, agar, agarose, silica gel, polyacrylamide and two mixtures of GG+agar was investigated. All polymeric materials studied accumulated Ni2+, but gel beads of GG were stable, easily obtainable and showed the highest Ni2+ accumulation. The pH of the Ni2+ solution was not critical

  16. Effect of ?-carrageenan on volume phase transition for polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogel using the fluorescence technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akta?, Demet Kaya

    2014-03-01

    Steady-state fluorescence (SSF) technique was employed for studying swelling of polyacrylamide (PAAm) gels with various content of ?-carrageenan ( ?C). Disc shaped composite hydrogels were prepared by free-radical crosslinking copolymerization of acrylamide (AAm) with various amounts ?C. N, N'-methylenebis (acrylamide) (BIS) and ammonium persulfate (APS) were used as crosslinker and initiator, respectively. Pyranine was introduced as a fluorescence probe. Fluorescence intensity of pyranine was monitored during in situ swelling processes of composite gels. It was observed that fluorescence intensity values decreased as swelling is proceeded. Li-Tanaka equation was used to determine the swelling time constants, ? and cooperative diffusion coefficients, D from intensity variations during the swelling processes. It was shown that swelling time constants, ? decreased and diffusion coefficients, D increased as the ?C content in the composites are increased.

  17. Sequence-influenced interactions of oligoacridines with DNA detected by retarded gel electrophorectic migrations

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, P.E.; Zhen, W.; Henriksen, U.; Buchardt, O.

    1988-01-12

    The authors have found that di-, tri-, tetra-, and hexa-9-acridinylamines are so efficiently associated with DNA during electrophoresis in polyacrylamide or agarose gels that they retard its migration. The retardation is roughly proportional to the reagent to base pair ratio, and the magnitude of the retardation indicates that a combined charge neutralization/helix extension mechanism is mainly responsible for the effect. Furthermore, DNA sequence dependent differences are observed. Thus, the pUC 19 restriction fragments (HaeIII or AluI), which in the native state comigrate upon gel electrophoretic analysis, could be separated in the presence of a diacridine, and specific DNA fragments responded differently to different diacridines. These results suggest that the effect also is due to a contribution from the DNA conformation and that the DNA conformation dynamics are influenced differently upon binding of different diacridines. They foresee three applications of this observation: (1) in analytical gel electrophoretic separation of otherwise comigrating DNA molecules, (2) in studies of polyintercalator-DNA interaction, and (3) in measurements of polyintercalator-induced DNA unwinding.

  18. 21 CFR 872.3420 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive. 872.3420 Section 872.3420...cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose...cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive is a device composed of...

  19. 21 CFR 872.3420 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive. 872.3420 Section 872.3420...cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose...cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive is a device composed of...

  20. 21 CFR 872.3420 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive. 872.3420 Section 872.3420...cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose...cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive is a device composed of...

  1. 21 CFR 872.3420 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive. 872.3420 Section 872.3420...cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose...cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive is a device composed of...

  2. Seperation of proteins using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide discontinuous gel electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert E. Akins; Rocky S. Tuan

    1994-01-01

    The gel electrophoresis system presented here allows the separation of proteins with the concomitant retention of detectable\\u000a native activities. The system, referred to as CAT gel electrophoresis. uses the detergent cetyltrimethylammonium bromide in\\u000a combination with a discontinuous gel matrix to resolve protein mixtures into discrete bands. Many proteins retain detectable\\u000a levels of native activity after CAT electrophoresis, and gel bands

  3. Field demonstration of in situ grouting of radioactive solid waste burial trenches with polyacrylamide. [Polyacrylamide

    SciTech Connect

    Spalding, B.P.; Fontaine, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Demonstrations of in situ grouting with polyacrylamide were carried out on two undisturbed burial trenches and one dynamically compacted burial trench in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The injection of polyacrylamide was achieved quite facilely for the two undisturbed burial trenches which were filled with grout, at typical pumping rates of 95 L/min, in several batches injected over several days. The compacted burial trench, however, failed to accept grout at more than 1.9 L/min even when pressure was applied. Thus, it appears that burial trenches, stabilized by dynamic compaction, have a permeability too low to be considered groutable. The water table beneath the burial trenches did not respond to grout injections indicating a lack of hydrologic connection between fluid grout and the water table which would have been observed if the grout failed to set. Because grout set times were adjusted to less than 60 min, the lack of hydrologic connection was not surprising. Postgrouting penetration testing revealed that the stability of the burial trenches was increased from 26% to 79% that measured in the undisturbed soil surrounding the trenches. In situ permeation tests on the grouted trenches indicated a significant reduction in hydraulic conductivity of the trench contents from a mean of 2.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} to 1.85 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} cm/s. Preliminary observations indicated that grouting with polyacrylamide is an excellent method for both improved stability and hydrologic isolation of radioactive waste and its incidental hazardous constituents.

  4. Identification of rat liver glutathione S-transferase Yb subunits by partial N-terminal sequencing after electroblotting of proteins onto a polyvinylidene difluoride membrane from an analytical isoelectric focusing gel.

    PubMed

    Chang, L H; Hsieh, J C; Chen, W L; Tam, M F

    1990-07-01

    Rat liver glutathione S-transferases were partially purified using S-hexyl glutathione affinity chromatography, followed by native isoelectric focusing employing a pH 7-11 or pH 3-10 gradient. Proteins were excised and eluted from the gel for determination of subunit composition using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In separate experiments, isoelectric focusing gels were equilibrated with a sodium dodecyl sulfate-containing buffer at high pH, and proteins on the gel were electroblotted onto a polyvinylidene difluoride membrane, utilizing graphite plates as electrodes. The membrane-bound proteins were visualized by Coomassie Brilliant Blue staining. The protein bands were then excised from the membrane and inserted into a gas phase sequenator for direct sequencing. N-Terminal sequences thus determined were compared with published cDNA sequences. The isoelectric points (pIs) and positions on the isoelectric focusing gel of Yb1Yb1, Yb1Yb2 and Yb2Yb2 subunits were determined. We have also located on the pH 3-10 focusing gel an N-terminal blocked glutathione S-transferase which has a molecular weight similar to Yb subunits. PMID:2226415

  5. Effect of cationic polyacrylamide on the processing and properties of nanocellulose films.

    PubMed

    Raj, Praveena; Varanasi, Swambabu; Batchelor, Warren; Garnier, Gil

    2015-06-01

    The use of high molecular weight cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) was investigated to accelerate the drainage of nanocellulose (Microfibrillated Cellulose) suspensions into films. The mechanism was quantified and optimized by measuring the gel point, the lowest solids concentration at which a continuous network is formed. The flocculation of MFC was analysed as a function of the polyelectrolyte dosage, charge density and molecular weight as well as process parameters (drainage time) and material properties. The adsorption isotherms of CPAMs on nanocellulose and their zeta potential curves were also analysed as a function of CPAM charge and dosage. Measured CPAM adsorption capacities for the 50% and 10% charged 13MDa CPAM onto MFC were 5mg/g and 8mg/g, respectively, corresponding to adsorption coverage on cellulose of 0.14mg/m(2) and 0.22mg/m(2). The floc strength and drainability of MFC suspensions were quantified with the gel point as a function of CPAM properties. For all combinations of polyelectrolyte molecular weight and charge density, the gel point of a nanocellulose suspension goes through a minimum with increasing polymer dosage. The minimum gel point was independent of the polyelectrolyte charge density at constant molecular weight. However, it reduced with decreasing CPAM molecular weight, at a constant addition rate. The drainage time of a nanocellulose suspension into a film is reduced by 2/3 by halving the gel point from 0.2 to 0.1kg/m(3); this is due to the more flocculated suspension facilitating drainage between flocs. Nanocellulose films of increased porosity also result from reducing the gel point, signifying that the more open 3D structure of the flocculated cellulose suspension is retained upon drying the 2D film cellulose film structure. PMID:25702868

  6. Gel Electrophoresis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-04-19

    This interactive activity from the Dolan DNA Learning Center illustrates the process of gel electrophoresis, in which DNA fragments are separated by size as they migrate at different rates through a gel matrix.

  7. Acrylamide-Gel Electrophorograms by Mechanical Fractionation: Radioactive Adenovirus Proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacob V. Maizel Jr.

    1966-01-01

    A mechanical fractionator was developed to produce electrophorograms by extrusion of polyacrylamide gels through a narrow orifice in a continuous, sequential stream. The system permits separation of uniform fractions free of zone distortion. An electrophorogram of radioactive type-2 adenovirus proteins so fractionated gave a pattern in excellent agreement with the pattern obtained by laborious manual sectioning and in agreement with

  8. A tunable isoelectric focusing via moving reaction boundary for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and proteomics.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chen-Gang; Shang, Zhi; Yan, Jian; Li, Si; Li, Guo-Qing; Liu, Rong-Zhong; Qing, Ying; Fan, Liu-Yin; Xiao, Hua; Cao, Cheng-Xi

    2015-05-01

    Routine native immobilized pH gradient isoelectric focusing (IPG-IEF) and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) are still suffering from unfortunate reproducibility, poor resolution (caused by protein precipitation) and instability in characterization of intact protein isoforms and posttranslational modifications. Based on the concept of moving reaction boundary (MRB), we firstly proposed a tunable non-IPG-IEF system to address these issues. By choosing proper pairs of catholyte and anolyte, we could achieve desired cathodic and anodic migrating pH gradients in non-IPG-IEF system, effectively eliminating protein precipitation and uncertainty of quantitation existing in routine IEF and 2DE, and enhancing the resolution and sensitivity of IEF. Then, an adjustable 2DE system was developed by combining non-IPG-IEF with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). The improved 2DE was evaluated by testing model proteins and colon cancer cell lysates. The experiments revealed that (i) a tunable pH gradient could be designed via MRB; (ii) up to 1.65 fold improvement of resolution was achieved via non-IPG-IEF; (iii) the sensitivity of developed techniques was increased up to 2.7 folds; and (iv) up to about 16.4% more protein spots could be observed via the adjustable 2DE as compared with routine one. The developed techniques might contribute to complex proteome research, especially for screening of biological marker and analysis of extreme acidic/alkaline proteins. PMID:25770625

  9. Gel Electrophoresis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In the early days of DNA manipulation, DNA fragments were laboriously separated by gravity. In the 1970s, the powerful tool of DNA gel electrophoresis was developed. This process uses electricity to separate DNA fragments by size as they migrate through a gel matrix. This animation from Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory's Dolan DNA Learning Center presents Gel Electrophoresis through a series of illustrations of the processes involved.

  10. PREPARATION OF STARCH-GRAFT-POLYACRYLAMIDE COPOLYMERS BY REACTIVE EXTRUSION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Graft copolymers of starch and polyacrylamide (PAAm) were prepared by reactive extrusion using a co-rotating twin screw extruder and ammonium persulfate initiator. Feed rates were 109 g/min to 325 g/min (all components) at a moisture content of 50%, with screw speeds in the range 100 rpm to 300 rpm...

  11. PREPARATION OF STARCH-G-POLYACRYLAMIDE COPOLYMERS BY REACTIVE EXTRUSION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Graft copolymers of starch and polyacrylamide were prepared by reactive extrusion using a co-rotating twin screw extruder and ammonium persulfate initiator. Feed rates were 109 g/min up to 325 g/min (all components) at a moisture content of 50 percent, with screw speeds in the range 100 rpm to 300 ...

  12. HRP-Mediated Synthesis of Starch-Polyacrylamide Graft Copolymers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modified starch-based polymers can be engineered for specific properties by combining starch with synthetic polymers through graft copolymerization. Polyacrylamide grafted starches have received a great deal of applications in areas such as superabsorbent paper-making additives, drag reduction and ...

  13. HRP-Mediated Synthesis of Starch-Polyacrylamide Graft Copolymers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modified starch-based polymers can be engineered for specific properties by combining starch with synthetic polymers through graft copolymerization. Polyacrylamide grafted starch have received a great deal of applications in areas such as superabsorbent paper-making additives, drag reduction and te...

  14. POLYACRYLAMIDE EFFECTS ON WATER INFILTRATION IN SANDY LOAM SOILS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some sandy soils of the California San Joaquin Valley have low water infiltration. Electrical conductivity (EC) and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) of irrigation water greatly affect infiltration rate and hydraulic conductivity of soils. High molecular weight polyacrylamides (PAM) have been shown to i...

  15. ORGANIC MATTER AND POLYACRYLAMIDE AMENDMENT OF NORFOLK LOAMY SAND

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Loamy sand soils of the SE Coastal Plain often have poor physical properties because they contain cemented subsurface hard layers that restrict root development and infiltration. Physical properties can be improved by adding amendments. Organic residues (OM) and/or polyacrylamide (PAM) were mixed in...

  16. Acrylamide monomer leaching from polyacrylamide-treated irrigation furrows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water-soluble polyacrylamide (WSPAM), used to reduce erosion in furrow irrigated fields and other agriculture applications, contain less than 0.05% Acrylamide monomer (AMD). The AMD, a potent neurotoxicant and suspected carcinogen, is readily dissolved and transported in flowing water. Deep percol...

  17. Multimaterial polyacrylamide: fabrication with electrohydrodynamic jet printing, applications, and modeling.

    PubMed

    Poellmann, Michael J; Johnson, Amy J Wagoner

    2014-09-01

    Micropatterned, multimaterial hydrogels have a wide range of applications, including the study of microenvironmental factors on cell behavior, and complex materials that rapidly change shape in response to fluid composition. This paper presents a method to fabricate microscale polyacrylamide features embedded in a second hydrogel of a different composition. An electrohydrodynamic jet (e-jet) printer was used to pattern hemispherical droplets of polyacrylamide prepolymer on a passive substrate. After photopolymerization, the droplets were backfilled with a second polyacrylamide mixture, the second mixture was polymerized and the sample was peeled off the substrate. Fluorescent and confocal microscopy confirmed multimaterial patterning, while scanning probe microscopy revealed a patterned topography with printed spots forming shallow wells. Finite element modeling was used to understand the mechanics of the formation of the topographical features during backfill and subsequent polymerization. Finally, polyacrylamide containing acrylic acid was used to demonstrate two applications of the micropatterned hydrogels: stimuli-responsive materials and patterned substrates for cell culture. The e-jet fabrication technique described here is a highly flexible, high resolution method for creating multimaterial hydrogels. PMID:24991937

  18. Polyelectrolyte gels

    SciTech Connect

    Segalman, D.J.; Witkowski, W.R.

    1995-06-01

    Polyelectrolyte (PE) gels are swollen polymer/solvent networks that undergo a reversible volume collapse/expansion through various types of stimulation. Applications that could exploit this large deformation and solvent expulsion/absorption characteristics include robotic {open_quotes}fingers{close_quotes} and drug delivery systems. The goals of the research were to first explore the feasibility of using the PE gels as {open_quotes}smart materials{close_quotes} - materials whose response can be controlled by an external stimulus through a feedback mechanism. Then develop a predictive capability to simulate the dynamic behavior of these gels. This involved experimentally characterizing the response of well-characterized gels to an applied electric field and other stimuli to develop an understanding of the underlying mechanisms which cause the volume collapse. Lastly, the numerical analysis tool was used to simulate various potential engineering devices based on PE gels. This report discusses the pursuit of those goals through experimental and computational means.

  19. Native Americans

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Keller

    2009-06-12

    Native Americans are made up of many fascinating groups of people with multiple cultures. We will explore the main cultural areas of these groups. We will describe and compare some of these groups of people such as Eastern Woodlands, Plains, Great Basin, Southwestern, Arctic, Northwest, Incan, Aztec, and Mayan. We will also identify how these people maintain their cultural traditions today. We will explore each of this interesting cultures and take notes as we explore with individualized graphic organizers. Learning about Native Americans Woodland Tribes Great Plains Tribes Great Basin Native Americans Northwest Southwest Aztec, Mayans Inca BRAINTEASER The Inca Trail and Machu Picchu Glossary Links ...

  20. Native Networks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Over the past few years, Native Americans have made significant contributions in a host of different media, including television, radio, and film. Involved in all aspects of this type of artistic and cultural expression, many Native Americans have also looked for a way to disseminate their substantial efforts in this arena. Fortunately, there is the Native Networks website (first launched in 2001), designed to provide information about such creations. The website was created by the Film and Video Center of the National Museum of the American Indian, and contains information about upcoming Native American film festivals and â??close-upâ? profiles of people actively working in the field. Some of these features include material on the indigenous video makers in Mexico and an in-depth look at the film â??House Made of Dawnâ?, which deals with a young Pueblo man in crisis. The site is available in both Spanish and English versions. [KMG

  1. Proton Diffusion and T1 Relaxation in Polyacrylamide Gels: A Unified Approach Using Volume Averaging

    E-print Network

    Kinsey, Stephen

    analyzed by a number of methods including dynamic light scattering (1­3), electron microscopy, laser light scattering (4), small angle X-ray scattering (3, 5), osmotic swelling (6­8), atomic force microscopy (9), NMR

  2. Probing the viscoelastic properties of polyacrylamide polymer gels in a wide frequency range.

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    frequency range. G0 N , the plateau modulus, as well as nf , the slope of the G modulus, are obtained at low thanks to this model, in particular packed colloidal suspensions, the cell cytoskeleton [9] as well

  3. Identification of peanut hybrids using microsatellite markers and horizontal polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In peanut hybridization, it is very important to be able to distinguish selfs from true hybrids to save time and resources. To help facilitate this effort and provide molecular distinction between selfs from hybrids, DNA was extracted from leaf tissue of F1 or F2 plants, and SSR markers were amplif...

  4. Preparation of magnetically susceptible polyacrylamide/magnetite beads for use in magnetically stabilized fluidized bed chromatography.

    PubMed

    Cocker, T M; Fee, C J; Evans, R A

    1997-01-01

    Spherical polyacrylamide/magnetite (PAM) composite beads, suitable for use in a magnetically stabilized fluidized bed (MSFB), were manufactured by a suspension polymerization method. Yield of beads depended on the type and concentration of buffer used during polymerization as well as the pH. More stabilizer was needed to prevent bead agglomeration as magnetite concentration increased. Bead diameter ranged from less than 60 to 600 microm, depending on reaction conditions, and the bead mean diameter and size distribution decreased with increasing impeller speed. The density and roundness factor of the beads were 1.19 +/- 0.02 g cm(-3) and 1.08 +/- 0.03, respectively. The beads had high magnetization at a low applied magnetic field strength (60 mT at 75 kA m(-1)) and retained little residual magnetization (<2 mT) after the field was removed. Incorporation of magnetite did not significantly affect the physical strength of the beads: the beads' average elastic modulus was 14 +/- 4 kPa, similar to reported values for polyacrylamide gels (15.8 kPa). The beads were stable in a range of buffers from pH 1 to 10 and were resistant to microbial degradation. The fluidization and stabilization behavior of the beads was examined in a bench-scale MSFB. The minimum fluidization velocity (U(mf)) of the beads (0.035 mm s(-1)) allowed the MSFB to be operated at superficial velocities close to those used in HPLC systems. Against expectations, at high superficial velocities, the stabilized bed of the MSFB had a greater expansion than the unstabilized bed. The PAM beads could be derivatized and activated for soybean trypsin inhibitor immobilization by a standard carbodiimide method, and the affinity separation of trypsin from chymotrypsin was demonstrated. The PAM beads show excellent potential for use in MSFB chromatography. (c) 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:18629962

  5. Intra-articular polyacrylamide hydrogel injections are not innocent.

    PubMed

    Tonbul, Murat; Adas, Mujdat; Bekmezci, Taner; Kara, Ahmet Duran

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a chronic disorder characterized by joint cartilage degeneration with concomitant changes in the synovium and subchondral bone metabolism. Many conservative treatment modalities, one of which is intra-articular injections, have been described for the treatment of this disorder. Traditionally, hyaluranic acid and corticosteroids are the agents that have been used for this purpose. Recently, polyacrylamide hydrogels are being used widely. Biocompatibility, nonbioabsorbability, and anti-infectious effect obtained by silver addition made polyacrylamide hydrogels more popular. In this paper, we present a case and the method of our management, in whom host tissue reaction (foreign body granuloma, edema, inflammation, and redness induration) has been observed, as the first and unique adverse effect reported in the literature. PMID:25197596

  6. Intra-Articular Polyacrylamide Hydrogel Injections Are Not Innocent

    PubMed Central

    Tonbul, Murat; Adas, Mujdat; Bekmezci, Taner; Kara, Ahmet Duran

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a chronic disorder characterized by joint cartilage degeneration with concomitant changes in the synovium and subchondral bone metabolism. Many conservative treatment modalities, one of which is intra-articular injections, have been described for the treatment of this disorder. Traditionally, hyaluranic acid and corticosteroids are the agents that have been used for this purpose. Recently, polyacrylamide hydrogels are being used widely. Biocompatibility, nonbioabsorbability, and anti-infectious effect obtained by silver addition made polyacrylamide hydrogels more popular. In this paper, we present a case and the method of our management, in whom host tissue reaction (foreign body granuloma, edema, inflammation, and redness induration) has been observed, as the first and unique adverse effect reported in the literature. PMID:25197596

  7. A new agarose matrix for single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP), heteroduplex (HTX), and gel shift analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Dumais, M.M.; White, H.W.; Rashid, M.R. [FMC BioProducts, Rockland, ME (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Detection of mutation, by SSCP or heteroduplex analysis, is important in medical genetics and oncology. Analysis of DNA binding proteins is a powerful tool in molecular biology research. Traditionally, these methods are performed using nondenaturing gel electrophoresis on poly-acrylamide or polyacrylamide-type matrices. Here we report the development of a new agarose gel matrix that can be used for all three methods. SSCP analyses were performed using the prototype agarose gel matrix for wild-type, polymorphic, and mutant samples from c-Kras exon 12, p53 exons 8 and 9, and HOX2B. We performed SSCP analyses using both isotopic and nonisotopic methods. We also analyzed the samples by deliberate HTX formation and subsequent gel analysis. Using the prototype agarose matrix, we detected single and multiple DNA sequence variants in 150-350 bp fragments with an efficiency comparable to polyacrylamide gels run under similar conditions. For SSCP and HTX assays, we achieved optimal resolution in gels run in vertical formats. However, some HTX samples could be resolved in horizontal gel systems. In addition, based on our studies, we have developed a useful battery of controls and standards for quality control of SSCP and HTX assays. We analyzed several different DNA/protein complexes (SP1, AP2, and octamer binding protein) using the prototype agarose matrix. We obtained good resolution in both vertical and horizontal gel formats. The horizontal gel system is generally superior for this application, due to its ease of use and slightly better resolution. This new prototype gel matrix offers an alternative for researchers performing analyses that previously could only be done on polyacrylamide-type gel matrices. For some applications, this new matrix offers the ease of horizontal gel casting. For all applications, this matrix offers the safety of a nontoxic system and the reproducibility of a thermally gelling system.

  8. Reprogramming cellular phenotype by soft collagen gels.

    PubMed

    Ali, M Yakut; Chuang, Chih-Yuan; Saif, M Taher A

    2014-11-28

    A variety of cell types exhibit phenotype changes in response to the mechanical stiffness of the substrate. Many cells excluding neurons display an increase in the spread area, actin stress fiber formation and larger focal adhesion complexes as substrate stiffness increases in a sparsely populated culture. Cell proliferation is also known to directly correlate with these phenotype changes/changes in substrate stiffness. Augmented spreading and proliferation on stiffer substrates require nuclear transcriptional regulator YAP (Yes associated protein) localization in the cell nucleus and is tightly coupled to larger traction force generation. In this study, we show that different types of fibroblasts can exhibit spread morphology, well defined actin stress fibers, and larger focal adhesions even on very soft collagen gels (modulus in hundreds of Pascals) as if they are on hard glass substrates (modulus in GPa, several orders of magnitude higher). Strikingly, we show, for the first time, that augmented spreading and other hard substrate cytoskeleton architectures on soft collagen gels are not correlated with the cell proliferation pattern and do not require YAP localization in the cell nucleus. Finally, we examine the response of human colon carcinoma (HCT-8) cells on soft collagen gels. Recent studies show that human colon carcinoma (HCT-8) cells form multicellular clusters by 2-3 days when cultured on soft polyacrylamide (PA) gels with a wide range of stiffness (0.5-50 kPa) and coated with an extracellular matrix, ECM (collagen monomer/fibronectin). These clusters show limited spreading/wetting on PA gels, form 3D structures at the edges, and eventually display a remarkable, dissociative metastasis like phenotype (MLP), i.e., epithelial to rounded morphological transition after a week of culture on PA gels only, but not on collagen monomer coated stiff polystyrene/glass where they exhibit enhanced wetting and form confluent monolayers. Here, we show that HCT-8 cell clusters also show augmented spreading/wetting on soft collagen gels and eventually form confluent monolayers as on rigid glass substrates and MLP is completely inhibited on soft collagen gels. Overall, these results suggest that cell-material interactions (soft collagen gels in this case) can induce cellular phenotype and cytoskeleton organization in a remarkably distinct manner compared to a classical synthetic polyacrylamide (PA) hydrogel cell culture model and may contribute in designing new functional biomaterials. PMID:25284029

  9. Gel Electrophoresis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Julie Yu

    2007-01-01

    In this activity, learners simulate the process of DNA fingerprinting by using electricity to separate colored dyes. Learners use simple materials to assemble a comb (electrophoresis chamber) to hold the samples, make a 0.2% sodium bicarbonate buffer and 1% gel solution, connect a high voltage power supply, and prepare 5 different samples. Then learners test their model and observe each sample.

  10. SEPARATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF SOYBEAN LEAF PROTEINS BY TWO-DIMENSIONAL GEL ELECTROPHORESIS AND MASS SPECTROMETRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To establish a proteomic reference map for soybean leaves, we separated and identified leaf proteins using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and mass spectrometry (MS). Tryptic digests of 260 spots were subjected to peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) by matrix-assisted las...

  11. Aerosol gels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, Christopher M. (Inventor); Chakrabarti, Amitabha (Inventor); Dhaubhadel, Rajan (Inventor); Gerving, Corey (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An improved process for the production of ultralow density, high specific surface area gel products is provided which comprises providing, in an enclosed chamber, a mixture made up of small particles of material suspended in gas; the particles are then caused to aggregate in the chamber to form ramified fractal aggregate gels. The particles should have a radius (a) of up to about 50 nm and the aerosol should have a volume fraction (f.sub.v) of at least 10.sup.-4. In preferred practice, the mixture is created by a spark-induced explosion of a precursor material (e.g., a hydrocarbon) and oxygen within the chamber. New compositions of matter are disclosed having densities below 3.0 mg/cc.

  12. 21 CFR 872.3480 - Polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3480 Polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive. (a) Identification....

  13. 21 CFR 872.3480 - Polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3480 Polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive. (a) Identification....

  14. Improvement of Catalytic Efficiency, Thermo-stability and Dye Decolorization Capability of Pleurotus ostreatus IBL-02 laccase by Hydrophobic Sol Gel Entrapment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In serious consideration of the worldwide environmental issues associated with the extensive use of the textile dyes and effluents generated thereof, the scientists across the world are in search for potential treatment technologies for their treatment. In such scenario the ligninolytic enzymes provide a potential alternative because they are cost effective, eco-friendly and can be applied to wide range of dye containing industrial effluents. Results Laccase produced from Pleurotus ostreatus IBL-02 during decolorization of the reactive textile dye Drimarene brilliant red K-4BL (DBR K-4BL) was purified and immobilized by hydrophobic gel entrapment. The crude laccase was 4.2-fold purified with specific activity of 573.52 U/mg after passing through the DEAE-Sepharose ion exchange and Sephadex-G-100 chromatography columns. P. ostreatus IBL-02 laccase was found to be a homogenous monomeric protein as evident by single band corresponding to 67 kDa on native and sodium dodesylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). The laccase was immobilized by entrapment in Sol–gel matrix of trimethoxysilane (T) and proplytetramethoxysilane (P) prepared using different T:P molar ratios. The free and immobilized laccases were compared to investigate the effect of immobilization on catalytic efficiency and thermo-stability features. Laccase immobilized in the Sol–gel of 1:5 T:P ratio was optimally active and thermo-stable fraction at pH 5, 60°C with half-life of 3 h and 50 min. Laccases immobilized in 1:2 and 1:5 T:P ratio gels had significantly higher Km (83 and100mM) and Vmax (1000 and 1111 mM/mg) values as compared to free laccase. After 5 h reaction time varying decolorization percentages with a maximum of 100% were achieved for different dyes and effluents. Conclusions In summary, P. ostreatus IBL-02 laccase was immobilized by entrapping in a Sol–gel matrix with an objective to enhance its catalytic and stability properties. Sol–gel entrapped laccase presented potential efficiency as a biocatalyst when applied for decolorization of different dyes and effluents. The main benefits of the Sol–gel matrix immobilization processes are the eco-friendly approach, chemical free and energy saving reaction conditions. PMID:23021344

  15. Murine T-cell response to native and recombinant protein antigens of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi.

    PubMed Central

    Hickman, C J; Stover, C K; Joseph, S W; Oaks, E V

    1993-01-01

    A polyclonal T-cell line with TH1 characteristics was used to assess the murine cellular immune response to native and recombinant Rickettsia tsutsugamushi antigens. Proliferation of this T-cell line was observed in response to numerous native antigen fractions, which indicates that the murine T-helper-cell response is directed at multiple scrub typhus antigens with no apparent antigenic immunodominance. Subsequent analysis of recombinant R. tsutsugamushi antigens made it possible to identify a 47-kDa scrub typhus antigen (Sta47) that was stimulatory for the polyclonal T-cell line. Recombinant clones encoding 56-, 58-, and 110-kDa antigens (Sta56, Sta58, and Sta110, respectively) were unable to induce proliferation of this T-cell line. DNA sequence analysis of the cloned rickettsial insert encoding the Sta47 protein revealed the presence of four open reading frames potentially encoding proteins of 47, 30, 18, and 13 kDa. Analysis of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis-separated and eluted fractions of lysates from the recombinant HB101(pRTS47B4.3) demonstrated that the fractions containing the 47-kDa protein as well as those containing proteins less than 18 kDa were stimulatory. Selected synthetic amphipathic peptides derived from the Sta47 antigen sequence identified a 20-amino-acid peptide that gave a 10-fold increase in T-cell proliferation over a control malarial peptide of similar length. Recognition of the 47-kDa antigen by a T-cell line with TH1 characteristics implicates this protein as one of potential importance in protection studies and future vaccine development. Images PMID:8478055

  16. Porous Polyacrylamide Monoliths in Hydrophilic Interaction Capillary Electrochromatography of Oligosaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Gury?a, Vilém; Mechref, Yehia; Palm, Anders K.; Michálek, Ji?í; Pacáková, V?ra; Novotný, Miloš V.

    2007-01-01

    Capillary electrochromatography (CEC) of oligosaccharides in porous polyacrylamide monoliths has been explored. While it is possible to alter separation capacity for various compounds by copolymerization of suitable separation ligands in the polymerization backbone, “blank” acrylamide matrix is also capable of sufficient resolution of oligosaccharides in the hydrophilic interaction mode. The “blank” acrylamide network, formed with a more rigid crosslinker, provides maximum efficiency for separations (routinely up to 350,000 theoretical plates/m for fluorescently-labeled oligosaccharides). These columns yield a high spatial resolution of the branched glycan isomers and large column permeabilities. From the structural point of view, some voids are observable in the monoliths at the mesoporous range (mean pore radius ca. 35 nm, surface area of 74 m2/g), as measured by intrusion porosimetry in the dry state. PMID:17254635

  17. Chemical degradation of polyacrylamide by advanced oxidation processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mang Lu; Xuejiao Wu; Xiaofang Wei

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained from the oxidation of polyacrylamide (PAM) by the UV\\/H2O2, Fenton, UV\\/Fenton, visible light\\/Fenton, visible light\\/Fenton\\/C2O, UV\\/Fenton\\/C2O, visible light\\/Fenton\\/C4H4O and UV\\/Fenton\\/C4H4O processes. Degradation efficiency for PAM had the following order: UV\\/Fenton\\/C4H4OFenton\\/C2O visible light\\/Fenton\\/C4H4O visible light\\/Fenton\\/C2O UV\\/Fenton>visible light\\/Fenton>UV\\/H2O2>Fenton. The addition of tartrate had a positive effect on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal. Increasing the concentrations of

  18. Chemical degradation of polyacrylamide by advanced oxidation processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mang Lu; Xuejiao Wu; Xiaofang Wei

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained from the oxidation of polyacrylamide (PAM) by the UV\\/H2O2, Fenton, UV\\/Fenton, visible light\\/Fenton, visible light\\/Fenton\\/C2O, UV\\/Fenton\\/C2O, visible light\\/Fenton\\/C4H4O and UV\\/Fenton\\/C4H4O processes. Degradation efficiency for PAM had the following order: UV\\/Fenton\\/C4H4OFenton\\/C2O visible light\\/Fenton\\/C4H4O visible light\\/Fenton\\/C2O UV\\/Fenton>visible light\\/Fenton>UV\\/H2O2>Fenton. The addition of tartrate had a positive effect on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal. Increasing the concentrations of

  19. Low-velocity super-lubrication of sodium-alginate/polyacrylamide ionic-covalent hybrid double-network hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuefeng; Wu, Chu; Yang, Qian; Long, Shijun; Wu, Chonggang

    2015-04-01

    Structural and frictional behaviours of sodium alginate (SA)/polyacrylamide (PAAm) ionic-covalent hybrid, sequential double-network (DN) hydrogels against glass have been investigated in water, NaCl and CaCl2 aqueous solutions using a rotational rheometer. Dilution of adsorptive elastohydrodynamic friction for the PAAm covalent network with repulsive hydrodynamic lubrication for the minor SA ionic network was found to control the frictional stresses of the SA/PAAm gels within between those of the SA and PAAm single-network gels. A tentative qualitative model was proposed to describe the impact of ionic environmental solution on the frictional behaviour of the hybrid gel by selectively affecting the SA-network structure and friction. It was revealed that strong Debye shielding in the NaCl solution significantly reduced the thickness of the electric double layer for hydrodynamic lubrication of the SA network, which made the SA/PAAm gel's friction the highest among the three solutions. Dramatically increased ionic cross-linking of the SA network in the CaCl2 solution, although effectively mediated by the PAAm-network flexible skeleton, still functioned partially to conserve a portion of the SA fractional boundary-friction at the interface, making the friction of the hybrid gel intermediate among the three solutions. In contrast, extreme hydration of the SA network in water sharply increased the volume fraction of its unshielded hydrodynamic lubrication at the interface, which greatly reduced the SA/PAAm's friction to the lowest among the three solutions. We have thus incorporated for the first time both super-lubrication (frictional coefficients of below 10(-2) over low sliding-velocities of 3 × 10(-5) to 2 × 10(-3) m s(-1)) and previously reported high fracture energy (over 9000 J m(-2)) into a single ionic-covalent hybrid DN hydrogel, which is the SA/PAAm (?1/8.5 w/w) gel in water. Effects of inversion of DN-formation sequence further indicated that frictional behaviours (i.e. frictional stress-sliding velocity profiles) of the hybrid sequential DN hydrogels (SA/PAAm and PAAm/SA), respectively, were primarily determined by those of the second networks (PAAm and SA), presumably due to the formation of first-second network "core-shell" structures at the blob scale. Frictional stress of the SA/PAAm gel was increased monotonically with external normal pressure at all of the sliding velocities investigated in the three solutions, which was in agreement with the predictions from the repulsion-adsorption model proposed by Gong et al. PMID:25735912

  20. Electrophoretic extraction of proteins from two-dimensional electrophoresis gel spots

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Jian-Shi; Giometti, C.S.; Tollaksen, S.L.

    1987-09-04

    After two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins or the like, resulting in a polyacrylamide gel slab having a pattern of protein gel spots thereon, an individual protein gel spot is cored out from the slab, to form a gel spot core which is placed in an extraction tube, with a dialysis membrane across the lower end of the tube. Replicate gel spots can be cored out from replicate gel slabs and placed in the extraction tube. Molten agarose gel is poured into the extraction tube where the agarose gel hardens to form an immobilizing gel, covering the gel spot cores. The upper end portion of the extraction tube is filled with a volume of buffer solution, and the upper end is closed by another dialysis membrane. Upper and lower bodies of a buffer solution are brought into contact with the upper and lower membranes and are provided with electrodes connected to the positive and negative terminals of a dc power supply, thereby producing an electrical current which flows through the upper membrane, the volume of buffer solution, the agarose, the gel spot cores and the lower membrane. The current causes the proteins to be extracted electrophoretically from the gel spot cores, so that the extracted proteins accumulate and are contained in the space between the agarose gel and the upper membrane. 8 figs.

  1. Polyacrylamide-treated kaolin: A fabric study Sungho Kim, Angelica M. Palomino

    E-print Network

    Palomino, Angelica M.

    Polyacrylamide-treated kaolin: A fabric study Sungho Kim, Angelica M. Palomino Department of Civil May 2009 Accepted 8 June 2009 Available online 12 June 2009 Keywords: Kaolin Polyacrylamide Fabric Sedimentation Rheology Liquid limit Particle interactions, and in turn fabric, determine the behavior of clay

  2. Polyacrylamide nanosensor embedded with phosphate sensitive protein for detection of metabolic process in living cells

    E-print Network

    Polyacrylamide nanosensor embedded with phosphate sensitive protein for detection of metabolic are embedded by cross-linked polymer in nanometer scale, have several advantages over direct loading of cells by embedding a phosphate sensor (FLIPPi-4µ) in polyacrylamide matrix through water-in-oil microemulsion

  3. Gel pad array chip for high throughput and multi-analyte microbead-based immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qingdi; Trau, Dieter

    2015-04-15

    We present here a gel pad array chip for high-throughput and multi-analyte microbead-based immunoassays. The chip is fabricated by photo-patterning of two polymeric gels, polyacrylamide gel and polyethylene glycol (PEG) gel, on a glass slide. The resulting chip consists of 40 polyacrylamide gel pad array units for the immobilization of microbeads and each gel pad array is surrounded with a PEG micropillar ring to confine the samples within the microarray. As a proof of concept, this chip was tested for quantitative immunoassays for two model cancer markers, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and prostate specific antigen (PSA), in serum samples. Detection limits below the physiological threshold level for cancer diagnosis were achieved with good inter- and intra-chip reproducibility. Moreover, by using spatial encoded microbeads, simultaneous detection of both hCG and PSA on each gel pad array is achieved with single filter fluorescence imaging. This gel pad array chip is easy to use, easy to fabricate with low cost materials and minimal equipment and reusable. It could be a useful tool for common biolabs to customize their own microbead array for multi-analyte immunoassays. PMID:25463645

  4. Alaska Native Hispanic or

    E-print Network

    Kunkle, Tom

    fCOLLEGEo CHARLESTON American Indian or Alaska Native Asian Black or African American Hispanic Indian or Alaska Native Asian Black or African American Hispanic or Latino Native Hawaiian or Other Enrolled American Indian or Alaska Native Asian Black or African American Hispanic or Latino Native

  5. A Gel Probe Equilibrium Sampler for Measuring Arsenic Porewater Profiles And Sorption Gradients in Sediments: I. Laboratory Development

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, K.M.; Root, R.; O'Day, P.A.; Hering, J.G.

    2009-05-14

    A gel probe equilibrium sampler has been developed to study arsenic (As) geochemistry and sorption behavior in sediment porewater. The gels consist of a hydrated polyacrylamide polymer, which has a 92% water content. Two types of gels were used in this study. Undoped (clear) gels were used to measure concentrations of As and other elements in sediment porewater. The polyacrylamide gel was also doped with hydrous ferric oxide (HFO), an amorphous iron (Fe) oxyhydroxide. When deployed in the field, HFO-doped gels introduce a fresh sorbent into the subsurface thus allowing assessment of in situ sorption. In this study, clear and HFO-doped gels were tested under laboratory conditions to constrain the gel behavior prior to field deployment. Both types of gels were allowed to equilibrate with solutions of varying composition and re-equilibrated in acid for analysis. Clear gels accurately measured solution concentrations ({+-}1%), and As was completely recovered from HFO-doped gels ({+-}4%). Arsenic speciation was determined in clear gels through chromatographic separation of the re-equilibrated solution. For comparison to speciation in solution, mixtures of As(III) and As(V) adsorbed on HFO embedded in gel were measured in situ using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Sorption densities for As(III) and As(V) on HFO embedded in gel were obtained from sorption isotherms at pH 7.1. When As and phosphate were simultaneously equilibrated (in up to 50-fold excess of As) with HFO-doped gels, phosphate inhibited As sorption by up to 85% and had a stronger inhibitory effect on As(V) than As(III). Natural organic matter (>200 ppm) decreased As adsorption by up to 50%, and had similar effects on As(V) and As(III). The laboratory results provide a basis for interpreting results obtained by deploying the gel probe in the field and elucidating the mechanisms controlling As partitioning between solid and dissolved phases in the environment.

  6. Calibration of laser tomography as a new optical diagnostic tool applied to dosimetric polymer gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alwan, R.; Guermeur, F.; Bailly, Y.; Simonin, L.; Svoboda, J.; Makovicka, L.; Martin, E.

    2008-03-01

    Numerous medical applications, as radiotherapy for example, require accurate and reproducible three-dimensional dose measurements with high spatial resolution. A solution of great interest and which has been exploited for many years is the use of dosimetric gels based on different physico-chemical principles, as Fricke's gels or polymer gels. Fricke's gels take advantage of the oxidation of ferrous ions in ferric while polymer gels are the result of the synthesis of polyacrylamide hydrogel from monomer and cross-linking agent. Fricke's gels have particular limitations not encountered with polymer gel dosimeters: the time delay between irradiation and measurement must be reduced in order to limit the diffusion of ferric ions which may remove the spatial dose information. That's why, during the past decade, many compositions of polymer gels have been studied (PAG, MAGIC, …), elaborated and even commercialized (BANG gels). However the gel composition remains of great interest regarding its physical properties. In this work, the authors propose a new optical diagnostic tool more flexible and less expensive in comparison with existing techniques like magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Optical-CT. This technique is based on light scattering behaviour occurring in an irradiated polymer gel (note that light scattering in Fricke's gels is very feeble, the latter being essentially absorbant).

  7. Antimicrobial activity of silver/starch/polyacrylamide nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Halim, E S; Al-Deyab, Salem S

    2014-07-01

    A novel silver/starch/polyacrylamide nanocomposite hydrogel was prepared by grafting acrylamide onto starch in presence of silver nitrate by use of ammonium persulphate as an initiator and N,N-methylene-bisacrylamide as a crosslinking agent, then reducing the silver ions enclosed in the hydrogel structure to silver nanoparticles by treating the hydrogel with sodium hydroxide solution. All factors which affect the grafting/crosslinking reaction were optimized and the concentration of silver ion was changed from 0ppm to 50ppm. The produced nanocomposite hydrogel was characterized for its nanosilver content and the UV-spectra showed similar absorption spectra at wavelength 405nm for all AgNO3 concentrations but the plasmon showed increase in the intensity of the absorption peak as AgNO3 concentration incorporated to the hydrogel structure increases. The nanocomposite hydrogel was also characterized for its antimicrobial activity toward two types of bacteria and two types of fungi. The results showed that the hydrogel with 0ppm silver content has no antimicrobial activity, and that the antimicrobial activity expressed as inhibition zone increases as the silver content increases from 5ppm to 50ppm. PMID:24769214

  8. Polyacrylamide medium for the electrophoretic separation of biomolecules

    DOEpatents

    Madabhushi, Ramakrishna S.; Gammon, Stuart A.

    2003-11-11

    A polyacryalmide medium for the electrophoretic separation of biomolecules. The polyacryalmide medium comprises high molecular weight polyacrylamides (PAAm) having a viscosity average molecular weight (M.sub.v) of about 675-725 kDa were synthesized by conventional red-ox polymerization technique. Using this separation medium, capillary electrophoresis of BigDye DNA sequencing standard was performed. A single base resolution of .about.725 bases was achieved in .about.60 minute in a non-covalently coated capillary of 50 .mu.m i.d., 40 cm effective length, and a filed of 160 V/cm at 40.degree. C. The resolution achieved with this formulation to separate DNA under identical conditions is much superior (725 bases vs. 625 bases) and faster (60 min. vs. 75 min.) to the commercially available PAAm, such as supplied by Amersham. The formulation method employed here to synthesize PAAm is straight-forward, simple and does not require cumbersome methods such as emulsion polymerizaiton in order to achieve very high molecular weights. Also, the formulation here does not require separation of PAAm from the reaction mixture prior to reconstituting the polymer to a final concentration. Furthermore, the formulation here is prepared from a single average mol. wt. PAAm as opposed to the mixture of two different average mo. wt. PAAm previously required to achieve high resolution.

  9. Chemical gel barriers as low-cost alternative to containment and in situ cleanup of hazardous wastes to protect groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    Chemical gel barriers are being considered as a low-cost alternative for containment and in situ cleanup of hazardous wastes to protect groundwater. Most of the available gels in petroleum application are non-reactive and relative impermeable, providing a physical barriers for all fluids and contaminants. However, other potential systems can be envisioned. These systems could include gels that are chemically reactive and impermeable such that most phase are captured by the barriers but the contaminants could diffuse through the barriers. Another system that is chemically reactive and permeable could have potential applications in selectivity capturing contaminants while allowing water to pass through the barriers. This study focused on chemically reactive and permeable gel barriers. The gels used in experiment are DuPont LUDOX SM colloidal silica gel and Pfizer FLOPAAM 1330S hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) gel.

  10. Native American Discursive Tactic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Jason Edward

    2013-01-01

    This essay derives from a course called ‘"The Rhetoric of Native America,’" which is a historical-critical survey of Native American primary texts. The course examines the rhetoric employed by Natives to enact social change and to build community in the face of exigencies. The main goal of exploring a native text (particularly, Simon Pokagon's…

  11. Gel Electrophoresis and Photography

    E-print Network

    Simpson, Larry

    Gel Electrophoresis and Photography An Application Note UVP-AB-1000-02 #12;The GDS-8000 Gel on the overlayed scan. GEL ELECTROPHORESIS IMAGING, DOCUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS ... TODAY. #12;The introduction of the technique of electrophoresis in acrylamide or agarose gels was a major advance in nucleic acid technology

  12. Probing structure-antifouling activity relationships of polyacrylamides and polyacrylates.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chao; Zhao, Jun; Li, Xiaosi; Wu, Jiang; Chen, Shenfu; Chen, Qiang; Wang, Qiuming; Gong, Xiong; Li, Lingyan; Zheng, Jie

    2013-07-01

    We have synthesized two different polyacrylamide polymers with amide groups (polySBAA and polyHEAA) and two corresponding polyacrylate polymers without amide groups (polySBMA and polyHEA), with particular attention to the evaluation of the effect of amide group on the hydration and antifouling ability of these systems using both computational and experimental approaches. The influence of polymer architectures of brushes, hydrogels, and nanogels, prepared by different polymerization methods, on antifouling performance is also studied. SPR and ELISA data reveal that all polymers exhibit excellent antifouling ability to repel proteins from undiluted human blood serum/plasma, and such antifouling ability can be further enhanced by presenting amide groups in polySBAA and polyHEAA as compared to polySBMA and polyHEA. The antifouling performance is positively correlated with the hydration properties. Simulations confirm that four polymers indeed have different hydration characteristics, while all presenting a strong hydration overall. Integration of amide group with pendant hydroxyl or sulfobetaine group in polymer backbones is found to increase their surface hydration of polymer chains and thus to improve their antifouling ability. Importantly, we present a proof-of-concept experiment to synthesize polySBAA nanogels, which show a switchable property between antifouling and pH-responsive functions driven by acid-base conditions, while still maintaining high stability in undiluted fetal bovine serum and minimal toxicity to cultured cells. This work provides important structural insights into how very subtle structural changes in polymers can yield great improvement in biological activity, specifically the inclusion of amide group in polymer backbone/sidechain enables to obtain antifouling materials with better performance for biomedical applications. PMID:23562049

  13. Check dam and polyacrylamide performance under simulated stormwater runoff.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jihoon; McCaleb, Melanie M; McLaughlin, Richard A

    2013-11-15

    High levels of turbidity and fine suspended sediments are often found in stormwater discharges from construction sites even when best management practices (BMPs) for sediment control are in place. This study evaluated turbidity reduction by three check dam types: 1) rock check dam representing a standard BMP, 2) excelsior wattle representing a fiber check dam (FCD), and 3) rock check dam wrapped with excelsior erosion control blanket (rock + excelsior ECB) representing an alternative FCD. Three check dams (all same type) were installed in a lined, 24-m ditch on a 5-7% slope and three consecutive simulated stormwater flows were run in the ditch. Additional tests were performed by adding granular polyacrylamide (PAM) on the check dams in the same manner using two sediment sources differing in clay content. Without PAM treatment, significantly higher effluent turbidity (>900 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU)) exited the ditch with rock check dams than with excelsior wattles or rock + excelsior ECBs (<440 NTU). The extent of sediment deposition between the check dam types was in the order of excelsior wattle > rock + excelsior ECB > rock check dam, indicating better water pooling behind the wattle. The PAM treatment reduced turbidity substantially (>75% relative to no PAM treatment) for all check dam types and it was very effective in excelsior wattles (<57 NTU) and rock + excelsior ECBs (<90 NTU) even during the third storm event. This study demonstrates that the passive treatment of runoff with PAM on FCDs (or rock + excelsior ECB) in construction site ditches can be very effective for sediment retention and turbidity reduction. PMID:24036092

  14. Investigation of the properties of polyacrylamide-polyaniline composite and its application as a battery electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, N.V.; Joshi, N.V. (Univ. of Bombay, (India). Dept. of Chemical Technology)

    1993-11-20

    The composite films of polyacrylamide and polyaniline were prepared by polymerizing aniline using ammonium persulfate as an initiator in an aqueous solution containing poly-acrylamide. A film was then cast from this solution. The structural, dynamic mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties of these films have been studied. The infrared spectrum shows the presence of polyacrylamide as well as polyaniline in the composite film. The thermal analysis shows that the composite degrades slower than does the polyacrylamide alone. The dynamic mechanical analysis indicates that there is an increase in the glass transition temperature after the composite formation. The electrical conductivity has been found to increase by more than eight orders of magnitude. These composite films have also been suitably used as electrodes in secondary batteries.

  15. REACTIVE EXTRUSION OF STARCH-POLYACRYLAMIDE GRAFT COPOLYMERS USING VARIOUS STARCHES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Graft copolymers of polyacrylamide and various substrates were prepared by reactive extrusion in a twin screw extruder using ammonium persulfate as initiator. Substrates included unmodified starches (corn, waxy maize, wheat, and potato), cationic starches, dextrin, dextran, and polyvinyl alcohol (P...

  16. 21 CFR 872.3480 - Polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive. 872.3480 Section 872.3480...polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive is a device composed of...

  17. 21 CFR 872.3480 - Polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive. 872.3480 Section 872.3480...polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive is a device composed of...

  18. 21 CFR 872.3480 - Polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive. 872.3480 Section 872.3480...polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive is a device composed of...

  19. 21 CFR 872.3420 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3420 Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive. (a)...

  20. Solids and nutrient removal from flushed swine manure using polyacrylamides

    SciTech Connect

    Vanotti, M.B.; Hunt, P.G.

    1999-12-01

    Most of the organic nutrients and reduced carbon (C) materials in liquid swine manure are contained in fine suspended particles that are not separated by available mechanical separators. Treatment with polyacrylamide (PAM) polymers prior to mechanical removal or gravity settling has the potential for enhancing solids-liquid separation, thus concentrating nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and organic C. In this work, the authors determined PAM charge and density characteristics most desirable for swine wastewater applications and established the optimum chemical requirement. Treatments were applied to flushed manure from two swine operations in North Carolina. Cationic PAMs significantly increased solids separation while performance of neutral and anionic types was not different from a control. Cationic PAMs with moderate-charge density (20%) were more effective than polymers with higher charge density. Flocs were large and effectively retained with a 1-mm screen. Optimum PAM rate varied with the amount of total suspended solids (TSS) in the liquid manure; 26 and 79 mg PAM/L for samples containing 1.5 and 4.1 g TSS/L, respectively. Corresponding TSS removal efficiencies were 90 to 94%. In contrast, screening without PAM treatment captured only 5 to 14% of the suspended solids. Polymer usage rate was consistent and averaged 2.0{degree} based on weight of dry solids produced. Volatile suspended solids (VSS) were highly correlated with TSS and comprised 79.5% of TSS. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and organic nutrient concentrations in the effluent were also significantly decreased by PAM treatment. The decrease of COD concentration, an important consideration for odor control, was linearly related with removal of suspended solids, at a rate of 2.0 g COD/g TSS and 2.6 g COD/g VSS. Removal efficiency of organic N and P followed approximately a 1:1 relationship with removal efficiency of TSS. Chemical cost to capture 90% of the suspended solids was estimated to be $0.026 per hog per day ($2.79 per finished hog). Results obtained indicate that PAM treatment is very effective for removal of manure solids, COD, and organic nutrients from flushed swine effluents. The technology provides an attractive alternative to existing liquid manure handling methods for conserving nutrients and avoiding excessive nutrient application in areas where swine production is concentrated.

  1. Electrophoretic extraction of proteins from two-dimensional electrophoresis gel spots

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Jian-Shi (Shanghai, CN); Giometti, Carol S. (Glenview, IL); Tollaksen, Sandra L. (Montgomery, IL)

    1989-01-01

    After two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins or the like, resulting in a polyacrylamide gel slab having a pattern of protein gel spots thereon, an individual protein gel spot is cored out from the slab, to form a gel spot core which is placed in an extraction tube, with a dialysis membrane across the lower end of the tube. Replicate gel spots can be cored out from replicate gel slabs and placed in the extraction tube. Molten agarose gel is poured into the extraction tube where the agarose gel hardens to form an immobilizing gel, covering the gel spot cores. The upper end portion of the extraction tube is filled with a volume of buffer solution, and the upper end is closed by another dialysis membrane. Upper and lower bodies of a buffer solution are brought into contact with the upper and lower membranes and are provided with electrodes connected to the positive and negative terminals of a DC power supply, thereby producing an electrical current which flows through the upper membrane, the volume of buffer solution, the agarose, the gel spot cores and the lower membrane. The current causes the proteins to be extracted electrophoretically from the gel spot cores, so that the extracted proteins accumulate and are contained in the space between the agarose gel and the upper membrane. A high percentage extraction of proteins is achieved. The extracted proteins can be removed and subjected to partial digestion by trypsin or the like, followed by two-dimensional electrophoresis, resulting in a gel slab having a pattern of peptide gel spots which can be cored out and subjected to electrophoretic extraction to extract individual peptides.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF POLYMER GEL SYSTEMS TO IMPROVE VOLUMETRIC SWEEP AND REDUCE PRODUCING WATER/OIL RATIOS

    SciTech Connect

    G. Paul Willhite; Stan McCool; Don W. Green; Min Cheng; Rajeev Jain; Tuan Nguyen

    2003-11-01

    Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of the first year of a three-year research program that is aimed at the understanding of the chemistry of gelation and the fundamental mechanisms that alter the flows of oil and water in reservoir rocks after a gel treatment. Work has focused on a widely-applied system in field applications, the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide-chromium acetate gel. Gelation occurs by network formation through the crosslinking of polyacrylamide molecules as a result of reaction with chromium acetate. The initial reaction between chromium acetate and one polymer is referred to as the uptake reaction. The uptake reaction was studied as functions of chromium and polymer concentrations and pH values. Experimental data were regressed to determine a rate equation that describes the uptake reaction of chromium by polyacrylamide. Pre-gel aggregates form and grow as the reactions between chromium acetate and polyacrylamide proceed. A statistical model that describes the growth of pre-gel aggregates was developed using the theory of branching processes. The model gives molecular weight averages that are expressed as functions of the conversion of the reactive sites on chromium acetate or on the polymer molecule. Results of the application of the model correlate well with experimental data of viscosity and weight-average molecular weight and gives insights into the gelation process. A third study addresses the flow of water and oil in rock material after a gel treatment. Previous works have shown that gel treatments usually reduce the permeability to water to a greater extent than the permeability to oil is reduced. This phenomenon is referred to as disproportionate permeability reduction (DPR). Flow experiments were conducted to determine the effect of polymer and chromium concentrations on DPR. All gels studied reduced the permeability to water by a greater factor than the factor by which the oil permeability was reduced. Greater DPR was observed as the concentrations of polymer and chromium were increased. Increased pressure gradients during oil flow decreased the oil permeability and the water permeability that was measured afterward. Lower pressure gradients that were applied subsequently moderately affected water permeabilities but did not affect oil permeabilities. A conceptual model of the mechanisms responsible for DPR is presented. Primary features of the model are (1) the development of flow channels through the gel by dehydration of the gel and by re-connection of pre-treatment, residual oil volume and (2) high flow resistance in the channels during water flow is caused by significant saturations of oil remaining in the channels.

  3. Microfluidic device having an immobilized pH gradient and PAGE gels for protein separation and analysis

    DOEpatents

    Sommer, Gregory J.; Hatch, Anson V.; Singh, Anup K.; Wang, Ying-Chih

    2012-12-11

    Disclosed is a novel microfluidic device enabling on-chip implementation of a two-dimensional separation methodology. Previously disclosed microscale immobilized pH gradients (IPG) are combined with perpendicular polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) microchannels to achieve orthogonal separations of biological samples. Device modifications enable inclusion of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in the second dimension. The device can be fabricated to use either continuous IPG gels, or the microscale isoelectric fractionation membranes we have also previously disclosed, for the first dimension. The invention represents the first all-gel two-dimensional separation microdevice, with significantly higher resolution power over existing devices.

  4. Microfluidic device having an immobilized pH gradient and page gels for protein separation and analysis

    DOEpatents

    Sommer, Gregory J; Hatch, Anson V; Singh, Anup K; Wang, Ying-Chih

    2014-05-20

    Disclosed is a novel microfluidic device enabling on-chip implementation of a two-dimensional separation methodology. Previously disclosed microscale immobilized pH gradients (IPG) are combined with perpendicular polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) microchannels to achieve orthogonal separations of biological samples. Device modifications enable inclusion of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in the second dimension. The device can be fabricated to use either continuous IPG gels, or the microscale isoelectric fractionation membranes we have also previously disclosed, for the first dimension. The invention represents the first all-gel two-dimensional separation microdevice, with significantly higher resolution power over existing devices.

  5. Method for quantitating cholesterol in subfractions of serum lipoproteins separated by gradient gel electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M.-L. Cheng; C. M. Kammerer; W. F. Lowe; B. Dyke; J. L. VandeBerg

    1988-01-01

    Extensive heterogeneity in particle size distribution of serum lipoproteins of baboons was resolved by a procedure that combined\\u000a Sudan black B prestaining, polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis (GGE), and quantitative densitometry. Each densitometric\\u000a scan represented a continuous distribution of the relative amount of cholesterol in a serum sample, as a function of the lipoprotein\\u000a particle size. For analytical purposes, each scan

  6. Running an Agarose Gel

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-09-08

    This video adapted from the University of Leicester provides step-by-step instructions for loading samples into an agarose gel and then running the gel to separate DNA molecules according to their size.

  7. Native American Stereotypes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Albion Middle School Library--Mrs. Bates

    2007-03-20

    You have been asked to write an opinion paper on the topic of naming sports teams' mascots after Native Americans. Use the following websites to find information to support your opinions. Why Dont Native Americans Like Sports Teams With Indian Mascots? Sports, Mascots, and Native Americans Native American Mascots: Racial Slur or Cherished Tradition To see another perspective on this topic, read the book Who Will Tell My Brother by Marlene Carvell. ...

  8. Native American Homeschooling Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozon, Gina

    2000-01-01

    The Native American Home School Association helps Native parents to provide a good education free from the assimilationist tendencies of public school and to transmit Native values and culture. Discusses various home schooling styles, the effectiveness of home schooling in terms of academic achievement and socialization, and the effectiveness of…

  9. Native American Healing Traditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portman, Tarrell A. A.; Garrett, Michael T.

    2006-01-01

    Indigenous healing practices among Native Americans have been documented in the United States since colonisation. Cultural encapsulation has deterred the acknowledgement of Native American medicinal practices as a precursor to folk medicine and many herbal remedies, which have greatly influenced modern medicine. Understanding Native American…

  10. Alaska Natives & the Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Robert D.; And Others

    Pursuant to the Native land claims within Alaska, this compilation of background data and interpretive materials relevant to a fair resolution of the Alaska Native problem seeks to record data and information on the Native peoples; the land and resources of Alaska and their uses by the people in the past and present; land ownership; and future…

  11. Synthesis of polyacrylamide-montmorillonite clay nanocomposite using non-conventional electrochemical technique.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Monika; Prakash, Rajiv

    2012-01-01

    Synthesis of polymer-clay nanocomposite by in-situ incorporation of polyacrylamide in organically modified montmorillonite (MMT) clay layers is being reported using non-conventional electrochemical technique "plasma electrolysis." A luminous sheath of plasma is sustained between an electrode (anode) and the surface of surrounding liquid electrolyte at sufficiently high voltage, for synthesis of polymer or nanocomposite. Using this technique, radical generation capability is explored as a new tool for radical polymerization and in-situ composite formation of polyacrylamide. Polyacrylamide-MMT clay nanocomposite is synthesized by taking acrylamide and MMT clay in K2SO4 electrolyte solution at the anodic potential of 660 V. Polyacrylamide and polyacrylamide-MMT clay nanocomposites are characterized for their structural and thermal properties. Intercalation in MMT clay layers of homogeneous nanocomposite is supported by X-ray diffraction, FTIR, DSC, TGA and SEM/TEM techniques. This novel method produces homogeneous interactive composite with high yield, and shows potential to replace chemical initiators based harsh synthetic processes used for conventional polymer-nanocomposites formation. PMID:22524007

  12. Peptide separations by slab gel electrophoresis in pluronic F127 polymer liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Rill, Randolph L; Al-Sayah, Mohammad A

    2004-05-01

    Proteomics and peptidomics could benefit from simple methods for high-resolution separation of oligopeptides analogous to slab gel electrophoresis of proteins. Gels of Pluronic F127 copolymer surfactant were investigated as media for slab gel electrophoresis of oligopeptides using a trypsin digest of myoglobin. Concentrated solutions of Pluronic F127 are fluid at low temperatures (gel-like micellar liquid crystal upon warming. Nucleic acids are well separated by electrophoresis in these gels as previously shown by Rill and Liu. Good separations of myoglobin tryptic peptides were accomplished by electrophoresis on slab gels of 24% Pluronic F127 or 15% polyacrylamide using the alkaline Laemmli buffer system (without sodium dodecyl sulfate). Labeling of peptides with the succinimidyl ester of Cascade Yellow (CY) prior to electrophoresis allowed sensitive detection with blacklight illumination at 365 nm. Labeled tryptic peptides were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF)-mass spectrometry. An inverse dependence of electrophoretic mobility on mass of peptides with charge Z = -1 was observed in both media. Two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis of myoglobin peptides on polyacrylamide, then on Pluronic media, at pH 8.3 indicated that the primary separation mechanism of most peptides was the same in both media. A few off-diagonal spots indicated that some peptides were preferentially retarded in Pluronic gels, perhaps due to hydrophobic effects. The ease of gel preparation and peptide recovery are advantages of Pluronic F127 gels for oligopeptide electrophoresis. The two media can be combined conveniently for 2-D electrophoresis, providing means to facilitate protein identification and peptidomics. PMID:15174045

  13. Monitoring the Cross-Linking of a HPAm\\/Cr(III) Acetate Polymer Gel Using H NMR, UV Spectrophotometry, Bottle Testing, and Rheology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvia Magnolia Vargas-Vasquez; Laura Beatriz Romero-Zerón; Rodney Macgregor; Senthil Gopalakrishnan

    2007-01-01

    The gelation of a polymer gel formulated at 40°C with 7500 mg\\/L of partly hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAm) and 3000 mg\\/L of Cr(III) acetate 50% active was monitored for 72 h using H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques, oscillatory rheology, bottle testing, and UV spectrophotometry. During the first 5 h, H NMR techniques detected changes in the polymer gel signal intensity and transverse relaxation that

  14. 2012 National Native American Heritage Month Native American House

    E-print Network

    Kravets, Robin

    2012 National Native American Heritage Month Native American House Community Service Project Adopt a Native Elder November 1-30th Drop off location: Native American House, Monday thru Friday 9am-5pm Sponsored by: Native American House (NAH), Native American Student Organization (NASO), American Indian

  15. Hydrolyzed Polyacrylamide- Polyethylenimine- Dextran Sulfate Polymer Gel System as a Water Shut-Off Agent in Unconventional Gas Reservoirs

    E-print Network

    Jayakumar, Swathika 1986-

    2012-07-09

    Technologies such as horizontal wells and multi-stage hydraulic fracturing have made ultra-low permeability shale and tight gas reservoirs productive but the industry is still on the learning curve when it comes to addressing various production...

  16. Microplate array diagonal gel electrophoresis for cohort studies of microsatellite loci.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-he; O'Dell, Sandra D; Day, Ian N M

    2002-05-01

    After PCR amplification, we have achieved precise sizing of trinucleotide and tetranucleotide microsatellite alleles on 96-well open-faced polyacrylamide microplate array diagonal gel electrophoresis (MADGE) gels: two tetranucleotide repeats, HUMTHOI (five alleles 248-263 bp) and DYS390 (eight alleles 200-228 bp), and DYS392, a trinucleotide repeat (eight alleles 210-231 bp). A gel matrix of Duracryl, a high mechanical strength polyacrylamide derivative, and appropriate ionic conditions provide the 1.3%-1.5% band resolution required. No end-labeling of primers is needed, as the sensitive Vistra Green intercalating dye is used for the visualization of bands. Co-run markers bracketing the PCR fragments ensure accurate sizing without inter-lane variability. Electrophoresis of multiple gels in a thermostatically controlled tank allows up to 1000 samples to be run in 90 min. Gel images were analyzed using a Fluorlmager 595 fluorescent scanning system, and alleles were identified using Phoretix software for band migration measurement and Microsoft Excel to compute fragment sizes. Estimated sizes were interpolated precisely to achieve accurate binning. Microsatellite-MADGE represents a utilitarian methodfor high-throughput genotyping in cohort studies, using standard laboratory equipment. PMID:12019781

  17. Content in Native Literature Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Agnes

    Including Native literature in school curricula is an important way of enhancing the Native student's self-concept and providing accurate Native cultural knowledge to Native and non-Native students alike. Nevertheless, Canadian school literature programs generally contain neither contemporary nor traditional Native literature. Some programs…

  18. 78 FR 70956 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Assessment of Native American, Alaska Native...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ...Information Collection: Assessment of Native American, Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian...Information Collection: Assessment of Native American, Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian...funding though several programs to Native American and Alaskan Native...

  19. Genetic variation in Bromus tectorum (Poaceae): comparison between native and introduced populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen J Novak; Richard N Mack

    1993-01-01

    The amount and distribution of genetic variation in 51 native (Eurasian and northern African) populations of Bromus tectorum were assessed at 25 loci using starch gel electrophoresis and were compared with our previous results for introduced (North American) populations of this predominantly cleistogamous grass. More alleles and variable loci were detected across populations in the native range than in North

  20. The unravelling of metabolic dysfunctions linked to metal-associated diseases by blue native

    E-print Network

    Appanna, Vasu

    REVIEW The unravelling of metabolic dysfunctions linked to metal-associated diseases by blue native- turing of the analytes prior to their analysis, blue native poly- acrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN perturbations invoked by metal toxicity. In this review, we elaborate on how BN-PAGE has led to the discovery

  1. Improvement in the accuracy of polymer gel dosimeters using scintillating fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Nicolas M.; Hubert-Tremblay, Vincent; Bujold, Rachel; Beaulieu, Luc; Lepage, Martin

    2010-11-01

    We propose a novel method for the absolute calibration of polyacrylamide gel (PAG) dosimeters with one or more reference scintillating fiber dosimeters inserted inside the gel. Four calibrated scintillating fibers were inserted into a cylindrical glass container filled with a PAG dosimeter irradiated with a wedge filtered 6 MV photon beam. Calibration curves using small glass vials containing the same gel as the cylindrical containers were used to obtain a first calibration curve. This calibration curve was then adjusted with the dose measured with one of the scintillating fibers in a low gradient part of the field using different approaches. Among these, it was found that a translation of the gel calibration curve yielded the highest accuracy with PAG dosimeters.

  2. Development of Polymer Gel Systems to Improve Volumetric Sweep and Reduce Producing Water/Oil Ratios

    SciTech Connect

    G. Paul Willhite; Stan McCool; Don W. Green; Min Cheng; Feiyan Chen

    2005-04-03

    Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of the third year of a 42 month research program that is aimed at an understanding of gelation chemistry and the fundamental mechanisms that alter the flows of oil and water in reservoir rocks after a gel treatment. Work focused on a widely applied system in the field, the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide-chromium acetate gel. Gelation occurs by network formation through the crosslinking of polyacrylamide molecules as a result of reaction with chromium acetate. Pre-gel aggregates form and grow as reactions between chromium acetate and polyacrylamide proceed. A mathematical model that describes uptake and crosslinking reactions as a function of time was derived. The model was probability based and provides molecular-weight averages and molecular-weight distributions of the pre-gel aggregates as a function of time and initial system conditions. A liquid chromatography apparatus to experimentally measure the size and molecular weight distributions of polymer samples was developed. The method worked well for polymer samples without the chromium crosslinker. Sample retention observed during measurements of gelant samples during the gelation process compromised the results. Other methods will be tested to measure size distributions of the pre-gel aggregates. Dissolution of carbonate minerals during the injection of gelants causes the pH of the gelant to increase. Chromium precipitates from solution at the higher pH values robbing the gelant of crosslinker. Experimental data on the transport of chromium acetate solutions through dolomite cores were obtained. A mathematical model that describes the transport of brine and chromium acetate solutions through rocks containing carbonate minerals was used to simulate the experimental results.

  3. Native American Powerpoint Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Albright

    2009-07-09

    For this project students will research a Native American group that played an influential role in Alabama history. The students will then create a powerpoint describing the primary aspects of that group's heritage. Directions: 1. Choose any one of the Native American tribes we have been learning about in class. 2. Visit the following sites to learn more about the tribe that you have chosen: 1) Access Geneology 2) Native Languages ...

  4. Exploring Native Science

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Claudette Engblom-Bradley

    2004-04-01

    This article describes an innovative summer camp program that serves middle school I?upiat and Athabascan students from the interior and the arctic regions of Alaska. The camp enables students to learn from Native Elders while completing hands-on science projects; stimulates interest in and increasing students' confidence and knowledge in mathematics, science, and engineering among Alaska Native students; and provides a curriculum that integrates Alaska Native knowledge systems and values with western mathematics and science.

  5. Patterns in shrinking gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudaoud, Arezki; Chaieb, Sahraoui

    2002-03-01

    When polymer gels are subject to an external stimulus such as temperature or solvent change, their volume can increase or decrease by several orders of magnitude. This phase transformation often results in striking patterns. We study pattern formation in shrinking cylindrical gels. Our model couples the elastic deformations of the gel to the interaction between the polymer and the solvent. We find a phase diagram containing bubble and bamboo patterns and obtain their wavelengths, in agreement with the experiments of Matsuo and Tanaka.

  6. Polyacrylamide molecular weight and phosphogypsum effects on infiltration and erosion in semi-arid soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seal formation at the surface of semi-arid soils during rainstorms reduces soil infiltration rate (IR) and causes runoff and erosion. Surface application of dry anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) with high molecular weight (MW) has been found to be effective in stabilizing soil aggregates, and decreasing ...

  7. Polyacrylamide Molecular Weight and Phosphogypsum Effects on Infiltration and Erosion in Semi-Arid Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seal formation at the surface of semi-arid soils during rainstorms reduces soil infiltration rate (IR) and causes runoff and erosion. Surface application of dry anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) with high molecular weight (MW) has been found to be effective in stabilizing soil aggregates, and decreasing ...

  8. Toxicity of anionic polyacrylamide formulations when used for erosion control in agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Addition of anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) to agricultural irrigation water can dramatically reduce erosion of soils. However, the toxicity of PAM to aquatic life, while often claimed to be low, has not been thoroughly evaluated. Five PAM formulations, including two oil-based products, one water-based...

  9. Polyacrylamide treatments for reducing seepage in soil-lined reservoirs: A field evaluation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigation water supplies are becoming limited and there is a need to extend the usefulness of current water resources. Previous laboratory studies demonstrated that certain water soluble polyacrylamide solution (WSPAM) and cross-linked PAM granule (XPAM) treatments effectively reduced infiltration...

  10. Soil aggregate stability as affected by clay mineralogy and polyacrylamide addition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The addition of polyacrylamide (PAM) to soil leads to stabilization of existing aggregates and improved bonding between, and aggregation of adjacent soil particles However, the dependence of PAM efficacy as an aggregate stabilizing agent on soil-clay mineralogy has not been studied. Sixteen soil sam...

  11. INFLUENCE OF ADDED ORGANIC MATTER AND POLYACRYLAMIDE ON PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF A NORFOLK LOAMY SAND

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Norfolk loamy sand of the SE Coastal Plain often has poor physical properties because it contains a cemented subsurface hard layer that restricts root development and infiltration. Physical properties are often improved by adding amendments. Organic residue and/or polyacrylamide (PAM) were mixed...

  12. Effects of Polyacrylamide and Organic Matter on Microbes associated to Soil Aggregation of Norfolk Loamy Sand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyacrylamide (PAM, anionic formulation of molecular size 12 MDa and 35% charge density) has been reported to increase aggregation and improve soil physical properties in United States southeastern Coastal Plain loamy sand soils, but nothing is known about the effects of PAM on microbes associated ...

  13. Polyacrylamide effects on aggregate and structure stability of soils with different clay mineralogy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adding anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) to soils stabilizes existing aggregates and improves bonding between and aggregation of soil particles. However, the dependence of PAM efficacy as an aggregate stabilizing agent with soils having different clay mineralogy has not been studied. Sixteen soil samples...

  14. HOUSEHOLD AND STRUCTURAL INSECTS Polyacrylamide Hydrogels: An Effective Tool for Delivering Liquid

    E-print Network

    Buczkowski, Grzegorz

    HOUSEHOLD AND STRUCTURAL INSECTS Polyacrylamide Hydrogels: An Effective Tool for Delivering Liquid that are effective, inexpensive, and easy to service. The current study evaluated the potential of water in 25% sucrose solution containing 0.007% thiame- thoxam are highly attractive to Argentine ants

  15. USE OF POLYACRYLAMIDE IN SIMULATED LAND APPLICATION OF LAGOON EFFLUENT: PART II. NUTRIENT LOSS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land application of agricultural wastewater can contribute to eutrophication of water bodies by increasing the quantities of dissolved and particulate nutrients that are transported in runoff during rain storm events. Anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) is a soil amendment that has been shown to reduce so...

  16. AN EVALUATION OF POLYACRYLAMIDE AND SURFACE HYDROLOGIC EFFECTS ON RUNOFF WATER QUALITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyacrylamide (PAM) and surface hydrologic condition are known to affect sediment and runoff water quality as individual factors, but their combined effects have not been quantified. In this study, we quantified the interactive effects of PAM and three near-surface hydrologic conditions: drainage,...

  17. Comparison of Cationic and Unmodified Starches in Reactive Extrusion of Starch-Polyacrylamide Graft Copolymers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Graft copolymers of starch and polyacrylamide (PAAm) were prepared using reactive extrusion in a corotating twin screw extruder. The effect of cationic starch modification was examined using unmodified and cationic dent starch (approximately 23% amylose) and waxy maize starch (approximately 2% amyl...

  18. Synthesis of Polyacrylamide Grafted Carboxymethylcellulose and Evaluation of Its Flocculation Characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tridib Tripathy

    2007-01-01

    Poly-(acrylamide) grafted carboxymethylated cellulose (CMC) was prepared in aqueous solution using Ce as its initiator. Two grades of graft copolymer were prepared by varying monomer concentration keeping all other factors constant. Intrinsic viscosity measurement of the graft copolymer showed that the length of the grafted chains depends on the monomer concentration. The polymers were characterized by IR spectroscopy, thermal analysis,

  19. CONFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT USING GELS

    SciTech Connect

    Randall S. Seright

    2003-09-01

    This report describes work performed during the second year of the project, ''Conformance Improvement Using Gels.'' The project has two objectives. The first objective is to identify gel compositions and conditions that substantially reduce flow through fractures that allow direct channeling between wells, while leaving secondary fractures open so that high fluid injection and production rates can be maintained. The second objective is to optimize treatments in fractured production wells, where the gel must reduce permeability to water much more than that to oil. Pore-level images from X-ray computed microtomography were re-examined for Berea sandstone and porous polyethylene. This analysis suggests that oil penetration through gel-filled pores occurs by a gel-dehydration mechanism, rather than a gel-ripping mechanism. This finding helps to explain why aqueous gels can reduce permeability to water more than to oil. We analyzed a Cr(III)-acetate-HPAM gel treatment in a production well in the Arbuckle formation. The availability of accurate pressure data before, during, and after the treatment was critical for the analysis. After the gel treatment, water productivity was fairly constant at about 20% of the pre-treatment value. However, oil productivity was stimulated by a factor of 18 immediately after the treatment. During the six months after the treatment, oil productivity gradually decreased to approach the pre-treatment value. To explain this behavior, we proposed that the fracture area open to oil flow was increased substantially by the gel treatment, followed by a gradual closing of the fractures during subsequent production. For a conventional Cr(III)-acetate-HPAM gel, the delay between gelant preparation and injection into a fracture impacts the placement, leakoff, and permeability reduction behavior. Formulations placed as partially formed gels showed relatively low pressure gradients during placement, and yet substantially reduced the flow capacity of fractures (with widths from 1 to 4 mm) during brine and oil flow after placement. Regardless of gel age before placement, very little gel washed out from the fractures during brine or oil flow. However, increased brine or oil flow rate and cyclic injection of oil and water significantly decreased the level of permeability reduction. A particular need exists for gels that can plug large apertures (e.g., wide fractures and vugs). Improved mechanical strength and stability were demonstrated (in 1- to 4-mm-wide fractures) for a gel that contained a combination of high- and low-molecular weight polymers. This gel reduced the flow capacity of 2- and 4-mm-wide fractures by 260,000. In a 1-mm-wide fracture, it withstood 26 psi/ft without allowing any brine flow through the fracture. Cr(III)-acetate-HPAM gels exhibited disproportionate permeability reduction in fractures. The effect was most pronounced when the gel was placed as gelant or partially formed gels. The effect occurred to a modest extent with concentrated gels and with gels that were ''fully formed'' when placed. The effect was not evident in tubes. We explored swelling polymers for plugging fractures. Polymer suspensions were quickly prepared and injected. In concept, the partially dissolved polymer would lodge and swell to plug the fracture. For three types of swelling polymers, behavior was promising. However, additional development is needed before their performance will be superior to that of conventional gels.

  20. Building Native Nations through Native Student's Commitment to Their Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Tiffany S.

    2009-01-01

    One aspect of building Native nations entails motivating American Indian/Alaska Native youth to become committed to their communities so as to sustain and move forward with the goals of American Indian/Alaska Native nations. This study determined the impact of one Native American Studies department on its Native students' life goals. Through its…

  1. Reinforcement of a sugar-based bolaamphiphile/functionalized graphene oxide composite gel: rheological and electrochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Ha; Ahn, Junho; Masuda, Mitsutoshi; Jaworski, Justyn; Jung, Jong Hwa

    2013-11-01

    A sugar-based bolaamphiphile/graphene oxide composite hydrogel has been prepared using simple mixing. Unlike the corresponding sugar-based native gel, the composite gel exhibits a fibrillar structure with a 10-20 nm fiber diameter. The composite gel forms an interdigitated bilayer structure incorporating intermolecular hydrogen-bonding interactions. The composite gel formation did not change the beneficial electrical properties of graphene offering the potential for integration of this new material into electronic systems. Interestingly, the mechanical and electrochemical properties of the composite gel are both dramatically enhanced when compared to the native gel, thereby reflecting that the functionalized graphene oxide layers are efficiently intercalated within the composite gel structure. PMID:24093646

  2. Superimposing two-dimensional gels to study genetic variation in malaria parasites.

    PubMed

    Horgan, G; Creasey, A; Fenton, B

    1992-11-01

    Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is a valuable tool for studying genetic variation in the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. It involves examining the position of protein spots in gel produced from different isolates. Some spots have been seen to vary, while others have had a constant position in all isolates so far examined. These invariant spots provide a reference frame to compare variations in other spots. This paper discusses the usefulness of digital image handling, warping and superimposition in a personal computer environment. Rather than produce a fully automatic interpretation system, we show how the computer may be used as a tool for manipulating gel images, although interpretation of the gels' features remains with the human expert. Autoradiographs are scanned on a desktop scanner, and the images in digital form can be displayed on a monitor attached to a personal computer. The coordinates of the invariant spots on each of several gels are identified by the user. Each of the gels is then warped so that the invariant spots of all the gels coincide as closely as possible. The variable spots are then examined. We have used both affine warping transformations, which match the invariant spots as closely as possible, and thin plate spline transformations, which match them exactly. Colour superimposition proved a useful way of examining the gels. PMID:1483429

  3. CONFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT USING GELS

    SciTech Connect

    Randall S. Seright

    2004-09-30

    This report describes work performed during the third and final year of the project, ''Conformance Improvement Using Gels.'' Corefloods revealed throughput dependencies of permeability reduction by polymers and gels that were much more prolonged during oil flow than water flow. This behavior was explained using simple mobility ratio arguments. A model was developed that quantitatively fits the results and predicts ''clean up'' times for oil productivity when production wells are returned to service after application of a polymer or gel treatment. X-ray computed microtomography studies of gels in strongly water-wet Berea sandstone and strongly oil-wet porous polyethylene suggested that oil penetration through gel-filled pores occurs by a gel-dehydration mechanism, rather than gel-ripping or gel-displacement mechanisms. In contrast, analysis of data from the University of Kansas suggests that the gel-ripping or displacement mechanisms are more important in more permeable, strongly water-wet sandpacks. These findings help to explain why aqueous gels can reduce permeability to water more than to oil under different conditions. Since cement is the most commonly used material for water shutoff, we considered when gels are preferred over cements. Our analysis and experimental results indicated that cement cannot be expected to completely fill (top to bottom) a vertical fracture of any width, except near the wellbore. For vertical fractures with apertures less than 4 mm, the cement slurry will simply not penetrate very far into the fracture. For vertical fractures with apertures greater than 4 mm, the slurry may penetrate a substantial distance into the bottom part of the fracture. However, except near the wellbore, the upper part of the fracture will remain open due to gravity segregation. We compared various approaches to plugging fractures using gels, including (1) varying polymer content, (2) varying placement (extrusion) rate, (3) using partially formed gels, (4) using combinations of high and low molecular weight (Mw) polymers, (5) using secondary crosslinking reactions, (6) injecting un-hydrated polymer particles, and (7) incorporating particulates. All of these methods showed promise in some aspects, but required performance improvements in other aspects. All materials investigated to date showed significant performance variations with fracture width. High pressure gradients and limited distance of penetration are common problems in tight fractures. Gravity segregation and low resistance to breaching are common problems in wide fractures. These will be key issues to address in future work. Although gels can exhibit disproportionate permeability reduction in fractures, the levels of permeability reduction for oil flow are too high to allow practical exploitation in most circumstances. In contrast, disproportionate permeability reduction provided by gels that form in porous rock (adjacent to the fractures) has considerable potential in fractured systems.

  4. Restoring Native Grasslands

    E-print Network

    Hays, K. Brian; Wagner, Matthew; Smeins, Fred; Wilkins, Neal

    2005-03-23

    . Brian Hays, Matthew Wagner, Fred Smeins and R. Neal Wilkins* Native Restoring Grasslands 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Figure 1. Much of the native grassland in Texas has been converted to improved pas- tures (left) or cropland (right...

  5. Native Hawaiian Scholarship `Aha

    E-print Network

    Native Hawaiian Scholarship `Aha Sponsored by the University of Hawai`i, GEAR UP Hawai`i, Office of Hawaiian Affairs, Pacific Financial Aid Association & Native Hawaiian Education Association Hawaiians including eligibility criteria and qualification requirements. Hawai`i Island Waimea @ Hawaiian

  6. NEW ZEALAND'S NATIVE GREEN

    E-print Network

    Canterbury, University of

    NEW ZEALAND'S NATIVE GREEN MISTLETOES What can you do to help? Many green mistletoe populations mistletoes threatened? Although Ileostylus and Tupeia are the most common mistletoes in New Zealand the world, but New Zealand has eight native species that are found nowhere else (except Ileostylus which

  7. Legends of Native Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flagg, Ann

    1999-01-01

    Presents a theme unit that includes elementary-level, cross-curricular lessons about lifestyle, belief systems, traditions, and history of Native Americans. The unit includes a poster which offers a traditional Cherokee story, literature on Native American legends, and a variety of cross-curricular activities. The unit ends with students writing…

  8. Native Hawaiian Scholarship `Aha !

    E-print Network

    Native Hawaiian Scholarship `Aha ! 2011­2012" #12;Sponsored by" ·Native Hawaiian Education of Hawai`i" #12;Program" ·College Fair" ·College and Scholarship Overview" ·Scholarship Program of people who want to help !Scholarship program staff !Financial aid office !High school and college

  9. Native Hawaiian Scholarship Aha

    E-print Network

    Native Hawaiian Scholarship Aha 2012-2013 #12;Sponsored by ·Native Hawaiian Education Association i #12;Program ·College Fair ·College and Scholarship Overview ·Scholarship Program Presentations #12;Applying for Financial aid is Hard But... " There are lots of people who want to help. üScholarship

  10. Historic Native Americans

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss G

    2011-10-27

    What are the four historic Native American tribes and what are different things involved in their culture? Teacher will give you sheet and as you discover new facts about each historic Native American tribe, write down the type of food they ate and another fact about them on this sheet. Graphic First let's learn some background information ...

  11. Traditional Native Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Agnes

    1985-01-01

    While Native myths and legends were educational tools to transmit tribal beliefs and history, traditional American Indian poetry served a ritualistic function in everyday life. Few traditional Native songs, which all poems were, survive; only Mayan and Aztec poems were written, and most of these were burned by a Spanish bishop. In addition, many…

  12. FRUIT & NUT NATIVE PECANS

    E-print Network

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    with this product to prevent potential damage to pecan trees. All foreign timber should be removed prior to beTEXAS FRUIT & NUT PRODUCTION NATIVE PECANS Larry Stein, Monte Nesbitt & Jim Kamas Extension Fruit trees in Texas, approximately 40,000 acres are managed consistently as the native crop production

  13. CONFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT USING GELS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randall S. Seright

    2004-01-01

    This report describes work performed during the third and final year of the project, ''Conformance Improvement Using Gels.'' Corefloods revealed throughput dependencies of permeability reduction by polymers and gels that were much more prolonged during oil flow than water flow. This behavior was explained using simple mobility ratio arguments. A model was developed that quantitatively fits the results and predicts

  14. CONFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT USING GELS

    SciTech Connect

    Randall S. Seright

    2004-03-01

    This technical progress report describes work performed from September 1, 2003, through February 29, 2004, for the project, ''Conformance Improvement Using Gels.'' We examined the properties of several ''partially formed'' gels that were formulated with a combination of high and low molecular weight HPAM polymers. After placement in 4-mm-wide fractures, these gels required about 25 psi/ft for brine to breach the gel (the best performance to date in fractures this wide). After this breach, stabilized residual resistance factors decreased significantly with increased flow rate. Also, residual resistance factors were up to 9 times greater for water than for oil. Nevertheless, permeability reduction factors were substantial for both water and oil flow. Gel with 2.5% chopped fiberglass effectively plugged 4-mm-wide fractures if a 0.5-mm-wide constriction was present. The ability to screen-out at a constriction appears crucial for particulate incorporation to be useful in plugging fractures. In addition to fiberglass, we examined incorporation of polypropylene fibers into gels. Once dispersed in brine or gelant, the polypropylene fibers exhibited the least gravity segregation of any particulate that we have tested to date. In fractures with widths of at least 2 mm, 24-hr-old gels (0.5% high molecular weight HPAM) with 0.5% fiber did not exhibit progressive plugging during placement and showed extrusion pressure gradients similar to those of gels without the fiber. The presence of the fiber roughly doubled the gel's resistance to first breach by brine flow. The breaching pressure gradients were not as large as for gels made with high and low molecular weight polymers (mentioned above). However, their material requirements and costs (i.e., polymer and/or particulate concentrations) were substantially lower than for those gels. A partially formed gel made with 0.5% HPAM did not enter a 0.052-mm-wide fracture when applying a pressure gradient of 65 psi/ft. This result suggests a lower limit of fracture width for entry of formed or partially formed gels (when reasonable pressure gradients are applied). In unfractured porous rock, we investigated the time dependence of oil and water permeabilities during various cycles of oil and water injection after placement of a Cr(III)-acetate-HPAM gel. Permeability to water stabilized rapidly (within 1 pore volume, PV), while permeability to oil stabilized gradually over the course of 100 PV. The behavior was surprisingly insensitive to core material (strongly water-wet Berea sandstone and strongly oil-wet porous polyethylene), core permeability (740 to 10,000 md), and applied pressure gradient (10 to 100 psi/ft).

  15. Modeling chemoresponsive polymer gels.

    PubMed

    Kuksenok, Olga; Deb, Debabrata; Dayal, Pratyush; Balazs, Anna C

    2014-01-01

    Stimuli-responsive gels are vital components in the next generation of smart devices, which can sense and dynamically respond to changes in the local environment and thereby exhibit more autonomous functionality. We describe recently developed computational methods for simulating the properties of such stimuli-responsive gels in the presence of optical, chemical, and thermal gradients. Using these models, we determine how to harness light to drive shape changes and directed motion in spirobenzopyran-containing gels. Focusing on oscillating gels undergoing the Belousov-Zhabotinksy reaction, we demonstrate that these materials can spontaneously form self-rotating assemblies, or pinwheels. Finally, we model temperature-sensitive gels that encompass chemically reactive filaments to optimize the performance of this system as a homeostatic device for regulating temperature. These studies could facilitate the development of soft robots that autonomously interconvert chemical and mechanical energy and thus perform vital functions without the continuous need of external power sources. PMID:24498954

  16. Use of the diffusive gradients in thin films technique (DGT) with various diffusive gels for characterization of sewage sludge-contaminated soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vlad?na Kova?íková; Hana Do?ekalová; Bohumil Do?ekal; Martina Podborská

    2007-01-01

    The diffusive gradients in thin film technique (DGT) was used for characterization of South Moravian arable soils (sampling\\u000a sites Zlín, Tu?any, and Chrlice) amended by sewage sludge in the 1980s. Two types of polyacrylamide diffusive gel with different\\u000a pore size (APA gels—cross-linked with agarose and RG gels—cross-linked with bis-acrylamide) were employed. The (bio)available\\u000a parts of Cd, Cu, and Ni and

  17. A gel probe equilibrium sampler for measuring arsenic porewater profiles and sorption gradients in sediments: I. Laboratory development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, K.M.; Root, R.; O'Day, P. A.; Hering, J.G.

    2008-01-01

    A gel probe equilibrium sampler has been developed to study arsenic (As) geochemistry and sorption behavior in sediment porewater. The gels consist of a hydrated polyacrylamide polymer, which has a 92% water content. Two types of gels were used in this study. Undoped (clear) gels were used to measure concentrations of As and other elements in sediment porewater. The polyacrylamide gel was also doped with hydrous ferric oxide (HFO), an amorphous iron (Fe) oxyhydroxide. When deployed in the field, HFO-doped gels introduce a fresh sorbent into the subsurface thus allowing assessment of in situ sorption. In this study, clear and HFO-doped gels were tested under laboratory conditions to constrain the gel behavior prior to field deployment. Both types of gels were allowed to equilibrate with solutions of varying composition and re-equilibrated in acid for analysis. Clear gels accurately measured solution concentrations (??1%), and As was completely recovered from HFO-doped gels (??4%). Arsenic speciation was determined in clear gels through chromatographic separation of the re-equilibrated solution. For comparison to speciation in solution, mixtures of As(III) and As(V) adsorbed on HFO embedded in gel were measured in situ using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Sorption densities for As(III) and As(V) on HFO embedded in gel were obtained from sorption isotherms at pH 7.1. When As and phosphate were simultaneously equilibrated (in up to 50-fold excess of As) with HFO-doped gels, phosphate inhibited As sorption by up to 85% and had a stronger inhibitory effect on As(V) than As(III). Natural organic matter (>200 ppm) decreased As adsorption by up to 50%, and had similar effects on As(V) and As(III). The laboratory results provide a basis for interpreting results obtained by deploying the gel probe in the field and elucidating the mechanisms controlling As partitioning between solid and dissolved phases in the environment. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  18. Dialysis as a method of obtaining neutral collagen gels.

    PubMed

    Skopinska-Wisniewska, Joanna; Olszewski, Kamil; Bajek, Anna; Rynkiewicz, Aldona; Sionkowska, Alina

    2014-07-01

    Collagen gels are useful materials for medicine and tissue engineering. They are generally obtained by chemical cross-linking of the protein chains. However, other kinds of interactions can also stabilize the structure. In our investigations we employed dialysis against deionised water as a method of neutralization of collagen solution. This promoted the creation of stable, flexible, transparent gel composed only of collagen and water. The FTIR-ATR spectroscopy showed that changing pH of the solution caused organization of collagen chains into triple-helical motifs similar to native protein. As a result, thermal stability of the material improved and the surface was more polar than in case of collagen film obtained from acidic solution. The freeze-drying of the gel provided the relatively stiff, porous material, which returned to its original shape after deformation. We expect that the method of obtaining neutral collagen gels can be widely applied for preparation of scaffolds for tissue engineering. PMID:24857466

  19. Amended final report on the safety assessment of polyacrylamide and acrylamide residues in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    2005-01-01

    Polyacrylamide is a polymer of controllable molecular weight formed by the polymerization of acrylamide monomers available in one of three forms: solid (powder or micro beads), aqueous solution, or inverse emulsions (in water droplets coated with surfactant and suspended in mineral oil). Residual acrylamide monomer is likely an impurity in most Polyacrylamide preparations, ranging from <1 ppm to 600 ppm. Higher levels of acrylamide monomers are present in the solid form compared to the other two forms. Polyacrylamide is reportedly used in 110 cosmetic formulations, at concentrations ranging from 0.05% to 2.8%. Residual levels of acrylamide in Polyacrylamide can range from <.01% to 0.1%, although representative levels were reported at 0.02% to 0.03%. Because of the large sizes of Polyacrylamide polymers, they do not penetrate the skin. Polyacrylamide itself is not significantly toxic. For example, an acute oral toxicity study of Polyacrylamide in rats reported that a single maximum oral dose of 4.0 g/kg body weight was tolerated. In subchronic oral toxicity studies, rats and dogs treated with Polyacrylamide at doses up to 464 mg/kg body weight showed no signs of toxicity. Several 2-year chronic oral toxicity studies in rats and dogs fed diets containing up to 5% Polyacrylamide had no significant adverse effects. Polyacrylamide was not an ocular irritant in animal tests. No compound-related lesions were noted in a three-generation reproductive study in which rats were fed 500 or 2000 ppm Polyacrylamide in their diet. Polyacrylamide was not carcinogenic in several chronic animal studies. Human cutaneous tolerance tests performed to evaluate the irritation of 5% (w/w) Polyacrylamide indicated that the compound was well tolerated. Acrylamide monomer residues do penetrate the skin. Acrylamide tested in a two-generation reproductive study at concentrations up to 5 mg/kg day(- 1) in drinking water, was associated with prenatal lethality at the highest dose, with evidence of parental toxicity. The no adverse effects level was close to the 0.5 mg/kg day(- 1) dose. Acrylamide tested in a National Toxicology Program (NTP) reproductive and neurotoxicity study at 3, 10, and 30 ppm produced no developmental or female reproductive toxicity. However, impaired fertility in males was observed, as well as minimal neurotoxic effects. Acrylamide neurotoxicity occurs in both the central and peripheral nervous systems, likely through microtubule disruption, which has been suggested as a possible mechanism for genotoxic effects of acrylamide in mammalian systems. Acrylamide was genotoxic in mammalian in vitro and in vivo assays. Acrylamide was a tumor initiator, but not an initiator/promoter, in two different mouse strains at a total dose of 300 mg/kg (6 doses over 2 weeks) resulting in increased lung adenomas and carcinomas without promotion. Acrylamide was tested in two chronic bioassays using rats. In one study, increased incidence of mammary gland tumors, glial cell tumors, thyroid gland follicular tumors, oral tissue tumors, uterine tumors and clitoral gland tumors were noted in female rats. In male rats, the number of tumors in the central nervous system (CNS), thyroid gland, and scrotum were increased with acrylamide exposure. In the second study, using higher doses and a larger number of female rats, glial cell tumors were not increased, nor was there an increase in mammary gland, oral tissue, clitoral gland, or uterine tumors. Tumors of the scrotum in male rats were confirmed, as were the thyroid gland follicular tumors in males and females. Taken together, there was a dose-dependent, but not statistically significant, increase in the number of astrocytomas. Different human lifetime cancer risk predictions have resulted, varying over three orders of magnitude from 2 x 10(- 3) to 1.9 x 10(- 6). In the European Union, acrylamide has been limited to 0.1 ppm for leave-on cosmetic products and 0.5 ppm for other cosmetic products. An Australian risk assessment suggested negligible health risks from acrylamide in cosmetics. The Cosmetic

  20. Nonlinear Strain Stiffening Is Not Sufficient to Explain How Far Cells Can Feel on Fibrous Protein Gels

    PubMed Central

    Rudnicki, Mathilda S.; Cirka, Heather A.; Aghvami, Maziar; Sander, Edward A.; Wen, Qi; Billiar, Kristen L.

    2013-01-01

    Recent observations suggest that cells on fibrous extracellular matrix materials sense mechanical signals over much larger distances than they do on linearly elastic synthetic materials. In this work, we systematically investigate the distance fibroblasts can sense a rigid boundary through fibrous gels by quantifying the spread areas of human lung fibroblasts and 3T3 fibroblasts cultured on sloped collagen and fibrin gels. The cell areas gradually decrease as gel thickness increases from 0 to 150 ?m, with characteristic sensing distances of >65 ?m below fibrin and collagen gels, and spreading affected on gels as thick as 150 ?m. These results demonstrate that fibroblasts sense deeper into collagen and fibrin gels than they do into polyacrylamide gels, with the latter exhibiting characteristic sensing distances of <5 ?m. We apply finite-element analysis to explore the role of strain stiffening, a characteristic mechanical property of collagen and fibrin that is not observed in polyacrylamide, in facilitating mechanosensing over long distances. Our analysis shows that the effective stiffness of both linear and nonlinear materials sharply increases once the thickness is reduced below 5 ?m, with only a slight enhancement in sensitivity to depth for the nonlinear material at very low thickness and high applied traction. Multiscale simulations with a simplified geometry predict changes in fiber alignment deep into the gel and a large increase in effective stiffness with a decrease in substrate thickness that is not predicted by nonlinear elasticity. These results suggest that the observed cell-spreading response to gel thickness is not explained by the nonlinear strain-stiffening behavior of the material alone and is likely due to the fibrous nature of the proteins. PMID:23823219

  1. Native American Times

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Native American Times makes good on its promise to deliver "today's independent Indian news." The site has a clean design that includes ten sections covering topics like business, culture, education, sports, and powwows. The News area offers a nice digest of what's going on in several areas of interest to Native Americans, with topical headlines that include "Cherokee Art Market Announces Winners" and "Yakama Maintain Wild Horse Race Tradition." The site also includes a great jobs area for folks who might be looking for Native American-focused work in public policy, community development, technology, and other fields.

  2. Synthesis of p -and n-type Gels Doped with Ionic Charge Carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alveroglu, E.; Yilmaz, Y.

    2010-03-01

    In this study, we synthesized the new kinds of semiconducting polymeric gels having negative ( n-type) and positive ( p-type) counter ions as charge carriers. The polyacrylamide gel was doped with pyranine (8-hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid, trisodium salt), having {text{SO}}3^{ - } ions as side groups and Na+ as counter ions, so-called p-type semiconducting gel. The doping process was performed during the polymerization where the pyranine binds to the polymer strands over OH group chemically via radical addition. In a similar way, N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA) gel was doped with methacrylamidopropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (MAPTAC), having Cl- as counter ions, so-called n-type semiconducting gel. Here MAPTAC was embedded by copolymerization within the polymer network (NIPA). These semiconducting gels can show different electrical properties by changing the concentration of the doping agents, swelling ratio etc. We have shown that the pn junction, formed by combining p-type and n-type gels together in close contact, rectifies the current similar to the conventional Si and Ge diodes.

  3. Gel for simultaneous chemical imaging of anionic and cationic solutes using diffusive gradients in thin films.

    PubMed

    Kreuzeder, Andreas; Santner, Jakob; Prohaska, Thomas; Wenzel, Walter W

    2013-12-17

    We report on a novel gel based on diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) for the simultaneous measurement of cations and anions and its suitability for high resolution chemical imaging by using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS). The new high resolution mixed binding gel (HR-MBG) is based on zirconium-hydroxide and suspended particulate reagent-iminodiacetate (SPR-IDA) as resin materials which are embedded in an ether-based urethane polymer hydrogel. The use of this polymer hydrogel material allows the production of ultrathin, highly stable and tear-proof resin gel layers with superior handling properties compared to existing ultrathin polyacrylamide gels. The gel was characterized regarding its uptake kinetics, the anion and cation capacities, and the effects of pH, ionic strength, and aging on the performance of the HR-MBG. Our results demonstrate the capability of this novel gel for concomitant sampling of anions and cations. The suitability of this new gel type for DGT chemical imaging at submm spatial resolution in soils using LA-ICPMS is shown. 2D images of P, As, Co, Cu, Mn, and Zn distributions around roots of Zea mays L. demonstrate the new opportunities offered by the HR-MBG for high-resolution mapping of solute dynamics in soil and sediment hotspots, such as the rhizosphere, by simultaneous observation of anionic and cationic solute species. PMID:24256092

  4. Gel for Simultaneous Chemical Imaging of Anionic and Cationic Solutes Using Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We report on a novel gel based on diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) for the simultaneous measurement of cations and anions and its suitability for high resolution chemical imaging by using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS). The new high resolution mixed binding gel (HR-MBG) is based on zirconium-hydroxide and suspended particulate reagent-iminodiacetate (SPR-IDA) as resin materials which are embedded in an ether-based urethane polymer hydrogel. The use of this polymer hydrogel material allows the production of ultrathin, highly stable and tear-proof resin gel layers with superior handling properties compared to existing ultrathin polyacrylamide gels. The gel was characterized regarding its uptake kinetics, the anion and cation capacities, and the effects of pH, ionic strength, and aging on the performance of the HR-MBG. Our results demonstrate the capability of this novel gel for concomitant sampling of anions and cations. The suitability of this new gel type for DGT chemical imaging at submm spatial resolution in soils using LA-ICPMS is shown. 2D images of P, As, Co, Cu, Mn, and Zn distributions around roots of Zea mays L. demonstrate the new opportunities offered by the HR-MBG for high-resolution mapping of solute dynamics in soil and sediment hotspots, such as the rhizosphere, by simultaneous observation of anionic and cationic solute species. PMID:24256092

  5. Agarose Gel Demos

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This video, presented by WGBH, is a great overview of how to prepare Agarose gel for electrophoresis. The video goes in-depth with the finer points including how to insert the pipette as to not disturb the gel and get the best results. This video would be useful for anyone in biochemistry or molecular biology fields. This video would also be helpful for instructors looking to provide their students with an overview on how to prepare Agarose gel. Educators will also find a background essay, discussion questions, and standards alignment for the material.

  6. Polyacrylamide preparations for protection of water quality threatened by agricultural runoff contaminants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James A. Entry; R. E. Sojka; Maribeth Watwoodb; Craig Ross

    2002-01-01

    Waste streams associated with a variety of agricultural runoff sources are major contributors of nutrients, pesticides and enteric microorganisms to surface and ground waters. Water soluble anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) was found to be a highly effective erosion-preventing and infiltration-enhancing polymer, when applied at rates of 1–10 g m?3 in furrow irrigation water. Water flowing from PAM treated irrigation furrows show

  7. Effects of polyacrylamide soil conditioner on the iron status of soybean plants. [Glycine max

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, A.; Wallace, G.A.; Abouzamzam, A.M.; Char, J.W.

    1986-05-01

    An iron-inefficient cultivar of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. Bragg cv. PI-54619-5-1 was grown in two different calcareous soils, a Natrargid and a Torrifluvents, to determine if improvement of soil aeration with a synthetic polyacrylamide as a soil conditioner would decrease the tendency of the cultivar to lime-induced chlorosis. The results suggest that when soil is well aerated with good drainage from use of the soil conditioner, the iron status of plants is improved.

  8. Polyacrylamide obtained by plasma-induced polymerization for a possible application in enhanced oil recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carmen Chelaru; I. Diaconu; I. Simionescu

    1998-01-01

    Summary  \\u000a Ultrahigh molecular weight polyacrylamides (PAAM) were obtained by plasma-induced polymerization in water solutions. The influenceof\\u000a monomer concentration, sealing pressure, initiation time and post polymerization period on polymer yield and molecular weight\\u000a were investigated. The viscosity and “screen factor” measurements, as well as the thermally stimulated depolarization currents\\u000a spectroscopic data of the synthesized polymers, indicate good properties as efficient viscosity

  9. Top-down, bottom-up, and side-to-side proteomics with virtual 2-D gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogorzalek Loo, Rachel R.; Hayes, Richard; Yang, Yanan; Hung, Frank; Ramachandran, Prasanna; Kim, Nuri; Gunsalus, Robert; Loo, Joseph A.

    2005-02-01

    Intact protein masses can be measured directly from immobilized pH gradient (IPG) isoelectric focusing (IEF) gels loaded with mammalian and prokaryotic samples, as demonstrated here with murine macrophage and Methanosarcina acetivorans cell lysates. Mass accuracy and resolution is improved by employing instruments which decouple the desorption event from mass measurement; e.g., quadrupole time-of-flight instruments. MALDI in-source dissociation (ISD) is discussed as a means to pursue top-down sequencing for protein identification. Methods have been developed to enzymatically digest all proteins in an IEF gel simultaneously, leaving the polyacrylamide gel attached to its polyester support. By retaining all gel pieces and their placement relative to one another, sample handling and tracking are minimized, and comparison to 2-D gel images is facilitated. MALDI-MS and MS/MS can then be performed directly from dried, matrix-treated IPG strips following whole-gel trypsin digestion, bottom-up methodology. Side-to-side proteomics, highlighting the link between virtual and classical 2-D gel electrophoresis, is introduced to describe a method whereby intact masses are measured from one side (the IEF gel), while proteins are identified based on analyses performed from the other side (the SDS-PAGE gel).

  10. Alaska Native Science Commission

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is the homepage of the Alaska Native Science Commission (ANSC), an organization dedicated to bringing together research and science in partnership with the Native community. Site materials include information on Alaska Native communities; a searchable database of contacts for community knowledge and a directory of local, statewide, and federally recognized Alaska Native agencies. There is also information on organizational ethics and protocols, regulatory agencies, a browsable database of research projects, and information on sources of funding. The Key Issues page provides information on issues of concern, such as avian flu, climate change, observations about contaminants and environmental change, traditional knowledge systems, traditional foods, and views on climate change and ecology. For students, there is information on einternship and scholarship opportunities. The publications page provides access to archived newsletters, presentations, and reports.

  11. Natively probabilistic computation

    E-print Network

    Mansinghka, Vikash Kumar

    2009-01-01

    I introduce a new set of natively probabilistic computing abstractions, including probabilistic generalizations of Boolean circuits, backtracking search and pure Lisp. I show how these tools let one compactly specify ...

  12. California Native Plant Society

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website presents the California Native Plant Society, a national leader in biological diversity conservation science and advocacy. Established in 1965, the CNPS "is a statewide non-profit organization of amateurs and professionals with a common interest in California's native plants." The site provides a variety of information and resources useful to botanists and native plant enthusiasts alike. One notable feature is the site's Photo Gallery which contains many beautiful annotated photos from different parts of California. The site links to the Inventory of Rare and Endangered Plants presenting "the most recent Inventory data from CNPS, plus thumbnail illustrations, maps, a variety of search tools, and links to additional information." The site also links to information about the Native Plant Conservation Campaign, the Manual of California Vegetation (reported on in the Scout Report for Science & Engineering on December 9, 1998), and to online discussion opportunities.

  13. A Necessary Inclusion: Native Literature in Native Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eigenbrod, Renate

    2010-01-01

    The author's two main arguments in her discussion include: teaching and researching Native literatures within the disciplinary context of Native Studies enhances the understanding of these texts; vice versa, Native writers address topics that are intrinsic components in epistemological processes of decolonization promoted in a Native Studies…

  14. OKLAHOMA NATIVE AMERICAN YOUTH LANGUAGE FAIR Native American Language Book

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma, University of

    OKLAHOMA NATIVE AMERICAN YOUTH LANGUAGE FAIR Native American Language Book Category Description Students are invited to enter books in a Native American language. Please remember the point of the ONAYLF is to demonstrate Native American language use. Keep this in mind when creating your book or instructing students

  15. Effects of Gel Thickness on Microscopic Indentation Measurements of Gel Modulus

    PubMed Central

    Long, Rong; Hall, Matthew S.; Wu, Mingming; Hui, Chung-Yuen

    2011-01-01

    In vitro, animal cells are mostly cultured on a gel substrate. It was recently shown that substrate stiffness affects cellular behaviors in a significant way, including adhesion, differentiation, and migration. Therefore, an accurate method is needed to characterize the modulus of the substrate. In situ microscopic measurements of the gel substrate modulus are based on Hertz contact mechanics, where Young's modulus is derived from the indentation force and displacement measurements. In Hertz theory, the substrate is modeled as a linear elastic half-space with an infinite depth, whereas in practice, the thickness of the substrate, h, can be comparable to the contact radius and other relevant dimensions such as the radius of the indenter or steel ball, R. As a result, measurements based on Hertz theory overestimate the Young's modulus. In this work, we discuss the limitations of Hertz theory and then modify it, taking into consideration the nonlinearity of the material and large deformation using a finite-element method. We present our results in a simple correction factor, ?, the ratio of the corrected Young's modulus and the Hertz modulus in the parameter regime of ?/h ? min (0.6, R/h) and 0.3 ? R/h ? 12.7. The ? factor depends on two dimensionless parameters, R/h and ?/h (where ? is the indentation depth), both of which are easily accessible to experiments. This correction factor agrees with experimental observations obtained with the use of polyacrylamide gel and a microsphere indentation method in the parameter range of 0.1 ? ?/h ? 0.4 and 0.3 ? R/h ? 6.2. The effect of adhesion on the use of Hertz theory for small indentation depth is also discussed. PMID:21806932

  16. Viscoelasticity of silica gels

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, G.W. [DuPont Co., Wilmington, DE (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The response of silica gels to mechanical loads depends on the properties of the solid phase and the permeability of the network. Understanding this behavior is essential for modeling of stresses developed during drying or heating of gels. The permeability and the mechanical properties are readily determined from a simple beam-bending experiment, by measuring the load relaxation that occurs at constant deflection. Load decay results from movement of the liquid within the network; in addition, there may be viscoelastic relaxation of the network itself. Silica gel is viscoelastic in chemically aggressive media, but in inert liquids (such as ethanol or acetone) it is elastic. Experiments show that the viscoelastic relaxation time decreases as the concentration and pH of the water in the pore liquid increase. During drying, the permeability decreases and the viscosity increases, both exhibiting a power-law dependence on density of the gel network.

  17. Cryogenic gel flow viscometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, R. H.; Vanderwall, E. M.

    1972-01-01

    Coiled section of tubing measures viscous properties of gelled cryogenic propellants under conditions closely resembling flow in rocket engine systems. Characteristic flow curve provides data necessary for the design of prototype hardware systems using the liquid or gel of interest.

  18. Electronic gel protein transfer and identification using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Jonathan W; Gao, Jun; Lee, Cheng S

    2004-05-01

    An electronic protein transfer technique is described for achieving the rapid and efficient recovery of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-protein complexes from polyacrylamide gels. This process involves the use of small-dimension capillaries in physical contact with a resolved protein band within the polyacrylamide gel, providing a large potential drop and high electric field strength at the capillary/gel interface. Several factors controlling the electronic protein transfer, including the applied electric field strength, the electrophoresis buffer concentration, and the capillary dimension, are studied to further enhance the use of field-amplification for sample stacking of extracted SDS-protein complexes. As a result of sample stacking, the extracted proteins from a 50 ng gel loading are present in a narrow ( approximately 80 nL) and highly concentrated (0.46 mg/mL or 3.3 x 10(-5) M for cytochrome c) solution plug. Three model proteins with molecular mass ranging from 14 kDa (cytochrome c) to 116 kDa (beta-galactosidase) are stained by Coomassie blue and electrophoretically extracted from gels with protein loadings as low as 50 ng. The capillary format of the electronic protein transfer technique allows direct deposition of extracted proteins onto a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) target. Various matrices and solvent compositions are evaluated for the analysis of extracted and concentrated SDS-protein complexes using MALDI-MS. The electronic protein transfer technique, when operated under optimized conditions, is demonstrated for the effective (>70% recovery), speedy (less than 5 min), and sensitive MS identification of gel resolved proteins (as low as 50 ng). PMID:15174060

  19. Crystallization from Gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayana Kalkura, S.; Natarajan, Subramanian

    Among the various crystallization techniques, crystallization in gels has found wide applications in the fields of biomineralization and macromolecular crystallization in addition to crystallizing materials having nonlinear optical, ferroelectric, ferromagnetic, and other properties. Furthermore, by using this method it is possible to grow single crystals with very high perfection that are difficult to grow by other techniques. The gel method of crystallization provides an ideal technique to study crystal deposition diseases, which could lead to better understanding of their etiology. This chapter focuses on crystallization in gels of compounds that are responsible for crystal deposition diseases. The introduction is followed by a description of the various gels used, the mechanism of gelling, and the fascinating phenomenon of Liesegang ring formation, along with various gel growth techniques. The importance and scope of study on crystal deposition diseases and the need for crystal growth experiments using gel media are stressed. The various crystal deposition diseases, viz. (1) urolithiasis, (2) gout or arthritis, (3) cholelithiasis and atherosclerosis, and (4) pancreatitis and details regarding the constituents of the crystal deposits responsible for the pathological mineralization are discussed. Brief accounts of the theories of the formation of urinary stones and gallstones and the role of trace elements in urinary stone formation are also given. The crystallization in gels of (1) the urinary stone constituents, viz. calcium oxalate, calcium phosphates, uric acid, cystine, etc., (2) the constituents of the gallstones, viz. cholesterol, calcium carbonate, etc., (3) the major constituent of the pancreatic calculi, viz., calcium carbonate, and (4) cholic acid, a steroidal hormone are presented. The effect of various organic and inorganic ions, trace elements, and extracts from cereals, herbs, and fruits on the crystallization of major urinary stone and gallstone constituents are described. In addition, tables of gel-grown organic and inorganic crystals are provided.

  20. Conformance Improvement Using Gels

    SciTech Connect

    Seright, Randall S.; Schrader; II Hagstrom, John; Wang, Ying; Al-Dahfeeri, Abdullah; Marin, Amaury

    2002-09-26

    This research project had two objectives. The first objective was to identify gel compositions and conditions that substantially reduce flow through fractures that allow direct channeling between wells, while leaving secondary fractures open so that high fluid injection and production rates can be maintained. The second objective was to optimize treatments in fractured production wells, where the gel must reduce permeability to water much more than that to oil.

  1. Cu2+-assisted two dimensional charge-mass double focusing gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometric analysis of histone variants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenyang; Tang, Xuemei; Ding, Mengjie; Zhong, Hongying

    2014-12-10

    Abundant isoforms and dynamic posttranslational modifications cause the separation and identification of histone variants to be experimentally challenging. To meet this need, we employ two-dimensional electrophoretic gel separation followed by mass spectrometric detection which takes advantage of the chelation of Cu(2+) with amino acid residues exposed on the surfaces of the histone proteins. Acid-extracted rat liver histones were first mixed with CuSO4 solution and then separated in one dimension with triton-acid-urea (TAU) gel electrophoresis and in a second dimension using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The separations result from both the changes in charge and mass upon Cu(2+) chelation. Identities of each separated gel bands were obtained by using matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). It was found that the migration of H3 histone isoforms of rat liver is markedly affected by the use of Cu(2+) ions. PMID:25441888

  2. Monopyrrolotetrathiafulvalene-succinamide conjugates and their TCNQ charge transfer complex based supramolecular gels with multiple stimulus responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yucun; Zheng, Ningjuan; Chen, Tie; Jin, Longyi; Yin, Bingzhu

    2014-09-21

    A series of monopyrrolotetrathiafulvalene-succinamide conjugates and their 7,7,8,8-tetracyano-p-quinodimethane (TCNQ) charge transfer (CT) complexes have been synthesized and investigated as new low-molecular mass organogelators. The gelation capability of these conjugates is highly dependent on the length of the alkyl chain of the terminal amide. Thus, only the short alkyl chain derivatives and could efficiently gelate cyclohexane and methylcyclohexane (MCH). Surprisingly, these gelators react with TCNQ to form stable CT complex gels in both cyclohexane and MCH. The FE-SEM images of the native gels reveal the characteristic gelation morphologies of microporous or fibrous structures, whereas the morphologies of CT complex gels show the fibrillar and globular aggregates in cyclohexane and MCH, respectively. SAXS study of the native gel and the CT complex gel of in cyclohexane suggests that the molecules maintain rectangular and hexagonal columnar molecular packing models in the gel phase, respectively. The native gels undergo a reversible gel-sol phase transition upon exposure to external stimuli, such as temperature and chemical oxidation/reduction. Alternatively, the corresponding CT complex gels exhibit a complicated response to external stimuli. Chemical oxidation by I2 results in the destruction of the gel state. However, neither Fe(3+) nor Cu(2+) can induce the collapse of the gel phase. Interestingly, all the gels show an irreversible gel-sol transition on successively triggering with trifluoroacetic acid and triethylamine. The reformation of the gel from the sol state is achieved just by the addition of water, showing the phase-selective gelation of the solvents from their mixtures with water. PMID:25069409

  3. Montana State University Native American

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Bill

    1 Montana State University Native American College Funding Guide Melanie Woods Admissions & New ­ 5 Types of Financial Aid 5 ­ 6 Helpful Websites 6 ­ 11 Sources For Native American Students 6 Native American Financial Aid 7 Eligibility for Native American Scholarships 7 MSU Campus Scholarships 7 Montana

  4. Native Knowledge in the Americas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidwell, Clara Sue

    1985-01-01

    Native American science is defined as activities of native peoples of the New World in observing physical phenomena and attempting to explain and control them. Problems in studying native science, ethnoscience and native science, archaeostronomy and ethnoastronomy, ethnobotany, agriculture, technology, and future directions are discussed. (JN)

  5. Updated: April 2013 Alaska Native

    E-print Network

    Kunkle, Tom

    fCOLLEGEo CHARLESTON Updated: April 2013 American Indian or Alaska Native Asian Black or African or Alaska Native Asian Black or African American Hispanic or Latino Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific of C Acceptances who Enrolled American Indian or Alaska Native Asian Black or African American Hispanic

  6. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis in bacterial proteomics.

    PubMed

    Curreem, Shirly O T; Watt, Rory M; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2012-05-01

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) is a gel-based technique widely used for analyzing the protein composition of biological samples. It is capable of resolving complex mixtures containing more than a thousand protein components into individual protein spots through the coupling of two orthogonal biophysical separation techniques: isoelectric focusing (first dimension) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (second dimension). 2-DE is ideally suited for analyzing the entire expressed protein complement of a bacterial cell: its proteome. Its relative simplicity and good reproducibility have led to 2-DE being widely used for exploring proteomics within a wide range of environmental and medically-relevant bacteria. Here we give a broad overview of the basic principles and historical development of gel-based proteomics, and how this powerful approach can be applied for studying bacterial biology and physiology. We highlight specific 2-DE applications that can be used to analyze when, where and how much proteins are expressed. The links between proteomics, genomics and mass spectrometry are discussed. We explore how proteomics involving tandem mass spectrometry can be used to analyze (post-translational) protein modifications or to identify proteins of unknown origin by de novo peptide sequencing. The use of proteome fractionation techniques and non-gel-based proteomic approaches are also discussed. We highlight how the analysis of proteins secreted by bacterial cells (secretomes or exoproteomes) can be used to study infection processes or the immune response. This review is aimed at non-specialists who wish to gain a concise, comprehensive and contemporary overview of the nature and applications of bacterial proteomics. PMID:22610887

  7. 75 FR 37456 - Alaska Native/Native Hawaiian Institutions Assisting Communities (AN/NHAIC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ...FR-5376-N-53] Alaska Native/Native Hawaiian Institutions Assisting Communities...proposal. Grants to Alaska Native/Native Hawaiian Institutions (AN/NH) of Higher Education...of Proposal: Alaska Native/Native Hawaiian Institutions Assisting...

  8. 77 FR 72832 - Applications for New Awards; Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ...Applications for New Awards; Native American and Alaska Native Children in...Education. Overview Information Native American and Alaska Native Children in...programs. Projects funded under the Native American and Alaska Native Children...

  9. Monitoring intracellular protein profiles with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Dykstra, K H; Wang, H Y

    1992-01-01

    Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE) is a method of separating complex protein mixtures, such as whole cell extracts, on the basis of protein isoelectric point and molecular weight. In bioprocess engineering, conventional 2D PAGE has tremendous potential to yield detailed information on the intracellular effect of various process conditions. It has been used in our work to examine global intracellular changes occurring in a typical cycloheximide fermentation and to look at the feedback regulatory behavior of cycloheximide biosynthesis. Application of the technique for bioprocess monitoring will require that the time necessary for preparation of a 2D electropherogram be substantially shortened. This may be accomplished by performing the separation on a miniature scale or eventually by use of capillary electrophoresis for one or more of the separations. Advantages and disadvantages of these two approaches are discussed. PMID:1368457

  10. Native American Journalists Association

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Native American Journalists Association (NAJA) is based on the campus of the University of Oklahoma in Norman, OK. NAJA was started in 1984 in order to improve the communications among Native people as well as between Native people and the public. Visitors can click on the "Resources" tab near the top of the page to view, among other things, links to "Job Opportunities", "Internships/Fellowships", and "Publications". Free downloadable versions of "The Reading Red Report" from 2002, 2003, and 2007 can be accessed in the "Publications" link. The 2007 Report gives the visitor the opportunity to see some of the research that NAJA has done on how Natives are depicted in the mainstream newspapers of areas with the highest population of Native peoples. The "Media Links" link, also under the "Resources" tab, has a wealth of information regarding media that would be helpful for any journalists or aspiring journalists. Some of the links include "Journalism Centers", "Journalism Libraries", "Job Sites", and "News Research". Under the "Programs" tab, there is a link to "Students" that has various resources for those pursuing scholarships, internships or finding student chapters of NAJA.

  11. Native GELFrEE: A New Separation Technique for Biomolecular Assemblies.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Owen S; Do Vale, Luis H F; Catherman, Adam D; Havugimana, Pierre C; Sousa, Marcelo Valle de; Compton, Philip D; Kelleher, Neil L

    2015-03-01

    The cadre of protein complexes in cells performs an array of functions necessary for life. Their varied structures are foundational to their ability to perform biological functions, lending great import to the elucidation of complex composition and dynamics. Native separation techniques that are operative on low sample amounts and provide high resolution are necessary to gain valuable data on endogenous complexes. Here, we detail and optimize the use of tube gel separations to produce samples proven compatible with native, multistage mass spectrometry (nMS/MS). We find that a continuous system (i.e., no stacking gel) with a gradient in its extent of cross-linking and use of the clear native buffer system performs well for both fractionation and native mass spectrometry of heart extracts and a fungal secretome. This integrated advance in separations and nMS/MS offers the prospect of untargeted proteomics at the next hierarchical level of protein organization in biology. PMID:25664979

  12. Native American Manuscript Collections

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Based at the University of Oklahoma's Western History Collection, the Native American Manuscript Collections contain over 200 documents relating to Native Americans in Oklahoma, Indian Territory, and the southwestern United States. On the homepage, visitors can browse the manuscripts, which are listed by nation. The Creek Nation area is quite fascinating, as there are over 35 documents here including handwritten journals, trading company ledgers, and letters from farmers like James M. Latty and other Creeks. After this introduction, visitors can browse around through the works of other nations, including the Cherokee, Choctaw, and Chickasaw.

  13. Polymer gel dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiner, L. J.; Olding, T.; McAuley, K. B.

    2010-11-01

    Polymer gels are chemical dosimeters based on dose dependent radiation-induced polymerization and cross-linking of monomers in an irradiated volume. The changes are spatially localized in the volume by incorporating the initial monomers in an aqueous gel matrix in the dosimeter and can be probed by various imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), x-ray computed tomography (CT), and optical CT. As they are chemical dosimeters, polymer gels are sensitive to preparation conditions. The three dimensional dose readout is sensitive to the imaging modality and also to the technical conditions in use during specific scans. This brief article is intended to present an introduction to these points which need to be taken into account as one attempts to establish this dosimetry in the clinic.

  14. A model of ideal elastomeric gels for polyelectrolyte gels

    E-print Network

    Suo, Zhigang

    a polyacrylamide-co-acrylic acid hydrogel as a model material system. A comparison between mixing and ion osmosis shows that the mixing osmosis is larger than the ion osmosis for small swelling ratios, while the ion osmosis dominates for large swelling ratios. We show further that the non-Gaussian chain effect becomes

  15. Native plant diversity increases herbivory to non-natives.

    PubMed

    Pearse, Ian S; Hipp, Andrew L

    2014-11-01

    There is often an inverse relationship between the diversity of a plant community and the invasibility of that community by non-native plants. Native herbivores that colonize novel plants may contribute to diversity-invasibility relationships by limiting the relative success of non-native plants. Here, we show that, in large collections of non-native oak trees at sites across the USA, non-native oaks introduced to regions with greater oak species richness accumulated greater leaf damage than in regions with low oak richness. Underlying this trend was the ability of herbivores to exploit non-native plants that were close relatives to their native host. In diverse oak communities, non-native trees were on average more closely related to native trees and received greater leaf damage than those in depauperate oak communities. Because insect herbivores colonize non-native plants that are similar to their native hosts, in communities with greater native plant diversity, non-natives experience greater herbivory. PMID:25232143

  16. Polyacrylamide-hydroxyapatite composite: Preparation, characterization and adsorptive features for uranium and thorium

    SciTech Connect

    Baybas, Demet, E-mail: dbaybas@cumhuriyet.edu.tr [Cumhuriyet University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Kayseri, Sivas 58140 (Turkey)] [Cumhuriyet University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Kayseri, Sivas 58140 (Turkey); Ulusoy, Ulvi, E-mail: ulusoy@cumhuriyet.edu.tr [Cumhuriyet University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Kayseri, Sivas 58140 (Turkey)] [Cumhuriyet University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Kayseri, Sivas 58140 (Turkey)

    2012-10-15

    The composite of synthetically produced hydroxyapatite (HAP) and polyacrylamide was prepared (PAAm-HAP) and characterized by BET, FT-IR, TGA, XRD, SEM and PZC analysis. The adsorptive features of HAP and PAAm-HAP were compared for UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} and Th{sup 4+}. The entrapment of HAP into PAAm-HAP did not change the structure of HAP. Both structures had high affinity to the studied ions. The adsorption capacity of PAAm-HAP was than that of HAP. The adsorption dependence on pH and ionic intensity provided supportive evidences for the effect of complex formation on adsorption process. The adsorption kinetics was well compatible to pseudo second order model. The values of enthalpy and entropy changes were positive. Th{sup 4+} adsorption from the leachate obtained from a regional fluorite rock confirmed the selectivity of PAAm-HAP for this ion. In consequence, PAAm-HAP should be considered amongst favorite adsorbents for especially deposition of nuclear waste containing U and Th, and radionuclide at secular equilibrium with these elements. - Graphical abstract: SEM images of hydroxyapatite (HAP) and polyacrylamide-hydroxyapatite (PAAm-HAP), and the adsorption isotherms for Uranium and Thorium. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Composite of PAAm-HAP was synthesized from hydroxyapatite and polyacrylamide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The materials were characterized by BET, FT-IR, XRD, SEM, TGA and PZC analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HAP and PAAm-HAP had high sorption capacity and very rapid uptake for UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} and Th{sup 4+}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Super porous PAAm was obtained from PAAm-HAP after its removal of HAP content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composite is potential for deposition of U, Th and its associate radionuclides.

  17. Gel Electrophoresis of Dyes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Janice Stephens

    2011-01-01

    In this experiment related to plant biotechnology, learners discover how to prepare and load an electrophoresis gel. They will then run the gels in an electrophoresis system to separate several dyes that are of different molecular sizes and carry different charges. This technique is fundamental to many of the procedures used in biotechnology. This lesson guide includes background information for the educator, safety precautions, and questions with answers for learners. For safety reasons, adult supervision is recommended. Modifications for use with younger learners are described in a related PDF (see related resource).

  18. Templateless Synthesis of Polyacrylamide-Based Nanogels via RAFT Dispersion Polymerization.

    PubMed

    Ma, Kai; Xu, Yuanyuan; An, Zesheng

    2015-03-01

    This paper reports on the synthesis of well-defined polyacrylamide-based nanogels via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) dispersion polymerization, highlighting a templateless route for the efficient synthesis of nanogels based on water-soluble polymers. RAFT dispersion polymerization of acrylamide in co-nonsolvents of water-tert-butanol mixtures by chain extension from poly(dimethylacrylamide) shows well-controlled polymerization process, uniform nanogel size, and excellent colloidal stability. The versatility of this approach is further demonstrated by introducing a hydrophobic co-monomer (butyl acrylate) without disturbing the dispersion polymerization process. PMID:25684634

  19. A novel polymeric flocculant based on polyacrylamide grafted inulin: aqueous microwave assisted synthesis.

    PubMed

    Rahul, Rahul; Jha, Usha; Sen, Gautam; Mishra, Sumit

    2014-01-01

    Polyacrylamide grafted inulin (In-g-PAM) was synthesized via aqueous microwave assisted method (using ceric ammonium nitrate in synergism with microwave in aqueous medium). The intended grafting of the PAM chains on polysaccharide backbone was confirmed through standard physicochemical characterization techniques, namely intrinsic viscosity measurement, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, elemental analysis (C, H, N and O), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies. Flocculation efficacy of various grades of synthesized grafted product was studied in coal fines suspension, in relation to inulin (parent polysaccharide). This was done utilizing jar test and settling test procedure, towards possible application as a flocculant for coal washery effluents. PMID:24274474

  20. Ceric ion initiated synthesis of polyacrylamide grafted oatmeal: Its application as flocculant for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Srijita; Mishra, Sumit; Sen, Gautam

    2013-04-01

    Polyacrylamide grafted oatmeal (OAT-g-PAM) was synthesized by conventional method. The grafting of the PAM chains on the biomaterial backbone was confirmed through intrinsic viscosity study, FTIR spectroscopy, elemental analysis (C, H, N, S and O), SEM morphology and TGA study. The intrinsic viscosity of oatmeal appreciably improved on grafting of PAM chains, thus resulting grafted product with potential application as superior viscosifier. Further, flocculation efficacy of the graft copolymer was studied in coal fine suspension, kaolin suspension, iron-ore suspension and then in municipal wastewater through 'jar test' procedure. PMID:23499093

  1. BachelorofArts NativeAmericanStudies

    E-print Network

    Morris, Joy

    in the United States ___ Native American Studies 2800 - Native American Politics One of (Contemporary Issues American Studies 2100 - Aboriginal Peoples and Law ___ Native American Studies 2150 - Native Rights - Native American Women ___ Native American Studies 3700 - Native American Health Three courses (9.0 credit

  2. NATIVE HEALTH DATABASES: NATIVE HEALTH RESEARCH DATABASE (NHRD)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Native Health Databases contain bibliographic information and abstracts of health-related articles, reports, surveys, and other resource documents pertaining to the health and health care of American Indians, Alaska Natives, and Canadian First Nations. The databases provide i...

  3. NATIVE HEALTH DATABASES: NATIVE HEALTH HISTORY DATABASE (NHHD)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Native Health Databases contain bibliographic information and abstracts of health-related articles, reports, surveys, and other resource documents pertaining to the health and health care of American Indians, Alaska Natives, and Canadian First Nations. The databases provide i...

  4. Dynamic properties of deoxy hemoglobin encapsulated in silica gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rausei, Magda; Cupane, Antonio

    2000-04-01

    We have encapsulated native human hemoglobin (Hb) in wet porous silica gels. Suitable treatment of the samples enables to obtain transparent gels in which the Hb molecule is still able to reversibly bind exogenous ligands; however, due to the constraints imposed by the vitreous silica matrix, the Hb tetramer is unable to perform the T-R quaternary transition. Using the gel encapsulation technique we have obtained deoxy Hb samples encapsulated in the "T" or "R" quaternary structure. The study of the temperature dependence of the Soret absorption band in the above samples enables to have informations on the local dynamic properties of the heme pocket and therefore to study the dynamics of the protein in a given ligation state but in different quaternary conformations. The results show that the "T" quaternary conformation is, from a dynamic point of view, intrinsically different from the "R" conformation and is characterized by increased anharmonic motions.

  5. Symbolicity Among Native Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, L. Brooks; Lujan, Philip

    Within the framework of "symbolicity" and "nativistic movement" the paper presents a "reasonably balanced and illustrative" examination of selected negative and positive trends in Native American symbolicity. Symbolicity is defined as the state, condition, and tendency of people to organize their perceptions and experience into symbols and symbol…

  6. Native American Cultural Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Loriene, Comp.

    Part of a larger report on the Four Directions Project, an American Indian technology innovation project, this section includes 13 "pathfinders" to locating information on Native American and other indigenous cultural groups. The pathfinders were designed by students in the Graduate School of Library and Information Science at the University of…

  7. Rebuilding Native American Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyhis, Don; Simonelli, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The Wellbriety Movement in Native American communities draws on the wisdom and participation of traditional elders. Beginning with a basic community teaching called the Four Laws of Change and the Healing Forest Model, the Wellbriety Movement blends Medicine Wheel knowledge with the 12 Steps of Alcoholics Anonymous to provide culture-specific…

  8. Native American Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, C. Fayne; And Others

    Designed to accommodate a semester course in Native American Literature for secondary students, this teacher's guide includes a general introduction, a statement of the philosophy and goals upon which it is predicated, a nine-week block on post-Columbian literature, a nine-week block on oral literature, separate appendices for each block, a…

  9. Native Americans in Utah

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Albion Middle School Library--Mrs. Bates

    2006-10-10

    This activity will help you learn about some of the early Native American inhabitants of Utah. Look at the following websites and see if you can find some information about one of the following groups of Native Americans in Utah. History of Utah Tribes Goshute Goshute Indians Utah History To Go: Goshute Indians Goshute Indian Reservation Utah History To Go: The Utes, Paiutes, and Goshutes Navajo People of the Colorado Plateau: Navajo (Dine) History of the Navajo Indians of Utah Navajo Navajo Indians Paiute Paiute Indians of Utah Paiute Native American Desert Peoples: The Paiute People Paiute Indians of Utah Utah History To Go--Piaute Indians Utah History To Go: The Utes, Paiutes, and Goshutes Shoshone Shoshone History of the Shoshone Indians Shoshoni Lewis and Clark: Native Americans--Shoshone Indians Ute Utah History To Go: Ute Indians People of the Colorado Plateau: The Ute Indians Story of the Ute Tribe Northern Ute Indian History Utah History To Go: The Utes, Paiutes, and Goshutes ...

  10. Native Westslope Cutthroat Trout

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Native westslope cutthroat trout swim in the north fork of the Flathead River in northwestern Montana. The region is recognized as a range-wide stronghold for genetically pure westslope cutthroat trout. However, rainbow trout invasion and hybridization threatens these p...

  11. Native Westslope Cutthroat Trout

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Native westslope cutthroat trout swim in the north fork of the Flathead River in northwestern Montana. This region is recognized as a range-wide stronghold for genetically pure westslope cutthroat trout. However, rainbow trout invasion and hybridization threatens these ...

  12. Native American Case Studies

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Evergreen State College

    The Native American Case Studies collection includes more than 80 original, research-based teaching cases focusing on contemporary issues in Indian Country. Teaching notes accompany each case. These can be downloaded and used at no cost. Additional website resources include information on teaching with cases and assessment. Guidelines for submitting cases are also available.

  13. Phosphopeptide quantitation using amine-reactive isobaric tagging reagents and tandem mass spectrometry: application to proteins isolated by gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Sachon, E; Mohammed, S; Bache, N; Jensen, O N

    2006-01-01

    Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is widely used for protein separation and it is frequently the final step in protein purification in biochemistry and proteomics. Using a commercially available amine-reactive isobaric tagging reagent (iTRAQ) and mass spectrometry we obtained reproducible, quantitative data from peptides derived by tryptic in-gel digestion of proteins and phosphoproteins. The protocol combines optimized reaction conditions, miniaturized peptide handling techniques and tandem mass spectrometry to quantify low- to sub-picomole amounts of (phospho)proteins that were isolated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Immobilized metal affinity chromatography (FeIII-IMAC) was efficient for removal of excess reagents and for enrichment of derivatized phosphopeptides prior to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) analysis. Phosphopeptide abundance was determined by liquid chromatography/tandem mass (LC/MS/MS) using either MALDI time-of-flight/time-of-flight (TOF/TOF) MS/MS or electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight (ESI-QTOF) MS/MS instruments. Chemically labeled isobaric phosphopeptides, differing only by the position of the phosphate group, were distinguished and characterized by LC/MS/MS based on their LC elution profile and distinct MS/MS spectra. We expect this quantitative mass spectrometry method to be suitable for systematic, comparative analysis of molecular variants of proteins isolated by gel electrophoresis. PMID:16521170

  14. Native Peoples-Native Homelands Climate Change Workshop: Lessons Learned

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. G. Maynard

    2003-01-01

    The Native Peoples-Native Homelands Climate Change Workshop was held on October 28 through November 01, 1998, as part of a series of workshops being held around the U.S. to improve the understanding of the potential consequences of climate variability and change for the Nation. This workshop was specifically designed by Native Peoples to examine the impacts of climate change and

  15. Transdermal delivery of paeonol using cubic gel and microemulsion gel

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Maofu; Shen, Qi; Chen, Jinjin

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to develop new systems for transdermal delivery of paeonol, in particular microemulsion gel and cubic gel formulations. Methods Various microemulsion vehicles were prepared using isopropyl myristate as an oil phase, polyoxyethylated castor oil (Cremophor® EL) as a surfactant, and polyethylene glycol 400 as a cosurfactant. In the optimum microemulsion gel formulation, carbomer 940 was selected as the gel matrix, and consisted of 1% paeonol, 4% isopropyl myristate, 28% Cremophor EL/polyethylene glycol 400 (1:1), and 67% water. The cubic gel was prepared containing 3% paeonol, 30% water, and 67% glyceryl monooleate. Results A skin permeability test using excised rat skins indicated that both the cubic gel and microemulsion gel formulations had higher permeability than did the paeonol solution. An in vivo pharmacokinetic study done in rats showed that the relative bioavailability of the cubic gel and microemulsion gel was enhanced by about 1.51-fold and 1.28-fold, respectively, compared with orally administered paeonol suspension. Conclusion Both the cubic gel and microemulsion gel formulations are promising delivery systems to enhance the skin permeability of paeonol, in particular the cubic gel. PMID:21904450

  16. Surface probe measurements of the elasticity of sectioned tissue, thin gels and polyelectrolyte multilayer films: Correlations between substrate stiffness and cell adhesion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam J. Engler; Ludovic Richert; Joyce Y. Wong; Catherine Picart; Dennis E. Discher

    2004-01-01

    Surface probe measurements of the elasticity of thin film matrices as well as biological samples prove generally important to understanding cell attachment across such systems. To illustrate this, sectioned arteries were probed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) within the smooth muscle cell (SMC)-rich medial layer, yielding an apparent Young’s modulus Emedia?5–8 kPa. Polyacrylamide gels with Egel spanning several-fold above and

  17. Cadmium accumulation by a Citrobacter sp. immobilized on gel and solid supports: applicability to the treatment of liquid wastes containing heavy metal cations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. E. Macaskie; J. M. Wates; A. C. R. Dean

    1987-01-01

    Polyacrylamide gel-immobilized cells of a Citrobacter sp. removed cadmium from flows supplemented with glycerol 2-phosphate, the metal uptake mechanism being mediated by the activity of a cell-bound phosphatase that precipitates liberated inorganic phosphate with heavy metals at the cell surface. The constraints of elevated flow rate and temperature were investigated and the results discussed in terms of the kinetics of

  18. Adhesion of and to soil in runoff as influenced by polyacrylamide.

    PubMed

    Bech, Tina B; Sbodio, Adrian; Jacobsen, Carsten S; Suslow, Trevor

    2014-11-01

    Polyacrylamide (PAM) is used in agriculture to reduce soil erosion and has been reported to reduce turbidity, nutrients, and pollutants in surface runoff water. The objective of this work was to determine the effect of PAM on the concentration of enteric bacteria in surface runoff by comparing four enteric bacteria representing phenotypically different motility and hydrophobicity from three soils. Results demonstrated that bacterial surface runoff was differentially influenced by the PAM treatment. Polyacrylamide treatment increased surface runoff for adhered and planktonic cells from a clay soil; significantly decreased surface runoff of adhered bacteria, while no difference was observed for planktonic bacteria from the sandy loam; and significantly decreased the surface runoff of planktonic cells, while no difference was observed for adhered bacteria from the clay loam. Comparing strains from a final water sample collected after 48 h showed a greater loss of while serovar Poona was almost not detected. Thus, (i) the PAM efficiency in reducing the concentration of enteric bacteria in surface runoff was influenced by soil type and (ii) variation in the loss of enteric bacteria highlights the importance of strain-specific properties that may not be captured with general fecal indicator bacteria. PMID:25602217

  19. Iontophoresis of Salicylic Acid From Salicylic Acid Doped Poly(p-phynylene vinylene)/ Polyacrylamide Hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niamlang, Sumonman

    2009-03-01

    The apparent diffusion coefficients, Dapp, and the release mechanisms of salicylic acid from salicylic acid-loaded polyacrylamide hydrogels, SA-loaded PAAM, and salicylic acid-doped poly(phenylene vinylene)/polyacrylamide hydrogels, SA-doped PPV/PAAM, were investigated. In the absence of an electric field, the diffusion of SA from the SA-doped PPV/PAAM hydrogel is delayed in the first 3 hr due to the ionic interaction between the anionic drug and PPV. Beyond this period, SA can diffuse continuously into the buffer solution through the PAAM matrix. Dapp of SA-doped PPV/PAAM is higher than that of the SA-loaded PAAM, and the former increases with increasing electric field strength due to the combined mechanisms: the expansion of PPV chains inside the hydrogel; iontophoresis; and the electroporation of the matrix pore. Thus, the presence of the conductive polymer and the applied electric field can be combined to control the drug release rate at an optimal desired level.

  20. Silk sericin/polyacrylamide in situ forming hydrogels for dermal reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Banani; Kundu, Subhas C

    2012-10-01

    In situ forming tissue sealants are advantageous due to ease in application, complete coverage of defect site and assured comfort levels to patients. The interconnected three-dimensional hydrophilic networks perfectly manage typical dermal wounds by suitably scaffolding skin fibroblast, diffusing the nutrients, therapeutics and exudates while still maintaining an adequately moist environment. We evaluate the cell homing ability of semi-interpenetrating non-mulberry tropical tasar silk sericin/polyacrylamide hydrophilic network with a keen understanding of its network characteristics and correlation of protein concentration with the performance as cell scaffold. Interconnectivity of porous networks observed through scanning electron micrograph revealed pore sizes ranging from 23 to 52 ?m. The enhanced ?-sheet content with the increasing sericin concentration in far red spectroscopy study supported their corresponding improved compressive strength. These semi-interpenetrating networks were found to possess a maximum fluid uptake of 112% of its weight, hence preventing the accumulation of exudates at the wound area. The present systems appear to possess characteristics like rapid gelation (~5min) at 37 °C, 98% porosity enabling the migration of fibroblasts during healing (observed through confocal and scanning electron micrographs), cell adhesion together with the absence of any cyto-toxic effect suggesting its potential as in situ tissue sealants. The compressive strength up to 61 kPa ensured ease in handling even when wet. The results prove the suitability to use non-mulberry tasar cocoon silk sericin/polyacrylamide semi-interpenetrating network as a reconstructive dermal sealant. PMID:22819495

  1. Hydrophobically modified polyacrylamide block copolymers for fast, high-resolution DNA sequencing in microfluidic chips.

    PubMed

    Forster, Ryan E; Chiesl, Thomas N; Fredlake, Christopher P; White, Corin V; Barron, Annelise E

    2008-12-01

    By using a microfluidic electrophoresis platform to perform DNA sequencing, genomic information can be obtained more quickly and affordably than the currently employed capillary array electrophoresis instruments. Previous research in our group has shown that physically cross-linked, hydrophobically modified polyacrylamide matrices separate dsDNA more effectively than linear polyacrylamide (LPA) solutions. Expanding upon this work, we have synthesized a series of LPA-co-dihexylacrylamide block copolymers specifically designed to electrophoretically sequence ssDNA quickly and efficiently on a microfluidic device. By incorporating very small amounts of N,N-dihexylacrylamide, a hydrophobic monomer, these copolymer solutions achieved up to approximately 10% increases in average DNA sequencing read length over LPA homopolymer solutions of matched molar mass. Additionally, the inclusion of the small amount of hydrophobe does not significantly increase the polymer solution viscosities, relative to LPA solutions, so that channel loading times between the copolymers and the homopolymers are similar. The resulting polymer solutions are capable of providing enhanced sequencing separations in a short period of time without compromising the ability to rapidly load and unload the matrix from a microfluidic device. PMID:19053064

  2. Discrete film thickness in polyacrylamide-CdS nanocomposite ultrathin films

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Amarjeet; Mukherjee, M. [Surface Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata-700064 (India)

    2004-11-01

    A nanocomposite of polyacrylamide, a water soluble polymer, and nanocrystalline CdS has been prepared using a chemical route. Transmission electron microscope observation shows that the particles are attached via the polymer coils. The reduction of viscosity for the composite, despite the increase in concentration, indicates a reduction of interchain entanglement between the composite coils. Ultrathin films were prepared from the nanocomposite and pure polyacrylamide using spin coating on a Si(100) substrate in the speed range of 500 to 5000 rpm. X-ray reflectivity studies of the pure polymer and composite films were carried out in vacuum. The thickness of the composite films varies nonmonotonically with spinning speed and is found to lie in discrete 'bands' of thickness separated by 'forbidden regions'. The power law behavior of the thickness with the spinning speed was also found to be different for the composite films in comparison to the polymer ones. A model has been proposed in terms of discrete numbers of layers composed of CdS-attached polymer coils to explain the phenomena.

  3. Hydrolyzed polyacrylamide grafted carboxymethylxyloglucan based microbeads for pH responsive drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Setty, C Mallikarjuna; Deshmukh, Anand S; Badiger, Aravind M

    2014-06-01

    The present study investigates the pharmaceutical application of hydrolyzed polyacrylamide grafted carboxymethylxyloglucan (HPam-g-CMXG), as promising polymeric material for the development of pH responsive microbeads. The graft copolymer was synthesized by conventional free radical polymerization method and saponified to enhance its functionality and characterized. An acute oral toxicity study ensured the bio-safety of developed copolymer for clinical application. Various batches of pH responsive spherical microbeads were developed and evaluated for the effect of process parameters on their overall performance. Result of in vitro drug release study (USP Type-II, paddle method) carried out in two different pH media (pH 1.2 and pH 7.4) showed a triphasic drug release pattern in all the formulations. Both the drug release and swelling of microbeads were significantly higher in simulated intestinal (alkaline) pH compared to simulated gastric (acidic) pH and this nature is desirable for targeted drug delivery. A strong correlation was observed between the process parameters and matrix composition and it directly influenced the drug transport mechanism. In conclusion, the hydrolyzed polyacrylamide grafted carboxymethylxyloglucan holds an immense potential to be explored pharmaceutically as new matrix material for the design of targeted drug delivery system. PMID:24632345

  4. Investigation on efficient adsorption of cationic dyes on porous magnetic polyacrylamide microspheres.

    PubMed

    Yao, Tong; Guo, Song; Zeng, Changfeng; Wang, Chongqing; Zhang, Lixiong

    2015-07-15

    We report here the preparation of porous magnetic polyacrylamide microspheres for efficient removal of cationic dyes by a simple polymerization-induced phase separation method. Characterizations by various techniques indicate that the microspheres show porous structures and magnetic properties. They can adsorb methylene blue with high efficiency, with adsorption capacity increasing from 263 to 1977mg/g as the initial concentration increases from 5 to 300mg/L. Complete removal of methylene blue can be obtained even at very low concentrations. The equilibrium data is well described by the Langmuir isotherm models, exhibiting a maximum adsorption capacity of 1990mg/g. The adsorption capacity increases with increasing initial pH and reaches a maximum at pH 8, revealing an electrostatic interaction between the microspheres and the methylene blue molecules. The microspheres also show high adsorption capacities for neutral red and gentian violet of 1937 and 1850mg/g, respectively, as well as high efficiency in adsorption of mixed-dye solutions. The dye-adsorbed magnetic polyacrylamide microspheres can be easily desorbed, and can be repeatedly used for at least 6 cycles without losing the adsorption capacity. The adsorption capacity and efficiency of the microspheres are much higher than those of reported adsorbents, which exhibits potential practical application in removing cationic dyes. PMID:25797927

  5. Stabilization of insulin against agitation-induced aggregation by the GMO cubic phase gel.

    PubMed

    Sadhale, Y; Shah, J C

    1999-11-25

    The main objective of the study was to evaluate if the liquid crystalline cubic phase gel of glyceryl monooleate (GMO) protects insulin from agitation induced aggregation. The aggregation of Humulin(R), Regular Iletin I(R) and Regular Iletin II(R), in cubic phase GMO gels at 30 U/g of gel was compared with that in PBS at 100 oscillations/min at 37 degrees C using optical density at 600 nm. The effect of agitation on the secondary structure of insulin in solution and in the gels was determined with circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and the time course of aggregation was also followed by HPLC. A sigmoidal increase in optical density of solution with time indicated formation of increasing amounts of insoluble insulin aggregates. However, in the gels, optical density values stayed at, or around, the initial optical density value, comparable with that of a blank gel suggesting that insulin had not aggregated in the gel. CD spectroscopy of the soluble insulin showed a total loss of native conformation upon aggregation of insulin in solution. In contrast, CD spectra of insulin in the gel were unaltered suggesting protection from aggregation during agitation. Furthermore, agitation of insulin in gels for a duration as long as 2 months at 37 degrees C, had very little adverse effect on the native conformation of insulin, as indicated by the lack of a significant change in its CD spectrum. Therefore, the cubic phase gel was indeed able to protect insulin from agitation-induced aggregation and subsequent precipitation. Although the majority of insulin in solution appeared to have aggregated and precipitated after 8 days by UV and CD spectroscopy, RP-HPLC results indicated the presence of some soluble aggregates of insulin. In summary, the liquid crystalline cubic phase gel of GMO protects peptides, like insulin, from agitation-induced aggregation. PMID:10556740

  6. Native American Technology and Culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jayson W. Richardson; Scott McLeod

    Principals in schools serving Native Americans have a unique role as technology leaders. They must be cognizant of digital demands, government demands, as well as cultural demands. Over the 2004-2005 academic year the researchers conducted pilot interviews of Native American principals on 4 distinct Native American Reservations to explore issues of technology leadership, cultural views of technology, and the use

  7. Native American Spirituality: Its Appropriation and Incorporation Amongst Native and non-Native Peoples 

    E-print Network

    Owen, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    This thesis focuses primarily on Lakota concerns about the appropriation of their spirituality. The religious authority of the Lakota has been recognised by Native Americans and non- Natives alike through the books of ...

  8. BachelorofArts/BachelorofEducation NativeAmericanStudies/NativeEducation

    E-print Network

    Seldin, Jonathan P.

    - Aboriginal Peoples and Law ___Native American Studies 2150 - Native Rights in the United States ___Native Women ___Native American Studies 3700 - Native American Health Three courses (9.0 credit hours

  9. Alaska Native Knowledge Network

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Alaska Native Knowledge Network (ANKN) was established to serve as "a resource for compiling and exchanging information related to Alaska Native knowledge systems and ways of knowing." To achieve this goal, the website brings together publications, information about academic programs, curriculum resources, and a calendar of events. In the Curriculum Resources area, visitors can look over lesson plans, fact sheets, and classroom activities that weave together indigenous and Western knowledge systems. Moving on, the Publications area contains links to print publications for sale and a range of free titles, including "Guidelines for Culturally Responsible School Boards" and "Guidelines for Respecting Cultural Knowledge." Also, visitors should take a look at the Announcements area for updates about relevant training programs, workshops, and conferences.

  10. 76 FR 22413 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ...to Afognak Native Corporation, Successor in Interest to Port Lions Native Corporation. The decision approves the surface estate...to Afognak Native Corporation, Successor in Interest to Port Lions Native Corporation. The lands are in the vicinity of...

  11. Coupling isoelectric focusing gel electrophoresis to mass spectrometry by electrostatic spray ionization.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Liang; Tobolkina, Elena; Liu, Baohong; Girault, Hubert H

    2013-05-01

    Gel electrophoresis has been used for decades as a high-resolution separation technique for proteins and protein isomers but has been limited in the coupling with MS because of low throughput and poor automaticity compared with LC-MS. In this work, we have developed an ambient ionization strategy, electrostatic spray ionization, for in situ ionization of proteins or peptides inside a surfactant-free polyacrylamide gel. The samples can be first separated by isoelectric focusing in a gel and then quickly in situ detected by scanning the gel with the electrostatic spray ionization mass spectrometry. With this strategy, nanograms of proteins or peptides inside a band are enough to be ionized for MS detection. This method for protein/peptide spots visualization is sensitive, providing sample molecular weight information while avoiding spot staining and chemical extraction procedures that can introduce contaminants and sample loss. Proof-of-principle results have demonstrated that the electrostatic spray ionization can produce sample ions from a complex background, and with a spatial resolution matching the isoelectric focusing, it is therefore a good choice to couple directly isoelectric focusing gel electrophoresis with mass spectrometry. PMID:23510028

  12. Verification of motion induced thread effect during tomotherapy using gel dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edvardsson, Anneli; Ljusberg, Anna; Ceberg, Crister; Medin, Joakim; Ambolt, Lee; Nordström, Fredrik; Ceberg, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate how breathing motion during tomotherapy (Accuray, CA, USA) treatment affects the absorbed dose distribution. The experiments were carried out using gel dosimetry and a motion device simulating respiratory-like motion (HexaMotion, ScandiDos, Uppsala, Sweden). Normoxic polyacrylamide gels (nPAG) were irradiated, both during respiratory-like motion and in a static mode. To be able to investigate interplay effects the static absorbed dose distribution was convolved with the motion function and differences between the dynamic and convolved static absorbed dose distributions were interpreted as interplay effects. The expected dose blurring was present and the interplay effects formed a spiral pattern in the lower dose volume. This was expected since the motion induced affects the preset pitch and the theoretically predicted thread effect may emerge. In this study, the motion induced thread effect was experimentally verified for the first time.

  13. Two-dimensional Gel Electrophoresis (2DE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    K?odzi?ska, Ewa; Buszewski, Bogus?aw

    The chemical compounds, which are present in the environment, increasingly cause bad effects on health. The most serious effects are tumors and various mutations at the cellular level. Such compounds, from the analytical point of view, can serve the function of biomarkers, constituting measurable changes in the organism's cells and biochemical processes occurring therein. The challenge of the twenty-first century is therefore searching for effective and reliable methods of identification of biomarkers as well as understanding bodily functions, which occur in living organisms at the molecular level. The irreplaceable tool for these examinations is proteomics, which includes both quality and quantity analysis of proteins composition, and also makes it possible to learn their functions and expressions. The success of proteomics examinations lies in the usage of innovative analytical techniques, such as electromigration technique, two-dimensional electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel (2D PAGE), liquid chromatography, together with high resolution mass spectrometry and bio-informatical data analysis. Proteomics joins together a number of techniques used for analysis of hundreds or thousands of proteins. Its main task is not the examination of proteins inside the particular tissue but searching for the differences in the proteins' profile between bad and healthy tissues. These differences can tell us a lot regarding the cause of the sickness as well as its consequences. For instance, using the proteomics analysis it is possible to find relatively fast new biomarkers of tumor diseases, which in the future will be used for both screening and foreseeing the course of illness. In this chapter we focus on two-dimensional electrophoresis because as it seems, it may be of enormous importance when searching for biomarkers of cancer diseases.

  14. Linear electrochemical gel actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Shailesh; McAdam, C. John; Hanton, Lyall R.; Moratti, Stephen C.

    2012-04-01

    By using electroactive monomers it is possible to produce gels that respond to oxidation or reduction by swelling and deswelling in the presence of solvent. By the inclusion of an appropriate biasing element such as a spring, it is possible to produce linear, reversible actuation. The process can be driven electrochemically in a standard cell, with driving voltages under +/- 1 V. For many systems, the intrinsic conductivity of the gel, leading to poor or no performance. This can be overcome by blending conductive carbon nanotubes at 1% concentration, which give reasonable conductivity without affecting mechanical performance. Extensions of up to 40% are possible, against an external pressure of 30 kPa. The process is slow, taking up to 160 minutes per cycle due to slow ionic diffusion. The electrochemical cell can be cycled many times without degradation.

  15. Linear electrochemical gel actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Shailesh; McAdam, C. John; Hanton, Lyall R.; Moratti, Stephen C.

    2011-11-01

    By using electroactive monomers it is possible to produce gels that respond to oxidation or reduction by swelling and deswelling in the presence of solvent. By the inclusion of an appropriate biasing element such as a spring, it is possible to produce linear, reversible actuation. The process can be driven electrochemically in a standard cell, with driving voltages under +/- 1 V. For many systems, the intrinsic conductivity of the gel, leading to poor or no performance. This can be overcome by blending conductive carbon nanotubes at 1% concentration, which give reasonable conductivity without affecting mechanical performance. Extensions of up to 40% are possible, against an external pressure of 30 kPa. The process is slow, taking up to 160 minutes per cycle due to slow ionic diffusion. The electrochemical cell can be cycled many times without degradation.

  16. Effects of added polyacrylamide on changes in water states during the composting of kitchen waste.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu-Qiang; Chen, Zhuo-Xian; Zhang, Xue-Qing; Hu, Li-Fang; Shen, Dong-Sheng; Long, Yu-Yang

    2015-02-01

    The effects of adding polyacrylamide (PAM), to attempt to delay the loss of capillary water and achieve a better level of organic matter humification, in the composting of kitchen waste were evaluated. Four treatments, with initial moisture content of 60 % were used: 0.1 % PAM added before the start of composting (R1), 0.1 % PAM added when the thermophilic phase of composting became stable (at >50 °C) (R2), 0.1 % PAM added when the moisture content significantly decreased (R3), and no PAM added (R4). The introduction of PAM in R1 and R2 significantly increased the capillary force and delayed the loss of moisture content and capillary water. The introduction of PAM in R2 and R3 improved the composting process, in terms of the degradation of biochemical fractions and the humification degree. These results show that the optimal time for adding PAM was the initial stage of the thermophilic phase. PMID:25182430

  17. Direct capture of lactoferrin from cheese whey on supermacroporous column of polyacrylamide cryogel with copper ions.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, B M A; Carvalho, L M; Silva, W F; Minim, L A; Soares, A M; Carvalho, G G P; da Silva, S L

    2014-07-01

    Lactoferrin is a protein that is present in cheese whey (a waste product from the dairy industry) and has several biological activities. However, its production from whey must have a high yield and low cost for industrial applications. As such, this study reports the use of polyacrylamide cryogel, loaded with Cu(2+) (through the bond with iminodiacetic acid (IDA)), as an adsorbent for the chromatographic process to capture lactoferrin whey. Ultrafiltered cheese whey was passed through the cryogel-IDA-Cu(2+) system. The eluates were subjected to analysis of total protein, SDS-PAGE and size exclusion chromatography. The results showed an axial dispersion coefficients, at different superficial velocities of liquid, in a range of 10(-6)-10(-5)m(2)/s. The cryogel demonstrated good hydraulic permeability (4.7086×10(-13)m(2)) and a porosity of approximately 78.2%. The IDA-Cu(2+) cryogel system was also able to capture lactoferrin in high purity. PMID:24518347

  18. Cationic polyacrylamide enhancing cellulase treatment efficiency of hardwood kraft-based dissolving pulp.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Liu, Shanshan; Yang, Guihua; Chen, Jiachuan; Ni, Yonghao

    2015-05-01

    Cellulase treatment for decreasing viscosity and increasing Fock reactivity of dissolving pulp is a promising approach to reduce the use of toxic chemicals, such as hypochlorite in the dissolving pulp manufacturing process in the industry. Improving the cellulase treatment efficiency during the process is of practical interest. In the present study, the concept of using cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) to enhance the cellulase treatment efficiency was demonstrated. This was mainly attributed to the increased cellulase adsorption onto cellulose fibers based on the patching/bridging mechanism. Results showed that the cellulase adsorption was increased by about 20% with the addition of 250ppm of CPAM under the same conditions as those of the control. It was found that the viscosity decrease and Fock reactivity increase for the cellulase treatment was enhanced from using CPAM. The CPAM-assisted cellulase treatment concept may provide a practical alternative to the present hypochlorite-based technology for viscosity control in the industry. PMID:25710682

  19. Native fluorescence detection of nucleic acids and DNA restriction fragments in capillary electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Milofsky, R.E.; Yeung, E.S. (Ames Laboratory, IA (United States))

    1993-01-15

    A sensitive laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection scheme for native nucleic acids and DNA restriction fragments separated by capillary electrophoresis (CE) has been developed. The 275.4-nm line from an argon ion laser or the 248-nm line from a waveguide KrF laser is used to excite native fluorescence. Detection limits for guanosine and adenosine monophosphate (1.5 [times] 10[sup [minus]8] and 5 [times] 10[sup [minus]8] M, respectively) are up to 3 orders of magnitude lower than UV detection. Sensitivity for native fluorescence of DNA restriction fragments in gel-filled capillaries rivals that of UV absorption. The decrease in performance in gel-filled separations using LIF detection is caused by the high background associated with gel fluorescence, as well as gel quenching of the fluorescence emission. The development of gels exhibiting lower background fluorescence or off-column coupling should lead to significant improvements in sensitivity over UV detection. This novel and practical system enables, for the first time, the sensitive detection of nucleic-acid-containing compounds without the need for fluorescence labeling. 48 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Development of Polymer Gel Systems to Improve Volumetric Sweep and Reduce Producing Water/Oil Ratios

    SciTech Connect

    G. Paul Willhite; Stan McCool; Don W. Green; Min Cheng; Feiyan Chen

    2005-12-31

    Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of a 42-month research program that focused on the understanding of gelation chemistry and the fundamental mechanisms that alter the flows of oil and water in reservoir rocks after a gel treatment. Work was conducted on a widely applied system in the field, the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide-chromium acetate gel. Gelation occurs by network formation through the crosslinking of polyacrylamide molecules as a result of reaction with chromium acetate. Pre-gel aggregates form and grow as reactions between chromium acetate and polyacrylamide proceed. A rate equation that describes the reaction between chromium acetate and polymer molecules was regressed from experimental data. A mathematical model that describes the crosslinking reaction between two polymer molecules as a function of time was derived. The model was based on probability concepts and provides molecular-weight averages and molecular-weight distributions of the pre-gel aggregates as a function of time and initial system conditions. Average molecular weights of pre-gel aggregates were measured as a function of time and were comparable to model simulations. Experimental methods to determine molecular weight distributions of pre-gel aggregates were unsuccessful. Dissolution of carbonate minerals during the injection of gelants causes the pH of the gelant to increase. Chromium precipitates from solution at the higher pH values robbing the gelant of crosslinker. Experimental data on the transport of chromium acetate solutions through dolomite cores were obtained. A mathematical model that describes the transport of brine and chromium acetate solutions through rocks containing carbonate minerals was used to simulate the experimental results and data from literature. Gel treatments usually reduce the permeability to water to a greater extent than the permeability to oil is reduced. This phenomenon is referred to as disproportionate permeability reduction (DPR). Flow experiments were conducted in sandpacks to determine the effect of polymer and chromium concentrations on DPR. All gels studied reduced the permeability to water by a greater factor than the factor by which the oil permeability was reduced. Greater DPR was observed as the concentrations of polymer and chromium were increased. A conceptual model of the mechanisms responsible for DPR is presented. Primary features of the model are (1) the development of flow channels through the gel by dehydration and displacement of the gel and by re-connection of pre-treatment, residual oil volume and (2) high flow resistance in the channels during water flow is caused by significant saturations of oil remaining in the channels. A similar study of DPR was conducted in Berea sandstone cores. Both oil and water permeabilities were reduced by much smaller factors in Berea sandstone cores than in similar treatments in sandpacks. Poor maturation of the gelant in the Berea rock was thought to be caused by fluid-rock interactions that interfered with the gelation process.

  1. Native American geometry

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-12-12

    This website focuses on Native American use of the physical, proportional geometry that originates from the simple circle. Aimed at 4th to 9th grade teachers, the site is divided into four sections: foundations, anthropology, designs, and education. It was selected by Britannica.com, February 2000, as a best Internet site. Other keywords: geometric shapes, geometric constructions, proportional geometry, proportional constants, polygons, hexagons, equilateral triangles, dodecagons, squares, octagons, connect the dot, art, square roots, irrational numbers, non-random geometry. (Includes about 25 relevant website links and 50 published references)

  2. NativeTech: Native American Technology and Art

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Prindle, Tara.

    NativeTech, "an educational web site that covers topics of Native American technology and emphasizes the Eastern Woodlands region," is the brainchild of Tara Prindle of the Department of Anthropology at the University of Connecticut. This site is dedicated to disconnecting the term "Primitive" from perceptions of Native American technology and art. Categories include Essays & Articles, Poetry & Stories, Beadwork, Birds & Feathers, Clay & Pottery, Leather & Clothes, Metalwork, Plants & Trees, Porcupine Quills, Stonework & Tools, and Weaving & Cordage. The site provides in-depth information about many crafts from sewing moccasins to preparing clay to specifics on pine needle basketry. For quality, detail and on-target graphics, NativeTech deserves high marks.

  3. Removal of paraquat pesticide from aqueous solutions using a novel adsorbent material based on polyacrylamide and methylcellulose hydrogels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research studied the characteristics of poly(acrylamide) and methylcellulose (PAAm-MC) hydrogels as a novel adsorbent material for removal of pesticide paraquat, from aqueous solution, with potential applications in curbing environmental risk from such herbicides. PAAm-MC hydrogels with differe...

  4. Water sorption behaviour of highly swelling (carboxy methylcellulose-g-polyacrylamide) hydrogels and release of potassium nitrate as agrochemical

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K Bajpai; Anjali Giri

    2003-01-01

    Novel types of highly swelling hydrogels have been prepared by grafting crosslinked polyacrylamide chains onto carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) via a free radical polymerization method. The hydrogels were characterized by IR spectral analysis and by evaluating various network parameters such as average molecular weight between crosslinks (Mc), crosslink density (q) and the number of elastically effective chains (Vc). The hydrogels showed enormous

  5. High transparent shape memory gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Jin; Arai, Masanori; Kabir, M. H.; Makino, Masato; Furukawa, Hidemitsu

    2014-03-01

    Gels are a new material having three-dimensional network structures of macromolecules. They possess excellent properties as swellability, high permeability and biocompatibility, and have been applied in various fields of daily life, food, medicine, architecture, and chemistry. In this study, we tried to prepare new multi-functional and high-strength gels by using Meso-Decoration (Meso-Deco), one new method of structure design at intermediate mesoscale. High-performance rigid-rod aromatic polymorphic crystals, and the functional groups of thermoreversible Diels-Alder reaction were introduced into soft gels as crosslinkable pendent chains. The functionalization and strengthening of gels can be realized by meso-decorating the gels' structure using high-performance polymorphic crystals and thermoreversible pendent chains. New gels with good mechanical properties, novel optical properties and thermal properties are expected to be developed.

  6. Foam and gel decontamination techniques

    SciTech Connect

    McGlynn, J.F.; Rankin, W.N.

    1989-01-01

    The Savannah River Site is investigating decontamination technology to improve current decontamination techniques, and thereby reduce radiation exposure to plant personnel, reduce uptake of radioactive material, and improve safety during decontamination and decommissioning activities. When decontamination chemicals are applied as foam and gels, the contact time and cleaning ability of the chemical increases. Foam and gel applicators apply foam or gel that adheres to the surface being decontaminated for periods ranging from fifteen minutes (foam) to infinite contact (gel). This equipment was started up in a cold environment. The desired foam and gel consistency was achieved, operators were trained in its proper maintenance and operation, and the foam and gel were applied to walls, ceilings, and hard to reach surfaces. 17 figs.

  7. Native American Geometry

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hardaker, Chris.

    This Website, sprung from a gifted-and-talented program for K-12 students in Arizona, presents the interesting world of Native American geometry, a system based on the proportional relationship between the radius and circumference of a circle. The eye-pleasing site, divided into sections that include Foundations, Education, Designs, and Anthropology, would be appealing to curious Web surfers along with mathematics students. Geometric principles of proportions and angles are presented in the context of Native American designs, joining art and science and allowing students to learn in a creative, applied fashion. Some highlights of the site include illustrated examples of how corporate logos such as those of Mitsubishi or CBS Television are based on this geometry and a page on the architectural geometries of archaeologic sites such as Chaco Canyon, NM. A brief discussion of the history of circle-based ("string and two sticks") geometry throughout the world and a list of references for teachers are also important parts of this site.

  8. Polyoxometalate-based Supramolecular Gel

    PubMed Central

    He, Peilei; Xu, Biao; Liu, Huiling; He, Su; Saleem, Faisal; Wang, Xun

    2013-01-01

    Self-assemblyings of surfactant-encapsulated Wells-Dawson polyoxometalates (SEPs) nanobuilding blocks in butanone and esters yielded supramolecular gels showing thermo and photo responsive properties. The gels can be further polymerized if unsaturated esters were used and subsequently electrospinned into nanowires and non-woven mats. The as-prepared non-woven mats have a Young's modulus as high as 542.55?MPa. It is believed that this supramolecular gel is a good platform for polyoxometalates processing. PMID:23666013

  9. North American Native Plant Society

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The North American Native Plant Society (NANPS) is dedicated "to the study, conservation, cultivation and restoration of native plants." The NANPS website lists plant sources by region, and invites native plant growers to submit a listing for no charge. The site provides information about upcoming events across Canada and the United States; scholarship opportunities; related associations by region; publications; membership; and more. NANPS also maintains a message board, and offers information about a number of native plants including Walking Fern, Bottlebrush Buckeye, Musclewood, Lilies, and Smaller Fringed Gentian. NANPS runs a Seed Exchange for members as well.

  10. Traditional West Coast Native Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Deagle, George

    1988-01-01

    An important part of the complex culture of the Native people of Canada's Pacific coast is the traditional system of medicine each culture has developed. Population loss from epidemics and the influence of dominant European cultures has resulted in loss of many aspects of traditional medicine. Although some Native practices are potentially hazardous, continuation of traditional approaches to illness remains an important part of health care for many Native people. The use of “devil's club” plant by the Haida people illustrates that Native medicine has both spiritual and physical properties. Modern family practice shares many important foundations with traditional healing systems. PMID:21253031

  11. Gel polymer electrolytes for batteries

    DOEpatents

    Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gur, Ilan; Singh, Mohit; Hudson, William

    2014-11-18

    Nanostructured gel polymer electrolytes that have both high ionic conductivity and high mechanical strength are disclosed. The electrolytes have at least two domains--one domain contains an ionically-conductive gel polymer and the other domain contains a rigid polymer that provides structure for the electrolyte. The domains are formed by block copolymers. The first block provides a polymer matrix that may or may not be conductive on by itself, but that can soak up a liquid electrolyte, thereby making a gel. An exemplary nanostructured gel polymer electrolyte has an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-4 S cm.sup.-1 at 25.degree. C.

  12. Impact of reaction conditions on architecture and rheological properties of starch graft polyacrylamide polymers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We carried out experiments examining the impact that solvent selection and reaction conditions have on the radical initiated graft polymerization reaction of acrylamide onto starch. We have also evaluated the rheological properties the starch graftpolyacrylamide product when a gel is formed in water...

  13. Polyacrylamide effect on hydraulic conductivity of hardsetting soils in Northeast of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Laércio; Almeida, Brivaldo; Melo, Diego; Marques, Karina; Almeida, Ceres

    2013-04-01

    Among soil hydro-physical properties, hydraulic conductivity is more sensitive to changes in soil structure. Hydraulic conductivity describes the ease with which a fluid (usually water) can move through pore spaces or fractures. It depends on the intrinsic permeability of the material and on the degree of saturation, and on the density and viscosity of the fluid. Hardsetting soils present very low hydraulic conductivity values. When dry, these soils show high penetration resistance and consistency extremely hard, but change to friable when moist. In this condition are poorly structured, slaking when moist, limit agricultural machinery use and it may reduce the growth of the root system. In Brazil, these soils occur throughout of coastal zone in flat areas called "coastal tableland". Chemical ameliorant, such as polymers based on anionic polyacrylamide (PAM), improve hydraulic conductivity of soil in hardsetting soils. The primary functions of polyacrylamide soil conditioners are to increase soil tilth, aeration, and porosity and reduce compaction and water run-off. PAM effect is attributed to its ability to expand when placed in water, storing it in soil pore space, releasing it gradually to the plants. This process occurs by reducing the water flow through the pores of the soil, due to water molecules can be absorbed by PAM, providing water gradually. Thus, this study tested the hypothesis that PAM reduces the soil hardsetting character. The area is located in coastal zone in Goiana city, Pernambuco, northeastern of Brazil. This soil is typical hardsetting soil. Intact soil cores were collected from four horizons until 70cm depth. In the laboratory, the soil cores were saturated with different PAM concentrations (0.01, 0.005, 0.00125%) and H2O (control). Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) was determined using a constant head method, according to Klute and Dirksen (1986). Four replicates were used for each horizon and Tukey test at 5% probability was used by Assistat 7.6 beta. The sandy horizon had higher hydraulic conductivity in natural conditions, and the PAM, especially the concentration of 0.010%, reduced Ksat. This result confirms the action agglutinant of PAM organizing sand particles on aggregates, providing higher water retention, reducing water drainage and also Ksat values. In the other, especially in hardsetting horizon, when the lowest concentration (0.00125%) was applied reduced the effect of cohesion realized by increasing Ksat value. In conclude, PAM in hardsetting soils improve its physico-water proprieties when low concentrations.

  14. Native Americans: traditional healing.

    PubMed

    Broome, Barbara; Broome, Rochelle

    2007-04-01

    There are an estimated 4.1 million people who are classified as American Indian and Alaska Native alone or in combination with one or more other races. This racial group composes 1.5% of the total U.S. population. The leading causes of illness and death among American Indians are heart disease, cancer, unintentional injuries (accidents), diabetes, and stroke. American Indians also have a high prevalence of obesity, chronic renal failure, alcoholism, and are at increased risk for mental health issues and suicide. In an effort to build a trusted relationship with these patients and become an active participant in their care, the health care provider must demonstrate respect for the traditions of the American Indian. PMID:17494460

  15. BachelorofArts NativeAmericanStudies

    E-print Network

    Seldin, Jonathan P.

    BachelorofArts NativeAmericanStudies N a m e : ______________________________________ I DL website at www.uleth.ca/ross/ppgs/ppg.html About the Native American Studies Major The Native American. Opportunities for Native American Studies Majors Native American Studies is a growing academic field

  16. Native American Adult Reader II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Lovern Root, Ed.

    This reader, one of three designed to provide adults in basic education/GED programs with meaningful materials based on Native American cultures, includes selections appropriate for intermediate reading ability (grades 4-6). The twelve readings focus on culture, history, and contemporary concerns of Native Americans. Each selection includes a…

  17. Alcohol abuse among Native Americans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roland J. Lamarine

    1988-01-01

    Native Americans have experienced substantial problems with alcohol since its introduction to their culture by early European settlers. Epidemiological data indicate that elevated morbidity and mortality attributable to alcohol abuse among this population remain at epidemic levels. Adolescent drinking patterns and family and peer influences on alcohol use are examined. A multifactorial etiology is indicated in the origin of Native

  18. Genetic conservation of native trees

    E-print Network

    Genetic conservation of native trees Scott McG. Wilson1 and C. J. A. Samuel Over recent years, the genetic conservation of British native tree populations has become an increasingly important part policy-makers in the genetic basis of forest biodiversity conservation, both at the UK and, more

  19. Native American Adult Reader III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Lovern Root, Ed.

    This reader, one of three designed to provide adults in basic education/GED programs with meaningful material based on Native American cultures, includes selections appropriate for advanced reading ability (grade 7 and above). The twelve readings focus on culture, history, and contemporary concerns of Native Americans. Each selection includes a…

  20. Physical Activity and Native Americans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James D. Coble; Ryan E. Rhodes

    2006-01-01

    The physical activity behaviors of Native-American populations in the United States and Canada have received little attention in the health literature. The purpose of this review was to unite the literature regarding the physical activity behaviors of Native Americans. A majority of the literature was obtained using online databases. Reference lists were also reviewed to gain further access to the

  1. Native American Beadwork and Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barta, Jim

    1999-01-01

    Many Native Americans struggle with mathematics because they cannot see its relevance. Comments from three Native Americans reveal how art, culture, and math can be taught in an integrated fashion through beadwork. Elementary school children can experience nearly all mathematical concepts presented in school through beadwork, which also teaches…

  2. Native American Foods and Cookery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Tom; Potter, Eloise F.

    Native Americans had a well-developed agriculture long before the arrival of the Europeans. Three staples--corn, beans, and squash--were supplemented with other gathered plants or cultivated crops such as white potatoes, sweet potatoes, pumpkins, and peanuts. Native Americans had no cows, pigs, or domesticated chickens; they depended almost…

  3. Marriage and Commitment. Native Viewpoints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhauer, Noella

    1994-01-01

    Describes a wedding ceremony combining Canadian Native and Roman Catholic traditions that could be a model for Indian education. Asserts that Canadian natives must continue to gain control and autonomy over their own schools. Discusses responsibilities and interrelationships between the school and parents, students, and teachers. (CFR)

  4. Native Hawaiian Scholarship`Aha

    E-print Network

    Native Hawaiian Scholarship`Aha Hawai`i Island Waimea Hawaiian Homestead Hall Tuesday, November 18 & Int. School Cafeteria Thursday, January 29, 2015 @ 6:00 pm Learn about scholarships available to Native Hawaiian college students. Meet with scholarship providers from: Kamehameha Schools, Keali

  5. Native American Adolescent Career Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Sherri L.; Lapan, Richard T.

    2003-01-01

    Career interests, efficacy expectations, and parental support were measured for 120 Native American and 134 Caucasian adolescents. Native Americans had greater interest in Realistic and Commercial occupations and those requiring high school diploma, trade school, or two-year postsecondary education. They were similar to Caucasians in range of…

  6. Ohiyesa's Path: Reclaiming Native Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Adrienne Brant; Renville, Tammy

    2012-01-01

    As Natives have assumed increasing authority and responsibility for tribal and federally funded and administered schools, a more balanced and enlightened view is emerging. Notable among these events is the recognition of the critical need to shift emphasis to the untapped heritage of more recently recognized and acknowledged Native American…

  7. Nanocrystal/sol-gel nanocomposites

    DOEpatents

    Petruska, Melissa A. (Los Alamos, NM); Klimov, Victor L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2012-06-12

    The present invention is directed to solid composites including colloidal nanocrystals within a sol-gel host or matrix and to processes of forming such solid composites. The present invention is further directed to alcohol soluble colloidal nanocrystals useful in formation of sol-gel based solid composites

  8. Nanocrystal/sol-gel nanocomposites

    DOEpatents

    Petruska, Melissa A. (Los Alamos, NM); Klimov, Victor L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2007-06-05

    The present invention is directed to solid composites including colloidal nanocrystals within a sol-gel host or matrix and to processes of forming such solid composites. The present invention is further directed to alcohol soluble colloidal nanocrystals useful in formation of sol-gel based solid composites.

  9. A cholesterol-isopropanol gel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William E. Acree; Gary L. Bertrand

    1977-01-01

    IN the course of measuring solubilities of cholesterol in pure and mixed solvents we have observed the formation of a transparent gel in the cholesterol+isopropanol system. Because of the historical importance of liquid crystals of cholesteryl esters1 and the biological importance of cholesterol, we are reporting here some observations on the properties of this gel. Liquid crystals of cholesterol with

  10. Crystallization of steroids in gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkura, S. Narayana; Devanarayanan, S.

    1991-03-01

    The crystal growth and characterization of certain steriods, viz., cholesterol, cholesteryl acetate, ?-sitosterol, progesterone and testosterone, in a silica gel medium is discussed. The present study shows that the single test tube diffusion method can be used to grow crystals of steroids in a silica gel medium by the reduction of steroid solubility.

  11. Synthetic tracheal mucus with native rheological and surface tension properties.

    PubMed

    Hamed, R; Fiegel, J

    2014-06-01

    In this study, the development of a model tracheal mucus with chemical composition and physical properties (bulk viscoelasticity and surface tension) matched to that of native tracheal mucus is described. The mucus mimetics (MMs) were formulated using components that are abundant in tracheal mucus (glycoproteins, proteins, lipids, ions, and water) at concentrations similar to those found natively. Pure solutions were unable to achieve the gel behavior observed with native mucus. The addition of a bifunctional cross-linking agent enabled control over the viscoelastic properties of the MMs by tailoring the concentration of the cross-linking agent and the duration of cross-linking. Three MM formulations with different bulk viscoelastic properties, all within the normal range for nondiseased tracheal mucus, were chosen for investigation of surfactant spreading at the air-mimetic interface. Surfactant spread quickly and completely on the least viscoelastic mimetic surface, enabling the surface tension of the mimetic to be lowered to match native tracheal mucus. However, surfactant spreading on the more viscoelastic mimetics was hindered, suggesting that the bulk properties of the mimetics dictate the range of surface properties that can be achieved. PMID:23813841

  12. Active gel physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prost, J.; Jülicher, F.; Joanny, J.-F.

    2015-02-01

    The mechanical behaviour of cells is largely controlled by a structure that is fundamentally out of thermodynamic equilibrium: a network of crosslinked filaments subjected to the action of energy-transducing molecular motors. The study of this kind of active system was absent from conventional physics and there was a need for both new theories and new experiments. The field that has emerged in recent years to fill this gap is underpinned by a theory that takes into account the transduction of chemical energy on the molecular scale. This formalism has advanced our understanding of living systems, but it has also had an impact on research in physics per se. Here, we describe this developing field, its relevance to biology, the novelty it conveys to other areas of physics and some of the challenges in store for the future of active gel physics.

  13. 78 FR 63241 - 60 Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment: Alaska Native/Native...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ...Public Comment: Alaska Native/Native Hawaiian Institutions Assisting Communities...Information Collection: Alaska Native/Native Hawaiian Institutions Assisting Communities...Native Institutions (ANI) and Native Hawaiian Institutions (NHI) of Higher...

  14. Methylthymol blue in Fricke gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penev, K. I.; Mequanint, K.

    2015-01-01

    The initial trial of methylthymol blue (MTB) as a chelator for ferric iron in Fricke gel dosimeters, used for three-dimensional (3D) dosimetry in cancer radiotherapy, is reported. MTB is a structural analogue of the conventionally used xylenol orange (XO); however, the absorbance spectrum of the ferric-MTB complex is shifted to higher wavelengths, which should allow for lower amount of light scattering during gel scanning. In this study, two gelatin substrates, two sources of XO and one source of MTB have been compared. The MTB- containing gels exhibited similar dose response and diffusion coefficient to the XO-containing gels at their wavelengths of maximum absorption (620 and 585 nm, respectively). In addition, the MTB gels gave an excellent dose response at 633 nm, which is an important wavelength that is already used with other 3D dosimeters.

  15. Allison Lab Protocol: Gel Electrophoresis, 1/2008, Steve Allison Gel Electrophoresis of Nucleic Acids

    E-print Network

    German, Donovan P.

    Allison Lab Protocol: Gel Electrophoresis, 1/2008, Steve Allison Gel Electrophoresis of Nucleic the Polaroid camera to take a photo of the gel. · Note the electrophoresis conditions on the gel photo and tape Acids · Always wear gloves; ethidium bromide is a powerful mutagen! · For a 1.5% gel in the small gel

  16. A new inorganic-organic composite coagulant, consisting of polyferric sulphate (PFS) and polyacrylamide (PAA).

    PubMed

    Moussas, P A; Zouboulis, A I

    2009-08-01

    Currently, research is focused on the synthesis of new composite coagulants, which are constituted of both inorganic and organic materials. In this paper, the development of relevant reagents was investigated, by combining the inorganic pre-polymerised iron-based coagulant Polyferric Sulphate (PFS) with an organic, non-ionic polymer (Polyacrylamide, PAA) under different PAA/Fe (mg/l) and OH/Fe molar ratios. Moreover, the new reagents were characterised in terms of typical properties, stability and morphological analysis (XRD, FTIR, SEM). Their coagulation performance, when treating low or high turbid kaolin-humic acid suspensions, was also investigated, whereas the applied coagulation mechanisms were discussed by using the Photometric Dispersion Analysis (PDA) analysis. The results show that the new coagulation reagents present improved properties, including increased effective polymer species concentration, and they exhibit very good stability. The respective tests using PDA confirmed that the predominant coagulation mechanism of PFS-PAA is the bridge formation mechanism. Coagulation experiments in low or high turbid kaolin-humic acid suspensions reveal that the novel composite reagent PFS-PAA exhibits better coagulation performance, when compared with simple PFS, in terms of zeta-potential reduction, turbidity and organic matter removal and residual iron concentration. PMID:19560180

  17. Granular and Dissolved Polyacrylamide Effects on Erosion and Runoff under Simulated Rainfall.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jihoon; Amoozegar, Aziz; Heitman, Joshua L; McLaughlin, Richard A

    2014-11-01

    Polyacrylamide (PAM) has been demonstrated to reduce erosion under many conditions, but less is known about the effects of its application method on erosion and concentrations in the runoff water. A rainfall simulation study was conducted to evaluate the performance of an excelsior erosion control blanket (cover) and two PAM application methods. The treatments were (i) no cover + no PAM (control), (ii) cover + no PAM, (iii) cover + granular PAM (GPAM), and (iv) cover + dissolved PAM (DPAM) applied to soil packed in wooden runoff boxes. The GPAM or DPAM (500 mg L) was surface-applied at a rate of 30 kg ha 1 d before rainfall simulation. Rainfall was applied at 83 mm h for 50 min and then repeated for another 20 min after a 30-min rest period. Runoff samples were analyzed for volume, turbidity in nephelometric turbidity units (NTU), total suspended solids (TSS), sediment particle size distribution, and PAM concentration. The cover alone reduced turbidity and TSS in runoff by >60% compared with the control (2315 NTU, 2777 mg TSS L). The PAM further reduced turbidity and TSS by >30% regardless of the application method. The median particle diameter of eroded sediments for PAM treatments was seven to nine times that of the control (12.4 ?m). Loss of applied PAM in the runoff water (not sediment) was 19% for the GPAM treatment but only 2% for the DPAM treatment. Both GPAM and DPAM were effective at improving groundcover performance, but DPAM resulted in much less PAM loss. PMID:25602214

  18. Enhanced dewaterability of waste-activated sludge by combined cationic polyacrylamide and magnetic field pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Bi, Dongsu; Guo, Xiaopin; Cai, Zhihong; Yu, Zhen; Wang, Dingmei; Wang, Yueqiang

    2015-02-01

    The potential function of combining magnetic field (MF) pretreatment with cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) additive on enhancing the dewaterability of waste-activated sludge was investigated in the present work. Two reactors were involved in a specially designed experimental apparatus, one of which was built with MF accessories. Several parameters were conducted, including CPAM dosages, MF strengths and processing times, respectively. Capillary suction time (CST) and specific resistance to filtration (SRF) were used to evaluate sludge dewaterability. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) concentration was also determined in an attempt to identify the observed changes in dewaterability. It was indicated by the results that both CPAM conditioning and MF pretreatment on sludge can lower CST and SRF values. However, subjecting to a combination of MF pretreatment and CPAM conditioning, sludge dewaterability was significantly enhanced beyond the level observed of CPAM addition alone. The lowest CST and SRF values of 36.5?s and 0.75?×?10(12)?m?kg(-1), respectively, were obtained when sludge was co-conditioned by CPAM (at a dosage of 40?mg?L(-1)) and MF (at an induction of 40?mT) for 30?min, suggesting the optimal condition for enhancing sludge dewaterability. It is also shown from the significant correlations between EPS, protein, polysaccharide and CST/SRF that the increment of EPS concentration in sludge supernatant may be the major reason for the enhancement of dewaterability. PMID:25518985

  19. Bioelectricity-assisted partial degradation of linear polyacrylamide in a bioelectrochemical system.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yu-Zhi; Zhang, Jian; Sun, Min; Zhai, Lin-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The wide application of water-soluble linear polyacrylamides (PAMs) can cause serious environmental pollution. Biological treatment of PAMs receives very limited efficiency due to their recalcitrance to the microbial degradation. Here, we show the bioelectrochemical system (BES) can be used as an effective strategy to improve the biodegradation efficiency of PAMs. A linear PAM with viscosity-average molecular weight of 5?×?10(6) was treated in the anodic chamber of BES reactor, and the change of PAM structure during the degradation process was investigated. The anodic bacteria in the BES demonstrated abilities to utilize the PAM as the sole carbon and nitrogen source to generate electricity. Both the anode-attached and planktonic bacteria contributed to the electricity generation, while the anode-attached community exhibited stronger electron transfer ability than the planktonic one. The closed-circuit and open-circuit operations of the BES reactor obtained chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies of 32.5 and 7.4 %, respectively, implying the generation of bioelectricity could enhance the biodegradation of PAM. Structure analysis suggested the carbon chain of PAM was partially degraded in the BES, producing polymeric products with lower molecular weight. The microbial cleavage of the carbon chain was proposed to start from the "head-to-head" linkages and end with the formation of ether bonds. PMID:25193420

  20. Polyacrylamide application versus forest residue mulching for reducing post-fire runoff and soil erosion.

    PubMed

    Prats, Sergio Alegre; Martins, Martinho António Dos Santos; Malvar, Maruxa Cortizo; Ben-Hur, Meni; Keizer, Jan Jacob

    2014-01-15

    For several years now, forest fires have been known to increase overland flow and soil erosion. However, mitigation of these effects has been little studied, especially outside the USA. This study aimed to quantify the effectiveness of two so-called emergency treatments to reduce post-fire runoff and soil losses at the microplot scale in a eucalyptus plantation in north-central Portugal. The treatments involved the application of chopped eucalyptus bark mulch at a rate of 10-12 Mg ha(-1), and surface application of a dry, granular, anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) at a rate of 50 kg ha(-1). During the first year after a wildfire in 2010, 1419 mm of rainfall produced, on average, 785 mm of overland flow in the untreated plots and 8.4 Mg ha(-1) of soil losses. Mulching reduced these two figures significantly, by an average 52 and 93%, respectively. In contrast, the PAM-treated plots did not differ from the control plots, despite slightly lower runoff but higher soil erosion figures. When compared to the control plots, mean key factors for runoff and soil erosion were different in the case of the mulched but not the PAM plots. Notably, the plots on the lower half of the slope registered bigger runoff and erosion figures than those on the upper half of the slope. This could be explained by differences in fire intensity and, ultimately, in pre-fire standing biomass. PMID:24055663

  1. Hydrolyzed polyacrylamide grafted maize starch based microbeads: application in pH responsive drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Setty, C Mallikarjuna; Deshmukh, Anand S; Badiger, Aravind M

    2014-09-01

    The present study details the synthesis, characterization and pharmaceutical application of hydrolysed polyacrylamide grafted maize starch (HPam-g-MS) as promising polymeric material for the development of pH responsive microbeads. Different grades of graft copolymer were synthesized by changing the net microwave irradiation time, while keeping all other factors constant. Acute oral toxicity study performed in rodents ensured the bio-safety of graft copolymer for clinical application. Various batches of aceclofenac loaded microbeads were prepared by ionic gelation method using synthesized graft copolymers and evaluated for formulation parameters. FTIR spectroscopy confirmed the chemical compatibility between drug and graft copolymer. Results of in vitro release study (USP type-II) carried out in two different pH media (pH 1.2 acid buffer and pH 7.4 phosphate buffer) showed that release rate of drug from developed microbeads was a function of both: (a) surrounding pH and (b) the matrix composition. The drug release was relatively higher at alkaline pH as compared to acidic pH and this feature is desirable from viewpoint of site specific drug delivery. A direct correlation was observed between percentage grafting and microbeads performance and it presents a scope for further research on application and optimization of HPam-g-MS based microbeads as drug delivery carriers. PMID:24971555

  2. Self-healable, tough, and ultrastretchable nanocomposite hydrogels based on reversible polyacrylamide/montmorillonite adsorption.

    PubMed

    Gao, Guorong; Du, Gaolai; Sun, Yuanna; Fu, Jun

    2015-03-01

    Nanocomposite hydrogels with unprecedented stretchability, toughness, and self-healing have been developed by in situ polymerization of acrylamide with the presence of exfoliated montmorillonite (MMT) layers as noncovalent cross-linkers. The exfoliated MMT clay nanoplatelets with high aspect ratios, as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results, are well dispersed in the polyacrylamide matrix. Strong polymer/MMT interaction was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The effective cross-link densities of these hydrogels are estimated in the range of 2.2-5.7 mol m(-3). Uniaxial tensile tests showed a very high fracture elongation up to 11?800% and a fracture toughness up to 10.1 MJ m(-3). Cyclic loading-unloading tests showed remarkable hysteresis, which indicates energy dissipation upon deformation. Residual strain after cyclic loadings could be recovered under mild conditions, with the recovery extent depending on clay content. A mechanism based on reversible desorption/adsorption of polymer chains on clay platelets surface is discussed. Finally, these nanocomposite hydrogels are demonstrated to fully heal by dry-reswell treatments. PMID:25668063

  3. Response of hydroponically grown head lettuce on residual monomer from polyacrylamide.

    PubMed

    Mroczek, E; Konieczny, P; Kleiber, T; Wa?kiewicz, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to assess acrylamide monomer (AMD) uptake by hydroponically grown lettuce. Lettuce was cultivated by applying plant tissue testing in a recycled system by the use of nutrient solutions prepared with two water-soluble flocculants F3 and F4 containing 176 and 763 mg kg(-1) of AMD, respectively. The effects on growth, fresh weight and plant leaf quality were evaluated by comparing these treatments and one control standard nutrient solution typically recommended for lettuce hydroponic cultivation. To assess the nutritional status of lettuce, samples were collected and lyophilised before determination of the selected micro- and macro-element contents. An HPLC with photodiode array detector method was applied to determine AMD in both selected flocculants and dried plant samples. Results show that lettuces cultivated under the conditions described above absorb AMD from nutrient solutions into their leaves. The AMD presence in recycled nutrient solutions has a negative influence on the growth of lettuce, reducing their average fresh weight and average number of leaves. The study confirmed that the problem of AMD mobility and its accumulation risk in plants should to be an important topic with respect to safe polyacrylamide (PAM) handling in the agro food area. PMID:24916210

  4. A simple preparation of a stable CdS-polyacrylamide nanocomposite: structure, thermal and optical properties.

    PubMed

    Bach, Long Giang; Islam, M Rafiqul; Hong, Seong-Soo; Lim, Kwon Taek

    2013-11-01

    A facile approach was employed for the preparation of stable luminescent nanocomposites of CdS quantum dots (QDs) and polyacrylamide (PAM) through the cross coupling chemistry. Initially, CdS QDs were synthesized in a well controlled manner using 3-mercaptopropionic acid as a capping agent. Then, carboxylic acid groups on CdS QDs were chemically incorporated into PAM matrices with the assistance of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide coupling agents. FT-IR analysis was used to investigate the chemical incorporation of CdS QDs in PAM matrices via the covalent protocol. The XPS elemental mapping studies further suggested the formation of CdS-PAM nanocomposites. FE-SEM and TEM images were engaged to study the morphologies, and distribution of CdS QDs in the PAM networks. The physical structure of the CdS-PAM nanocomposites was investigated by XRD analysis. Thermal stability of the nanocomposites was observed to be enhanced in compare to PAM as evidenced from TGA data. The UV-vis and photoluminescence studies of the CdS-PAM nanocomposites suggested their promising optical applications. PMID:24245319

  5. Mucoadhesive polyacrylamide nanogel as a potential hydrophobic drug carrier for intravesical bladder cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shengjie; Neoh, Koon Gee; Kang, En-Tang; Mahendran, Ratha; Chiong, Edmund

    2015-05-25

    In this paper, amine-functionalized polyacrylamide nanogels (PAm-NH2) loaded with docetaxel (DTX) were evaluated as a mucoadhesive and sustained intravesical drug delivery (IDD) system for potential bladder cancer therapy. Nanogels have not been applied for such therapy before. The mucoadhesiveness of the PAm-NH2 nanogels, which is a critical factor for IDD application, was investigated using the mucin-particle method and by analyzing the direct attachment of the PAm-NH2 nanogels onto the luminal surface of porcine urinary bladder. DTX, as a model hydrophobic drug, was successfully loaded into hydrophilic PAm-NH2 nanogels with high loading efficiency (>90%), and sustained release of DTX from the nanogels over 9days in artificial urine was achieved. The nanogels were also taken in by bladder cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The efficiency of the DTX-loaded nanogels in killing UMUC3 and T24 bladder cancer cells was determined to be equivalent to free DTX, and the morphology of the bladder urothelium was not adversely altered by the PAm-NH2 nanogels. These findings indicate that such mucoadhesive nanogels are potentially a promising candidate for intravesical delivery of hydrophobic drugs in bladder cancer therapy. PMID:25772330

  6. Water Soluble Usnic Acid-Polyacrylamide Complexes with Enhanced Antimicrobial Activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis

    PubMed Central

    Francolini, Iolanda; Taresco, Vincenzo; Crisante, Fernanda; Martinelli, Andrea; D’Ilario, Lucio; Piozzi, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Usnic acid, a potent antimicrobial and anticancer agent, poorly soluble in water, was complexed to novel antimicrobial polyacrylamides by establishment of strong acidic-base interactions. Thermal and spectroscopic analysis evidenced a molecular dispersion of the drug in the polymers and a complete drug/polymer miscibility for all the tested compositions. The polymer/drug complexes promptly dissolved in water and possessed a greater antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis than both the free drug and the polymer alone. The best results were obtained with the complex based on the lowest molecular weight polymer and containing a low drug content. Such a complex showed a larger inhibition zone of bacterial growth and a lower minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) with respect to usnic acid alone. This improved killing effect is presumably due to the reduced size of the complexes that allows an efficient cellular uptake of the antimicrobial complexes. The killing effect extent seems to be not significantly dependent on usnic acid content in the samples. PMID:23549269

  7. Cationic polyacrylamide as coagulant aid with titanium tetrachloride for low molecule organic matter removal.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y X; Gao, B Y; Qi, Q B; Wang, Y; Phuntsho, S; Kim, J-H; Yue, Q Y; Li, Q; Shon, H K

    2013-08-15

    This is the first attempt to use cationic polyacrylamide (PAM) as coagulant aid with titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) to improve the coagulation performance and floc properties. Coagulation-flocculation treatment was applied to simulated water (with fulvic acid (FA) as model organic matter) for both coagulation behavior investigation and floc characterization. The effect of PAM on floc reformation properties after cyclic breakage/regrowth was also investigated. Ultrafiltration experiments were performed to investigate the influence of PAM aided TiCl4 coagulation on the membrane fouling. The results showed that organic removal was enhanced by PAM addition at low TiCl4 doses. Floc growth rate and floc size were significantly affected by dosing sequence. TiCl4-PAM significantly improved the floc strength factors (Sf) and recovery factors (Rf). The dosing sequence of TiCl4 and PAM significantly influenced the floc structure. Characterization of the flocculated sludge indicated that TiO2 with anatase structure and high photocatalytic activity could be obtained from the TiCl4-PAM flocculated sludge. PMID:23708450

  8. Modeling of protein electrophoresis in silica colloidal crystals having brush layers of polyacrylamide

    PubMed Central

    Birdsall, Robert E.; Koshel, Brooke M.; Hua, Yimin; Ratnayaka, Saliya N.; Wirth, Mary J.

    2013-01-01

    Sieving of proteins in silica colloidal crystals of mm dimensions is characterized for particle diameters of nominally 350 and 500 nm, where the colloidal crystals are chemically modified with a brush layer of polyacrylamide. A model is developed that relates the reduced electrophoretic mobility to the experimentally measurable porosity. The model fits the data with no adjustable parameters for the case of silica colloidal crystals packed in capillaries, for which independent measurements of the pore radii were made from flow data. The model also fits the data for electrophoresis in a highly ordered colloidal crystal formed in a channel, where the unknown pore radius was used as a fitting parameter. Plate heights as small as 0.4 ?m point to the potential for miniaturized separations. Band broadening increases as the pore radius approaches the protein radius, indicating that the main contribution to broadening is the spatial heterogeneity of the pore radius. The results quantitatively support the notion that sieving occurs for proteins in silica colloidal crystals, and facilitate design of new separations that would benefit from miniaturization. PMID:23229163

  9. Biodegradation of polyacrylamide by bacteria isolated from activated sludge and oil-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Wen, Qinxue; Chen, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Ye; Zhang, Huichao; Feng, Yujie

    2010-03-15

    Polyacrylamide (PAM), a linear water soluble polymeric compound with high molecular weight, is extensively used for oil production in China. Compared with the physico-chemical degradation of PAM, there is no acrylamide monomer, which causes peripheral neuropathy, released in the process of biodegradation. Unfortunately, few microorganisms have been isolated which can degrade PAM. In this study, two PAM-degrading bacterial strains, named HWBI and HWBII, were isolated from the activated sludge and soil in an oil field that had been contaminated by PAM for an extended period. These were subsequently identified as Bacillus cereus and Bacillus flexu, respectively. Both strains grew on a medium composed of 60 mg L(-1) PAM as the sole source of carbon. Although both strains degraded PAM in different rates, after 72 h cultivation more than 70% of the PAM was consumed. This degradation efficiency was much higher than previous studies. Both strains degraded a determinate proportion of PAM when 50-1000 mg L(-1) of the initial PAM was supplied. Glucose with a concentration lower than 200 mg L(-1) can be used as co-metabolism substrate with PAM. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectrograms of the cultures before and after PAM degradation were also recorded. The result showed that amido groups of the PAM were picked off by the microorganisms from the main chain of the PAM, and metabolism products other than acrylamide were formed in the degradation. PMID:19932560

  10. One step synthesis of polyacrylamide functionalized graphene and its application in Pb(II) removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhiwei; Zhang, Yaoyao; Qian, Xiaoming; Shi, Jie; Chen, Lei; Li, Baodong; Niu, Jiarong; Liu, Liangsen

    2014-10-01

    Polyacrylamide grafted graphene (PAM-g-graphene) from graphite oxide (GO) was successfully prepared by ?-ray irradiation with acrylamide monomers in aqueous at room temperature in this paper. Our strategy involves the PAM chains graft on the surface and between the layers of GO by in situ radical polymerization which led to the exfoliation of GO into individual sheets. Results show that the degree of grafting of PAM-g-graphene samples is 24.2%, and the thickness is measured to be 2.59 nm. Moreover, the as-prepared PAM-g-graphene with some amino from PAM and little oxygen functional groups exhibit superior adsorption of Pb(II) ions. The adsorption processes reach equilibrium in just 30 min and the adsorption isotherms are described well by Langmuir and Freundlich classical isotherms models. The determined adsorption capacity of PAM-g-graphene is 819.67 mg g-1 (pH 6) for Pb(II), which is 20 times and 8 times capacities of that for graphene nanosheets and carbon nanotubes according to reports, respectively. This chemically modified graphene synthesized by this fast one-step approach, featuring a good versatility and adaptability, excellent adsorption capacity and rapid extraction, may provide a new idea for the global problem of heavy metal pollutants' removal in water.

  11. Uranium sorption by Pseudomonas biomass immobilized in radiation polymerized polyacrylamide bio-beads.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, S F; Sar, Pinaki; Kazy, Sufia K; Kubal, B S

    2006-01-01

    A Pseudomonas strain identified as a potent biosorbent of uranium (U) and thorium was immobilized in radiation-induced polyacrylamide matrix for its application in radionuclide containing wastewater treatment. The immobilized biomass exhibited a high U sorption of 202 mg g(-1) dry wt. with its optimum at pH 5.0. A good fit of experimental data to the Freundlich model suggested multilayered uranium binding with an affinity distribution among biomass metal binding sites. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a highly porous nature of the radiation-polymerized beads with bacterial cells mostly entrapped on pore walls. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA) coupled with SEM ascertained the accumulation of uranium by the immobilized biomass without any physical damage to the cells. A significant (90%) part of biosorbed uranium was recovered using sodium bicarbonate with the immobilized biomass maintaining their U resorption capacity for multiple sorption-desorption cycles. Uranium loading and elution behavior of immobilized biomass evaluated within a continuous up-flow packed bed columnar reactor showed its effectiveness in removing uranium from low concentration (50 mg U L(-1)) followed by its recovery resulting in a 4-5-fold waste volume reduction. The data suggested the suitability of radiation polymerization in obtaining bacterial beads for metal removal and also the potential of Pseudomonas biomass in treatment of radionuclide containing waste streams. PMID:16484078

  12. Sonication-triggered instantaneous gel-to-gel transformation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xudong; Liu, Qian; Wu, Junchen; Zhang, Mingming; Cao, Xinhua; Zhang, Song; Wang, Qi; Chen, Liming; Yi, Tao

    2010-08-01

    Two new peptide-based isomers containing cholesterol and naphthalic groups have been designed and synthesized. We found that the position of L-alanine in the linker could tune the gelation properties and morphologies. The molecule with the L-alanine residue positioned in the middle of the linker (1b) shows better gelation behavior than that with L-alanine directly linked to the naphthalimido moiety (1a). As a result, a highly thermostable organogel of 1b with a unique core-shell structure was obtained at high temperature and pressure in acetonitrile. Moreover, the gels of 1a and 1b could undergo an instantaneous gel-to-gel transition triggered by sonication. Ultrasound could break the core-shell microsphere of 1b and the micelle structure of 1a into entangled fibers. By studying the mechanism of the sonication-triggered gel-to-gel transition process of these compounds, it can be concluded that ultrasound has a variety of effects on the morphology, such as cutting, knitting, unfolding, homogenizing, and even cross-linking. Typically, ultrasound can cleave and homogenize pi-stacking and hydrophobic interactions among the gel molecules and then reshape the morphologies to form a new gel. This mechanism of morphology transformation triggered by sonication might be attractive in the field of material storage and controlled release. PMID:20572172

  13. BachelorofArts/BachelorofEducation NativeAmericanStudies/NativeEducation

    E-print Network

    Seldin, Jonathan P.

    BachelorofArts/BachelorofEducation NativeAmericanStudies/NativeEducation N a m e.uleth.ca/ross/ppgs/ppg.html Department of Native American Studies About the Native American Studies Major The Native American Studies and appreciation of cultural differences. Expectations for Students The Department of Native American Studies

  14. Native American Studies Page 203Sonoma State University 2012-2013 Catalog NATIVE AMERICAN STUDIES

    E-print Network

    Ravikumar, B.

    Native American Studies Page 203Sonoma State University 2012-2013 Catalog NATIVE AMERICAN STUDIES, American Indian Religion & Philosophy, Native American Education and North American History Gregory Sarris / Native American Literature Program Offered Minor in Native American Studies The Native American Studies

  15. 34 CFR 300.29 - Native language.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Native language. 300.29 Section 300.29 Education ...Definitions Used in This Part § 300.29 Native language. (a) Native language , when used with respect to an individual...

  16. 34 CFR 300.29 - Native language.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Native language. 300.29 Section 300.29 Education ...Definitions Used in This Part § 300.29 Native language. (a) Native language , when used with respect to an individual...

  17. Native American Resource Guide Table of Contents

    E-print Network

    Rose, Michael R.

    Native American Resource Guide #12;#12;Table of Contents Message from the Chancellor.................................... 4 Native American Studies Minor ...................... 8 Community Calendar............................................ 14 Native American Support Services.................. 13 UCI Pow Wow

  18. [Production and characterization of a soluble ocrase-polyacrylamide preparation (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Maksimenko, A V; Walsmann, P

    1981-01-01

    Using the carbodiimide procedure, ocrase, a proteinase isolated from Aspergillus ochraceus, has been bonded to a water-soluble acrylamide-acrylic acid copolymer and isolated by gel filtration. Binding to the high-molecular polymer had implications for the kinetics of the cleavage of the ethyl ester of benzoyl-L-arginine by this proteinase, and for the reaction of the latter with synthetic and natural inhibitors. PMID:7015368

  19. Application of NMR spectroscopy and multidimensional imaging to the gelcasting process and in-situ real-time monitoring of cross-linking polyacrylamide gels

    SciTech Connect

    Ahuja, S.; Dieckman, S.L.; Gopalsami, N. [and others

    1995-04-01

    In the gelcasting process, a slurry of ceramic powder in a solution of organic monomers is cast in a mold. The process is different from injection molding in that it separates mold-filling from setting during conversion of the ceramic slurry to a formed green part. In this work, NMR spectroscopy and imaging have been conducted for in-situ monitoring of the gelation process and for mapping the polymerization. {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance spectra have been obtained during polymerization of a premix of soluble reactive methacrylamide (monomer) and N, N`-methylene bisacrylamide (cross-linking molecules). The premix was polymerized by adding ammonium persulfate (initiator) and tetramethyl-ethylene-diamine (accelerator) to form long-chain, cross-linked polymers. The time-varying spin-lattice relaxation times T{sub 1} during polymerization have been studied at 25 and 35{degrees}C, and the variation of spectra and T{sub 1} with respect to extent of polymerization has been determined. To verify homogeneous polymerization, multidimensional NMR imaging was utilized for in-situ monitoring of the process. The intensities from the images are modeled and the correspondence shows a direct extraction of T{sub 1} data from the images.

  20. Development of a Low-cost and High-throughput Polyacrylamide Gel System for Peanut Genotyping with Simple Sequence repeat (SSR) Markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditionally, peanut cultivar development has been dominated by conventional breeding methods, which have greatly increased yield and will continue to play an important role in peanut genetic improvement. Applications of MAS (marker-assisted selection) in plant breeding have been shown to increase ...

  1. Development of a Low-cost and High-throughput Polyacrylamide Gel System for Peanut Genotyping with Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) Markers.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditionally, peanut cultivar development has been dominated by conventional breeding methods, which have greatly increased yield and will continue to play an important role in peanut genetic improvement. Applications of MAS (marker-assisted selection) in plant breeding have been shown to increase ...

  2. Evaluation of the Taxonomic Relationship of Micrococcus cryoph ilus, Branhamella catarrhalis, and Neisseriae by Comparative Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis of Soluble Proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RICHARD H. FOX

    Electrophoretic profiles of soluble proteins derived from seven strains of Bran ham el la ca tarr halis, Ne isseria perflava, Neisseria sicca, an d the psy c hr o p hile , Micrococcus cry ophilus, were compared. The profiles produced from the strains of Branhamella catarrhalis showed a marked similarity except for that of strain Ne4 (ATCC 23246) which was

  3. Micelle-Induced Curvature in a Water-Insoluble HIV-1 Env Peptide Revealed by NMR Dipolar Coupling Measurement in Stretched Polyacrylamide Gel

    E-print Network

    Chou, James

    .25 shows substantial changes in the NMR spectrum (Figure 1). At q ) 0.5, no further changes take place that the change in structure is relatively subtle. The conventional NMR approach to structure determination, based on NOEs and J couplings, is generally not suitable for unambiguously identifying small structural changes

  4. Polyacrylamide gels as support for enzyme immobilization by entrapment. Effect of polyelectrolyte carrier, pH and temperature on enzyme action and kinetics parameters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. González-Sáiz; C. Pizarro

    2001-01-01

    This study investigates the main interactions which occur among enzymes and the polymeric support in which they are immobilized, when charges are created within the support as a result of the effect of external variables. The electrostatic field generated by the charges has a major impact on the enzymatic activity and kinetic parameters. In the most extreme conditions for the

  5. Biodegradation of polyacrylamide by anaerobic digestion under mesophilic condition and its performance in actual dewatered sludge system.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiaohu; Luo, Fan; Yi, Jing; He, Qunbiao; Dong, Bin

    2014-02-01

    Polyacrylamide (PAM) used in sludge dewatering widely exists in high-solid anaerobic digestion. Degradation of polyacrylamide accompanied with accumulation of its toxic monomer is important to disposition of biogas residues. The potential of anaerobic digestion activity in microbial utilization of PAM was investigated in this study. The results indicated that the utilization rate of PAM (as nitrogen source) was influenced by accumulation of ammonia, while cumulative removal of amide group was accorded with zeroth order reaction in actual dewatered system. The adjoining amide group can combined into ether group after biodegradation. PAM can be broken down in different position of its carbon chain backbone. In actual sludge system, the hydrolytic PAM was liable to combined tyrosine-rich protein to form colloid complex, and then consumed as carbon source to form monomer when easily degradable organics were exhausted. The accumulation of acrylamide was leveled off ultimately, accompanied with the yield of methane. PMID:24345566

  6. Enhancement of the effect of coal fly ash by a polyacrylamide soil conditioner on growth of wheat

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, A.; Wallace, G.A.

    1986-05-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. INIA66R) was grown in a calcareous clay soil, a Torrifluvents from Imperial Valley, California, in containers in a glasshouse. The soil was amended with 450 kg ha/sup -1/ anionic polyacrylamide and 748 mg ha/sup -1/ of coal fly ash in factorial combination. Both amendments increased the vegetative yield of the wheat when applied singly, and when they were applied together the effect was sequentially additive. Without the polyacrylamide, soil was compacted. Large quantities of waste fly ash can be disposed of with little or no environmental hazard through high-level application to land with simultaneous use of a polymer soil conditioner to maintain acceptable physical properties of soil.

  7. Application of MALDI-TOF-mass spectrometry to proteome analysis using stain-free gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Susnea, Iuliana; Bernevic, Bogdan; Wicke, Michael; Ma, Li; Liu, Shuying; Schellander, Karl; Przybylski, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The combination of MALDI-TOF-mass spectrometry with gel electrophoretic separation using protein visualization by staining procedures involving such as Coomassie Brilliant Blue has been established as a widely used approach in proteomics. Although this approach has been shown to present high detection sensitivity, drawbacks and limitations frequently arise from the significant background in the mass spectrometric analysis. In this chapter we describe an approach for the application of MALDI-MS to the mass spectrometric identification of proteins from one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoretic separation, using stain-free detection and visualization based on native protein fluorescence. Using the native fluorescence of aromatic protein amino acids with UV transmission at 343 nm as a fast gel imaging system, unstained protein spots are localized and, upon excision from gels, can be proteolytically digested and analyzed by MALDI-MS. Following the initial development and testing with standard proteins, applications of the stain-free gel electrophoretic detection approach to mass spectrometric identification of biological proteins from 2D-gel separations clearly show the feasibility and efficiency of this combination, as illustrated by a proteomics study of porcine skeleton muscle proteins. Major advantages of the stain-free gel detection approach with MALDI-MS analysis are (1) rapid analysis of proteins from 1D- and 2D-gel separation without destaining required prior to proteolytic digestion, (2) the low detection limits of proteins attained, and (3) low background in the MALDI-MS analysis. PMID:22547356

  8. Selective response mechanism of a platinum disk electrode modified with polyacrylamide membrane conjugated with gallium(III) phthalocyaninate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jujie Ren; Hirofumi Watanabe; Shusaku Yamamura; Toshio Nakamura

    2004-01-01

    A non-plasticized polyacrylamide polymer (PAA) coupled with (phthalocyaninato) gallium(III) ([Ga(pc)]+), PAA–[Ga(pc)], was first synthesized, and the potentiometric response behavior of this PAA–[Ga(pc)] modified platinum electrode to certain ions was examined in the non-aqueous solvents acetonitrile (AN), dimethylacetamide (DMA), and N-methylpyrrolidinone (NMP). The electrode showed a Nernstian or near-Nernstian response to CN? and F? in AN, DMA, and NMP, but it

  9. Removal and Separation of Some Radionuclides by Polyacrylamide Based Ce(IV) Phosphate from Radioactive Waste Solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. S. Metwally; B. El-Gammal; H. F. Aly; S. A. Abo-El-Enein

    2011-01-01

    Removal of cesium, cobalt and europium ions from radioactive waste solutions using poly-acrylamide based Ce(IV) phosphate material was investigated using both batch and fixed bed column techniques. The effect of pH, initial metal ion concentration and temperature had been studied. Simple kinetic and thermodynamic models had been applied from which the mechanism of the process and the thermodynamic parameters were

  10. Research on the crosslinking mechanism of polyacrylamide\\/resol using molecular simulation and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tao Ni; Guang-Su Huang; Jing Zheng; Pin Gao; Meng-Meng Chen; G-S Huang

    2010-01-01

    Resol crosslinked polyacrylamide (PAM) hydrogel can be used as the chemical flooding agent in enhanced oil recovery because of its excellent temperature- and salt-resistant properties. It is known that crosslinking reactions, including ortho–ortho, ortho–para and para–para polycondensation of resols and ortho and para polycondensation between PAM and resol, are involved in the researched system, but the extent and activity of

  11. Purification of ADP-Ribosylated Nuclear Proteins by Covalent Chromatography on Dihydroxyboryl Polyacrylamide Beads and their Characterization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroto Okayama; Kunihiro Ueda; Osamu Hayaishi

    1978-01-01

    Nuclear proteins modified by mono or poly ADP-ribosylation were selectively isolated and purified by covalent chromatography on a dihydroxyboryl polyacrylamide bead column that specifically interacts with cis-diol-containing compounds. From rat liver nuclei that had been incubated with NAD+, histones and some nonhistone proteins were extracted with 0.25 M HCl. Approximately 60% of the ADP-ribose incorporated into 20% trichloroacetic acid-precipitable material

  12. Characterization of rehydrated gelatin gels.

    PubMed

    Emoto, H; Kambic, H; Chen, J F; Nosé, Y

    1991-02-01

    Five percent glutaraldehyde cross-linked gels have shown excellent blood compatibility as coatings for cardiac prostheses. A method was developed for producing thin dehydrated coatings using a proprietary dehydration procedure and ethylene oxide (EO) sterilization. The swollen surfaces of rehydrates versus wet (original) gels were compared. Within 30 min of saline rehydration, dry 30-50-microns films on textured surfaces became smooth, uniform, and comparable to original gelatin gels. Mechanical test results after rehydration showed values for strain remain unchanged (39.3 + 10.0 to 40.0 + 7.8%), but stress increased (2.79 + 1.21 to 4.22 + 1.60 dyne/cm2; p less than 0.01). The contact angle data reported gamma C values of 26.1 and 30.4 dyne/cm for original and rehydrated gels. Using a coulometric titrimeter, the measured water content of original gels was reduced from 85 to 3.4% after drying. Dried and saline rehydrated gels had a 73.2% moisture content. Gels shrank 8.8% of their original length after rehydration; however, the thickness of all pump coatings remained stable. Two-hour incubations with bovine platelet rich plasma showed no differences in platelet reactivity or morphology when compared to original gels. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed no evidence of gel cracking or surface defects after pump endurance testing for 3 and 5 weeks. The process of dehydration eliminates the wet storage and sterility problems of such hydrogels and provides a stable film coating for a variety of blood-contacting substrates. PMID:1998488

  13. Introduction to Agarose Gel Electrophoresis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    CLIMB: Cornell's Learning Initiative in Medicine and Bioengineering

    In this module, developed as part of Cornell's Learning Initiative in Medicine and Bioengineering (CLIMB), students are introduced to the concepts of gel electrophoresis without requiring all the equipment needed to run a full gel electrophoresis experiment. The goal is to have students understand how gels are made for DNA separation and how altering the composition can affect the experimental parameters. This module contains a teacher's guide, classroom activity, and suggestions for extended activities. This lab is a precursor to Cornell’s Institute for Biology Teachers lab’s entitled DNA Profiling – Paternity Testing, which is linked within the teacher's guide. CLIMB is part of the NSF GK-12 program.

  14. Adhesive, elastomeric gel impregnating composition

    DOEpatents

    Shaw, David Glenn (Tucson, AZ); Pollard, John Randolph (Tucson, AZ); Brooks, Robert Aubrey (Tijeras, NM)

    2002-01-01

    An improved capacitor roll with alternating film and foil layers is impregnated with an adhesive, elastomeric gel composition. The gel composition is a blend of a plasticizer, a polyol, a maleic anhydride that reacts with the polyol to form a polyester, and a catalyst for the reaction. The impregnant composition is introduced to the film and foil layers while still in a liquid form and then pressure is applied to aid with impregnation. The impregnant composition is cured to form the adhesive, elastomeric gel. Pressure is maintained during curing.

  15. Differentiation between fresh and frozen-thawed sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fillets using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Ethuin, Pierrette; Marlard, Sylvain; Delosière, Mylène; Carapito, Christine; Delalande, François; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Dehaut, Alexandre; Lencel, Valérie; Duflos, Guillaume; Grard, Thierry

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to identify a protein marker that can differentiate between fresh skinless and frozen-thawed sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fillets using the two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE) technique. Distinct gel patterns, due to proteins with low molecular weight and low isoelectric points, distinguished fresh fillets from frozen-thawed ones. Frozen-thawed fillets showed two specific protein spots as early as the first day of the study. However, these spots were not observed in fresh fillets until at least 13days of storage between 0 and 4°C, fillets were judged, beyond this period, fish were unfit for human consumption as revealed by complementary studies on fish spoilage indicators namely total volatile basic nitrogen and biogenic amines. Mass spectrometry identified the specific proteins as parvalbumin isoforms. Parvalbumins may thus be useful markers of differentiation between fresh and frozen-thawed sea bass fillets. PMID:25624236

  16. Effects of cationic polyacrylamide characteristics on sewage sludge dewatering and moisture evaporation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jun; Liu, Fenwu; Pan, Chengyi

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the molecular weight (MW) and charge density (CD) of cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) on sludge dewatering and moisture evaporation were investigated in this study. Results indicated that in sludge conditioning, the optimum dosages were 10, 6, 6, 4, and 4 mg g(-1) CPAM with 5 million MW and 20% CD, 5 million MW and 40% CD, 3 million MW and 40% CD, 8 million MW and 40% CD, and 5 million MW and 60% CD, respectively. The optimum dosage of CPAM was negatively correlated with its CD or MW if the CD or MW of CPAM was above 20% or 5 million. In the centrifugal dewatering of sludge, the moisture content in the conditioned sludge gradually decreased with the extension of centrifugation time, and the economical centrifugal force was 400×g. The moisture evaporation rates of the conditioned sludge were closely related to sludge dewaterability, which was in turn significantly correlated either positively with the solid content of sludge particles that were >2 mm in size or negatively with that of particles measuring 1 mm to 2 mm in diameter. During treatment, sludge moisture content was reduced from 80% to 20% by evaporation, and the moisture evaporation rates were 1.35, 1.49, 1.62, and 2.24 times faster in the sludge conditioned using 4 mg g(-1) CPAM with 5 million MW and 60% CD than in the sludge conditioned using 4 mg g(-1) CPAM with 8 million MW and 40% CD, 6 mg g(-1) CPAM with 5 million MW and 40% CD, 6 mg g(-1) CPAM with 3 million MW and 40% CD, and 10 mg g(-1) CPAM with 5 million MW and 20% CD, respectively. Hence, the CPAM with 5 million MW and 60% CD was ideal for sludge dewatering. PMID:24878582

  17. Carbonic anhydrase-facilitated CO2 absorption with polyacrylamide buffering bead capture

    SciTech Connect

    Dilmore, R (Dilmore, Robert); Griffith, C (Griffith, Craig); Liu, Z (Liu, Zhu); Soong, Y (Soong, Yee); Hedges, SW (Hedges, Sheila W.); Koepsel, R (Koepsel, Richard); Ataai, M (Ataai, Mohammad)

    2009-07-01

    A novel CO2 separation concept is described wherein the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA) is used to increase the overall rate Of CO2 absorption after which hydrated CO2 reacts with regenerable amine-bearing polyacrylamide buffering beads (PABB). Following saturation of the material's immobilized tertiary amines, CA-bearing carrier water is separated and recycled to the absorption stage while CO2-loaded material is thermally regenerated. Process application of this concept would involve operation of two or more columns in parallel with thermal regeneration with low-pressure steam taking place after the capacity of a column of amine-bearing polymeric material was exceeded. PABB CO2- bearing capacity was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for beads of three acrylamido buffering monomer ingredient concentrations: 0 mol/kg bead, 0.857 mol/kg bead, and 2 mol/kg bead. TGA results demonstrate that CO2- bearing capacity increases with increasing PABB buffering concentration and that up to 78% of the theoretical CO2- bearing capacity was realized in prepared PABB samples (0.857 mol/kg recipe). The highest observed CO2-bearing capacity of PABB was 1.37 mol of CO2 per kg dry bead. TGA was also used to assess the regenerability Of CO2-loaded PABB. Preliminary results suggest that CO2 is partially driven from PABB samples at temperatures as low as 55 degrees C, with complete regeneration occurring at 100 degrees C. Other physical characteristics of PABB are discussed. In addition, the effectiveness of bovine carbonic anhydrase for the catalysis Of CO2 dissolution is evaluated. Potential benefits and drawbacks of the proposed process are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Effects of Cationic Polyacrylamide Characteristics on Sewage Sludge Dewatering and Moisture Evaporation

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Chengyi

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the molecular weight (MW) and charge density (CD) of cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) on sludge dewatering and moisture evaporation were investigated in this study. Results indicated that in sludge conditioning, the optimum dosages were 10, 6, 6, 4, and 4 mg g?1 CPAM with 5 million MW and 20% CD, 5 million MW and 40% CD, 3 million MW and 40% CD, 8 million MW and 40% CD, and 5 million MW and 60% CD, respectively. The optimum dosage of CPAM was negatively correlated with its CD or MW if the CD or MW of CPAM was above 20% or 5 million. In the centrifugal dewatering of sludge, the moisture content in the conditioned sludge gradually decreased with the extension of centrifugation time, and the economical centrifugal force was 400×g. The moisture evaporation rates of the conditioned sludge were closely related to sludge dewaterability, which was in turn significantly correlated either positively with the solid content of sludge particles that were >2 mm in size or negatively with that of particles measuring 1 mm to 2 mm in diameter. During treatment, sludge moisture content was reduced from 80% to 20% by evaporation, and the moisture evaporation rates were 1.35, 1.49, 1.62, and 2.24 times faster in the sludge conditioned using 4 mg g?1 CPAM with 5 million MW and 60% CD than in the sludge conditioned using 4 mg g?1 CPAM with 8 million MW and 40% CD, 6 mg g?1 CPAM with 5 million MW and 40% CD, 6 mg g?1 CPAM with 3 million MW and 40% CD, and 10 mg g?1 CPAM with 5 million MW and 20% CD, respectively. Hence, the CPAM with 5 million MW and 60% CD was ideal for sludge dewatering. PMID:24878582

  19. Adsorption of cationic polyacrylamide at the cellulose-liquid interface: A neutron reflectometry study.

    PubMed

    Su, Jielong; Garvey, Christopher J; Holt, Stephen; Tabor, Rico F; Winther-Jensen, Bjorn; Batchelor, Warren; Garnier, Gil

    2015-06-15

    The layer thickness and density of high molecular weight cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) adsorbed at the cellulose-water interface was quantified by neutron reflectometry. The thickness of a full monolayer of CPAM of constant molecular weight (13MD) but different charge densities, adsorbed with or without NaCl (10(-3)M), was studied. Thin cellulose films (40±7Å) of roughness <10Å were produced by spin coating a cellulose acetate-acetone solution and regenerating by alkaline hydrolysis. Film smoothness was greatly improved by controlling the concentration of cellulose acetate (0.13wt%) and the hydrolysis time in sodium methoxide. The adsorption thickness of CPAM (40% charge 13MD) at the solid-D2O interface was 43±4Å on cellulose and 13±2Å on silicon, an order of magnitude smaller than the CPAM radius of gyration. At constant molecular weight, the thickness of the CPAM layer adsorbed on cellulose increases with polymer charge density (10±1Å at 5%). Addition of 10(-3)M NaCl decreased the thickness of CPAM layer already adsorbed on cellulose. However, the adsorption layer on cellulose of a CPAM solution equilibrated in 10(-3)M NaCl is much thicker (89±11Å for 40% CPAM). For high molecular weight CPAMs adsorbed from solution under constant conditions, the adsorption layer can be varied by 1 order of magnitude via control of the variables affecting electrostatic intra- and inter-polymer chain interactions. PMID:25723785

  20. Alaska Native Teens Help Researchers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-11-04

    In this video adapted from KUAC-TV and the Geophysical Institute at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Alaska Native students contribute to research on how their environment is changing as a result of global warming.

  1. Network chain density and relaxation of in situ synthesized polyacrylamide\\/hectorite clay nanocomposite hydrogels with ultrahigh tensibility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lijun Xiong; Xiaobo Hu; Xinxing Liu; Zhen Tong

    2008-01-01

    Nanocomposite hydrogels (NC gel) D-AM and S-AM were synthesized through in situ polymerization of acrylamide (AM) with hectorite clays of Laponite RD and RDS, respectively. The tensile performance of the NC gel was observed at different crosshead speeds and all of the NC gels exhibited an extremely high tensibility, e.g., the elongation at break even higher than 4000%, except for

  2. Native American Studies at Dartmouth

    E-print Network

    Calloway, Colin G.

    2001-03-01

    Native American Studies at Dartmouth Colin G. Calloway Dartmouth College, in Hanover, New Hampshire, was founded in 1769 by Eleazar Wheeiock. At the same time, Wheelock relocated Moor's Charity School from Lebanon, Connecticut, to the Dartmouth... campus, for the education of Native American students. In an effort to raise funds for his school, Wheelock dispatched a Mohegan Indian named Samson Occom to the British Isles. Occom, a former student of Wheelock and an ordained minister, delivered...

  3. Dissociation of thixotropic clay gels.

    PubMed

    Martin, Céline; Pignon, Frédéric; Piau, Jean-Michel; Magnin, Albert; Lindner, Peter; Cabane, Bernard

    2002-08-01

    Laponite dispersions in water, at moderate ionic strength and high pH, are thixotropic: depending on previous history, they can be fluids or gels. The mechanisms of the fluid-gel and gel-fluid transitions have been examined through ionic analysis of the aqueous phase, static light, and small-angle neutron scattering, rheological experiments, and centrifugation. The results indicate that the particles attract each other in edge-to-face configurations. These attractions cause the particles to gather in microdomains, which subsequently associate to form very large fractal superaggregates, containing all the particles in the dispersion. A gel state is obtained when the network of connections is macroscopic. This network is destroyed by the application of sufficient strain, but it heals at rest. The addition of peptizers weakens the edge-to-face attractions, and makes the healing times much slower. PMID:12241172

  4. A conjugated polymer plastic gel

    E-print Network

    Alcazar Jorba, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    We present a gel route to process highly oriented conjugated polymer films and fibers. The incorporation of hexafluoroisopropanol, a strong and stable dipolar group, to the polythiophene backbone enhances the solubility ...

  5. Native Hawaiian views on biobanking.

    PubMed

    Tauali i, Maile; Davis, Elise Leimomi; Braun, Kathryn L; Tsark, JoAnn Umilani; Brown, Ngiare; Hudson, Maui; Burke, Wylie

    2014-09-01

    Genomic science represents a new frontier for health research and will provide important tools for personalizing health care. Biospecimen-based research is an important mechanism for expanding the genomic research capacity, and indigenous peoples are a target of biospecimen-based research due to their relative isolation and the potential to discover rare or unique genotypes. This study explored Native Hawaiian perceptions of and expectations for biobanking. Ten discussion groups were conducted with Native Hawaiians (N?=?92), who first heard a presentation on biobanking. Six themes emerged: (1) biobank governance by the Native Hawaiian community, (2) research transparency, (3) priority of Native Hawaiian health concerns, (4) leadership by Native Hawaiian scientists accountable to community, (5) re-consenting each time specimen is used, and (6) education of Native Hawaiian communities. Considered together, these findings suggest that biobanking should be guided by six principles that comprise "G.R.E.A.T. Research" (Governance, Re-consent, Education, Accountability, Transparency, Research priorities). These recommendations are being shared with biobanking facilities in Hawai'i as they develop protocols for biobanking participation, governance, and education. These findings also inform researchers and indigenous peoples throughout the world who are working on biobanking and genomic research initiatives in their nations. PMID:24683042

  6. Peristaltic instability of cylindrical gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrière, Benoît; Sekimoto, Ken; Leibler, Ludwik

    1996-07-01

    We investigate here the stability of a gel cylinder subject to a strong surface tension. Both the criteria for the occurrence of a peristaltic instability and its dynamical evolution are determined within linear elasticity. Shrinking gels may show such an instability, as has been reported by Matsuo and Tanaka [Nature 358, 482 (1992)]. Considering approximate values of the relevant parameters, we find results in qualitative agreement with their experiments.

  7. TOPICAL REVIEW: Polymer gel dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldock, C.; De Deene, Y.; Doran, S.; Ibbott, G.; Jirasek, A.; Lepage, M.; McAuley, K. B.; Oldham, M.; Schreiner, L. J.

    2010-03-01

    Polymer gel dosimeters are fabricated from radiation sensitive chemicals which, upon irradiation, polymerize as a function of the absorbed radiation dose. These gel dosimeters, with the capacity to uniquely record the radiation dose distribution in three-dimensions (3D), have specific advantages when compared to one-dimensional dosimeters, such as ion chambers, and two-dimensional dosimeters, such as film. These advantages are particularly significant in dosimetry situations where steep dose gradients exist such as in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery. Polymer gel dosimeters also have specific advantages for brachytherapy dosimetry. Potential dosimetry applications include those for low-energy x-rays, high-linear energy transfer (LET) and proton therapy, radionuclide and boron capture neutron therapy dosimetries. These 3D dosimeters are radiologically soft-tissue equivalent with properties that may be modified depending on the application. The 3D radiation dose distribution in polymer gel dosimeters may be imaged using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical-computerized tomography (optical-CT), x-ray CT or ultrasound. The fundamental science underpinning polymer gel dosimetry is reviewed along with the various evaluation techniques. Clinical dosimetry applications of polymer gel dosimetry are also presented.

  8. Topical Review: Polymer gel dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Baldock, C; De Deene, Y; Doran, S; Ibbott, G; Jirasek, A; Lepage, M; McAuley, K B; Oldham, M; Schreiner, L J

    2010-01-01

    Polymer gel dosimeters are fabricated from radiation sensitive chemicals which, upon irradiation, polymerize as a function of the absorbed radiation dose. These gel dosimeters, with the capacity to uniquely record the radiation dose distribution in three-dimensions (3D), have specific advantages when compared to one-dimensional dosimeters, such as ion chambers, and two-dimensional dosimeters, such as film. These advantages are particularly significant in dosimetry situations where steep dose gradients exist such as in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery. Polymer gel dosimeters also have specific advantages for brachytherapy dosimetry. Potential dosimetry applications include those for low-energy x-rays, high-linear energy transfer (LET) and proton therapy, radionuclide and boron capture neutron therapy dosimetries. These 3D dosimeters are radiologically soft-tissue equivalent with properties that may be modified depending on the application. The 3D radiation dose distribution in polymer gel dosimeters may be imaged using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical-computerized tomography (optical-CT), x-ray CT or ultrasound. The fundamental science underpinning polymer gel dosimetry is reviewed along with the various evaluation techniques. Clinical dosimetry applications of polymer gel dosimetry are also presented. PMID:20150687

  9. AGAROSE GEL PREPARATION AND DNA QUANTIFICATION

    E-print Network

    Gill, Kulvinder

    in the electrophoresis tank. Use 1X TBE as electrophoresis buffer, add just enough to cover the gel surface. 4. Load 5 µ are expected to come in lower yields (nano gram amounts). 6. Electrophoresis-: 20 minutes at 100 V for mini-gel migrated into the gel; long electrophoresis is not necessary. 7. After electrophoresis, bring gel to the UV

  10. Pre-Cast Gel Electrophoresis Guide

    E-print Network

    Kirschner, Marc W.

    Novex® Pre-Cast Gel Electrophoresis Guide Version B January 27, 2003 IM-1002 Novex® Pre-Cast Gel Electrophoresis Guide General information and protocols for using Novex® pre-cast gels www.invitrogen.com tech.............................................................................................................................28 Electrophoresis of Novex® Pre-Cast Gels

  11. Surface grafted chitosan gels. Part II. Gel formation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Thormann, Esben; Claesson, Per M; Tyrode, Eric

    2014-07-29

    Responsive biomaterial hydrogels attract significant attention due to their biocompatibility and degradability. In order to make chitosan based gels, we first graft one layer of chitosan to silica, and then build a chitosan/poly(acrylic acid) multilayer using the layer-by-layer approach. After cross-linking the chitosan present in the polyelectrolyte multilayer, poly(acrylic acid) is partly removed by exposing the multilayer structure to a concentrated carbonate buffer solution at a high pH, leaving a surface-grafted cross-linked gel. Chemical cross-linking enhances the gel stability against detachment and decomposition. The chemical reaction between gluteraldehyde, the cross-linking agent, and chitosan was followed in situ using total internal reflection Raman (TIRR) spectroscopy, which provided a molecular insight into the complex reaction mechanism, as well as the means to quantify the cross-linking density. The amount of poly(acrylic acid) trapped inside the surface grafted films was found to decrease with decreasing cross-linking density, as confirmed in situ using TIRR, and ex situ by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) measurements on dried films. The responsiveness of the chitosan-based gels with respect to pH changes was probed by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and TIRR. Highly cross-linked gels show a small and fully reversible behavior when the solution pH is switched between pH 2.7 and 5.7. In contrast, low cross-linked gels are more responsive to pH changes, but the response is fully reversible only after the first exposure to the acidic solution, once an internal restructuring of the gel has taken place. Two distinct pKa's for both chitosan and poly(acrylic acid), were determined for the cross-linked structure using TIRR. They are associated with populations of chargeable groups displaying either a bulk like dissociation behavior or forming ionic complexes inside the hydrogel film. PMID:25006685

  12. NATIVE AMERICAN www.nas.pdx.edu

    E-print Network

    NATIVE AMERICAN STUDIES www.nas.pdx.edu PSU's Native American Studies (NAS) Program is program was inaugurated in 2004 and presently offers a Minor in Native American Studies. NAS is an interdisciplinary constituencies: Students who have a serious academic interest in Native Americans and who wish to combine

  13. The University of Montana Native American Center

    E-print Network

    Vonessen, Nikolaus

    The University of Montana Native American Center "Pay attention and learn as much as you can American History also from a Native American perspective was important. This is what inspired her to obtain a degree in Native American Studies. "In learning about Native American culture, one of the things

  14. The Problems with Native American Mascots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Laurel R.

    2002-01-01

    Lays out the main arguments against the use of Native American mascots, including that mascots represent racist stereotypes of Native Americans; the stereotypes focus on the past and obscure the lives of contemporary Native Americans; mascots misrepresent, distort, and trivialize many aspects of Native American culture; and mascot stereotypes have…

  15. Native American Healing Practices and Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rybak, Christopher J.; Eastin, Carol Lakota; Robbins, Irma

    2004-01-01

    An experiential Native American healing practices course, co-taught by a Native American pastoral counselor and a counselor educator, was offered to graduate counseling students to help them better understand Native American worldviews. A student participant's reflections are included. Students attended Native American ceremonies and learned…

  16. An overview of Native American outreach and

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    Gathering Together: An overview of Native American outreach and education projects at MSU #12's Native American community. From encouraging young Native American students to pursue careers in science on reservations, you will see that MSU embraces Native American traditions and is committed to improving

  17. 50 CFR 17.5 - Alaska natives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alaska natives. 17.5 Section 17.5 ...Introduction and General Provisions § 17.5 Alaska natives. (a) The provisions...is an Alaskan native and who resides in Alaska; or (2) Any non-native...

  18. 50 CFR 17.5 - Alaska natives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alaska natives. 17.5 Section 17.5 ...Introduction and General Provisions § 17.5 Alaska natives. (a) The provisions...is an Alaskan native and who resides in Alaska; or (2) Any non-native...

  19. 50 CFR 17.5 - Alaska natives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alaska natives. 17.5 Section 17.5 ...Introduction and General Provisions § 17.5 Alaska natives. (a) The provisions...is an Alaskan native and who resides in Alaska; or (2) Any non-native...

  20. 50 CFR 17.5 - Alaska natives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alaska natives. 17.5 Section 17.5 ...Introduction and General Provisions § 17.5 Alaska natives. (a) The provisions...is an Alaskan native and who resides in Alaska; or (2) Any non-native...

  1. 50 CFR 17.5 - Alaska natives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alaska natives. 17.5 Section 17.5 ...Introduction and General Provisions § 17.5 Alaska natives. (a) The provisions...is an Alaskan native and who resides in Alaska; or (2) Any non-native...

  2. Rheological behavior of Slide Ring Gels.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Vivek; Park, Jong Seung; Park, Jung O.; Srinivasarao, Mohan

    2006-03-01

    Slide ring gels were synthesized by chemically crosslinking, sparsely populated ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) present on the polyrotaxanes consisting of ?-CD and polyethylene glycol (PEG). [1] Unlike physically or chemically crosslinked gels, slide ring gels are topological gels where crosslinks can slide along the chain. [2] We investigate the rheological behavior of these gels swollen in water and compare their viscoelastic properties to those of physical and chemical gels. We also study the equilibrium swelling behavior of these gels. [1] Okumura and Ito, Adv. Mater. 2001, 13, 485 [2] C. Zhao et al, J. Phys. Cond. Mat. 2005, 17, S2841

  3. NMR mechanisms in gel dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiner, L. J.

    2009-05-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance was critical to the development of gel dosimetry, as it established the potential for three dimensional dosimetry with chemical dosimeter systems through magnetic resonance imaging [1]. In the last two decades MRI has served as the gold standard for imaging, while NMR relaxometry has played an important role in the development and understanding of the behaviour of new gel dosimetry systems. Therefore, an appreciation of the relaxation mechanisms determining the NMR behaviour of irradiated gel dosimeters is important for a full comprehension of a considerable component of the literature on gel dosimetry. A number of excellent papers have presented this important theory, this brief review will highlight some of the salient points made previously [1-5]. The spin relaxation of gel dosimeters (which determines the dose dependence in most conventional MR imaging) is determined principally by the protons on water molecules in the system. These water protons exist in different environments, or groups (see Figure 1): on bulk water, on water hydrating the chemical species that are being modified under irradiation, and on water hydrating the gel matrix used to spatially stabilize the dosimeter (e.g., gelatin, agarose, etc). The spin relaxation depends on the inherent relaxation rate of each spin group, that is, on the relaxation rate which would be observed for the specific group if it were isolated. Also, the different water environments are not isolated from each other, and the observed relaxation rate also depends on the rate of exchange of magnetization between the groups, and on the fraction of protons in each group. In fact, the water exchanges quickly between the environments, so that relaxation is in what is usually termed the fast exchange regime. In the limit of fast exchange, the relaxation of the water protons is well characterized by a single exponential and hence by a single apparent relaxation rate. In irradiated gel dosimeters this observed rate is a function of the absorbed dose. In this review I will first develop the fast exchange model for the spin lattice relaxation Fricke gel dosimeter system, as this is conceptually the simpler system. Fundamental concepts such as relaxivity (which specifies the ability of some species to enhance the relaxation of water protons) and chemical yield will be presented. The linear dose relationship for Fricke gel dosimeters, and the reduced dose sensitivity of Fricke dosimeters containing chelators, will be explained. The model will then be extended to the spin-spin relaxation of polymer gel systems and the main differences discussed. The reasons for the enhanced dose sensitivy and dynamic range for spin-spin (R2) rather than spin-lattice (R1) relaxation will be presented.

  4. 3D geometric gel dosimetry verification of intraprostatic fiducial guided hypofractionated radiotherapy of prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordström, Fredrik; Ceberg, Sofie; Wetterstedt, Sacha af; Nilsson, Per; Ceberg, Crister; Bäck, Sven ÅJ

    2010-11-01

    This pre-study is aimed to investigate the feasibility of a normoxic polyacrylamide gel (nPAG) dosimeter with implanted gold fiducials to evaluate the geometric precision, including setup correction strategies, in the delivery of hypofractionated treatments. For this purpose a phantom consisting of three parts was constructed: (1) the patient simulating volume, providing realistic scatter conditions and weight, (2) a bottle containing the active dosimetric volume and (3) the gold fiducials and the fiducial support structure. A 6.1 Gy prostate IMRT treatment was delivered to the phantom using the sliding-window technique. The phantom was positioned prior to the treatment using the implanted fiducials and kV on-board imaging. An overlay of the 95% isosurface of the TPS calculated dose distribution and the measured dose distribution using gel showed good agreement. The clinical target volume (CTV) was well centred inside the 95% isodose surface of the measured volume. It was shown for the evaluated case that the use of on-board imaging and integrated setup correction tools could be used to compensate for a deliberately introduced offset in CTV position. The study showed that MRI based nPAG gel dosimetry can be used to verify setup correction procedures using implanted gold fiducials.

  5. Diffusive transfer to membranes as an effective interface between gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogorzalek Loo, Rachel R.; Mitchell, Charles; Stevenson, Tracy I.; Loo, Joseph A.; Andrews, Philip C.

    1997-12-01

    Diffusive transfer was examined as a blotting method to transfer proteins from polyacrylamide gels to membranes for ultraviolet matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. The method is well-suited for transfers from isoelectric focusing (IEF) gels. Spectra have been obtained for 11 pmol of 66 kDa albumin loaded onto an IEF gel and subsequently blotted to polyethylene. Similarly, masses of intact carbonic anhydrase and hemoglobin were obtained from 14 and 20 pmol loadings. This methodology is also compatible with blotting high molecular weight proteins, as seen for 6 pmol of the 150 kDa monoclonal antibody anti-[beta]-galactosidase transferred to Goretex. Polypropylene, Teflon, Nafion and polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) also produced good spectra following diffusive transfer. Only analysis from PVDF required that the membrane be kept wet prior to application of matrix. Considerations in mass accuracy for analysis from large-area membranes with continuous extraction and delayed extraction were explored, as were remedies for surface charging. Vapor phase CNBr cleavage was applied to membrane-bound samples for peptide mapping.

  6. On the validity of 3D polymer gel dosimetry: I. Reproducibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandecasteele, Jan; De Deene, Yves

    2013-01-01

    The intra- and inter-batch accuracy and precision of MRI (polyacrylamide gelatin gel fabricated at atmospheric conditions) polymer gel dosimeters are assessed in full 3D. In the intra-batch study, eight spherical flasks were filled with the same polymer gel along with a set of test tubes that served as calibration phantoms. In the inter-batch study, the eight spherical flasks were filled with different batches of gel. For each spherical phantom, a separate set of calibration phantoms was used. The spherical phantoms were irradiated using a three-field coplanar beam configuration in a very reproducible manner. The calibration phantoms were irradiated to known doses to obtain a dose-R2 calibration plot which was applied on the corresponding R2 maps of all spherical phantoms on an individual basis. The intra-batch study showed high dosimetric precision (3.1%) notwithstanding poor accuracy (mean dose discrepancies up to 13.0%). In the inter-batch study, a similar dosimetric precision (4.3%) and accuracy (mean dose discrepancies up to 13.7%) were found. The poor dosimetric accuracy was attributed to a systematic fault that was related to the calibration method. Therefore, the dose maps were renormalized using an independent ion chamber dose measurement. It is illustrated that with this renormalization, excellent agreement between the gel measured and TPS calculated 3D dose maps is achievable: 97% and 99% of the pixels meet the 3%/3 mm criteria for the intra- and inter-batch experiments, respectively. However renormalization will result in significant dose deviations inside a realistically sized anthropomorphic phantom as will be shown in a concurrent paper. Both authors contributed equally to this study.

  7. Thixotropic gel for vadose zone remediation

    DOEpatents

    Rhia, Brian D. (Augusta, GA)

    2011-03-01

    A thixotropic gel suitable for use in subsurface bioremediation is provided along with a process of using the gel. The thixotropic gel provides a non-migrating injectable substrate that can provide below ground barrier properties. In addition, the gel components provide for a favorable environment in which certain contaminants are preferentially sequestered in the gel and subsequently remediated by either indigenous or introduced microorganisms.

  8. Thixotropic gel for vadose zone remediation

    DOEpatents

    Riha, Brian D.

    2012-07-03

    A thixotropic gel suitable for use in subsurface bioremediation is provided along with a process of using the gel. The thixotropic gel provides a non-migrating injectable substrate that can provide below ground barrier properties. In addition, the gel components provide for a favorable environment in which certain contaminants are preferentially sequestered in the gel and subsequently remediated by either indigenous or introduced microorganisms.

  9. Rheological behavior of Slide Ring Gels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vivek Sharma; Jong Seung Park; Jung O. Park; Mohan Srinivasarao

    2006-01-01

    Slide ring gels were synthesized by chemically crosslinking, sparsely populated alpha-cyclodextrin (alpha-CD) present on the polyrotaxanes consisting of alpha-CD and polyethylene glycol (PEG). [1] Unlike physically or chemically crosslinked gels, slide ring gels are topological gels where crosslinks can slide along the chain. [2] We investigate the rheological behavior of these gels swollen in water and compare their viscoelastic properties

  10. Application of chitosan/polyacrylamide nanofibres for removal of chromate and phosphate in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nthumbi, Richard M.; Catherine Ngila, J.; Moodley, Brenda; Kindness, Andrew; Petrik, Leslie

    Water pollution is an intractable environmental problem in South Africa. Management of the water resource is vital in order to address the water scarcity issues. Research on remediation of contaminated water has focused mainly on the removal of heavy metals such as Pb, Cd, Zn, Hg and Cu and neglected other inorganic pollutants. In this work we focus on the removal of anions, namely chromate and phosphate. Chromium is extensively used in the textile, leather and metallurgy industries and contaminates surface water and groundwater when inadequately treated industrial effluents are discharged. Chromium has been associated with irregular sugar metabolism, nosebleeds and ulcers, and it is also carcinogenic. The phosphate ion is an essential micronutrient responsible for healthy plant growth. However, excess phosphate intake stimulates rapid growth of photosynthetic algae and cyanobacteria, resulting in eutrophication. This phenomenon (algal bloom) causes other organisms to die due to reduced oxygen in the water. In order to offer remediation measures, this study reports the use of electrospun nanofibres for the removal of chromate and phosphate anions. Adsorption experiments were carried out using nanofibres electrospun from chitosan and polyacrylamide polymer blends, cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. Quantification of chromium was done using ICP-OES while UV-Vis spectrophotometry was used for the determination of phosphates. Batch adsorption experiments were done to determine optimum adsorption parameters such as pH, contact time, temperature and initial analyte concentration. Removal of the ions using a flow-adsorption technique through a micro-column was performed. The experimental data obtained were analysed using Langmuir and Freundlich models to study the adsorption mechanisms. The nanofibres had an adsorption capacity for Cr(VI) and PO43- of 0.26 mg g-1 and 392 mg g-1, respectively, and removal efficiencies of 93% and 97.4%, in the same order, in synthetic water samples and environmental water samples. It was observed that both chromium(VI) and phosphate adsorption followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. During the regeneration process, it was established that Cr(VI) was reduced to Cr(III) at the surface of the sorbent. This reaction offers the advantage of reducing the toxicity of chromium(VI) in water. The results of this work have potential applications in the removal of these anions in contaminated drinking water thus improving its quality for human consumption.

  11. Native Plant Master Program Announces 2012 Classes The Native Plant Master

    E-print Network

    Native Plant Master Program Announces 2012 Classes The Native Plant Master® Program has announced by taking an award-winning Native Plant Master course. Sample one of the exciting classes taught by CSU faculty and other experts. Topics include basic botany, native plant landscaping, invasive weeds, native

  12. Cross-Language Perception of Cantonese Vowels Spoken by Native and Non-Native Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    So, Connie K.; Attina, Virginie

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of native language background on listeners' perception of native and non-native vowels spoken by native (Hong Kong Cantonese) and non-native (Mandarin and Australian English) speakers. They completed discrimination and an identification task with and without visual cues in clear and noisy conditions. Results…

  13. Native American Studies Page 211Sonoma State University 2014-2015 Catalog NATIVE AMERICAN STUDIES

    E-print Network

    Ravikumar, B.

    Native American Studies Page 211Sonoma State University 2014-2015 Catalog NATIVE AMERICAN STUDIES COORDINATOR Linnea Mullins - (707) 664-2486 Faculty Gregory Sarris / Native American Literature; Endowed Chair Native American Studies Ashley Hall, Adjunct Faculty Program Offered Minor in Native American Studies

  14. It's Okay To Be Native: Alaska Native Cultural Strategies in Urban and School Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grantham-Campbell, Mary

    1998-01-01

    The urban Alaska Native community in and around Fairbanks is drawing on its rural roots to reshape schooling experiences. Alaska Natives are resisting the pattern of dropping out and are claiming a place in school, asserting that it's okay to be Native; Native teachers are committed to developing Native curricular materials; and tribal colleges…

  15. Native Voices: Native Peoples' Concepts of Health and Illness

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-01-20

    Understanding Native people's ideas about wellness and general health is a complex process, and this online exhibit does a good job of providing an introduction to the subject. Created by the National Library of Medicine (NLM), the website has an introductory video and welcome message from Donald A.B. Lindberg, MD, the director of the NLM. After this, visitors should click on the "Exhibition" tab. Here they can browse through four sections (such as "Healing Ways") to learn about the transformations of Native populations' ideas about health, death, and healers over the centuries. The "Timeline" tab provides a detailed look at events from 100,000 BC to the present day that have shaped Native peoples' perceptions of these related phenomena. The site is rounded out by a "Resources" area, which includes lesson plans and a list of suggested readings.

  16. Effectiveness and limitation of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis in bacterial membrane protein proteomics and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bunai, Keigo; Yamane, Kunio

    2005-02-01

    Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) using isoelectric focusing and SDS-PAGE in the first and second dimensions, respectively, is an established means of simultaneously separating over 1000 proteins and two new types have recently been developed. These procedures have significant shortcomings such as low load ability and poor separation of hydrophobic, acidic and alkaline proteins. We therefore modified the protocols to analyze the Bacillus subtilis membrane proteome. The 2D-PAGE techniques effectively separated membrane proteins having one and two transmembrane segments but not those with more than four. Compared with new LC/MS/MS procedures that are independent of electrophoretic separation, 2D-PAGE can globally analyze and quantify proteins at various stages of the cell cycle when labeled with isotopes such as 35S-methionine or the stable isotope, 15N. PMID:15652812

  17. Effect of transglutaminase treatment on the functional properties of native and chymotrypsin-digested soy protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elfadil Elfadl Babiker

    2000-01-01

    Native and chymotrypsin-digested soy protein were polymerized by transglutaminase (TGase). SDS-PAGE pattern of the polymerized proteins showed that TGase treatment resulted in proteins of higher molecular mass above the stacking gel. The free amino groups of the polymerized proteins were greatly reduced. The solubility of the protein polymer was greatly improved at pH 2 and pH 8–12 whereas, at pH

  18. Gelation properties of dispersions containing polymerized and native whey protein isolate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bongkosh Vardhanabhuti; E. Allen Foegeding; Matthew K. McGuffey; Christopher R. Daubert; Harold E. Swaisgood

    2001-01-01

    Whey protein polymers (WP-polymers) were prepared by heating whey protein isolate below the critical concentration for gelation at neutral pH and low salt conditions. The effects of WP-polymers and salt types (CaCl2 or NaCl) on rheological properties (large-strain and small-strain analysis), water holding properties, turbidity and microstructure of heat-induced whey protein isolate gels were investigated. Replacement of native whey protein

  19. Capillary fracture of soft gels

    E-print Network

    Joshua B. Bostwick; Karen E. Daniels

    2013-10-16

    A liquid droplet resting on a soft gel substrate can deform that substrate to the point of material failure, whereby fractures develop on the gel surface that propagate outwards from the contact-line in a starburst pattern. In this paper, we characterize i) the initiation process in which the number of arms in the starburst is controlled by the ratio of surface tension contrast to the gel's elastic modulus and ii) the propagation dynamics showing that once fractures are initiated they propagate with a universal power law $L\\propto t^{3/4}$. We develop a model for crack initiation by treating the gel as a linear elastic solid and computing the deformations within the substrate from the liquid/solid wetting forces. The elastic solution shows that both the location and magnitude of the wetting forces are critical in providing a quantitative prediction for the number of fractures and, hence, an interpretation of the initiation of capillary fractures. This solution also reveals that the depth of the gel is an important factor in the fracture process, as it can help mitigate large surface tractions; this finding is confirmed with experiments. We then develop a model for crack propagation by considering the transport of an inviscid fluid into the fracture tip of an incompressible material, and find that a simple energy-conservation argument can explain the observed material-independent power law. We compare predictions for both linear elastic and neo-Hookean solids finding that the latter better explains the observed exponent.

  20. Capillary fracture of soft gels

    E-print Network

    Bostwick, Joshua B

    2013-01-01

    A liquid droplet resting on a soft gel substrate can deform that substrate to the point of material failure, whereby fractures develop on the gel surface that propagate outwards from the contact-line in a starburst pattern. In this paper, we characterize i) the initiation process in which the number of arms in the starburst is controlled by the ratio of surface tension contrast to the gel's elastic modulus and ii) the propagation dynamics showing that once fractures are initiated they propagate with a universal power law $L\\propto t^{3/4}$. We develop a model for crack initiation by treating the gel as a linear elastic solid and computing the deformations within the substrate from the liquid/solid wetting forces. The elastic solution shows that both the location and magnitude of the wetting forces are critical in providing a quantitative prediction for the number of fractures and, hence, an interpretation of the initiation of capillary fractures. This solution also reveals that the depth of the gel is an impo...

  1. Capillary fracture of soft gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostwick, Joshua B.; Daniels, Karen E.

    2013-10-01

    A liquid droplet resting on a soft gel substrate can deform that substrate to the point of material failure, whereby fractures develop on the gel surface that propagate outwards from the contact line in a starburst pattern. In this paper, we characterize (i) the initiation process, in which the number of arms in the starburst is controlled by the ratio of the surface tension contrast to the gel's elastic modulus, and (ii) the propagation dynamics showing that once fractures are initiated they propagate with a universal power law L?t3/4. We develop a model for crack initiation by treating the gel as a linear elastic solid and computing the deformations within the substrate from the liquid-solid wetting forces. The elastic solution shows that both the location and the magnitude of the wetting forces are critical in providing a quantitative prediction for the number of fractures and, hence, an interpretation of the initiation of capillary fractures. This solution also reveals that the depth of the gel is an important factor in the fracture process, as it can help mitigate large surface tractions; this finding is confirmed with experiments. We then develop a model for crack propagation by considering the transport of an inviscid fluid into the fracture tip of an incompressible material and find that a simple energy-conservation argument can explain the observed material-independent power law. We compare predictions for both linear elastic and neo-Hookean solids, finding that the latter better explains the observed exponent.

  2. North American Native Fishes Association

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The North American Native Fishes Association (NANFA) works "to increase and disseminate knowledge about North America's native fishes and their habitats among aquarium hobbyists, biologists, fish and wildlife officials, anglers, educators, students, and others, through publications, electronic media, regional and national meetings, and other means." The NANFA website features a Checklist of Freshwater Fishes Native to North America and a Fish in Focus section with beautiful images and brief descriptions of such fish as the Hogchoker (Trinectes maculatus), Central Stoneroller (Campostoma anomalum), and Southern Redbelly Dace (Phoxinus erythrogaster). The site also contains information about an award program for breeders, grant programs, annual meetings, membership, and the NANFA quarterly magazine, _American Currents_. NANFA offers a solid collection of related links, and an electronic mailing list as well. The website is under construction and promises future sections relating to natural history, captive care, conservation, and collecting.

  3. Native Americans and the Environment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Created by anthropologist Dr. Alx V. Dark and sponsored by the Center for Conservation Biology at Rice University, this Website promotes the research and study of environmental issues facing Native American communities, particularly the politics of land and treaty rights. The site also explores the "values and historical experiences that Native Americans bring to bear on environmental issues." Native Americans and the Environment provides a bibliographic database, which covers topics such as environmental justice, natural resource utilization, land and treaty rights, and demography and migration. The database currently contains over 1,500 citations, and will be expanded to approximately 3,000 by the end of 1999. The site also includes an extensive directory of hundreds of annotated Internet resources organized by subject and geographic region. In addition, a case studies section is under development and will include environmental problems and their histories, current actions, or solutions; a list of related Internet resources; and a bibliography.

  4. Sol-gel derived sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Sigman, Michael E.; Dindal, Amy B.

    2003-11-11

    Described is a method for producing copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent particles for the production of copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent material. The method for producing copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent particles comprises adding a basic solution to an aqueous metal alkoxide mixture for a pH.ltoreq.8 to hydrolyze the metal alkoxides. Then, allowing the mixture to react at room temperature for a precalculated period of time for the mixture to undergo an increased in viscosity to obtain a desired pore size and surface area. The copolymerized mixture is then added to an immiscible, nonpolar solvent that has been heated to a sufficient temperature wherein the copolymerized mixture forms a solid upon the addition. The solid is recovered from the mixture, and is ready for use in an active sampling trap or activated for use in a passive sampling trap.

  5. Copolymers For Capillary Gel Electrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Changsheng (State College, PA); Li, Qingbo (State College, PA)

    2005-08-09

    This invention relates to an electrophoresis separation medium having a gel matrix of at least one random, linear copolymer comprising a primary comonomer and at least one secondary comonomer, wherein the comonomers are randomly distributed along the copolymer chain. The primary comonomer is an acrylamide or an acrylamide derivative that provides the primary physical, chemical, and sieving properties of the gel matrix. The at least one secondary comonomer imparts an inherent physical, chemical, or sieving property to the copolymer chain. The primary and secondary comonomers are present in a ratio sufficient to induce desired properties that optimize electrophoresis performance. The invention also relates to a method of separating a mixture of biological molecules using this gel matrix, a method of preparing the novel electrophoresis separation medium, and a capillary tube filled with the electrophoresis separation medium.

  6. Vanishing native American dog lineages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Santiago Castroviejo-Fisher; Pontus Skoglund; Raúl Valadez; Carles Vilà; Jennifer A Leonard

    2011-01-01

    Background  Dogs were an important element in many native American cultures at the time Europeans arrived. Although previous ancient DNA\\u000a studies revealed the existence of unique native American mitochondrial sequences, these have not been found in modern dogs,\\u000a mainly purebred, studied so far.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  We identified many previously undescribed mitochondrial control region sequences in 400 dogs from rural and isolated areas\\u000a as

  7. Tracer diffusion in colloidal gels

    E-print Network

    Sujin Babu; Jean Christophe Gimel; Taco Nicolai

    2007-05-09

    Computer simulations were done of the mean square displacement (MSD) of tracer particles in colloidal gels formed by diffusion or reaction limited aggregation of hard spheres. The diffusion coefficient was found to be determined by the volume fraction accessible to the spherical tracers ($\\phi_a$) independent of the gel structure or the tracer size. In all cases, critical slowing down was observed at $\\phi_a\\approx 0.03$ and was characterized by the same scaling laws reported earlier for tracer diffusion in a Lorentz gas. Strong heterogeneity of the MSD was observed at small $\\phi_a$ and was related to the size distribution of pores.

  8. New frontiers in materials science for art conservation: responsive gels and beyond.

    PubMed

    Carretti, Emiliano; Bonini, Massimo; Dei, Luigi; Berrie, Barbara H; Angelova, Lora V; Baglioni, Piero; Weiss, Richard G

    2010-06-15

    The works of art and artifacts that constitute our cultural heritage are subject to deterioration, both from internal and from external factors. Surfaces that interact with the environment are the most prone to aging and decay; accordingly, soiling is a prime factor in the degradation of surfaces and the attendant disfigurement of a piece. Coatings that were originally intended to protect or contribute aesthetically to an artwork should be removed if they begin to have a destructive impact on its appearance or surface chemistry. Since the mid-19th century, organic solvents have been the method of choice for cleaning painted surfaces and removing degraded coatings. Care must be taken to choose a solvent mixture that minimizes swelling of or leaching from the original paint films, which would damage and compromise the physical integrity of all the layers of paint. The use of gels and poultices, first advocated in the 1980s, helps by localizing the solvent and, in some cases, by reducing solvent permeation into underlying paint layers. Unfortunately, it is not always easy to remove gels and their residues from a paint surface. In this Account, we address the removal problem by examining the properties of three classes of innovative gels for use on artwork--rheoreversible gels, magnetic gels, and "peelable" gels. Their rheological properties and efficacies for treating the surfaces of works have been studied, demonstrating uniquely useful characteristics in each class: (1) Rheoreversible gels become free-flowing on application of a chemical or thermal "switch". For art conservation, a chemical trigger is preferred. Stable gels formed by bubbling CO(2) through solutions of polyallylamine or polyethylenimines (thereby producing ammonium carbamates, which act as chain cross-links) can be prepared with a wide range of solvent mixtures. After solubilization of varnish and dirt, addition of a weak acid (mineral or organic) displaces the CO(2), and the resulting free-flowing liquid can be removed gently. (2) Incorporation of magnetic, coated-ferrite nanoparticles into polyacrylamide gels adds functionality to a versatile system comprising oil-in-water microemulsions, aqueous micellar solutions, or xerogels that act as sponges. The ferrite particles allow the use of magnets both to place the gels precisely on a surface and to lift them from it after cleaning. (3) Novel formulations of poly(vinyl alcohol)-borate gels, which accept a range of organic cosolvents, show promise for swelling and dissolving organic coatings. This family of gels can be quite stiff but can be spread. They are non-sticky and have sufficient strength to be removed by peeling or lifting them from a sensitive surface. These three classes of gels are potentially very important soft materials to augment and improve the range of options available for conserving cultural heritage, and their interesting chemical-physical properties open a rich area for future scientific investigation. PMID:20387877

  9. The Schooling of Native America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Thomas, Ed.

    The collection of ten essays by Native Americans who are involved in Indian education includes a preface by Thomas Thompson; "The Indian Student Amid American Inconsistencies" by Vine Deloria, Jr.; "Growing Up in E'da How-One Idaho Girlhood" by LaNada Boyer; "Multicultural Teacher Education at Rough Rock" by Dillon Platero; "Interracial Politics:…

  10. Native arteriovenous fistula: Preoperative evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marko Malovrh

    2002-01-01

    Duplex sonography recently has been recognized as an objective and noninvasive method to assess morphological and functional parameters of vessels that could predict arteriovenous fistula (AVF) patency and time of adequate maturation. To prospectively study prognostic indicators of native AVFs, forearm arteries and veins of patients with end-stage renal disease were examined by duplex sonography before AVF construction. Several anatomic

  11. A Heart Health Alaska Natives

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    Honoring the Gift of Heart Health A Heart Health Educator's Manual for Alaska Natives U . S . D E Health Service Office of Prevention, Education, and Control #12;Honoring the Gift of Heart Health A Heart National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and Indian Health Service NIH Publication No. 06-5218 Revised

  12. Amphoteric native defects in semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Walukiewicz, W.

    1989-05-22

    We show that a new concept of amphoteric native defects with strongly Fermi level dependent defect formation energy provides the basis for a unified explanation of a large variety of phenomena in semiconductors. Formation of Schottky barriers, particle irradiation induced compensation, doping-induced superlattice intermixing, and limits of free-carrier concentration find for the first time a common simple explanation.

  13. CORRESPONDENCE Non-natives: 141

    E-print Network

    Vermont, University of

    in Ecology of Biological Invasions of North America and Hawaii (eds H. A. Mooney and J. A. Drake) 214 on endemic species. Harmful invasive species have been successfully kept in check by biological, chemical-native species per se -- only those targeted by the Convention on Biological Diversity as threatening "ecosystems

  14. TIMBER: A native XML database

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. V. Jagadish; Shurug Al-khalifa; Adriane Chapman; Laks V. S. Lakshmanan; Andrew Nierman; Stelios Paparizos; Jignesh M. Patel; Divesh Srivastava; Nuwee Wiwatwattana; Yuqing Wu; Cong Yu

    2002-01-01

    The date of receipt and acceptance will be inserted by the editor Abstract This paper describes the overall design and ar- chitecture of the Timber XML database system currently being implemented at the University of Michigan. The sys- tem is based upon a bulk algebra for manipulating trees, and natively stores XML. New access methods have been developed to evaluate

  15. Roadside revegetation by native plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. N. Karim; Azim U. Mallik

    2008-01-01

    Recognizing the severity of road effects and need for developing a natural and self-sustained roadside vegetation cover, this study aimed to provide an ecological basis for selecting desirable native plants based on their autecological attributes by floristic analysis of naturally colonized plants in roadside microhabitats. We hypothesized that (i) vegetation zonation along roadsides is a function of the different microtopography

  16. Valuable Plants Native to Texas.

    E-print Network

    Parks, Harris Braley

    1937-01-01

    and zgittaria falcata Pursh. Arrow Leaf. This and a number of other :ies of the genus are native to much of Texas. They are water plants are well known by their large arrow-shaped leaves and spikes of 8 BULLETIN NO. 551, TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION...

  17. Native American Adult Reader I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Lovern Root, Ed.

    Aspects of Native American history and culture as well as issues and concerns of American Indians are presented in the twelve short articles in this reader for adults. Intended for use in an adult basic education/GED program, the reader features simply written stories (for grades 0-3), illustrations, vocabulary lists and student study questions.…

  18. Native Americans in Public Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westberg, Jane

    2003-01-01

    The Family Spirit Project provides health and parenting education and in-home support to Navajo and Apache teen parents. The public-health careers of Native professionals allied with the project are described, including a public health administrator, a trainer of field workers, and a medical researcher specializing in communicable diseases that…

  19. Native Birthrights and Indigenous Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Adrienne Brant; Lunday, Tammy

    2014-01-01

    In traditional tribal cultures, children are treated with great respect and eagerly learn from their elders. But in contemporary Western society, Native students have the highest dropout rates and are subjected to disproportionate school disciplinary exclusion, which becomes a pipeline into the justice system (Sprague, Vincent, Tobin, & Pavel,…

  20. Native Literacy: A Living Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulsen, Rhonda L.

    2003-01-01

    Aboriginal literacy encompasses oral tradition, culture, language, identity, and world view in addition to the written word, and is a process of lifelong learning, much of which occurs beyond school walls. When defining Native literacy, one must move away from measuring Aboriginal students by Euro-Western definitions and move toward a balanced,…

  1. A Mandate for Native History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pember, Mary Annette

    2007-01-01

    The Montana Indian Education For All Act may be setting an audacious national precedent for America's primary and secondary schools. The law requires all Montana schools to include curricula about the history, culture and contemporary status of the state's American Indian population. The new constitutional mandate has eyes throughout Native…

  2. Native American Utilization of Sturgeon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TIM E. HOLZKAMM; LEO G. WAISBERG

    Historically, sturgeon of various species were important for Native Americans on both the Atlantic and Pacific coasts and in parts of the interior of North America. Early or first contact period accounts by European, American or Canadian merchants, colonists and soldiers record sturgeon harvests as important elements of the domestic economies of many tribal peoples. Sturgeon provided food in the

  3. Amyloidogenesis of Natively Unfolded Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Uversky, Vladimir N.

    2009-01-01

    Aggregation and subsequent development of protein deposition diseases originate from conformational changes in corresponding amyloidogenic proteins. The accumulated data support the model where protein fibrillogenesis proceeds via the formation of a relatively unfolded amyloidogenic conformation, which shares many structural properties with the pre-molten globule state, a partially folded intermediate first found during the equilibrium and kinetic (un)folding studies of several globular proteins and later described as one of the structural forms of natively unfolded proteins. The flexibility of this structural form is essential for the conformational rearrangements driving the formation of the core cross-beta structure of the amyloid fibril. Obviously, molecular mechanisms describing amyloidogenesis of ordered and natively unfolded proteins are different. For ordered protein to fibrillate, its unique and rigid structure has to be destabilized and partially unfolded. On the other hand, fibrillogenesis of a natively unfolded protein involves the formation of partially folded conformation; i.e., partial folding rather than unfolding. In this review recent findings are surveyed to illustrate some unique features of the natively unfolded proteins amyloidogenesis. PMID:18537543

  4. Flocculation of both anionic and cationic dyes in aqueous solutions by the amphoteric grafting flocculant carboxymethyl chitosan-graft-polyacrylamide.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhen; Yang, Hu; Jiang, Ziwen; Cai, Tao; Li, Haijiang; Li, Haibo; Li, Aimin; Cheng, Rongshi

    2013-06-15

    In the current work, a series of amphoteric grafting chitosan-based flocculants (carboxymethyl chitosan-graft-polyacrylamide, denoted as CMC-g-PAM) was designed and prepared successfully. The flocculants were applied to eliminate various dyes from aqueous solutions. Among different graft copolymers, CMC-g-PAM11 with a PAM grafting ratio of 74% demonstrated the most efficient performance for removal of both the anionic dye (Methyl Orange, MO) and the cationic dye (Basic Bright Yellow, 7GL) under the corresponding favored conditions (80 mg/L of the flocculant at pH 4.0, and 160 mg/L at pH 11.0). In comparison with its precursors, chitosan and carboxymethyl chitosan, CMC-g-PAM11 showed higher removal efficiencies and wider flocculation windows. More importantly, the graft copolymer produced notably more compacted flocs based on image analysis in combination with fractal theory, which was of great significance in practical water treatment. Furthermore, the flocculation mechanism was discussed in detail. The grafted polyacrylamide chains were found to contribute much to the improved bridging and sweeping flocculation effects, but reduced charge neutralization flocculation for the effect of charge screening. PMID:23583947

  5. Gel Electrophoresis Lab: DNA Fingerprinting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ehlers, Megan

    This lab activity from the Biotechnology Alliance for Suncoast Biology Educators introduces the methods of RFLP analysis, or DNA fingerprinting, by using gel electrophoresis. Students will learn the role of restriction enzymes in DNA fingerprinting. Required materials, procedure and instructions are provided. This lesson plan may be downloaded in Microsoft Word document file format.

  6. Gel Electrophoresis Lab: Paternity Case

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lab activity from the Biotechnology Alliance for Suncoast Biology Educators provides instructions for conducting a gel electrophoresis lab. Students will try to solve a paternity case with this activity by obtaining a DNA fingerprint from each potential father, the mother and the child. This activity may be downloaded in PDF file format. A data collection sheet and student questions are also included.

  7. Gluing gels: A nanoparticle solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appel, Eric A.; Scherman, Oren A.

    2014-03-01

    Synthetic polymer gels with certain surface chemistries can be glued together by a simple and inexpensive method that uses commercially available silica nanoparticles. Biological tissues can also be joined by this nanotechnological route, eliminating the need for sutures, additional adhesives or chemical reactions.

  8. Viscoelastic Properties of Particle Gels.

    PubMed

    Yanez; Laarz; Bergström

    1999-01-01

    The effect of strength of attraction and volume fraction on the mechanical properties of alumina particle networks were investigated. Alumina particle gels were formed reversibly and in situ in the rheometer by cooling alumina particle suspensions with adsorbed poly(12-hydroxy stearic acid) suspended in a marginal solvent, hexanol. The collapse of the polymer layer with decreasing solvency (temperature) induces flocculation when the long-range van der Waals force overcomes the remaining steric repulsion. The gelation temperature depends on volume fraction. At the gel temperature, Tgel, the gel becomes predominantly elastic; at temperatures below Tgel, the elasticity increases with decreasing temperature. We find that the elastic modulus data, measured over a wide range of volume fraction (0.2 < ? < 0.425) and temperature (10-14 degreesC), follows: G = G0(? - ?g)s. This scaling suggests the prefactor and exponent to be independent of temperature. We present some arguments for why subjecting a particle gel to a preshear procedure might result in an temperature-dependent prefactor. By invoking such an effect, we are able to rescale and collapse previously published moduli data on presheared suspensions according to the (? - ?g) expression. Copyright 1999 Academic Press. PMID:9878149

  9. Viscoelastic Properties of Particle Gels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph A. Yanez; Eric Laarz; Lennart Bergström

    1999-01-01

    The effect of strength of attraction and volume fraction on the mechanical properties of alumina particle networks were investigated. Alumina particle gels were formed reversibly andin situin the rheometer by cooling alumina particle suspensions with adsorbed poly(12-hydroxy stearic acid) suspended in a marginal solvent, hexanol. The collapse of the polymer layer with decreasing solvency (temperature) induces flocculation when the long-range

  10. Regenerative medicine: Noodle gels for cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deming, Timothy J.

    2010-07-01

    Heating and cooling of peptide amphiphile suspensions converts disorganized nanofibres into liquid-crystalline nanofibre bundles that gel on addition of salts. The noodle-shaped strings of gel can entrap and align cells.

  11. Commercial applications of block copolymer photonic gels

    E-print Network

    Lou, Sally S

    2008-01-01

    Block copolymer photonic gels are a simple and easily processed material which responds rapidly to environmental stimuli through a color change. The diblock copolymer that forms the gel self-assembles into a lamellar ...

  12. Capillary fracture of soft gels.

    PubMed

    Bostwick, Joshua B; Daniels, Karen E

    2013-10-01

    A liquid droplet resting on a soft gel substrate can deform that substrate to the point of material failure, whereby fractures develop on the gel surface that propagate outwards from the contact line in a starburst pattern. In this paper, we characterize (i) the initiation process, in which the number of arms in the starburst is controlled by the ratio of the surface tension contrast to the gel's elastic modulus, and (ii) the propagation dynamics showing that once fractures are initiated they propagate with a universal power law L[proportional]t(3/4). We develop a model for crack initiation by treating the gel as a linear elastic solid and computing the deformations within the substrate from the liquid-solid wetting forces. The elastic solution shows that both the location and the magnitude of the wetting forces are critical in providing a quantitative prediction for the number of fractures and, hence, an interpretation of the initiation of capillary fractures. This solution also reveals that the depth of the gel is an important factor in the fracture process, as it can help mitigate large surface tractions; this finding is confirmed with experiments. We then develop a model for crack propagation by considering the transport of an inviscid fluid into the fracture tip of an incompressible material and find that a simple energy-conservation argument can explain the observed material-independent power law. We compare predictions for both linear elastic and neo-Hookean solids, finding that the latter better explains the observed exponent. PMID:24229192

  13. NABS Program: (Native Americans in Biological Science).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettys, Nancy, Comp.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the four-week summer program of the Native Americans in Biological Sciences Program that engages Native American eighth- and ninth-grade students in studying the problems related to the waste water treatment plant in Cushing, Oklahoma. (MDH)

  14. Eagle Feather Tutoring Native American Cultural Center

    E-print Network

    Eagle Feather Tutoring Native American Cultural Center LSC West­ Mac Gym Colorado State University.S.Postage,PAID FortCollins,CO PermitNo.19 NativeAmericanCulturalCenter(8013) ColoradoStateUniversity LSCWest

  15. Diabetes in American Indians and Alaska Natives

    MedlinePLUS

    ... June 2012 Page 1 of 2 Diabetes in American Indians and Alaska Natives Facts At-a-Glance In response to the diabetes epidemic in American Indian and Alaska Native people, Congress established the Special ...

  16. Profile: American Indian/Alaska Native

    MedlinePLUS

    American Indian/Alaska Native Profile Great Plains Area Alaska Area Albuquerque Area Bemidji Area Billings Area California Area ... 5.2 million people who were classified as American Indian and Alaska Native alone or American Indian and ...

  17. Eagle Feather Tutoring Native American Cultural Center

    E-print Network

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    Eagle Feather Tutoring Native American Cultural Center LSC West­ Mac Gym Colorado State University NativeAmericanCulturalCenter(8013) ColoradoStateUniversity LSCWest­MACGym FortCollins,CO80523-8016 LSC

  18. American Indian and Alaska Natives Suicide

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in nonAI/AN populations who die by suicide. American Indian/Alaska Natives Fact Sheet Based on 2011 Data ( ... of Supplied Studies, SAMHSA. (2010). Substance Use among American Indian or Alaska Native Adults. The NSDUH Report. 3 ...

  19. Obesity and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    MedlinePLUS

    Obesity and American Indians/Alaska Natives American Indian/Alaska Native women are 30% more likely than non- ... findings/nhqrdr/nhqrdr12/index.html HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  20. Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePLUS

    Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders were almost four times more likely to ... data available at this time. HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...